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Sample records for activity score based

  1. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  2. The Reliability of Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints–C-Reactive Protein Might Be Overestimated in a Subgroup of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients, When the Score Is Solely Based on Subjective Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie; Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; van Bui Hansen, Mark Nam; Emamifar, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints (DAS28) is a scoring system to evaluate disease activity and treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A DAS28 score of greater than 3.2 is a well-described limit for treatment intensification; however, the reliability of DAS28 might be overestimated. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of DAS28 in RA, especially focusing on a subgroup of patients with a DAS28 score of greater than 3.2. Methods Data from RA patients registered in the local part of Danish DANBIO Registry were collected in May 2015. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: First, those with DAS28 >3.2 with at least one swollen joint (SJ) or elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (“objective group”), and second, patients with a DAS28 >3.2 who had no SJ, and CRP values were within the reference range (“subjective group”). Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints, Clinical Disease Activity Index, and Health Assessment Questionnaire scores were calculated for each group. We defined new score, DAS28 subjective, to focus on subjective parameters. Results Two hundred thirty patients were included; 198 (86.1%) and 32 (13.9%) patients were in the objective and subjective groups, respectively. Patients in the subjective group had lower mean values of DAS28 (P < 0.001) and Evaluator Global Assessment (P < 0.001) with less common immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (P < 0.001) and anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide positivity (P = 0.02) and contrarily higher mean values of tender joints (P = 0.04) and DAS28 based on subjective parameters (P = 0.003) compared with the objective group. Conclusions Rheumatoid arthritis scoring systems should be used cautiously in patients who are considered for treatment intensification. Patients with central sensitization and psychological problems and those with false-positive diagnosis of RA are at high risk of overtreatment. PMID:27870649

  3. Pemphigus vulgaris activity score and assessment of convergent validity.

    PubMed

    Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda; Rahbar, Ziba; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Mortazavizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Akhyani, Maryam; Esmaili, Nafiseh; Balighi, Kamran

    2013-05-07

    Pemphigus is a rare autoimmune blistering disease with different phenotypes. The evaluation of therapeutic interventions requires a reliable, valid and feasible to use measurement. However, there is no gold standard to measure the disease activity in clinical trials. In this study we aimed to introduce the pemphigus vulgaris activity score (PVAS) measurement and to assess the convergent validity with the experts' opinion of disease activity. In PVAS scoring, the distribution of pemphigus vulgaris antigen expression in different anatomical regions is taking in to account with special consideration of the healing process. PVAS is a 0-18 scale, based on the extent of mucocutaneous involvement, type of lesion and the presence of Nikolsky's sign. The sum of the scores of total number of lesions, number of different anatomic regions involvement and Nikolsky's sign is weighted by the type of lesion. In the present study, PVAS was assessed in 50 patients diagnosed with pemphigus vulgaris by one dermatologist. Independently, five blinded experts scored all the patients through physician's global assessment (PGA). The convergent validity with experts' opinion was assessed. The Spearman coefficient of correlation showed the acceptable value of 0.751 (95%CI: 0.534- 0.876). PVAS is a valid, objective and simple-to-use scoring measurement. It showed a good correlation with PGA of pemphigus disease activity in Iranian patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

  4. Scores Based on Dangerous Responses to Multiple-Choice Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Martin E.

    1986-01-01

    Scores based on the number of correct answers were compared with scores based on dangerous responses to items in the same multiple choice test developed by American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. Results showed construct validity for both sets of scores. However, both scores were redundant when evaluated by correlation coefficient. (Author/JAZ)

  5. The development of the disease activity score (DAS) and the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28).

    PubMed

    van Riel, P L C M

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity cannot be measured using a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) has been developed as a quantitative index to be able to measure, study and manage disease activity in RA in daily clinical practice, clinical trials, and long term observational studies. The DAS is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and patient self-report of general health. Cut points were developed to classify patients in remission, as well as low, moderate, and severe disease activity in the 1990s. DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials to classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, depending on the magnitude of change and absolute level of disease activity at the conclusion of the test.

  6. Vinardo: A Scoring Function Based on Autodock Vina Improves Scoring, Docking, and Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Rodrigo; Villarreal, Marcos A

    2016-01-01

    Autodock Vina is a very popular, and highly cited, open source docking program. Here we present a scoring function which we call Vinardo (Vina RaDii Optimized). Vinardo is based on Vina, and was trained through a novel approach, on state of the art datasets. We show that the traditional approach to train empirical scoring functions, using linear regression to optimize the correlation of predicted and experimental binding affinities, does not result in a function with optimal docking capabilities. On the other hand, a combination of scoring, minimization, and re-docking on carefully curated training datasets allowed us to develop a simplified scoring function with optimum docking performance. This article provides an overview of the development of the Vinardo scoring function, highlights its differences with Vina, and compares the performance of the two scoring functions in scoring, docking and virtual screening applications. Vinardo outperforms Vina in all tests performed, for all datasets analyzed. The Vinardo scoring function is available as an option within Smina, a fork of Vina, which is freely available under the GNU Public License v2.0 from http://smina.sf.net. Precompiled binaries, source code, documentation and a tutorial for using Smina to run the Vinardo scoring function are available at the same address.

  7. Vinardo: A Scoring Function Based on Autodock Vina Improves Scoring, Docking, and Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Marcos A.

    2016-01-01

    Autodock Vina is a very popular, and highly cited, open source docking program. Here we present a scoring function which we call Vinardo (Vina RaDii Optimized). Vinardo is based on Vina, and was trained through a novel approach, on state of the art datasets. We show that the traditional approach to train empirical scoring functions, using linear regression to optimize the correlation of predicted and experimental binding affinities, does not result in a function with optimal docking capabilities. On the other hand, a combination of scoring, minimization, and re-docking on carefully curated training datasets allowed us to develop a simplified scoring function with optimum docking performance. This article provides an overview of the development of the Vinardo scoring function, highlights its differences with Vina, and compares the performance of the two scoring functions in scoring, docking and virtual screening applications. Vinardo outperforms Vina in all tests performed, for all datasets analyzed. The Vinardo scoring function is available as an option within Smina, a fork of Vina, which is freely available under the GNU Public License v2.0 from http://smina.sf.net. Precompiled binaries, source code, documentation and a tutorial for using Smina to run the Vinardo scoring function are available at the same address. PMID:27171006

  8. Standardized Computer-based Organized Reporting of EEG: SCORE

    PubMed Central

    Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Martins-da-Silva, António; Trinka, Eugen; Visser, Gerhard; Rubboli, Guido; Hjalgrim, Helle; Stefan, Hermann; Rosén, Ingmar; Zarubova, Jana; Dobesberger, Judith; Alving, Jørgen; Andersen, Kjeld V; Fabricius, Martin; Atkins, Mary D; Neufeld, Miri; Plouin, Perrine; Marusic, Petr; Pressler, Ronit; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Hopfengärtner, Rüdiger; Emde Boas, Walter; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The electroencephalography (EEG) signal has a high complexity, and the process of extracting clinically relevant features is achieved by visual analysis of the recordings. The interobserver agreement in EEG interpretation is only moderate. This is partly due to the method of reporting the findings in free-text format. The purpose of our endeavor was to create a computer-based system for EEG assessment and reporting, where the physicians would construct the reports by choosing from predefined elements for each relevant EEG feature, as well as the clinical phenomena (for video-EEG recordings). A working group of EEG experts took part in consensus workshops in Dianalund, Denmark, in 2010 and 2011. The faculty was approved by the Commission on European Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The working group produced a consensus proposal that went through a pan-European review process, organized by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. The Standardised Computer-based Organised Reporting of EEG (SCORE) software was constructed based on the terms and features of the consensus statement and it was tested in the clinical practice. The main elements of SCORE are the following: personal data of the patient, referral data, recording conditions, modulators, background activity, drowsiness and sleep, interictal findings, “episodes” (clinical or subclinical events), physiologic patterns, patterns of uncertain significance, artifacts, polygraphic channels, and diagnostic significance. The following specific aspects of the neonatal EEGs are scored: alertness, temporal organization, and spatial organization. For each EEG finding, relevant features are scored using predefined terms. Definitions are provided for all EEG terms and features. SCORE can potentially improve the quality of EEG assessment and reporting; it will help incorporate the results of computer-assisted analysis into the report, it will make

  9. Standardized computer-based organized reporting of EEG: SCORE.

    PubMed

    Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Martins-da-Silva, António; Trinka, Eugen; Visser, Gerhard; Rubboli, Guido; Hjalgrim, Helle; Stefan, Hermann; Rosén, Ingmar; Zarubova, Jana; Dobesberger, Judith; Alving, Jørgen; Andersen, Kjeld V; Fabricius, Martin; Atkins, Mary D; Neufeld, Miri; Plouin, Perrine; Marusic, Petr; Pressler, Ronit; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Hopfengärtner, Rüdiger; van Emde Boas, Walter; Wolf, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The electroencephalography (EEG) signal has a high complexity, and the process of extracting clinically relevant features is achieved by visual analysis of the recordings. The interobserver agreement in EEG interpretation is only moderate. This is partly due to the method of reporting the findings in free-text format. The purpose of our endeavor was to create a computer-based system for EEG assessment and reporting, where the physicians would construct the reports by choosing from predefined elements for each relevant EEG feature, as well as the clinical phenomena (for video-EEG recordings). A working group of EEG experts took part in consensus workshops in Dianalund, Denmark, in 2010 and 2011. The faculty was approved by the Commission on European Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The working group produced a consensus proposal that went through a pan-European review process, organized by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. The Standardised Computer-based Organised Reporting of EEG (SCORE) software was constructed based on the terms and features of the consensus statement and it was tested in the clinical practice. The main elements of SCORE are the following: personal data of the patient, referral data, recording conditions, modulators, background activity, drowsiness and sleep, interictal findings, "episodes" (clinical or subclinical events), physiologic patterns, patterns of uncertain significance, artifacts, polygraphic channels, and diagnostic significance. The following specific aspects of the neonatal EEGs are scored: alertness, temporal organization, and spatial organization. For each EEG finding, relevant features are scored using predefined terms. Definitions are provided for all EEG terms and features. SCORE can potentially improve the quality of EEG assessment and reporting; it will help incorporate the results of computer-assisted analysis into the report, it will make possible

  10. [The NAS system: Nursing Activities Score in mobile technology].

    PubMed

    Catalan, Vanessa Menezes; Silveira, Denise Tolfo; Neutzling, Agnes Ludwig; Martinato, Luísa Helena Machado; Borges, Gilberto Cabral de Mello

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to present the computerized structure that enables the use of the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) in mobile technology. It is a project for the development of technology production based on software engineering, founded on the theory of systems development life cycle. The NAS system was built in two modules: the search module, which is accessed using a personal computer (PC), and Data Collection module, which is accessed through a mobile device (Smartphone). The NAS system was constructed to allow other forms, in addition to the NAS tool, to be included in the future. Thus, it is understood that the development of the NAS will bring nurses closer to mobile technology and facilitate their accessibility to the data of the instrument relating to patients, thus assisting in decision-making and in staffing to provide nursing care.

  11. Skewness and Comparability of School Based Continuous Assessment Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, Lawrence Olu; Olabode, Abe Thomas; Olufemi, Adodo Sunday

    2011-01-01

    This study examined skewness as means of determining the nature of distribution of school based continuous assessment (SBCA) scores in selected subjects among Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria, to determine whether or not there is need for moderation of the SBCA Scores. This is an ex-post-facto research design involving no treatment and…

  12. Quantitative Structure‐activity Relationship (QSAR) Models for Docking Score Correction

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Satoshi; Yasumatsu, Isao; Takeuchi, Koh; Kurosawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In order to improve docking score correction, we developed several structure‐based quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models by protein‐drug docking simulations and applied these models to public affinity data. The prediction models used descriptor‐based regression, and the compound descriptor was a set of docking scores against multiple (∼600) proteins including nontargets. The binding free energy that corresponded to the docking score was approximated by a weighted average of docking scores for multiple proteins, and we tried linear, weighted linear and polynomial regression models considering the compound similarities. In addition, we tried a combination of these regression models for individual data sets such as IC50, Ki, and %inhibition values. The cross‐validation results showed that the weighted linear model was more accurate than the simple linear regression model. Thus, the QSAR approaches based on the affinity data of public databases should improve docking scores. PMID:28001004

  13. Towards automated calculation of evidence-based clinical scores

    PubMed Central

    Aakre, Christopher A; Dziadzko, Mikhail A; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine clinical scores important for automated calculation in the inpatient setting. METHODS A modified Delphi methodology was used to create consensus of important clinical scores for inpatient practice. A list of 176 externally validated clinical scores were identified from freely available internet-based services frequently used by clinicians. Scores were categorized based on pertinent specialty and a customized survey was created for each clinician specialty group. Clinicians were asked to rank each score based on importance of automated calculation to their clinical practice in three categories - “not important”, “nice to have”, or “very important”. Surveys were solicited via specialty-group listserv over a 3-mo interval. Respondents must have been practicing physicians with more than 20% clinical time spent in the inpatient setting. Within each specialty, consensus was established for any clinical score with greater than 70% of responses in a single category and a minimum of 10 responses. Logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of automation importance. RESULTS Seventy-nine divided by one hundred and forty-four (54.9%) surveys were completed and 72/144 (50%) surveys were completed by eligible respondents. Only the critical care and internal medicine specialties surpassed the 10-respondent threshold (14 respondents each). For internists, 2/110 (1.8%) of scores were “very important” and 73/110 (66.4%) were “nice to have”. For intensivists, no scores were “very important” and 26/76 (34.2%) were “nice to have”. Only the number of medical history (OR = 2.34; 95%CI: 1.26-4.67; P < 0.05) and vital sign (OR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.03-3.68; P < 0.05) variables for clinical scores used by internists was predictive of desire for automation. CONCLUSION Few clinical scores were deemed “very important” for automated calculation. Future efforts towards score calculator automation should focus on technically feasible

  14. Measurement of COPD Severity Using a Survey-Based Score

    PubMed Central

    Omachi, Theodore A.; Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Iribarren, Carlos; Blanc, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive survey-based COPD severity score has usefulness for epidemiologic and health outcomes research. We previously developed and validated the survey-based COPD Severity Score without using lung function or other physiologic measurements. In this study, we aimed to further validate the severity score in a different COPD cohort and using a combination of patient-reported and objective physiologic measurements. Methods: Using data from the Function, Living, Outcomes, and Work cohort study of COPD, we evaluated the concurrent and predictive validity of the COPD Severity Score among 1,202 subjects. The survey instrument is a 35-point score based on symptoms, medication and oxygen use, and prior hospitalization or intubation for COPD. Subjects were systemically assessed using structured telephone survey, spirometry, and 6-min walk testing. Results: We found evidence to support concurrent validity of the score. Higher COPD Severity Score values were associated with poorer FEV1 (r = −0.38), FEV1% predicted (r = −0.40), Body mass, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise Index (r = 0.57), and distance walked in 6 min (r = −0.43) (P < .0001 in all cases). Greater COPD severity was also related to poorer generic physical health status (r = −0.49) and disease-specific health-related quality of life (r = 0.57) (P < .0001). The score also demonstrated predictive validity. It was also associated with a greater prospective risk of acute exacerbation of COPD defined as ED visits (hazard ratio [HR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.24-1.39), hospitalizations (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.44-1.75), and either measure of hospital-based care for COPD (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.26-1.41) (P < .0001 in all cases). Conclusion: The COPD Severity Score is a valid survey-based measure of disease-specific severity, both in terms of concurrent and predictive validity. The score is a psychometrically sound instrument for use in epidemiologic and outcomes research in COPD. PMID:20040611

  15. Development of a Scoring Algorithm To Replace Expert Rating for Scoring a Complex Performance-Based Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clauser, Brian E.; Ross, Linette P.; Clyman, Stephen G.; Rose, Kathie M.; Margolis, Melissa J.; Nungester, Ronald J.; Piemme, Thomas E.; Chang, Lucy; El-Bayoumi, Gigi; Malakoff, Gary L.; Pincetl, Pierre S.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an automated scoring algorithm for a computer-based simulation examination of physicians' patient-management skills. Results with 280 medical students show that scores produced using this algorithm are highly correlated to actual clinician ratings. Scores were also effective in discriminating between case performance judged passing or…

  16. Engineering Student Self-Assessment through Confidence-Based Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen-Reed, Gigi; Reed, Kyle B.

    2015-01-01

    A vital aspect of an answer is the confidence that goes along with it. Misstating the level of confidence one has in the answer can have devastating outcomes. However, confidence assessment is rarely emphasized during typical engineering education. The confidence-based scoring method described in this study encourages students to both think about…

  17. Do medical students’ scores using different assessment instruments predict their scores in clinical reasoning using a computer-based simulation?

    PubMed Central

    Fida, Mariam; Kassab, Salah Eldin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The development of clinical problem-solving skills evolves over time and requires structured training and background knowledge. Computer-based case simulations (CCS) have been used for teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning skills. However, previous studies examining the psychometric properties of CCS as an assessment tool have been controversial. Furthermore, studies reporting the integration of CCS into problem-based medical curricula have been limited. Methods This study examined the psychometric properties of using CCS software (DxR Clinician) for assessment of medical students (n=130) studying in a problem-based, integrated multisystem module (Unit IX) during the academic year 2011–2012. Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha statistics. The relationships between students’ scores in CCS components (clinical reasoning, diagnostic performance, and patient management) and their scores in other examination tools at the end of the unit including multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), and real patient encounters were analyzed using stepwise hierarchical linear regression. Results Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was high (α=0.862). Inter-item correlations between students’ scores in different CCS components and their scores in CCS and other test items were statistically significant. Regression analysis indicated that OSCE scores predicted 32.7% and 35.1% of the variance in clinical reasoning and patient management scores, respectively (P<0.01). Multiple-choice question scores, however, predicted only 15.4% of the variance in diagnostic performance scores (P<0.01), while students’ scores in real patient encounters did not predict any of the CCS scores. Conclusion Students’ scores in OSCE are the most important predictors of their scores in clinical reasoning and patient management using CCS. However, real patient

  18. Accelerometry-based berg balance scale score estimation.

    PubMed

    Simila, Heidi; Mantyjarvi, Jani; Merilahti, Juho; Lindholm, Mikko; Ermes, Miikka

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the validity of 3-D-accelerometry-based Berg balance scale (BBS) score estimation. In particular, acceleration patterns of BBS tasks and gait were the targets of analysis. Accelerations of the lower back were measured during execution of the BBS test and corridor walking for 54 subjects, consisting of neurological patients, older adults, and healthy young persons. The BBS score was estimated from one to three BBS tasks and from gait-related data, separately, through assessment of the similarity of acceleration patterns between subjects. The work also validated both approaches' ability to classify subjects into high- and low-fall-risk groups. The gait-based method yielded the best BBS score estimates and the most accurate BBS-task-based estimates were produced with the stand to sit, reaching, and picking object tasks. The proposed gait-based method can identify subjects with high or low risk of falling with an accuracy of 77.8% and 96.6%, respectively, and the BBS-task based method with corresponding accuracy of 89.5% and 62.1%.

  19. Printing and Scoring Activities, Final Report, Year 11, National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    This report summarizes all Year 11 National Assessment of Educational Progress activities performed under Westinghouse DataScore Systems contracts. The general time frame for DataScore's contract activities runs from March 1979 through October 1980 (with the exception of the Year 10 Art Scoring activities which were projected for February 1981…

  20. Beware of machine learning-based scoring functions-on the danger of developing black boxes.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Joffrey; Desaphy, Jérémy; Rognan, Didier

    2014-10-27

    Training machine learning algorithms with protein-ligand descriptors has recently gained considerable attention to predict binding constants from atomic coordinates. Starting from a series of recent reports stating the advantages of this approach over empirical scoring functions, we could indeed reproduce the claimed superiority of Random Forest and Support Vector Machine-based scoring functions to predict experimental binding constants from protein-ligand X-ray structures of the PDBBind dataset. Strikingly, these scoring functions, trained on simple protein-ligand element-element distance counts, were almost unable to enrich virtual screening hit lists in true actives upon docking experiments of 10 reference DUD-E datasets; this is a a feature that, however, has been verified for an a priori less-accurate empirical scoring function (Surflex-Dock). By systematically varying ligand poses from true X-ray coordinates, we show that the Surflex-Dock scoring function is logically sensitive to the quality of docking poses. Conversely, our machine-learning based scoring functions are totally insensitive to docking poses (up to 10 Å root-mean square deviations) and just describe atomic element counts. This report does not disqualify using machine learning algorithms to design scoring functions. Protein-ligand element-element distance counts should however be used with extreme caution and only applied in a meaningful way. To avoid developing novel but meaningless scoring functions, we propose that two additional benchmarking tests must be systematically done when developing novel scoring functions: (i) sensitivity to docking pose accuracy, and (ii) ability to enrich hit lists in true actives upon structure-based (docking, receptor-ligand pharmacophore) virtual screening of reference datasets.

  1. Implementation of the Simple Endoscopic Activity Score in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Katsanos, Konstantinos H.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD) was developed as an attempt to simplify Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS). Since it was constructed from CDEIS, SES-CD performs comparably but also carries similar limitations. Several studies have utilized SES-CD scoring to describe disease severity or response to therapy. Some of them used SES-CD score as a continuous variable while others utilized certain cutoff values to define severity grades. All SES-CD cutoff values reported in published clinical trials were empirically selected by experts. Although in most of the studies that used SEC-CD scoring to define disease severity, a score <3 reflected inactive disease, no study is using score 0 to predefine inactivity. Studies applying SES-CD to define response to treatment used score 0. There is no optimal SES-CD cut-off for endoscopic remission. The quantification of mucosal healing using SES-CD scoring has not been standardized yet. As the definition of mucosal healing by SES-CD is unset, the concept of deep remission is also still evolving. Serum and fecal biomarkers as well as new radiologic imaging techniques are complementary to SES-CD. Current practice as well as important changes in endoscopy should be taken into consideration when defining SES-CD cutoffs. The optimal timing of SES-CD scoring to assess mucosal healing is not defined yet. To conclude, SES-CD represents a valuable tool. However, a consensus agreement on its optimal use is required. PMID:27184635

  2. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  3. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Veerle L.; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  4. Pharmacophore alignment search tool: influence of scoring systems on text-based similarity searching.

    PubMed

    Hähnke, Volker; Schneider, Gisbert

    2011-06-01

    The text-based similarity searching method Pharmacophore Alignment Search Tool is grounded on pairwise comparisons of potential pharmacophoric points between a query and screening compounds. The underlying scoring matrix is of critical importance for successful virtual screening and hit retrieval from large compound libraries. Here, we compare three conceptually different computational methods for systematic deduction of scoring matrices: assignment-based, alignment-based, and stochastic optimization. All three methods resulted in optimized pharmacophore scoring matrices with significantly superior retrospective performance in comparison with simplistic scoring schemes. Computer-generated similarity matrices of pharmacophoric features turned out to agree well with a manually constructed matrix. We introduce the concept of position-specific scoring to text-based similarity searching so that knowledge about specific ligand-receptor binding patterns can be included and demonstrate its benefit for hit retrieval. The approach was also used for automated pharmacophore elucidation in agonists of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, successfully identifying key interactions for receptor activation.

  5. Fruit classification based on weighted score-level feature fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Hulin; Hang Chan, Leanne Lai; Liu, Cairong; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We describe an object classification method based on weighted score-level feature fusion using learned weights. Our method is able to recognize 20 object classes in a customized fruit dataset. Although the fusion of multiple features is commonly used to distinguish variable object classes, the optimal combination of features is not well defined. Moreover, in these methods, most parameters used for feature extraction are not optimized and the contribution of each feature to an individual class is not considered when determining the weight of the feature. Our algorithm relies on optimizing a single feature during feature selection and learning the weight of each feature for an individual class from the training data using a linear support vector machine before the features are linearly combined with the weights at the score level. The optimal single feature is selected using cross-validation. The optimal combination of features is explored and tested experimentally using a customized fruit dataset with 20 object classes and a variety of complex backgrounds. The experiment results show that the proposed feature fusion method outperforms four state-of-the-art fruit classification algorithms and improves the classification accuracy when compared with some state-of-the-art feature fusion methods.

  6. "Score the Core" Web-based pathologist training tool improves the accuracy of breast cancer IHC4 scoring.

    PubMed

    Engelberg, Jesse A; Retallack, Hanna; Balassanian, Ronald; Dowsett, Mitchell; Zabaglo, Lila; Ram, Arishneel A; Apple, Sophia K; Bishop, John W; Borowsky, Alexander D; Carpenter, Philip M; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Datnow, Brian; Elson, Sarah; Hasteh, Farnaz; Lin, Fritz; Moatamed, Neda A; Zhang, Yanhong; Cardiff, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Hormone receptor status is an integral component of decision-making in breast cancer management. IHC4 score is an algorithm that combines hormone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67 status to provide a semiquantitative prognostic score for breast cancer. High accuracy and low interobserver variance are important to ensure the score is accurately calculated; however, few previous efforts have been made to measure or decrease interobserver variance. We developed a Web-based training tool, called "Score the Core" (STC) using tissue microarrays to train pathologists to visually score estrogen receptor (using the 300-point H score), progesterone receptor (percent positive), and Ki-67 (percent positive). STC used a reference score calculated from a reproducible manual counting method. Pathologists in the Athena Breast Health Network and pathology residents at associated institutions completed the exercise. By using STC, pathologists improved their estrogen receptor H score and progesterone receptor and Ki-67 proportion assessment and demonstrated a good correlation between pathologist and reference scores. In addition, we collected information about pathologist performance that allowed us to compare individual pathologists and measures of agreement. Pathologists' assessment of the proportion of positive cells was closer to the reference than their assessment of the relative intensity of positive cells. Careful training and assessment should be used to ensure the accuracy of breast biomarkers. This is particularly important as breast cancer diagnostics become increasingly quantitative and reproducible. Our training tool is a novel approach for pathologist training that can serve as an important component of ongoing quality assessment and can improve the accuracy of breast cancer prognostic biomarkers.

  7. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) and the Disease Activity Score using 28 joint counts (DAS28) in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    van Riel, Piet L C M; Renskers, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), disease activity cannot be measured in all individual patients according to a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) and the DAS28 have been developed to measure disease activity in RA both in daily clinical practice as well as in clinical trials on a group as well as individual level. The DAS/DAS28 is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and general health. The DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials. The EULAR response criteria classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, dependent on the magnitude of change and level of disease activity reached. In addition, already in the early nineties, cut points were developed to categorise patients in remission. The DAS28 is incorporated in several electronic patient records and web-based systems for monitoring purposes in daily clinical practice. In addition to this, it is being used in combination with patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to facilitate self-monitoring.

  8. DIC Score in Pregnant Women – A Population Based Modification of the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis Score

    PubMed Central

    Erez, Offer; Novack, Lena; Beer-Weisel, Ruthy; Dukler, Doron; Press, Fernanda; Zlotnik, Alexander; Than, Nandor Gabor; Tomer, Aaron; Mazor, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were: 1) To determine the component needed to generate a validated DIC score during pregnancy. 2) To validate such scoring system in the identification of patients with clinical diagnosis of DIC. Material and Methods This is a population based retrospective study, including all women who gave birth at the ‘Soroka University Medical Center’ during the study period, and have had blood coagulation tests including complete blood cell count, prothrombin time (PT)(seconds), partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, and D-dimers. Nomograms for pregnancy were established, and DIC score was constructed based on ROC curve analyses. Results 1) maternal plasma fibrinogen concentrations increased during pregnancy; 2) maternal platelet count decreased gradually during gestation; 3) the PT and PTT values did not change with advancing gestation; 4) PT difference had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.96 (p<0.001), and a PT difference ≥1.55 had an 87% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the diagnosis of DIC; 5) the platelet count had an AUC of 0.87 (p<0.001), an 86% sensitivity and 71% specificity for the diagnosis of DIC; 6) fibrinogen concentrations had an AUC of 0.95 (p<0.001) and a cutoff point ≤3.9 g/L had a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 92% for the development of DIC; and 7) The pregnancy adjusted DIC score had an AUC of 0.975 (p<0.001) and at a cutoff point of ≥26 had a sensitivity of 88%, a specificity of 96%, a LR(+) of 22 and a LR(−) of 0.125 for the diagnosis of DIC. Conclusion We could establish a sensitive and specific pregnancy adjusted DIC score. The positive likelihood ratio of this score suggests that a patient with a score of ≥26 has a high probability to have DIC. PMID:24728139

  9. Development of the Knowledge-based & Empirical Combined Scoring Algorithm (KECSA) to Score Protein-Ligand Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel knowledge-based protein-ligand scoring function that employs a new definition for the reference state, allowing us to relate a statistical potential to a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. In this way, the LJ potential parameters were generated from protein-ligand complex structural data contained in the PDB. Forty-nine types of atomic pairwise interactions were derived using this method, which we call the knowledge-based and empirical combined scoring algorithm (KECSA). Two validation benchmarks were introduced to test the performance of KECSA. The first validation benchmark included two test sets that address the training-set and enthalpy/entropy of KECSA The second validation benchmark suite included two large-scale and five small-scale test sets to compare the reproducibility of KECSA with respect to two empirical score functions previously developed in our laboratory (LISA and LISA+), as well as to other well-known scoring methods. Validation results illustrate that KECSA shows improved performance in all test sets when compared with other scoring methods especially in its ability to minimize the RMSE. LISA and LISA+ displayed similar performance using the correlation coefficient and Kendall τ as the metric of quality for some of the small test sets. Further pathways for improvement are discussed which would KECSA more sensitive to subtle changes in ligand structure. PMID:23560465

  10. Estimating the Consistency and Accuracy of Classifications Based on Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles

    This paper presents a method for estimating the accuracy and consistency of classifications based on test scores. The scores can be produced by any scoring method, including the formation of a weighted composite. The estimates use data from a single form. The reliability of the score is used to estimate its effective test length in terms of…

  11. A desirability function-based scoring scheme for selecting fragment-like class A aminergic GPCR ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Ádám A.; Ferenczy, György G.; Keserű, György M.

    2015-01-01

    A physicochemical property-based desirability scoring scheme for fragment-based drug discovery was developed for class A aminergic GPCR targeted fragment libraries. Physicochemical property distributions of known aminergic GPCR-active fragments from the ChEMBL database were examined and used for a desirability function-based score. Property-distributions such as log D (at pH 7.4), PSA, pKa (strongest basic center), number of nitrogen atoms, number of oxygen atoms, and the number of rotatable bonds were combined into a desirability score (FrAGS). The validation of the scoring scheme was carried out using both public and proprietary experimental screening data. The scoring scheme is suitable for the design of aminergic GPCR targeted fragment libraries and might be useful for preprocessing fragments before structure based virtual or wet screening.

  12. Nursing Activities Score: nursing work load in a burns Intensive Care Unit1

    PubMed Central

    Camuci, Marcia Bernadete; Martins, Júlia Trevisan; Cardeli, Alexandrina Aparecida Maciel; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the nursing work load in a Burns Intensive Care Unit according to the Nursing Activities Score. Method an exploratory, descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The Nursing Activities Score was used for data collection between October 2011 and May 2012, totalling 1,221 measurements, obtained from 50 patients' hospital records. Data for qualitative variables was described in tables; for the quantitative variables, calculations using statistical measurements were used. Results the mean score for the Nursing Activities Score was 70.4% and the median was 70.3%, corresponding to the percentage of the time spent on direct care to the patient in 24 hours. Conclusion the Nursing Activities Score provided information which involves the process of caring for patients hospitalized in a Burns Intensive Care Unit, and indicated that there is a high work load for the nursing team of the sector studied. PMID:26107842

  13. Customer Credit Scoring Method Based on the SVDD Classification Model with Imbalanced Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Bo; Nan, Lin; Zheng, Qin; Yang, Lei

    Customer credit scoring is a typical class of pattern classification problem with imbalanced dataset. A new customer credit scoring method based on the support vector domain description (SVDD) classification model was proposed in this paper. Main techniques of customer credit scoring were reviewed. The SVDD model with imbalanced dataset was analyzed and the predication method of customer credit scoring based on the SVDD model was proposed. Our experimental results confirm that our approach is effective in ranking and classifying customer credit.

  14. Automatic Sleep Scoring Based on Modular Rule-Based Reasoning Units and Signal Processing Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    scoring, rule-based reasoning, multi-staged I. INTRODUCTION Integrated analysis on the state of sleep through Polysomnography is crucial for...diagnosis for sleep related disease. But conventional analog-type Polysomnography systems need tremendous amount of papers and much labor of trained expert...In this sense to equip digital Polysomnography and its following automatic analysis system became trend. In the sleep analysis, sleep stage scoring is

  15. Longitudinal associations between physical activity and depression scores in Swedish women followed 32 years

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsson, Pia; Lindwall, Magnus; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Östling, Svante; Hällström, Tore; Waern, Margda; Skoog, Ingmar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is negatively associated with depressive symptoms. However, few studies consider dynamic associations of changes in physical activity and reciprocal relationships. This study aimed to perform comprehensive evaluations of relationships between physical activity and depression scores in women followed from mid- to late-life. Method The Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden provided repeated measures of self-reported physical activity and depressive symptoms between 1974–2005 (baseline N=676, 84.5 % response rate). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and physical activity was evaluated by the Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale. Latent growth curve analyses were used to evaluate associations of change and cross-lagged models were used to study the reciprocal relationship between physical activity and depression scores. Results At baseline, lower levels of physical activity were related to higher depression scores. Individuals with decreasing physical activity over time evidenced higher depression scores at 32 year follow-up. Higher average baseline depression score was related to declining levels of physical activity at subsequent examinations. Conclusion Reduced physical activity may be a long-term consequence of depression. It is important to address individual changes in physical activity and not merely absolute levels of physical activity in relationship to depression. PMID:25865488

  16. Autocorrelation and Regularization of Query-Based Information Retrieval Scores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    projected scores. This problem has similar solutions to monolingual regularization. The iterative solution is, ft+1t = (1− α)yt + αStf t t (8.7) The... multilingual corpora. In Manuela M. Veloso, editor, IJCAI 2007, Proceedings of the 20th International Joint Conference on Artificial In- telligence

  17. A Study of Teacher Effects Based on Students' Achievement Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acland, Henry

    This report tests the assumption that teachers have an impact on how much students learn. The results of this study indicate that teachers have an effect on average class achievement scores, and that this effect can be broken down into a stable component attributed to the teachers' consistency, and an unstable effect which varies from year to…

  18. An iterative knowledge-based scoring function to predict protein-ligand interactions: II. Validation of the scoring function.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-You; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2006-11-30

    We have developed an iterative knowledge-based scoring function (ITScore) to describe protein-ligand interactions. Here, we assess ITScore through extensive tests on native structure identification, binding affinity prediction, and virtual database screening. Specifically, ITScore was first applied to a test set of 100 protein-ligand complexes constructed by Wang et al. (J Med Chem 2003, 46, 2287), and compared with 14 other scoring functions. The results show that ITScore yielded a high success rate of 82% on identifying native-like binding modes under the criterion of rmsd < or = 2 A for each top-ranked ligand conformation. The success rate increased to 98% if the top five conformations were considered for each ligand. In the case of binding affinity prediction, ITScore also obtained a good correlation for this test set (R = 0.65). Next, ITScore was used to predict binding affinities of a second diverse test set of 77 protein-ligand complexes prepared by Muegge and Martin (J Med Chem 1999, 42, 791), and compared with four other widely used knowledge-based scoring functions. ITScore yielded a high correlation of R2 = 0.65 (or R = 0.81) in the affinity prediction. Finally, enrichment tests were performed with ITScore against four target proteins using the compound databases constructed by Jacobsson et al. (J Med Chem 2003, 46, 5781). The results were compared with those of eight other scoring functions. ITScore yielded high enrichments in all four database screening tests. ITScore can be easily combined with the existing docking programs for the use of structure-based drug design.

  19. Differences scores: regression-based reliable difference and the regression-based confidence interval.

    PubMed

    Charter, Richard A

    2009-04-01

    Over 50 years ago Payne and Jones (1957) developed what has been labeled the traditional reliable difference formula that continues to be useful as a significance test for the difference between two test scores. The traditional reliable difference is based on the standard error of measurement (SEM) and has been updated to a confidence interval approach. As an alternative to the traditional reliable difference, this article presents the regression-based reliable difference that is based on the standard error of estimate (SEE) and estimated true scores. This new approach should be attractive to clinicians preferring the idea of scores regressing toward the mean. The new approach is also presented in confidence interval form with an interpretation that can be viewed as a statement of all hypotheses that are tenable and consistent with the observed data and has the backing of several authorities. Two well-known conceptualizations for true score confidence intervals are the traditional and regression-based. Now clinicians favoring the regression-based conceptualization are not restricted to the use of traditional model when testing score differences using confidence intervals.

  20. Two Simple Classes of Mastery Scores Based On the Beta-Binomial Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Huynh

    1977-01-01

    A model for the setting of mastery cut scores is presented. The model, based on the beta-binomial test distribution, allows for hand calculation of cut scores. The model provides a simple way to explore the consequences of selecting a particular cut score. (Author/JKS)

  1. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and the Metabolic Syndrome Score in Children

    PubMed Central

    McKune, Andrew J.; Brophy, Patricia; Geyer, Gabriel; Hickner, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between physical activity levels and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) score was examined in 72 boys and girls (9.5 ± 1.2 years). A fasting blood draw was obtained; waist circumference and blood pressure measured, and an accelerometer was worn for 5 days. Established cut points were used to estimate time spent in moderate, vigorous, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA), and total physical activity. A continuous MetSyn score was created from blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density-lipoprotein, triglyceride, and glucose values. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between physical activity levels, the MetSyn score, and its related components. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between meeting physical activity recommendations, the MetSyn score, and its related components. All analyses were controlled for body mass index group, age, sex, and race. Time spent in different physical activity levels or meeting physical activity recommendations (OR: 0.87, 95%CI: 0.69-1.09) was not related with the MetSyn score after controlling for potential confounders (p>0.05). Moderate physical activity, MVPA, and meeting physical activity recommendations were related to a lower diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05). No other relationships were observed (p>0.05). While physical activity participation was not related with the MetSyn, lower diastolic blood pressure values were related to higher physical activity levels. PMID:25902555

  2. Docking into knowledge-based potential fields: a comparative evaluation of DrugScore.

    PubMed

    Sotriffer, Christoph A; Gohlke, Holger; Klebe, Gerhard

    2002-05-09

    A new application of DrugScore is reported in which the knowledge-based pair potentials serve as objective function in docking optimizations. The Lamarckian genetic algorithm of AutoDock is used to search for favorable ligand binding modes guided by DrugScore grids as representations of the protein binding site. The approach is found to be successful in many cases where DrugScore-based re-ranking of already docked ligand conformations does not yield satisfactory results. Compared to the AutoDock scoring function, DrugScore yields slightly superior results in flexible docking.

  3. The atherosclerosis burden score (ABS): a convenient ultrasound-based score of peripheral atherosclerosis for coronary artery disease prediction.

    PubMed

    Yerly, Patrick; Marquès-Vidal, Pedro; Owlya, Reza; Eeckhout, Eric; Kappenberger, Lukas; Darioli, Roger; Depairon, Michèle

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasonographic detection of subclinical atherosclerosis improves cardiovascular risk stratification, but uncertainty persists about the most discriminative method to apply. In this study, we found that the "atherosclerosis burden score (ABS)", a novel straightforward ultrasonographic score that sums the number of carotid and femoral arterial bifurcations with plaques, significantly outperformed common carotid intima-media thickness, carotid mean/maximal thickness, and carotid/femoral plaque scores for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) (receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area under the curve (AUC) = 0.79; P = 0.027 to <0.001 with the other five US endpoints) in 203 patients undergoing coronary angiography. ABS was also more correlated with CAD extension (R = 0.55; P < 0.001). Furthermore, in a second group of 1128 patients without cardiovascular disease, ABS was weakly correlated with the European Society of Cardiology chart risk categories (R(2) = 0.21), indicating that ABS provided information beyond usual cardiovascular risk factor-based risk stratification. Pending prospective studies on hard cardiovascular endpoints, ABS appears as a promising tool in primary prevention.

  4. Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.

    PubMed

    Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

    2005-06-01

    Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores.

  5. Association of a Dietary Score with Incident Type 2 Diabetes: The Dietary-Based Diabetes-Risk Score (DDS)

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Ligia J.; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Gea, Alfredo; Barbagallo, Mario; Martínez-González, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Strong evidence supports that dietary modifications may decrease incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Numerous diabetes risk models/scores have been developed, but most do not rely specifically on dietary variables or do not fully capture the overall dietary pattern. We prospectively assessed the association of a dietary-based diabetes-risk score (DDS), which integrates optimal food patterns, with the risk of developing T2DM in the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) longitudinal study. Methods We assessed 17,292 participants initially free of diabetes, followed-up for a mean of 9.2 years. A validated 136-item FFQ was administered at baseline. Taking into account previous literature, the DDS positively weighted vegetables, fruit, whole cereals, nuts, coffee, low-fat dairy, fiber, PUFA, and alcohol in moderate amounts; while it negatively weighted red meat, processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages. Energy-adjusted quintiles of each item (with exception of moderate alcohol consumption that received either 0 or 5 points) were used to build the DDS (maximum: 60 points). Incident T2DM was confirmed through additional detailed questionnaires and review of medical records of participants. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for socio-demographic and anthropometric parameters, health-related habits, and clinical variables to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of T2DM. Results We observed 143 T2DM confirmed cases during follow-up. Better baseline conformity with the DDS was associated with lower incidence of T2DM (multivariable-adjusted HR for intermediate (25–39 points) vs. low (11–24) category 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21, 0.89]; and for high (40–60) vs. low category 0.32 [95% CI: 0.14, 0.69]; p for linear trend: 0.019). Conclusions The DDS, a simple score exclusively based on dietary components, showed a strong inverse association with incident T2DM. This score may be applicable in clinical practice to improve

  6. Estimating the Reliability of a Test Battery Composite or a Test Score Based on Weighted Item Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.

    2004-01-01

    In some settings, the validity of a battery composite or a test score is enhanced by weighting some parts or items more heavily than others in the total score. This article describes methods of estimating the total score reliability coefficient when differential weights are used with items or parts.

  7. Embedding IRT in Structural Equation Models: A Comparison with Regression Based on IRT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Irene R. R.; Thomas, D. Roland; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the problems associated with using item response theory (IRT)-based latent variable scores for analytical modeling, discusses the connection between IRT and structural equation modeling (SEM)-based latent regression modeling for discrete data, and compares regression parameter estimates obtained using predicted IRT scores and…

  8. The effect of lab based instruction on ACT science scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Michelle

    Standardized tests, although unpopular, are required for a multitude of reasons. One of these tests is the ACT. The ACT is a college readiness test that many high school juniors take to gain college admittance. Students throughout the United States are unprepared for this assessment. The average high school junior is three points behind twenty-four, the ACT recommended score, for the science section. The science section focuses on reading text and, interpreting graphs, charts, tables and diagrams with an emphasis on experimental design and relationships among variables. For students to become better at interpreting and understanding scientific graphics they must have vast experience developing their own graphics. The purpose of this study was to provide students the opportunity to generate their own graphics to master interpretation of them on the ACT. According to a t-test the results show that students who are continually exposed to creating graphs are able to understand and locate information from graphs at a significantly faster rate.

  9. Evaluating Transcription Factor Activity Changes by Scoring Unexplained Target Genes in Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Berchtold, Evi; Csaba, Gergely; Zimmer, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Several methods predict activity changes of transcription factors (TFs) from a given regulatory network and measured expression data. But available gene regulatory networks are incomplete and contain many condition-dependent regulations that are not relevant for the specific expression measurement. It is not known which combination of active TFs is needed to cause a change in the expression of a target gene. A method to systematically evaluate the inferred activity changes is missing. We present such an evaluation strategy that indicates for how many target genes the observed expression changes can be explained by a given set of active TFs. To overcome the problem that the exact combination of active TFs needed to activate a gene is typically not known, we assume a gene to be explained if there exists any combination for which the predicted active TFs can possibly explain the observed change of the gene. We introduce the i-score (inconsistency score), which quantifies how many genes could not be explained by the set of activity changes of TFs. We observe that, even for these minimal requirements, published methods yield many unexplained target genes, i.e. large i-scores. This holds for all methods and all expression datasets we evaluated. We provide new optimization methods to calculate the best possible (minimal) i-score given the network and measured expression data. The evaluation of this optimized i-score on a large data compendium yields many unexplained target genes for almost every case. This indicates that currently available regulatory networks are still far from being complete. Both the presented Act-SAT and Act-A* methods produce optimal sets of TF activity changes, which can be used to investigate the difficult interplay of expression and network data. A web server and a command line tool to calculate our i-score and to find the active TFs associated with the minimal i-score is available from https://services.bio.ifi.lmu.de/i-score. PMID:27723775

  10. Standards-Based Grading: History Adjusted True Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Jay; Cowell, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    There has been much research and discussion on the principles of standards-based grading, and there is a growing consensus of best practice. Even so, the actual process of implementing standards-based grading at a school or district level can be a significant challenge. There are very practical questions that remain unclear, such as how the grades…

  11. Using base rates of low scores to interpret the ANAM4 TBI-MIL battery following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ivins, Brian J; Lange, Rael T; Cole, Wesley R; Kane, Robert; Schwab, Karen A; Iverson, Grant L

    2015-02-01

    Base rates of low ANAM4 TBI-MIL scores were calculated in a convenience sample of 733 healthy male active duty soldiers using available military reference values for the following cutoffs: ≤2nd percentile (2 SDs), ≤5th percentile, <10th percentile, and <16th percentile (1 SD). Rates of low scores were also calculated in 56 active duty male soldiers who sustained an mTBI an average of 23 days (SD = 36.1) prior. 22.0% of the healthy sample and 51.8% of the mTBI sample had two or more scores below 1 SD (i.e., 16th percentile). 18.8% of the healthy sample and 44.6% of the mTBI sample had one or more scores ≤5th percentile. Rates of low scores in the healthy sample were influenced by cutoffs and race/ethnicity. Importantly, some healthy soldiers obtain at least one low score on ANAM4. These base rate analyses can improve the methodology for interpreting ANAM4 performance in clinical practice and research.

  12. Schizotypal perceptual aberrations of time: correlation between score, behavior and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Arzy, Shahar; Mohr, Christine; Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-01-18

    A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances--including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS) similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum.

  13. Schizotypal Perceptual Aberrations of Time: Correlation between Score, Behavior and Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Arzy, Shahar; Mohr, Christine; Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances – including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS) similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum. PMID:21267456

  14. The Criterion-Related Validity of a Computer-Based Approach for Scoring Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.; Koul, Ravinder; Salehi, Roya

    2006-01-01

    This investigation seeks to confirm a computer-based approach that can be used to score concept maps (Poindexter & Clariana, 2004) and then describes the concurrent criterion-related validity of these scores. Participants enrolled in two graduate courses (n=24) were asked to read about and research online the structure and function of the heart…

  15. Scoring Divergent Thinking Tests by Computer With a Semantics-Based Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Beketayev, Kenes; Runco, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Divergent thinking (DT) tests are useful for the assessment of creative potentials. This article reports the semantics-based algorithmic (SBA) method for assessing DT. This algorithm is fully automated: Examinees receive DT questions on a computer or mobile device and their ideas are immediately compared with norms and semantic networks. This investigation compared the scores generated by the SBA method with the traditional methods of scoring DT (i.e., fluency, originality, and flexibility). Data were collected from 250 examinees using the “Many Uses Test” of DT. The most important finding involved the flexibility scores from both scoring methods. This was critical because semantic networks are based on conceptual structures, and thus a high SBA score should be highly correlated with the traditional flexibility score from DT tests. Results confirmed this correlation (r = .74). This supports the use of algorithmic scoring of DT. The nearly-immediate computation time required by SBA method may make it the method of choice, especially when it comes to moderate- and large-scale DT assessment investigations. Correlations between SBA scores and GPA were insignificant, providing evidence of the discriminant and construct validity of SBA scores. Limitations of the present study and directions for future research are offered. PMID:27298632

  16. Application of a computed tomography based cystic fibrosis scoring system to chest tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderman, Christina; Johnsson, Åse; Vikgren, Jenny; Rystedt, Hans; Ivarsson, Jonas; Rossi Norrlund, Rauni; Nyberg Andersson, Lena; Bâth, Magnus

    2013-03-01

    In the monitoring of progression of lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), recurrent computed tomography (CT) examinations are often used. The relatively new imaging technique chest tomosynthesis (CTS) may be an interesting alternative in the follow-up of these patients due to its visualization of the chest in slices at radiation doses and costs significantly lower than is the case with CT. A first step towards introducing CTS imaging in the diagnostics of CF patients is to establish a scoring system appropriate for evaluating the severity of CF pulmonary disease based on findings in CTS images. Previously, several such CF scoring systems based on CT imaging have been published. The purpose of the present study was to develop a CF scoring system for CTS, by starting from an existing scoring system dedicated for CT images and making modifications regarded necessary to make it appropriate for use with CTS images. In order to determine any necessary changes, three thoracic radiologists independently used a scoring system dedicated for CT on both CT and CTS images from CF patients. The results of the scoring were jointly evaluated by all the observers, which lead to suggestions for changes to the scoring system. Suggested modifications include excluding the scoring of air trapping and doing the scoring of the findings in quadrants of the image instead of in each lung lobe.

  17. Using Reward/Utility Based Impact Scores in Partitioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    ing approach called Reward/Utility-Based Impact ( RUBI ). RUBI nds an e ective partitioning of agents while requir- ing no prior domain knowledge...provides better performance by discovering a non-trivial agent partitioning, and leads to faster simulations. We test RUBI in the Air Tra c Flow Management...partitioning with RUBI in the ATFMP, there is a 37% increase in per- formance, with a 510x speed up per simulation step over non-partitioning approaches

  18. Efficacy of CPITN sextant scores for detection of periodontitis disease activity.

    PubMed

    Rams, T E; Listgarten, M A; Slots, J

    1996-04-01

    The relationship between CPITN sextant scores and periodontitis recurrence at individual tooth sites was evaluated in a longitudinal study in 83 treated adult periodontitis patients receiving systematic 3-month maintenance care. At baseline and semi-annual examinations over 36 months, CPITN scores were assigned to each dentition sextant using probing depths and gingival index scores, and relative periodontal attachment level was assessed at individual tooth sites using an occlusal reference stent. Periodontitis recurrence was defined as any periodontal site exhibiting either a probing depth increase of > or = 3 mm from baseline, or a probing depth increase of > or = 1 mm from baseline together with a loss of relative periodontal attachment of > or = 2 mm from baseline. 49 (59.0%) subjects developed periodontitis recurrence in 147 (29.8%) sextants at 181 (2.2%) individual periodontal sites during the 36-month study period. Baseline CPITN scores of 4 were more common in disease-active subjects than clinically-stable subjects (p = 0.003, t-test), and were associated with a statistically significant 1.66 relative risk of periodontitis recurrence within 36 months. CPITN sextant scores of 3 or 4 showed low specificity and low positive predictive values as indicators of periodontitis recurrence at > or = 1 individual sites within the affected sextant. In comparison, low CPITN sextant scores (0-2) provided high specificity (96.2-100%), high positive predictive values (99.5-100%), and a summary odds ratio of 24.2 as an indicator of clinical stability at all periodontal sites within a given dentition sextant. Changes in sextant scores for CPITN over 6-month periods showed no relationship with periodontitis recurrence at individual periodontal sites. This study suggests that while CPITN is inadequate for detection of periodontitis recurrence, low CPITN scores provide rapid presumptive identification of clinically-stable sextants in adult periodontitis patients on maintenance

  19. Feature and score fusion based multiple classifier selection for iris recognition.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Rabiul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a new feature and score fusion based iris recognition approach where voting method on Multiple Classifier Selection technique has been applied. Four Discrete Hidden Markov Model classifiers output, that is, left iris based unimodal system, right iris based unimodal system, left-right iris feature fusion based multimodal system, and left-right iris likelihood ratio score fusion based multimodal system, is combined using voting method to achieve the final recognition result. CASIA-IrisV4 database has been used to measure the performance of the proposed system with various dimensions. Experimental results show the versatility of the proposed system of four different classifiers with various dimensions. Finally, recognition accuracy of the proposed system has been compared with existing N hamming distance score fusion approach proposed by Ma et al., log-likelihood ratio score fusion approach proposed by Schmid et al., and single level feature fusion approach proposed by Hollingsworth et al.

  20. Estimates of genetic parameters among scale activity scores, growth, and fatness in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters for scale activity score were estimated from generations 5, 6, and 7 of a randomly selected, composite population composed of Duroc, Large White, and two sources of Landrace (n = 2,186). At approximately 156 d of age, pigs were weighed (WT) and ultrasound backfat measurements (BF1...

  1. Disease activity in Graves' ophthalmopathy: diagnosis with orbital MR imaging and correlation with clinical score.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Fabio; Cirillo, Mario; Ferrara, Marco; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Carella, Carlo; Caranci, Ferdinando; Cirillo, Sossio

    2013-10-01

    In Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) it is important to distinguish acute inflammation at an early stage, responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, from inactive fibrotic end stage disease, unresponsive to the same treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify the most relevant signal intensities on orbital MR imaging with contrast administration both to classify patients according to their clinical activity score (defined by a cut-off value of 3) and to make a prediction of patient's CAS. Such threshold was considered as widely used in literature. Sixteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of GO in different phases of thyroid disease based on clinical and orbital MR imaging signs, and six normal volunteers were examined. Orbital MR imaging was performed on a 1.5 Tesla MR Unit. MR scans were assessed by an experienced neuroradiologist, blinded to the clinical examinations. We found a statistical correlation between CAS and both STIR and contrast enhanced T1-weighted sequences. There was also a statistically significant correlation between STIR and contrast-enhanced T1 images disclosing the possibility of avoiding the injection of contrast medium. Our study proved that signal intensity values on STIR sequence increase in the inflammatory oedematous phase of disease. We confirmed the correlation between signal intensities on this sequence and CAS, showing an increase in signal intensity proportional to the CAS value. So we validated MRI use to establish the activity phase of disease more sensitively than CAS alone.

  2. Poststratification Equating Based on True Anchor Scores and Its Relationship to Levine Observed Score Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-13-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Haiwen; Livingston, Samuel A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new equating method for the nonequivalent groups with anchor test design: poststratification equating based on true anchor scores. The linear version of this method is shown to be equivalent, under certain conditions, to Levine observed score equating, in the same way that the linear version of poststratification equating is…

  3. High accuracy operon prediction method based on STRING database scores.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Blanca; Verde, Cristina; Merino, Enrique

    2010-07-01

    We present a simple and highly accurate computational method for operon prediction, based on intergenic distances and functional relationships between the protein products of contiguous genes, as defined by STRING database (Jensen,L.J., Kuhn,M., Stark,M., Chaffron,S., Creevey,C., Muller,J., Doerks,T., Julien,P., Roth,A., Simonovic,M. et al. (2009) STRING 8-a global view on proteins and their functional interactions in 630 organisms. Nucleic Acids Res., 37, D412-D416). These two parameters were used to train a neural network on a subset of experimentally characterized Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis operons. Our predictive model was successfully tested on the set of experimentally defined operons in E. coli and B. subtilis, with accuracies of 94.6 and 93.3%, respectively. As far as we know, these are the highest accuracies ever obtained for predicting bacterial operons. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the predictable accuracy of our model when using an organism's data set for the training procedure, and a different organism's data set for testing, we repeated the E. coli operon prediction analysis using a neural network trained with B. subtilis data, and a B. subtilis analysis using a neural network trained with E. coli data. Even for these cases, the accuracies reached with our method were outstandingly high, 91.5 and 93%, respectively. These results show the potential use of our method for accurately predicting the operons of any other organism. Our operon predictions for fully-sequenced genomes are available at http://operons.ibt.unam.mx/OperonPredictor/.

  4. Discriminative likelihood score weighting based on acoustic-phonetic classification for speaker identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Youngjoo; Kim, Hoirin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a new discriminative likelihood score weighting technique is proposed for speaker identification. The proposed method employs a discriminative weighting of frame-level log-likelihood scores with acoustic-phonetic classification in the Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based speaker identification. Experiments performed on the Aurora noise-corrupted TIMIT database showed that the proposed approach provides meaningful performance improvement with an overall relative error reduction of 15.8% over the maximum likelihood-based baseline GMM approach.

  5. Does body mass index (BMI) influence the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score in axial spondyloarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336

  6. Predicting Disease-Related Subnetworks for Type 1 Diabetes Using a New Network Activity Score

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shouguo; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this study we investigated the advantage of including network information in prioritizing disease genes of type 1 diabetes (T1D). First, a naïve Bayesian network (NBN) model was developed to integrate information from multiple data sources and to define a T1D-involvement probability score (PS) for each individual gene. The algorithm was validated using known functional candidate genes as a benchmark. Genes with higher PS were found to be more likely to appear in T1D-related publications. Next a new network activity metric was proposed to evaluate the T1D relevance of protein-protein interaction (PPI) subnetworks. The metric considered the contribution both from individual genes and from network topological characteristics. The predictions were confirmed by several independent datasets, including a genome wide association study (GWAS), and two large-scale human gene expression studies. We found that novel candidate genes in the T1D subnetworks showed more significant associations with T1D than genes predicted using PS alone. Interestingly, most novel candidates were not encoded within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and their expression levels showed correlation with disease only in cohorts with low-risk HLA genotypes. The results suggested the importance of mapping disease gene networks in dissecting the genetics of complex diseases, and offered a general approach to network-based disease gene prioritization from multiple data sources. PMID:22917479

  7. Nursing Activities Score and workload in the intensive care unit of a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Altafin, Juliana Aparecida Morini; Grion, Cintia Magalhães Carvalho; Tanita, Marcos Toshyiuki; Festti, Josiane; Cardoso, Lucienne Tibery Queiroz; Veiga, Caio Fabrício Fonseca; Kamiji, Danielle; Barbosa, Álan Roger Gomes; Matsubara, Caio Cesar Takeshi; Lara, Aline Bobato; Lopes, Cesar Castello Branco; Blum, Djavani; Matsuo, Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The nursing workload consists of the time spent by the nursing staff to perform the activities for which they are responsible, whether directly or indirectly related to patient care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nursing workload in an adult intensive care unit at a university hospital using the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) instrument. Methods A longitudinal, prospective study that involved the patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a university hospital between March and December 2008. The data were collected daily to calculate the NAS, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS-28) of patients until they left the adult intensive care unit or after 90 days of hospitalization. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results In total, 437 patients were evaluated, which resulted in an NAS of 74.4%. The type of admission, length of stay in the intensive care unit and the patients’ condition when leaving the intensive care unit and hospital were variables associated with differences in the nursing workload. There was a moderate correlation between the mean NAS and APACHE II severity score (r=0.329), the mean organic dysfunction SOFA score (r=0.506) and the mean TISS-28 score (r=0.600). Conclusion We observed a high nursing workload in this study. These results can assist in planning the size of the staff required. The workload was influenced by clinical characteristics, including an increased workload required for emergency surgical patients and patients who died. PMID:25295824

  8. Fuzzy logic-based prognostic score for outcome prediction in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Yu; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Fang, Chun-Hsiung; Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2012-11-01

    Given the poor prognosis of esophageal cancer and the invasiveness of combined modality treatment, improved prognostic scoring systems are needed. We developed a fuzzy logic-based system to improve the predictive performance of a risk score based on the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin in a cohort of 271 patients with esophageal cancer before radiotherapy. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were employed to validate the independent prognostic value of the fuzzy risk score. To further compare the predictive performance of the fuzzy risk score with other prognostic scoring systems, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used. Application of fuzzy logic to the serum values of CRP and albumin increased predictive performance for 1-year overall survival (AUC=0.773) compared with that of a single marker (AUC=0.743 and 0.700 for CRP and albumin, respectively), where the AUC denotes the area under curve. This fuzzy logic-based approach also performed consistently better than the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) (AUC=0.745). Thus, application of fuzzy logic to the analysis of serum markers can more accurately predict the outcome for patients with esophageal cancer.

  9. Development and First Validation of a Disease Activity Score for Gout

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Greta; Viroli, Cinzia; Cimmino, Marco A.; Taylor, William J.; Manara, Maria; Govoni, Marcello; Salaffi, Fausto; Punzi, Leonardo; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Matucci‐Cerinic, Marco; Minisola, Giovanni; Ariani, Alarico; Galossi, Alessandra; Lauriti, Ciro; Fracassi, Elena; Idolazzi, Luca; Bardelli, Marco; Selvi, Enrico; Tirri, Enrico; Furini, Federica; Inverardi, Flora; Calabrò, Andrea; Porta, Francesco; Bittelli, Raffaele; Venturino, Francesco; Capsoni, Franco; Prevete, Immacolata; Sebastiani, Giandomenico; Selmi, Carlo; Fabbriciani, Gianluigi; D'Avola, Giovanni; Botticella, Giulia; Serale, Francesca; Seminara, Giulia; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; Santo, Leonardo; Longato, Lorena; Zaccara, Eleonora; Sinigaglia, Luigi; Atteritano, Marco; Broggini, Marco; Caprioli, Marta; Favero, Marta; Sallì, Salvatore; Scarati, Marco; Parisi, Simone; Malavolta, Nazzarena; Corvaglia, Stefania; Scarpato, Salvatore; Veneto, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop a new composite disease activity score for gout and provide its first validation. Methods Disease activity has been defined as the ongoing presence of urate deposits that lead to acute arthritis and joint damage. Every measure for each Outcome Measures in Rheumatology core domain was considered. A 3‐step approach (factor analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and linear regression) was applied to derive the Gout Activity Score (GAS). Decision to change treatment or 6‐month flare count were used as the surrogate criteria of high disease activity. Baseline and 12‐month followup data of 446 patients included in the Kick‐Off of the Italian Network for Gout cohort were used. Construct‐ and criterion‐related validity were tested. External validation on an independent sample is reported. Results Factor analysis identified 5 factors: patient‐reported outcomes, joint examination, flares, tophi, and serum uric acid (sUA). Discriminant function analysis resulted in a correct classification of 79%. Linear regression analysis identified a first candidate GAS including 12‐month flare count, sUA, visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, VAS global activity assessment, swollen and tender joint counts, and a cumulative measure of tophi. Alternative scores were also developed. The developed GAS demonstrated a good correlation with functional disability (criterion validity) and discrimination between patient‐ and physician‐reported measures of active disease (construct validity). The results were reproduced in the external sample. Conclusion This study developed and validated a composite measure of disease activity in gout. Further testing is required to confirm its generalizability, responsiveness, and usefulness in assisting with clinical decisions. PMID:26815286

  10. Physical Activity Level Improves the Predictive Accuracy of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score: The ATTICA Study (2002–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Bougatsas, Dimitrios; Chatzigeorgiou, Michael; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Pitsavos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although physical activity (PA) has long been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), assessment of PA status has never been used as a part of CVD risk prediction tools. The aim of the present work was to examine whether the inclusion of PA status in a CVD risk model improves its predictive accuracy. Methods: Data from the 10-year follow-up (2002–2012) of the n = 2020 participants (aged 18–89 years) of the ATTICA prospective study were used to test the research hypothesis. The HellenicSCORE (that incorporates age, sex, smoking, total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure levels) was calculated to estimate the baseline 10-year CVD risk; assessment of PA status was based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The estimated CVD risk was tested against the observed 10-year incidence (i.e., development of acute coronary syndromes, stroke, or other CVD according to the World Health Organization [WHO]-International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10 criteria). Changes in the predictive ability of the nested CVD risk model that contained the HellenicSCORE plus PA assessment were evaluated using Harrell's C and net reclassification index. Results: Both HellenicSCORE and PA status were predictors of future CVD events (P < 0.05). However, the estimating classification bias of the model that included only the HellenicSCORE was significantly reduced when PA assessment was included (Harrel's C = 0.012, P = 0.032); this reduction remained significant even when adjusted for diabetes mellitus and dietary habits (P < 0.05). Conclusions: CVD risk scores seem to be more accurate by incorporating individuals’ PA status; thus, may be more effective tools in primary prevention by efficiently allocating CVD candidates. PMID:27076890

  11. A Comparison of Brunt Criteria, the Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score (NAS) & a Proposed NAS-including fibrosis as Valid Diagnostic Scores for NASH

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rolón, Amarilys; Purcell, Dagmary; Rosado, Kathia; Toro, Doris H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can result in cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. It is of utmost importance to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of NASH in Latino veterans with metabolic syndrome and compare histologic grading using Brunt Criteria, the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and a proposed NAS score including fibrosis. Methods Veterans with metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis and elevation of ALT/AST who underwent a liver biopsy from 2004-2010 were included in this study. Biopsies were evaluated by a single blinded Hepatopathologist. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis were graded per specimen. Each biopsy was evaluated using Brunt criteria, NAS and NAS plus fibrosis. Results Sixty patients were included in this study, 88.3% men with a mean age of 50.4 (± 12.8). 50.0% met criteria for NASH according to the Brunt system. When classifying biopsies using NAS, only 30.0% (18/60) had a score ≥5, while when adding fibrosis, the number of patients with a score ≥5 increased to 33 (55.0%). When evaluating the predictive ability of the two scoring systems, we found that NAS including fibrosis had a higher sensitivity than NAS (86.7% vs. 40.0%) and a lower specificity (76.7% vs. 80.0%). Conclusion In our population with metabolic syndrome and altered liver function tests, about 50-55% had steatohepatitis. There were significant differences between the scoring systems. When using NAS-plus-fibrosis more patients were recognized and the sensitivity increased. Further validation studies are required to evaluate this proposed NAS scoring System. PMID:26602577

  12. AutoDock-GIST: Incorporating Thermodynamics of Active-Site Water into Scoring Function for Accurate Protein-Ligand Docking.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shota; Tanaka, Shigenori

    2016-11-23

    Water plays a significant role in the binding process between protein and ligand. However, the thermodynamics of water molecules are often underestimated, or even ignored, in protein-ligand docking. Usually, the free energies of active-site water molecules are substantially different from those of waters in the bulk region. The binding of a ligand to a protein causes a displacement of these waters from an active site to bulk, and this displacement process substantially contributes to the free energy change of protein-ligand binding. The free energy of active-site water molecules can be calculated by grid inhomogeneous solvation theory (GIST), using molecular dynamics (MD) and the trajectory of a target protein and water molecules. Here, we show a case study of the combination of GIST and a docking program and discuss the effectiveness of the displacing gain of unfavorable water in protein-ligand docking. We combined the GIST-based desolvation function with the scoring function of AutoDock4, which is called AutoDock-GIST. The proposed scoring function was assessed employing 51 ligands of coagulation factor Xa (FXa), and results showed that both scoring accuracy and docking success rate were improved. We also evaluated virtual screening performance of AutoDock-GIST using FXa ligands in the directory of useful decoys-enhanced (DUD-E), thus finding that the displacing gain of unfavorable water is effective for a successful docking campaign.

  13. Φ-score: A cell-to-cell phenotypic scoring method for sensitive and selective hit discovery in cell-based assays

    PubMed Central

    Guyon, Laurent; Lajaunie, Christian; fer, Frédéric; bhajun, Ricky; sulpice, Eric; pinna, Guillaume; campalans, Anna; radicella, J. Pablo; rouillier, Philippe; mary, Mélissa; combe, Stéphanie; obeid, Patricia; vert, Jean-Philippe; gidrol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic screening monitors phenotypic changes induced by perturbations, including those generated by drugs or RNA interference. Currently-used methods for scoring screen hits have proven to be problematic, particularly when applied to physiologically relevant conditions such as low cell numbers or inefficient transfection. Here, we describe the Φ-score, which is a novel scoring method for the identification of phenotypic modifiers or hits in cell-based screens. Φ-score performance was assessed with simulations, a validation experiment and its application to gene identification in a large-scale RNAi screen. Using robust statistics and a variance model, we demonstrated that the Φ-score showed better sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility compared to classical approaches. The improved performance of the Φ-score paves the way for cell-based screening of primary cells, which are often difficult to obtain from patients in sufficient numbers. We also describe a dedicated merging procedure to pool scores from small interfering RNAs targeting the same gene so as to provide improved visualization and hit selection. PMID:26382112

  14. Computing posterior probabilities for score-based alignments using ppALIGN.

    PubMed

    Wolfsheimer, Stefan; Hartmann, Alexander; Rabus, Ralf; Nuel, Gregory

    2012-05-16

    Score-based pairwise alignments are widely used in bioinformatics in particular with molecular database search tools, such as the BLAST family. Due to sophisticated heuristics, such algorithms are usually fast but the underlying scoring model unfortunately lacks a statistical description of the reliability of the reported alignments. In particular, close to gaps, in low-score or low-complexity regions, a huge number of alternative alignments arise which results in a decrease of the certainty of the alignment. ppALIGN is a software package that uses hidden Markov Model techniques to compute position-wise reliability of score-based pairwise alignments of DNA or protein sequences. The design of the model allows for a direct connection between the scoring function and the parameters of the probabilistic model. For this reason it is suitable to analyze the outcomes of popular score based aligners and search tools without having to choose a complicated set of parameters. By contrast, our program only requires the classical score parameters (the scoring function and gap costs). The package comes along with a library written in C++, a standalone program for user defined alignments (ppALIGN) and another program (ppBLAST) which can process a complete result set of BLAST. The main algorithms essentially exhibit a linear time complexity (in the alignment lengths), and they are hence suitable for on-line computations. We have also included alternative decoding algorithms to provide alternative alignments. ppALIGN is a fast program/library that helps detect and quantify questionable regions in pairwise alignments. Due to its structure, the input/output interface it can to be connected to other post-processing tools. Empirically, we illustrate its usefulness in terms of correctly predicted reliable regions for sequences generated using the ROSE model for sequence evolution, and identify sensor-specific regions in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum.

  15. Uncertainty modeling for ontology-based mammography annotation with intelligent BI-RADS scoring.

    PubMed

    Bulu, Hakan; Alpkocak, Adil; Balci, Pinar

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based annotation system and BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) score reasoning with Semantic Web technologies in mammography. The annotation system is based on the Mammography Annotation Ontology (MAO) where the BI-RADS score reasoning works. However, ontologies are based on crisp logic and they cannot handle uncertainty. Consequently, we propose a Bayesian-based approach to model uncertainty in mammography ontology and make reasoning possible using BI-RADS scores with SQWRL (Semantic Query-enhanced Web Rule Language). First, we give general information about our system and present details of mammography annotation ontology, its main concepts and relationships. Then, we express uncertainty in mammography and present approaches to handle uncertainty issues. System is evaluated with a manually annotated dataset DEMS (Dokuz Eylul University Mammography Set) and DDSM (Digital Database for Screening Mammography). We give the result of experimentations in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, precision and uncertainty level measures.

  16. The cerebrospinal fluid HIV risk score for assessing central nervous system activity in persons with HIV.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Edward R; Crum, Rosa M; Treisman, Glenn J; Mehta, Shruti H; Marra, Christina M; Clifford, David B; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M; Gelman, Benjamin B; Ellis, Ronald J; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L; McArthur, Justin C

    2014-08-01

    Detectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with central nervous system (CNS) complications. We developed the CSF HIV risk score through prediction modeling to estimate the risk of detectable CSF HIV RNA (threshold >50 copies/mL) to help identify persons who might benefit most from CSF monitoring. We used baseline data from 1,053 participants receiving combination antiretroviral therapy who were enrolled in the 6-center, US-based CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) prospective cohort in 2004-2007. Plasma HIV RNA, CNS penetration effectiveness, duration of combination antiretroviral therapy, medication adherence, race, and depression status were retained correlates of CSF HIV RNA, displaying good discrimination (C statistic = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.85). The CSF HIV risk score ranges from 0 to 42 points, with a mean of 15.4 (standard deviation, 7.3) points. At risk scores greater than 25, the probability of detecting CSF HIV RNA was at least 42.9% (95% CI: 36.6, 49.6). For each 1-point increase, the odds of detecting CSF HIV RNA increased by 26% (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.31; P < 0.01). The risk score correlates with detection of CSF HIV RNA. It represents an advance in HIV management and monitoring of CNS effects, providing a potentially useful tool for clinicians.

  17. The Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV Risk Score for Assessing Central Nervous System Activity in Persons With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Edward R.; Crum, Rosa M.; Treisman, Glenn J.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Marra, Christina M.; Clifford, David B.; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.; McArthur, Justin C.

    2014-01-01

    Detectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with central nervous system (CNS) complications. We developed the CSF HIV risk score through prediction modeling to estimate the risk of detectable CSF HIV RNA (threshold >50 copies/mL) to help identify persons who might benefit most from CSF monitoring. We used baseline data from 1,053 participants receiving combination antiretroviral therapy who were enrolled in the 6-center, US-based CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) prospective cohort in 2004–2007. Plasma HIV RNA, CNS penetration effectiveness, duration of combination antiretroviral therapy, medication adherence, race, and depression status were retained correlates of CSF HIV RNA, displaying good discrimination (C statistic = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.85). The CSF HIV risk score ranges from 0 to 42 points, with a mean of 15.4 (standard deviation, 7.3) points. At risk scores greater than 25, the probability of detecting CSF HIV RNA was at least 42.9% (95% CI: 36.6, 49.6). For each 1-point increase, the odds of detecting CSF HIV RNA increased by 26% (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.31; P < 0.01). The risk score correlates with detection of CSF HIV RNA. It represents an advance in HIV management and monitoring of CNS effects, providing a potentially useful tool for clinicians. PMID:24966216

  18. OncoScore: a novel, Internet-based tool to assess the oncogenic potential of genes

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Piazza; Daniele, Ramazzotti; Roberta, Spinelli; Alessandra, Pirola; Luca, De Sano; Pierangelo, Ferrari; Vera, Magistroni; Nicoletta, Cordani; Nitesh, Sharma; Carlo, Gambacorti-Passerini

    2017-01-01

    The complicated, evolving landscape of cancer mutations poses a formidable challenge to identify cancer genes among the large lists of mutations typically generated in NGS experiments. The ability to prioritize these variants is therefore of paramount importance. To address this issue we developed OncoScore, a text-mining tool that ranks genes according to their association with cancer, based on available biomedical literature. Receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC) metrics on manually curated datasets confirmed the excellent discriminating capability of OncoScore (OncoScore cut-off threshold = 21.09; AUC = 90.3%, 95% CI: 88.1–92.5%), indicating that OncoScore provides useful results in cases where an efficient prioritization of cancer-associated genes is needed. PMID:28387367

  19. Comparison of Standardized Test Scores from Traditional Classrooms and Those Using Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Martha Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research compares differences between standardized test scores in problem-based learning (PBL) classrooms and a traditional classroom for 6th grade students using a mixed-method, quasi-experimental and qualitative design. The research shows that problem-based learning is as effective as traditional teaching methods on standardized tests. The…

  20. Determining the Scoring Validity of a Co-Constructed CEFR-Based Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deygers, Bart; Van Gorp, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Considering scoring validity as encompassing both reliable rating scale use and valid descriptor interpretation, this study reports on the validation of a CEFR-based scale that was co-constructed and used by novice raters. The research questions this paper wishes to answer are (a) whether it is possible to construct a CEFR-based rating scale with…

  1. An Exploration of the Base Rate Scores of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, William M.; Vrieze, Scott I.

    2009-01-01

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (3rd ed.; MCMI-III) is a widely used psychological assessment of clinical and personality disorders. Unlike typical tests, the MCMI-III uses a base-rate score transformation to incorporate prior probabilities of disorder (i.e., base rates) in test output and diagnostic thresholds. The authors describe the…

  2. Score Reliability of a Test Composed of Passage-Based Testlets: A Generalizability Theory Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of local item dependence (LID) in passage-based testlets on the test score reliability of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading comprehension test from the perspective of generalizability (G) theory. Definitions and causes of LID in passage-based testlets are reviewed within the…

  3. Preoperative risk score predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Su, Yu-Chieh; Wei, Chang-Kao; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Juang, Shiun-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2014-09-01

    The impact of important preexisting comorbidities, such as liver and renal disease, on the outcome of liver resection remains unclear. Identification of patients at risk of mortality will aid in improving preoperative preparations. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a population-based score based on available preoperative and predictable parameters predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection using data from a hepatitis endemic country.We identified 13,159 patients who underwent liver resection between 2002 and 2006 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In a randomly selected half of the total patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop a prediction score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by patient demographics, preoperative liver disease and comorbidities, indication for surgery, and procedure type. The score was validated with the remaining half of the patients.Overall 90-day mortality was 3.9%. Predictive characteristics included in the model were age, preexisting cirrhosis-related complications, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, malignancy, and procedure type. Four risk groups were stratified by mortality scores of 1.1%, 2.2%, 7.7%, and 15%. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications were the strongest predictors. The score discriminated well in both the derivation and validation sets with c-statistics of 0.75 and 0.75, respectively.This population-based score could identify patients at risk of 90-day mortality before liver resection. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications had the strongest influence on mortality. This score enables preoperative risk stratification, decision-making, quality assessment, and counseling for individual patients.

  4. Accelerating the scoring module of mass spectrometry-based peptide identification using GPUs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tandem mass spectrometry-based database searching is currently the main method for protein identification in shotgun proteomics. The explosive growth of protein and peptide databases, which is a result of genome translations, enzymatic digestions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs), is making computational efficiency in database searching a serious challenge. Profile analysis shows that most search engines spend 50%-90% of their total time on the scoring module, and that the spectrum dot product (SDP) based scoring module is the most widely used. As a general purpose and high performance parallel hardware, graphics processing units (GPUs) are promising platforms for speeding up database searches in the protein identification process. Results We designed and implemented a parallel SDP-based scoring module on GPUs that exploits the efficient use of GPU registers, constant memory and shared memory. Compared with the CPU-based version, we achieved a 30 to 60 times speedup using a single GPU. We also implemented our algorithm on a GPU cluster and achieved an approximately favorable speedup. Conclusions Our GPU-based SDP algorithm can significantly improve the speed of the scoring module in mass spectrometry-based protein identification. The algorithm can be easily implemented in many database search engines such as X!Tandem, SEQUEST, and pFind. A software tool implementing this algorithm is available at http://www.comp.hkbu.edu.hk/~youli/ProteinByGPU.html PMID:24773593

  5. Optimal query-based relevance feedback in medical image retrieval using score fusion-based classification.

    PubMed

    Behnam, Mohammad; Pourghassem, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) framework using an effective classification method and a novel relevance feedback (RF) approach are proposed. For a large-scale database with diverse collection of different modalities, query image classification is inevitable due to firstly, reducing the computational complexity and secondly, increasing influence of data fusion by removing unimportant data and focus on the more valuable information. Hence, we find probability distribution of classes in the database using Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for each feature descriptor and then using the fusion of obtained scores from the dependency probabilities, the most relevant clusters are identified for a given query. Afterwards, visual similarity of query image and images in relevant clusters are calculated. This method is performed separately on all feature descriptors, and then the results are fused together using feature similarity ranking level fusion algorithm. In the RF level, we propose a new approach to find the optimal queries based on relevant images. The main idea is based on density function estimation of positive images and strategy of moving toward the aggregation of estimated density function. The proposed framework has been evaluated on ImageCLEF 2005 database consisting of 10,000 medical X-ray images of 57 semantic classes. The experimental results show that compared with the existing CBMIR systems, our framework obtains the acceptable performance both in the image classification and in the image retrieval by RF.

  6. 3D face recognition based on the hierarchical score-level fusion classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mráček, Štěpán.; Váša, Jan; Lankašová, Karolína; Drahanský, Martin; Doležel, Michal

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the 3D face recognition algorithm that is based on the hierarchical score-level fusion clas-sifiers. In a simple (unimodal) biometric pipeline, the feature vector is extracted from the input data and subsequently compared with the template stored in the database. In our approachm, we utilize several feature extraction algorithms. We use 6 different image representations of the input 3D face data. Moreover, we are using Gabor and Gauss-Laguerre filter banks applied on the input image data that yield to 12 resulting feature vectors. Each representation is compared with corresponding counterpart from the biometric database. We also add the recognition based on the iso-geodesic curves. The final score-level fusion is performed on 13 comparison scores using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier.

  7. Electrocardiogram-based scoring system for predicting secondary pulmonary hypertension: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Patel, Nimesh Kirit; Boruah, Pranjal; Nanavaty, Sukrut; Chandran, Sindu; Sethi, Arjinder; Sheth, Jignesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we have developed an electrocardiogram-based scoring system to predict secondary pulmonary hypertension. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Single tertiary-care hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2009. Main outcome measures Surface electrocardiogram was assessed for R-wave in lead V1 ≥ 6mm, R-wave in V6 ≤ 3mm, S-wave in V6 ≥ 3mm, right atrial enlargement, right axis deviation and left atrial enlargement. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, determined by right heart catheterization. Results A total of 297 (54%) patients in the study cohort had pulmonary hypertension. In total, 332 patients from the study cohort formed the development cohort and the remaining 220 patients formed the validation cohort. In the development cohort, based on log odds ratios of association, RAE, LAE, RAD, R-wave in V1 ≥ 6 mm were assigned scores of 5, 2, 2 and 1, respectively, to form a 10-point scoring system “Scranton PHT (SP) score”. SP scores of 5 points and 7 points in DC showed C-statistic of 0.83 and 0.89, respectively, for discriminating pulmonary hypertension. C-statistic for RAE alone was significantly lower compared to an SP score of 7 (0.83 vs. 0.89, P = 0.021). The reliability of SP score in the validation cohort was acceptable. Conclusion SP score provides a good point-of-care tool to predict pulmonary hypertension in patients with clinical suspicion of it. PMID:25396053

  8. Fuzzy weighted average based on left and right scores in Malaysia tourism industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamis, Nor Hanimah; Abdullah, Kamilah; Zulkifli, Muhammad Hazim; Sahlan, Shahrazali; Mohd Yunus, Syaizzal

    2013-04-01

    Tourism is known as an important sector to the Malaysian economy including economic generator, creating business and job offers. It is reported to bring in almost RM30 billion of the national income, thanks to intense worldwide promotion by Tourism Malaysia. One of the well-known attractions in Malaysia is our beautiful islands. The islands continue to be developed into tourist spots and attracting a continuous number of tourists. Chalets, luxury bungalows and resorts quickly develop along the coastlines of popular islands like Tioman, Redang, Pangkor, Perhentian, Sibu and so many others. In this study, we applied Fuzzy Weighted Average (FWA) method based on left and right scores in order to determine the criteria weights and to select the best island in Malaysia. Cost, safety, attractive activities, accommodation and scenery are five main criteria to be considered and five selected islands in Malaysia are taken into accounts as alternatives. The most important criteria that have been considered by the tourist are defined based on criteria weights ranking order and the best island in Malaysia is then determined in terms of FWA values. This pilot study can be used as a reference to evaluate performances or solving any selection problems, where more criteria, alternatives and decision makers will be considered in the future.

  9. Physics-based scoring of protein-ligand interactions: explicit polarizability, quantum mechanics and free energies.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Richard A

    2011-04-01

    The ability to accurately predict the interaction of a ligand with its receptor is a key limitation in computer-aided drug design approaches such as virtual screening and de novo design. In this article, we examine current strategies for a physics-based approach to scoring of protein-ligand affinity, as well as outlining recent developments in force fields and quantum chemical techniques. We also consider advances in the development and application of simulation-based free energy methods to study protein-ligand interactions. Fuelled by recent advances in computational algorithms and hardware, there is the opportunity for increased integration of physics-based scoring approaches at earlier stages in computationally guided drug discovery. Specifically, we envisage increased use of implicit solvent models and simulation-based scoring methods as tools for computing the affinities of large virtual ligand libraries. Approaches based on end point simulations and reference potentials allow the application of more advanced potential energy functions to prediction of protein-ligand binding affinities. Comprehensive evaluation of polarizable force fields and quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical and QM methods in scoring of protein-ligand interactions is required, particularly in their ability to address challenging targets such as metalloproteins and other proteins that make highly polar interactions. Finally, we anticipate increasingly quantitative free energy perturbation and thermodynamic integration methods that are practical for optimization of hits obtained from screened ligand libraries.

  10. Relationship between amino acid scores and protein quality indices based on rat growth.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G; Peace, R W; Botting, H G; Brulé, D

    1989-01-01

    Protein efficiency ratio (PER), relative PER (RPER), net protein ratio (NPR) and relative NPR (RNPR) values, and amino acid scores were calculated for 20 food products (casein, casein + Met, beef salami, skim milk, tuna, chicken frankfuters, sausage, heated skim milk, peanut butter, rolled oats, soy isolate, chick peas, pea concentrate, kidney beans, wheat cereal, pinto bean, lentils, rice-wheat gluten cereal, macaroni-cheese, and beef stew). In most cases, PER, RPER, NPR or RNPR ranked the products in the same order and positive correlations among the protein quality methods were highly significant (r = 0.98-0.99). Amino acid scores (based on the first limiting amino acid, Lys-Met-Cys, Lys-Met-Cys-Trp or lys-Met-Cys-Trp-Thr) were positively correlated to the PER, RPER, NPR or RNPR data (r = 0.61-0.75). Inclusion of the correction for true digestibility of protein improved the correlations between amino acid scores and the indices based on rat growth. The correlations were especially high between Lys-Met-Cys scores (corrected for true digestibility of protein) and PER, RPER, NPR or RNPR (r = 0.86-0.91). Inclusion of the correction for true digestibility of individual amino acids did not result in further improvements of the correlations in most cases. It is concluded that adjusting amino acid scores for true digestibility of protein would be sufficient and further correction for digestibility of amino acids would be unnecessary in mixed diets.

  11. Non-localization and localization ROC analyses using clinically based scoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquerault, Sophie; Samuelson, Frank W.; Myers, Kyle J.; Smith, Robert C.

    2009-02-01

    We are investigating the potential for differences in study conclusions when assessing the estimated impact of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system on readers' performance. The data utilized in this investigation were derived from a multi-reader multi-case observer study involving one hundred mammographic background images to which fixed-size and fixed-intensity Gaussian signals were added, generating a low- and high-intensity signal sets. The study setting allowed CAD assessment in two situations: when CAD sensitivity was 1) superior or 2) lower than the average reader. Seven readers were asked to review each set in the unaided and CAD-aided reading modes, mark and rate their findings. Using this data, we studied the effect on study conclusion of three clinically-based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) scoring definitions. These scoring definitions included both location-specific and non-location-specific rules. The results showed agreement in the estimated impact of CAD on the overall reader performance. In the study setting where CAD sensitivity is superior to the average reader, the mean difference in AUC between the CAD-aided read and unaided read was 0.049 (95%CIs: -0.027; 0.130) for the image scoring definition that is based on non-location-specific rules, and 0.104 (95%CIs: 0.036; 0.174) and 0.090 (95%CIs: 0.031; 0.155) for image scoring definitions that are based on location-specific rules. The increases in AUC were statistically significant for the location-specific scoring definitions. It was further observed that the variance on these estimates was reduced when using the location-specific scoring definitions compared to that using a non-location-specific scoring definition. In the study setting where CAD sensitivity is equivalent or lower than the average reader, the mean differences in AUC are slightly above 0.01 for all image scoring definitions. These increases in AUC were not statistical significant for any of the image scoring definitions

  12. Translating DPYD genotype into DPD phenotype: using the DPYD gene activity score.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Linda M; Lunenburg, Carin A T C; Meulendijks, Didier; Gelderblom, Hans; Cats, Annemieke; Swen, Jesse J; Schellens, Jan H M; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase enzyme (DPD, encoded by the gene DPYD) plays a key role in the metabolism of fluoropyrimidines. DPD deficiency occurs in 4-5% of the population and is associated with severe fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. Several SNPs in DPYD have been described that lead to absent or reduced enzyme activity, including DPYD*2A, DPYD*13, c.2846A>T and c.1236G>A/haplotype B3. Since these SNPs differ in their effect on DPD enzyme activity, a differentiated dose adaption is recommended. We propose the gene activity score for translating DPYD genotype into phenotype, accounting for differences in functionality of SNPs. This method can be used to standardize individualized fluoropyrimidine dose adjustments, resulting in optimal safety and effectiveness.

  13. Comparing Several Human and Computer-Based Methods for Scoring Concept Maps and Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Ravinder; Clariana, Roy B.; Salehi, Roya

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation of the convergent criterion-related validity of two computer-based tools for scoring concept maps and essays as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of these tools. In pairs, participants researched a science topic online and created a concept map of the topic. Later, participants…

  14. Software-Based Scoring and Sound Design: An Introductory Guide for Music Technology Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the creative function of virtual instruments, sequencers, loops, and software-based synthesizers to introduce basic scoring and sound design concepts for visual media in an introductory music technology course. Using digital audio workstations with user-focused and configurable options, novice composers can hone a broad range…

  15. Development of Scoring Procedures for the Performance Based Measurement (PBM) Test: Psychometric and Criterion Validity Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-29

    policy or position of the Department of the Navy , Department of Defense, nor the U.S. Government. This work was funded by work unit number...item response theory (IRT) based subtest scores and composites with performance criteria for Navy and Marine Corps student pilots and flight officers...26 9. Descriptive Statistics and Correlations for Navy Pilot Flight

  16. Detecting determinism with improved sensitivity in time series: Rank-based nonlinear predictability score

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naro, Daniel; Rummel, Christian; Schindler, Kaspar; Andrzejak, Ralph G.

    2014-09-01

    The rank-based nonlinear predictability score was recently introduced as a test for determinism in point processes. We here adapt this measure to time series sampled from time-continuous flows. We use noisy Lorenz signals to compare this approach against a classical amplitude-based nonlinear prediction error. Both measures show an almost identical robustness against Gaussian white noise. In contrast, when the amplitude distribution of the noise has a narrower central peak and heavier tails than the normal distribution, the rank-based nonlinear predictability score outperforms the amplitude-based nonlinear prediction error. For this type of noise, the nonlinear predictability score has a higher sensitivity for deterministic structure in noisy signals. It also yields a higher statistical power in a surrogate test of the null hypothesis of linear stochastic correlated signals. We show the high relevance of this improved performance in an application to electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from epilepsy patients. Here the nonlinear predictability score again appears of higher sensitivity to nonrandomness. Importantly, it yields an improved contrast between signals recorded from brain areas where the first ictal EEG signal changes were detected (focal EEG signals) versus signals recorded from brain areas that were not involved at seizure onset (nonfocal EEG signals).

  17. Apgar-score in children prenatally exposed to antiepileptic drugs: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jakob; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Vestergaard, Mogens; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It is unknown if prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of low Apgar score in offspring. Setting Population-based study using health registers in Denmark. Participants We identified all 677 021 singletons born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 and linked the Apgar score from the Medical Birth Register with information on the women's prescriptions for AEDs during pregnancy from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. We used the Danish National Hospital Registry to identify mothers diagnosed with epilepsy before birth of the child. Results were adjusted for smoking and maternal age. Results Among 2906 children exposed to AEDs, 55 (1.9%) were born with an Apgar score ≤7 as compared with 8797 (1.3%) children among 674 115 pregnancies unexposed to AEDs (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.41 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.85). When analyses were restricted to the 2215 children born of mothers with epilepsy, the aRR of having a low Apgar score associated with AED exposure was 1.34 (95% CI 0.90 to 2.01) When assessing individual AEDs, we found increased, unadjusted RR for exposure to carbamazepine (RR=1.86 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.42)), valproic acid (RR=1.85 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.30)) and topiramate (RR=2.97 (95% CI 1.26 to 7.01)) when compared to unexposed children. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to AEDs was associated with increased risk of being born with a low Apgar score, but the absolute risk of a low Apgar score was <2%. Risk associated with individual AEDs indicate that the increased risk is not a class effect, but that there may be particularly high risks of a low Apgar score associated with certain AEDs. PMID:26359281

  18. Immunization-based scores as independent prognostic predictors in soft tissue sarcoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Long; Weng, De-Sheng; Li, Yuan-fang; Pan, Qiu-Zhong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Tang, Yan; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Xia, Jian-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the prognostic value of different immunization-based scoring systems in patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study evaluating a cohort of 165 patients diagnosed with STS between July 2007 and July 2014. The relative Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) of these patients was calculated using 3 different systems: the traditional GPS system (tGPS), the modified GPS system 1 (m1GPS), and the modified GPS system 2 (m2GPS). Then, we evaluated the relationships between each GPS system and clinicopathological characteristics. The mean follow-up for survivors in the cohort was 73.7 months as of March 2015. Results: The most favorable overall survival (OS) rate was associated with the score 0 groups, and the poorest progression-free survival (PFS) rate was associated with the score 2 groups, regardless of which system was used to calculate the score. Specifically, the m1GPS provided the greatest accuracy in predicting OS and PFS. Moreover, the same effect was observed in a separate analysis restricted to patients with metastases. Remarkably, in patients with a score of 2 as measured by all 3 systems, local treatment resulted in a poorer prognosis compared to patients with a score of 2 who did not receive local treatment. Conclusion: The GPS is a valuable prognostic marker and has the capability to predict the appropriate treatment strategy for STS patients with metastases. The modified GPS systems demonstrated superior prognostic and predictive value compared with the traditional GPS system. PMID:28367240

  19. Comprehensive coronary risk determination in primary prevention: an imaging and clinical based definition combining computed tomographic coronary artery calcium score and national cholesterol education program risk score.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Khurram; Vasamreddy, Chandra; Blumenthal, Roger S; Rumberger, John A

    2006-06-16

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and a major cause of morbidity. Coronary heart disease (CHD) accounts for nearly half of all CVD deaths. Currently estimation of risk in primary prevention is based on the Framingham risk equations, which inputs traditional risk factors and is helpful in predicting the development of CHD in asymptomatic individuals. However many individuals suffer events in the absence of established risk factors for atherosclerosis and broad based population risk estimations may have little precision when applied to a given individual. To meet the challenge of CHD risk assessment, several tools have been developed to identify atherosclerotic disease in its preclinical stages. This paper aims to incorporate information from coronary artery calcification (CAC) scoring from a computed tomographic "heartscan" (using Electron Beam Tomography (EBT) as the validated prototype) along with current Framingham risk profiling in order to refine risk on an absolute scale by combining imaging and clinical data to affect a more comprehensive calculation of absolute risk in a given individual. For CAC scores above the 75th percentile but <90th percentile, 10 years is added to chronological age, and for CAC scores above the 90th percentile, 20 years is added to current chronological age. Among those in whom a positive CAC score is the norm such as older individuals (men> or =55 years, women> or =65 years) a CAC = 0 will result in an age point score corresponding to the age-group whose median CAC score is zero i.e., 40-44 years for men and 55-59 years for women. The utilization of CAC scores allows the inclusion of sub-clinical disease definition into the context of modifiable risk factors as well as identifies high-risk individuals requiring aggressive treatment.

  20. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for chronic liver disease: comparison with ultrasound-based scores of experienced radiologists, Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography provides better diagnostic performance for diagnosis of chronic liver disease and correlates better with Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests, compared with an ultrasound (US) scoring system based on visual assessment of conventional B-mode US images by experienced radiologists. Five hundred and twenty-one patients with clinically proven chronic liver disease (n = 293), fatty liver (n = 95) or normal liver (n = 133) were included in this study. B-mode liver US and ARFI elastography were performed in all patients. ARFI elastography was performed at least five times, with each measurement obtained at a different area of the right hepatic lobe; mean shear wave velocity (SWV) was calculated for each patient. The mean SWV was compared with US-based scores from two radiologists (based on liver surface nodularity, parenchyma echotexture and hepatic vein contour), Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests. The mean SWV of the normal liver group was 1.08 m/s ± 0.15; of the fatty liver group, 1.02 m/s ± 0.16; and of the chronic liver disease group, 1.66 m/s ± 0.60 (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of the mean SWV in ARFI elastography was significantly higher than that of the conventional B-mode US-based scores by two radiologists (0.89 vs. 0.74 and 0.77, p < 0.05), with a sensitivity of 75.4% and a specificity of 89.5% at the cut-off value of 1.22 m/s. The sensitivity of the mean SWV was significantly higher than the US-based scores (p < 0.001), although the specificity was not (p > 0.05). The mean SWV was better correlated with Child-Pugh scores and all liver function tests (except total protein) than the US-based scores from two radiologists. In conclusion, ARFI elastography showed better diagnostic performance than visual assessment of experienced radiologists for diagnosis of chronic liver disease, as well as for

  1. Comparison of chiropractic student scores before and after utilizing active learning techniques in a classroom setting.

    PubMed

    Guagliardo, Joseph G; Hoiriis, Kathryn T

    2013-01-01

    Objective : We report the differences in final examination scores achieved by students at the culmination of two different teaching strategies in an introductory skills course. Methods : Multiple choice examination scores from six consecutive academic calendar sessions over 18 months (n = 503) were compared. Two groups were used: Cohort A (n = 290) represented students who were enrolled in the course 3 consecutive academic sessions before an instructional change and Cohort B (n = 213) included students who were enrolled in 3 consecutive academic sessions following the instructional change, which included a more active learning format. Statistical analyses used were 2-tailed independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD), and effect size. Results : The 2-tailed independent t-test revealed a significant difference between the two groups (t = -3.71, p < .001; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-4.20). Significant difference was found in the highest performing subgroup compared to the lowest performing subgroup in Cohort A (F = 3.343, p = .037). For Cohort A subgroups 1 and 2, Tukey's HSD was p < .028. In Cohort B, no difference was found among subgroups (F = 1.912, p = .150, HSD p > .105). Conclusion : Compared to previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, the students in the new course design performed better, suggesting that using active learning techniques helps improve student achievement.

  2. Alimentary Habits, Physical Activity, and Framingham Global Risk Score in Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. Objective To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Methods A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. Results The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p < 0.001). We obtained a reduction for intermediate risk in 25.7% of subjects. After intervention, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) on cardiovascular age, this being more significant in groups DIP (5.2%) and DIPE (5.3%). Conclusion Proposed interventions produced beneficial effects for reducing cardiovascular risk score. This study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24652053

  3. Comparison of chiropractic student scores before and after utilizing active learning techniques in a classroom setting

    PubMed Central

    Guagliardo, Joseph G.; Hoiriis, Kathryn T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We report the differences in final examination scores achieved by students at the culmination of two different teaching strategies in an introductory skills course. Methods Multiple choice examination scores from six consecutive academic calendar sessions over 18 months (n = 503) were compared. Two groups were used: Cohort A (n = 290) represented students who were enrolled in the course 3 consecutive academic sessions before an instructional change and Cohort B (n = 213) included students who were enrolled in 3 consecutive academic sessions following the instructional change, which included a more active learning format. Statistical analyses used were 2-tailed independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD), and effect size. Results The 2-tailed independent t-test revealed a significant difference between the two groups (t = −3.71, p < .001; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29–4.20). Significant difference was found in the highest performing subgroup compared to the lowest performing subgroup in Cohort A (F = 3.343, p = .037). For Cohort A subgroups 1 and 2, Tukey's HSD was p < .028. In Cohort B, no difference was found among subgroups (F = 1.912, p = .150, HSD p > .105). Conclusion Compared to previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, the students in the new course design performed better, suggesting that using active learning techniques helps improve student achievement. PMID:23964739

  4. Effect of Different Score Reports of Web-Based Formative Test on Students' Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Xiaoling; Zhang, Xuning

    2013-01-01

    A new score report based on a mechanism of formative assessment and feedback is developed to offer individual testees not only their final scores but also their sub-scale scores, their percentile position, as well as corresponding feedback on self-regulation strategies. Structural equation modeling is adopted in the confirmatory factor analysis to…

  5. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J.; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T.; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-07-01

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules.

  6. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules

    PubMed Central

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J.; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T.; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules. PMID:27385551

  7. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules.

    PubMed

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-07-07

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules.

  8. Web-based scoring of the dicentric assay, a collaborative biodosimetric scoring strategy for population triage in large scale radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Romm, H; Ainsbury, E; Bajinskis, A; Barnard, S; Barquinero, J F; Barrios, L; Beinke, C; Puig-Casanovas, R; Deperas-Kaminska, M; Gregoire, E; Oestreicher, U; Lindholm, C; Moquet, J; Rothkamm, K; Sommer, S; Thierens, H; Vral, A; Vandersickel, V; Wojcik, A

    2014-05-01

    In the case of a large scale radiation accident high throughput methods of biological dosimetry for population triage are needed to identify individuals requiring clinical treatment. The dicentric assay performed in web-based scoring mode may be a very suitable technique. Within the MULTIBIODOSE EU FP7 project a network is being established of 8 laboratories with expertise in dose estimations based on the dicentric assay. Here, the manual dicentric assay was tested in a web-based scoring mode. More than 23,000 high resolution images of metaphase spreads (only first mitosis) were captured by four laboratories and established as image galleries on the internet (cloud). The galleries included images of a complete dose effect curve (0-5.0 Gy) and three types of irradiation scenarios simulating acute whole body, partial body and protracted exposure. The blood samples had been irradiated in vitro with gamma rays at the University of Ghent, Belgium. Two laboratories provided image galleries from Fluorescence plus Giemsa stained slides (3 h colcemid) and the image galleries from the other two laboratories contained images from Giemsa stained preparations (24 h colcemid). Each of the 8 participating laboratories analysed 3 dose points of the dose effect curve (scoring 100 cells for each point) and 3 unknown dose points (50 cells) for each of the 3 simulated irradiation scenarios. At first all analyses were performed in a QuickScan Mode without scoring individual chromosomes, followed by conventional scoring (only complete cells, 46 centromeres). The calibration curves obtained using these two scoring methods were very similar, with no significant difference in the linear-quadratic curve coefficients. Analysis of variance showed a significant effect of dose on the yield of dicentrics, but no significant effect of the laboratories, different methods of slide preparation or different incubation times used for colcemid. The results obtained to date within the MULTIBIODOSE

  9. Estimation and inference based on Neumann series approximation to locally efficient score in missing data problems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua Yun

    2009-12-01

    Theory on semiparametric efficient estimation in missing data problems has been systematically developed by Robins and his coauthors. Except in relatively simple problems, semiparametric efficient scores cannot be expressed in closed forms. Instead, the efficient scores are often expressed as solutions to integral equations. Neumann series was proposed in the form of successive approximation to the efficient scores in those situations. Statistical properties of the estimator based on the Neumann series approximation are difficult to obtain and as a result, have not been clearly studied. In this paper, we reformulate the successive approximation in a simple iterative form and study the statistical properties of the estimator based on the reformulation. We show that a doubly-robust locally-efficient estimator can be obtained following the algorithm in robustifying the likelihood score. The results can be applied to, among others, the parametric regression, the marginal regression, and the Cox regression when data are subject to missing values and the missing data are missing at random. A simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the approach and a real data example is analyzed to demonstrate the use of the approach.

  10. Performance Study of a Score-based Likelihood Ratio System for Forensic Fingermark Comparison.

    PubMed

    Leegwater, Anna Jeannette; Meuwly, Didier; Sjerps, Marjan; Vergeer, Peter; Alberink, Ivo

    2017-02-07

    In this article, the performance of a score-based likelihood ratio (LR) system for comparisons of fingerprints with fingermarks is studied. The system is based on an automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) comparison algorithm and focuses on fingerprint comparisons where the fingermarks contain 6-11 minutiae. The hypotheses under consideration are evaluated at the level of the person, not the finger. The LRs are presented with bootstrap intervals indicating the sampling uncertainty involved. Several aspects of the performance are measured: leave-one-out cross-validation is applied, and rates of misleading evidence are studied in two ways. A simulation study is performed to study the coverage of the bootstrap intervals. The results indicate that the evidential strength for same source comparisons that do not meet the Dutch twelve-point standard may be substantial. The methods used can be generalized to measure the performance of score-based LR systems in other fields of forensic science.

  11. A Score Based on Screening Tests to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from Subjective Memory Complaints

    PubMed Central

    de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figuerêdo do Vale, Patrícia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

    2013-01-01

    It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213

  12. Nursing activities score (NAS): a proposal for practical application in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Leilane Andrade; Padilha, Katia Grillo; Cardoso Sousa, Regina M

    2007-12-01

    For over 30 years in an attempt to demonstrate the cost-benefit ratio of the intensive care unit (ICU) a variety of tools have been developed to measure not only the severity of illness of the patient but also to capture the true cost of nursing workload. In this context, the nursing activities score (NAS) was developed as a result of modifications to the therapeutic interventions scoring system-28 (TISS-28). The NAS is a tool to measure nursing workload ICU and it has been shown to be twice as effective in measuring how nurses spend their time caring for critically ill patients than the TISS-28. This paper discuss the introduction of the NAS into everyday use in an intensive care unit in Brazil and highlights the challenges of standardisation of operational definitions, training requirements and accurate completion of the documentation when using such a tool. The rationale and steps undertaken to achieve this are outlined and the benefits of such a process are highlighted.

  13. Power comparisons between similarity-based multilocus association methods, logistic regression, and score tests for haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Yu; Schaid, Daniel J

    2009-04-01

    Recently, a genomic distance-based regression for multilocus associations was proposed (Wessel and Schork [2006] Am. J. Hum. Genet. 79:792-806) in which either locus or haplotype scoring can be used to measure genetic distance. Although it allows various measures of genomic similarity and simultaneous analyses of multiple phenotypes, its power relative to other methods for case-control analyses is not well known. We compare the power of traditional methods with this new distance-based approach, for both locus-scoring and haplotype-scoring strategies. We discuss the relative power of these association methods with respect to five properties: (1) the marker informativity; (2) the number of markers; (3) the causal allele frequency; (4) the preponderance of the most common high-risk haplotype; (5) the correlation between the causal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and its flanking markers. We found that locus-based logistic regression and the global score test for haplotypes suffered from power loss when many markers were included in the analyses, due to many degrees of freedom. In contrast, the distance-based approach was not as vulnerable to more markers or more haplotypes. A genotype counting measure was more sensitive to the marker informativity and the correlation between the causal SNP and its flanking markers. After examining the impact of the five properties on power, we found that on average, the genomic distance-based regression that uses a matching measure for diplotypes was the most powerful and robust method among the seven methods we compared.

  14. The effects of calculator-based laboratories on standardized test scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Charlotte Bethany Rains

    Nationwide, the goal of providing a productive science and math education to our youth in today's educational institutions is centering itself around the technology being utilized in these classrooms. In this age of digital technology, educational software and calculator-based laboratories (CBL) have become significant devices in the teaching of science and math for many states across the United States. Among the technology, the Texas Instruments graphing calculator and Vernier Labpro interface, are among some of the calculator-based laboratories becoming increasingly popular among middle and high school science and math teachers in many school districts across this country. In Tennessee, however, it is reported that this type of technology is not regularly utilized at the student level in most high school science classrooms, especially in the area of Physical Science (Vernier, 2006). This research explored the effect of calculator based laboratory instruction on standardized test scores. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of traditional teaching methods versus graphing calculator teaching methods on the state mandated End-of-Course (EOC) Physical Science exam based on ability, gender, and ethnicity. The sample included 187 total tenth and eleventh grade physical science students, 101 of which belonged to a control group and 87 of which belonged to the experimental group. Physical Science End-of-Course scores obtained from the Tennessee Department of Education during the spring of 2005 and the spring of 2006 were used to examine the hypotheses. The findings of this research study suggested the type of teaching method, traditional or calculator based, did not have an effect on standardized test scores. However, the students' ability level, as demonstrated on the End-of-Course test, had a significant effect on End-of-Course test scores. This study focused on a limited population of high school physical science students in the middle Tennessee

  15. New Morbidity and Comorbidity Scores based on the Structure of the ICD-10.

    PubMed

    Stausberg, Jürgen; Hagn, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Measures of morbidity and comorbidity are frequently used for the control of confounding, particularly in health services research. Several proposals for those measures are defined with ICD-coded diagnoses available in hospital routine data. However, a measure that makes use of the ICD structure is missing. Objective of this work was to elaborate the power of the ICD structure for defining morbidity and comorbidity measures. Routine data from three German hospitals with inpatients discharged 2008 were used for model development; routine data from 36 German hospitals with inpatients admitted and discharged 2010 were used for model evaluation. Two different risk models were developed, one based on ICD-10 chapters, the other based on ICD-10 groups. The models were transformed into sum scores using whole-number weights. Models and scores were compared with the Charlson Index and the Elixhauser Comorbidities using the receiver operating characteristic. Dependent variable was hospital death. Logistic regression was used to derive the new models. Charlson Index and Elixhauser Comorbidities were mapped to the German ICD-10. According to the receiver operating characteristic, the quality of the measures based on the structure of the ICD-10 was superior compared with the Charlson Index and the Elixhauser Comorbidities. The best result was achieved with the measure based on ICD-10-groups with an area under curve of 0.910 (95% confidence interval = 0.907-0.913). The sum scores showed a comparable performance. The developed new measures may be used to control for confounding.

  16. New Morbidity and Comorbidity Scores based on the Structure of the ICD-10

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, Jürgen; Hagn, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Measures of morbidity and comorbidity are frequently used for the control of confounding, particularly in health services research. Several proposals for those measures are defined with ICD-coded diagnoses available in hospital routine data. However, a measure that makes use of the ICD structure is missing. Objective of this work was to elaborate the power of the ICD structure for defining morbidity and comorbidity measures. Routine data from three German hospitals with inpatients discharged 2008 were used for model development; routine data from 36 German hospitals with inpatients admitted and discharged 2010 were used for model evaluation. Two different risk models were developed, one based on ICD-10 chapters, the other based on ICD-10 groups. The models were transformed into sum scores using whole-number weights. Models and scores were compared with the Charlson Index and the Elixhauser Comorbidities using the receiver operating characteristic. Dependent variable was hospital death. Logistic regression was used to derive the new models. Charlson Index and Elixhauser Comorbidities were mapped to the German ICD-10. According to the receiver operating characteristic, the quality of the measures based on the structure of the ICD-10 was superior compared with the Charlson Index and the Elixhauser Comorbidities. The best result was achieved with the measure based on ICD-10-groups with an area under curve of 0.910 (95% confidence interval = 0.907–0.913). The sum scores showed a comparable performance. The developed new measures may be used to control for confounding. PMID:26656501

  17. Lifestyle‐Based Prediction Model for the Prevention of CVD: The Healthy Heart Score

    PubMed Central

    Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Cook, Nancy R.; Shay, Christina M.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Albert, Christine M.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical practice focuses on the primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) through the modification and pharmacological treatment of elevated risk factors. Prediction models based on established risk factors are available for use in the primary prevention setting. However, the prevention of risk factor development through healthy lifestyle behaviors, or primordial prevention, is of paramount importance to achieve optimal population‐wide CV health and minimize long‐term CVD risk. Methods and Results We developed a lifestyle‐based CVD prediction model among 61 025 women in the Nurses’ Health Study and 34 478 men in the Health Professionals Follow‐up Study, who were free of chronic disease in 1986 and followed for ≤24 years. Lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaires in 1986. In the derivation step, we used the Bayes Information Criterion to create parsimonious 20‐year risk prediction models among a random two thirds of participants in each cohort separately. The scores were validated in the remaining one third of participants in each cohort. Over 24 years, there were 3775 cases of CVD in women and 3506 cases in men. The Healthy Heart Score included age, smoking, body mass index, exercise, alcohol, and a composite diet score. In the validation cohort, the risk score demonstrated good discrimination (Harrell's C‐index, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71, 0.74 [women]; 0.77; 95% CI, 0.76, 0.79 [men]), fit, and calibration, particularly among individuals without baseline hypertension or hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions The Healthy Heart Score accurately identifies individuals at elevated risk for CVD and may serve as an important clinical and public health screening tool for the primordial prevention of CVD. PMID:25398889

  18. Propensity Score-Based Methods versus MTE-Based Methods in Causal Inference: Identification, Estimation, and Application.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Xie, Y U

    2016-02-01

    Since the seminal introduction of the propensity score by Rosenbaum and Rubin, propensity-score-based (PS-based) methods have been widely used for drawing causal inferences in the behavioral and social sciences. However, the propensity score approach depends on the ignorability assumption: there are no unobserved confounders once observed covariates are taken into account. For situations where this assumption may be violated, Heckman and his associates have recently developed a novel approach based on marginal treatment effects (MTE). In this paper, we (1) explicate consequences for PS-based methods when aspects of the ignorability assumption are violated; (2) compare PS-based methods and MTE-based methods by making a close examination of their identification assumptions and estimation performances; (3) apply these two approaches in estimating the economic return to college using data from NLSY 1979 and discuss their discrepancies in results. When there is a sorting gain but no systematic baseline difference between treated and untreated units given observed covariates, PS-based methods can identify the treatment effect of the treated (TT). The MTE approach performs best when there is a valid and strong instrumental variable (IV). In addition, this paper introduces the "smoothing-difference PS-based method," which enables us to uncover heterogeneity across people of different propensity scores in both counterfactual outcomes and treatment effects.

  19. A novel gene expression-based prognostic scoring system to predict survival in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Bo; Zou, Xiaoping; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression patterns in gastric cancer (GC) can help to identify a comprehensive panel of gene biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes and to discover potential new therapeutic targets. Here, a multi-step bioinformatics analytic approach was developed to establish a novel prognostic scoring system for GC. We first identified 276 genes that were robustly differentially expressed between normal and GC tissues, of which, 249 were found to be significantly associated with overall survival (OS) by univariate Cox regression analysis. The biological functions of 249 genes are related to cell cycle, RNA/ncRNA process, acetylation and extracellular matrix organization. A network was generated for view of the gene expression architecture of 249 genes in 265 GCs. Finally, we applied a canonical discriminant analysis approach to identify a 53-gene signature and a prognostic scoring system was established based on a canonical discriminant function of 53 genes. The prognostic scores strongly predicted patients with GC to have either a poor or good OS. Our study raises the prospect that the practicality of GC patient prognosis can be assessed by this prognostic scoring system. PMID:27419373

  20. Fast and Rigorous Computation of Gene and Pathway Scores from SNP-Based Summary Statistics.

    PubMed

    Lamparter, David; Marbach, Daniel; Rueedi, Rico; Kutalik, Zoltán; Bergmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Integrating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) p-values from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) across genes and pathways is a strategy to improve statistical power and gain biological insight. Here, we present Pascal (Pathway scoring algorithm), a powerful tool for computing gene and pathway scores from SNP-phenotype association summary statistics. For gene score computation, we implemented analytic and efficient numerical solutions to calculate test statistics. We examined in particular the sum and the maximum of chi-squared statistics, which measure the strongest and the average association signals per gene, respectively. For pathway scoring, we use a modified Fisher method, which offers not only significant power improvement over more traditional enrichment strategies, but also eliminates the problem of arbitrary threshold selection inherent in any binary membership based pathway enrichment approach. We demonstrate the marked increase in power by analyzing summary statistics from dozens of large meta-studies for various traits. Our extensive testing indicates that our method not only excels in rigorous type I error control, but also results in more biologically meaningful discoveries.

  1. Comparison of tobacco control policies in the Eastern Mediterranean countries based on Tobacco Control Scale scores.

    PubMed

    Heydari, G; Talischi, F; Masjedi, M R; Alguomani, H; Joossens, L; Ghafari, M

    2012-08-01

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to provide an overview of tobacco control strategies in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). A questionnaire to collate data on implementation of 6 major policies was developed based on the previously published Tobacco Control Scale and using MPOWER measures of the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative and the Tobacco Atlas. Only 3 of the 21 countries scored higher than 50 out of 100: Islamic Republic of Iran (61), Jordan (55) and Egypt (51) More than half of countries scored less than 26. Highest scores were achieved by Afghanistan in cigarette pricing, Oman in smoking bans in public places, Islamic Republic of Iran in budgeting, prohibition of advertisements and health warnings against smoking and Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia and Kuwait in tobacco cessation programmes. The low mean total score in EMR countries (29.7) compared with European countries (47.2) highlights the need for better future planning and policy-making for tobacco control in the Region.

  2. Intelligent query by humming system based on score level fusion of multiple classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo Nam, Gi; Thu Trang Luong, Thi; Ha Nam, Hyun; Ryoung Park, Kang; Park, Sung-Joo

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the necessity for content-based music retrieval that can return results even if a user does not know information such as the title or singer has increased. Query-by-humming (QBH) systems have been introduced to address this need, as they allow the user to simply hum snatches of the tune to find the right song. Even though there have been many studies on QBH, few have combined multiple classifiers based on various fusion methods. Here we propose a new QBH system based on the score level fusion of multiple classifiers. This research is novel in the following three respects: three local classifiers [quantized binary (QB) code-based linear scaling (LS), pitch-based dynamic time warping (DTW), and LS] are employed; local maximum and minimum point-based LS and pitch distribution feature-based LS are used as global classifiers; and the combination of local and global classifiers based on the score level fusion by the PRODUCT rule is used to achieve enhanced matching accuracy. Experimental results with the 2006 MIREX QBSH and 2009 MIR-QBSH corpus databases show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that of single classifier and other fusion methods.

  3. Disease Risk Assessment Using a Voronoi-Based Network Analysis of Genes and Variants Scores

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Mukerjee, Gouri; Dorfman, Ruslan; Moghadas, Seyed M.

    2017-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to assess disease risk based on large-scale protein-protein network and genotype-phenotype associations. However, the challenge of risk prediction for complex diseases remains unaddressed. Here, we propose a framework to quantify the risk based on a Voronoi tessellation network analysis, taking into account the disease association scores of both genes and variants. By integrating ClinVar, SNPnexus, and DISEASES databases, we introduce a gene-variant map that is based on the pairwise disease-associated gene-variant scores. This map is clustered using Voronoi tessellation and network analysis with a threshold obtained from fitting the background Voronoi cell density distribution. We define the relative risk of disease that is inferred from the scores of the data points within the related clusters on the gene-variant map. We identify autoimmune-associated clusters that may interact at the system-level. The proposed framework can be used to determine the clusters that are specific to a subtype or contribute to multiple subtypes of complex diseases. PMID:28326099

  4. Interpreting the multi-biomarker disease activity score in the context of tocilizumab treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Reiss, William G; Devenport, Jenny N; Low, Jason M; Wu, George; Sasso, Eric H

    2016-02-01

    The multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA) score measures 12 proteins involved in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to assess disease activity (DA). Previous studies demonstrated correlations between MBDA and clinical DA scores with some RA therapies. In this analysis, the relationship between DA and MBDA scores and changes in MBDA component biomarkers were evaluated in tocilizumab (TCZ)-treated patients. Patients from the ACT-RAY study were included in this analysis if they had DA measures and serum collected at pre-specified time points with sufficient serum for MBDA testing at ≥1 visit. Descriptive statistics, associations between outcomes, and percentage agreement between DA categories were calculated. Seventy-eight patients were included and were similar to the ACT-RAY population. Correlations between MBDA score and DAS28-CRP were ρ = 0.50 at baseline and ρ = 0.26 at week 24. Agreement between low/moderate/high categories of MBDA score and DAS28-CRP was observed for 77.1 % of patients at baseline and 23.7 % at week 24. Mean changes from baseline to weeks 4, 12, and 24 were proportionately smaller for MBDA score than DAS28-CRP. Unlike some other MBDA biomarkers, interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations increased in most patients during TCZ treatment. Correlations and agreement between MBDA and DAS28-CRP or CDAI scores were lower at week 24 versus baseline. The proportionately smaller magnitude of response observed for MBDA score versus DAS28-CRP may be due to the influence of the increase in IL-6 concentrations on MBDA score. Thus, MBDA scores obtained during TCZ treatment should be interpreted cautiously and in the context of available clinical information.

  5. To examine the relationship between the Functional Movement Screen and the Landing Error Scoring System in an active collegiate population.

    PubMed

    Everard, E; Harrison, Aj; Lyons, M

    2016-07-25

    In recent years there has been an increasing focus on movement screening as the principal aspect of pre-participation testing. Two of the most common movement screening tools are the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Several studies have examined the reliability and validity of these tools but so far there have been no studies comparing the results of these two screening tools against each other. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores and Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) scores. Ninety-eight male college athletes actively competing in sport (Gaelic games, soccer, athletics, boxing/mixed martial arts, Olympic weight lifting) participated in the study and performed the FMS and LESS screens. Both the 21 point and 100 point scoring systems were used to score the FMS. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between the two screening scores. The results showed a significant moderate correlation between FMS and LESS scores (rho 100 and 21 point = -.528; -.487; p< .001). In addition, r values of .26 and .23 indicate a poor shared variance between the two screens. The results indicate that performing well in one of the screens does not necessarily equate to performing well in the other. This has practical implications as it highlights that both screens may assess different movement patterns and should not be used as a substitute for each other.

  6. A novel breast ultrasound image segmentation algorithm based on neutrosophic similarity score and level set.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanhui; Şengür, Abdulkadir; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Breast ultrasound (BUS) image segmentation is a challenging task due to the speckle noise, poor quality of the ultrasound images and size and location of the breast lesions. In this paper, we propose a new BUS image segmentation algorithm based on neutrosophic similarity score (NSS) and level set algorithm. At first, the input BUS image is transferred to the NS domain via three membership subsets T, I and F, and then, a similarity score NSS is defined and employed to measure the belonging degree to the true tumor region. Finally, the level set method is used to segment the tumor from the background tissue region in the NSS image. Experiments have been conducted on a variety of clinical BUS images. Several measurements are used to evaluate and compare the proposed method's performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to segment the BUS images effectively and accurately.

  7. Continuing Medical Education Speakers with High Evaluation Scores Use more Image-based Slides

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Ian; Phillips, Andrew W.; Lin, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although continuing medical education (CME) presentations are common across health professions, it is unknown whether slide design is independently associated with audience evaluations of the speaker. Based on the conceptual framework of Mayer’s theory of multimedia learning, this study aimed to determine whether image use and text density in presentation slides are associated with overall speaker evaluations. Methods This retrospective analysis of six sequential CME conferences (two annual emergency medicine conferences over a three-year period) used a mixed linear regression model to assess whether post-conference speaker evaluations were associated with image fraction (percentage of image-based slides per presentation) and text density (number of words per slide). Results A total of 105 unique lectures were given by 49 faculty members, and 1,222 evaluations (70.1% response rate) were available for analysis. On average, 47.4% (SD=25.36) of slides had at least one educationally-relevant image (image fraction). Image fraction significantly predicted overall higher evaluation scores [F(1, 100.676)=6.158, p=0.015] in the mixed linear regression model. The mean (SD) text density was 25.61 (8.14) words/slide but was not a significant predictor [F(1, 86.293)=0.55, p=0.815]. Of note, the individual speaker [χ2(1)=2.952, p=0.003] and speaker seniority [F(3, 59.713)=4.083, p=0.011] significantly predicted higher scores. Conclusion This is the first published study to date assessing the linkage between slide design and CME speaker evaluations by an audience of practicing clinicians. The incorporation of images was associated with higher evaluation scores, in alignment with Mayer’s theory of multimedia learning. Contrary to this theory, however, text density showed no significant association, suggesting that these scores may be multifactorial. Professional development efforts should focus on teaching best practices in both slide design and presentation

  8. Physical activity and better medication compliance improve mini-mental state examination scores in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Fabiana Costa; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; Reis, Fernando Fonseca dos; Bonoto, Robson Teixeira; Oliveira, Wederson Candido de; Moura, Tiago Augusto da Silva; Assis, Cláudia Loures de; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-01-01

    In addition to hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, a sedentary lifestyle plays a pivotal role in cerebro- and cardiovascular disease and progressive cognitive decline, including vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The present study investigated whether controlling the key risks and participating in physical activity have a beneficial impact on these disorders. Elderly volunteers were enrolled in a 3-month program that consisted of structured exercise three times per week. The daily routine, medical treatment, and vital parameters were evaluated and correlated with the subjects' neuropsychiatric status. High blood pressure was found in 40% of the participants, with no significant differences between the sexes. A higher proportion of females (55%) than males (18%) forgot to take their medication during the observation period. Significant negative correlations were found between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and age, lack of a caregiver, and increased pulse rate before or after exercise. These results suggest that the presence of home assistance and subsequent improvement in medication compliance, vital parameter optimization, and regular physical activity may yield better MMSE results and a lower risk for cerebro- and cardiovascular disease.

  9. Comparison of contemporary risk scores for predicting outcomes after surgery for active infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Oh, Timothy; Voss, Jamie; Gamble, Greg; Kang, Nicholas; Pemberton, James

    2015-03-01

    Decision making regarding surgery for acute bacterial endocarditis is complex given its heterogeneity and often fatal course. Few studies have investigated the utility of operative risk scores in this setting. Endocarditis-specific scores have recently been developed. We assessed the prognostic utility of contemporary risk scores for mortality and morbidity after endocarditis surgery. Additive and logistic EuroSCORE I, EuroSCORE II, additive Society of Thoracic Surgeon's (STS) Endocarditis Score and additive De Feo-Cotrufo Score were retrospectively calculated for patients undergoing surgery for endocarditis during 2005-2011. Pre-specified primary outcomes were operative mortality, composite morbidity and mortality during follow-up. A total of 146 patients were included with an operative mortality of 6.8 % followed for 4.1 ± 2.4 years. Mean scores were additive EuroSCORE I: 8.0 ± 2.5, logistic EuroSCORE I: 13.2 ± 10.1 %, EuroSCORE II: 9.1 % ± 9.4 %, STS Score: 32.2 ± 13.5 and De Feo-Cotrufo Score: 14.6 ± 9.2. Corresponding areas under curve (AUC) for operative mortality 0.653, 0.645, 0.656, 0.699 and 0.744; for composite morbidity were 0.623, 0.625, 0.720, 0.714 and 0.774; and long-term mortality 0.588, 0.579, 0.686, 0.735 and 0.751. The best tool for post-operative stroke was EuroSCORE II: AUC 0.837; for ventilation >24 h and return to theatre the De Feo-Cotrufo Scores were: AUC 0.821 and 0.712. Pre-operative inotrope or intra-aortic balloon pump treatment, previous coronary bypass grafting and dialysis were independent predictors of operative and long-term mortality. In conclusion, risk models developed specifically from endocarditis surgeries and incorporating endocarditis variables have improved prognostic ability of outcomes, and can play an important role in the decision making towards surgery for endocarditis.

  10. Prognostic value of inflammation-based scores in patients with osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bangjian; Huang, Yujing; Sun, Yuanjue; Zhang, Jianjun; Yao, Yang; Shen, Zan; Xiang, Dongxi; He, Aina

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation responses have been associated with cancer development and progression. C-reactive protein (CRP), Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), and neutrophil-platelet score (NPS) have been shown to be independent risk factors in various types of malignant tumors. This retrospective analysis of 162 osteosarcoma cases was performed to estimate their predictive value of survival in osteosarcoma. All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS statistical software. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was generated to set optimal thresholds; area under the curve (AUC) was used to show the discriminatory abilities of inflammation-based scores; Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to plot the survival curve; cox regression models were employed to determine the independent prognostic factors. The optimal cut-off points of NLR, PLR, and LMR were 2.57, 123.5 and 4.73, respectively. GPS and NLR had a markedly larger AUC than CRP, PLR and LMR. High levels of CRP, GPS, NLR, PLR, and low level of LMR were significantly associated with adverse prognosis (P < 0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that GPS, NLR, and occurrence of metastasis were top risk factors associated with death of osteosarcoma patients. PMID:28008988

  11. Rapid Design of Knowledge-Based Scoring Potentials for Enrichment of Near-Native Geometries in Protein-Protein Docking

    PubMed Central

    Sasse, Alexander; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Schindler, Christina E. M.; de Beauchêne, Isaure Chauvot

    2017-01-01

    Protein-protein docking protocols aim to predict the structures of protein-protein complexes based on the structure of individual partners. Docking protocols usually include several steps of sampling, clustering, refinement and re-scoring. The scoring step is one of the bottlenecks in the performance of many state-of-the-art protocols. The performance of scoring functions depends on the quality of the generated structures and its coupling to the sampling algorithm. A tool kit, GRADSCOPT (GRid Accelerated Directly SCoring OPTimizing), was designed to allow rapid development and optimization of different knowledge-based scoring potentials for specific objectives in protein-protein docking. Different atomistic and coarse-grained potentials can be created by a grid-accelerated directly scoring dependent Monte-Carlo annealing or by a linear regression optimization. We demonstrate that the scoring functions generated by our approach are similar to or even outperform state-of-the-art scoring functions for predicting near-native solutions. Of additional importance, we find that potentials specifically trained to identify the native bound complex perform rather poorly on identifying acceptable or medium quality (near-native) solutions. In contrast, atomistic long-range contact potentials can increase the average fraction of near-native poses by up to a factor 2.5 in the best scored 1% decoys (compared to existing scoring), emphasizing the need of specific docking potentials for different steps in the docking protocol. PMID:28118389

  12. Countries’ Biomedical Publications and Attraction Scores. A PubMed-based assessment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qinyi; Boggio, Andrea; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Studying publication volumes at the country level is key to understanding and improving a country’s research system. PubMed is a public search engine of publications in all life sciences areas. Here, we show how this search engine can be used to assess the outputs of life science-related research by country. We have measured the numbers of publications during different time periods based on the country of affiliation of the first authors. Moreover, we have designed scores, which we have named Attraction Scores, to appraise the relative focus either toward particular types of studies, such as clinical trials or reviews, or toward specific research areas, such as public health and pharmacogenomics, or toward specific topics, for instance embryonic stem cells; we have also investigated a possible use of these Attraction Scores in connection with regulatory policies. We have weighed the statistics against general indicators such as country populations and gross domestic products (GDP). During the 5-year period 2008-2012, the United States was the country with the highest number of publications and Denmark the one with the highest number of publications per capita. Among the 40 countries with the highest GDPs, Israel had the highest publications-to-GDP ratio. Among the 20 countries with the most publications, Japan had the highest Attraction Score for induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and Italy the highest proportion of review publications. More than 50% of publications in English were from countries in which English is not the primary language. We show an assorted and extensive collection of rankings and charts that will inform scholars and policymakers in studying and improving the research systems both at the national and international level. PMID:26401263

  13. Countries' Biomedical Publications and Attraction Scores. A PubMed-based assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinyi; Boggio, Andrea; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Studying publication volumes at the country level is key to understanding and improving a country's research system. PubMed is a public search engine of publications in all life sciences areas. Here, we show how this search engine can be used to assess the outputs of life science-related research by country. We have measured the numbers of publications during different time periods based on the country of affiliation of the first authors. Moreover, we have designed scores, which we have named Attraction Scores, to appraise the relative focus either toward particular types of studies, such as clinical trials or reviews, or toward specific research areas, such as public health and pharmacogenomics, or toward specific topics, for instance embryonic stem cells; we have also investigated a possible use of these Attraction Scores in connection with regulatory policies. We have weighed the statistics against general indicators such as country populations and gross domestic products (GDP). During the 5-year period 2008-2012, the United States was the country with the highest number of publications and Denmark the one with the highest number of publications per capita. Among the 40 countries with the highest GDPs, Israel had the highest publications-to-GDP ratio. Among the 20 countries with the most publications, Japan had the highest Attraction Score for induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and Italy the highest proportion of review publications. More than 50% of publications in English were from countries in which English is not the primary language. We show an assorted and extensive collection of rankings and charts that will inform scholars and policymakers in studying and improving the research systems both at the national and international level.

  14. Evidence-Based Decision about Test Scoring Rules in Clinical Anatomy Multiple-Choice Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severo, Milton; Gaio, A. Rita; Povo, Ana; Silva-Pereira, Fernanda; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2015-01-01

    In theory the formula scoring methods increase the reliability of multiple-choice tests in comparison with number-right scoring. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the formula scoring method in clinical anatomy multiple-choice examinations, and to compare it with that from the number-right scoring method, hoping to achieve an…

  15. Scoring in genetically modified organism proficiency tests based on log-transformed results.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael; Ellison, Stephen L R; Owen, Linda; Mathieson, Kenneth; Powell, Joanne; Key, Pauline; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    The study considers data from 2 UK-based proficiency schemes and includes data from a total of 29 rounds and 43 test materials over a period of 3 years. The results from the 2 schemes are similar and reinforce each other. The amplification process used in quantitative polymerase chain reaction determinations predicts a mixture of normal, binomial, and lognormal distributions dominated by the latter 2. As predicted, the study results consistently follow a positively skewed distribution. Log-transformation prior to calculating z-scores is effective in establishing near-symmetric distributions that are sufficiently close to normal to justify interpretation on the basis of the normal distribution.

  16. Motif-based success scores in coauthorship networks are highly sensitive to author name disambiguation.

    PubMed

    Klosik, David F; Bornholdt, Stefan; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2014-09-01

    Following the work of Krumov et al. [Eur. Phys. J. B 84, 535 (2011)] we revisit the question whether the usage of large citation datasets allows for the quantitative assessment of social (by means of coauthorship of publications) influence on the progression of science. Applying a more comprehensive and well-curated dataset containing the publications in the journals of the American Physical Society during the whole 20th century we find that the measure chosen in the original study, a score based on small induced subgraphs, has to be used with caution, since the obtained results are highly sensitive to the exact implementation of the author disambiguation task.

  17. Is anterior cruciate ligament surgery technique important in rehabilitation and activity scores?

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, Bekir Eray; Kara, Adnan; Celik, Haluk; Oc, Yunus; Camur, Savas

    2016-01-01

    To compare the two different anterior cruciate ligament surgery techniques’ effect in rehabilitation and activity performance. Fifty-five patients were evaluated. Twenty-seven patients with transtibial technique (TT), 28 with anatomic single-bundle technique (AT) included. Tegner Activity Scale (TAS) was performed at preoperation and follow-up. The returning time of the sport and work was evaluated at follow-up. Single-leg hop test was performed at follow-up. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. The determined length difference between the operated knee and the intact knee was compared between the two groups. Average age of TT and AT was 27.9±6.4 yr, 28.3±6 yr, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups in duration of returning to sport. TT group had higher duration to return to sport (P<0.01). No difference between the two groups in duration of returning to work (P>0.05). There was a significant difference between the two groups. TT group had significantly higher values than AT group (P<0.01). No difference in TAS between the two techniques at preoperation and at last follow-up (P>0.05). The increase of TAS in patients who had AT was higher than the patients who had TT (P>0.05). No difference in single-leg hop test at 55%–65%, 65%–75%, and 85%–95% level (P>0.05). In this test at 75%–85% TT group had higher values than AT group (P<0.05), AT group had higher values at 95%–105% level (P<0.05). Good short and long-term knee outcome scores depend on rehabilitation protocol after surgery. Surgery technique should provide the adequate stability in rehabilitation period. AT obtains better outcomes in rehabilitation. PMID:27419120

  18. Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data based on the modified Gleason scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective • To investigate pathological and short-term outcomes since the most recent Gleason system modifications by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) in an attempt to divide the current Gleason grading system into prognostically accurate Gleason grade groups. Patients and Methods • We queried the Johns Hopkins Radical Prostatectomy Database (1982–2011), approved by the institutional review board, for men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) without a tertiary pattern since 2004 and identified 7869 men. • Multivariable models were created using preoperative and postoperative variables; prognostic grade group (Gleason grade ≤6; 3 + 4; 4 + 3; 8; 9–10) was among the strongest predictors of biochemical recurrence-free (BFS) survival. Results • Significant differences were noted among the Gleason grade groups at biopsy; differences were noted in the race, PSA level, clinical stage, number of positive cores at biopsy and the maximum percentage of positive cores among the Gleason grade groups at RP. • With a median (range) follow-up of 2 (1–7) years, 5-year BFS rates for men with Gleason grade ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8 and 9–10 tumours at biopsy were 94.6, 82.7, 65.1, 63.1 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001 for trend); and 96.6, 88.1, 69.7, 63.7 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001), based on RP pathology. Conclusions • The 2005 ISUP modifications to the Gleason grading system for prostate carcinoma accurately categorize patients by pathological findings and short-term biochemical outcomes but, while retaining the essence of the Gleason system, there is a need for a change in its reporting to more closely reflect tumour behaviour. • We propose reporting Gleason grades, including prognostic grade groups which accurately reflect prognosis as follows: Gleason score ≤6 (prognostic grade group I); Gleason score 3+4=7 (prognostic grade group II); Gleason score 4+3=7 (prognostic grade group III); Gleason score 4+4=8 (prognostic grade

  19. Does the APACHE II score predict performance of activities of daily living in patients discharged from a weaning center?

    PubMed Central

    Rojek-Jarmuła, Anna; Hombach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Data regarding the functional status of patients after prolonged mechanical ventilation are scarce, and little is known about its clinical predictors. Aim To investigate whether the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score on admission may predict performance in activities of daily living on discharge from a weaning center. Material and methods All consecutive patients admitted between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 were enrolled (n = 130). During this period, 15 subjects died, and 115 were successfully discharged (34 women; 81 men). APACHE II was calculated based on the worst values taken during the first 24 hours after admission. On discharge, the Barthel Index (BI) and its extended version, the Early Rehabilitation Barthel Index (ERBI), were assessed. Results Median BI was 20 points (IQR 5; 40), and ERBI was 20 points (–50; 40). There was no correlation between APACHE II and either BI (R = –0.07; p = 0.47) or ERBI (R = –0.07; p = 0.44). APACHE II predicted the need for assistance with bathing (AUROC = 0.833; p < 0.001), grooming (AUROC = 0.823; p < 0.001), toilet use (AUROC = 0.887; p < 0.001), and urination (AUROC = 0.658; p = 0.04). APACHE II had no impact on any ERBI items associated with ventilator weaning, including the need of further mechanical ventilation (AUROC = 0.534; p = 0.65) or tracheostomy (AUROC = 0.544; p = 0.42). Conclusions Although APACHE II cannot predict the overall functional status in patients discharged from a weaning center, it helps identify subjects who will need support with bathing, grooming, and toilet use. The APACHE II score is inadequate to predict performance in activities associated with further respiratory support. PMID:28096834

  20. Alternative Methods to Curriculum-Based Measurement for Written Expression: Implications for Reliability and Validity of the Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrigan, Teresa E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of alternative approaches to administering and scoring curriculum-based measurement for written expression. Specifically, three response durations (3, 5, and 7 minutes) and six score types (total words written, words spelled correctly, percent of words spelled correctly,…

  1. Team-based learning on a third-year pediatric clerkship improves NBME subject exam blood disorder scores.

    PubMed

    Saudek, Kris; Treat, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose At our institution, speculation amongst medical students and faculty exists as to whether team-based learning (TBL) can improve scores on high-stakes examinations over traditional didactic lectures. Faculty with experience using TBL developed and piloted a required TBL blood disorders (BD) module for third-year medical students on their pediatric clerkship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the BD scores from the NBME subject exams before and after the introduction of the module. Methods We analyzed institutional and national item difficulties for BD items from the NBME pediatrics content area item analysis reports from 2011 to 2014 before (pre) and after (post) the pilot (October 2012). Total scores of 590 NBME subject examination students from examinee performance profiles were analyzed pre/post. t-Tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze item difficulties for institutional versus national scores and pre/post comparisons of item difficulties and total scores. Results BD scores for our institution were 0.65 (±0.19) compared to 0.62 (±0.15) nationally (P=0.346; Cohen's d=0.15). The average of post-consecutive BD scores for our students was 0.70(±0.21) compared to examinees nationally [0.64 (±0.15)] with a significant mean difference (P=0.031; Cohen's d=0.43). The difference in our institutions pre [0.65 (±0.19)] and post [0.70 (±0.21)] BD scores trended higher (P=0.391; Cohen's d=0.27). Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above national norms. Conclusions Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above national

  2. Combining propensity score matching and group-based trajectory analysis in an observational study.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Amelia; Nagin, Daniel S; Rosenbaum, Paul R

    2007-09-01

    In a nonrandomized or observational study, propensity scores may be used to balance observed covariates and trajectory groups may be used to control baseline or pretreatment measures of outcome. The trajectory groups also aid in characterizing classes of subjects for whom no good matches are available and to define substantively interesting groups between which treatment effects may vary. These and related methods are illustrated using data from a Montreal-based study. The effects on subsequent violence of gang joining at age 14 are studied while controlling for measured characteristics of boys prior to age 14. The boys are divided into trajectory groups based on violence from ages 11 to 13. Within trajectory group, joiners are optimally matched to a variable number of controls using propensity scores, Mahalanobis distances, and a combinatorial optimization algorithm. Use of variable ratio matching results in greater efficiency than pair matching and also greater bias reduction than matching at a fixed ratio. The possible impact of failing to adjust for an important but unmeasured covariate is examined using sensitivity analysis.

  3. Development and Application of a Plant-Based Diet Scoring System for Japanese Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Nakane, Kunio; Takayama, Yuko; Sugawara, Kae; Ohno, Hideo; Ishii, Hajime; Tsuda, Satoko; Tsuji, Tsuyotoshi; Komatsu, Masafumi; Sugawara, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Context Plant-based diets (PBDs) are a healthy alternative to westernized diets. A semivegetarian diet, a PBD, has been shown to prevent a relapse in Crohn disease. However, there is no way to measure adherence to PBDs. Objective To develop a simple way of evaluating adherence to a PBD for Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Design PBD scores were assigned according to the frequency of consumption provided on a food-frequency questionnaire, obtained on hospitalization for 159 patients with ulcerative colitis and 70 patients with Crohn disease. Eight items considered to be preventive factors for IBD were scored positively, and 8 items considered to be IBD risk factors were scored negatively. The PBD score was calculated from the sum of plus and minus scores. Higher PBD scores indicated greater adherence to a PBD. The PBD scores were evaluated on hospitalization and 2 years after discharge for 22 patients with Crohn disease whose dietary pattern and prognosis were established. Main Outcome Measure Plant-Based Diet score. Results The PBD scores differed significantly, in descending order, by dietary type: pro-Japanese diet, mixed type, and pro-westernized diet (Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis test). The PBD scores in the ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease groups were 10.9 ± 9.5 and 8.2 ± 8.2, respectively. For patients with Crohn disease, those with long-term remission and normal C-reactive protein concentration were significantly more likely to have PBD scores of 25 or greater than below 25 (χ2). Conclusion The PBD score is a valid assessment of PBD dietary adherence. PMID:27768566

  4. Assessing the Quality of Mobile Exercise Apps Based on the American College of Sports Medicine Guidelines: A Reliable and Valid Scoring Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Jiang; Leavitt, Trevor; Vincent, Heather K; Vander Zalm, Lindsey; Teurlings, Tyler L; Smith, Megan D

    2017-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity can not only help with weight management, but also lower cardiovascular risks, cancer rates, and chronic disease burden. Yet, only approximately 20% of Americans currently meet the physical activity guidelines recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services. With the rapid development of mobile technologies, mobile apps have the potential to improve participation rates in exercise programs, particularly if they are evidence-based and are of sufficient content quality. Objective The goal of this study was to develop and test an instrument, which was designed to score the content quality of exercise program apps with respect to the exercise guidelines set forth by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Methods We conducted two focus groups (N=14) to elicit input for developing a preliminary 27-item scoring instruments based on the ACSM exercise prescription guidelines. Three reviewers who were no sports medicine experts independently scored 28 exercise program apps using the instrument. Inter- and intra-rater reliability was assessed among the 3 reviewers. An expert reviewer, a Fellow of the ACSM, also scored the 28 apps to create criterion scores. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing nonexpert reviewers’ scores to the criterion scores. Results Overall, inter- and intra-rater reliability was high with most coefficients being greater than .7. Inter-rater reliability coefficients ranged from .59 to .99, and intra-rater reliability coefficients ranged from .47 to 1.00. All reliability coefficients were statistically significant. Criterion validity was found to be excellent, with the weighted kappa statistics ranging from .67 to .99, indicating a substantial agreement between the scores of expert and nonexpert reviewers. Finally, all apps scored poorly against the ACSM exercise prescription guidelines. None of the apps received a score greater than 35, out of a possible maximal score of 70. Conclusions

  5. Skin cells segmentation algorithm based on spectral angle and distance score

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingli; Chang, Li; Liu, Hongying; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-11-01

    In the diagnosis of skin diseases by analyzing histopathological images of skin sections, the automated segmentation of cells in the epidermis area is an important step. Light microscopy based traditional methods usually cannot generate satisfying segmentation results due to complicated skin structures and limited information of this kind of image. In this study, we use a molecular hyperspectral imaging system to observe skin sections and propose a spectral based algorithm to segment epithelial cells. Unlike pixel-wise segmentation methods, the proposed algorithm considers both the spectral angle and the distance score between the test and the reference spectrum for segmentation. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm performs better than the K-Means, fuzzy C-means, and spectral angle mapper algorithms because it can identify pixels with similar spectral angle but a different spectral distance.

  6. A Validity-Based Approach to Quality Control and Assurance of Automated Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bejar, Isaac I.

    2011-01-01

    Automated scoring of constructed responses is already operational in several testing programmes. However, as the methodology matures and the demand for the utilisation of constructed responses increases, the volume of automated scoring is likely to increase at a fast pace. Quality assurance and control of the scoring process will likely be more…

  7. Fusion of Scores in a Detection Context Based on Alpha Integration.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Antonio; Vergara, Luis; Ahmed, Bouziane; Salazar, Addisson

    2015-09-01

    We present a new method for fusing scores corresponding to different detectors (two-hypotheses case). It is based on alpha integration, which we have adapted to the detection context. Three optimization methods are presented: least mean square error, maximization of the area under the ROC curve, and minimization of the probability of error. Gradient algorithms are proposed for the three methods. Different experiments with simulated and real data are included. Simulated data consider the two-detector case to illustrate the factors influencing alpha integration and demonstrate the improvements obtained by score fusion with respect to individual detector performance. Two real data cases have been considered. In the first, multimodal biometric data have been processed. This case is representative of scenarios in which the probability of detection is to be maximized for a given probability of false alarm. The second case is the automatic analysis of electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram records with the aim of reproducing the medical expert detections of arousal during sleeping. This case is representative of scenarios in which probability of error is to be minimized. The general superior performance of alpha integration verifies the interest of optimizing the fusing parameters.

  8. Development of a claims-based risk score to identify obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jeanne M; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Bolen, Shari D; Shore, Andrew D; Goodwin, Suzanne M; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2010-08-01

    Obesity is underdiagnosed, hampering system-based health promotion and research. Our objective was to develop and validate a claims-based risk model to identify obese persons using medical diagnosis and prescription records. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of de-identified claims data from enrollees of 3 Blue Cross Blue Shield plans who completed a health risk assessment capturing height and weight. The final sample of 71,057 enrollees was randomly split into 2 subsamples for development and validation of the obesity risk model. Using the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups case-mix/predictive risk methodology, we categorized study members' diagnosis (ICD) codes. Logistic regression was used to determine which claims-based risk markers were associated with a body mass index (BMI) > or = 35 kg/m(2). The sensitivities of the scores > or =90(th) percentile to detect obesity were 26% to 33%, while the specificities were >90%. The areas under the receiver operator curve ranged from 0.67 to 0.73. In contrast, a diagnosis of obesity or an obesity medication alone had very poor sensitivity (10% and 1%, respectively); the obesity risk model identified an additional 22% of obese members. Varying the percentile cut-point from the 70(th) to the 99(th) percentile resulted in positive predictive values ranging from 15.5 to 59.2. An obesity risk score was highly specific for detecting a BMI > or = 35 kg/m(2) and substantially increased the detection of obese members beyond a provider-coded obesity diagnosis or medication claim. This model could be used for obesity care management and health promotion or for obesity-related research.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Scores on the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scales in a Sample of Norwegian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornebekk, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the scores on a version for children of the Carver and White Behavioral Inhibition and Activation scales (the BIS-BAS scales). This involved administering the BIS-BAS scales, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire…

  10. Correlation Between An Email Based Board Review Program and American Board of Pediatrics General Pediatrics Certifying Examination Scores

    PubMed Central

    Langenau, Erik E.; Fogel, Joshua; Schaeffer, Henry A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of a weekly email based board review course on individual resident performance on the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) General Pediatrics Certifying Examination for pediatric residents and, specifically, residents with low ABP In-training Examination (ITE) scores. Methods Weekly board-type questions were emailed to all pediatric residents from 2004–2007. Responses to board-type questions were tracked, recorded, and correlated with ITE scores and ABP General Pediatrics Certifying Examination Scores. Results With regard to total number of questions answered, only total number of questions answered correctly had a significant positive correlation with standard board scores (n = 71, r = 0.24, p = 0.047). For “at risk” residents with ITE scores ≤ 200 (n = 21), number of questions answered in PL 3 year (r = 0.51, p = 0.018) and number of questions answered correctly for all PL years (r = 0.59, p = 0.005) had significant positive correlations with standard board scores. Conclusions Participating regularly in the email-based board review course, answering board style questions, and answering correctly to board style questions were associated with higher standard board scores. This benefit existed for all but was especially prominent among those with poor in-training examination scores. PMID:20101279

  11. Standardized reporting of resection technique during nephron-sparing surgery: the surface-intermediate-base margin score.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Andrea; Carini, Marco; Uzzo, Robert G; Campi, Riccardo; Smaldone, Marc C; Kutikov, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    A standardized reporting system of nephron-sparing surgery resection techniques is lacking. The surface-intermediate-base scoring system represents a formal reporting instrument to assist in interpretation of reported data and to facilitate comparisons in the urologic literature.

  12. Handedness and behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system (BIS/BAS) scores: A replication and extension of Wright, Hardie, and Wilson (2009).

    PubMed

    Beaton, Alan A; Kaack, Imogen H; Corr, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ) as modified by Briggs and Nebes was administered along with Carver and White's behavioural inhibition system (BIS) and behavioural activation system (BAS) scale and a shortened form of the Big Five personality questionnaire to 92 university students. After eliminating the data from five respondents who reported having changed handedness and one outlier, there was a significant sex difference in mean BIS scores, with females (n = 43) scoring higher than males (n = 43). Replicating the results of Wright, Hardie and Wilson, non-right-handers (n = 36) had significantly higher mean BIS score than right-handers (n = 50). Controlling for sex of participant, neuroticism and BAS sub-scale scores in hierarchical regression analyses left this BIS effect substantially unaffected. There was no handedness or sex difference on any of the three BAS sub-scales. Further analyses revealed no association between strength, as distinct from direction, of handedness and BIS (or BAS) scores. The findings are discussed with reference to recent developments in reinforcement sensitivity theory on which BIS/BAS variables are based.

  13. A Multiple Model SNR/RCS Likelihood Ratio Score for Radar-Based Feature-Aided Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    A Multiple Model SNR /RCS Likelihood Ratio Score for Radar-Based Feature-Aided Tracking Benjamin J. Slocumb and Michael E. Klusman, III Numerica...based on statistical models for the signal-to-noise ( SNR ) and radar cross section (RCS) for use in narrowband radar tracking. The formulation requires...features ( SNR and RCS measurements from a narrowband radar) for augmenting the track score used in the data association problem. There are two main

  14. Can Contemporary Patients with Biopsy Gleason Score 3+4 Be Eligible for Active Surveillance?

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ohseong; Kim, Tae Jin; Lee, In Jae; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Hong, Sung Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We analyzed whether expansion of existing active surveillance (AS) protocols to include men with biopsy Gleason score (GS) 3+4 prostate cancer (PCa) would significantly alter pathologic and biochemical outcomes of potential candidates of AS. Methods Among patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at our center between 2006 and 2013, we identified 577 patients (group A) who preoperatively fulfilled at least one of 6 different AS criteria. Also, we identified 217 patients (group B) with biopsy GS 3+4 but fulfilled non-GS criteria from at least one of 6 AS criteria. Designating group C as expanded group incorporating all patients in group A and B, we compared risk of unfavorable disease (pathologic GS ≥4+3 and/or pathologic T stage ≥pT3a) and biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival between groups. Results Rates of unfavorable disease were not significantly different between patients of group A and C who met AS criteria from 5 institutions (all p>0.05), not including University of Toronto (p<0.001). Also BCR-free survivals were not significantly different between patients in group A and C meeting each of 6 AS criteria (all p>0.05). Among group B, PSAD>0.15 ng/mL/cm3 (p = 0.011) and tumor length of biopsy GS 3+4 core>4 mm (p = 0.007) were significant predictors of unfavorable disease. When these two criteria were newly applied in defining group B, rates of unfavorable disease in group A and B was 15.6% and 14.7%, respectively (p = 0.886). Conclusion Overall rate of pathologically aggressive PCa harbored by potential candidates for AS may not be increased significantly with expansion of criteria to biopsy GS 3+4 under most contemporary AS protocols. PSAD and tumor length of biopsy GS 3+4 core may be useful predictors of more aggressive disease among potential candidates for AS with biopsy GS 3+4. PMID:25268898

  15. The Relationship Between Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program Scores and Hospital Bond Ratings.

    PubMed

    Rangnekar, Anooja; Johnson, Tricia; Garman, Andrew; O'Neil, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Tax-exempt hospitals and health systems often borrow long-term debt to fund capital investments. Lenders use bond ratings as a standard metric to assess whether to lend funds to a hospital. Credit rating agencies have historically relied on financial performance measures and a hospital's ability to service debt obligations to determine bond ratings. With the growth in pay-for-performance-based reimbursement models, rating agencies are expanding their hospital bond rating criteria to include hospital utilization and value-based purchasing (VBP) measures. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the Hospital VBP domains--Clinical Process of Care, Patient Experience of Care, Outcome, and Medicare Spending per Beneficiary (MSPB)--and hospital bond ratings. Given the historical focus on financial performance, we hypothesized that hospital bond ratings are not associated with any of the Hospital VBP domains. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of all hospitals that were rated by Moody's for fiscal year 2012 and participated in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' VBP program as of January 2014 (N = 285). Of the 285 hospitals in the study, 15% had been assigned a bond rating of Aa, and 46% had been assigned an A rating. Using a binary logistic regression model, we found an association between MSPB only and bond ratings, after controlling for other VBP and financial performance scores; however, MSPB did not improve the overall predictive accuracy of the model. Inclusion of VBP scores in the methodology used to determine hospital bond ratings is likely to affect hospital bond ratings in the near term.

  16. A robust background regression based score estimation algorithm for hyperspectral anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rui; Du, Bo; Zhang, Liangpei; Zhang, Lefei

    2016-12-01

    Anomaly detection has become a hot topic in the hyperspectral image analysis and processing fields in recent years. The most important issue for hyperspectral anomaly detection is the background estimation and suppression. Unreasonable or non-robust background estimation usually leads to unsatisfactory anomaly detection results. Furthermore, the inherent nonlinearity of hyperspectral images may cover up the intrinsic data structure in the anomaly detection. In order to implement robust background estimation, as well as to explore the intrinsic data structure of the hyperspectral image, we propose a robust background regression based score estimation algorithm (RBRSE) for hyperspectral anomaly detection. The Robust Background Regression (RBR) is actually a label assignment procedure which segments the hyperspectral data into a robust background dataset and a potential anomaly dataset with an intersection boundary. In the RBR, a kernel expansion technique, which explores the nonlinear structure of the hyperspectral data in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space, is utilized to formulate the data as a density feature representation. A minimum squared loss relationship is constructed between the data density feature and the corresponding assigned labels of the hyperspectral data, to formulate the foundation of the regression. Furthermore, a manifold regularization term which explores the manifold smoothness of the hyperspectral data, and a maximization term of the robust background average density, which suppresses the bias caused by the potential anomalies, are jointly appended in the RBR procedure. After this, a paired-dataset based k-nn score estimation method is undertaken on the robust background and potential anomaly datasets, to implement the detection output. The experimental results show that RBRSE achieves superior ROC curves, AUC values, and background-anomaly separation than some of the other state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, and is easy to implement

  17. CAD-score: a new contact area difference-based function for evaluation of protein structural models.

    PubMed

    Olechnovič, Kliment; Kulberkytė, Eleonora; Venclovas, Ceslovas

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of protein models against the native structure is essential for the development and benchmarking of protein structure prediction methods. Although a number of evaluation scores have been proposed to date, many aspects of model assessment still lack desired robustness. In this study we present CAD-score, a new evaluation function quantifying differences between physical contacts in a model and the reference structure. The new score uses the concept of residue-residue contact area difference (CAD) introduced by Abagyan and Totrov (J Mol Biol 1997; 268:678-685). Contact areas, the underlying basis of the score, are derived using the Voronoi tessellation of protein structure. The newly introduced CAD-score is a continuous function, confined within fixed limits, free of any arbitrary thresholds or parameters. The built-in logic for treatment of missing residues allows consistent ranking of models of any degree of completeness. We tested CAD-score on a large set of diverse models and compared it to GDT-TS, a widely accepted measure of model accuracy. Similarly to GDT-TS, CAD-score showed a robust performance on single-domain proteins, but displayed a stronger preference for physically more realistic models. Unlike GDT-TS, the new score revealed a balanced assessment of domain rearrangement, removing the necessity for different treatment of single-domain, multi-domain, and multi-subunit structures. Moreover, CAD-score makes it possible to assess the accuracy of inter-domain or inter-subunit interfaces directly. In addition, the approach offers an alternative to the superposition-based model clustering. The CAD-score implementation is available both as a web server and a standalone software package at http://www.ibt.lt/bioinformatics/cad-score/.

  18. Recalibration of the ACC/AHA Risk Score in Two Population-Based German Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras Gala, Tonia; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Baumert, Jens; Lehmann, Nils; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Erbel, Raimund; Meisinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background The 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines introduced an algorithm for risk assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) within 10 years. In Germany, risk assessment with the ESC SCORE is limited to cardiovascular mortality. Applicability of the novel ACC/AHA risk score to the German population has not yet been assessed. We therefore sought to recalibrate and evaluate the ACC/AHA risk score in two German cohorts and to compare it to the ESC SCORE. Methods We studied 5,238 participants from the KORA surveys S3 (1994–1995) and S4 (1999–2001) and 4,208 subjects from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study (2000–2003). There were 383 (7.3%) and 271 (6.4%) first non-fatal or fatal ASCVD events within 10 years in KORA and in HNR, respectively. Risk scores were evaluated in terms of calibration and discrimination performance. Results The original ACC/AHA risk score overestimated 10-year ASCVD rates by 37% in KORA and 66% in HNR. After recalibration, miscalibration diminished to 8% underestimation in KORA and 12% overestimation in HNR. Discrimination performance of the ACC/AHA risk score was not affected by the recalibration (KORA: C = 0.78, HNR: C = 0.74). The ESC SCORE overestimated by 5% in KORA and by 85% in HNR. The corresponding C-statistic was 0.82 in KORA and 0.76 in HNR. Conclusions The recalibrated ACC/AHA risk score showed strongly improved calibration compared to the original ACC/AHA risk score. Predicting only cardiovascular mortality, discrimination performance of the commonly used ESC SCORE remained somewhat superior to the ACC/AHA risk score. Nevertheless, the recalibrated ACC/AHA risk score may provide a meaningful tool for estimating 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease in Germany. PMID:27732641

  19. Apgar Scores

    MedlinePlus

    ... because she is blue and not pink. Most newborn infants have Apgar scores greater than 7. Because their ... between 8 and 10. A small percentage of newborns have Apgar scores of less than ... low scores than infants with normal births. These scores may reflect difficulties ...

  20. Poisson Approximation-Based Score Test for Detecting Association of Rare Variants.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hongyan; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has achieved great success in identifying genetic variants, but the nature of GWAS has determined its inherent limitations. Under the common disease rare variants (CDRV) hypothesis, the traditional association analysis methods commonly used in GWAS for common variants do not have enough power for detecting rare variants with a limited sample size. As a solution to this problem, pooling rare variants by their functions provides an efficient way for identifying susceptible genes. Rare variant typically have low frequencies of minor alleles, and the distribution of the total number of minor alleles of the rare variants can be approximated by a Poisson distribution. Based on this fact, we propose a new test method, the Poisson Approximation-based Score Test (PAST), for association analysis of rare variants. Two testing methods, namely, ePAST and mPAST, are proposed based on different strategies of pooling rare variants. Simulation results and application to the CRESCENDO cohort data show that our methods are more powerful than the existing methods.

  1. Novel Inflammation-Based Prognostic Score for Predicting Survival in Patients with Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yu-Li; Hsieh, Meng-Che; Chiang, Po-Hui; Sung, Ming-Tse; Lan, Jui; Luo, Hao-Lun; Huang, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Tang, Yeh; Rau, Kun-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We developed a novel inflammation-based model (NPS), which consisted of a neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet count (PC), for assessing the prognostic role in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with metastatic UC who underwent systemic chemotherapy between January 1997 and December 2014 in Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The defined cutoff values for the NLR and PC were 3.0 and 400 × 103/μL, respectively. Patients were scored 1 for either an elevated NLR or PC, and 0 otherwise. The NPS was calculated by summing the scores, ranging from 0 to 2. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) by using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify the independent prognostic factors for OS. Results In total, 256 metastatic UC patients were enrolled. Univariate analysis revealed that patients with either a high NLR or PC had a significantly shorter survival rate compared with those with a low NLR (P = .001) or PC (P < .0001). The median OS in patients with NPS 0, 1, and 2 was 19.0, 12.8, and 9.3 months, respectively (P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that NPS, along with the histologic variant, liver metastasis, age, and white cell count, was an independent factor facilitating OS prediction (hazard ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.20–2.24, P = .002). Conclusion The NLR and PC are independent prognostic factors for OS in patients with metastatic UC. The NPS model has excellent discriminant ability for OS. PMID:28076369

  2. The Norberg angle is not an accurate predictor of canine hip conformation based on the distraction index and the dorsolateral subluxation score.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Ana R; Hayes, Galina; Ginja, Catarina; Ginja, Mário M; Todhunter, Rory J

    2016-12-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a common complex trait characterized by abnormal hip joint development. Hip joint laxity, an early characteristic of CHD, results in degeneration of the joint due to mechanical trauma, which is a clinical problem mostly in medium to large breed dogs. Clinical signs include pain, decreased activity and lameness. A retrospective, multi-center, cross sectional study of 437 dogs was performed to determine if a Norberg angle (NA) ≥105° accurately predicts a non-dysplastic hip based on a distraction index (DI) cut-off of ≤0.3 or a dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) score cut-off of ≥55%. The predictive capacity of the NA against a DI ≤0.3 or a DLS score ≥55% was assessed using area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The ROC curve of NA for the prediction of a DI ≤0.3 was 0.59 (95% CI=0.50-0.69) and for the prediction of DLS score ≥55% was 0.69 (95% CI=0.63-0.75). Optimizing the specificity of the NA to ≥80% for prediction of a DI ≤0.3 and a DLS score ≥55% gave a cut-point for the NA of ≥112° and 108.7°, respectively. In conclusion, at the cut-point of 105°, the NA is not an accurate measurement to score normal or abnormal hips, based on the DI or DLS score. Application of screening methods for CHD based on hip laxity, such as the DI or the DLS score, would help to remove additional dysplastic dogs from the breeding pool or the NA criterion should be higher when selecting unaffected dogs for breeding.

  3. Monitoring scale scores over time via quality control charts, model-based approaches, and time series techniques.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; von Davier, Alina A

    2013-07-01

    Maintaining a stable score scale over time is critical for all standardized educational assessments. Traditional quality control tools and approaches for assessing scale drift either require special equating designs, or may be too time-consuming to be considered on a regular basis with an operational test that has a short time window between an administration and its score reporting. Thus, the traditional methods are not sufficient to catch unusual testing outcomes in a timely manner. This paper presents a new approach for score monitoring and assessment of scale drift. It involves quality control charts, model-based approaches, and time series techniques to accommodate the following needs of monitoring scale scores: continuous monitoring, adjustment of customary variations, identification of abrupt shifts, and assessment of autocorrelation. Performance of the methodologies is evaluated using manipulated data based on real responses from 71 administrations of a large-scale high-stakes language assessment.

  4. Rapid activity prediction of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors: harnessing docking energetic components for empirical scoring by chemometric and artificial neural network approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangsunan, Patcharapong; Kittiwachana, Sila; Meepowpan, Puttinan; Kungwan, Nawee; Prangkio, Panchika; Hannongbua, Supa; Suree, Nuttee

    2016-06-01

    Improving performance of scoring functions for drug docking simulations is a challenging task in the modern discovery pipeline. Among various ways to enhance the efficiency of scoring function, tuning of energetic component approach is an attractive option that provides better predictions. Herein we present the first development of rapid and simple tuning models for predicting and scoring inhibitory activity of investigated ligands docked into catalytic core domain structures of HIV-1 integrase (IN) enzyme. We developed the models using all energetic terms obtained from flexible ligand-rigid receptor dockings by AutoDock4, followed by a data analysis using either partial least squares (PLS) or self-organizing maps (SOMs). The models were established using 66 and 64 ligands of mercaptobenzenesulfonamides for the PLS-based and the SOMs-based inhibitory activity predictions, respectively. The models were then evaluated for their predictability quality using closely related test compounds, as well as five different unrelated inhibitor test sets. Weighting constants for each energy term were also optimized, thus customizing the scoring function for this specific target protein. Root-mean-square error (RMSE) values between the predicted and the experimental inhibitory activities were determined to be <1 (i.e. within a magnitude of a single log scale of actual IC50 values). Hence, we propose that, as a pre-functional assay screening step, AutoDock4 docking in combination with these subsequent rapid weighted energy tuning methods via PLS and SOMs analyses is a viable approach to predict the potential inhibitory activity and to discriminate among small drug-like molecules to target a specific protein of interest.

  5. Speed-Accuracy Response Models: Scoring Rules Based on Response Time and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; van der Maas, Han

    2012-01-01

    Starting from an explicit scoring rule for time limit tasks incorporating both response time and accuracy, and a definite trade-off between speed and accuracy, a response model is derived. Since the scoring rule is interpreted as a sufficient statistic, the model belongs to the exponential family. The various marginal and conditional distributions…

  6. A new explained-variance based genetic risk score for predictive modeling of disease risk.

    PubMed

    Che, Ronglin; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A

    2012-09-25

    The goal of association mapping is to identify genetic variants that predict disease, and as the field of human genetics matures, the number of successful association studies is increasing. Many such studies have shown that for many diseases, risk is explained by a reasonably large number of variants that each explains a very small amount of disease risk. This is prompting the use of genetic risk scores in building predictive models, where information across several variants is combined for predictive modeling. In the current study, we compare the performance of four previously proposed genetic risk score methods and present a new method for constructing genetic risk score that incorporates explained variance information. The methods compared include: a simple count Genetic Risk Score, an odds ratio weighted Genetic Risk Score, a direct logistic regression Genetic Risk Score, a polygenic Genetic Risk Score, and the new explained variance weighted Genetic Risk Score. We compare the methods using a wide range of simulations in two steps, with a range of the number of deleterious single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explaining disease risk, genetic modes, baseline penetrances, sample sizes, relative risks (RR) and minor allele frequencies (MAF). Several measures of model performance were compared including overall power, C-statistic and Akaike's Information Criterion. Our results show the relative performance of methods differs significantly, with the new explained variance weighted GRS (EV-GRS) generally performing favorably to the other methods.

  7. Walk Score®

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028

  8. Multi-Component Protein - Protein Docking Based Protocol with External Scoring for Modeling Dimers of G Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Guixà-González, Ramon; Carrió, Pau; Poso, Antti; Dove, Stefan; Pastor, Manuel; Selent, Jana

    2015-04-01

    In order to apply structure-based drug design techniques to GPCR complexes, it is essential to model their 3D structure. For this purpose, a multi-component protocol was derived based on protein-protein docking which generates populations of dimers compatible with membrane integration, considering all reasonable interfaces. At the next stage, we applied a scoring procedure based on up to eleven different parameters including shape or electrostatics complementarity. Two methods of consensus scoring were performed: (i) average scores of 100 best scored dimers with respect to each interface, and (ii) frequencies of interfaces among 100 best scored dimers. In general, our multi-component protocol gives correct indications for dimer interfaces that have been observed in X-ray crystal structures of GPCR dimers (opsin dimer, chemokine CXCR4 and CCR5 dimers, κ opioid receptor dimer, β1 adrenergic receptor dimer and smoothened receptor dimer) but also suggests alternative dimerization interfaces. Interestingly, at times these alternative interfaces are scored higher than the experimentally observed ones suggesting them to be also relevant in the life cycle of studied GPCR dimers. Further results indicate that GPCR dimer and higher-order oligomer formation may involve transmembrane helices (TMs) TM1-TM2-TM7, TM3-TM4-TM5 or TM4-TM5-TM6 but not TM1-TM2-TM3 or TM2-TM3-TM4 which is in general agreement with available experimental and computational data.

  9. Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS)-Italian version: regression based norms and equivalent scores.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Mattia; Trojano, Luigi; Trojsi, Francesca; Greco, Roberta; Santoro, Manuela; Basile, Giuseppe; Piscopo, Fausta; D'Iorio, Alfonsina; Patrone, Manila; Femiano, Cinzia; Monsurrò, Mariarosaria; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2017-03-22

    Cognitive assessment for individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) can be difficult because of frequent occurrence of difficulties with speech, writing, and drawing. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) is a recent multi-domain neuropsychological screening tool specifically devised for this purpose, and it assesses the following domains: executive functions, social cognition, verbal fluency and language (ALS-specific), but also memory and visuospatial abilities (Non-ALS specific). ECAS total score ranges from 0 (worst performance) to 136 (best performance). Moreover, a brief caregiver interview provides an assessment of behaviour changes and psychotic symptoms usually associated with ALS patients. The aim of the present study was to provide normative values for ECAS total score and sub-scores in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Two hundred and seventy-seven Italian healthy subjects (151 women and 126 men; age range 30-79 years; educational level from primary school to university) underwent ECAS and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ECAS total score and sub-scale scores. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-off scores were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between adjusted ECAS total scores with adjusted MoCA total scores (r rho = 0.669, p < 0.0001). The present study provided normative data for the ECAS in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  10. Comparison of models to identify lame cows based on gait and lesion scores, and limb movement variables.

    PubMed

    Rajkondawar, P G; Liu, M; Dyer, R M; Neerchal, N K; Tasch, U; Lefcourt, A M; Erez, B; Varner, M A

    2006-11-01

    Bovine lameness results in pain and suffering in cattle and economic loss for producers. A system for automatically detecting lame cows was developed recently that measures vertical force components attributable to individual limbs. These measurements can be used to calculate a number of limb movement variables. The objective of this investigation was to explore whether gait scores, lesion scores, or combined gait and lesion scores were more effectively captured by a set of 5 limb movement variables. A set of 700 hind limb examinations was used to create gait-based, lesion-based, and combined (gait- and lesion-based) models. Logistic regression models were constructed using 1, 2, or 3 d of measurements. Resulting models were tested on cows not used in modeling. The accuracy of lesion-score models was superior to that of gait-score models; lesion-based models generated greater values of areas under the receiving operating characteristic curves (range 0.75 to 0.84) and lower mean-squared errors (0.13 to 0.16) compared with corresponding values for the gait-based models (0.63 to 0.73 and 0.26 to 0.31 for receiving operating characteristic and mean-squared errors, respectively). These results indicate that further model development and investigation could generate automated and objective methods of lameness detection in dairy cattle.

  11. Machine-learning scoring functions to improve structure-based binding affinity prediction and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Ain, Qurrat Ul; Aleksandrova, Antoniya; Roessler, Florian D; Ballester, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Docking tools to predict whether and how a small molecule binds to a target can be applied if a structural model of such target is available. The reliability of docking depends, however, on the accuracy of the adopted scoring function (SF). Despite intense research over the years, improving the accuracy of SFs for structure-based binding affinity prediction or virtual screening has proven to be a challenging task for any class of method. New SFs based on modern machine-learning regression models, which do not impose a predetermined functional form and thus are able to exploit effectively much larger amounts of experimental data, have recently been introduced. These machine-learning SFs have been shown to outperform a wide range of classical SFs at both binding affinity prediction and virtual screening. The emerging picture from these studies is that the classical approach of using linear regression with a small number of expert-selected structural features can be strongly improved by a machine-learning approach based on nonlinear regression allied with comprehensive data-driven feature selection. Furthermore, the performance of classical SFs does not grow with larger training datasets and hence this performance gap is expected to widen as more training data becomes available in the future. Other topics covered in this review include predicting the reliability of a SF on a particular target class, generating synthetic data to improve predictive performance and modeling guidelines for SF development. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2015, 5:405-424. doi: 10.1002/wcms.1225 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  12. An acoustic feature-based similarity scoring system for speech rehabilitation assistance.

    PubMed

    Syauqy, Dahnial; Wu, Chao-Min; Setyawati, Onny

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which focused on automatic scoring based on the comparison of the patient's speech with another normal speech on several aspects including pitch, vowel, voiced-unvoiced segments, strident fricative and sound intensity. The pitch estimation employed the use of cepstrum-based algorithm for its robustness; the vowel classification used multilayer perceptron (MLP) to classify vowel from pitch and formants; and the strident fricative detection was based on the major peak spectral intensity, location and the pitch existence in the segment. In order to evaluate the performance of the system, this study analyzed eight patient's speech recordings (four males, four females; 4-58-years-old), which had been recorded in previous study in cooperation with Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Taoyuan General Hospital. The experiment result on pitch algorithm showed that the cepstrum method had 5.3% of gross pitch error from a total of 2086 frames. On the vowel classification algorithm, MLP method provided 93% accuracy (men), 87% (women) and 84% (children). In total, the overall results showed that 156 tool's grading results (81%) were consistent compared to 192 audio and visual observations done by four experienced respondents. Implication for Rehabilitation Difficulties in communication may limit the ability of a person to transfer and exchange information. The fact that speech is one of the primary means of communication has encouraged the needs of speech diagnosis and rehabilitation. The advances of technology in computer-assisted speech therapy (CAST) improve the quality, time efficiency of the diagnosis and treatment of the disorders. The present study attempted to develop tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which provided simple interface to let the assessment be done even by the patient himself without the need of particular knowledge of speech processing while at the

  13. A peptide-spectrum scoring system based on ion alignment, intensity, and pair probabilities.

    PubMed

    Risk, Brian A; Edwards, Nathan J; Giddings, Morgan C

    2013-09-06

    Peppy, the proteogenomic/proteomic search software, employs a novel method for assessing the match quality between an MS/MS spectrum and a theorized peptide sequence. The scoring system uses three score factors calculated with binomial probabilities: the probability that a fragment ion will randomly align with a peptide ion, the probability that the aligning ions will be selected from subsets of the most intense peaks, and the probability that the intensities of fragment ions identified as y-ions are greater than those of their counterpart b-ions. The scores produced by the method act as global confidence scores, which facilitate the accurate comparison of results and the estimation of false discovery rates. Peppy has been integrated into the meta-search engine PepArML to produce meaningful comparisons with Mascot, MSGF+, OMSSA, X!Tandem, k-Score and s-Score. For two of the four data sets examined with the PepArML analysis, Peppy exceeded the accuracy performance of the other scoring systems. Peppy is available for download at http://geneffects.com/peppy .

  14. The Effects of Activating Prior Topic and Metacognitive Knowledge on Text Comprehension Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostons, Danny; van der Werf, Greetje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on prior knowledge activation has consistently shown that activating learners' prior knowledge has beneficial effects on learning. If learners activate their prior knowledge, this activated knowledge serves as a framework for establishing relationships between the knowledge they already possess and new information provided to…

  15. Explicit treatment of active-site waters enhances quantum mechanical/implicit solvent scoring: Inhibition of CDK2 by new pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Hylsová, Michaela; Carbain, Benoit; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Musilová, Lenka; Haldar, Susanta; Köprülüoğlu, Cemal; Ajani, Haresh; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik S; Jorda, Radek; Kryštof, Vladimír; Hobza, Pavel; Echalier, Aude; Paruch, Kamil; Lepšík, Martin

    2017-01-27

    We present comprehensive testing of solvent representation in quantum mechanics (QM)-based scoring of protein-ligand affinities. To this aim, we prepared 21 new inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) with the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine core, whose activities spanned three orders of magnitude. The crystal structure of a potent inhibitor bound to the active CDK2/cyclin A complex revealed that the biphenyl substituent at position 5 of the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine scaffold was located in a previously unexplored pocket and that six water molecules resided in the active site. Using molecular dynamics, protein-ligand interactions and active-site water H-bond networks as well as thermodynamics were probed. Thereafter, all the inhibitors were scored by the QM approach utilizing the COSMO implicit solvent model. Such a standard treatment failed to produce a correlation with the experiment (R(2) = 0.49). However, the addition of the active-site waters resulted in significant improvement (R(2) = 0.68). The activities of the compounds could thus be interpreted by taking into account their specific noncovalent interactions with CDK2 and the active-site waters. In summary, using a combination of several experimental and theoretical approaches we demonstrate that the inclusion of explicit solvent effects enhance QM/COSMO scoring to produce a reliable structure-activity relationship with physical insights. More generally, this approach is envisioned to contribute to increased accuracy of the computational design of novel inhibitors.

  16. A physics-based scoring function for protein structural decoys: Dynamic testing on targets of CASP-ROLL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; García, Yamila; Puris, Amilkar; Bello, Rafael; Green, James; Sotomayor-Torres, Clivia M.

    2014-08-01

    Most successful structure prediction strategies use knowledge-based functions for global optimization, in spite of their intrinsic limited potential to create new folds, while physics-based approaches are often employed only during structure refinement steps. We here propose a physics-based scoring potential intended to perform global searches of the conformational space. We introduce a dynamic test to evaluate the discrimination power of our function, and compare it with predictions of targets from the CASP-ROLL competition. Results demonstrate that this dynamic test is able to generate 3D models which outrank 59% (according GDT_TS score) of models generated with ab initio structure prediction servers.

  17. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...

  18. Automated large-scale file preparation, docking, and scoring: Evaluation of ITScore and STScore using the 2012 Community Structure-Activity Resource Benchmark

    PubMed Central

    Grinter, Sam Z.; Yan, Chengfei; Huang, Sheng-You; Jiang, Lin; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use the recently released 2012 Community Structure-Activity Resource (CSAR) Dataset to evaluate two knowledge-based scoring functions, ITScore and STScore, and a simple force-field-based potential (VDWScore). The CSAR Dataset contains 757 compounds, most with known affinities, and 57 crystal structures. With the help of the script files for docking preparation, we use the full CSAR Dataset to evaluate the performances of the scoring functions on binding affinity prediction and active/inactive compound discrimination. The CSAR subset that includes crystal structures is used as well, to evaluate the performances of the scoring functions on binding mode and affinity predictions. Within this structure subset, we investigate the importance of accurate ligand and protein conformational sampling and find that the binding affinity predictions are less sensitive to non-native ligand and protein conformations than the binding mode predictions. We also find the full CSAR Dataset to be more challenging in making binding mode predictions than the subset with structures. The script files used for preparing the CSAR Dataset for docking, including scripts for canonicalization of the ligand atoms, are offered freely to the academic community. PMID:23656179

  19. Prediction of nucleic acid binding probability in proteins: a neighboring residue network based score.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2015-06-23

    We describe a general binding score for predicting the nucleic acid binding probability in proteins. The score is directly derived from physicochemical and evolutionary features and integrates a residue neighboring network approach. Our process achieves stable and high accuracies on both DNA- and RNA-binding proteins and illustrates how the main driving forces for nucleic acid binding are common. Because of the effective integration of the synergetic effects of the network of neighboring residues and the fact that the prediction yields a hierarchical scoring on the protein surface, energy funnels for nucleic acid binding appear on protein surfaces, pointing to the dynamic process occurring in the binding of nucleic acids to proteins.

  20. Efficacies of surgical treatments based on Harris hip score in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chengwei; Yang, Fengjian; Lin, Weilong; Fan, Yongqian

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the efficacies of four surgical treatments, i.e., total hip arthroplasty (THA), internal fixation (IF), hemiarthroplasty (HA), and artificial femoral head replacement (artificial FHR), by performing a network meta-analysis based on Harris hip score (HHS) in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture. Methods: In strict accordance with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, randomized controlled trails (RCTs) were screened and selected from a larger group of studies that were retrieved through a comprehensive search of scientific literature databases, further complimented by manual search. The resultant high-quality data from final selected studies were analyzed using Stata 12.0 software. Results: A total of 3680 studies were initially retrieved from database search, and 15 RCTs were eventually incorporated into this meta-analysis, containing 1781 elderly patients who had undergone various surgical treatments for femoral neck fracture (THA group = 604; HA group = 604; IF group = 495; artificial FHR group = 78). Our major result revealed a statistically significant difference in HHS of femoral neck fracture when HA and IF groups were compared with THA. No differences were detected in the HHS of femoral neck fracture undergoing artificial FHR and THA. The surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) value of HHS, in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture after surgery, revealed that IF has the highest value. Conclusions: The current network meta-analysis results suggest that IF is the superlative surgical procedure for femoral neck fracture patients, and IF significantly improves the HHS in femoral neck fracture patients. PMID:26221216

  1. Generalization of the Lord-Wingersky Algorithm to Computing the Distribution of Summed Test Scores Based on Real-Number Item Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seonghoon

    2013-01-01

    With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…

  2. Error Rates in Measuring Teacher and School Performance Based on Student Test Score Gains. NCEE 2010-4004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data. Using realistic performance measurement system schemes based on hypothesis testing, we develop error rate formulas based on OLS and Empirical Bayes estimators.…

  3. Physical scoring function based on AMBER force field and Poisson-Boltzmann implicit solvent for protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Juei; Luo, Ray

    2004-08-15

    A well-behaved physics-based all-atom scoring function for protein structure prediction is analyzed with several widely used all-atom decoy sets. The scoring function, termed AMBER/Poisson-Boltzmann (PB), is based on a refined AMBER force field for intramolecular interactions and an efficient PB model for solvation interactions. Testing on the chosen decoy sets shows that the scoring function, which is designed to consider detailed chemical environments, is able to consistently discriminate all 62 native crystal structures after considering the heteroatom groups, disulfide bonds, and crystal packing effects that are not included in the decoy structures. When NMR structures are considered in the testing, the scoring function is able to discriminate 8 out of 10 targets. In the more challenging test of selecting near-native structures, the scoring function also performs very well: for the majority of the targets studied, the scoring function is able to select decoys that are close to the corresponding native structures as evaluated by ranking numbers and backbone Calpha root mean square deviations. Various important components of the scoring function are also studied to understand their discriminative contributions toward the rankings of native and near-native structures. It is found that neither the nonpolar solvation energy as modeled by the surface area model nor a higher protein dielectric constant improves its discriminative power. The terms remaining to be improved are related to 1-4 interactions. The most troublesome term is found to be the large and highly fluctuating 1-4 electrostatics term, not the dihedral-angle term. These data support ongoing efforts in the community to develop protein structure prediction methods with physics-based potentials that are competitive with knowledge-based potentials.

  4. Structural and Sequence Similarity Makes a Significant Impact on Machine-Learning-Based Scoring Functions for Protein-Ligand Interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Yang, Jianyi

    2017-04-05

    The prediction of protein-ligand binding affinity has recently been improved remarkably by machine-learning-based scoring functions. For example, using a set of simple descriptors representing the atomic distance counts, the RF-Score improves the Pearson correlation coefficient to about 0.8 on the core set of the PDBbind 2007 database, which is significantly higher than the performance of any conventional scoring function on the same benchmark. A few studies have been made to discuss the performance of machine-learning-based methods, but the reason for this improvement remains unclear. In this study, by systemically controlling the structural and sequence similarity between the training and test proteins of the PDBbind benchmark, we demonstrate that protein structural and sequence similarity makes a significant impact on machine-learning-based methods. After removal of training proteins that are highly similar to the test proteins identified by structure alignment and sequence alignment, machine-learning-based methods trained on the new training sets do not outperform the conventional scoring functions any more. On the contrary, the performance of conventional functions like X-Score is relatively stable no matter what training data are used to fit the weights of its energy terms.

  5. Metabarcoding of marine nematodes – evaluation of similarity scores used in alignment-based taxonomy assignment approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The diversity of organisms is being commonly accessed using metabarcoding of environmental samples. Reliable identification of barcodes is one of the critical steps in the process and several taxonomy assignment methods were proposed to accomplish this task, including alignment-based approach that uses Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) algorithm. This publication evaluates the variability of 5' end of 18S rRNA barcoding region as expressed by similarity scores (alignment score and identity score) produced by BLAST, and its impact on barcode identification to family-level taxonomic categories. New information In alignment-based taxonomy assignment approach, reliable identification of anonymous OTUs to supraspecific taxa depends on the correct application of similarity thresholds. Since various taxa show different level of genetic variation, practical application of alignment-based approach requires the determination and use of taxon-specific similarity thresholds. PMID:27932928

  6. Discriminant validity of the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) in patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Erkan; Kilic, Gamze; Akgul, Ozgur; Ozgocmen, Salih

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess discriminant validity of Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS)-C-reactive protein (-CRP) and ASDAS-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (-ESR) and to compare with The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) as clinical tools for the measurement of disease activity in patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Also, the cut-off values for ASDAS-CRP in nr-axSpA and AS is revisited. Patients with axSpA were recruited from Erciyes Spondyloarthritis Cohort (ESPAC) and were assessed for disease activity, quality of life and functional measures. The discriminatory ability of ASDAS-CRP and ASDAS-ESR was assessed using standardized mean differences and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis. Optimal cut-off values for disease activity scores were calculated. Two hundred and eighty-seven patients with axSpA (nr-axSpA:132, AS:155) were included in this study. Two ASDAS versions and BASDAI had good correlations with patient's and physician's global assessment in both groups. Discriminatory ability of ASDAS-CRP, ASDAS-ESR and BASDAI were similar in patients with nr-axSpA and AS when the patients were assigned into low and high disease activity according to the ASAS partial remission, patient's and physician's global assessment scores (based on the comparison of ROC curves). ASDAS cut-off values are quite similar between groups indicating that ASDAS-CRP works similarly well in nr-axSpA and AS. The performance of ASDAS to discriminate low and high disease activity and cut-off values are quite similar in patients with AS and non-radiographic axial SpA.

  7. Measurement Properties of the Smartphone-Based B-B Score in Current Shoulder Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pichonnaz, Claude; Duc, Cyntia; Gleeson, Nigel; Ancey, Céline; Jaccard, Hervé; Lécureux, Estelle; Farron, Alain; Jolles, Brigitte M.; Aminian, Kamiar

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at the determination of the measurement properties of the shoulder function B-B Score measured with a smartphone. This score measures the symmetry between sides of a power-related metric for two selected movements, with 100% representing perfect symmetry. Twenty healthy participants, 20 patients with rotator cuff conditions, 23 with fractures, 22 with capsulitis, and 23 with shoulder instabilities were measured twice across a six-month interval using the B-B Score and shoulder function questionnaires. The discriminative power, responsiveness, diagnostic power, concurrent validity, minimal detectable change (MDC), minimal clinically important improvement (MCII), and patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) were evaluated. Significant differences with the control group and significant baseline—six-month differences were found for the rotator cuff condition, fracture, and capsulitis patient groups. The B-B Score was responsive and demonstrated excellent diagnostic power, except for shoulder instability. The correlations with clinical scores were generally moderate to high, but lower for instability. The MDC was 18.1%, the MCII was 25.2%, and the PASS was 77.6. No floor effect was observed. The B-B Score demonstrated excellent measurement properties in populations with rotator cuff conditions, proximal humerus fractures, and capsulitis, and can thus be used as a routine test to evaluate those patients. PMID:26506355

  8. Measurement properties of the smartphone-based B-B Score in current shoulder pathologies.

    PubMed

    Pichonnaz, Claude; Duc, Cyntia; Gleeson, Nigel; Ancey, Céline; Jaccard, Hervé; Lécureux, Estelle; Farron, Alain; Jolles, Brigitte M; Aminian, Kamiar

    2015-10-22

    This study is aimed at the determination of the measurement properties of the shoulder function B-B Score measured with a smartphone. This score measures the symmetry between sides of a power-related metric for two selected movements, with 100% representing perfect symmetry. Twenty healthy participants, 20 patients with rotator cuff conditions, 23 with fractures, 22 with capsulitis, and 23 with shoulder instabilities were measured twice across a six-month interval using the B-B Score and shoulder function questionnaires. The discriminative power, responsiveness, diagnostic power, concurrent validity, minimal detectable change (MDC), minimal clinically important improvement (MCII), and patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) were evaluated. Significant differences with the control group and significant baseline-six-month differences were found for the rotator cuff condition, fracture, and capsulitis patient groups. The B-B Score was responsive and demonstrated excellent diagnostic power, except for shoulder instability. The correlations with clinical scores were generally moderate to high, but lower for instability. The MDC was 18.1%, the MCII was 25.2%, and the PASS was 77.6. No floor effect was observed. The B-B Score demonstrated excellent measurement properties in populations with rotator cuff conditions, proximal humerus fractures, and capsulitis, and can thus be used as a routine test to evaluate those patients.

  9. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group’s tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group’s tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors’ performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors’ scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001) and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001). The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course. PMID:26838577

  10. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group's tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group's tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors' performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors' scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001) and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001). The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  11. A Comparative Assessment of Non-Laboratory-Based versus Commonly Used Laboratory-Based Cardiovascular Disease Risk Scores in the NHANES III Population

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Ankur; Weinstein, Milton C.; Gaziano, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Background National and international primary CVD risk screening guidelines focus on using total CVD risk scores. Recently, we developed a non-laboratory-based CVD risk score (inputs: age, sex, smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, treatment of hypertension, body-mass index), which can assess risk faster and at lower costs compared to laboratory-based scores (inputs include cholesterol values). We aimed to assess the exchangeability of the non-laboratory-based risk score to four commonly used laboratory-based scores (Framingham CVD [2008, 1991 versions], and Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation [SCORE] for low and high risk settings) in an external validation population. Methods and Findings Analyses were based on individual-level, score-specific rankings of risk for adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) aged 25–74 years, without history of CVD or cancer (n = 5,999). Risk characterization agreement was based on overlap in dichotomous risk characterization (thresholds of 10-year risk >10–20%) and Spearman rank correlation. Risk discrimination was assessed using receiver operator characteristic curve analysis (10-year CVD death outcome). Risk characterization agreement ranged from 91.9–95.7% and 94.2–95.1% with Spearman correlation ranges of 0.957–0.980 and 0.946–0.970 for men and women, respectively. In men, c-statistics for the non-laboratory-based, Framingham (2008, 1991), and SCORE (high, low) functions were 0.782, 0.776, 0.781, 0.785, and 0.785, with p-values for differences relative to the non-laboratory-based score of 0.44, 0.89, 0.68 and 0.65, respectively. In women, the corresponding c-statistics were 0.809, 0.834, 0.821, 0.792, and 0.792, with corresponding p-values of 0.04, 0.34, 0.11 and 0.09, respectively. Conclusions Every score discriminated risk of CVD death well, and there was high agreement in risk characterization between non-laboratory-based and laboratory-based risk scores, which

  12. A Novel and Validated Inflammation-Based Score (IBS) Predicts Survival in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Curative Surgical Resection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yi-Peng; Ni, Xiao-Chun; Yi, Yong; Cai, Xiao-Yan; He, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jia-Xing; Lu, Zhu-Feng; Han, Xu; Cao, Ya; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Qiu, Shuang-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we investigated the prognostic accuracy of a cluster of inflammatory scores, including the Glasgow Prognostic Score, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, platelet to lymphocyte ratio, Prognostic Nutritional Index, Prognostic Index, and a novel Inflammation-Based Score (IBS) integrated preoperative and postoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in 2 independent cohorts. Further, we aimed to formulate an effective prognostic nomogram for HCC after hepatectomy. Prognostic value of inflammatory scores and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage were studied in a training cohort of 772 patients with HCC underwent hepatectomy. Independent predictors of survival identified in multivariate analysis were validated in an independent set of 349 patients with an overall similar clinical feature. In both training and validation cohorts, IBS, microscopic vascular invasion, and BCLC stage emerged as independent factors of overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The predictive capacity of the IBS in both OS and RFS appeared superior to that of the other inflammatory scores in terms of C-index. Additionally, the formulated nomogram comprised IBS resulted in more accurate prognostic prediction compared with BCLC stage alone. IBS is a novel and validated prognostic indicator of HCC after curative resection, and a robust HCC nomogram including IBS was developed to predict survival for patients after hepatectomy. PMID:26886627

  13. An Evidence-Based Medicine Curriculum Improves General Surgery Residents' Standardized Test Scores in Research and Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Trickey, Amber W.; Crosby, Moira E.; Singh, Monika; Dort, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The application of evidence-based medicine to patient care requires unique skills of the physician. Advancing residents' abilities to accurately evaluate the quality of evidence is built on understanding of fundamental research concepts. The American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) provides a relevant measure of surgical residents' knowledge of research design and statistics. Objective We implemented a research education curriculum in an independent academic medical center general residency program, and assessed the effect on ABSITE scores. Methods The curriculum consisted of five 1-hour monthly research and statistics lectures. The lectures were presented before the 2012 and 2013 examinations. Forty residents completing ABSITE examinations from 2007 to 2013 were included in the study. Two investigators independently identified research-related item topics from examination summary reports. Correct and incorrect responses were compared precurriculum and postcurriculum. Regression models were calculated to estimate improvement in postcurriculum scores, adjusted for individuals' scores over time and postgraduate year level. Results Residents demonstrated significant improvement in postcurriculum examination scores for research and statistics items. Correct responses increased 27% (P < .001). Residents were 5 times more likely to achieve a perfect score on research and statistics items postcurriculum (P < .001). Conclusions Residents at all levels demonstrated improved research and statistics scores after receiving the curriculum. Because the ABSITE includes a wide spectrum of research topics, sustained improvements suggest a genuine level of understanding that will promote lifelong evaluation and clinical application of the surgical literature. PMID:26140115

  14. Development and validation of a visual body condition scoring system for dairy goats with picture-based training.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A; Brandão, S; Monteiro, A; Ajuda, I; Stilwell, G

    2015-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is the most widely used method to assess changes in body fat reserves, which reflects its high potential to be included in on-farm welfare assessment protocols. Currently used scoring systems in dairy goats require animal restraint for body palpation. In this study, the Animal Welfare Indicators project (AWIN) proposes to overcome this constraint by developing a scoring system based only on visual assessment. The AWIN visual body condition scoring system highlights representative animals from 3 categories: very thin, normal, and very fat, and was built from data sets with photographs of animals scored by a commonly used 6-point scoring system that requires palpation in 2 anatomical regions. Development of the AWIN scoring system required 3 steps: (1) identification and validation of a body region of interest; (2) sketching the region from photographs; and (3) creation of training material. The scoring system's reliability was statistically confirmed. An initial study identified features in the rump region from which we could compute a set of body measurements (i.e., measures based on anatomical references of the rump region) that showed a strong correlation with the assigned BCS. To validate the result, we collected a final data set from 171 goats. To account for variability in animal size and camera position, we mapped a subset of features to a standard template and aligned all the rump images before computing the body measurements. Scientific illustrations were created from the aligned images of animals identified as representative of each category to increase clarity and reproducibility. For training material, we created sketches representing the threshold between consecutive categories. Finally, we conducted 2 field reliability studies. In the first test, no training was given to 4 observers, whereas in the second, training using the threshold images was delivered to the same observers. In the first experiment, interobserver results

  15. A Comparison of Diarrheal Severity Scores in the MAL-ED Multisite Community-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwenyth O.; Richard, Stephanie A.; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric R.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mduma, Estomih R.; Lima, Aldo A.; Bessong, Pascal; Jennifer, Mats Steffi; Hossain, Md. Iqbal; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nyathi, Emanuel; Lima, Ila F.; Pascal, John; Soofi, Sajid; Ladaporn, Bodhidatta; Guerrant, Richard L.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Black, Robert E.; Kosek, Margaret N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: There is a lack of consensus on how to measure diarrheal severity. Within the context of a multisite, prospective cohort study, we evaluated the performance of a modified Vesikari score (MAL-ED), 2 previously published scores (Clark and CODA [a diarrheal severity score (Community DiarrheA) published by Lee et al]), and a modified definition of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) based on dysentery and health care worker diagnosed dehydration. Methods: Scores were built using maternally reported symptoms or fieldworker-reported clinical signs obtained during the first 7 days of a diarrheal episode. The association between these and the risk of hospitalization were tested using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Severity scores were also related to illness etiology, and the likelihood of the episode subsequently becoming prolonged or persistent. Results: Of 10,159 episodes from 1681 children, 143 (4.0%) resulted in hospitalization. The area under the curve of each score as a predictor of hospitalization was 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.81, 0.87) (Clark), 0.85 (0.82, 0.88) (MAL-ED), and 0.87 (0.84, 0.89) (CODA). Severity was also associated with etiology and episode duration. Although families were more likely to seek care for severe diarrhea, approximately half of severe cases never reached the health system. Conclusions: Community-based diarrheal severity scores are predictive of relevant child health outcomes. Because they require no assumptions about health care access or utilization, they are useful in refining estimates of the burden of diarrheal disease, in estimating the effect of disease control interventions, and in triaging children for referral in low- and middle-income countries in which the rates of morbidity and mortality after diarrhea remain high. PMID:27347723

  16. Reliable change indices and standardized regression-based change score norms for evaluating neuropsychological change in children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Busch, Robyn M; Lineweaver, Tara T; Ferguson, Lisa; Haut, Jennifer S

    2015-06-01

    Reliable change indices (RCIs) and standardized regression-based (SRB) change score norms permit evaluation of meaningful changes in test scores following treatment interventions, like epilepsy surgery, while accounting for test-retest reliability, practice effects, score fluctuations due to error, and relevant clinical and demographic factors. Although these methods are frequently used to assess cognitive change after epilepsy surgery in adults, they have not been widely applied to examine cognitive change in children with epilepsy. The goal of the current study was to develop RCIs and SRB change score norms for use in children with epilepsy. Sixty-three children with epilepsy (age range: 6-16; M=10.19, SD=2.58) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations at two time points an average of 12 months apart. Practice effect-adjusted RCIs and SRB change score norms were calculated for all cognitive measures in the battery. Practice effects were quite variable across the neuropsychological measures, with the greatest differences observed among older children, particularly on the Children's Memory Scale and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was also notable variability in test-retest reliabilities across measures in the battery, with coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.92. Reliable change indices and SRB change score norms for use in assessing meaningful cognitive change in children following epilepsy surgery are provided for measures with reliability coefficients above 0.50. This is the first study to provide RCIs and SRB change score norms for a comprehensive neuropsychological battery based on a large sample of children with epilepsy. Tables to aid in evaluating cognitive changes in children who have undergone epilepsy surgery are provided for clinical use. An Excel sheet to perform all relevant calculations is also available to interested clinicians or researchers.

  17. Development of an activity disease score in patients with uveitis (UVEDAI).

    PubMed

    Pato, Esperanza; Martin-Martinez, Mª Auxiliadora; Castelló, Adela; Méndez-Fernandez, Rosalía; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago; Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Martinez-Costa, Lucia; Valls, Elia; Reyes, Miguel; Francisco, Félix; Esteban, Mar; Fonollosa, Alex; Sanchez-Alonso, Fernando; Fernández-Espartero, Cruz; Diaz-Valle, Teresa; Carrasco, José Miguel; Beltran-Catalán, Emma; Hernández-Garfella, Marisa; Hernández, María Victoria; Pelegrin, Laura; Blanco, Ricardo; Diaz-Valle, David

    2017-04-01

    To develop a disease activity index for patients with uveitis (UVEDAI) encompassing the relevant domains of disease activity considered important among experts in this field. The steps for designing UVEDAI were: (a) Defining the construct and establishing the domains through a formal judgment of experts, (b) A two-round Delphi study with a panel of 15 experts to determine the relevant items, (c) Selection of items: A logistic regression model was developed that set ocular inflammatory activity as the dependent variable. The construct "uveitis inflammatory activity" was defined as any intraocular inflammation that included external structures (cornea) in addition to uvea. Seven domains and 15 items were identified: best-corrected visual acuity, inflammation of the anterior chamber (anterior chamber cells, hypopyon, the presence of fibrin, active posterior keratic precipitates and iris nodules), intraocular pressure, inflammation of the vitreous cavity (vitreous haze, snowballs and snowbanks), central macular edema, inflammation of the posterior pole (the presence and number of choroidal/retinal lesions, vascular inflammation and papillitis), and global assessment from both (patient and physician). From all the variables studied in the multivariate model, anterior chamber cell grade, vitreous haze, central macular edema, inflammatory vessel sheathing, papillitis, choroidal/retinal lesions and patient evaluation were included in UVEDAI. UVEDAI is an index designed to assess the global ocular inflammatory activity in patients with uveitis. It might prove worthwhile to motorize the activity of this extraarticular manifestation of some rheumatic diseases.

  18. Searching for discrimination rules in protease proteolytic cleavage activity using genetic programming with a min-max scoring function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng Rong; Thomson, Rebecca; Hodgman, T Charles; Dry, Jonathan; Doyle, Austin K; Narayanan, Ajit; Wu, XiKun

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents an algorithm which is able to extract discriminant rules from oligopeptides for protease proteolytic cleavage activity prediction. The algorithm is developed using genetic programming. Three important components in the algorithm are a min-max scoring function, the reverse Polish notation (RPN) and the use of minimum description length. The min-max scoring function is developed using amino acid similarity matrices for measuring the similarity between an oligopeptide and a rule, which is a complex algebraic equation of amino acids rather than a simple pattern sequence. The Fisher ratio is then calculated on the scoring values using the class label associated with the oligopeptides. The discriminant ability of each rule can therefore be evaluated. The use of RPN makes the evolutionary operations simpler and therefore reduces the computational cost. To prevent overfitting, the concept of minimum description length is used to penalize over-complicated rules. A fitness function is therefore composed of the Fisher ratio and the use of minimum description length for an efficient evolutionary process. In the application to four protease datasets (Trypsin, Factor Xa, Hepatitis C Virus and HIV protease cleavage site prediction), our algorithm is superior to C5, a conventional method for deriving decision trees.

  19. Clinical performance of two visual scoring systems in detecting and assessing activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Braga, M M; Ekstrand, K R; Martignon, S; Imparato, J C P; Ricketts, D N J; Mendes, F M

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical performance of two sets of visual scoring criteria for detecting caries severity and assessing caries activity status in occlusal surfaces. Two visual scoring systems--the Nyvad criteria (NY) and the ICDAS-II including an adjunct system for lesion activity assessment (ICDAS-LAA)--were compared using 763 primary molars of 139 children aged 3-12 years. The examinations were performed by 2 calibrated examiners. A subsample (n = 50) was collected after extraction and histology with 0.1% red methyl dye was performed to validate lesion depth and activity. The reproducibility of the indices was calculated (kappa test) and ROC analysis was performed to assess their validity and related parameters were compared using McNemar's test. The association between the indices and with the histological examination was evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient (r(s)). Visual criteria showed excellent reproducibility both regarding severity (NY: 0.94; ICDAS-II: 0.91) and activity (NY: 0.90; LAA: 0.91). The NY and LAA showed good association in caries activity assessment (r(s) = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.86-0.89; p < 0.001). Nevertheless, considering only cavitated lesions, this association was not significant (p > 0.05). Concerning the severity, both indices presented similar validity parameters. At D2 threshold, the sensitivity was higher for NY (NY = 0.87; ICDAS = 0.61, p < 0.05). Regarding activity status, NY showed higher specificities and accuracies. In conclusion, NY and ICDAS-II criteria are comparable and present good reproducibility and validity to detect caries lesions and estimate their severities, but the LAA seems to overestimate the caries activity assessment of cavitated lesions compared to NY.

  20. The External Validity of Scores Based on the Two-Parameter Logistic Model: Some Comparisons between IRT and CTT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Chico, Eliseo

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical advantage of item response theory (IRT) models is that trait estimates based on these models provide more test information than any other type of test score. It is still unclear, however, whether using IRT trait estimates improves external validity results in comparison with the results that can be obtained by using simple raw…

  1. Effect of Clinically Discriminating, Evidence-Based Checklist Items on the Reliability of Scores from an Internal Medicine Residency OSCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Vijay J.; Bordage, Georges; Gierl, Mark J.; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are used worldwide for summative examinations but often lack acceptable reliability. Research has shown that reliability of scores increases if OSCE checklists for medical students include only clinically relevant items. Also, checklists are often missing evidence-based items that high-achieving…

  2. Target Practice: Reader Response Theory and Teachers' Interpretations of Students' SAT 10 Scores in Data-Based Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Becky M.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article examines how teachers read and respond to their students' Stanford Achievement Test 10 (SAT 10) scores with the goal of investigating the assumption that data-based teaching practice is more "objective" and less susceptible to divergent teacher interpretation. The study uses reader response theory to…

  3. Comparison of Knowledge Scores of Medical Students in Problem-Based Learning and Traditional Curriculum on Public Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurpinar, Erol; Musal, Berna; Aksakoglu, Gazanfer; Ucku, Reyhan

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to compare the knowledge scores of medical students in Problem-based Learning and traditional curriculum on public health topics. Methods: We planned a cross-sectional study including the fifth and sixth year medical students of Dokuz Eylul University in Turkey. The fifth year students (PBL group, n = 56)…

  4. Predictive Power of School Based Assessment Scores on Students' Achievement in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) in English and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opara, Ijeoma M.; Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Njoku, Joyce U.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive power of school based assessment scores on students' achievement in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) in English and Mathematics. Two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The study adopted an ex-post facto research design. A sample of 250 students were randomly drawn…

  5. Volatility in School Test Scores: Implications for Test-Based Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.

    2002-01-01

    By the spring of 2000, forty states had begun using student test scores to rate school performance. Twenty states have gone a step further and are attaching explicit monetary rewards or sanctions to a school's test performance. In this paper, the authors focus on accountability programs in which states measure the effectiveness of individual…

  6. Beyond Correctness: Development and Validation of Concept-Based Categorical Scoring Rubrics for Diagnostic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arieli-Attali, Meirav; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment approaches intend to provide fine-grained reports of what students know and can do, focusing on their areas of strengths and weaknesses. However, current application of such diagnostic approaches is limited by the scoring method for item responses; important diagnostic information, such as type of errors and strategy use is…

  7. Applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in Chinese Preschools Based on Psychometric Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Gu, Chuanhua; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) Pre-K (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) and its underpinning framework of teaching through interactions in typical Chinese kindergarten classrooms. A sample of 180 kindergarten classrooms in China was selected, and the CLASS was used to…

  8. Scoring Concept Maps: An Expert Map-Based Scheme Weighted for Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.; Rubba, Peter A.

    2002-01-01

    Scores student-constructed concept maps (n=17) that emerged from post-instructional interviews about chlorofluorocarbons against a teacher-expert map using a scheme weighted for relationships. Supports the recommendations of others to use expert referents and emphasize concept relationships in assessing concept maps. (Author/MM)

  9. Differences in Middle School TCAP Writing Assessment Scores Based on Keyboarding Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the writing assessment scores for each of the four traits--development, focus and organization, language, and conventions--as measured by the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) of students who had a formal keyboarding course compared to those who did not. A…

  10. Combining Propensity Score Matching and Group-Based Trajectory Analysis in an Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Amelia; Nagin, Daniel S.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    In a nonrandomized or observational study, propensity scores may be used to balance observed covariates and trajectory groups may be used to control baseline or pretreatment measures of outcome. The trajectory groups also aid in characterizing classes of subjects for whom no good matches are available and to define substantively interesting groups…

  11. Identifying Local Dependence with a Score Test Statistic Based on the Bifactor Logistic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yang; Thissen, David

    2012-01-01

    Local dependence (LD) refers to the violation of the local independence assumption of most item response models. Statistics that indicate LD between a pair of items on a test or questionnaire that is being fitted with an item response model can play a useful diagnostic role in applications of item response theory. In this article, a new score test…

  12. An Inmate Classification System Based on PCL: SV Factor Scores in a Sample of Prison Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wogan, Michael; Mackenzie, Marci

    2007-01-01

    Psychopaths represent a significant management challenge in a prison population. A sample of ninety-five male inmates from three medium security prisons was tested using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). Using traditional criteria, 22% of the inmates were classified as psychopaths. Scores on the two factor dimensions of…

  13. Experimenting with a Computer Essay-Scoring Program Based on ESL Student Writing Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the computer essay-scoring program BETSY. While the use of computers in rating written scripts has been criticised in some quarters for lacking transparency or lack of fit with how human raters rate written scripts, a number of essay rating programs are available commercially, many of which claim to offer comparable…

  14. Injury Severity Score based estimation of height of fall in bus rolling down the cliff.

    PubMed

    Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Lazovic, Ranko

    2015-08-01

    A case of bus rollover into the canyon, 40 m down the road, with 47 occupants out of which 18 were fatally injured, was used to compute the Injury Severity Score (ISS) for each passengers as well as the equivalent free fall for this particular accident, to be compared to the height of fall as estimated by the Lau's model based on ISS, resulting the conclusion whether Lau's model and the computation of ISS can be considered reliable to estimate the height of fall in any other case. Dealing with this, we would be also able to assess a protective potential of the bus on occupants while it falls from the height. By using classic energy-related mechanical formulas the presented rollover down the cliff has been transferred into a corresponding free fall from the height (10 m). ISS for each passenger has been used to establish height bands of the corresponding free fall. The analysis of the presented case showed that only 30% of bus passengers sustained injuries similar to the injuries expected in the fall from height in the range of 10-20 m. The chances to be non-severely injured as a consequence of the fall in a bus is 43%, but still remains a very high chance (27%) to sustain injures more severe than expected for the equivalent free fall from height out of a vehicle. Moreover, eight passengers sustained pulmonary detraction which is characteristic of the fall above 40 m. The conclusion is that this mathematical computing for transferring one way of motion into another one may be useful for any other event similar to the fall from height and further usage of Lau's modules. Also, estimated severity of the injuries expressed through ISS can be merely an approximating indicator of the height of the fall of the bus, so ISS is not able to estimate the exact height. Finally, in majority of cases the protective potential of the bus may preserve from severe body damage, but the mortality rate still stands on a very high level.

  15. How much structuring is beneficial with regard to examination scores? A prospective study of three forms of active learning.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Claus H; Rosen, Evelyne N

    2012-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a superiority of active learning forms compared with traditional lecture. However, there is still debate as to what degree structuring is necessary with regard to high exam outcomes. Seventy-five students from a premedical school were randomly attributed to an active lecture group, a cooperative group, or a collaborative learning group. The active lecture group received lectures with questions to resolve at the end of the lecture. At the same time, the cooperative group and the collaborative group had to work on a problem and prepare presentations for their answers. The collaborative group worked in a mostly self-directed manner; the cooperative group had to follow a time schedule. For the additional work of preparing the poster presentation, the collaborative and cooperative groups were allowed 50% more working time. In part 1, all groups worked on the citric acid cycle, and in part 2, all groups worked on molecular genetics. Collaborative groups had to work on tasks and prepare presentations for their answers. At the end of each part, all three groups were subjected to the same exam. Additionally, in the collaborative and cooperative groups, the presentations were marked. All evaluations were performed by two independent examiners. Exam results of the active lecture groups were highest. Results of the cooperative group were nonsignificantly lower than the active lecture group and significantly higher than the collaborative group. The presentation quality was nonsignificantly higher in the collaborative group compared with the cooperative group. This study shows that active lecturing produced the highest exam results, which significantly differed from collaborative learning results. The additional elaboration in the cooperative and collaborative learning setting yielded the high presentation quality but apparently could not contribute further to exam scores. Cooperative learning seems to be a good compromise if high exam and

  16. A magnetic resonance imaging-based prognostic scoring system to predict outcome in transplant-eligible patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mai, Elias K; Hielscher, Thomas; Kloth, Jost K; Merz, Maximilian; Shah, Sofia; Raab, Marc S; Hillengass, Michaela; Wagner, Barbara; Jauch, Anna; Hose, Dirk; Weber, Marc-André; Delorme, Stefan; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hillengass, Jens

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse and focal bone marrow infiltration patterns detected by magnetic resonance imaging have been shown to be of prognostic significance in all stages of monoclonal plasma cell disorders and have, therefore, been incorporated into the definition of the disease. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to develop a rapidly evaluable prognostic scoring system, incorporating the most significant information acquired from magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, the impact of bone marrow infiltration patterns on progression-free and overall survival in 161 transplant-eligible myeloma patients was evaluated. Compared to salt and pepper/minimal diffuse infiltration, moderate/severe diffuse infiltration had a negative prognostic impact on both progression-free survival (P<0.001) and overall survival (P=0.003). More than 25 focal lesions on whole-body magnetic resonance imaging or more than seven on axial magnetic resonance imaging were associated with an adverse prognosis (progression-free survival: P=0.001/0.003 and overall survival: P=0.04/0.02). A magnetic resonance imaging-based prognostic scoring system, combining grouped diffuse and focal infiltration patterns, was formulated and is applicable to whole-body as well as axial magnetic resonance imaging. The score identified high-risk patients with median progression-free and overall survival of 23.4 and 55.9 months, respectively (whole-body-based). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the magnetic resonance imaging-based prognostic score stage III (high-risk) and adverse cytogenetics are independent prognostic factors for both progression-free and overall survival (whole-body-based, progression-free survival: hazard ratio=3.65, P<0.001; overall survival: hazard ratio=5.19, P=0.005). In conclusion, we suggest a magnetic resonance imaging-based prognostic scoring system which is a robust, easy to assess and interpret parameter summarizing significant magnetic resonance imaging findings in transplant

  17. Meditation Breath Attention Scores (MBAS): Development and investigation of an internet-based assessment of focused attention during meditation practice.

    PubMed

    Frewen, Paul; Hargraves, Heather; DePierro, Jonathan; D'Andrea, Wendy; Flodrowski, Les

    2016-07-01

    Meditation Breath Attention Scores (MBAS) represent a self-report, state measure of focused attention (FA) during the practice of meditation. The MBAS assessment procedure involves sounding a bell at periodic intervals during meditation practice, at which times participants indicate if they were attending toward breathing (scored 1) or if instead they had become distracted (e.g., by mind wandering; scored 0); scores are then tallied to yield participants' MBAS for that meditation. The current study developed and evaluated a fully automated and Internet-based version of MBAS in 1,101 volunteers. Results suggested that: (a) MBAS are internally consistent across bell rings; (b) MBAS total scores exhibit a non-normal distribution identifying subgroups of participants with particularly poor or robust FA during meditation; (c) MBAS decrease linearly with the duration of meditation practices, indicating that participants tend to experience less FA later as opposed to earlier in the meditation; (d) in the case of eyes-open meditation, MBAS are higher when the amount of time between bells is shorter; (e) MBAS correlate with various self-reported subjective experiences occurring during meditation; and (f) MBAS are weakly associated with higher trait mindful "acting with awareness," lesser ADHD-related symptoms of inattentiveness, and estimated minutes of meditation practiced in the past month. In sum, results provide further support for the construct validity of MBAS and serve to further characterize the dynamics of individual differences in FA during meditation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  19. Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luellen, Jason K.; Shadish, William R.; Clark, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    Propensity score analysis is a relatively recent statistical innovation that is useful in the analysis of data from quasi-experiments. The goal of propensity score analysis is to balance two non-equivalent groups on observed covariates to get more accurate estimates of the effects of a treatment on which the two groups differ. This article…

  20. Structure-Based Predictions of Activity Cliffs

    PubMed Central

    Husby, Jarmila; Bottegoni, Giovanni; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben; Cavalli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In drug discovery, it is generally accepted that neighboring molecules in a given descriptors' space display similar activities. However, even in regions that provide strong predictability, structurally similar molecules can occasionally display large differences in potency. In QSAR jargon, these discontinuities in the activity landscape are known as ‘activity cliffs’. In this study, we assessed the reliability of ligand docking and virtual ligand screening schemes in predicting activity cliffs. We performed our calculations on a diverse, independently collected database of cliff-forming co-crystals. Starting from ideal situations, which allowed us to establish our baseline, we progressively moved toward simulating more realistic scenarios. Ensemble- and template-docking achieved a significant level of accuracy, suggesting that, despite the well-known limitations of empirical scoring schemes, activity cliffs can be accurately predicted by advanced structure-based methods. PMID:25918827

  1. AP Potential™ Expectancy Tables Based on PSAT/NMSQT® and SAT® Scores on the 2015-16 Redesigned Scales. Statistical Report 2016-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Maureen; Wyatt, Jeffrey N.; Smith, Kara

    2016-01-01

    Historically, AP Potential™ has used PSAT/NMSQT® scores to identify students who are likely to earn a 3 or higher on a specific AP® Exam--based on research showing moderate to strong relationships between PSAT/NMSQT scores and AP Exam scores (Camara & Millsap, 1998; Ewing, Camara & Millsap, 2006; Zhang, Patel & Ewing, 2014a). For most…

  2. Comparison of the Disease Activity Score using Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and C-reactive Protein in African-Americans with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tamhane, Ashutosh; Redden, David T.; McGwin, Gerald; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Reynolds, Richard J.; Hughes, Laura B.; Conn, Doyt L.; Callahan, Leigh F.; Jonas, Beth L.; Smith, Edwin A.; Brasington, Richard D.; Moreland, Larry W.; Bridges, S. Louis

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Disease Activity Score based on 28 joints (DAS28) has been increasingly used in clinical practice and research studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies have reported discordance between DAS28 based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) versus C-reactive protein (CRP) in RA patients. However such comparison is lacking in African-Americans with RA. METHODS This analysis included participants from the Consortium for the Longitudinal Evaluation of African Americans with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (CLEAR) Registry which enrolls self-declared African-Americans with RA. Using tender and swollen joint counts separate ESR-based and CRP-based DAS28 scores (DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP3) were calculated, as were DAS28-ESR4 and DAS28-CRP4, which included the patient’s assessment of disease activity. The scores were compared using paired t-test, simple agreement and kappa, correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS Of the 233 included participants, 85% were women, mean age at enrollment was 52.6 years, and median disease duration at enrollment was 21 months. Mean DAS28-ESR3 was significantly higher than DAS28-CRP3 (4.8 vs. 3.9; p<0.001). Similarly, mean DAS28-ESR4 was significantly higher than DAS28-CRP4 (4.7 vs. 3.9; p<0.001). ESR-based DAS28 remained higher than CRP-based DAS28 even when stratified by age, sex, and disease duration. Overall agreement was not high between DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP3 (50%) or between DAS28-ESR4 and DAS28-CRP4 (59%). DAS28-CRP3 underestimated disease activity in 47% of the participants relative to DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP4 in 40% of the participants relative to DAS28-ESR4. CONCLUSION There was significant discordance between the ESR-based and CRP-based DAS28 which could impact clinical treatment decisions in African-Americans with RA. PMID:23950187

  3. A Prognostic Model Using Inflammation- and Nutrition-Based Scores in Patients With Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma Treated With Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Che; Wang, Shih-Hor; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lan, Jui; Rau, Kun-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The outcomes of patients with metastatic gastric cancer (mGC) are poor. Recent studies have identified the prognostic impact of inflammatory response and nutritional status on survival for patients with gastric cancer. This study aims to create a prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores to predict survival in patients with mGC treated with chemotherapy.After institutional review board approval, patients who had mGC and were treated with chemotherapy from 2007 to 2012 at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Significantly predictive factors were identified by multivariate Cox regression analyses. Based on these variables, a prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores was constructed to predict survival. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to estimate overall survival. The c-statistic values with 95% confidence interval (CI) were also calculated to access their predicting performances.Our study consisted of 256 patients with a median age of 60 years and a median follow-up visit of 18.5 months. Multivariate analyses showed that neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) were independently related to survival. After computing these scores, patients were classified into favorable-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups. The median overall survival were 27.6 versus 13.2 versus 8.2 months in favorable, intermediate, and poor-risk groups, respectively. The 2-year survival rate was 52% versus 16% versus 3% in favorable-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups, respectively. (P < 0.001). The c-statistic value of our model at 2 years is 0.8 (95% CI, 0.75-0.86).NLR, mGPS, and PG-SGA were independently related to survival. Our prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores could provide prognostic information to patients and physicians.

  4. Predictors of active cancer thromboembolic outcomes. RIETE experience of the Khorana score in cancer-associated thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tafur, Alfonso J; Caprini, Joseph A; Cote, Lauren; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Del Toro, Jorge; Garcia-Bragado, Fernando; Tolosa, Carles; Barillari, Giovanni; Visona, Adriana; Monreal, Manuel

    2017-03-09

    Even though the Khorana risk score (KRS) has been validated to predict against the development of VTE among patients with cancer, it has a low positive predictive value. It is also unknown whether the score predicts outcomes in patients with cancer with established VTE. We selected a cohort of patients with active cancer from the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbolica) registry to assess the prognostic value of the KRS at inception in predicting the likelihood of VTE recurrences, major bleeding and mortality during the course of anticoagulant therapy. We analysed 7948 consecutive patients with cancer-associated VTE. Of these, 2253 (28 %) scored 0 points, 4550 (57 %) 1-2 points and 1145 (14 %) scored ≥3 points. During the course of anticoagulation, amongst patient with low, moderate and high risk KRS, the rate of VTE recurrences was of 6.21 (95 %CI: 4.99-7.63), 11.2 (95 %CI: 9.91-12.7) and 19.4 (95 %CI: 15.4-24.1) events per 100 patient-years; the rate of major bleeding of 5.24 (95 %CI: 4.13-6.56), 10.3 (95 %CI: 9.02-11.7) and 19.4 (95 %CI: 15.4-24.1) bleeds per 100 patient-years and the mortality rate of 25.3 (95 %CI: 22.8-28.0), 58.5 (95 %CI: 55.5-61.7) and 120 (95 %CI: 110-131) deaths per 100 patient-years, respectively. The C-statistic was 0.53 (0.50-0.56) for recurrent VTE, 0.56 (95 %CI: 0.54-0.59) for major bleeding and 0.54 (95 %CI: 0.52-0.56) for death. In conclusion, most VTEs occur in patients with low or moderate risk scores. The KRS did not accurately predict VTE recurrence, major bleeding, or mortality among patients with cancer-associated thrombosis.

  5. A novel approach for lie detection based on F-score and extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junfeng; Wang, Zhao; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Wenjia; Tao, Chunyi; Guan, Jinan; Rao, Nini

    2014-01-01

    A new machine learning method referred to as F-score_ELM was proposed to classify the lying and truth-telling using the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from 28 guilty and innocent subjects. Thirty-one features were extracted from the probe responses from these subjects. Then, a recently-developed classifier called extreme learning machine (ELM) was combined with F-score, a simple but effective feature selection method, to jointly optimize the number of the hidden nodes of ELM and the feature subset by a grid-searching training procedure. The method was compared to two classification models combining principal component analysis with back-propagation network and support vector machine classifiers. We thoroughly assessed the performance of these classification models including the training and testing time, sensitivity and specificity from the training and testing sets, as well as network size. The experimental results showed that the number of the hidden nodes can be effectively optimized by the proposed method. Also, F-score_ELM obtained the best classification accuracy and required the shortest training and testing time.

  6. Validity of PALMS GPS Scoring of Active and Passive Travel Compared to SenseCam

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Jankowska, Marta M.; Meseck, Kristin; Godbole, Suneeta; Natarajan, Loki; Raab, Fredric; Demchak, Barry; Patrick, Kevin; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess validity of the Personal Activity Location Measurement System (PALMS) for deriving time spent walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle, using SenseCam as the comparison. Methods 40 adult cyclists wore a Qstarz BT-Q1000XT GPS data logger and SenseCam (camera worn around neck capturing multiple images every minute) for a mean of 4 days. PALMS used distance and speed between GPS points to classify whether each minute was part of a trip (yes/no), and if so, the trip mode (walking/running, bicycling, in vehicle). SenseCam images were annotated to create the same classifications (i.e., trip yes/no and mode). 2×2 contingency tables and confusion matrices were calculated at the minute-level for PALMS vs. SenseCam classifications. Mixed-effects linear regression models estimated agreement (mean differences and intraclass correlations [ICCs]) between PALMS and SenseCam with regards to minutes/day in each mode. Results Minute-level sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were ≥88%, and positive predictive value was ≥75% for non mode-specific trip detection. 72–80% of outdoor walking/running minutes, 73% of bicycling minutes, and 74–76% of in-vehicle minutes were correctly classified by PALMS. For minutes/day, PALMS had a mean bias (i.e., amount of over or under estimation) of 2.4–3.1 minutes (11–15%) for walking/running, 2.3–2.9 minutes (7–9%) for bicycling, and 4.3–5 minutes (15–17%) for vehicle time. ICCs were ≥.80 for all modes. Conclusions PALMS has validity for processing GPS data to objectively measure time walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle in population studies. Assessing travel patterns is one of many valuable applications of GPS in physical activity research that can improve our understanding of the determinants and health outcomes of active transportation as well as its impact on physical activity. PMID:25010407

  7. Evaluation of the neural function of nonhuman primates with spinal cord injury using an evoked potential-based scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jichao; Ma, Mengjun; Xie, Zhongyu; Wang, Peng; Tang, Yong; Huang, Lin; Chen, Keng; Gao, Liangbin; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong; Zeng, Yuanshan

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primate models of spinal cord injury (SCI) have been widely used in evaluation of the efficacy and safety of experimental restorative interventions before clinical trials. However, no objective methods are currently available for the evaluation of neural function in nonhuman primates. In our long-term clinical practice, we have used evoked potential (EP) for neural function surveillance during operation and accumulated extensive experience. In the present study, a nonhuman primate model of SCI was established in 6 adult cynomologus monkeys through spinal cord contusion injury at T8–T9. The neural function before SCI and within 6 months after SCI was evaluated based on EP recording. A scoring system including somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and transcranial electrical stimulation-motor evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) was established for the evaluation of neural function of nonhuman primates with SCI. We compared the motor function scores of nonhuman primates before and after SCI. Our results showed that the EP below the injury level significantly changed during the 6 months after SCI. In addition, a positive correlation was identified between the EP scores and motor function. The EP-based scoring system is a reliable approach for evaluating the motor function changes in nonhuman primates with SCI. PMID:27629352

  8. UPDRS activity of daily living score as a marker of Parkinson's disease progression.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Madaline B; Wylie, Scott A; Frysinger, Robert C; Patrie, James T; Huss, Diane S; Currie, Lillian J; Wooten, G Frederick

    2009-01-30

    The activities of daily living (ADL) subscore of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) captures the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) on daily function and may be less affected than other subsections by variability associated with drug cycle and motor fluctuations. We examined UPDRS mentation, ADL and motor subscores in 888 patients with idiopathic PD. Multiple linear regression analyses determined the association between disease duration and UPDRS subscores as a function of medication status at examination and in a subset of patients with multiple examinations. Independent of medication status and across cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, ADL subscores showed a stronger and more stable association with disease duration than other UPDRS subscores after adjusting for age of disease onset. The association between disease duration and the motor subscore depended on medication status. The strong association between ADL subscore and disease duration in PD suggests that this measure may serve as a better marker of disease progression than signs and symptoms assessed in other UPDRS sections.

  9. Effects of a therapeutic climbing program on muscle activation and SF-36 scores of patients with lower back pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Hun; Seo, Dong-Yel

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of lumbar stability exercises on chronic lower back pain by using a therapeutic climbing program on lumbar muscle activity and function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult subjects with chronic back pain participated. The subjects were assigned to 2 exercise groups, namely the lumbar stabilization (Mat Ex) and therapeutic climbing exercise groups (TC Ex). Each group trained for 30 minutes, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The Short-form 36-item Questionnaire (SF-36) was administered and the surface electromyographic (sEMG) activities of the lumbar muscles were measured. [Results] Both therapy groups showed significant increases in the SF-36 score, and the increase was greater in the TC Ex group. Significant increases in the sEMG activities of the lumbar muscles were found in both groups. The increases in the sEMG activities of the rectus abdominis and internal and external oblique muscles of the abdomen were greater in the TC Ex group than in the Mat Ex group. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that TC Ex, which is similar to normal lumbar stabilization exercise, is effective at activating and improving the function of the lumbar muscles. These results suggest that TC Ex has a positive impact on the stabilization of the lumbar region.

  10. Effects of a therapeutic climbing program on muscle activation and SF-36 scores of patients with lower back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Hun; Seo, Dong-Yel

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of lumbar stability exercises on chronic lower back pain by using a therapeutic climbing program on lumbar muscle activity and function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult subjects with chronic back pain participated. The subjects were assigned to 2 exercise groups, namely the lumbar stabilization (Mat Ex) and therapeutic climbing exercise groups (TC Ex). Each group trained for 30 minutes, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The Short-form 36-item Questionnaire (SF-36) was administered and the surface electromyographic (sEMG) activities of the lumbar muscles were measured. [Results] Both therapy groups showed significant increases in the SF-36 score, and the increase was greater in the TC Ex group. Significant increases in the sEMG activities of the lumbar muscles were found in both groups. The increases in the sEMG activities of the rectus abdominis and internal and external oblique muscles of the abdomen were greater in the TC Ex group than in the Mat Ex group. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that TC Ex, which is similar to normal lumbar stabilization exercise, is effective at activating and improving the function of the lumbar muscles. These results suggest that TC Ex has a positive impact on the stabilization of the lumbar region. PMID:25931721

  11. A comparison of the prognostic value of preoperative inflammation-based scores and TNM stage in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qun-Xiong; Su, Zi-Jian; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Chong-Ren; Ke, Shao-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background People’s Republic of China is one of the countries with the highest incidence of gastric cancer, accounting for 45% of all new gastric cancer cases in the world. Therefore, strong prognostic markers are critical for the diagnosis and survival of Chinese patients suffering from gastric cancer. Recent studies have begun to unravel the mechanisms linking the host inflammatory response to tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in gastric cancers. Based on this relationship between inflammation and cancer progression, several inflammation-based scores have been demonstrated to have prognostic value in many types of malignant solid tumors. Objective To compare the prognostic value of inflammation-based prognostic scores and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage in patients undergoing gastric cancer resection. Methods The inflammation-based prognostic scores were calculated for 207 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery. Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and prognostic index (PI) were analyzed. Linear trend chi-square test, likelihood ratio chi-square test, and receiver operating characteristic were performed to compare the prognostic value of the selected scores and TNM stage. Results In univariate analysis, preoperative serum C-reactive protein (P<0.001), serum albumin (P<0.001), GPS (P<0.001), PLR (P=0.002), NLR (P<0.001), PI (P<0.001), PNI (P<0.001), and TNM stage (P<0.001) were significantly associated with both overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with gastric cancer. In multivariate analysis, GPS (P=0.024), NLR (P=0.012), PI (P=0.001), TNM stage (P<0.001), and degree of differentiation (P=0.002) were independent predictors of gastric cancer survival. GPS and TNM stage had a comparable prognostic value and higher linear trend chi-square value, likelihood ratio chi-square value, and larger area under the receiver operating

  12. A Novel Prognostic Score, Based on Preoperative Nutritional Status, Predicts Outcomes of Patients after Curative Resection for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuechao; Qiu, Haibo; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Shangxiang; Xu, Dazhi; Li, Wei; Zhan, Youqing; Li, Yuanfang; Chen, Yingbo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether preoperative nutritional status (PNS) was a valuable predictor of outcome in patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 1320 patients with GC undergoing curative resection. The PNS score was constructed based on four objective and easily measurable criteria: prognostic nutritional index (PNI) score 1, serum albumin <35 g/L, body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m(2), or preoperative weight loss ≥5% of body weight. The PNS score was 2 for patients who met three or four criteria, 1 for those who met one or two criteria, and 0 for those who didn't meet all of these criteria. RESULTS: The overall survival (OS) rates in patients with PNS scores 0, 1, and 2 were 59.1%, 42.4%, and 23.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed the PNS was an independent predictor for OS (HR for PNS 1 and PNS 2: 1.497, 95 % CI: 1.230-1.820 and 2.434, 95 % CI: 1.773-3.340, respectively; p < 0.001). Furthermore, 5-year OS ranged from 92% (stage I) to 37% (stage III), while the combination of TNM and PNS stratified 5-year OS from 95% (TNM I, PNS 0) to 19% (TNM III, PNS 3). Of note, the prognostic significance of PNS was still maintained when stratified by TNM stage, age, sex, tumor size, anemia and adjuvant chemotherapy (All P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The PNS, a novel nutritional-based prognostic score, is independently associated with OS in GC. Prospective studies are needed to validate its clinical utility.

  13. A Novel Prognostic Score, Based on Preoperative Nutritional Status, Predicts Outcomes of Patients after Curative Resection for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuechao; Qiu, Haibo; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Shangxiang; Xu, Dazhi; Li, Wei; Zhan, Youqing; Li, Yuanfang; Chen, Yingbo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether preoperative nutritional status (PNS) was a valuable predictor of outcome in patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 1320 patients with GC undergoing curative resection. The PNS score was constructed based on four objective and easily measurable criteria: prognostic nutritional index (PNI) score 1, serum albumin <35 g/L, body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2, or preoperative weight loss ≥5% of body weight. The PNS score was 2 for patients who met three or four criteria, 1 for those who met one or two criteria, and 0 for those who didn't meet all of these criteria. RESULTS: The overall survival (OS) rates in patients with PNS scores 0, 1, and 2 were 59.1%, 42.4%, and 23.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed the PNS was an independent predictor for OS (HR for PNS 1 and PNS 2: 1.497, 95 % CI: 1.230-1.820 and 2.434, 95 % CI: 1.773-3.340, respectively; p < 0.001). Furthermore, 5-year OS ranged from 92% (stage I) to 37% (stage III), while the combination of TNM and PNS stratified 5-year OS from 95% (TNM I, PNS 0) to 19% (TNM III, PNS 3). Of note, the prognostic significance of PNS was still maintained when stratified by TNM stage, age, sex, tumor size, anemia and adjuvant chemotherapy (All P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The PNS, a novel nutritional-based prognostic score, is independently associated with OS in GC. Prospective studies are needed to validate its clinical utility. PMID:27877232

  14. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Chen, Ronald C.

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. Methods and Materials: This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsy Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. Results: For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA <10 ng/mL had surgical T2 disease with negative margins; this decreased to 61% in patients with PSA of 20 to 29.9 ng/mL. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: <10 ng/mL) to 61% (PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) of biopsy Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: <10 ng/mL) to two-thirds (Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. Conclusions: This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic Gleason score

  15. Validity evidence based on internal structure of scores on the Spanish version of the Self-Description Questionnaire-II.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Cándido J; Torregrosa, María S; Hidalgo, María D; Nuñez, Jose C; Castejón, Juan L; García-Fernández, Jose M; Valles, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity evidence of scores on the Spanish version of Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ-II). The instrument was administered in a sample of 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine validity evidence based on internal structure drawn from the scores on the SDQ-II. CFA replicated the correlated II first-order factor structure. Furthermore, hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) was used to examine the hierarchical ordering of self-concept, as measured by scores on the Spanish version of the SDQ-II. Although a series of HCFA models were tested to assess academic and non-academic components organization, support for those hierarchical models was weaker than for the correlated 11 first-order factor structure. Results also indicated that scores on the Spanish version of the SDQ-II had internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates within an acceptable range.

  16. Prealbumin/CRP Based Prognostic Score, a New Tool for Predicting Metastasis in Patients with Inoperable Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Ali; Makhdami, Nima; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Ghayour Nahand, Mousa; Ghoreishi, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is a considerable dissimilarity in the survival duration of the patients with gastric cancer. We aimed to assess the systemic inflammatory response (SIR) and nutritional status of these patients before the commencement of chemotherapy to find the appropriate prognostic factors and define a new score for predicting metastasis. Methods. SIR was assessed using Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS). Then a score was defined as prealbumin/CRP based prognostic score (PCPS) to be compared with GPS for predicting metastasis and nutritional status. Results. 71 patients with gastric cancer were recruited in the study. 87% of patients had malnutrition. There was a statistical difference between those with metastatic (n = 43) and those with nonmetastatic (n = 28) gastric cancer according to levels of prealbumin and CRP; however they were not different regarding patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and GPS. The best cut-off value for prealbumin was determined at 0.20 mg/dL and PCPS could predict metastasis with 76.5% sensitivity, 63.6% specificity, and 71.4% accuracy. Metastatic and nonmetastatic gastric cancer patients were different in terms of PCPS (P = 0.005). Conclusion. PCPS has been suggested for predicting metastasis in patients with gastric cancer. Future studies with larger sample size have been warranted. PMID:26904109

  17. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Habara, Masaaki; Ikezazki, Hidekazu; Chen, Ronggang; Naito, Yoshinobu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets. PMID:22319306

  18. TM-align: a protein structure alignment algorithm based on the TM-score

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    We have developed TM-align, a new algorithm to identify the best structural alignment between protein pairs that combines the TM-score rotation matrix and Dynamic Programming (DP). The algorithm is ∼4 times faster than CE and 20 times faster than DALI and SAL. On average, the resulting structure alignments have higher accuracy and coverage than those provided by these most often-used methods. TM-align is applied to an all-against-all structure comparison of 10 515 representative protein chains from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with a sequence identity cutoff <95%: 1996 distinct folds are found when a TM-score threshold of 0.5 is used. We also use TM-align to match the models predicted by TASSER for solved non-homologous proteins in PDB. For both folded and misfolded models, TM-align can almost always find close structural analogs, with an average root mean square deviation, RMSD, of 3 Å and 87% alignment coverage. Nevertheless, there exists a significant correlation between the correctness of the predicted structure and the structural similarity of the model to the other proteins in the PDB. This correlation could be used to assist in model selection in blind protein structure predictions. The TM-align program is freely downloadable at . PMID:15849316

  19. [Assessment of nursing workload in three groups of patients in a Spanish ICU using the Nursing Activities Score Scale].

    PubMed

    Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier; Jara-Pérez, Ana; Quirós-Herranz, Cristina; Rollán-Rodríguez, Gloria; Cerrillo-González, Isabel; García-Gómez, Sonia; Martínez-Lareo, Montserrat; Marín-Morales, Dolores

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nursing workload at admission to and discharge from intensive care of three groups of patients (i.e., acute coronary syndrome, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis). A prospective, descriptive study was performed over a 27-month period and included 563 patients. The workload was assessed using the Nursing Activities Score scale. Significant differences in the workload were determined on the days of admission and discharge: the workload was higher in both cases for patients with acute respiratory failure and sepsis compared with patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome. This difference was maintained over the first seven days of their hospital stay. From day 8 on, the difference disappeared, and a workload balance was achieved in the three groups. Good staffing requires adequate tools for measuring care needs and understanding the workload required in the groups of patients who are most frequently admitted to intensive care.

  20. Can change in FRAX score be used to "treat to target"? A population‐based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Leslie, William D; Majumdar, Sumit R; Lix, Lisa M; Morin, Suzanne N; Johansson, Helena; Odén, Anders; McCloskey, Eugene V; Kanis, John A

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown how responsive the Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX) tool is to osteoporosis treatment (OTX) or whether it can serve as a target for "goal‐directed" treatment. We studied 11,049 untreated women aged ≥50 years undergoing baseline and follow‐up DXA examinations in Manitoba, Canada. We identified clinical risk factors, intervening OTX based on medication possession ratios (MPR),and incident fractures. FRAX scores for major osteoporotic and hip fractures were computed for each scan using the most current(updated) FRAX inputs. Over 4 years, median FRAX scores showed an increase of 1.1% for major fractures and 0.3% for hip fractures,including women highly adherent to OTX (0.6% and 0.1% increases). Few (2.2%) highly adherent women had a decrease in major fracture probability exceeding 4%, whereas 9.0% had a decrease in hip fracture probability exceeding 1%. Compared with untreated women, OTX was associated with a higher dose‐dependent likelihood of attenuating the expected increase in major fracture risk:adjusted odds ratios (aOR) 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–2.9) for MPR <0.50; 7.3 (95% CI 5.6–9.6) for MPR 0.50–0.79; and 12.0(95% CI 9.5–15.2) for MPR ≥0.80. In the 4 years after the second DXA scan, 620 (6%) women had major fractures (152 hip fractures). FRAX scores were strongly predictive of incident major fractures (adjusted hazard ratios [aHR] per SD increase in FRAX 1.8, 95%CI 1.7–1.9) and hip fractures (aHR per SD 4.5, 95% CI 3.7–5.7); however, change in FRAX score was not independently associated with major fracture (p=0.8) or hip fracture (p=0.3). In conclusion, FRAX scores slowly increased over time, and this increase was attenuated but not prevented by treatment. Few women had meaningful reductions in FRAX scores, and change in FRAX score did not independently predict incident fracture, suggesting that FRAX with BMD is not responsive enough to be used as a target for goal‐directed treatment.

  1. An Adaptive Algebra Test: A Testlet-Based, Hierarchically-Structured Test with Validity-Based Scoring. Technical Report No. 90-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; And Others

    The initial development of a testlet-based algebra test was previously reported (Wainer and Lewis, 1990). This account provides the details of this excursion into the use of hierarchical testlets and validity-based scoring. A pretest of two 15-item hierarchical testlets was carried out in which examinees' performance on a 4-item subset of each…

  2. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (E-NPP) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in prostate cancer patients: influence of Gleason score, treatment and bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Vanessa; Maders, Liési D K; Bagatini, Margarete D; Battisti, Iara E; Bellé, Luziane P; Santos, Karen F; Maldonado, Paula A; Thomé, Gustavo R; Schetinger, Maria R C; Morsch, Vera M

    2013-04-01

    The relation between adenine nucleotides and cancer has already been described in literature. Considering that the enzymes ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (E-NPP) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) act together to control nucleotide levels, we aimed to investigate the role of these enzymes in prostate cancer (PCa). E-NPP and ADA activities were determined in serum and platelets of PCa patients and controls. We also verified the influence of the Gleason score, bone metastasis and treatment in the enzyme activities. Platelets and serum E-NPP activity increased, whereas ADA activity in serum decreased in PCa patients. In addition, Gleason score, metastasis and treatment influenced E-NPP and ADA activities. We may propose that E-NPP and ADA are involved in the development of PCa. Moreover, E-NPP and ADA activities are modified in PCa patients with distinct Gleason score, with bone metastasis, as well as in patients under treatment.

  3. Developing a high-quality scoring function for membrane protein structures based on specific inter-residue interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Andrew J.; Li, Zhijun

    2012-03-01

    Membrane proteins are of particular biological and pharmaceutical importance, and computational modeling and structure prediction approaches play an important role in studies of membrane proteins. Developing an accurate model quality assessment program is of significance to the structure prediction of membrane proteins. Few such programs are proposed that can be applied to a broad range of membrane protein classes and perform with high accuracy. We developed a new model scoring function Interaction-based Quality assessment (IQ), based on the analysis of four types of inter-residue interactions within the transmembrane domains of helical membrane proteins. This function was tested using three high-quality model sets: all 206 models of GPCR Dock 2008, all 284 models of GPCR Dock 2010, and all 92 helical membrane protein models of the HOMEP set. For all three sets, the scoring function can select the native structures among all of the models with the success rates of 93, 85, and 100% respectively. For comparison, these three model sets were also adopted for a recently published model assessment program for membrane protein structures, ProQM, which gave the success rates of 85, 79, and 92% separately. These results suggested that IQ outperforms ProQM when only the transmembrane regions of the models are considered. This scoring function should be useful for the computational modeling of membrane proteins.

  4. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria F.; Roberto, Lia; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Chiaviello, Angela; De Natale, Antonino; Roscetto, Emanuela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Ingenito, Aniello; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a) a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b) the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c) the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d) the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e) clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H), ethanol (E), and water (W) extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans. PMID:24302963

  5. Invasive Meningococcal Disease: Application of Base Excess and Platelets Score in a Portuguese Paediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Martins, Luis; Mação, Patrícia; Pinto, Carla; Dionísio, Teresa; Dias, Andrea; Dinis, Alexandra; Carvalho, Leonor; Neves, José Farela

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A infeção meningocócica tem uma elevada mortalidade e morbilidade. Recentemente foi desenvolvido um score de prognóstico para a doença meningocócica invasiva em idade pediátrica, baseado na contagem plaquetar e no excesso de base - o Base Excess and Platelets Score. O objetivo principal desde estudo foi avaliar a precisão prognóstica do Base Excess and Platelets Score em doentes admitidos em cuidados intensivos pediátricos por doença meningocócica invasiva.Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional, com colheita de dados retrospetiva, que incluiu um período de 13,5 anos (01/2000 a 06/2013). Foram analisados: mortalidade por doença meningocócica invasiva e fatores associados (disfunção de órgão e falência multi-órgão). Foi calculado o Base Excess and Platelets Score de forma retrospetiva, para avaliar a sua precisão na predição da mortalidade e foi comparado com o Paediatric Risk of Mortality e Paediatric Index of Mortality2.Resultados: Foram admitidas 76 crianças com doença meningocócica invasiva. O tipo de disfunção mais frequente foi a cardiovascular (92%), seguida da hematológica (55%). Cumpriram critérios de falência multi-órgão 47 doentes (62%). A mortalidade global foi de 16%. A disfunção neurológica e a renal foram as que apresentaram uma maior associação com a mortalidade, odds ratio ajustado 315 (26 - 3 804) e 155 (20 - 1 299). Após aplicação das curvas receiver operating characteristic, o Base Excess and Platelets Score tinha umaarea under curve de 0,81, o Paediatric Index of Mortality2 de 0,91 e o Paediatric Risk of Mortality de 0,96.Discussão: O Base Excess and Platelets Score apresentou uma boa precisão apesar de não tão elevada como o Paediatric Index of Mortality2 ou o Paediatric Risk of Mortality.Conclusões: O Base Excess and Platelets Score pode ser útil como indicador prognóstico na doença meningocócica invasiva, por apresentar uma elevada sensibilidade e especificidade e ser

  6. Combining group-based trajectory modeling and propensity score matching for causal inferences in nonexperimental longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Amelia; Nagin, Daniel S; Rosenbaum, Paul R; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-03-01

    A central theme of research on human development and psychopathology is whether a therapeutic intervention or a turning-point event, such as a family break-up, alters the trajectory of the behavior under study. This article describes and applies a method for using observational longitudinal data to make more transparent causal inferences about the impact of such events on developmental trajectories. The method combines 2 distinct lines of research: work on the use of finite mixture modeling to analyze developmental trajectories and work on propensity score matching. The propensity scores are used to balance observed covariates and the trajectory groups are used to control pretreatment measures of response. The trajectory groups also aid in characterizing classes of subjects for which no good matches are available. The approach is demonstrated with an analysis of the impact of gang membership on violent delinquency based on data from a large longitudinal study conducted in Montréal, Canada.

  7. Scoring Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, Pinchas; Doran, Rodney L.

    1992-01-01

    Scoring guidelines are given for four forms of the practical skills tests of the Second International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Improvement Science Study conducted in the following countries in the 1980s: (1) Hungary; (2) Japan; (3) Korea; (4) Singapore; (5) Israel; and (6) the United States. (SLD)

  8. Ethnic differences in maternal dietary patterns are largely explained by socio-economic score and integration score: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne K.; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Andersen, Lene F.; Birkeland, Kåre I.; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of socio-economic position and integration level on the observed ethnic differences in dietary habits has received little attention. Objectives To identify and describe dietary patterns in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, to explore ethnic differences in odds ratio (OR) for belonging to a dietary pattern, when adjusted for socio-economic status and integration level and to examine whether the dietary patterns were reflected in levels of biomarkers related to obesity and hyperglycaemia. Design This cross-sectional study was a part of the STORK Groruddalen study. In total, 757 pregnant women, of whom 59% were of a non-Western origin, completed a food frequency questionnaire in gestational week 28±2. Dietary patterns were extracted through cluster analysis using Ward's method. Results Four robust clusters were identified where cluster 4 was considered the healthier dietary pattern and cluster 1 the least healthy. All non-European women as compared to Europeans had higher OR for belonging to the unhealthier dietary patterns 1–3 vs. cluster 4. Women from the Middle East and Africa had the highest OR, 21.5 (95% CI 10.6–43.7), of falling into cluster 1 vs. 4 as compared to Europeans. The ORs decreased substantially after adjusting for socio-economic score and integration score. A non-European ethnic origin, low socio-economic and integration scores, conduced higher OR for belonging to clusters 1, 2, and 3 as compared to cluster 4. Significant differences in fasting and 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and total cholesterol were observed across the dietary patterns. After adjusting for ethnicity, differences in fasting insulin (p=0.015) and HOMA-IR (p=0.040) across clusters remained significant, despite low power. Conclusion The results indicate that socio-economic and integration level may explain a large proportion of the ethnic differences in dietary patterns. PMID

  9. Effect of atorvastatin and diet on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score in hyperlipidemic chickens.

    PubMed

    Martín-Castillo, Antonia; Castells, Maria Teresa; Adánez, Gracia; Polo, Maria Teresa Sánchez; Pérez, Bartolomé García; Ayala, Ignacio

    2010-04-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is part of the spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which includes from simple steatosis and steatohepatitis, to the most severe cirrhosis and carcinoma, which develops in the absence of excessive alcohol intake. NAFLD is the most common liver disorder in affluent societies. There is no proven treatment for NAFLD/NASH. One of the most frequent adverse effects of statins is an increase in hepatic aminotransferases. Studies that evaluate if the benefits of statins overcome the risks in NASH are lacking. The present study was conceived to explore the effect of both atorvastatin and diet on regression of steatohepatitis, using a chicken experimental model induced by a hyperlipidemic diet (HD). Plasma lipid levels, liver enzymes and hepatic histopathology, as well as image analysis were performed to determine changes in liver lipid deposits and inflammatory infiltration. Features of steatosis, cell-ballooning, and inflammation were scored to obtain the NAFLD activity score (NAS). A severe level of steatosis was found in animals fed on HD. Atorvastatin treated groups showed smaller size of lipid deposits and a lower level of inflammation than non-treated groups. Atorvastatin therapy induced a significant reduction of hepatocellular damage, even though in the animals which continuously received a hyperlipidemic diet. The combination of atorvastatin therapy and a standard diet produced the lowest decrease of NAS. Our results show that atorvastatin therapy not only decreased plasmatic levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, but also induced a reduction of liver steatosis, inflammation and hepatocellular damage, without increasing plasmatic aminotransferase levels.

  10. Further Optimization of the Reliability of the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Siemons, Liseth; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald E.; van de Laar, Mart A. F. J.; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background The 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) combines scores on a 28-tender and swollen joint count (TJC28 and SJC28), a patient-reported measure for general health (GH), and an inflammatory marker (either the erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR] or the C-reactive protein [CRP]) into a composite measure of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study examined the reliability of the DAS28 in patients with early RA using principles from generalizability theory and evaluated whether it could be increased by adjusting individual DAS28 component weights. Methods Patients were drawn from the DREAM registry and classified into a “fast response” group (N = 466) and “slow response” group (N = 80), depending on their pace of reaching remission. Composite reliabilities of the DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP were determined with the individual components' reliability, weights, variances, error variances, correlations and covariances. Weight optimization was performed by minimizing the error variance of the index. Results Composite reliabilities of 0.85 and 0.86 were found for the DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP, respectively, and were approximately equal across patients groups. Component reliabilities, however, varied widely both within and between sub-groups, ranging from 0.614 for GH (“slow response” group) to 0.912 for ESR (“fast response” group). Weight optimization increased composite reliability even further. In the total and “fast response” groups, this was achieved mostly by decreasing the weight of the TJC28 and GH. In the “slow response” group, though, the weights of the TJC28 and SJC28 were increased, while those of the inflammatory markers and GH were substantially decreased. Conclusions The DAS28-ESR and the DAS28-CRP are reliable instruments for assessing disease activity in early RA and reliability can be increased even further by adjusting component weights. Given the low reliability and weightings of the general health

  11. A new approach for automatic sleep scoring: Combining Taguchi based complex-valued neural network and complex wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Peker, Musa

    2016-06-01

    Automatic classification of sleep stages is one of the most important methods used for diagnostic procedures in psychiatry and neurology. This method, which has been developed by sleep specialists, is a time-consuming and difficult process. Generally, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used in sleep scoring. In this study, a new complex classifier-based approach is presented for automatic sleep scoring using EEG signals. In this context, complex-valued methods were utilized in the feature selection and classification stages. In the feature selection stage, features of EEG data were extracted with the help of a dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT). In the next phase, five statistical features were obtained. These features are classified using complex-valued neural network (CVANN) algorithm. The Taguchi method was used in order to determine the effective parameter values in this CVANN. The aim was to develop a stable model involving parameter optimization. Different statistical parameters were utilized in the evaluation phase. Also, results were obtained in terms of two different sleep standards. In the study in which a 2nd level DTCWT and CVANN hybrid model was used, 93.84% accuracy rate was obtained according to the Rechtschaffen & Kales (R&K) standard, while a 95.42% accuracy rate was obtained according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) standard. Complex-valued classifiers were found to be promising in terms of the automatic sleep scoring and EEG data.

  12. Species Identification in Malaise Trap Samples by DNA Barcoding Based on NGS Technologies and a Scoring Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Morinière, Jérôme; Cancian de Araujo, Bruno; Hausmann, Axel; Balke, Michael; Hendrich, Lars; Doczkal, Dieter; Arvidsson, Samuel; Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The German Barcoding initiatives BFB and GBOL have generated a reference library of more than 16,000 metazoan species, which is now ready for applications concerning next generation molecular biodiversity assessments. To streamline the barcoding process, we have developed a meta-barcoding pipeline: We pre-sorted a single malaise trap sample (obtained during one week in August 2014, southern Germany) into 12 arthropod orders and extracted DNA from pooled individuals of each order separately, in order to facilitate DNA extraction and avoid time consuming single specimen selection. Aliquots of each ordinal-level DNA extract were combined to roughly simulate a DNA extract from a non-sorted malaise sample. Each DNA extract was amplified using four primer sets targeting the CO1-5’ fragment. The resulting PCR products (150-400bp) were sequenced separately on an Illumina Mi-SEQ platform, resulting in 1.5 million sequences and 5,500 clusters (coverage ≥10; CD-HIT-EST, 98%). Using a total of 120,000 DNA barcodes of identified, Central European Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera downloaded from BOLD we established a reference sequence database for a local CUSTOM BLAST. This allowed us to identify 529 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) from our sequence clusters derived from pooled Malaise trap samples. We introduce a scoring matrix based on the sequence match percentages of each amplicon in order to gain plausibility for each detected BIN, leading to 390 high score BINs in the sorted samples; whereas 268 of these high score BINs (69%) could be identified in the combined sample. The results indicate that a time consuming presorting process will yield approximately 30% more high score BINs compared to the non-sorted sample in our case. These promising results indicate that a fast, efficient and reliable analysis of next generation data from malaise trap samples can be achieved using this pipeline. PMID:27191722

  13. The characteristics of suicide attempts based on the suicidal intent scale scores.

    PubMed

    Polewka, Andrzej; Mikołaszek-Boba, Magdalena; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Groszek, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the work was to present the characteristics of suicide attempts, distinguished on the basis of the scores in the Suicidal Intent Scale questionnaire (SIS), created by Aaron Beck, professor of psychiatry from Philadelphia. The group examined comprised 238 patients (63 males and 175 females) hospitalised in the Department of Clinical Toxicology CMUJ in Kraków in the years 2000-2001, after a suicidal self-intoxication with xenobiotics. The examination was conducted by means of the Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS)--a psychological test created by Aaron Beck. In the case of about 65% of the patients examined, their suicide attempts most frequently were acts of impulsive behaviour, rarely planned for longer than three hours before the realization and usually made in another person's presence or in a situation in which another person's intervention was highly probable. Such attempts had the character of "a cry for help", and were aimed at effecting some change or at manipulating the environment. Nevertheless, the patients acted in a conviction that their act was a serious attempt at ending life, and, most frequently, they maintained such opinions during the examination. On the other hand, they rarely expressed further suicidal intents, and more frequently accepted the fact that their lives had been saved. By contrast, the remaining 35% of the patients examined had attempted suicide with the evident intention to kill themselves; they had taken full precautions against being discovered and had planned suicide carefully to eliminate the smallest possibility of intervention. In the majority of cases, they still maintained the wish to die after the attempt. As the results of the examination indicate, the Suicidal Intent Scale, and, especially, the Precautions subscale, point at the important aspect of suicidal intentions, which, being of vital importance for the diagnostic purposes and suicide prevention, requires further investigation.

  14. Psychometric Properties of Scores from the Web-based LibQUAL+ Study of Perceptions of Library Service Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Colleen; Thompson, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the psychometric integrity of scores from the LibQUAL+ evaluation of perceived library service quality conducted by ARL (Association of Research Libraries). Examines score structure, score reliability, score correlation and concurrent validity coefficients, scale means, and scale standardized norms, and considers the potential of the…

  15. Capturing, Codifying and Scoring Complex Data for Innovative, Computer-Based Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecht, Richard M.

    The Microsoft Certification Program (MCP) includes many new computer-based item types, based on complex cases involving the Windows 2000 (registered) operating system. This Innovative Item Technology (IIT) has presented challenges beyond traditional psychometric considerations such as capturing and storing the relevant response data from…

  16. Integrating Authentic Assessment with Competence-Based Learning in Vocational Education: The Protocol Portfolio Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sluijsmans, Dominique M. A.; Straetmans, Gerard J. J. M.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how competence-based learning (CBL) can be organised in vocational education by integrating elements from a holistic instructional design model with recent ideas on assessment. A curriculum based on this model is pre-eminently suitable for an assessment approach emphasising that proof of competence is gathered by having…

  17. Effects of Computer-Based Programs on Mathematical Achievement Scores for Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenel, Jessica; Lambeth, Dawn T.; Spires, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research study was to identify the effects of computer-based programs on mathematical achievement, perceptions, and engagement of fourth-grade students. The 31 student participants were divided into two intervention groups, as a hands-on group and a computer-based group. Student achievement was measured by comparing the pretest…

  18. Meaning-Based Scoring: A Systemic Functional Linguistics Model for Automated Test Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Communicative approaches to language teaching that emphasize the importance of speaking (e.g., task-based language teaching) require innovative and evidence-based means of assessing oral language. Nonetheless, research has yet to produce an adequate assessment model for oral language (Chun 2006; Downey et al. 2008). Limited by automatic speech…

  19. 42 CFR 414.1275 - Value-based payment modifier quality-tiering scoring methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-tiering approach is based upon a comparison of the composite of quality of care measures and a composite of cost measures. (b) Quality composite and cost composite are classified into high, average, and low categories based on whether the composites are statistically above, not different from, or below the...

  20. Impact on house staff evaluation scores when changing from a Dreyfus- to a Milestone-based evaluation model: one internal medicine residency program's findings

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Karen A.; Balwan, Sandy; Cacace, Frank; Katona, Kyle; Sunday, Suzanne; Chaudhry, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Purpose As graduate medical education (GME) moves into the Next Accreditation System (NAS), programs must take a critical look at their current models of evaluation and assess how well they align with reporting outcomes. Our objective was to assess the impact on house staff evaluation scores when transitioning from a Dreyfus-based model of evaluation to a Milestone-based model of evaluation. Milestones are a key component of the NAS. Method We analyzed all end of rotation evaluations of house staff completed by faculty for academic years 2010–2011 (pre-Dreyfus model) and 2011–2012 (post-Milestone model) in one large university-based internal medicine residency training program. Main measures included change in PGY-level average score; slope, range, and separation of average scores across all six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies. Results Transitioning from a Dreyfus-based model to a Milestone-based model resulted in a larger separation in the scores between our three post-graduate year classes, a steeper progression of scores in the PGY-1 class, a wider use of the 5-point scale on our global end of rotation evaluation form, and a downward shift in the PGY-1 scores and an upward shift in the PGY-3 scores. Conclusions For faculty trained in both models of assessment, the Milestone-based model had greater discriminatory ability as evidenced by the larger separation in the scores for all the classes, in particular the PGY-1 class. PMID:25425408

  1. Development and evaluation of a risk score for type 2 diabetes mellitus among middle-aged Chinese rural population based on the RuralDiab Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao; Li, Yuqian; Liu, Xiaotian; Xu, Fei; Li, Linlin; Yang, Kaili; Qian, Xinling; Liu, Ruihua; Bie, Ronghai; Wang, Chongjian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a simple and effective risk score for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in middle-aged rural Chinese. Total of 5453 participants aged 30–59 years from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study were recruited for establishing the RuralDiab risk score by using logistic regression analysis. The RuralDiab risk score was validated in a prospective study from Henan Province of China, and compared with previous risk scores by using the receiver-operating characteristics cure. Ultimately, sex, age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, waist circumference, history of dyslipidemia, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index were included in the RuralDiab risk score (range from 0 to 36), and the optimal cutoff value was 17 with 67.9% sensitivity and 67.8% specificity. The area under the cures (AUC) of the RuralDiab risk score was 0.723(95%CI: 0.710–0.735) for T2DM in validation population, which was significant higher than the American Diabetes Association score (AUC: 0.636), the Inter99 score (AUC: 0.669), the Oman risk score (AUC: 0.675). The RuralDiab risk score was established and demonstrated an appropriate performance for predicting T2DM in middle-aged Chinese rural population. Further studies for validation should be implemented in different populations. PMID:28209984

  2. Assessment of Variations in Oxidative Stress in Newborns from Caesarian and Normal Delivery Based on Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    Sinharay, M; Chakraborty, I; Dasgupta, A; Chakraborty, P

    2017-01-01

    Fetal distress seems to be strongly related to fetal hypoxia, which is known to cause derangement of the balance between pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant factors by depleting the antioxidant reserve and increasing oxidative stress. Reduced Apgar score signify the fetal distress in postpartum period. The current study explores the severity of oxidative stress and nitrosative stress markers along with the antioxidant status in the cord blood of the newborns with low Apgar score (Group 1), fairly low Apgar score (Group 2) and normal Apgar score (Group 3) in both categories born by Cesarean section (CS) and Normal delivery (ND). Cord blood was collected from eighty full terms, mature neonates of both sexes; forty born via ND and 40 delivered by CS. Apgar scores were recorded and they were grouped based on the different levels of the score. Methemoglobin (HbM), RBC glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), RBC reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured as markers of oxidative stress, whereas serum nitrate and nitrite levels were assayed as markers of nitrosative stress. The data obtained were analyzed for the level of significance between study variables. One way ANOVA revealed statistically significant difference between the means of HbM (1.48±0.52, 1.03±0.4 and 0.69±0.31 for Group 1, 2 and 3 respectively, p<0.001), RBC G6PD (15.62±1.99, 18.16±2.47, 21.93±3.91) RBC GSH (7.7±1.55, 10.75±2.31, 16±6.10), serum nitrate (63.18±17.14, 49.29±14.39, 40.86±8.83) serum nitrite (4.89±1.8, 4.64±1.04, 3.69±0.72) between the three groups of ND neonates. The results were almost similar in CS neonates (HbM - 2.17±0.95, 1.45±0.62, 0.8±0.3; G6PD - 12.54±2.31, 14.31±2.17, 18.1±3.13; GSH - 7.6±2.23, 9±2.11, 12.78±2.83) except serum nitrate and nitrite where no significant difference was found between means among the different Apgar groups. The results suggest that lowest Apgar score ND neonates are exposed to highest oxidative, nitrosative stress and have the poorest

  3. Ideal cardiovascular health score and incident end-stage renal disease in a community-based longitudinal cohort study: the Kailuan Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Quan Le; Wu, Shou Ling; Liu, Xiao Xue; An, Sha Sha; Wu, Yun Tao; Gao, Jing Sheng; Chen, Shuo Hua; Liu, Xiao Kun; Zhang, Qi; Mao, Rui Ying; Shang, Xiao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate an association between ideal cardiovascular health metrics (CVH) and the risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Setting Community of Kailuan in Tangshan/China. Participants We examined in a community-based longitudinal cohort study 91 443 participants without history of stroke or myocardial infarction at baseline in 2006–2007, with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥15 mL/min at baseline, and who participated in at least 1 of 3 follow-up examinations in 2008–2009, 2010–2011 and 2012–2013. Interventions CVH was measured by 7 key health factors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, healthy dietary score, total cholesterol blood concentration, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose) each of which ranged between ‘ideal’ (2) and ‘poor’ (0). With a maximal CVH score of 14, the study participants were divided into categories of <5, 5–9 and 10–14 points. Primary and secondary outcome measures CHV, incidence of ESRD. Results Incidence of ESRD ranged from 7.06‰ in the lowest CVH category to 2.34‰ in the highest CVH category. After adjusting for age, sex, educational level, income, alcohol consumption and GFR, the lowest CVH category as compared with the highest CVH category had a significantly higher risk of incident ESRD (adjusted HR 2.87; 95% CI 1.53 to 5.39). For every decrease in group number of the cum-CVH score, the risk of ESRD increased by 20% (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.28). The effect was consistent across sex and all age groups. Conclusions A low CVH score significantly increased the risk of incident ESRD. Risk factors for cardiovascular events may also be associated with an increased risk for kidney failure. PMID:27899399

  4. Young Zanzibari Children with Iron Deficiency, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Stunting, or Malaria Have Lower Motor Activity Scores and Spend Less Time in Locomotion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motor activity improves cognitive and social-emotional development through a child’s exploration of his or her physical and social environment. This study assessed anemia, iron deficiency, hemoglobin (Hb), length-for-age Z-score (LAZ), and malaria infection as predictors of motor activity in 771 chi...

  5. Evaluation of functional ability of rheumatoid arthritis based on HAQ score and BMD among South Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Snekhalatha, U; Anburajan, M

    2012-07-01

    Aim of this study is to analyze the functional ability of rheumatoid arthritis among South Indian male and female patients based on HAQ score and forearm ulna-BMD measurement by peripheral DXA, and to investigate the correlation between forearm ulna-BMD and HAQ score among RA patients. Sixty-four patients with RA and 64 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this study. The health assessment questionnaire test was self administered by each RA patients. The bone mineral density (BMD) in forearm ulna region was measured using peripheral Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (osteometer model-DTX200 Meditech.Inc, Hawthorn, California, USA) both for RA patients and for healthy control group. RA patients (n = 64) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 64) were selected, of which 46 (72%) patients were women and 18 (28%) were men. The mean age was 47.75 ± 11.37 years, and a majority of the patients were in the age group of 30-75 years. The mean age of healthy controls was 46.42 ± 10.67 years. For male RA patients, U-BMD shows moderate significance with healthy controls (0.371 ± 0.05 (g cm(2)) [mean ± SD], 0.413 ± 0.05 (g cm(2)), P = 0.03). For female RA patients, U-BMD was highly significant with that of healthy controls (0.300 ± 0.132 (g cm(2)), 0.376 ± 0.05 (g cm(2)), P = 0.0006). Because as U-BMD decreases for RA patients, HAQ score increases, hence, Pearson correlation analysis revealed that U-BMD was negatively correlated with HAQ score (r = -0.732, P < 0.0001). Forearm U-BMD for RA patients is significantly lower than the healthy controls both for male and for female patients. There was a negative correlation found between HAQ score and P-DXA forearm U-BMD.

  6. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Hong; Fang, Yu-Jing; Li, Cai-Xia; Ou, Qing-Jian; Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De Sen

    2016-04-19

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment.

  7. Reproducibility of the NEPTUNE descriptor-based scoring system on whole-slide images and histologic and ultrastructural digital images.

    PubMed

    Barisoni, Laura; Troost, Jonathan P; Nast, Cynthia; Bagnasco, Serena; Avila-Casado, Carmen; Hodgin, Jeffrey; Palmer, Matthew; Rosenberg, Avi; Gasim, Adil; Liensziewski, Chrysta; Merlino, Lino; Chien, Hui-Ping; Chang, Anthony; Meehan, Shane M; Gaut, Joseph; Song, Peter; Holzman, Lawrence; Gibson, Debbie; Kretzler, Matthias; Gillespie, Brenda W; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2016-07-01

    The multicenter Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) digital pathology scoring system employs a novel and comprehensive methodology to document pathologic features from whole-slide images, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural digital images. To estimate inter- and intra-reader concordance of this descriptor-based approach, data from 12 pathologists (eight NEPTUNE and four non-NEPTUNE) with experience from training to 30 years were collected. A descriptor reference manual was generated and a webinar-based protocol for consensus/cross-training implemented. Intra-reader concordance for 51 glomerular descriptors was evaluated on jpeg images by seven NEPTUNE pathologists scoring 131 glomeruli three times (Tests I, II, and III), each test following a consensus webinar review. Inter-reader concordance of glomerular descriptors was evaluated in 315 glomeruli by all pathologists; interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (244 cases, whole-slide images) and four ultrastructural podocyte descriptors (178 cases, jpeg images) were evaluated once by six and five pathologists, respectively. Cohen's kappa for inter-reader concordance for 48/51 glomerular descriptors with sufficient observations was moderate (0.40based on similar pathologic features improved concordance. Concordance was independent of years of experience, and increased with webinar cross-training. Excellent concordance was achieved for interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Moderate-to-excellent concordance was achieved for all ultrastructural podocyte descriptors, with good-to-excellent concordance for descriptors commonly used in clinical practice, foot process effacement, and microvillous transformation. NEPTUNE digital pathology scoring system enables novel morphologic profiling of renal structures. For all histologic and ultrastructural descriptors tested with

  8. Impact of Inadequate Empirical Therapy on the Mortality of Patients with Bloodstream Infections: a Propensity Score-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Retamar, Pilar; Portillo, María M.; López-Prieto, María Dolores; Rodríguez-López, Fernando; de Cueto, Marina; García, María V.; Gómez, María J.; del Arco, Alfonso; Muñoz, Angel; Sánchez-Porto, Antonio; Torres-Tortosa, Manuel; Martín-Aspas, Andrés; Arroyo, Ascensión; García-Figueras, Carolina; Acosta, Federico; Corzo, Juan E.; León-Ruiz, Laura; Escobar-Lara, Trinidad

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the adequacy of empirical therapy on outcome for patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) is key for determining whether adequate empirical coverage should be prioritized over other, more conservative approaches. Recent systematic reviews outlined the need for new studies in the field, using improved methodologies. We assessed the impact of inadequate empirical treatment on the mortality of patients with BSI in the present-day context, incorporating recent methodological recommendations. A prospective multicenter cohort including all BSI episodes in adult patients was performed in 15 hospitals in Andalucía, Spain, over a 2-month period in 2006 to 2007. The main outcome variables were 14- and 30-day mortality. Adjusted analyses were performed by multivariate analysis and propensity score-based matching. Eight hundred one episodes were included. Inadequate empirical therapy was administered in 199 (24.8%) episodes; mortality at days 14 and 30 was 18.55% and 22.6%, respectively. After controlling for age, Charlson index, Pitt score, neutropenia, source, etiology, and presentation with severe sepsis or shock, inadequate empirical treatment was associated with increased mortality at days 14 and 30 (odds ratios [ORs], 2.12 and 1.56; 95% confidence intervals [95% CI], 1.34 to 3.34 and 1.01 to 2.40, respectively). The adjusted ORs after a propensity score-based matched analysis were 3.03 and 1.70 (95% CI, 1.60 to 5.74 and 0.98 to 2.98, respectively). In conclusion, inadequate empirical therapy is independently associated with increased mortality in patients with BSI. Programs to improve the quality of empirical therapy in patients with suspicion of BSI and optimization of definitive therapy should be implemented. PMID:22005999

  9. Grading as a Reform Effort: Do Standards-Based Grades Converge with Test Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Kaniskan, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based progress reports (SBPRs) require teachers to grade students using the performance levels reported by state tests and are an increasingly popular report card format. They may help to increase teacher familiarity with state standards, encourage teachers to exclude nonacademic factors from grades, and/or improve communication with…

  10. Pre-Service Teachers' Constructivist Teaching Scores Based on Their Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kablan, Zeynel; Kaya, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between pre-service teachers' constructivist teaching and their learning styles based on Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory. The Learning Styles Inventory-3 was administered at the beginning of the semester to determine preferred learning style. The Constructivist Teaching Evaluation Form was filled out by…

  11. Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement and Retention Scores: A Case of Problem-Based Learning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajai, John T.; Imoko, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess gender differences in mathematics achievement and retention by using Problem-Based Learning (PBL). The design of the study was pre-posttest quasi-experimental. Four hundred and twenty eight senior secondary one (SS I) students using multistage sampling from ten grant-aided and government schools were involved in…

  12. Evidence-Based Standard Setting: Establishing a Validity Framework for Cut Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClarty, Katie Larsen; Way, Walter D.; Porter, Andrew C.; Beimers, Jennifer N.; Miles, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Performance standards are a powerful way to communicate K-12 student achievement (e.g., proficiency) and are the cornerstone of standards-based reform. As education reform shifts the focus to college and career readiness, approaches for setting performance standards need to be revised. We argue that the focus on assessing student readiness can…

  13. Mortality scoring in ITU.

    PubMed

    Niewiński, Grzegorz; Kański, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Chronic shortage of ITU beds makes decisions on admission difficult and responsible. The use of computer-based mortality scoring should help in decision-making and for this purpose, a number of different scoring systems have been created; in principle, they should be easy to use, adaptable to all populations of patients and suitable for predicting the risk of mortality during both ITU and hospital stay. Most of existing scales and scoring systems were included in this review. They are frequently used in ITUs and become a necessary tool to describe ITU populations and to explain differences in mortality. As there are several pitfalls related to the interpretation of the numbers supplied by the systems, they should be used with the knowledge on the severity scoring science. Moreover, the cost and significant workload limit the use of scoring systems; in many cases an extra person has to be employed for collection and analysis of data only.

  14. Risk-based priority scoring for Brookhaven National Laboratory environmental restoration programs

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the process of estimating the risk associated with environmental restoration programs under the Brookhaven National Laboratory Office of Environmental Restoration. The process was part of an effort across all Department of Energy facilities to provide a consistent framework to communicate risk information about the facilities to senior managers in the DOE Office of Environmental Management to foster understanding of risk activities across programs. the risk evaluation was a qualitative exercise. Categories considered included: Public health and safety; site personnel safety and health; compliance; mission impact; cost-effective risk management; environmental protection; inherent worker risk; environmental effects of clean-up; and social, cultural, political, and economic impacts.

  15. Guy's Stone Score (GSS) Based on Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) Findings Predicting Upper Pole Access Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rod-Ong, Pattara; Kitirattrakarn, Pruit; Chongruksut, Wilaiwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To predict the success rate and complications following percutaneous nephrolithotomy via the upper pole using the Guy's Stone Score (GSS) based on the findings of a preoperative intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Patients and Methods. Two hundred and twenty-seven renal operations, which were carried out using PCNL via the upper pole, were classified according to the GSS assigned. Any complications were classified according to the Clavien classification. The success rates and incidence of any complications were compared between each GSS. Results. The immediate success rates were 87.50% of GSS1, 71.43% of GSS2, 53.62% of GSS3, and 38.46% of GSS4, P < 0.01. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in stone size, overall immediate success rate, operative time, number of access tracts, and frequency of tubeless PCNL. Major complications (a Clavien score of 3–5) were significantly higher in the cases with a higher GSS. Conclusion. A GSS based on an IVP is a simple and reliable tool in predicting the success rate and possible complications following upper pole access PCNL. PMID:28003822

  16. GARN: Sampling RNA 3D Structure Space with Game Theory and Knowledge-Based Scoring Strategies.

    PubMed

    Boudard, Mélanie; Bernauer, Julie; Barth, Dominique; Cohen, Johanne; Denise, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Cellular processes involve large numbers of RNA molecules. The functions of these RNA molecules and their binding to molecular machines are highly dependent on their 3D structures. One of the key challenges in RNA structure prediction and modeling is predicting the spatial arrangement of the various structural elements of RNA. As RNA folding is generally hierarchical, methods involving coarse-grained models hold great promise for this purpose. We present here a novel coarse-grained method for sampling, based on game theory and knowledge-based potentials. This strategy, GARN (Game Algorithm for RNa sampling), is often much faster than previously described techniques and generates large sets of solutions closely resembling the native structure. GARN is thus a suitable starting point for the molecular modeling of large RNAs, particularly those with experimental constraints. GARN is available from: http://garn.lri.fr/.

  17. A Psychometric Approach to the Development of a 5E Lesson Plan Scoring Instrument for Inquiry-Based Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Dantzler, John; Day, Jeanelle; Webb, Brenda

    2013-04-01

    This research centers on the psychometric examination of the structure of an instrument, known as the 5E Lesson Plan (5E ILPv2) rubric for inquiry-based teaching. The instrument is intended to measure an individual's skill in developing written 5E lesson plans for inquiry teaching. In stage one of the instrument's development, an exploratory factor analysis on a fifteen-item 5E ILP instrument revealed only three factor loadings instead of the expected five factors, which led to its subsequent revision. Modifications in the original instrument led to a revised 5E ILPv2 instrument comprised of twenty-one items. This instrument, like its precursor, has a scoring scale that ranges from zero to four points per item. Content validity of the 5E ILPv2 was determined through the expertise of a panel of science educators. Over the course of five semesters, three elementary science methods instructors in three different universities collected post lesson plan data from 224 pre-service teachers enrolled in their courses. Each instructor scored their students' post 5E inquiry lesson plans using the 5E ILPv2 instrument recording a score for each item on the instrument. A factor analysis with maximum likelihood extraction and promax oblique rotation provided evidence of construct validity for five factors and explained 85.5 % of the variability in the total instrument. All items loaded with their theoretical factors exhibiting high ordinal alpha reliability estimates of .94, .99, .96, .97, and .95 for the engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate subscales respectively. The total instrument reliability estimate was 0.98 indicating strong evidence of total scale reliability.

  18. Increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with migraine: a population-based, propensity score-matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chia; Huang, Ya-Ping; Wang, Mei-Ting; Wang, Hsin-I; Pan, Shin-Liang

    2017-02-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between migraine and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but no longitudinal study has been performed to evaluate the temporal relationship between the two conditions. The purpose of the present population-based, propensity score-matched cohort study was to investigate whether migraineurs are at a higher risk of developing RA. A total of 58,749 subjects aged between 20 and 90 years with at least two ambulatory visits with a diagnosis of migraine were recruited in the migraine group. We fit a logistic regression model that included age, sex, comorbid conditions, and socioeconomic status as covariates to compute the propensity score. The non-migraine group consisted of 58,749 propensity score-matched, randomly sampled subjects without migraine. The RA-free survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the effect of migraine on the risk of RA. During follow-up, 461 subjects in the migraine group and 220 in the non-migraine group developed RA. The incidence rate of RA was 3.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.90-3.49) per 1000 person-years in the migraine group and 1.54 (95% CI 1.34-1.76) per 1000 person-years in the non-migraine group. Compared to the non-migraine group, the crude hazard ratio of RA for the migraine group was 2.15 (95% CI 1.82-2.56, P < 0.0001), and the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio was 1.91 (95% CI 1.58-2.31, P < 0.0001). This study showed that patients with migraine had an increased risk of developing RA.

  19. Revalidation of a prognostic score model based on complete blood count for nasopharyngeal carcinoma through a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Chang, Hui; Tao, Yalan; Wang, Xiaohui; Gao, Jin; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Chen; Xia, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Objective In our previous work, we incorporated complete blood count (CBC) into TNM stage to develop a new prognostic score model, which was validated to improve prediction efficiency of TNM stage for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study was to revalidate the accuracy of the model, and its superiority to TNM stage, through data from a prospective study. Methods CBC of 249 eligible patients from the 863 Program No. 2006AA02Z4B4 was evaluated. Prognostic index (PI) of each patient was calculated according to the score model. Then they were divided by the PI into three categories: the low-, intermediate-and high-risk patients. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) of the three categories was compared by a log-rank test. The model and TNM stage (7th edition) were compared on efficiency for predicting the 5-year DSS, through comparison of the area under curve (AUC) of their receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results The 5-year DSS of the low-, intermediate-and high-risk patients were 96.0%, 79.1% and 62.2%, respectively. The low-and intermediate-risk patients had better DSS than the high-risk patients (P<0.001 and P<0.005, respectively). And there was a trend of better DSS in the low-risk patients, compared with the intermediate-risk patients (P=0.049). The AUC of the model was larger than that of TNM stage (0.726 vs. 0.661, P=0.023). Conclusions A CBC-based prognostic score model was revalidated to be accurate and superior to TNM stage on predicting 5-year DSS of NPC. PMID:27877005

  20. Management of thyroid follicular proliferation: an ultrasound-based malignancy score to opt for surgical or conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Giovanni; Tresoldi, Silvia; Primolevo, Alessandra; De Pasquale, Loredana; Di Leo, Giovanni; Cornalba, Gianpaolo

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether ultrasound characteristics of thyroid nodules with a known cytologic diagnosis of "follicular pattern" (indicative of follicular hyperplasia, follicular adenoma or follicular carcinoma) can be used to define a nodule malignancy score to limit surgery to selected, higher-risk cases. In pre-operative ultrasound results of patients diagnosed with a "follicular pattern" on cytology who subsequently underwent surgery, each nodule feature was given a score from 0 (most likely benign) to 2 (most likely malignant), resulting in a total score ranging from 0 to 11. The total nodule score (total malignancy score) was then compared with the definitive histologic diagnosis. According to our results, surgery is advisable in patients with score ≥4 (79% of carcinomas), ultrasound follow-up seems to be appropriate for patients with a score of 3 (21% of carcinomas) and no action is recommended for patients with score <3 (only benign nodules).

  1. Population-standardized genetic risk score: the SNP-based method of choice for inherited risk assessment of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Conran, Carly A; Na, Rong; Chen, Haitao; Jiang, Deke; Lin, Xiaoling; Zheng, S Lilly; Brendler, Charles B; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Several different approaches are available to clinicians for determining prostate cancer (PCa) risk. The clinical validity of various PCa risk assessment methods utilizing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been established; however, these SNP-based methods have not been compared. The objective of this study was to compare the three most commonly used SNP-based methods for PCa risk assessment. Participants were men (n = 1654) enrolled in a prospective study of PCa development. Genotypes of 59 PCa risk-associated SNPs were available in this cohort. Three methods of calculating SNP-based genetic risk scores (GRSs) were used for the evaluation of individual disease risk such as risk allele count (GRS-RAC), weighted risk allele count (GRS-wRAC), and population-standardized genetic risk score (GRS-PS). Mean GRSs were calculated, and performances were compared using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and positive predictive value (PPV). All SNP-based methods were found to be independently associated with PCa (all P < 0.05; hence their clinical validity). The mean GRSs in men with or without PCa using GRS-RAC were 55.15 and 53.46, respectively, using GRS-wRAC were 7.42 and 6.97, respectively, and using GRS-PS were 1.12 and 0.84, respectively (all P < 0.05 for differences between patients with or without PCa). All three SNP-based methods performed similarly in discriminating PCa from non-PCa based on AUC and in predicting PCa risk based on PPV (all P > 0.05 for comparisons between the three methods), and all three SNP-based methods had a significantly higher AUC than family history (all P < 0.05). Results from this study suggest that while the three most commonly used SNP-based methods performed similarly in discriminating PCa from non-PCa at the population level, GRS-PS is the method of choice for risk assessment at the individual level because its value (where 1.0 represents average population risk) can be easily interpreted regardless

  2. Predicting siRNA efficacy based on multiple selective siRNA representations and their combination at score level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fei; Han, Ye; Gong, Jianting; Song, Jiazhi; Wang, Han; Li, Yanwen

    2017-03-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) may induce to targeted gene knockdown, and the gene silencing effectiveness relies on the efficacy of the siRNA. Therefore, the task of this paper is to construct an effective siRNA prediction method. In our work, we try to describe siRNA from both quantitative and qualitative aspects. For quantitative analyses, we form four groups of effective features, including nucleotide frequencies, thermodynamic stability profile, thermodynamic of siRNA-mRNA interaction, and mRNA related features, as a new mixed representation, in which thermodynamic of siRNA-mRNA interaction is introduced to siRNA efficacy prediction for the first time to our best knowledge. And then an F-score based feature selection is employed to investigate the contribution of each feature and remove the weak relevant features. Meanwhile, we encode the siRNA sequence and existed empirical design rules as a qualitative siRNA representation. These two kinds of siRNA representations are combined to predict siRNA efficacy by supported Vector Regression (SVR) at score level. The experimental results indicate that our method may select the features with powerful discriminative ability and make the two kinds of siRNA representations work at full capacity. The prediction results also demonstrate that our method can outperform other popular siRNA efficacy prediction algorithms.

  3. A rapid method to score stream reaches based on the overall performance of their main ecological functions.

    PubMed

    Rowe, David K; Parkyn, Stephanie; Quinn, John; Collier, Kevin; Hatton, Chris; Joy, Michael K; Maxted, John; Moore, Stephen

    2009-06-01

    A method was developed to score the ecological condition of first- to third-order stream reaches in the Auckland region of New Zealand based on the performance of their key ecological functions. Such a method is required by consultants and resource managers to quantify the reduction in ecological condition of a modified stream reach relative to its unmodified state. This is a fundamental precursor for the determination of fair environmental compensation for achieving no-net-loss in overall stream ecological value. Field testing and subsequent use of the method indicated that it provides a useful measure of ecological condition related to the performance of stream ecological functions. It is relatively simple to apply compared to a full ecological study, is quick to use, and allows identification of the degree of impairment of each of the key ecological functions. The scoring system was designed so that future improvements in the measurement of stream functions can be incorporated into it. Although the methodology was specifically designed for Auckland streams, the principles can be readily adapted to other regions and stream types.

  4. Combining propensity score-based stratification and weighting to improve causal inference in the evaluation of health care interventions.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel

    2014-12-01

    When a randomized controlled trial is not feasible, a key strategy in observational studies is to ensure that intervention and control groups are comparable on observed characteristics and assume that the remaining unmeasured characteristics will not bias the results. In the past few years, propensity score-based techniques such as matching, stratification and weighting have become increasingly popular for evaluating health care interventions. Recently, marginal mean weighting through stratification (MMWS) has been introduced as a flexible pre-processing approach that combines the salient features of propensity score stratification and weighting to remove imbalances of pre-intervention characteristics between two or more groups under study. The weight is then used within the appropriate outcome model to provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects. In this paper, the MMWS technique is introduced by illustrating its implementation in three typical experimental conditions: a binary treatment (treatment versus control), an ordinal level treatment (varying doses) and nominal treatments (multiple independent arms). These methods are demonstrated in the context of health care evaluations by examining the pre-post difference in hospitalizations following the implementation of a disease management program for patients with congestive heart failure. Because of the flexibility and wide application of MMWS, it should be considered as an alternative procedure for use with observational data to evaluate the effectiveness of health care interventions.

  5. Combining the regression discontinuity design and propensity score-based weighting to improve causal inference in program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L

    2012-04-01

    The regression discontinuity (RD) design is considered to be the closest to a randomized trial that can be applied in non-experimental settings. The design relies on a cut-off point on a continuous baseline variable to assign individuals to treatment. The individuals just to the right and left of the cut-off are assumed to be exchangeable - as in a randomized trial. Any observed discontinuity in the relationship between the assignment variable and outcome is therefore considered evidence of a treatment effect. In this paper, we describe key advances in the RD design over the past decade and illustrate their implementation using data from a health management intervention. We then introduce the propensity score-based weighting technique as a complement to the RD design to correct for imbalances in baseline characteristics between treated and non-treated groups that may bias RD results. We find that the weighting strategy outperforms standard regression covariate adjustment in the present data. One clear advantage of the weighting technique over regression covariate adjustment is that we can directly inspect the degree to which balance was achieved. Because of its relative simplicity and tremendous utility, the RD design (either alone or combined with propensity score weighting adjustment) should be considered as an alternative approach to evaluate health management program effectiveness when using observational data.

  6. Predicting siRNA efficacy based on multiple selective siRNA representations and their combination at score level

    PubMed Central

    He, Fei; Han, Ye; Gong, Jianting; Song, Jiazhi; Wang, Han; Li, Yanwen

    2017-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) may induce to targeted gene knockdown, and the gene silencing effectiveness relies on the efficacy of the siRNA. Therefore, the task of this paper is to construct an effective siRNA prediction method. In our work, we try to describe siRNA from both quantitative and qualitative aspects. For quantitative analyses, we form four groups of effective features, including nucleotide frequencies, thermodynamic stability profile, thermodynamic of siRNA-mRNA interaction, and mRNA related features, as a new mixed representation, in which thermodynamic of siRNA-mRNA interaction is introduced to siRNA efficacy prediction for the first time to our best knowledge. And then an F-score based feature selection is employed to investigate the contribution of each feature and remove the weak relevant features. Meanwhile, we encode the siRNA sequence and existed empirical design rules as a qualitative siRNA representation. These two kinds of siRNA representations are combined to predict siRNA efficacy by supported Vector Regression (SVR) at score level. The experimental results indicate that our method may select the features with powerful discriminative ability and make the two kinds of siRNA representations work at full capacity. The prediction results also demonstrate that our method can outperform other popular siRNA efficacy prediction algorithms. PMID:28317874

  7. A Genetic Risk Score for Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies Associates With Clinical Thyroid Disease in Community-Based Populations

    PubMed Central

    Schultheiss, Ulla T.; Teumer, Alexander; Medici, Marco; Li, Yong; Daya, Natalie; Chaker, Layal; Homuth, Georg; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Nauck, Matthias; Hofman, Albert; Selvin, Elizabeth; Völzke, Henry; Peeters, Robin P.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAbs) are detected in 90% of all patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis, the most common cause of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. The current knowledge of its genetic underpinnings is limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify novel genetic variants associated with TPOAb concentrations and positivity using genome-wide association data and to characterize their association with thyroid function and disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: We studied European ancestry participants of 3 independent prospective population-based studies: Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities study (n = 7524), Study of Health in Pomerania (n = 3803), and Study of Health in Pomerania-TREND (n = 887). Exposure: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), individually and combined into a genetic risk score (GRS), were examined. Main Outcomes: The main outcomes were TPOAb concentrations and positivity, thyroid hormone concentrations (TSH, free T4), and clinical thyroid diseases (subclinical and overt hypothyroidism and goiter). Results: Significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (P < 5 · 10−8) mapped into 4 genomic regions not previously implicated for TPOAbs (RERE, extended HLA region) and into 5 previously described loci. A higher Genetic Risk Score (GRS) based on these 9 SNPs showed strong and graded associations with higher TPOAb, TSH, and lower free T4 concentrations (P < .001). Compared with individuals in the lowest GRS quartile, those in the highest quartile had 1.80-fold higher odds of subclinical hypothyroidism (95% confidence interval, 1.27–2.55) and 1.89-fold higher odds of overt hypothyroidism (95% confidence interval, 1.24–2.87). Conclusion: The identification of 4 novel genetic loci associated with TPOAb concentrations and positivity gives further insight into the genetic underpinnings of hypothyroidism. A GRS showed strong and graded associations

  8. Framingham Risk Score for Prediction of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Population-Based Study from Southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Artigao-Rodenas, Luis M.; Carbayo-Herencia, Julio A.; Divisón-Garrote, Juan A.; Gil-Guillén, Vicente F.; Massó-Orozco, Javier; Simarro-Rueda, Marta; Molina-Escribano, Francisca; Sanchis, Carlos; Carrión-Valero, Lucinio; López de Coca, Enrique; Caldevilla, David; López-Abril, Juan; Carratalá-Munuera, Concepción; Lopez-Pineda, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Background The question about what risk function should be used in primary prevention remains unanswered. The Framingham Study proposed a new algorithm based on three key ideas: use of the four risk factors with the most weight (cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes and smoking), prediction of overall cardiovascular diseases and incorporating the concept of vascular age. The objective of this study was to apply this new function in a cohort of the general non Anglo-Saxon population, with a 10-year follow-up to determine its validity. Methods The cohort was studied in 1992-94 and again in 2004-06. The sample comprised 959 randomly-selected persons, aged 30-74 years, who were representative of the population of Albacete, Spain. At the first examination cycle, needed data for the new function were collected and at the second examination, data on all events were recorded during the follow-up period. Discrimination was studied with ROC curves. Comparisons of prediction models and reality in tertiles (Hosmer-Lemeshow) were performed, and the individual survival functions were calculated. Results The mean risks for women and men, respectively, were 11.3% and 19.7% and the areas under the ROC curve were 0.789 (95%CI, 0.716-0.863) and 0.780 (95%CI, 0.713-0.847) (P<0.001, both). Cardiovascular disease events occurred in the top risk tertiles. Of note were the negative predictive values in both sexes, and a good specificity in women (85.6%) and sensitivity in men (79.1%) when their risk for cardiovascular disease was high. This model overestimates the risk in older women and in middle-aged men. The cumulative probability of individual survival by tertiles was significant in both sexes (P<0.001). Conclusions The results support the proposal for “reclassification” of Framingham. This study, with a few exceptions, passed the test of discrimination and calibration in a random sample of the general population from southern Europe. PMID:24039972

  9. Development of a Food Group-Based Diet Score and Its Association with Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly: The Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Ester A L; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Voortman, Trudy; Schoufour, Josje D; Zillikens, M Carola; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Franco, Oscar H; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2015-08-18

    No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association of the BMD-Diet Score and the Healthy Diet Indicator, a score based on guidelines of the World Health Organization, with BMD in Dutch elderly participating in a prospective cohort study, the Rotterdam Study (n = 5144). Baseline dietary intake, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, was categorized into food groups. Food groups that were consistently associated with BMD in the literature were included in the BMD-Diet Score. BMD was measured repeatedly and was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD-Diet Score considered intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, whole grains, legumes/beans and dairy products as "high-BMD" components and meat and confectionary as "low-BMD" components. After adjustment, the BMD-Diet Score was positively associated with BMD (β (95% confidence interval) = 0.009 (0.005, 0.012) g/cm(2) per standard deviation). This effect size was approximately three times as large as has been observed for the Healthy Diet Indicator. The food groups included in our BMD-Diet Score could be considered in the development of future dietary guidelines for healthy ageing.

  10. Iterative Knowledge-Based Scoring Functions Derived from Rigid and Flexible Decoy Structures: Evaluation with the 2013 and 2014 CSAR Benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chengfei; Grinter, Sam Z; Merideth, Benjamin Ryan; Ma, Zhiwei; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2016-06-27

    In this study, we developed two iterative knowledge-based scoring functions, ITScore_pdbbind(rigid) and ITScore_pdbbind(flex), using rigid decoy structures and flexible decoy structures, respectively, that were generated from the protein-ligand complexes in the refined set of PDBbind 2012. These two scoring functions were evaluated using the 2013 and 2014 CSAR benchmarks. The results were compared with the results of two other scoring functions, the Vina scoring function and ITScore, the scoring function that we previously developed from rigid decoy structures for a smaller set of protein-ligand complexes. A graph-based method was developed to evaluate the root-mean-square deviation between two conformations of the same ligand with different atom names and orders due to different file preparations, and the program is freely available. Our study showed that the two new scoring functions developed from the larger training set yielded significantly improved performance in binding mode predictions. For binding affinity predictions, all four scoring functions showed protein-dependent performance. We suggest the development of protein-family-dependent scoring functions for accurate binding affinity prediction.

  11. Development of a Food Group-Based Diet Score and Its Association with Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly: The Rotterdam Study

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Ester A. L.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Voortman, Trudy; Schoufour, Josje D.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Franco, Oscar H.; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association of the BMD-Diet Score and the Healthy Diet Indicator, a score based on guidelines of the World Health Organization, with BMD in Dutch elderly participating in a prospective cohort study, the Rotterdam Study (n = 5144). Baseline dietary intake, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, was categorized into food groups. Food groups that were consistently associated with BMD in the literature were included in the BMD-Diet Score. BMD was measured repeatedly and was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD-Diet Score considered intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, whole grains, legumes/beans and dairy products as “high-BMD” components and meat and confectionary as “low-BMD” components. After adjustment, the BMD-Diet Score was positively associated with BMD (β (95% confidence interval) = 0.009 (0.005, 0.012) g/cm2 per standard deviation). This effect size was approximately three times as large as has been observed for the Healthy Diet Indicator. The food groups included in our BMD-Diet Score could be considered in the development of future dietary guidelines for healthy ageing. PMID:26295256

  12. Association Between Low IQ Scores and Early Mortality in Men and Women: Evidence From a Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Maenner, Matthew J; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2015-05-01

    Lower (versus higher) IQ scores have been shown to increase the risk of early mortality, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and previous studies underrepresent individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and women. This study followed one third of all senior-year students (approximately aged 17) attending public high school in Wisconsin, U.S. in 1957 (n  =  10,317) until 2011. Men and women with the lowest IQ test scores (i.e., IQ scores ≤ 85) had increased rates of mortality compared to people with the highest IQ test scores, particularly for cardiovascular disease. Importantly, when educational attainment was held constant, people with lower IQ test scores did not have higher mortality by age 70 than people with higher IQ test scores. Individuals with lower IQ test scores likely experience multiple disadvantages throughout life that contribute to increased risk of early mortality.

  13. The Healthy Weights Initiative: a community-based obesity reduction program with positive impact on depressed mood scores

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark Edgar; Rogers, Marla Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The risk for many chronic diseases increases with obesity. In addition to these, the risk for depression also increases. Exercise interventions for weight loss among those who are not overweight or obese have shown a moderate effect on depression, but few studies have looked at those with obesity. The objectives of this study were to determine 1) the prevalence of depressed mood in obese participants as determined by the Beck Depression Inventory II at baseline and follow-up; 2) the change in depressed mood between those who completed the program and those who did not; and 3) the differences between those whose depressed mood was alleviated after the program and those who continued to have depressed mood. Methods Depressed mood scores were calculated at baseline and follow-up for those who completed the program and for those who quit. Among those who completed the program, chi-squares were used to determine the differences between those who no longer had depressed mood and those who still had depressed mood at the end of the program, and regression analysis was used to determine the independent risk factors for still having depressed mood at program completion. Results Depressed mood prevalence decreased from 45.7% to 11.7% (P<0.000) from baseline to follow-up among those who completed the program and increased from 44.8% to 55.6% (P<0.000) among those who quit. After logistic regression, a score of <40 in general health increased the risk of still having depressed mood upon program completion (odds ratio [OR] 3.39; 95% CI 1.18–9.72; P=0.023). Conclusion Treating depressed mood among obese adults through a community-based, weight-loss program based on evidence may be an adjunct to medical treatment. More research is needed. PMID:27257395

  14. Nutritional Quality of Breakfast and Physical Activity Independently Predict the Literacy and Numeracy Scores of Children after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Mugridge, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Health-related behaviors [physical activity (PA), nutritional quality of breakfast and sleep]; personal variables (self-esteem, attitudes to PA and gender) and socioeconomic status (SES) (school SES and parental education), were examined in relation to literacy and numeracy scores of 824 grade 3-7 children. Participants completed a questionnaire,…

  15. A Comparison of Self-Report Scales and Accelerometer-Determined Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Scores of Finnish School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The current article provides an important insight into measurement differences between two commonly used self-reports and accelerometer-determined moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) scores within matched samples across 1 school year. Participants were 998 fifth- through eighth-grade students who completed self-reports and 76 fifth- and…

  16. Relation of Dietary Restraint Scores to Activation of Reward-Related Brain Regions in Response to Food Intake, Anticipated Intake, and Food Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies indicate that individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for future bulimic symptom onset, suggesting that these individuals may show hyper-responsivity of reward regions to food and food cues. Thus, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relation of dietary restraint scores to activation of reward-related brain regions in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and exposure to pictures of appetizing foods in 39 female adolescents (mean age = 15.5 ± 0.94). Dietary restraint scores were positively correlated with activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in response to milkshake receipt. However, dietary restraint scores did not correlate with activation in response to anticipated milkshake receipt or exposure to food pictures. Results indicate that individuals who report high dietary restraint have a hyper-responsivity in reward-related brain regions when food intake is occurring, which may increase risk for overeating and binge eating. PMID:21147234

  17. Performance Scores in General Practice: A Comparison between the Clinical versus Medication-Based Approach to Identify Target Populations

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Lary, Olivier; Boisnault, Philippe; Naiditch, Michel; Szidon, Philippe; Duhot, Didier; Bourgueil, Yann; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Context From one country to another, the pay-for-performance mechanisms differ on one significant point: the identification of target populations, that is, populations which serve as a basis for calculating the indicators. The aim of this study was to compare clinical versus medication-based identification of populations of patients with diabetes and hypertension over the age of 50 (for men) or 60 (for women), and any consequences this may have on the calculation of P4P indicators. Methods A comparative, retrospective, observational study was carried out with clinical and prescription data from a panel of general practitioners (GPs), the Observatory of General Medicine (OMG) for the year 2007. Two indicators regarding the prescription for statins and aspirin in these populations were calculated. Results We analyzed data from 21.690 patients collected by 61 GPs via electronic medical files. Following the clinical-based approach, 2.278 patients were diabetic, 8,271 had hypertension and 1.539 had both against respectively 1.730, 8.511 and 1.304 following the medication-based approach (% agreement = 96%, kappa = 0.69). The main reasons for these differences were: forgetting to code the morbidities in the clinical approach, not taking into account the population of patients who were given life style and diet rules only or taking into account patients for whom morbidities other than hypertension could justify the use of antihypertensive drugs in the medication-based approach. The mean (confidence interval) per doctor was 33.7% (31.5–35.9) for statin indicator and 38.4% (35.4–41.4) for aspirin indicator when the target populations were identified on the basis of clinical criteria whereas they were 37.9% (36.3–39.4) and 43.8% (41.4–46.3) on the basis of treatment criteria. Conclusion The two approaches yield very “similar” scores but these scores cover different realities and offer food for thought on the possible usage of these indicators in the

  18. Early computed tomography-based scores to predict decompressive hemicraniectomy after endovascular therapy in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Behme, Daniel; Schnieder, Marlena; Tsogkas, Ioannis; Schregel, Katharina; Bähr, Mathias; Knauth, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background Identification of patients requiring decompressive hemicraniectomy (DH) after endovascular therapy (EVT) is crucial as clinical signs are not reliable and early DH has been shown to improve clinical outcome. The aim of our study was to identify imaging-based scores to predict the risk for space occupying ischemic stroke and DH. Methods Prospectively derived data from patients with acute large artery occlusion within the anterior circulation and EVT was analyzed in this monocentric study. Predictive value of non-contrast cranial computed tomography (ncCT) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS) were investigated for DH using logistic regression models and Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve analysis. Results From 218 patients with EVT, DH was performed in 20 patients (9.2%). Baseline- (7 vs. 9; p = 0.009) and follow-up ncCT ASPECTS (1 vs. 7, p<0.001) as well as baseline CBV ASPECTS (5 vs. 7, p<0.001) were significantly lower in patients with DH. ncCT (baseline: OR 0.71, p = 0.018; follow-up: OR 0.32, p = <0.001) and CBV ASPECTS (OR 0.63, p = 0.008) predicted DH. Cut-off ncCT-ASPECTS on baseline was 7-, ncCT-ASPECTS on follow-up was 4- and CBV ASPECTS on baseline was 5 points. Conclusions ASPECTS could be useful to early identify patients requiring DH after EVT for acute large vessel occlusion. PMID:28282456

  19. qPCR based mRNA quality score show intact mRNA after heat stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Oskar; Segerström, Lova; Sjöback, Robert; Nylander, Ingrid; Borén, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of multiple analytes from biological samples can be challenging as different analytes require different preservation measures. Heat induced enzymatic inactivation is an efficient way to preserve proteins and their modifications in biological samples but RNA quality, as measured by RIN value, has been a concern in such samples. Here, we investigate the effect of heat stabilization compared with standard snap freezing on RNA quality using two RNA extraction protocols, QiaZol with and without urea pre-solubilization, and two RNA quality measurements: RIN value, as defined by the Agilent Bioanalyzer, and an alternative qPCR based method. DNA extraction from heat stabilized brain samples was also examined. The snap frozen samples had RIN values about 1 unit higher than heat stabilized samples for the direct QiaZol extraction but equal with stabilized samples using urea pre-solubilization. qPCR based RNA quality measurement showed no difference in quality between snap frozen and heat inactivated samples. The probable explanation for this discrepancy is that the RIN value is an indirect measure based on rRNA, while the qPCR score is based on actual measurement of mRNA quality. The DNA yield from heat stabilized brain tissue samples was significantly increased, compared to the snap frozen tissue, without any effects on purity or quality. Hence, heat stabilization of tissues opens up the possibility for a two step preservation protocol, where proteins and their modifications can be preserved in the first heat based step, while in a second step, using standard RNA preservation strategies, mRNA be preserved. This collection strategy will enable biobanking of samples where the ultimate analysis is not determined without loss of sample quality. PMID:27077049

  20. Check the score: Field validation of Street Smart Walk Score in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; McGetrick, Jennifer Ann; Crick, Katelynn; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2016-12-01

    Walk Score® is a proprietary walkability metric that ranks locations by proximity to destinations, with emerging health promotion applications for increasing walking as physical activity. Currently, field validations of Walk Score® have only occurred in metropolitan regions of the United States; moreover, many studies employ an earlier Walk Score® version utilizing straight line distance. To address this gap, we conducted a field validation of the newest, network-based metric for three municipal types along a rural-urban continuum in Alberta, Canada. In 2015, using street-level systematic observations collected in Bonnyville, Medicine Hat, and North Central Edmonton in 2008 (part of the Community Health and the Built Environment (CHBE) project), we reverse engineered 2181 scores with the network Walk Score® algorithm. We computed means, 95% confidence intervals, and t-tests (α = 0.05) for both sets of scores. Applying the Clifford-Richardson adjustment for spatial autocorrelation, we calculated Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients (rho, rs) and adjusted p-values to measure the strength of association between the derived scores and original network scores provided by Walk Score®. Spearman's rho for scores were very high for Bonnyville (rs = 0.950, adjusted p < 0.001), and high for Medicine Hat (rs = 0.790, adjusted p < 0.001) and North Central Edmonton (rs = 0.763, adjusted p < 0.001). High to very high correlations between derived scores and Walk Scores® field validated this metric across small, medium, and large population centres in Alberta, Canada. However, we suggest caution in interpreting Walk Score® for planning and evaluating health promotion interventions, since the strength of association between destinations and walking may vary across different municipal types.

  1. Anomalous diffusion in the evolution of soccer championship scores: Real data, mean-field analysis, and an agent-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto; Vainstein, Mendeli H.; Gonçalves, Sebastián; Paula, Felipe S. F.

    2013-08-01

    Statistics of soccer tournament scores based on the double round robin system of several countries are studied. Exploring the dynamics of team scoring during tournament seasons from recent years we find evidences of superdiffusion. A mean-field analysis results in a drift velocity equal to that of real data but in a different diffusion coefficient. Along with the analysis of real data we present the results of simulations of soccer tournaments obtained by an agent-based model which successfully describes the final scoring distribution [da Silva , Comput. Phys. Commun.CPHCBZ0010-465510.1016/j.cpc.2012.10.030 184, 661 (2013)]. Such model yields random walks of scores over time with the same anomalous diffusion as observed in real data.

  2. Diagnosing Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis: Narrative Review and a Suggested 2-Step Score-Based Diagnostic Pathway for Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Markanday, Anurag

    2014-01-01

    The diabetic foot infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many patients and remains a challenging diagnosis for most clinicians. Diagnosis is largely based on clinical signs supplemented by various imaging tests. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not readily available to many clinicians, and bone biopsy, which is the accepted criterion standard for diagnosis, is rarely performed routinely. This evidence-based review and the proposed diagnostic scoring pathway substratifies the current International Working Group on the Diabetes Foot guidelines for diagnosing diabetic foot osteomyelitis into a convenient 2-step diagnostic pathway for clinicians. This proposed diagnostic approach will need further validation prospectively, but it can serve as a useful diagnostic tool during the initial assessment and management of diabetic foot infections. A MEDLINE search of English-language articles on diabetic foot osteomyelitis published between 1986 and March 2014 was conducted. Additional articles were also identified through a search of references from the retrieved articles, published guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. PMID:25734130

  3. Biologic score and mortality based on a 30-year mortality follow-up: radiation effects research foundation adult health study.

    PubMed

    Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Yamada, Michiko; Sasaki, Hideo; Fujita, Shoichiro

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to test whether scored biologic functions can predict individual life expectancies and to investigate the disease-related and time-related differences in evaluated associations. A biologic score was defined as the first principal component score of the five physiological tests. Study participants were 4,871 people aged 35-74 years at baseline examination in 1970-1972 and followed until the end of 1999. We evaluated the prognostic value of the biologic score by Cox proportional hazard analysis. In all age and sex groups, increasing trends of mortality for all diseases by increment of biologic score were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. The validity of the biologic score was significant throughout the entire study period. Each disease except cancer showed a significant association with biologic score at baseline examination. In conclusion, the biologic score is a valid predictor of life span in this large-scale prospective study of middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

  4. NPPD: A Protein-Protein Docking Scoring Function Based on Dyadic Differences in Networks of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Amino Acid Residues

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Edward S. C.; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein docking (PPD) predictions usually rely on the use of a scoring function to rank docking models generated by exhaustive sampling. To rank good models higher than bad ones, a large number of scoring functions have been developed and evaluated, but the methods used for the computation of PPD predictions remain largely unsatisfactory. Here, we report a network-based PPD scoring function, the NPPD, in which the network consists of two types of network nodes, one for hydrophobic and the other for hydrophilic amino acid residues, and the nodes are connected when the residues they represent are within a certain contact distance. We showed that network parameters that compute dyadic interactions and those that compute heterophilic interactions of the amino acid networks thus constructed allowed NPPD to perform well in a benchmark evaluation of 115 PPD scoring functions, most of which, unlike NPPD, are based on some sort of protein-protein interaction energy. We also showed that NPPD was highly complementary to these energy-based scoring functions, suggesting that the combined use of conventional scoring functions and NPPD might significantly improve the accuracy of current PPD predictions. PMID:25811640

  5. Measuring self-regulation in a physically active context: Psychometric analyses of scores derived from an observer-rated measure of self-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report psychometric properties of scores obtained using a novel observer-rated measure of children’s self-regulation, the Response to Challenge Scale (RCS). The RCS was developed to rate children’s self-regulatory abilities in a physically active context (e.g., while completing a physical challenge course). The RCS and other study measures were administered in a private school sample of 207 children. Analyses of score distributions indicated that the RCS was able to capture variance among children in self-regulatory abilities; the distribution was normal for the Affective, Cognitive, and Total Self-Regulation scales. Validity analyses revealed significant positive correlations between Cognitive, Affective, Motor, and Total Self-Regulation and executive function task performance; significant negative correlations between Cognitive Regulation and teacher-rated hyperactivity and inattention; significant negative correlations between Affective, Motor, and Total Self-Regulation and teacher ratings of peer problems; and significant positive correlations between Cognitive and Affective Regulation and parent ratings of prosocial behavior. Parent and teacher rated Total Difficulties scores were both negatively correlated with RCS Total Self-Regulation scores. Results suggest that it is possible for observers to rate self-regulatory abilities in the context of physical activities, and that these ratings correspond with performance on tasks requiring executive function as well as teacher and parent ratings of children’s difficulties. PMID:25750662

  6. A new scoring model for characterization of adnexal masses based on two-dimensional gray-scale and colour Doppler sonographic features

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, A.M.; Zahran, K.M.; Nasr, A.; Kamel, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the most discriminating two-dimensional gray-scale and colour Doppler sonographic features that allow differentiation between malignant and benign adnexal masses, and to develop a scoring model that would enable more accurate diagnosis with those features. Methods: A cross sectional prospective study was conducted on patients scheduled for surgery due to presence of adnexal masses at Woman’s Health Center, Assiut University, Egypt between October 2012 and October 2013. All patients were evaluated by 2D ultrasound for morphological features of the masses combined with colour Doppler examination of their vessels. The final diagnosis, based on histopathological analysis, was used as a gold standard. Results: One hundred forty-six patients were recruited, 104 with benign masses, 42 with malignant masses. Features that allowed statistically significant discrimination of benignity from malignancy were; volume of mass, type of mass, presence and thickness of septae, presence and length of papillary projections, location of vessels at colour Doppler and colour score. A scoring model was formulated combining these features together; Assiut Scoring Model (ASM). The cut-off level with the highest accuracy in detection of malignancy, was ≥6, had a sensitivity of 93.5% and specificity of 92.2%. Conclusion: Our Scoring Model; a multiparameter scoring using four gray-scale ultrasound and two colour Doppler features, had shown a high sensitivity and specificity for prediction of malignancy in adnexal masses compared with previous scoring systems. PMID:25009729

  7. An exploratory propensity score matched comparison of second-generation and first-generation baroreflex activation therapy systems.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Rolf; Halbach, Marcel; Bakris, George L; Bisognano, John D; Haller, Hermann; Beige, Joachim; Kroon, Abraham A; Nadim, Mitra K; Lovett, Eric G; Schafer, Jill E; de Leeuw, Peter W

    2016-12-16

    Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) is a device-based therapy for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. In a randomized, controlled trial, the first-generation system significantly reduced blood pressure (BP) versus sham. Although an open-label validation study of the second-generation system demonstrated similar BP reductions, controlled data are not presently available. Therefore, this investigation compares results of first- and second-generation BAT systems. Two cohorts of first-generation BAT system patients were generated with propensity matching to compare against the validation group of 30 second-generation subjects. The first cohort was drawn from the first-generation randomized trial sham group and the second cohort from the active therapy group. Safety and efficacy were compared for the second-generation group relative to the first generation. At 6 months, second-generation BAT outperformed first-generation sham systolic BP reduction by 20 ± 28 mm Hg (mean ± standard deviation, P = .008), while BP reduction in first- and second-generation active groups was similar. At 12 months, efficacy was comparable between all three groups after the sham group had received 6 months of therapy; 47% of second-generation patients achieved goal systolic BP of 140 mm Hg or less after 12 months, comparable to 50% of patients at goal in the first-generation group (P > .999). Implant procedure time, system/procedural safety, and pulse generator longevity improved with the second-generation system. Propensity-matched cohort analysis of the first- and second-generation BAT systems suggests similar therapeutic benefit and superior BP reduction of the second-generation system relative to sham control. Implantation procedure duration and perioperative safety were improved with the second-generation device. These findings should be validated in a prospective randomized trial.

  8. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  9. Development of new risk score for pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease based on coronary CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Tarutani, Yasuhiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Urabe, Yoji; Konno, Kumiko; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kihara, Yasuki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Isshiki, Takaaki; Takase, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    Existing methods to calculate pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) have been established using selected high-risk patients who were referred to conventional coronary angiography. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate our new method for pre-test probability of obstructive CAD using patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), which could be applicable to a wider range of patient population. Using consecutive 4137 patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary CTA at our institution, a multivariate logistic regression model including clinical factors as covariates calculated the pre-test probability (K-score) of obstructive CAD determined by coronary CTA. The K-score was compared with the Duke clinical score using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. External validation was performed by an independent sample of 319 patients. The final model included eight significant predictors: age, gender, coronary risk factor (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking), history of cerebral infarction, and chest symptom. The AUC of the K-score was significantly greater than that of the Duke clinical score for both derivation (0.736 vs. 0.699) and validation (0.714 vs. 0.688) data sets. Among patients who underwent coronary CTA, newly developed K-score had better pre-test prediction ability of obstructive CAD compared to Duke clinical score in Japanese population.

  10. Dual energy x-ray imaging and scoring of coronary calcium: physics-based digital phantom and clinical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bo; Wen, Di; Nye, Katelyn; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) as assessed with CT calcium score is the best biomarker of coronary artery disease. Dual energy x-ray provides an inexpensive, low radiation-dose alternative. A two shot system (GE Revolution-XRd) is used, raw images are processed with a custom algorithm, and a coronary calcium image (DECCI) is created, similar to the bone image, but optimized for CAC visualization, not lung visualization. In this report, we developed a physicsbased, digital-phantom containing heart, lung, CAC, spine, ribs, pulmonary artery, and adipose elements, examined effects on DECCI, suggested physics-inspired algorithms to improve CAC contrast, and evaluated the correlation between CT calcium scores and a proposed DE calcium score. In simulation experiment, Beam hardening from increasing adipose thickness (2cm to 8cm) reduced Cg by 19% and 27% in 120kVp and 60kVp images, but only reduced Cg by <7% in DECCI. If a pulmonary artery moves or pulsates with blood filling between exposures, it can give rise to a significantly confounding PA signal in DECCI similar in amplitude to CAC. Observations suggest modifications to DECCI processing, which can further improve CAC contrast by a factor of 2 in clinical exams. The DE score had the best correlation with "CT mass score" among three commonly used CT scores. Results suggest that DE x-ray is a promising tool for imaging and scoring CAC, and there still remains opportunity for further DECCI processing improvements.

  11. A VLSI Architecture with Multiple Fast Store-Based Block Parallel Processing for Output Probability and Likelihood Score Computations in HMM-Based Isolated Word Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Shimazaki, Ryo; Yamamoto, Masatoshi; Takagi, Kazuyoshi; Takagi, Naofumi

    This paper presents a memory-efficient VLSI architecture for output probability computations (OPCs) of continuous hidden Markov models (HMMs) and likelihood score computations (LSCs). These computations are the most time consuming part of HMM-based isolated word recognition systems. We demonstrate multiple fast store-based block parallel processing (MultipleFastStoreBPP) for OPCs and LSCs and present a VLSI architecture that supports it. Compared with conventional fast store-based block parallel processing (FastStoreBPP) and stream-based block parallel processing (StreamBPP) architectures, the proposed architecture requires fewer registers and less processing time. The processing elements (PEs) used in the FastStoreBPP and StreamBPP architectures are identical to those used in the MultipleFastStoreBPP architecture. From a VLSI architectural viewpoint, a comparison shows that the proposed architecture is an improvement over the others, through efficient use of PEs and registers for storing input feature vectors.

  12. Proposing Melasma Severity Index: A New, More Practical, Office-based Scoring System for Assessing the Severity of Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran; Haq, Inaamul; Imran, Saher; Keen, Abid; Aziz, Khalid; Arif, Tasleem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI), the scoring system in melasma, needs to be refined. Aims and Objectives: To propose a more practical scoring system, named as Melasma Severity Index (MSI), for assessing the disease severity and treatment response in melasma. Materials and Methods: Four dermatologists were trained to calculate MASI and also the proposed MSI scores. For MSI, the formula used was 0.4 (a × p2) l + 0.4 (a × p2) r + 0.2 (a × p2) n where “a” stands for area, “p” for pigmentation, “l” for left face, “r” for right face, and “n” for nose. On a single day, 30 enrolled patients were randomly examined by each trained dermatologist and their MASI and MSI scores were calculated. Next, each rater re-examined every 6th patient for repeat MASI and MSI scoring to assess intra- and inter-rater reliability of MASI and MSI scores. Validity was assessed by comparing the individual scores of each rater with objective data from mexameter and ImageJ software. Results: Inter-rater reliability, as assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, was significantly higher for MSI (0.955) as compared to MASI (0.816). Correlation of scores with objective data by Spearman's correlation revealed higher rho values for MSI than for MASI for all raters. Limitations: Sample population belonged to a single ethnic group. Conclusions: MSI is simpler and more practical scoring system for melasma. PMID:26955093

  13. Weighted risk score-based multifactor dimensionality reduction to detect gene-gene interactions in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao-Feng; Luo, Fu-Tian; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2014-06-13

    Determining the complex relationships between diseases, polymorphisms in human genes and environmental factors is challenging. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) has been proven to be capable of effectively detecting the statistical patterns of epistasis, although classification accuracy is required for this approach. The imbalanced dataset can cause seriously negative effects on classification accuracy. Moreover, MDR methods cannot quantitatively assess the disease risk of genotype combinations. Hence, we introduce a novel weighted risk score-based multifactor dimensionality reduction (WRSMDR) method that uses the Bayesian posterior probability of polymorphism combinations as a new quantitative measure of disease risk. First, we compared the WRSMDR to the MDR method in simulated datasets. Our results showed that the WRSMDR method had reasonable power to identify high-order gene-gene interactions, and it was more effective than MDR at detecting four-locus models. Moreover, WRSMDR reveals more information regarding the effect of genotype combination on the disease risk, and the result was easier to determine and apply than with MDR. Finally, we applied WRSMDR to a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) case-control study and identified a statistically significant high-order interaction among three polymorphisms: rs2860580, rs11865086 and rs2305806.

  14. The Impact of Individual Ability, Favorable Team Member Scores, and Student Perception of Course Importance on Student Preference of Team-Based Learning and Grading Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Allan Yen-Lun

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the impact of individual ability and favorable team member scores on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods, and examines the moderating effects of student perception of course importance on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods. The author also investigates the relationship…

  15. The Clinical Performance of an Office-Based Risk Scoring System for Fatal Cardiovascular Diseases in North-East of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Ghodsi, Saeed; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourshams, Akram; Pharoah, Paul D.; Abnet, Christian C.; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Kamangar, Farin

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are becoming major causes of death in developing countries. Risk scoring systems for CVD are needed to prioritize allocation of limited resources. Most of these risk score algorithms have been based on a long array of risk factors including blood markers of lipids. However, risk scoring systems that solely use office-based data, not including laboratory markers, may be advantageous. In the current analysis, we validated the office-based Framingham risk scoring system in Iran. Methods The study used data from the Golestan Cohort in North-East of Iran. The following risk factors were used in the development of the risk scoring method: sex, age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, hypertension treatment, current smoking, and diabetes. Cardiovascular risk functions for prediction of 10-year risk of fatal CVDs were developed. Results A total of 46,674 participants free of CVD at baseline were included. Predictive value of estimated risks was examined. The resulting Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) was 0.774 (95% CI: 0.762-0.787) in all participants, 0.772 (95% CI: 0.753-0.791) in women, and 0.763 (95% CI: 0.747-0.779) in men. AUC was higher in urban areas (0.790, 95% CI: 0.766-0.815). The predicted and observed risks of fatal CVD were similar in women. However, in men, predicted probabilities were higher than observed. Conclusion The AUC in the current study is comparable to results of previous studies while lipid profile was replaced by body mass index to develop an office-based scoring system. This scoring algorithm is capable of discriminating individuals at high risk versus low risk of fatal CVD. PMID:26011607

  16. An 8-gene qRT-PCR-based gene expression score that has prognostic value in early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene expression profiling may improve prognostic accuracy in patients with early breast cancer. Our objective was to demonstrate that it is possible to develop a simple molecular signature to predict distant relapse. Methods We included 153 patients with stage I-II hormonal receptor-positive breast cancer. RNA was isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples and qRT-PCR amplification of 83 genes was performed with gene expression assays. The genes we analyzed were those included in the 70-Gene Signature, the Recurrence Score and the Two-Gene Index. The association among gene expression, clinical variables and distant metastasis-free survival was analyzed using Cox regression models. Results An 8-gene prognostic score was defined. Distant metastasis-free survival at 5 years was 97% for patients defined as low-risk by the prognostic score versus 60% for patients defined as high-risk. The 8-gene score remained a significant factor in multivariate analysis and its performance was similar to that of two validated gene profiles: the 70-Gene Signature and the Recurrence Score. The validity of the signature was verified in independent cohorts obtained from the GEO database. Conclusions This study identifies a simple gene expression score that complements histopathological prognostic factors in breast cancer, and can be determined in paraffin-embedded samples. PMID:20584321

  17. A study of the effect of a visual arts-based program on the scores of Jefferson scale for physician empathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of visual arts interventions on development of empathy has not been quantitatively investigated. A study was conducted on the effect of a visual arts-based program on the scores of the Jefferson Scale for Physician Empathy (JSPE). Methods A total of 110 clerks (n = 92) and first-year postgraduate residents (PGY1s) (n = 18) participating in the program were recruited into this study. The 4-hr program covered the subjects of learning to interpret paintings, interpreting paintings relating to medicine, illness and human suffering, the related-topics of humanitarianism and the other humanities fields and values and meaning. The JSPE was completed at the beginning (pretest) and the end (posttest) of the program. Results There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest JSPE scores. The average of the scores for the pretest was lower in the subgroup of PGY1s than the subgroup of clerks (p = 0.0358). An increased but not significantly mean posttest JESPE score was noted for the subgroup of PGY1s. Neither the females nor the males had higher posttest JSPE scores than the pretest scores. Conclusions Although using a structured visual arts-based program as an intervention may be useful to enhance medical students’ empathy, our results failed to show a positive effect on the JSPE Scores for a group of clerks and PGY1s. This suggests that further experimental studies are needed if quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of visual-arts based programs on empathy is to be investigated. PMID:24156472

  18. A Novel and Validated Inflammation-Based Score (IBS) Predicts Survival in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Curative Surgical Resection: A STROBE-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yi-Peng; Ni, Xiao-Chun; Yi, Yong; Cai, Xiao-Yan; He, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jia-Xing; Lu, Zhu-Feng; Han, Xu; Cao, Ya; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Qiu, Shuang-Jian

    2016-02-01

    As chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we investigated the prognostic accuracy of a cluster of inflammatory scores, including the Glasgow Prognostic Score, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, platelet to lymphocyte ratio, Prognostic Nutritional Index, Prognostic Index, and a novel Inflammation-Based Score (IBS) integrated preoperative and postoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in 2 independent cohorts. Further, we aimed to formulate an effective prognostic nomogram for HCC after hepatectomy.Prognostic value of inflammatory scores and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage were studied in a training cohort of 772 patients with HCC underwent hepatectomy. Independent predictors of survival identified in multivariate analysis were validated in an independent set of 349 patients with an overall similar clinical feature.In both training and validation cohorts, IBS, microscopic vascular invasion, and BCLC stage emerged as independent factors of overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The predictive capacity of the IBS in both OS and RFS appeared superior to that of the other inflammatory scores in terms of C-index. Additionally, the formulated nomogram comprised IBS resulted in more accurate prognostic prediction compared with BCLC stage alone.IBS is a novel and validated prognostic indicator of HCC after curative resection, and a robust HCC nomogram including IBS was developed to predict survival for patients after hepatectomy.

  19. Derivation and Cross-Validation of Cutoff Scores for Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders on WAIS-IV Digit Span-Based Performance Validity Measures.

    PubMed

    Glassmire, David M; Toofanian Ross, Parnian; Kinney, Dominique I; Nitch, Stephen R

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify and cross-validate cutoff scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Digit Span-based embedded performance validity (PV) measures for individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In Study 1, normative scores were identified on Digit Span-embedded PV measures among a sample of patients (n = 84) with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses who had no known incentive to perform poorly and who put forth valid effort on external PV tests. Previously identified cutoff scores resulted in unacceptable false positive rates and lower cutoff scores were adopted to maintain specificity levels ≥90%. In Study 2, the revised cutoff scores were cross-validated within a sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients (n = 96) committed as incompetent to stand trial. Performance on Digit Span PV measures was significantly related to Full Scale IQ in both studies, indicating the need to consider the intellectual functioning of examinees with psychotic spectrum disorders when interpreting scores on Digit Span PV measures.

  20. Cumulative score based on preoperative plasma fibrinogen and serum C-reactive protein could predict long-term survival for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fei; Sun, Peng; Wu, Ai-Ran; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Yu-Lu; Wu, Jing; Lu, Yan-Hong; Xu, Qiu-Yan; Zhan, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Qian, Li-Ting; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to establish a prognostic indicator based on preoperative fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) (FC score) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Clinicopathologic characteristics, preoperative plasma fibrinogen and serum CRP levels were reviewed in patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy. The optimal cut-off value for fibrinogen and CRP was defined as 4.0 g/dL and 10.0 mg/L according to previous reports. Patients with elevated fibrinogen and CRP levels were assigned a score of 2, those with only one of these two abnormalities were allocated a score of 1, and those with neither of the two abnormalities were assigned a score of 0. Preoperative FC score was significantly correlated with degree of differentiation, depth of invasion, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage and modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS). No significant differences in age, gender, tumor length, tumor location, lymph node status or smoking were identified between groups. Univariate survival analysis demonstrated that high preoperative FC score (1/2) was significantly associated with impaired disease free survival (DFS) [hazard ratio (HR), 1.650; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.181-2.303; P = 0.003] and overall survival (OS) (HR, 1.879; 95% CI, 1.333-2.648; P<0.001), and it remained an independent predictor for both DFS (HR, 1.468; 95% CI, 1.043-2.067; P=0.028) and OS (HR, 2.070; 95% CI, 1.266-3.385; P=0.004) in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Preoperative FC score might represent a new potential marker of worst prognosis that warrants further evaluation in prospective and large cohort studies among ESCC patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy. PMID:27517497

  1. The impact of individual ability, favorable team member scores, and student perception of course importance on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods.

    PubMed

    Su, Allan Yen-Lun

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the impact of individual ability and favorable team member scores on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods, and examines the moderating effects of student perception of course importance on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods. The author also investigates the relationship between student perception of course importance and their responses to social loafing. Results indicate that individual ability on the preference of team-based learning was affected by the three levels of favorable team member scores. For students with a low level of individual ability, the preference for team-based learning was significant among students with each of three levels of favorable team member scores (p < .05). However, the team-based learning and grading methods was not significant (p > .05). The findings also reveal a negative correlation between student perception of course importance and their responses to social loafing (p < .05). Findings note the importance of teachers' grading methods, student perceptions of course importance as well as individual ability and favorable team member scores in the team selection process to promote student attitude toward team-based learning.

  2. Litter Control Achievement - Ohio 4-H Club Score Sheet [and] Activity Guides 1 through 7. 4-H Pilot Program 918.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Seven activity guides, evaluation sheet, and club scoresheet have been prepared for Ohio 4-H clubs' litter education program. Topics of the seven activity guides include: (1) general guidelines and types of activities; (2) little known facts about waste/litter; (3) guidelines for a walking tour; (4) fact sheet (questionnaire) related to garbage;…

  3. Robust wafer identification recognition based on asterisk-shape filter and high-low score comparison method.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Chih; Yu, Tsan-Ying; Chen, Kuan-Liang

    2009-12-10

    Wafer identifications (wafer ID) can be used to identify wafers from each other so that wafer processing can be traced easily. Wafer ID recognition is one of the problems of optical character recognition. The process to recognize wafer IDs is similar to that used in recognizing car license-plate characters. However, due to some unique characteristics, such as the irregular space between two characters and the unsuccessive strokes of wafer ID, it will not get a good result to recognize wafer ID by directly utilizing the approaches used in car license-plate character recognition. Wafer ID scratches are engraved by a laser scribe almost along the following four fixed directions: horizontal, vertical, plus 45 degrees , and minus 45 degrees orientations. The closer to the center line of a wafer ID scratch, the higher the gray level will be. These and other characteristics increase the difficulty to recognize the wafer ID. In this paper a wafer ID recognition scheme based on an asterisk-shape filter and a high-low score comparison method is proposed to cope with the serious influence of uneven luminance and make recognition more efficiently. Our proposed approach consists of some processing stages. Especially in the final recognition stage, a template-matching method combined with stroke analysis is used as a recognizing scheme. This is because wafer IDs are composed of Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI) standard Arabic numbers and English alphabets, and thus the template ID images are easy to obtain. Furthermore, compared with the approach that requires prior training, such as a support vector machine, which often needs a large amount of training image samples, no prior training is required for our approach. The testing results show that our proposed scheme can efficiently and correctly segment out and recognize the wafer ID with high performance.

  4. Evaluation of Several Two-Step Scoring Functions Based on Linear Interaction Energy, Effective Ligand Size, and Empirical Pair Potentials for Prediction of Protein-Ligand Binding Geometry and Free Energy

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Obaidur; Estrada, Trilce P.; Doren, Douglas J.; Taufer, Michela; Brooks, Charles L.; Armen, Roger S.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of several two-step scoring approaches for molecular docking were assessed for their ability to predict binding geometries and free energies. Two new scoring functions designed for “step 2 discrimination” were proposed and compared to our CHARMM implementation of the linear interaction energy (LIE) approach using the Generalized-Born with Molecular Volume (GBMV) implicit solvation model. A scoring function S1 was proposed by considering only “interacting” ligand atoms as the “effective size” of the ligand, and extended to an empirical regression-based pair potential S2. The S1 and S2 scoring schemes were trained and five-fold cross validated on a diverse set of 259 protein-ligand complexes from the Ligand Protein Database (LPDB). The regression-based parameters for S1 and S2 also demonstrated reasonable transferability in the CSARdock 2010 benchmark using a new dataset (NRC HiQ) of diverse protein-ligand complexes. The ability of the scoring functions to accurately predict ligand geometry was evaluated by calculating the discriminative power (DP) of the scoring functions to identify native poses. The parameters for the LIE scoring function with the optimal discriminative power (DP) for geometry (step 1 discrimination) were found to be very similar to the best-fit parameters for binding free energy over a large number of protein-ligand complexes (step 2 discrimination). Reasonable performance of the scoring functions in enrichment of active compounds in four different protein target classes established that the parameters for S1 and S2 provided reasonable accuracy and transferability. Additional analysis was performed to definitively separate scoring function performance from molecular weight effects. This analysis included the prediction of ligand binding efficiencies for a subset of the CSARdock NRC HiQ dataset where the number of ligand heavy atoms ranged from 17 to 35. This range of ligand heavy atoms is where improved accuracy of

  5. Evaluation of several two-step scoring functions based on linear interaction energy, effective ligand size, and empirical pair potentials for prediction of protein-ligand binding geometry and free energy.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Obaidur; Estrada, Trilce P; Doren, Douglas J; Taufer, Michela; Brooks, Charles L; Armen, Roger S

    2011-09-26

    The performances of several two-step scoring approaches for molecular docking were assessed for their ability to predict binding geometries and free energies. Two new scoring functions designed for "step 2 discrimination" were proposed and compared to our CHARMM implementation of the linear interaction energy (LIE) approach using the Generalized-Born with Molecular Volume (GBMV) implicit solvation model. A scoring function S1 was proposed by considering only "interacting" ligand atoms as the "effective size" of the ligand and extended to an empirical regression-based pair potential S2. The S1 and S2 scoring schemes were trained and 5-fold cross-validated on a diverse set of 259 protein-ligand complexes from the Ligand Protein Database (LPDB). The regression-based parameters for S1 and S2 also demonstrated reasonable transferability in the CSARdock 2010 benchmark using a new data set (NRC HiQ) of diverse protein-ligand complexes. The ability of the scoring functions to accurately predict ligand geometry was evaluated by calculating the discriminative power (DP) of the scoring functions to identify native poses. The parameters for the LIE scoring function with the optimal discriminative power (DP) for geometry (step 1 discrimination) were found to be very similar to the best-fit parameters for binding free energy over a large number of protein-ligand complexes (step 2 discrimination). Reasonable performance of the scoring functions in enrichment of active compounds in four different protein target classes established that the parameters for S1 and S2 provided reasonable accuracy and transferability. Additional analysis was performed to definitively separate scoring function performance from molecular weight effects. This analysis included the prediction of ligand binding efficiencies for a subset of the CSARdock NRC HiQ data set where the number of ligand heavy atoms ranged from 17 to 35. This range of ligand heavy atoms is where improved accuracy of predicted ligand

  6. N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) –based score can predict in-hospital mortality in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Ting; Tseng, Yuan-Teng; Chu, Tung-Wei; Chen, John; Lai, Min-Yu; Tang, Woung-Ru; Shiao, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Serum N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) testing is recommended in the patients with heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that NT-pro-BNP, in combination with other clinical factors in terms of a novel NT-pro BNP-based score, may provide even better predictive power for in-hospital mortality among patients with HF. A retrospective study enrolled adult patients with hospitalization-requiring HF who fulfilled the predefined criteria during the period from January 2011 to December 2013. We proposed a novel scoring system consisting of several independent predictors including NT-pro-BNP for predicting in-hospital mortality, and then compared the prognosis-predictive power of the novel NT-pro BNP-based score with other prognosis-predictive scores. A total of 269 patients were enrolled in the current study. Factors such as “serum NT-pro-BNP level above 8100 mg/dl,” “age above 79 years,” “without taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker,” “without taking beta-blocker,” “without taking loop diuretics,” “with mechanical ventilator support,” “with non-invasive ventilator support,” “with vasopressors use,” and “experience of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation” were found as independent predictors. A novel NT-pro BNP-based score composed of these risk factors was proposed with excellent predictability for in-hospital mortality. The proposed novel NT-pro BNP-based score was extremely effective in predicting in-hospital mortality in HF patients. PMID:27411951

  7. Performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and a Simplified Finnish Diabetes Risk Score in a Community-Based, Cross-Sectional Programme for Screening of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Dysglycaemia in Madrid, Spain: The SPREDIA-2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Lunar, C.; Lahoz, C.; Mostaza, J. M.; Abánades-Herranz, J. C.; Laguna-Cuesta, F.; Estirado-de Cabo, E.; García-Iglesias, F.; González-Alegre, T.; Fernández-Puntero, B.; Montesano-Sánchez, L.; Vicent-López, D.; Cornejo-del Río, V.; Fernández-García, P. J.; Sánchez-Arroyo, V.; Sabín-Rodríguez, C.; López-López, S.; Patrón-Barandio, P.; Gómez-Campelo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and a simplified FINDRISC score (MADRISC) in screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (UT2DM) and dysglycaemia. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out with participants with UT2DM, ranged between 45–74 years and lived in two districts in the north of metropolitan Madrid (Spain). The FINDRISC and MADRISC scores were evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve method (ROC-AUC). Four different gold standards were used for UT2DM and any dysglycaemia, as follows: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), HbA1c, and OGTT or HbA1c. Dysglycaemia and UT2DM were defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Results The study population comprised 1,426 participants (832 females and 594 males) with a mean age of 62 years (SD = 6.1). When HbA1c or OGTT criteria were used, the prevalence of UT2DM was 7.4% (10.4% in men and 5.2% in women; p<0.01) and the FINDRISC ROC-AUC for UT2DM was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.69–0.74). The optimal cut-off point was ≥13 (sensitivity = 63.8%, specificity = 65.1%). The ROC-AUC of MADRISC was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.72–0.81) with ≥13 as the optimal cut-off point (sensitivity = 84.8%, specificity = 54.6%). FINDRISC score ≥12 for detecting any dysglycaemia offered the best cut-off point when HbA1c alone or OGTT and HbA1c were the criteria used. Conclusions FINDRISC proved to be a useful instrument in screening for dysglycaemia and UT2DM. In the screening of UT2DM, the simplified MADRISC performed as well as FINDRISC. PMID:27441722

  8. Protein Alpha Shape (PAS) Dock: A new gaussian-based score function suitable for docking in homology modelled protein structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tøndel, Kristin; Anderssen, Endre; Drabløs, Finn

    2006-03-01

    Protein Alpha Shape (PAS) Dock is a new empirical score function suitable for virtual library screening using homology modelled protein structures. Here, the score function is used in combination with the geometry search method Tabu search. A description of the protein binding site is generated using gaussian property fields like in Protein Alpha Shape Similarity Analysis (PASSA). Gaussian property fields are also used to describe the ligand properties. The overlap between the receptor and ligand hydrophilicity and lipophilicity fields is maximised, while minimising steric clashes. Gaussian functions introduce a smoothing of the property fields. This makes the score function robust against small structural variations, and therefore suitable for use with homology models. This also makes it less critical to include protein flexibility in the docking calculations. We use a fast and simplified version of the score function in the geometry search, while a more detailed version is used for the final prediction of the binding free energies. This use of a two-level scoring makes PAS-Dock computationally efficient, and well suited for virtual screening. The PAS-Dock score function is trained on 218 X-ray structures of protein- ligand complexes with experimental binding affinities. The performance of PAS-Dock is compared to two other docking methods, AutoDock and MOE-Dock, with respect to both accuracy and computational efficiency. According to this study, PAS-Dock is more computationally efficient than both AutoDock and MOE-Dock, and gives a better prediction of the free energies of binding. PAS-Dock is also more robust against structural variations than AutoDock.

  9. My Favorite American Monument. Kindergarten Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardes, Lupita

    For this kindergarten classroom activity, students are asked to pretend they have just won a trip to four historical sites: (1) Lincoln Memorial; (2) Mount Rushmore; (3) White House; and (4) Statue of Liberty. The activity instructs the students to keep a journal of the trip (taken via the Internet) so that a presentation can be given to the class…

  10. Let's Go! Kindergarten Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesner, Eileen

    In this colorfully illustrated kindergarten activity, students read (and re-read) "My Blue Suitcase" (Sharon Katz), as an introduction to traveling. The book uses all of the basic forms of transportation and forms the transportation lesson outline. The activity gives the students the task of learning about each mode of transportation:…

  11. How Much Structuring Is Beneficial with Regard to Examination Scores? A Prospective Study of Three Forms of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Claus H.; Rosen, Evelyne N.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a superiority of active learning forms compared with traditional lecture. However, there is still debate as to what degree structuring is necessary with regard to high exam outcomes. Seventy-five students from a premedical school were randomly attributed to an active lecture group, a cooperative group, or a…

  12. Growth of Islam. Seventh Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houson, Judy

    This seventh grade activity asks students to gather data that will help them understand and appreciate the Islamic way of life and to learn to feel comfortable living with a Muslim family in Syria during the second semester of the school year. The activity states each student will be interviewed by a Fulbright official, expected to keep a…

  13. Rocks: A Concrete Activity That Introduces Normal Distribution, Sampling Error, Central Limit Theorem and True Score Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duzer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This report introduces a short, hands-on activity that addresses a key challenge in teaching quantitative methods to students who lack confidence or experience with statistical analysis. Used near the beginning of the course, this activity helps students develop an intuitive insight regarding a number of abstract concepts which are key to…

  14. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions.

  15. Active Learning-Based Pedagogical Rule Extraction.

    PubMed

    Junqué de Fortuny, Enric; Martens, David

    2015-11-01

    Many of the state-of-the-art data mining techniques introduce nonlinearities in their models to cope with complex data relationships effectively. Although such techniques are consistently included among the top classification techniques in terms of predictive power, their lack of transparency renders them useless in any domain where comprehensibility is of importance. Rule-extraction algorithms remedy this by distilling comprehensible rule sets from complex models that explain how the classifications are made. This paper considers a new rule extraction technique, based on active learning. The technique generates artificial data points around training data with low confidence in the output score, after which these are labeled by the black-box model. The main novelty of the proposed method is that it uses a pedagogical approach without making any architectural assumptions of the underlying model. It can therefore be applied to any black-box technique. Furthermore, it can generate any rule format, depending on the chosen underlying rule induction technique. In a large-scale empirical study, we demonstrate the validity of our technique to extract trees and rules from artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests, on 25 data sets of varying size and dimensionality. Our results show that not only do the generated rules explain the black-box models well (thereby facilitating the acceptance of such models), the proposed algorithm also performs significantly better than traditional rule induction techniques in terms of accuracy as well as fidelity.

  16. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to…

  17. East Feliciana Parish Schools Embrace Place-Based Education as a Way To Lift Scores on Louisiana's High-Stakes Tests. Rural Trust Featured Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elizabeth Higgins

    East Feliciana Parish (Louisiana) has raised achievement scores by involving students in hands-on projects related to community needs and resources. Project Connect, a hands-on science and math program begun by the Delta Rural Systemic Initiative, has expanded into a comprehensive place-based program. In response to new state standards, teams of…

  18. Test facilities for SCORE-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greuel, Dirk; Deeken, Jan; Suslov, Dmitry; Schäfer, Klaus; Schlechtriem, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The LOX/LH2 Staged Combustion Rocket Engine Demonstrator (SCORE-D) is part of ESA's Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP). SCORE-D serves as a technology demonstrator in perspective of the development of the High Thrust Engine (HTE), which is designated as a candidate for the main stage engine of the Next Generation Launcher (NGL). To develop and test the SCORE-D engine, ESA investigates configurations of the test benches P3.2 and P5 at DLR test site in Lampoldshausen. For the SCORE-D Hot Combustion Devices (HCD) development, i.e. Pre-burner (PB) and thrust chamber assembly (TCA), the P3.2 test facility has to be modified for further usage. Recently, the first steps in this endeavor have been made with the evaluation of the necessary modifications to the facility. To accommodate the SCORE-D engine, it is foreseen to modify the P5 test facility in the coming years. In the last year, DLR has started the design phase for these modifications. In preparatory test programs at the P8 test facility, Astrium has conducted sub-scale hot combustion devices tests. While Astrium designed and manufactured the sub-scale assembly of the pre-burner and the main combustion chamber (MCC) for SCORE-D, DLR operated the P8 test facility.

  19. College Major Similarity Profiles Based on Selected Washington Pre-College Measures and Vocational Interest Inventory Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneborg, Clifford E.; Lunneborg, Patricia W.

    Discriminant function analyses utilizing Washington Pre-College (WPC) aptitude/achievement variables and Vocational Interest Inventory scores were performed to predict graduating major for June 1975 University of Washington graduates in 11 majors. Using both types of pre-college measures classified more graduates correctly than utilizing the…

  20. Early inpatient calculation of laboratory-based 30-day readmission risk scores empowers clinical risk modification during index hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Horne, Benjamin D; Budge, Deborah; Masica, Andrew L; Savitz, Lucy A; Benuzillo, José; Cantu, Gabriela; Bradshaw, Alejandra; McCubrey, Raymond O; Bair, Tami L; Roberts, Colleen A; Rasmusson, Kismet D; Alharethi, Rami; Kfoury, Abdallah G; James, Brent C; Lappé, Donald L

    2017-03-01

    Improving 30-day readmission continues to be problematic for most hospitals. This study reports the creation and validation of sex-specific inpatient (i) heart failure (HF) risk scores using electronic data from the beginning of inpatient care for effective and efficient prediction of 30-day readmission risk.

  1. An Alternative Method in the New Educational Program from the Point of Performance-Based Assessment: Rubric Scoring Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Adnan

    2007-01-01

    Scoring rubrics are useful to serve performance assessment for learning and assessment because they can be created for a variety of subjects and situations. Rubrics look like more suitable and effective tools for summative and formative evaluation because they include qualitative description of the performance criteria. In recent years, rubrics…

  2. Reliability and Validity of Inferences about Teachers Based on Student Scores. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haertel, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    Policymakers and school administrators have embraced value-added models of teacher effectiveness as tools for educational improvement. Teacher value-added estimates may be viewed as complicated scores of a certain kind. This suggests using a test validation model to examine their reliability and validity. Validation begins with an interpretive…

  3. 16 CFR Appendix B to Part 698 - Model Forms for Risk-Based Pricing and Credit Score Disclosure Exception Notices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Credit Score Disclosure Exception Notices B Appendix B to Part 698 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES Pt. 698, App. B Appendix B to Part 698... set of circumstances as indicated by the title of that model form. 2. Model form B-1 is for use...

  4. The prognostic significance of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) with systemic vasculitis patients transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU)

    PubMed Central

    Biscetti, Federico; Carbonella, Angela; Parisi, Federico; Bosello, Silvia Laura; Schiavon, Franco; Padoan, Roberto; Gremese, Elisa; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Systemic vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that share clinical features including respiratory distress, renal dysfunction, and neurologic disorders. These diseases may often cause life-threatening complications requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity and responsiveness of Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) score to predict survival in patients with systemic vasculitides admitted to ICU. A retrospective study was carried out from 2004 to 2014 in 18 patients with systemic vasculitis admitted to 2 different Rheumatology divisions and transferred to ICU due to clinical worsening, with a length of stay beyond 24 hours. We found that ICU mortality was significantly associated with higher BVAS scores performed in the ward (P = 0.01) and at the admission in ICU (P = 0.01), regardless of the value of Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scores (P = 0.50). We used receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to evaluate the possible cutoff value for the BVAS in the ward and in ICU and we found that a BVAS > 8 in the ward and that a BVAS > 10 in ICU might be a useful tool to predict in-ICU mortality. BVAS appears to be an excellent tool for assessing ICU mortality risk of systemic vasculitides patients admitted to specialty departments. Our experience has shown that performing the assessment at admission to the ward is more important than determining the evaluation before the clinical aggravation causing the transfer to ICU. PMID:27902615

  5. Body-Sensor-Network-Based Kinematic Characterization and Comparative Outlook of UPDRS Scoring in Leg Agility, Sit-to-Stand, and Gait Tasks in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Federico; Ferrari, Gianluigi; Giuberti, Matteo; Contin, Laura; Cimolin, Veronica; Azzaro, Corrado; Albani, Giovanni; Mauro, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    Recently, we have proposed a body-sensor-network-based approach, composed of a few body-worn wireless inertial nodes, for automatic assignment of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores in the following tasks: Leg agility (LA), Sit-to-Stand (S2S), and Gait (G). Unlike our previous works and the majority of the published studies, where UPDRS tasks were the sole focus, in this paper, we carry out a comparative investigation of the LA, S2S, and G tasks. In particular, after providing an accurate description of the features identified for the kinematic characterization of the three tasks, we comment on the correlation between the most relevant kinematic parameters and the UPDRS scoring. We analyzed the performance achieved by the automatic UPDRS scoring system and compared the estimated UPDRS evaluation with the one performed by neurologists, showing that the proposed system compares favorably with typical interrater variability. We then investigated the correlations between the UPDRS scores assigned to the various tasks by both the neurologists and the automatic system. The results, based on a limited number of subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) (34 patients, 47 clinical trials), show poor-to-moderate correlations between the UPDRS scores of different tasks, highlighting that the patients' motor performance may vary significantly from one task to another, since different tasks relate to different aspects of the disease. An aggregate UPDRS score is also considered as a concise parameter, which can provide additional information on the overall level of the motor impairments of a Parkinson's patient. Finally, we discuss a possible implementation of a practical e-health application for the remote monitoring of PD patients.

  6. Development of risk-based trading farm scoring system to assist with the control of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Simons, R R L; Smith, R P; Arnold, M E; Broughan, J; Kosmider, R; Downs, S H

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and ranking cattle herds with a higher risk of being or becoming infected on known risk factors can help target farm biosecurity, surveillance schemes and reduce spread through animal trading. This paper describes a quantitative approach to develop risk scores, based on the probability of infection in a herd with bovine tuberculosis (bTB), to be used in a risk-based trading (RBT) scheme in England and Wales. To produce a practical scoring system the risk factors included need to be simple and quick to understand, sufficiently informative and derived from centralised national databases to enable verification and assess compliance. A logistic regression identified herd history of bTB, local bTB prevalence, herd size and movements of animals onto farms in batches from high risk areas as being significantly associated with the probability of bTB infection on farm. Risk factors were assigned points using the estimated odds ratios to weight them. The farm risk score was defined as the sum of these individual points yielding a range from 1 to 5 and was calculated for each cattle farm that was trading animals in England and Wales at the start of a year. Within 12 months, of those farms tested, 30.3% of score 5 farms had a breakdown (sensitivity). Of farms scoring 1-4 only 5.4% incurred a breakdown (1-specificity). The use of this risk scoring system within RBT has the potential to reduce infected cattle movements; however, there are cost implications in ensuring that the information underpinning any system is accurate and up to date.

  7. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweeteners among U.S. Adults Is Associated with Higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005) Scores and More Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008 NHANES). A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol). LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical activity. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical activity. PMID:25329967

  8. Correlation of phantom-based and log file patient-specific QA with complexity scores for VMAT.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Christina E; Irvine, Denise M; McGarry, Conor K

    2014-11-08

    The motivation for this study was to reduce physics workload relating to patient- specific quality assurance (QA). VMAT plan delivery accuracy was determined from analysis of pre- and on-treatment trajectory log files and phantom-based ionization chamber array measurements. The correlation in this combination of measurements for patient-specific QA was investigated. The relationship between delivery errors and plan complexity was investigated as a potential method to further reduce patient-specific QA workload. Thirty VMAT plans from three treatment sites - prostate only, prostate and pelvic node (PPN), and head and neck (H&N) - were retrospectively analyzed in this work. The 2D fluence delivery reconstructed from pretreatment and on-treatment trajectory log files was compared with the planned fluence using gamma analysis. Pretreatment dose delivery verification was also car- ried out using gamma analysis of ionization chamber array measurements compared with calculated doses. Pearson correlations were used to explore any relationship between trajectory log file (pretreatment and on-treatment) and ionization chamber array gamma results (pretreatment). Plan complexity was assessed using the MU/ arc and the modulation complexity score (MCS), with Pearson correlations used to examine any relationships between complexity metrics and plan delivery accu- racy. Trajectory log files were also used to further explore the accuracy of MLC and gantry positions. Pretreatment 1%/1 mm gamma passing rates for trajectory log file analysis were 99.1% (98.7%-99.2%), 99.3% (99.1%-99.5%), and 98.4% (97.3%-98.8%) (median (IQR)) for prostate, PPN, and H&N, respectively, and were significantly correlated to on-treatment trajectory log file gamma results (R = 0.989, p < 0.001). Pretreatment ionization chamber array (2%/2 mm) gamma results were also significantly correlated with on-treatment trajectory log file gamma results (R = 0.623, p < 0.001). Furthermore, all gamma results displayed a

  9. Physical activity assessed with three different methods and the Framingham Risk Score on 10-year coronary heart disease risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) protects against coronary heart disease (CHD) by favorably altering several CHD risk factors. In order to best understand the true nature of the relationship between PA and CHD, the impact different PA assessment methods have on the relationships must first be clarified. The p...

  10. Evaluating the Consistency of Angoff-Based Cut Scores Using Subsets of Items within a Generalizability Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannan, Priya; Sgammato, Adrienne; Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Katz, Irvin R.

    2015-01-01

    The Angoff method requires experts to view every item on the test and make a probability judgment. This can be time consuming when there are large numbers of items on the test. In this study, a G-theory framework was used to determine if a subset of items can be used to make generalizable cut-score recommendations. Angoff ratings (i.e.,…

  11. Impact of structured verbal feedback module in medical education: A questionnaire- and test score-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Meenakshi; Singh, Sonia; Sharma, Anu; Singh, Poonam; Bansal, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Feedback is a divalent bond between the supplier (teacher) and the recipient (student). The strength of the bond depends on the instructional design of the feedback. Feedback is central to medical education in promoting self-directed learning in students. In the present study, a structured verbal feedback module was prepared, implemented, and evaluated. Methods: The study was done on 280 students from four consecutive batches (2011 to 2014) of the 1st year MBBS students exposed to different types and modes of feedback. Analysis was done using student feedback questionnaire for the perception of students to verbal feedback. Quantitative analysis using post hoc test and ANOVA for the impact of type of feedback (verbal or written) and effect of modes (individual or group) of verbal feedback on test score performance were done. Result: In this study, ≥95% of the students preferred verbal feedback of both positive and negative attributes in student questionnaires. It was observed that verbal feedback sessions made a difference of up to 2–2.4 grade points in the mean score of batch when compared to the written feedback. The initial mean test score (T1) of 2011 + 2012 and 2013 + 2014 was not statistically significant (P = 0.113). But, in all subsequent tests (T2, T3, and T4), there was a statistically significant difference in the mean test scores (P = 0.000). Conclusion: (1) Students prefer verbal one-to-one feedback over written feedback. (2) Verbal feedback changes learning process and causes sustained improvement in learning strategies. PMID:27563592

  12. Using activity-based costing in surgery.

    PubMed

    Grandlich, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING is an accounting technique that allows organizations to determine actual costs associated with their services based on the resources they consume. THIS TECHNIQUE can be used in a variety of ways, including targeting high-cost activities, forecasting financial baselines, and supporting resource allocation. FOUR STEPS should be followed when applying activity-based costing to surgical procedures. THIS ARTICLE explores how Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, used activity-based costing.

  13. Relationship between Bone-Specific Physical Activity Scores and Measures for Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Young College Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SoJung; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Jooyoung; Sung, Dong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between bone-specific physical activity (BPAQ) scores, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy young college women. Methods Seventy-three college women (21.7 ± 1.8 years; 162.1 ± 4.6 cm; 53.9 ± 5.8 kg) between the ages of 19 and 26 years were recruited from the universities in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. We used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and proximal femur BMD (left side; total hip, femoral neck). The BPAQ scores (past, pBPAQ; current, cBPAQ; total, tBPAQ) were used to obtain a comprehensive account of lifetime physical activity related to bone health. We used X-scan plus II instrumentation to measure height (cm), weight (kg), fat free mass (FFM, kg), percent body fat (%), and body mass index (BMI). Participants were asked to record their 24-hour food intake in a questionnaire. Results There were positive correlations between BPAQ scores and total hip (pBPAQ r = 0.308, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.286, p = 0.014) and FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.309, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.311, p = 0.007), while no significant relationships were found in cBPAQ (p > 0.05). When FFM, Vitamin D intake, cBPAQ, pBPAQ, and tBPAQ were included in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, FFM and pBPAQ were predictors of total hip, accounting for 16% (p = 0.024), while FFM and tBPAQ predicted 14% of the variance in FN (p = 0.015). Only FFM predicted 15% of the variance in L2-L4 (p = 0.004). There was a positive correlation between Vitamin D intake and L2-L4 (p = 0.025), but other dietary intakes variables were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions BPAQ-derived physical activity scores and FFM were positively associated with total hip and FN BMD in healthy young college women. Our study suggests that osteoporosis awareness and effective bone healthy behaviors for college women are required to prevent serious bone diseases later in

  14. The effects on community college student physics achievement and attitudes about learning physics due to inquiry-based laboratory activities versus cookbook laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nock, George Allen Brittingham

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the effects on community college student physics conceptual achievement and attitudes about learning physics due to the use of inquiry-based laboratory activities versus cookbook laboratory activities. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to test for differences in mean post-test Force Concept Inventory (FCI) score for two different types of physics lab instruction (IL versus CBL). Results of the ANCOVA, F (1, 35) = 0.761, p < 0.389, supported the null hypothesis that no significant difference was found in the post-test FCI scores of the two groups. An ANCOVA was performed to test for differences in mean post-test Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT) score for two different types of physics lab instruction (IL versus CBL)., however, the covariate and the dependent variable were shown to not be linearly related. Therefore, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare MBT scores. The results of the ANOVA, F (1, 36) = 0.066, p < 0.798, supported the null hypothesis that there was no significant difference in MBT scores of the two groups. A step-wise multiple linear regression was used to analyze the relationships between the FCI post-test score and the type of instruction, FCI pre-test score, and American College Test (ACT) science reasoning sub-scores. The FCI pre-test score and ACT science score were shown to be the best predictors of FCI post-test score. Another step-wise multiple linear regression was used to analyze the relationships between the MBT post-test score and type of instruction, MBT pre-test score, and ACT science reasoning sub-scores. The ACT Science sub-scores were determined to be the best predictor of MBT post-test score. An independent t-test was used to compare the mean lecture test grades for the lab groups taught using inquiry and cookbook methods. The mean lecture test scores of the inquiry-based lab group (M = 81.39, S.D. = 8.15) were found to be significantly

  15. Patients with type 2 diabetes benefit from primary care-based disease management: a propensity score matched survival time analysis.

    PubMed

    Drabik, Anna; Büscher, Guido; Thomas, Karsten; Graf, Christian; Müller, Dirk; Stock, Stephanie

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of a nationwide German diabetes mellitus disease management program (DMP) on survival time and costs in comparison to routine care. The authors conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using routine administration data from Germany's largest sickness fund to identify insured suffering from diabetes in 2002. A total of 95,443 insured with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were born before January 1, 1962 met the defined inclusion criteria, resulting in 19,888 pairs of DMP participants and nonparticipants matched for socioeconomic and health status using propensity score matching methods. This is the first time propensity score matching has been used to evaluate a survival benefit of DMPs. In the time frame analyzed (3 years), mean survival time for the DMP group was 1045 days vs. 985 days for the routine care group (P<0.001). Mean daily hospital and total costs (including DMP administration and medical costs) were lower for the DMP group in the case of deceased insureds (92€ vs. 139€ and 122€ vs. 169€, respectively) as well as for censored observations (6€ vs. 7€ and 12.9€ vs. 13.4€, respectively). Mean daily drug costs were slightly lower for deceased insured in the DMP group (difference 0.6€), while no identifiable difference was found for censored observations. In this study, insured who were enrolled in a DMP for diabetes mellitus in the German Statutory Health Insurance showed a significant benefit in survival time. They also incurred lower costs compared to propensity score matched insured in routine care.

  16. A scoring system basing pathological parameters to predict regional lymph node metastasis after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer: implication for local excision

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jie; Chi, Pan; Lin, Hui-Ming; Lu, Xing-Rong; Huang, Ying; Xu, Zong-Bin; Huang, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Yan-Wu; Ye, Dao-Xiong; Yu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Local excision is an alternative to radical surgery that is indicated in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who have a good response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Regional lymph node status is a major uncertainty during local excision of LARC following CRT. We retrospectively reviewed clinicopathologic variables for 244 patients with LARC who were treated at our institute between December 2000 and December 2013 in order to identify independent predictors of regional lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis of the training sample demonstrated that histopathologic type, tumor size, and the presence of lymphovascular invasion were significant predictors of regional nodal metastasis. These variables were then incorporated into a scoring system in which the total scores were calculated based on the points assigned for each parameter. The area under the curve in the receiver operating characteristic analysis was 0.750, and the cutoff value for the total score to predict regional nodal metastasis was 7.5. The sensitivity of our system was 73.2% and the specificity was 69.4%. The sensitivity was 77.8% and the specificity was 51.2% when the scoring system was applied to the testing sample. Using this system, we could accurately predict regional nodal metastases in LARC patients following CRT, which may be useful for stratifying patients in clinical trials and selecting potential candidates for organ-sparing surgery following CRT for LARC PMID:27489356

  17. Score level fusion scheme based on adaptive local Gabor features for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A multimodal biometric system has been considered a promising technique to overcome the defects of unimodal biometric systems. We have introduced a fusion scheme to gain a better understanding and fusion method for a face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric system. In our case, we use particle swarm optimization to train a set of adaptive Gabor filters in order to achieve the proper Gabor basic functions for each modality. For a closer analysis of texture information, two different local Gabor features for each modality are produced by the corresponding Gabor coefficients. Next, all matching scores of the two Gabor features for each modality are projected to a single-scalar score via a trained, supported, vector regression model for a final decision. A large-scale dataset is formed to validate the proposed scheme using the Facial Recognition Technology database-fafb and CASIA-V3-Interval together with FVC2004-DB2a datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that as well as achieving further powerful local Gabor features of multimodalities and obtaining better recognition performance by their fusion strategy, our architecture also outperforms some state-of-the-art individual methods and other fusion approaches for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric systems.

  18. Propensity Score-Based Approaches to Confounding by Indication in Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis: Non-Standardized Treatment for Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Gregory J.; Benedetti, Andrea; Mitnick, Carole D.; Pai, Madhukar; Menzies, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Background In the absence of randomized clinical trials, meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) from observational studies may provide the most accurate effect estimates for an intervention. However, confounding by indication remains an important concern that can be addressed by incorporating individual patient covariates in different ways. We compared different analytic approaches to account for confounding in IPD from patients treated for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods Two antibiotic classes were evaluated, fluoroquinolones—considered the cornerstone of effective MDR-TB treatment—and macrolides, which are known to be safe, yet are ineffective in vitro. The primary outcome was treatment success against treatment failure, relapse or death. Effect estimates were obtained using multivariable and propensity-score based approaches. Results Fluoroquinolone antibiotics were used in 28 included studies, within which 6,612 patients received a fluoroquinolone and 723 patients did not. Macrolides were used in 15 included studies, within which 459 patients received this class of antibiotics and 3,670 did not. Both standard multivariable regression and propensity score-based methods resulted in similar effect estimates for early and late generation fluoroquinolones, while macrolide antibiotics use was associated with reduced treatment success. Conclusions In this individual patient data meta-analysis, standard multivariable and propensity-score based methods of adjusting for individual patient covariates for observational studies yielded produced similar effect estimates. Even when adjustment is made for potential confounding, interpretation of adjusted estimates must still consider the potential for residual bias. PMID:27022741

  19. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Charice S; Slaughter, Susan E; Jones, C Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S

    2015-06-30

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL.

  20. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Charice S.; Slaughter, Susan E.; Jones, C. Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S.

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life—Alzheimer’s Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL. PMID:27417776

  1. Comparing the Score Distribution of a Trial Computer-Based Examination Cohort with That of the Standard Paper-Based Examination Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoanetti, Nathan; Les, Magdalena; Leigh-Lancaster, David

    2014-01-01

    From 2011-2013 the VCAA conducted a trial aligning the use of computers in curriculum, pedagogy and assessment culminating in a group of 62 volunteer students sitting their end of Year 12 technology-active Mathematical Methods (CAS) Examination 2 as a computer-based examination. This paper reports on statistical modelling undertaken to compare the…

  2. Patient Prognostic Score and Associations With Survival Improvement Offered by Radiotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: A Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Rachel A.; Vaz-Luis, Ines; Mallory, Melissa Anne; Wong, Stephanie M.; Aydogan, Fatih; DeSantis, Stephen; Barry, William T.; Golshan, Mehra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is a standard treatment option for the management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We sought to determine the survival benefit of RT after BCS on the basis of risk factors for local recurrence. Patients and Methods A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was performed to identify patients with DCIS diagnosed between 1988 and 2007 and treated with BCS by using SEER data. Patients were divided into the following two groups: BCS+RT (RT group) and BCS alone (non-RT group). We used a patient prognostic scoring model to stratify patients on the basis of risk of local recurrence. We performed a Cox proportional hazards model with propensity score weighting to evaluate breast cancer mortality between the two groups. Results We identified 32,144 eligible patients with DCIS, 20,329 (63%) in the RT group and 11,815 (37%) in the non-RT group. Overall, 304 breast cancer–specific deaths occurred over a median follow-up of 96 months, with a cumulative incidence of breast cancer mortality at 10 years in the weighted cohorts of 1.8% (RT group) and 2.1% (non-RT group; hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.88). Significant improvements in survival in the RT group compared with the non-RT group were only observed in patients with higher nuclear grade, younger age, and larger tumor size. The magnitude of the survival difference with RT was significantly correlated with prognostic score (P < .001). Conclusion In this population-based study, the patient prognostic score for DCIS is associated with the magnitude of improvement in survival offered by RT after BCS, suggesting that decisions for RT could be tailored on the basis of patient factors, tumor biology, and the prognostic score. PMID:26834064

  3. Activity Based Curriculum for Elementary Education. Additional Activities, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Public Schools, KS.

    This elementary curriculum is a vehicle to provide manipulative activities that reinforce academic skills through meaningful, relevant, activity-based awareness of modern society. The twenty-six activity plans included in the curriculum place a major emphasis upon realistic or concrete experiences that deal with the manipulation and exploration of…

  4. Identifying native-like protein structures with scoring functions based on all-atom ECEPP force fields, implicit solvent models and structure relaxation.

    PubMed

    Arnautova, Yelena A; Vorobjev, Yury N; Vila, Jorge A; Scheraga, Harold A

    2009-10-01

    Availability of energy functions which can discriminate native-like from non-native protein conformations is crucial for theoretical protein structure prediction and refinement of low-resolution protein models. This article reports the results of benchmark tests for scoring functions based on two all-atom ECEPP force fields, that is, ECEPP/3 and ECEPP05, and two implicit solvent models for a large set of protein decoys. The following three scoring functions are considered: (i) ECEPP05 plus a solvent-accessible surface area model with the parameters optimized with a set of protein decoys (ECEPP05/SA); (ii) ECEPP/3 plus the solvent-accessible surface area model of Ooi et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987;84:3086-3090) (ECEPP3/OONS); and (iii) ECEPP05 plus an implicit solvent model based on a solution of the Poisson equation with an optimized Fast Adaptive Multigrid Boundary Element (FAMBEpH) method (ECEPP05/FAMBEpH). Short Monte Carlo-with-Minimization (MCM) simulations, following local energy minimization, are used as a scoring method with ECEPP05/SA and ECEPP3/OONS potentials, whereas energy calculation is used with ECEPP05/FAMBEpH. The performance of each scoring function is evaluated by examining its ability to distinguish between native-like and non-native protein structures. The results of the tests show that the new ECEPP05/SA scoring function represents a significant improvement over the earlier ECEPP3/OONS version of the force field. Thus, it is able to rank native-like structures with C(alpha) root-mean-square-deviations below 3.5 A as lowest-energy conformations for 76% and within the top 10 for 87% of the proteins tested, compared with 69 and 80%, respectively, for ECEPP3/OONS. The use of the FAMBEpH solvation model, which provides a more accurate description of the protein-solvent interactions, improves the discriminative ability of the scoring function to 89%. All failed tests in which the native-like structures cannot be discriminated as those with low

  5. Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Wingard, Ellen E; Fayad, Raja; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps < .05). Vegan, vegetarian, and pescovegetarian participants all saw significant improvements in the DII score as compared with semivegetarian participants at 2 months (Ps < .05) with no differences at 6 months. Given the greater impact on macronutrients and the DII during the short term, finding ways to provide support for adoption and maintenance of plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration.

  6. A clinical prognostic scoring system for resectable gastric cancer to predict survival and benefit from paclitaxel- or oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing; Qian, Yingying; Wang, Jian; Gu, Bing; Pei, Dong; He, Shaohua; Zhu, Fang; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Xu, Jin; Liu, Lianke; Gu, Yanhong; Guo, Renhua; Yin, Yongmei; Shu, Yongqian; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy is a standard procedure of curative resection for gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable prognostic scoring system for GC treated with D2 gastrectomy combined with adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods A prognostic scoring system was established based on clinical and laboratory data from 579 patients with localized GC without distant metastasis treated with D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Results From the multivariate model for overall survival (OS), five factors were selected for the scoring system: ≥50% metastatic lymph node rate, positive lymphovascular invasion, pathologic TNM Stage II or III, ≥5 ng/mL preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level, and <110 g/L preoperative hemoglobin. Two models were derived using different methods. Model A identified low- and high-risk patients for OS (P<0.001), while Model B differentiated low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients for OS (P<0.001). Stage III patients in the low-risk group had higher survival probabilities than Stage II patients. Both Model A (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69–0.78) and Model B (AUC: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72–0.83) were better predictors compared with the pathologic TNM classification (AUC: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.59–0.71, P<0.001). Adjuvant paclitaxel- or oxaliplatin-based or triple chemotherapy showed significantly better outcomes in patients classified as high risk, but not in those with low and intermediate risk. Conclusion A clinical three-tier prognostic risk scoring system was established to predict OS of GC treated with D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. The potential advantage of this scoring system is that it can identify high-risk patients in Stage II or III who may benefit from paclitaxel- or oxaliplatin-based regimens. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results before they are applied clinically. PMID:26966350

  7. The TRIAGE-ProADM Score for an Early Risk Stratification of Medical Patients in the Emergency Department - Development Based on a Multi-National, Prospective, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Hausfater, Pierre; Amin, Devendra; Amin, Adina; Canavaggio, Pauline; Sauvin, Gabrielle; Bernard, Maguy; Conca, Antoinette; Haubitz, Sebastian; Struja, Tristan; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The inflammatory biomarker pro-adrenomedullin (ProADM) provides additional prognostic information for the risk stratification of general medical emergency department (ED) patients. The aim of this analysis was to develop a triage algorithm for improved prognostication and later use in an interventional trial. Methods We used data from the multi-national, prospective, observational TRIAGE trial including consecutive medical ED patients from Switzerland, France and the United States. We investigated triage effects when adding ProADM at two established cut-offs to a five-level ED triage score with respect to adverse clinical outcome. Results Mortality in the 6586 ED patients showed a step-wise, 25-fold increase from 0.6% to 4.5% and 15.4%, respectively, at the two ProADM cut-offs (≤0.75nmol/L, >0.75–1.5nmol/L, >1.5nmol/L, p ANOVA <0.0001). Risk stratification by combining ProADM within cut-off groups and the triage score resulted in the identification of 1662 patients (25.2% of the population) at a very low risk of mortality (0.3%, n = 5) and 425 patients (6.5% of the population) at very high risk of mortality (19.3%, n = 82). Risk estimation by using ProADM and the triage score from a logistic regression model allowed for a more accurate risk estimation in the whole population with a classification of 3255 patients (49.4% of the population) in the low risk group (0.3% mortality, n = 9) and 1673 (25.4% of the population) in the high-risk group (15.1% mortality, n = 252). Conclusions Within this large international multicenter study, a combined triage score based on ProADM and established triage scores allowed a more accurate mortality risk discrimination. The TRIAGE-ProADM score improved identification of both patients at the highest risk of mortality who may benefit from early therapeutic interventions (rule in), and low risk patients where deferred treatment without negatively affecting outcome may be possible (rule out). PMID:28005916

  8. Yield of Screening for Coronary Artery Calcium in Early Middle-Age Adults Based on the 10-Year Framingham Risk Score

    PubMed Central

    Okwuosa, Tochi M.; Greenland, Philip; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of coronary artery calcium (CAC) across Framingham Risk Score (FRS) strata and therefore determine FRS levels at which asymptomatic, young to early middle-age individuals could potentially benefit from CAC screening. BACKGROUND High CAC burden is associated with increased risk of coronary events beyond the FRS. Expert panel recommendations for CAC screening are based on data obtained in middle-age and older individuals. METHODS We included 2,831 CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study participants with an age range of 33 to 45 years. The number needed to screen ([NNS] number of people in each FRS stratum who need to be screened to detect 1 person with a CAC score above the specified cut point) was used to assess the yield of screening for CAC. CAC prevalence was compared across FRS strata using a chi-square test. RESULTS CAC scores >0 and ≥100 were present in 9.9% and 1.8% of participants, respectively. CAC prevalence and amount increased across higher FRS strata. A CAC score >0 was observed in 7.3%, 20.2%, 19.1%, and 44.8% of individuals with FRSs of 0 to 2.5%, 2.6% to 5%, 5.1% to 10%, and >10%, respectively (NNS = 14, 5, 5, and 2, respectively). A CAC score of ≥100 was observed in 1.3%, 2.4%, and 3.5% of those with FRSs of 0 to 2.5%, 2.6% to 5%, and 5.1% to 10%, respectively (NNS = 79, 41, and 29, respectively), but in 17.2% of those with an FRS >10% (NNS = 6). Similar trends were observed when findings were stratified by sex and race. CONCLUSIONS In this young to early middle-age cohort, we observed concordance between CAC prevalence/amount and FRS strata. Within this group, the yield of screening and possibility of identifying those with a high CAC burden (CAC score of ≥100) is low in those with an FRS of ≤10%, but considerable in those with an FRS >10%. PMID:22974805

  9. Population-Based Questionnaire Survey on Health Effects of Aircraft Noise on Residents Living around U.S. Airfields in the RYUKYUS—PART II: AN Analysis of the Discriminant Score and the Factor Score

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HIRAMATSU, K.; MATSUI, T.; MIYAKITA, T.; ITO, A.; TOKUYAMA, T.; OSADA, Y.; YAMAMOTO, T.

    2002-02-01

    Discriminant function values of psychosomatics and neurosis are calculated using the 12 scale scores of the Todai Health Index, a general health questionnaire, obtained in the survey done around the Kadena and Futenma U.S. airfields in Okinawa, Japan. The total number of answers available for the analysis is 6301. Factor analysis is applied to the 12 scale scores by means of the principal factor method, and Oblimin rotation is done because the factors extracted are considered likely to correlate with each other to a greater or lesser extent. The logistic regression analysis is made with the independent variables of discriminant function (DF) values and factor scores and with the dependent variables of Ldn, age (six levels), sex, occupation (four categories) and the interaction of age and sex. Results indicate that the odds ratio of the DF values regarding psychosomatic disorder and of the score of somatic factor have clear dose-response relationship. The odds ratios of the DF value of neurosis and of the score of the mental factor increase in the area where noise exposure is very intense.

  10. Regression-Based Norms for a Bi-factor Model for Scoring the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT)

    PubMed Central

    Gurnani, Ashita S.; John, Samantha E.; Gavett, Brandon E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study developed regression-based normative adjustments for a bi-factor model of the The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT). Archival data from the Midlife Development in the United States-II Cognitive Project were used to develop eight separate linear regression models that predicted bi-factor BTACT scores, accounting for age, education, gender, and occupation-alone and in various combinations. All regression models provided statistically significant fit to the data. A three-predictor regression model fit best and accounted for 32.8% of the variance in the global bi-factor BTACT score. The fit of the regression models was not improved by gender. Eight different regression models are presented to allow the user flexibility in applying demographic corrections to the bi-factor BTACT scores. Occupation corrections, while not widely used, may provide useful demographic adjustments for adult populations or for those individuals who have attained an occupational status not commensurate with expected educational attainment. PMID:25724515

  11. Does Non-Central Nervous System Tuberculosis Increase the Risk of Ischemic Stroke? A Population-Based Propensity Score-Matched Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chueh-Hung; Chen, Li-Sheng; Yen, Ming-Fang; Chiu, Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Pan, Shin-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the association between tuberculosis and the risk of developing ischemic stroke have generated inconsistent results. We therefore performed a population-based, propensity score-matched longitudinal follow-up study to investigate whether contracting non-central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis leads to an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Methods We used a logistic regression model that includes age, sex, pre-existing comorbidities and socioeconomic status as covariates to compute the propensity score. A total of 5804 persons with at least three ambulatory visits in 2001 with the principal diagnosis of non-CNS tuberculosis were enrolled in the tuberculosis group. The non-tuberculosis group consisted of 5804, propensity score-matched subjects without tuberculosis. The three-year ischemic stroke-free survival rates for these 2 groups were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The stratified Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of tuberculosis on the occurrence of ischemic stroke. Results During three-year follow-up, 176 subjects in the tuberculosis group (3.0%) and 207 in the non-tuberculosis group (3.6%) had ischemic stroke. The hazard ratio for developing ischemic stroke in the tuberculosis group was 0.92 compared to the non-tuberculosis group (95% confidence interval: 0.73–1.14, P = 0.4299). Conclusions Non-CNS tuberculosis does not increase the risk of subsequent ischemic stroke. PMID:25048551

  12. Are the Best Scores the Best Scores for Predicting College Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Mattern, Krista D.; Swerdzewski, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The College Board's SAT[R] Score Choice[TM] policy allows students to choose which set(s) of scores to send to colleges and universities to which they plan to apply. Based on data gathered before the implementation of that policy, the following study evaluated the predictive validity of the various sets of SAT scores. The value of five score sets…

  13. Parkinson’s Disease Is Related to an Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke—A Population-Based Propensity Score-Matched Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Ping; Chen, Li-Sheng; Yen, Ming-Fang; Fann, Ching-Yuan; Chiu, Yueh-Hsia; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Pan, Shin-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The risk of stroke in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) remains controversial. The purpose of this population-based propensity score-matched longitudinal follow-up study was to determine whether there is an increased risk of ischemic stroke after PD. Methods We used a logistic regression model that includes age, sex, pre-existing comorbidities and socioeconomic status as covariates to compute the propensity score. A total of 2204 patients with at least two ambulatory visits with the principal diagnosis of PD in 2001 was enrolled in the PD group. The non- PD group consisted of 2204, propensity score-matched subjects without PD. The ischemic stroke-free survival rates of the two groups were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression with patients matched on propensity score was used to estimate the effect of PD on the occurrence of ischemic stroke. Results During the three-year follow-up period, 328 subjects in the PD group and 156 subjects in the non-PD group developed ischemic stroke. The ischemic stroke-free survival rate of the PD group was significantly lower than that of the non-PD group (P<0.0001). The hazard ratio (HR) of stroke for the PD group was 2.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.92 to 2.93, P<0.0001) compared to the non- PD group. Conclusions This study shows a significantly increased risk of ischemic stroke in PD patients. Further studies are required to investigate the underlying mechanism. PMID:24023710

  14. Spinal cord injury is related to an increased risk of multiple sclerosis: a population-based, propensity score-matched, longitudinal follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Huang, Ya-Ping; Pan, Shin-Liang

    2015-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Trauma to the CNS has been postulated to play a role in triggering CNS autoimmune disease. Although the association between traumatic brain injury and MS has been suggested in previous studies, epidemiological data on the association between spinal cord injury (SCI) and MS is still lacking. The aim of the present population-based, propensity score-matched, longitudinal follow-up study was therefore to investigate whether patients with SCI were at a higher risk of developing MS. A total of 11,913 subjects ages between 20 and 90 years with at least two ambulatory visits with the principal diagnosis of SCI in 2001 were enrolled in the SCI group. We used a logistic regression model that included age, sex, pre-existing comorbidities, and socioeconomic status as covariates to compute the propensity score. The non-SCI group consisted of 59,565 propensity score-matched, randomly sampled subjects without SCI. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression with patients matched by propensity score was used to estimate the effect of SCI on the risk of developing subsequent MS. During follow-up, five subjects in the SCI group and four in the non-SCI group developed MS. The incidence rates of MS were 17.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.71-41.0) per 100,000 person-years in the SCI group and 2.82 (95% CI, 0.77-7.22) per 100,000 person-years in the non-SCI group. Compared with the non-SCI group, the hazard ratio of MS for the SCI group was 8.33 (95% CI, 1.99-34.87, p=0.0037). Our study therefore shows that patients with SCI have an increased risk of developing MS.

  15. Translation, Validation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Simplified-Chinese Version of the Tegner Activity Score in Chinese Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongxia; Jiang, Yanfang; Yang, Jie; Feng, Tao; Gong, Xi; Wang, Jianquan; Ao, Yingfang

    2016-01-01

    Aims To translate the English version of Tegner Activity Score into a Simplified-Chinese version (Tegner-C) and evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods Tegner-C was cross-culturally adapted according to established guidelines. The validity and reliability of Tegner-C were assessed in 78 participants, with 19–20 participants in each of the four groups: before anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (pre-ACLR) group, 2–3 months after ACLR group, 3–12 months after ACLR group, and healthy control group. Each participant was asked to complete the Tegner-C and Chinese version of International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF-C) twice, with an interval of 5±2 days. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC2, 1) was used to assess the reliability and Spearman’s rank correlation was used for construct validity. Results The ICC2,1 was higher than 0.90 for all groups except in the pre-ACLR group, for which the ICC2,1 was 0.71 (0.41, 0.87) (All with p<0.001). The absolute reliability as evaluated by the smallest detectable change was 0.43, 2.12, 0.89, and 0.44 for the healthy control group, pre-ACLR group, 2–3 months after ACLR group, and 3–12 months after ACLR group, respectively. Neither a ceiling effect nor a floor effect was observed for any group. Significant difference was observed for both Tegner-C and IKDC-SKF-C scores between the control and the other three groups (all with p<0.001), and between pre-ACLR and the 2–3 months after ACLR group (p<0.001). Conclusions Tegner-C demonstrated comparable psychometric properties to the original English version and thus is reliable and valid for Chinese-speaking patients with ACL injury. PMID:27186880

  16. Who Is Worst Off? Developing a Severity-scoring Model of Complex Emergency Affected Countries in Order to Ensure Needs Based Funding

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Anneli; Ohlsén, Ylva Kristina; Garfield, Richard; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disasters affect close to 400 million people each year. Complex Emergencies (CE) are a category of disaster that affects nearly half of the 400 million and often last for several years. To support the people affected by CE, humanitarian assistance is provided with the aim of saving lives and alleviating suffering. It is widely agreed that funding for this assistance should be needs-based. However, to date, there is no model or set of indicators that quantify and compare needs from one CE to another. In an effort to support needs-based and transparent funding of humanitarian assistance, the aim of this study is to develop a model that distinguishes between levels of severity among countries affected by CE. Methods: In this study, severity serves as a predictor for level of need. The study focuses on two components of severity: vulnerability and exposure. In a literature and Internet search we identified indicators that characterize vulnerability and exposure to CE. Among the more than 100 indicators identified, a core set of six was selected in an expert ratings exercise. Selection was made based on indicator availability and their ability to characterize preexisting or underlying vulnerabilities (four indicators) or to quantify exposure to a CE (two indicators). CE from 50 countries were then scored using a 3-tiered score (Low-Moderate, High, Critical).  Results: The developed model builds on the logic of the Utstein template. It scores severity based on the readily available value of four vulnerability and four exposure indicators. These are 1) GNI per capita, PPP, 2) Under-five mortality rate, per 1 000 live births, 3) Adult literacy rate, % of people ages 15 and above, 4) Underweight, % of population under 5 years, and 5) number of persons and proportion of population affected, and 6) number of uprooted persons and proportion of population uprooted. Conclusion: The model can be used to derive support for transparent, needs-based funding of

  17. Data base management systems activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Data Management System-1100 is designed to operate in conjunction with the UNIVAC 1100 Series Operating System on any 1100 Series computer. DMS-1100 is divided into the following four major software components: (1) Data Definition Languages (DDL); (2) Data Management Routine (DMR); (3) Data Manipulation Languages (DML); and (4) Data Base Utilities (DBU). These software components are described in detail.

  18. Fingerprinting of music scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  19. The Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.

  20. An Auto-Scoring Mechanism for Evaluating Problem-Solving Ability in a Web-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Chuang-Kai; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tseng, Judy C. R.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid development of computer and network technologies has attracted researchers to investigate strategies for and the effects of applying information technologies in learning activities; simultaneously, learning environments have been developed to record the learning portfolios of students seeking web information for problem-solving. Although…

  1. Web-based toolkits for topology prediction of transmembrane helical proteins, fold recognition, structure and binding scoring, folding-kinetics analysis and comparative analysis of domain combinations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongyi; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Song; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2005-07-01

    We have developed the following web servers for protein structural modeling and analysis at http://theory.med.buffalo.edu: THUMBUP, UMDHMM(TMHP) and TUPS, predictors of transmembrane helical protein topology based on a mean-burial-propensity scale of amino acid residues (THUMBUP), hidden Markov model (UMDHMM(TMHP)) and their combinations (TUPS); SPARKS 2.0 and SP3, two profile-profile alignment methods, that match input query sequence(s) to structural templates by integrating sequence profile with knowledge-based structural score (SPARKS 2.0) and structure-derived profile (SP3); DFIRE, a knowledge-based potential for scoring free energy of monomers (DMONOMER), loop conformations (DLOOP), mutant stability (DMUTANT) and binding affinity of protein-protein/peptide/DNA complexes (DCOMPLEX & DDNA); TCD, a program for protein-folding rate and transition-state analysis of small globular proteins; and DOGMA, a web-server that allows comparative analysis of domain combinations between plant and other 55 organisms. These servers provide tools for prediction and/or analysis of proteins on the secondary structure, tertiary structure and interaction levels, respectively.

  2. Marketing Education Assessment Guide. Performance-Based Activities with Authentic Assessments Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Donna R.

    This guide presents performance-based authentic assessment ideas, samples, and suggestions to help marketing teachers and students respond to changes and pressures from outside the classroom. It contains 21 activities, each accompanied by a method of authentic assessment. In most cases, the authentic assessment method is a scoring device. The…

  3. On the Reliability of Categorically Scored Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupermintz, Haggai

    2004-01-01

    A decision-theoretic approach to the question of reliability in categorically scored examinations is explored. The concepts of true scores and errors are discussed as they deviate from conventional psychometric definitions and measurement error in categorical scores is cast in terms of misclassifications. A reliability measure based on…

  4. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  5. Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL[R] Internet-Based and Paper-Based Tests. January 2008-December 2008 Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…

  6. The Politics of Achievement Gaps: U.S. Public Opinion on Race-Based and Wealth-Based Differences in Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valant, Jon; Newark, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, researchers have documented large differences in average test scores between minority and White students and between poor and wealthy students. These gaps are a focal point of reformers' and policymakers' efforts to address educational inequities. However, the U.S. public's views on achievement gaps have received little attention from…

  7. Mapping health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) onto the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score with the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dam; Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Min-Young; Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hwajeong; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the mapping model for EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility values using the health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) in a large, nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Korea. The KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data on 3557 patients with RA were used. Data were randomly divided into a modeling set (80 % of the data) and a validation set (20 % of the data). The ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and two-part model methods were employed to construct a model to map to the EQ-5D index. Using a combination of HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28, four model versions were examined. To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the models, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated using the validation dataset. A model that included HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 produced the highest adjusted R (2) as well as the lowest Akaike information criterion, RMSE, and MAE, regardless of the statistical methods used in modeling set. The mapping equation of the OLS method is given as EQ-5D = 0.95-0.21 × HAQ-DI-0.24 × pain VAS/100-0.01 × DAS28 (adjusted R (2) = 57.6 %, RMSE = 0.1654 and MAE = 0.1222). Also in the validation set, the RMSE and MAE were shown to be the smallest. The model with HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 showed the best performance, and this mapping model enabled the estimation of an EQ-5D value for RA patients in whom utility values have not been measured.

  8. Turning Merit Scores into Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a single formula for merit-raise salary schemes based on either a fixed cash amount, a percentage of base salary, or any combination of the two. Explains that the formula makes explicit how merit scores, together with prior salaries and the money available for raises, determine individual salaries. (CMK)

  9. Structure-based modelling, scoring, screening, and in vitro kinase assay of anesthetic pkc inhibitors against a natural medicine library.

    PubMed

    Shi, B X; Chen, F R; Sun, X

    2017-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is an intracellular effector of the inositol phosphate-mediated signal transduction pathway. Evidence is emerging that certain general anaesthetics can influence the activity of PKC by interacting with the regulatory domain of the enzyme, and targeting PKC kinase domain is considered as a strategy to modulate the anaesthetic effects. Here, an integrated method was used to perform virtual screening against a large library of natural compounds for the discovery of new and potent PKC modulators. A number of hits were identified and their inhibitory activity against PKC kinase domain was measured by using a standard kinase assay protocol. Three and five compounds were determined to have high and moderate activities with IC50 values at nanomolar and micromolar levels, respectively. These compounds can be considered as promising lead molecular entities to develop efficacious anaesthetic modulators. Structural examination revealed a variety of nonbonded interactions such as hydrogen bonds, cation-π contacts, and hydrophobic forces across the complex interface of PKC with the identified compounds. This study helps to establish an integrative approach to rational kinase inhibitor discovery by efficiently exploiting various existing natural products.

  10. Curriculum-based measurement of math problem solving: a methodology and rationale for establishing equivalence of scores.

    PubMed

    Montague, Marjorie; Penfield, Randall D; Enders, Craig; Huang, Jia

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss curriculum-based measurement (CBM) as it is currently utilized in research and practice and to propose a new approach for developing measures to monitor the academic progress of students longitudinally. To accomplish this, we first describe CBM and provide several exemplars of CBM in reading and mathematics. Then, we present the research context for developing a set of seven curriculum-based measures for monitoring student progress in math problem solving. The rationale for and advantages of using statistical equating methodology are discussed. Details of the methodology as it was applied to the development of these math problem solving measures are provided.

  11. Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many Australian children are insufficiently active to accrue health benefits and physical activity (PA) levels are consistently lower among youth of low socio-economic position. PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence and evidence suggests that competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor against this trend. Methods/design The Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention is a multi-component PA and FMS intervention for primary schools in low-income communities, which will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. The socio-ecological model provided a framework for the 12-month intervention, which includes the following components: teacher professional learning, student leadership workshops (including leadership accreditation and rewards, e.g., stickers, water bottles), PA policy review, PA equipment packs, parental engagement via newsletters, FMS homework and a parent evening, and community partnerships with local sporting organizations. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6- and 12-months. The primary outcomes are PA (accelerometers), FMS (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test). Secondary outcomes include body mass index [using weight (kg)/height (m2)], perceived competence, physical self-esteem, and resilience. Individual and environmental mediators of behavior change (e.g. social support and enjoyment) will also be assessed. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time will be used to assess the impact of the intervention on PA within physical education lessons. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be explored. Discussion SCORES is an innovative primary school-based PA and FMS intervention designed to support students attending schools in low-income communities to be more skilled and active. The

  12. A Psychometric Approach to the Development of a 5E Lesson Plan Scoring Instrument for Inquiry-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Dantzler, John; Day, Jeanelle; Webb, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This research centers on the psychometric examination of the structure of an instrument, known as the 5E Lesson Plan (5E ILPv2) rubric for inquiry-based teaching. The instrument is intended to measure an individual's skill in developing written 5E lesson plans for inquiry teaching. In stage one of the instrument's development, an exploratory…

  13. Customizing scoring functions for docking.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tuan A; Jain, Ajay N

    2008-05-01

    Empirical scoring functions used in protein-ligand docking calculations are typically trained on a dataset of complexes with known affinities with the aim of generalizing across different docking applications. We report a novel method of scoring-function optimization that supports the use of additional information to constrain scoring function parameters, which can be used to focus a scoring function's training towards a particular application, such as screening enrichment. The approach combines multiple instance learning, positive data in the form of ligands of protein binding sites of known and unknown affinity and binding geometry, and negative (decoy) data of ligands thought not to bind particular protein binding sites or known not to bind in particular geometries. Performance of the method for the Surflex-Dock scoring function is shown in cross-validation studies and in eight blind test cases. Tuned functions optimized with a sufficient amount of data exhibited either improved or undiminished screening performance relative to the original function across all eight complexes. Analysis of the changes to the scoring function suggest that modifications can be learned that are related to protein-specific features such as active-site mobility.

  14. Customizing scoring functions for docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan A.; Jain, Ajay N.

    2008-05-01

    Empirical scoring functions used in protein-ligand docking calculations are typically trained on a dataset of complexes with known affinities with the aim of generalizing across different docking applications. We report a novel method of scoring-function optimization that supports the use of additional information to constrain scoring function parameters, which can be used to focus a scoring function's training towards a particular application, such as screening enrichment. The approach combines multiple instance learning, positive data in the form of ligands of protein binding sites of known and unknown affinity and binding geometry, and negative (decoy) data of ligands thought not to bind particular protein binding sites or known not to bind in particular geometries. Performance of the method for the Surflex-Dock scoring function is shown in cross-validation studies and in eight blind test cases. Tuned functions optimized with a sufficient amount of data exhibited either improved or undiminished screening performance relative to the original function across all eight complexes. Analysis of the changes to the scoring function suggest that modifications can be learned that are related to protein-specific features such as active-site mobility.

  15. Impact of an activities-based adult dementia care program

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Margaret; Koch, Kathleen; Hynan, Linda S; Carr, Sandra; Byrnes, Kathleen; Weiner, Myron F

    2005-01-01

    The investigators studied over one year the impact of a newly established once-a-week activity-based day care program for dementia patients combined with 17 educational sessions for caregivers held at the same facility. Outcome measures were patient and caregiver quality of life (QOL), patient behavioral disturbance, and use of community-based resources. Of the 37 enrollees, 3 chose not to start the program and 13 dropped out before the end of one year, largely due to health-related issues. Of the initial group, 21 attended for the entire year. The average patient Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score at entry was 16, indicating a moderate level of dementia. Average score on the CERAD Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia (BRSD) was 30.1, indicating a mild level of behavioral disturbance. Attendance at day care was 91%; at the caregiver educational sessions, 74%. Patient and caregiver enthusiasm for the program was high and all wanted to continue attendance beyond the study period despite the fact that patients reported no change in QOL. Caregivers rated patients as having significantly less QOL, and rated their own QOL as unchanged. Symptomatic patient behaviors, as measured by the BRSD, increased significantly over the period of study. Caregivers reported greater use of community resources. PMID:18568062

  16. RWCFusion: identifying phenotype-specific cancer driver gene fusions based on fusion pair random walk scoring method

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianmei; Li, Xuecang; Yao, Qianlan; Li, Meng; Zhang, Jian; Ai, Bo; Liu, Wei; Wang, Qiuyu; Feng, Chenchen; Liu, Yuejuan; Bai, Xuefeng; Song, Chao; Li, Shang; Li, Enmin; Xu, Liyan; Li, Chunquan

    2016-01-01

    While gene fusions have been increasingly detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies based methods in human cancers, these methods have limitations in identifying driver fusions. In addition, the existing methods to identify driver gene fusions ignored the specificity among different cancers or only considered their local rather than global topology features in networks. Here, we proposed a novel network-based method, called RWCFusion, to identify phenotype-specific cancer driver gene fusions. To evaluate its performance, we used leave-one-out cross-validation in 35 cancers and achieved a high AUC value 0.925 for overall cancers and an average 0.929 for signal cancer. Furthermore, we classified 35 cancers into two classes: haematological and solid, of which the haematological got a highly AUC which is up to 0.968. Finally, we applied RWCFusion to breast cancer and found that top 13 gene fusions, such as BCAS3-BCAS4, NOTCH-NUP214, MED13-BCAS3 and CARM-SMARCA4, have been previously proved to be drivers for breast cancer. Additionally, 8 among the top 10 of the remaining candidate gene fusions, such as SULF2-ZNF217, MED1-ACSF2, and ACACA-STAC2, were inferred to be potential driver gene fusions of breast cancer by us. PMID:27506935

  17. RWCFusion: identifying phenotype-specific cancer driver gene fusions based on fusion pair random walk scoring method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianmei; Li, Xuecang; Yao, Qianlan; Li, Meng; Zhang, Jian; Ai, Bo; Liu, Wei; Wang, Qiuyu; Feng, Chenchen; Liu, Yuejuan; Bai, Xuefeng; Song, Chao; Li, Shang; Li, Enmin; Xu, Liyan; Li, Chunquan

    2016-09-20

    While gene fusions have been increasingly detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies based methods in human cancers, these methods have limitations in identifying driver fusions. In addition, the existing methods to identify driver gene fusions ignored the specificity among different cancers or only considered their local rather than global topology features in networks. Here, we proposed a novel network-based method, called RWCFusion, to identify phenotype-specific cancer driver gene fusions. To evaluate its performance, we used leave-one-out cross-validation in 35 cancers and achieved a high AUC value 0.925 for overall cancers and an average 0.929 for signal cancer. Furthermore, we classified 35 cancers into two classes: haematological and solid, of which the haematological got a highly AUC which is up to 0.968. Finally, we applied RWCFusion to breast cancer and found that top 13 gene fusions, such as BCAS3-BCAS4, NOTCH-NUP214, MED13-BCAS3 and CARM-SMARCA4, have been previously proved to be drivers for breast cancer. Additionally, 8 among the top 10 of the remaining candidate gene fusions, such as SULF2-ZNF217, MED1-ACSF2, and ACACA-STAC2, were inferred to be potential driver gene fusions of breast cancer by us.

  18. Automatic classification of lung tumour heterogeneity according to a visual-based score system in dynamic contrast enhanced CT sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Baiocco, Serena

    2016-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) technologies have been considered for a long time as one of the most effective medical imaging tools for morphological analysis of body parts. Contrast Enhanced CT (CE-CT) also allows emphasising details of tissue structures whose heterogeneity, inspected through visual analysis, conveys crucial information regarding diagnosis and prognosis in several clinical pathologies. Recently, Dynamic CE-CT (DCE-CT) has emerged as a promising technique to perform also functional hemodynamic studies, with wide applications in the oncologic field. DCE-CT is based on repeated scans over time performed after intravenous administration of contrast agent, in order to study the temporal evolution of the tracer in 3D tumour tissue. DCE-CT pushes towards an intensive use of computers to provide automatically quantitative information to be used directly in clinical practice. This requires that visual analysis, representing the gold-standard for CT image interpretation, gains objectivity. This work presents the first automatic approach to quantify and classify the lung tumour heterogeneities based on DCE-CT image sequences, so as it is performed through visual analysis by experts. The approach developed relies on the spatio-temporal indices we devised, which also allow exploiting temporal data that enrich the knowledge of the tissue heterogeneity by providing information regarding the lesion status.

  19. A competing-risk-based score for predicting twenty-year risk of incident diabetes: the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Ageing study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangtong; Chen, Zhenghong; Fine, Jason Peter; Liu, Long; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Jin; Tao, Lixin; Mahara, Gehendra; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Sijia; Li, Haibin; Liu, Kuo; Luo, Yanxia; Zhang, Feng; Tang, Zhe; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Few risk tools have been proposed to quantify the long-term risk of diabetes among middle-aged and elderly individuals in China. The present study aimed to develop a risk tool to estimate the 20-year risk of developing diabetes while incorporating competing risks. A three-stage stratification random-clustering sampling procedure was conducted to ensure the representativeness of the Beijing elderly. We prospectively followed 1857 community residents aged 55 years and above who were free of diabetes at baseline examination. Sub-distribution hazards models were used to adjust for the competing risks of non-diabetes death. The cumulative incidence function of twenty-year diabetes event rates was 11.60% after adjusting for the competing risks of non-diabetes death. Age, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, health status, and physical activity were selected to form the score. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.76 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.72–0.80), and the optimism-corrected AUC was 0.78 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.69–0.87) after internal validation by bootstrapping. The calibration plot showed that the actual diabetes risk was similar to the predicted risk. The cut-off value of the risk score was 19 points, marking mark the difference between low-risk and high-risk patients, which exhibited a sensitivity of 0.74 and specificity of 0.65. PMID:27849048

  20. Comparison of three-colour flow cytometry and slide-based microscopy for the scoring of micronucleated reticulocytes in rat bone-marrow and peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changhui; Wang, Qingli; Wang, Zheng; Chang, Yan

    2013-12-12

    The aim of this study was to perform the first transferability assessment in China of the micronucleus (MN) scoring method based on three-colour flow cytometry (FCM). This was accomplished for both rat bone-marrow and peripheral blood specimens following exposure to a variety of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals, whereby micronucleus induction was measured both with FCM and with traditional microscopy. In an initial study, rats were treated with vehicle or cyclophosphamide (CP) for 2 consecutive days by oral gavage, and blood and bone marrow were sampled at 24 h after the second treatment. Staining with acridine orange (AO) of methanol-fixed slides was used for microscopical analysis and 2000 reticulocytes (RET) or polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were scored for MN frequency. The erythrocytes in the remaining bone-marrow cell suspensions were eluted on cellulose columns. The eluted bone marrow as well as the peripheral blood cells was fixed, incubated and analyzed by FCM. In another experiment, the performance of the FCM-MN method was further evaluated with five clastogens (urethane, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C, methylmethane sulfonate and 6-thioguanine), two aneugens (vincristine sulfate and colchicine) and two non-genotoxic new drugs (compounds A and B), whose results were negative in the routine mouse-micronucleus test (MNT). The MN frequencies in rat peripheral blood induced by the positive chemicals were found to be lower than the frequencies in rat bone-marrow by both scoring methods. However, a high level of agreement for the MN frequencies in both compartments was obtained. Good correspondence between the two analysis methods was also achieved. These data provide support that the three-colour FCM method is more rapid and objective than manual microscopy, while yielding comparable data. It further supports the premise that rat peripheral blood may be an alternative to rat bone marrow in the MNT.

  1. Dimensionality reduction of hyperspectral imagery based on spectral analysis of homogeneous segments: distortion measurements and classification scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alparone, Luciano; Argenti, Fabrizio; Dionisio, Michele; Santurri, Leonardo

    2004-02-01

    In this work, a new strategy for the analysis of hyperspectral image data is described and assessed. Firstly, the image is segmented into areas based on a spatial homogeneity criterion of pixel spectra. Then, a reduced data set (RDS) is produced by applying the projection pursuit (PP) algorithm to each of the segments in which the original hyperspectral image has been partitioned. Few significant spectral pixels are extracted from each segment. This operation allows the size of the data set to be dramatically reduced; nevertheless, most of the spectral information relative to the whole image is retained by RDS. In fact, RDS constitutes a good approximation of the most representative elements that would be found for the whole image, as the spectral features of RDS are very similar to the features of the original hyperspectral data. Therefore, the elements of a basis, either orthogonal or nonorthogonal, that best represents RDS, are searched for. Algorithms that can be used for this task are principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), PP, or matching pursuit (MP). Once the basis has been calculated from RDS, the whole hyperspectral data set is decomposed on such a basis to yield a sequence of components, or features, whose (statistical) significance decreases with the index. Hence, minor components may be discarded without compromising the results of application tasks. Experiments carried out on AVIRIS data, whose ground truth was available, show that PCA based on RDS, even if suboptimal in the MMSE sense with respect to standard PCA, increases the separability of thematic classes, which is favored when pixel vectors in the transformed domain are homogeneously spread around their class centers.

  2. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, Brent D.; Hall, Tina J.; Carson, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    A Comprehensive School-based Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) represents a commitment to support the health and well-being of students, faculty, staff, and the community. A CSPAP is a similar approach that specifically focuses on incorporating additional physical activity opportunities for youth within the school day and beyond physical education…

  3. A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis based methodology for quantitatively scoring the reliability and relevance of ecotoxicological data.

    PubMed

    Isigonis, Panagiotis; Ciffroy, Philippe; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Critto, Andrea; Giove, Silvio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-12-15

    Ecotoxicological data are highly important for risk assessment processes and are used for deriving environmental quality criteria, which are enacted for assuring the good quality of waters, soils or sediments and achieving desirable environmental quality objectives. Therefore, it is of significant importance the evaluation of the reliability of available data for analysing their possible use in the aforementioned processes. The thorough analysis of currently available frameworks for the assessment of ecotoxicological data has led to the identification of significant flaws but at the same time various opportunities for improvement. In this context, a new methodology, based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques, has been developed with the aim of analysing the reliability and relevance of ecotoxicological data (which are produced through laboratory biotests for individual effects), in a transparent quantitative way, through the use of expert knowledge, multiple criteria and fuzzy logic. The proposed methodology can be used for the production of weighted Species Sensitivity Weighted Distributions (SSWD), as a component of the ecological risk assessment of chemicals in aquatic systems. The MCDA aggregation methodology is described in detail and demonstrated through examples in the article and the hierarchically structured framework that is used for the evaluation and classification of ecotoxicological data is shortly discussed. The methodology is demonstrated for the aquatic compartment but it can be easily tailored to other environmental compartments (soil, air, sediments).

  4. In-hospital prognosis in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome derived using a new risk score based on electrocardiographic parameters obtained at admission.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Candil, Javier; González Matas, José Manuel; Cruz González, Ignacio; Hernández Hernández, Jesús; Martín, Ana; Pabón, Pedro; Martín, Francisco; Martín-Luengo, Cándido

    2010-07-01

    Several electrocardiographic variables are of prognostic value in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). From observations in 427 patients, we developed a new risk score (the ECG-RS) based on admission ECG findings that can be used to determine the likelihood of death or recurrent ischemia during hospitalization, which occurred in 36% of patients. Logistic regression analysis, which considered seven electrocardiographic variables and variables from the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score, identified the following significant predictors: corrected QT interval (QTc) > or =450 ms (odds ratio 4.2, P< .001), ST-segment depression >0.5 mm (odds ratio 2.7, P< .001), and left atrial enlargement (odds ratio 1.8, P =.005). After taking the odds ratios into consideration, we awarded 3 points for a QTc > or =450 ms, 2 points for ST-segment depression >0.5 mm, and 1 point for left atrial enlargement. When patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their ECG-RSs (i.e. < or =1, 2-3 and > or =4), the risk of death or recurrent ischemia was significantly different between the groups, at 11%, 27% and 58%, respectively (P< .001). In conclusion, the new ECG-RS provides a simple, rapid and accurate means of determining prognosis in patients with NSTEACS.

  5. Computer-Aided Quantification of Interstitial Lung Disease from High Resolution Computed Tomography Images in Systemic Sclerosis: Correlation with Visual Reader-Based Score and Physiologic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Bosello, Silvia; Bichisecchi, Elisabetta; Giuseppetti, Gianmarco; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the performance of a computerized-aided method (CaM) for quantification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with systemic sclerosis and to determine its correlation with the conventional visual reader-based score (CoVR) and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. All patients underwent chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scored by two radiologists adopting the CoVR. All HRCT images were then analysed by a CaM using a DICOM software. The relationships among the lung segmentation analysis, the readers, and the PFTs results were calculated using linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed for determination of CaM extent threshold. Results. A strong correlation between CaM and CoVR was observed (P < 0.0001). The CaM showed a significant negative correlation with forced vital capacity (FVC) (P < 0.0001) and the single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLco) (P < 0.0001). A CaM optimal extent threshold of 20% represented the best compromise between sensitivity (75.6%) and specificity (97.4%). Conclusions. CaM quantification of SSc-ILD can be useful in the assessment of extent of lung disease and may provide reliable tool in daily clinical practice and clinical trials. PMID:25629053

  6. Differential blood-based diagnosis between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: miRNA as source for biomarkers independent of PSA level, Gleason score, or TNM status.

    PubMed

    Leidinger, Petra; Hart, Martin; Backes, Christina; Rheinheimer, Stefanie; Keck, Bastian; Wullich, Bernd; Keller, Andreas; Meese, Eckart

    2016-08-01

    Since the benefit of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening remains controversial, new non-invasive biomarkers for prostate carcinoma (PCa) are still required. There is evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) in whole peripheral blood can separate patients with localized prostate cancer from healthy individuals. However, the potential of blood-based miRNAs for the differential diagnosis of PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has not been tested. We compared the miRNome from blood of PCa and BPH patients and further investigated the influence of the tumor volume, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification, Gleason score, pretreatment risk status, and the pretreatment PSA value on the miRNA pattern. By microarray approach, we identified seven miRNAs that were significantly deregulated in PCa patients compared to BPH patients. Using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), we confirmed downregulation of hsa-miR-221* (now hsa-miR-221-5p) and hsa-miR-708* (now hsa-miR-708-3p) in PCa compared to BPH. Clinical parameters like PSA level, Gleason score, or TNM status seem to have only limited impact on the overall abundance of miRNAs in patients' blood, suggesting a no influence of these factors on the expression of deregulated miRNAs.

  7. A novel inflammation-based prognostic score for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: the c-reactive protein/prognostic nutritional index ratio

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Yang, Xun; Feng, Ji-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays a critical role in cancer prognosis. In the current study, we proposed a novel inflammation-based prognostic score, named c-reactive protein/prognostic nutritional index ratio (CRP/PNI ratio), for predicting the prognosis for patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Results The optimal cut-off value was 0.10 for CRP/PNI ratio according to the ROC curve. Patients with CRP/PNI ratio ≤0.10 had a significantly better 5-year CSS compared to CRP/PNI ratio >0.10 (44.5% vs. 15.7%, P<0.001). On multivariate analyses, we revealed that CRP/PNI ratio was a significant predictive factor of CSS (P=0.009). A nomogram could be more accuracy for CSS. The Harrell's c-index for CSS prediction was 0.688. Materials and Methods A total of 308 patients with resectable ESCC were enrolled in this retrospective study. The optimal cuf-off value for CRP/PNI ratio was calculated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to analyse the cancer-specific survival (CSS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were evaluated for CSS. A nomogram was also established to predict the prognosis for CSS. Conclusion The CRP/PNI ratio is a novel and useful prognostic score for CSS in patients with resectable ESCC. PMID:27557504

  8. Adjustment for missing confounders in studies based on observational databases: 2-stage calibration combining propensity scores from primary and validation data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2014-08-01

    Bias caused by missing or incomplete information on confounding factors constitutes an important challenge in observational studies. The incorporation of external data on more detailed confounding information into the main study data may help remove confounding bias. This work was motivated by a study of the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and herpes zoster. Analyses were based on administrative databases in which information on important confounders-cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption-was lacking. We consider adjusting for the confounding bias arising from missing confounders by incorporating a validation sample with data on smoking and alcohol consumption obtained from a small-scale National Health Interview Survey study. We propose a 2-stage calibration (TSC) method, which summarizes the confounding information through propensity scores and combines the analysis results from the main and the validation study samples, where the propensity score adjustment from the main sample is crude and that from the validation sample is more precise. Unlike the existing methods, the validity of the TSC approach does not rely on any specific measurement error model. When applying the TSC method to the motivating study above, the odds ratio of herpes zoster associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.62, 2.26) after adjustment for cumulative smoking and alcohol consumption.

  9. Home Energy Score

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.

  10. Establishing Passing Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Joyce R.

    The problem of establishing appropriate passing scores is one of evaluation rather than estimation and not amenable to exact solution. It must therefore be approached by (1) identifying criteria for judging the acceptability of the passing score, (2) collecting the data appropriate to assessing each relevant criterion, and (3) judging how well the…

  11. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  12. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online “study questions” leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  13. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  14. Tracking time interval changes of pulmonary nodules on follow-up 3D CT images via image-based risk score of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a computer-aided follow-up (CAF) scheme to support physicians to track interval changes of pulmonary nodules on three dimensional (3D) CT images and to decide the treatment strategies without making any under or over treatment. Our scheme involves analyzing CT histograms to evaluate the volumetric distribution of CT values within pulmonary nodules. A variational Bayesian mixture modeling framework translates the image-derived features into an image-based risk score for predicting the patient recurrence-free survival. Through applying our scheme to follow-up 3D CT images of pulmonary nodules, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of the CAF scheme which can provide the trajectories that can characterize time interval changes of pulmonary nodules.

  15. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  16. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2009-06-09

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  17. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Lilian A. Y.; Caromano, Fátima A.; Assis, Silvana M. B.; Hukuda, Michele E.; Voos, Mariana C.; Carvalho, Eduardo V.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA) of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD); age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS), and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004) and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001) and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001). There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032), VS (r=0.65, p=0.002) and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information. PMID:25590443

  18. Optimally combining propensity score subclasses.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Kara E; Colson, K Ellicott; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ahern, Jennifer

    2016-11-30

    Propensity score methods, such as subclassification, are a common approach to control for confounding when estimating causal effects in non-randomized studies. Propensity score subclassification groups individuals into subclasses based on their propensity score values. Effect estimates are obtained within each subclass and then combined by weighting by the proportion of observations in each subclass. Combining subclass-specific estimates by weighting by the inverse variance is a promising alternative approach; a similar strategy is used in meta-analysis for its efficiency. We use simulation to compare performance of each of the two methods while varying (i) the number of subclasses, (ii) extent of propensity score overlap between the treatment and control groups (i.e., positivity), (iii) incorporation of survey weighting, and (iv) presence of heterogeneous treatment effects across subclasses. Both methods perform well in the absence of positivity violations and with a constant treatment effect with weighting by the inverse variance performing slightly better. Weighting by the proportion in subclass performs better in the presence of heterogeneous treatment effects across subclasses. We apply these methods to an illustrative example estimating the effect of living in a disadvantaged neighborhood on risk of past-year anxiety and depressive disorders among U.S. urban adolescents. This example entails practical positivity violations but no evidence of treatment effect heterogeneity. In this case, weighting by the inverse variance when combining across propensity score subclasses results in more efficient estimates that ultimately change inference. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Balance Super Learner: A robust adaptation of the Super Learner to improve estimation of the average treatment effect in the treated based on propensity score matching.

    PubMed

    Pirracchio, Romain; Carone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Consistency of the propensity score estimators rely on correct specification of the propensity score model. The propensity score is frequently estimated using a main effect logistic regression. It has recently been shown that the use of ensemble machine learning algorithms, such as the Super Learner, could improve covariate balance and reduce bias in a meaningful manner in the case of serious model misspecification for treatment assignment. However, the loss functions normally used by the Super Learner may not be appropriate for propensity score estimation since the goal in this problem is not to optimize propensity score prediction but rather to achieve the best possible balance in the covariate distribution between treatment groups. In a simulation study, we evaluated the benefit of a modification of the Super Learner by propensity score estimation geared toward achieving covariate balance between the treated and untreated after matching on the propensity score. Our simulation study included six different scenarios characterized by various degrees of deviation from the usual main term logistic model for the true propensity score and outcome as well as the presence (or not) of instrumental variables. Our results suggest that the use of this adapted Super Learner to estimate the propensity score can further improve the robustness of propensity score matching estimators.

  20. Prediction of Large Joint Destruction in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Using 18F-FDG PET/CT and Disease Activity Score.

    PubMed

    Suto, Takahito; Okamura, Koichi; Yonemoto, Yukio; Okura, Chisa; Tsushima, Yoshito; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    The assessments of joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mainly restricted to small joints in the hands and feet. However, the development of arthritis in RA patients often involves the large joints, such as the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle. Few studies have been reported regarding the degree of large joint destruction in RA patients. F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) visualizes the disease activity in large joints affected by RA. In this study, the associations between destruction of the large joints and the findings of FDG-PET/CT as well as laboratory parameters were investigated, and factors associated with large joint destruction after the administration of biological therapy were identified in RA patients. A total of 264 large joints in 23 RA patients (6 men and 17 women; mean age of 66.9 ± 7.9 years) were assessed in this study. FDG-PET/CT was performed at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of biological therapy. The extent of FDG uptake in large joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle) was analyzed using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Radiographs of the 12 large joints per patient obtained at baseline and after 2 years were assessed according to Larsen's method. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors most significantly contributing to the progression of joint destruction within 2 years. Radiographic progression of joint destruction was detected in 33 joints. The SUVmax at baseline and 6 months, and the disease activity score (DAS) 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at 6, 12, and 24 months were significantly higher in the group with progressive joint destruction. The SUVmax at baseline and DAS28-ESR at 6 months were found to be factors associated with joint destruction at 2 years (P < 0.05). The FDG uptake in the joints with destruction was higher than that observed in the joints

  1. Automated determination of wakefulness and sleep in rats based on non-invasively acquired measures of movement and respiratory activity.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Mott, Christopher; Mollicone, Daniel; Sanford, Larry D

    2012-03-15

    The current standard for monitoring sleep in rats requires labor intensive surgical procedures and the implantation of chronic electrodes which have the potential to impact behavior and sleep. With the goal of developing a non-invasive method to determine sleep and wakefulness, we constructed a non-contact monitoring system to measure movement and respiratory activity using signals acquired with pulse Doppler radar and from digitized video analysis. A set of 23 frequency and time-domain features were derived from these signals and were calculated in 10s epochs. Based on these features, a classification method for automated scoring of wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and REM in rats was developed using a support vector machine (SVM). We then assessed the utility of the automated scoring system in discriminating wakefulness and sleep by comparing the results to standard scoring of wakefulness and sleep based on concurrently recorded EEG and EMG. Agreement between SVM automated scoring based on selected features and visual scores based on EEG and EMG were approximately 91% for wakefulness, 84% for NREM and 70% for REM. The results indicate that automated scoring based on non-invasively acquired movement and respiratory activity will be useful for studies requiring discrimination of wakefulness and sleep. However, additional information or signals will be needed to improve discrimination of NREM and REM episodes within sleep.

  2. Fatty acid composition in serum correlates with that in the liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-He; Li, Chun-Yan; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Zhang, Xiu-Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the serum fatty acid composition and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning scores, and liver fatty acids composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. Livers were collected for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease score analysis. Fatty acid compositions were analysed by gas chromatography. Correlations were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Exposed to a high-fat diet, mice developed fatty liver disease with varying severity without fibrosis. The serum fatty acid variation became more severe with prolonged exposure to a high-fat diet. This variation also correlated significantly with the variation in livers, with the types of fatty acids corresponding to liver steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. Results of this study lead to the following hypothesis: the extent of serum fatty acid variation may be a preliminary biomarker of fatty liver disease caused by high-fat intake.

  3. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  4. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  5. Effect of rescue breathing by lay rescuers for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by respiratory disease: a nationwide, population-based, propensity score-matched study.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tatsuma; Ohashi-Fukuda, Naoko; Kondo, Yutaka; Sera, Toshiki; Yahagi, Naoki

    2016-05-30

    The importance of respiratory care in cardiopulmonary resuscitation may vary depending on the cause of cardiac arrest. No previous study has investigated the effects of rescue breathing performed by a lay rescuer on the outcomes of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) caused by intrinsic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether rescue breathing performed by a lay rescuer is associated with outcomes after respiratory disease-related OHCA. In a nationwide, population-based, propensity score-matched study in Japan, among adult patients with OHCA caused by respiratory disease who received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010, we compared patients with rescue breathing to those without rescue breathing. The primary outcome was neurologically favorable survival 1 month after OHCA. Of the eligible 14,781 patients, 4970 received rescue breathing from a lay rescuer and 9811 did not receive rescue breathing. In a propensity score-matched cohort (4897 vs. 4897 patients), the neurologically favorable survival rate was similar between patients with and without rescue breathing from a lay rescuer [0.9 vs. 0.7 %; OR 1.23 (95 % CI 0.79-1.93)]. Additionally, in subgroup analyses, rescue breathing was not associated with neurological outcome regardless of the type of rescuer [family member: adjusted OR 0.83 (95 % CI 0.39-1.70); or non-family member: adjusted OR 1.91 (95 % CI 0.79-5.35)]. Even among patients with OHCA caused by respiratory disease, rescue breathing performed by a lay rescuer was not associated with neurological outcomes, regardless of the type of lay rescuer.

  6. Mechanism of base activation of persulfate.

    PubMed

    Furman, Olha S; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2010-08-15

    Base is the most commonly used activator of persulfate for the treatment of contaminated groundwater by in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). A mechanism for the base activation of persulfate is proposed involving the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of persulfate to hydroperoxide anion and sulfate followed by the reduction of another persulfate molecule by hydroperoxide. Reduction by hydroperoxide decomposes persulfate into sulfate radical and sulfate anion, and hydroperoxide is oxidized to superoxide. The base-catalyzed hydrolysis of persulfate was supported by kinetic analyses of persulfate decomposition at various base:persulfate molar ratios and an increased rate of persulfate decomposition in D(2)O vs H(2)O. Stoichiometric analyses confirmed that hydroperoxide reacts with persulfate in a 1:1 molar ratio. Addition of hydroperoxide to basic persulfate systems resulted in rapid decomposition of the hydroperoxide and persulfate and decomposition of the superoxide probe hexachloroethane. The presence of superoxide was confirmed with scavenging by Cu(II). Electron spin resonance spectroscopy confirmed the generation of sulfate radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide. The results of this research are consistent with the widespread reactivity reported for base-activated persulfate when it is used for ISCO.

  7. Increasing Active Student Responding in a University Applied Behavior Analysis Course: The Effect of Daily Assessment and Response Cards on End of Week Quiz Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malanga, Paul R.; Sweeney, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The study compared the effects of daily assessment and response cards on average weekly quiz scores in an introduction to applied behavior analysis course. An alternating treatments design (Kazdin 1982, "Single-case research designs." New York: Oxford University Press; Cooper et al. 2007, "Applied behavior analysis." Upper Saddle River:…

  8. Resiliency scoring for business continuity plans.

    PubMed

    Olson, Anna; Anderson, Jamie

    Through this paper readers will learn of a scoring methodology, referred to as resiliency scoring, which enables the evaluation of business continuity plans based upon analysis of their alignment with a predefined set of criteria that can be customised and are adaptable to the needs of any organisation. This patent pending tool has been successful in driving engagement and is a powerful resource to improve reporting capabilities, identify risks and gauge organisational resilience. The role of business continuity professionals is to aid their organisations in planning and preparedness activities aimed at mitigating the impacts of potential disruptions and ensuring critical business functions can continue in the event of unforeseen circumstances. This may seem like a daunting task for what can typically be a small team of individuals. For this reason, it is important to be able to leverage industry standards, documented best practices and effective tools to streamline and support your continuity programme. The resiliency scoring methodology developed and implemented at Target has proven to be a valuable tool in taking the organisation's continuity programme to the next level. This paper will detail how the tool was developed and provide guidance on how it can be customised to fit your organisation's unique needs.

  9. Anticancer Activity of Stilbene-based Derivatives.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Barbara; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Giampietro, Letizia; Maccallini, Cristina; Amoroso, Rosa

    2017-03-07

    Anticancer Activity of Stilbene-based Derivatives Barbara De Filippis,* Alessandra Ammazzalorso, Marialuigia Fantacuzzi, Letizia Giampietro, Cristina Maccallini, Rosa Amoroso Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università "G. d'Annunzio", via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy; * E-mail: barbara.defilippis@unich.it Stilbene is a very present structural scaffold in nature and stilbene-based compounds are largely described for their biological activity such as cardioprotective, potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer agents. Starting from their potent chemotherapeutic activity against a wide variety of cancers, stilbene scaffold of resveratrol has been subjected to synthetic manipulations with the aim to obtaining new resveratrol analogues with improved anticancer activity and better bioavailability. In the last decade, majority of new synthetic stilbenoids demonstrated significant anticancer activity against a large number of cancer cell lines employed, depending on the type and position of substituents on stilbene skeleton. Given the importance of this topic and the vast therapeutic potential, especially in the field of cancer research, in the last years, some reviews have been published focusing on general pharmacological activity or, more recently, on the usefulness of hybrid molecule containing stilbene scaffold. The present review article focuses on the pharmacological profile of the key compounds containing stilbene scaffold and classify them on the type of structural modifications in stilbene skeleton.

  10. Ambient air quality measurements from a continuously moving mobile platform: Estimation of area-wide, fuel-based, mobile source emission factors using absolute principal component scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Timothy; Gould, Timothy; Riley, Erin A.; Austin, Elena; Fintzi, Jonathan; Sheppard, Lianne; Yost, Michael; Simpson, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    We have applied the absolute principal component scores (APCS) receptor model to on-road, background-adjusted measurements of NOx, CO, CO2, black carbon (BC), and particle number (PN) obtained from a continuously moving platform deployed over nine afternoon sampling periods in Seattle, WA. Two Varimax-rotated principal component features described 75% of the overall variance of the observations. A heavy-duty vehicle feature was correlated with black carbon and particle number, whereas a light-duty feature was correlated with CO and CO2. NOx had moderate correlation with both features. The bootstrapped APCS model predictions were used to estimate area-wide, average fuel-based emission factors and their respective 95% confidence limits. The average emission factors for NOx, CO, BC and PN (14.8, 18.9, 0.40 g/kg, and 4.3 × 1015 particles/kg for heavy duty vehicles, and 3.2, 22.4, 0.016 g/kg, and 0.19 × 1015 particles/kg for light-duty vehicles, respectively) are consistent with previous estimates based on remote sensing, vehicle chase studies, and recent dynamometer tests. Information on the spatial distribution of the concentrations contributed by these two vehicle categories relative to background during the sampling period was also obtained.

  11. The Objective Borderline Method (OBM): A Probability-Based Model for Setting up an Objective Pass/Fail Cut-Off Score in Medical Programme Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Turner, Rolf; Poole, Phillippa; Wilkinson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The decision to pass or fail a medical student is a "high stakes" one. The aim of this study is to introduce and demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of a new objective standard-setting method for determining the pass/fail cut-off score from borderline grades. Three methods for setting up pass/fail cut-off scores were compared: the…

  12. Rodent model of activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Olaia; Fraga, Ángela; Pellón, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Emilio

    2014-04-10

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) consists of a procedure that involves the simultaneous exposure of animals to a restricted feeding schedule, while free access is allowed to an activity wheel. Under these conditions, animals show a progressive increase in wheel running, a reduced efficiency in food intake to compensate for their increased activity, and a severe progression of weight loss. Due to the parallelism with the clinical manifestations of anorexia nervosa including increased activity, reduced food intake and severe weight loss, the ABA procedure has been proposed as the best analog of human anorexia nervosa (AN). Thus, ABA research could both allow a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying AN and generate useful leads for treatment development in AN.

  13. Space based astronomy: Teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Carla B. (Editor); Weiler, Edward; Morrow, Cherilyn; Bacon, Pamela M.; Thorne, Muriel; Blanchard, Paul A.; Howard, Sethane; Pengra, Patricia R.; Brown, Deborah A.; Winrich, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy - astronomical observations made from outer space. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. Instead, it tells the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The guide begins with a survey of astronomy related NASA spacecraft. This is followed by a collection of activities in four units: (1) the atmospheric filter; (2) the electromagnetic spectrum; (3) collecting electromagnetic radiation; and (4) down to Earth. A curriculum index identifies the curriculum areas each activity addresses. The guide concludes with a glossary, reference list, a NASA Resources list, and an evaluation card. It is designed for students in grades 5 through 8.

  14. Computer Health Score

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-03

    The algorithm develops a single health score for office computers, today just Windows, but we plan to extend this to Apple computers. The score is derived from various parameters, including: CPU Utilization Memory Utilization Various Error logs Disk Problems Disk write queue length It then uses a weighting scheme to balance these parameters and provide an overall health score. By using these parameters, we are not just assessing the theoretical performance of the components of the computer, rather we are using actual performance metrics that are selected to be a more realistic representation of the experience of the person using the computer. This includes compensating for the nature of their use. If there are two identical computers and the user of one places heavy demands on their computer compared with the user of the second computer, the former will have a lower health score. This allows us to provide a 'fit for purpose' score tailored to the assigned user. This is very helpful data to inform the mangers when individual computers need to be replaced. Additionally it provides specific information that can facilitate the fixing of the computer, to extend it's useful lifetime. This presents direct financial savings, time savings for users transferring from one computer to the next, and better environmental stewardship.

  15. A Novel Risk Score to the Prediction of 10-year Risk for Coronary Artery Disease Among the Elderly in Beijing Based on Competing Risk Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Tang, Zhe; Li, Xia; Luo, Yanxia; Guo, Jin; Li, Haibin; Liu, Xiangtong; Tao, Lixin; Yan, Aoshuang; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The study aimed to construct a risk prediction model for coronary artery disease (CAD) based on competing risk model among the elderly in Beijing and develop a user-friendly CAD risk score tool. We used competing risk model to evaluate the risk of developing a first CAD event. On the basis of the risk factors that were included in the competing risk model, we constructed the CAD risk prediction model with Cox proportional hazard model. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and time-dependent area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the discrimination ability of the both methods. Calibration plots were applied to assess the calibration ability and adjusted for the competing risk of non-CAD death. Net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were applied to quantify the improvement contributed by the new risk factors. Internal validation of predictive accuracy was performed using 1000 times of bootstrap re-sampling. Of the 1775 participants without CAD at baseline, 473 incident cases of CAD were documented for a 20-year follow-up. Time-dependent AUCs for men and women at t = 10 years were 0.841 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.806–0.877], 0.804 (95% CI: 0.768–0.839) in Fine and Gray model, 0.784 (95% CI: 0.738–0.830), 0.733 (95% CI: 0.692–0.775) in Cox proportional hazard model. The competing risk model was significantly superior to Cox proportional hazard model on discrimination and calibration. The cut-off values of the risk score that marked the difference between low-risk and high-risk patients were 34 points for men and 30 points for women, which have good sensitivity and specificity. A sex-specific multivariable risk factor algorithm-based competing risk model has been developed on the basis of an elderly Chinese cohort, which could be applied to predict an individual's risk and provide a useful guide to identify the groups at a high risk for CAD among the Chinese

  16. A Novel Risk Score to the Prediction of 10-year Risk for Coronary Artery Disease Among the Elderly in Beijing Based on Competing Risk Model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Tang, Zhe; Li, Xia; Luo, Yanxia; Guo, Jin; Li, Haibin; Liu, Xiangtong; Tao, Lixin; Yan, Aoshuang; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-03-01

    The study aimed to construct a risk prediction model for coronary artery disease (CAD) based on competing risk model among the elderly in Beijing and develop a user-friendly CAD risk score tool. We used competing risk model to evaluate the risk of developing a first CAD event. On the basis of the risk factors that were included in the competing risk model, we constructed the CAD risk prediction model with Cox proportional hazard model. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and time-dependent area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the discrimination ability of the both methods. Calibration plots were applied to assess the calibration ability and adjusted for the competing risk of non-CAD death. Net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were applied to quantify the improvement contributed by the new risk factors. Internal validation of predictive accuracy was performed using 1000 times of bootstrap re-sampling. Of the 1775 participants without CAD at baseline, 473 incident cases of CAD were documented for a 20-year follow-up. Time-dependent AUCs for men and women at t = 10 years were 0.841 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.806-0.877], 0.804 (95% CI: 0.768-0.839) in Fine and Gray model, 0.784 (95% CI: 0.738-0.830), 0.733 (95% CI: 0.692-0.775) in Cox proportional hazard model. The competing risk model was significantly superior to Cox proportional hazard model on discrimination and calibration. The cut-off values of the risk score that marked the difference between low-risk and high-risk patients were 34 points for men and 30 points for women, which have good sensitivity and specificity. A sex-specific multivariable risk factor algorithm-based competing risk model has been developed on the basis of an elderly Chinese cohort, which could be applied to predict an individual's risk and provide a useful guide to identify the groups at a high risk for CAD among the Chinese adults over 55

  17. Conditional Reliability Coefficients for Test Scores.

    PubMed

    Nicewander, W Alan

    2017-04-06

    The most widely used, general index of measurement precision for psychological and educational test scores is the reliability coefficient-a ratio of true variance for a test score to the true-plus-error variance of the score. In item response theory (IRT) models for test scores, the information function is the central, conditional index of measurement precision. In this inquiry, conditional reliability coefficients for a variety of score types are derived as simple transformations of information functions. It is shown, for example, that the conditional reliability coefficient for an ordinary, number-correct score, X, is equal to, ρ(X,X'|θ)=I(X,θ)/[I(X,θ)+1] Where: θ is a latent variable measured by an observed test score, X; p(X, X'|θ) is the conditional reliability of X at a fixed value of θ; and I(X, θ) is the score information function. This is a surprisingly simple relationship between the 2, basic indices of measurement precision from IRT and classical test theory (CTT). This relationship holds for item scores as well as test scores based on sums of item scores-and it holds for dichotomous as well as polytomous items, or a mix of both item types. Also, conditional reliabilities are derived for computerized adaptive test scores, and for θ-estimates used as alternatives to number correct scores. These conditional reliabilities are all related to information in a manner similar-or-identical to the 1 given above for the number-correct (NC) score. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 score (RAPID3) correlates well with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity index (BASDAI) in the assessment of disease activity and monitoring progression of axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Danve, Abhijeet; Reddy, Anusha; Vakil-Gilani, Kiana; Garg, Neha; Dinno, Alexis; Deodhar, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) is a composite index, very useful for assessment of disease activity of various rheumatic diseases including RA. If RAPID3 can also reliably measure disease activity in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), it may prove to be a practical and effective quantitative assessment tool in busy practices. We studied the association of RAPID3 with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) seen from 2007 to 2012 were classified as having AS or non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) using modified New York criteria and Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria, respectively. Patients with simultaneous BASDAI and RAPID3 scores were enrolled (N = 112; 105 with AS, seven with nr-axSpA). Multiple regression and nonparametric receiver operating characteristics were used. Baseline mean (SD) BASDAI and RAPID3 were 4.2 (2.5) and 3.8 (2.3), respectively. Multiple linear regressions modeled a quadratic relationship between BASDAI and RAPID3 for 321 observations in 112 patients with axSpA (1) cross-sectionally: BASDAI predicted by RAPID3 (β = 1.171; s.e. = 0.113, p < 0.001) and RAPID3(2) (β = -0.037; s.e. = 0.014, p = 0.011) with an adjusted R (2) of 0.676; and (2) longitudinally: BASDAI predicted by RAPID3 (β = 1.196; s.e. = 0.111, p < 0.001), RAPID3(2) (β = -0.042; s.e. = 0.014, p = 0.004), and visit number (β = -0.142; s.e. = 0.038, p < 0.001) with an adjusted R (2) of 0.689. RAPID3 (correctly classified) corresponded to BASDAI scores of 2, 4, and 6: 1.40 (85.8 %), 3.33 (81.9 %), and 5.43 (87.1 %), respectively. RAPID3 correlates well with BASDAI in monitoring axSpA patients (including AS) in cross-sectional and longitudinal follow-up. Since it also correlates with measures of disease activity of other rheumatic diseases including RA, RAPID3 could be an attractive measure

  19. DNA-based control of protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, W.; Janssen, B. M. G.

    2016-01-01

    DNA has emerged as a highly versatile construction material for nanometer-sized structures and sophisticated molecular machines and circuits. The successful application of nucleic acid based systems greatly relies on their ability to autonomously sense and act on their environment. In this feature article, the development of DNA-based strategies to dynamically control protein activity via oligonucleotide triggers is discussed. Depending on the desired application, protein activity can be controlled by directly conjugating them to an oligonucleotide handle, or expressing them as a fusion protein with DNA binding motifs. To control proteins without modifying them chemically or genetically, multivalent ligands and aptamers that reversibly inhibit their function provide valuable tools to regulate proteins in a noncovalent manner. The goal of this feature article is to give an overview of strategies developed to control protein activity via oligonucleotide-based triggers, as well as hurdles yet to be taken to obtain fully autonomous systems that interrogate, process and act on their environments by means of DNA-based protein control. PMID:26812623

  20. Accelerometry-Based Activity Recognition and Assessment in Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Billiet, Lieven; Swinnen, Thijs Willem; Westhovens, Rene; de Vlam, Kurt; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    One of the important aspects to be considered in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases is the patient’s activity capacity (or performance), defined as the ability to perform a task. Currently, it is assessed by physicians or health professionals mainly by means of a patient-reported questionnaire, sometimes combined with the therapist’s judgment on performance-based tasks. This work introduces an approach to assess the activity capacity at home in a more objective, yet interpretable way. It offers a pilot study on 28 patients suffering from axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) to demonstrate its efficacy. Firstly, a protocol is introduced to recognize a limited set of six transition activities in the home environment using a single accelerometer. To this end, a hierarchical classifier with the rejection of non-informative activity segments has been developed drawing on both direct pattern recognition and statistical signal features. Secondly, the recognized activities should be assessed, similarly to the scoring performed by patients themselves. This is achieved through the interval coded scoring (ICS) system, a novel method to extract an interpretable scoring system from data. The activity recognition reaches an average accuracy of 93.5%; assessment is currently 64.3% accurate. These results indicate the potential of the approach; a next step should be its validation in a larger patient study. PMID:27999255

  1. The Utility of Curriculum-Based Measurement within a Multitiered Framework: Establishing Cut Scores as Predictors of Student Performance on the Alaska Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between student performance on Reading Curriculum-based Measures (R-CBM) and student performance on the Alaska's standards based assessment (SBA) administered to students in Studied School District (SSD) Grade 3 through Grade 5 students in the Studied School District as required by…

  2. Development of Dengue Infection Severity Score

    PubMed Central

    Pongpan, Surangrat; Tawichasri, Chamaiporn; Namwongprom, Sirianong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a simple scoring system to predict dengue infection severity based on patient characteristics and routine clinical profiles. Methods. Retrospective data of children with dengue infection from 3 general hospitals in Thailand were reviewed. Dengue infection was categorized into 3 severity levels: dengue infection (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Coefficients of significant predictors of disease severity under ordinal regression analysis were transformed into item scores. Total scores were used to classify patients into 3 severity levels. Results. Significant clinical predictors of dengue infection severity were age >6 years, hepatomegaly, hematocrit ≥40%, systolic pressure <90 mmHg, white cell count >5000 /μL, and platelet ≤50000 /μL. The derived total scores, which ranged from 0 to 18, classified patients into 3 severity levels: DF (scores <2.5, n = 451, 58.1%), DHF (scores 2.5–11.5, n = 276, 35.5%), and DSS (scores >11.5, n = 50, 6.4%). The derived score correctly classified patients into their original severity levels in 60.7%. An under-estimation of 25.7% and an over-estimation of 13.5% were clinically acceptable. Conclusions. The derived dengue infection severity score classified patients into DF, DHF, or DSS, correctly into their original severity levels. Validation of the score should be reconfirmed before application of routine practice. PMID:24324896

  3. GraBCas: a bioinformatics tool for score-based prediction of Caspase- and Granzyme B-cleavage sites in protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Backes, Christina; Kuentzer, Jan; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Comtesse, Nicole; Meese, Eckart

    2005-01-01

    Caspases and granzyme B are proteases that share the primary specificity to cleave at the carboxyl terminal of aspartate residues in their substrates. Both, caspases and granzyme B are enzymes that are involved in fundamental cellular processes and play a central role in apoptotic cell death. Although various targets are described, many substrates still await identification and many cleavage sites of known substrates are not identified or experimentally verified. A more comprehensive knowledge of caspase and granzyme B substrates is essential to understand the biological roles of these enzymes in more detail. The relatively high variability in cleavage site recognition sequence often complicates the identification of cleavage sites. As of yet there is no software available that allows identification of caspase and/or granzyme with cleavage sites differing from the consensus sequence. Here, we present a bioinformatics tool ‘GraBCas’ that provides score-based prediction of potential cleavage sites for the caspases 1–9 and granzyme B including an estimation of the fragment size. We tested GraBCas on already known substrates and showed its usefulness for protein sequence analysis. GraBCas is available at . PMID:15980455

  4. Effectiveness of Short-Term Inpatient Psychotherapy Based on Transactional Analysis With Patients With Personality Disorders: A Matched Control Study Using Propensity Score.

    PubMed

    Horn, Eva K; Verheul, Roel; Thunnissen, Moniek; Delimon, Jos; Soons, Mirjam; Meerman, Anke M M A; Ziegler, Uli M; Rossum, Bert V; Andrea, Helene; Stijnen, Theo; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Busschbach, Jan J V

    2015-10-01

    Controlled studies on the effectiveness of inpatient psychotherapy with patients with personality disorders (PD) are rare. This study aims to compare 3-month short-term inpatient psychotherapy based on transactional analysis (STIP-TA) with other psychotherapies (OP) up to 36-month follow-up. PD patients treated with STIP-TA were matched with OP patients using the propensity score. The primary outcome measure was general psychiatric symptomatology; secondary outcomes were psychosocial functioning and quality of life. In 67 pairs of patients, both STIP-TA and OP showed large symptomatic and functional improvements. However, STIP-TA patients showed more symptomatic improvement at all time points compared to OP patients. At 36 months, 68% of STIP-TA patients were symptomatically recovered compared to 48% of OP patients. STIP-TA outperformed OP in terms of improvements in general psychiatric symptomatology and quality of life. Superiority of STIP-TA was most pronounced at 12-month follow-up, but remained intact over the course of the 3-year follow-up.

  5. A paired ions scoring algorithm based on Morpheus for simultaneous identification and quantification of proteome samples prepared by isobaric peptide termini labeling strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shen; Wu, Qi; Shan, Yichu; Sui, Zhigang; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-06-01

    The isobaric peptide termini labeling (IPTL) method is a promising strategy in quantitative proteomics for its high accuracy, while the increased complexity of MS2 spectra originated from the paired b, y ions has adverse effect on the identification and the coverage of quantification. Here, a paired ions scoring algorithm (PISA) based on Morpheus, a database searching algorithm specifically designed for high-resolution MS2 spectra, was proposed to address this issue. PISA was first tested on two 1:1 mixed IPTL datasets, and increases in peptide to spectrum matchings, distinct peptides and protein groups compared to Morpheus itself and MASCOT were shown. Furthermore, the quantification is simultaneously performed and 100% quantification coverage is achieved by PISA since each of the identified peptide to spectrum matchings has several pairs of fragment ions which could be used for quantification. Then the PISA was applied to the relative quantification of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines with high and low metastatic potentials prepared by an IPTL strategy.

  6. Causal Moderation Analysis Using Propensity Score Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on previous studies in applying propensity score methods to study multiple treatment variables to examine the causal moderator effect. The propensity score methods will be demonstrated in a case study to examine the causal moderator effect, where the moderators are categorical and continuous variables. Moderation analysis is an…

  7. Methodological Approaches to Online Scoring of Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.

    This report examines the feasibility of scoring essays using computer-based techniques. Essays have been incorporated into many of the standardized testing programs. Issues of validity and reliability must be addressed to deploy automated approaches to scoring fully. Two approaches that have been used to classify documents, surface- and word-based…

  8. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  9. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  10. The Mystery of the Z-Score.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Alexander E; Smith, Tanya A; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2016-08-01

    Reliable methods for measuring the thoracic aorta are critical for determining treatment strategies in aneurysmal disease. Z-scores are a pragmatic alternative to raw diameter sizes commonly used in adult medicine. They are particularly valuable in the pediatric population, who undergo rapid changes in physical development. The advantage of the Z-score is its inclusion of body surface area (BSA) in determining whether an aorta is within normal size limits. Therefore, Z-scores allow us to determine whether true pathology exists, which can be challenging in growing children. In addition, Z-scores allow for thoughtful interpretation of aortic size in different genders, ethnicities, and geographical regions. Despite the advantages of using Z-scores, there are limitations. These include intra- and inter-observer bias, measurement error, and variations between alternative Z-score nomograms and BSA equations. Furthermore, it is unclear how Z-scores change in the normal population over time, which is essential when interpreting serial values. Guidelines for measuring aortic parameters have been developed by the American Society of Echocardiography Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Council, which may reduce measurement bias when calculating Z-scores for the aortic root. In addition, web-based Z-score calculators have been developed to aid in efficient Z-score calculations. Despite these advances, clinicians must be mindful of the limitations of Z-scores, especially when used to demonstrate beneficial treatment effect. This review looks to unravel the mystery of the Z-score, with a focus on the thoracic aorta. Here, we will discuss how Z-scores are calculated and the limitations of their use.

  11. The Mystery of the Z-Score

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Alexander E.; Smith, Tanya A.; Ziganshin, Bulat A.; Elefteriades, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable methods for measuring the thoracic aorta are critical for determining treatment strategies in aneurysmal disease. Z-scores are a pragmatic alternative to raw diameter sizes commonly used in adult medicine. They are particularly valuable in the pediatric population, who undergo rapid changes in physical development. The advantage of the Z-score is its inclusion of body surface area (BSA) in determining whether an aorta is within normal size limits. Therefore, Z-scores allow us to determine whether true pathology exists, which can be challenging in growing children. In addition, Z-scores allow for thoughtful interpretation of aortic size in different genders, ethnicities, and geographical regions. Despite the advantages of using Z-scores, there are limitations. These include intra- and inter-observer bias, measurement error, and variations between alternative Z-score nomograms and BSA equations. Furthermore, it is unclear how Z-scores change in the normal population over time, which is essential when interpreting serial values. Guidelines for measuring aortic parameters have been developed by the American Society of Echocardiography Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Council, which may reduce measurement bias when calculating Z-scores for the aortic root. In addition, web-based Z-score calculators have been developed to aid in efficient Z-score calculations. Despite these advances, clinicians must be mindful of the limitations of Z-scores, especially when used to demonstrate beneficial treatment effect. This review looks to unravel the mystery of the Z-score, with a focus on the thoracic aorta. Here, we will discuss how Z-scores are calculated and the limitations of their use. PMID:28097194

  12. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  13. Empirical and targeted therapy of candidemia with fluconazole versus echinocandins: a propensity score-derived analysis of a population-based, multicentre prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    López-Cortés, L E; Almirante, B; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Garnacho-Montero, J; Padilla, B; Puig-Asensio, M; Ruiz-Camps, I; Rodríguez-Baño, J

    2016-08-01

    We compared the clinical efficacy of fluconazole and echinocandins in the treatment of candidemia in real practice. The CANDIPOP study is a prospective, population-based cohort study on candidemia carried out between May 2010 and April 2011 in 29 Spanish hospitals. Using strict inclusion criteria, we separately compared the impact of empirical and targeted therapy with fluconazole or echinocandins on 30-day mortality. Cox regression, including a propensity score (PS) for receiving echinocandins, stratified analysis on the PS quartiles and PS-based matched analyses, were performed. The empirical and targeted therapy cohorts comprised 316 and 421 cases, respectively; 30-day mortality was 18.7% with fluconazole and 33.9% with echinocandins (p 0.02) in the empirical therapy group and 19.8% with fluconazole and 27.7% with echinocandins (p 0.06) in the targeted therapy group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis including PS showed that empirical therapy with fluconazole was associated with better prognosis (adjusted hazard ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.81; p 0.01); no differences were found within each PS quartile or in cases matched according to PS. Targeted therapy with fluconazole did not show a significant association with mortality in the Cox regression analysis (adjusted hazard ratio 0.77; 95% confidence interval 0.41-1.46; p 0.63), in the PS quartiles or in PS-matched cases. The results were similar among patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Empirical or targeted treatment with fluconazole was not associated with increased 30-day mortality compared to echinocandins among adults with candidemia.

  14. The GALAD scoring algorithm based on AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP significantly improves detection of BCLC early stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Best, J; Bilgi, H; Heider, D; Schotten, C; Manka, P; Bedreli, S; Gorray, M; Ertle, J; van Grunsven, L A; Dechêne, A

    2016-12-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death in cirrhotic patients worldwide. The detection rate for early stage HCC remains low despite screening programs. Thus, the majority of HCC cases are detected at advanced tumor stages with limited treatment options. To facilitate earlier diagnosis, this study aims to validate the added benefit of the combination of AFP, the novel biomarkers AFP-L3, DCP, and an associated novel diagnostic algorithm called GALAD. Material and methods: Between 2007 and 2008 and from 2010 to 2012, 285 patients newly diagnosed with HCC and 402 control patients suffering from chronic liver disease were enrolled. AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP were measured using the µTASWako i30 automated immunoanalyzer. The diagnostic performance of biomarkers was measured as single parameters and in a logistic regression model. Furthermore, a diagnostic algorithm (GALAD) based on gender, age, and the biomarkers mentioned above was validated. Results: AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP showed comparable sensitivities and specifities for HCC detection. The combination of all biomarkers had the highest sensitivity with decreased specificity. In contrast, utilization of the biomarker-based GALAD score resulted in a superior specificity of 93.3 % and sensitivity of 85.6 %. In the scenario of BCLC 0/A stage HCC, the GALAD algorithm provided the highest overall AUROC with 0.9242, which was superior to any other marker combination. Conclusions: We could demonstrate in our cohort the superior detection of early stage HCC with the combined use of the respective biomarkers and in particular GALAD even in AFP-negative tumors.

  15. Syncopation and the Score

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Harte, Christopher A.; Pearce, Marcus T.; Sandler, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323

  16. A risk score model for the metastasis of level Ib lymph node based on the clinicopathological features of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a large sample.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wei; Li, Xian; Liu, Zhigang; Jiang, Changbin; Niu, Daoli; Xia, Yunfei

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a metastatic risk score model of neck level Ib lymph nodes in primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to guide the level Ib radiotherapy. There were a total of 1,557 patients enrolled in the study, and of these patients, 1,145 were included in the training set. Univariate χ(2) analysis and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to screen the independent risk factors to construct the risk score model. A total of 85 patients in the validating set underwent a pathology biopsy of level Ib lymph nodes to test the model. The remaining 327 patients from the prognostic-research set were used to evaluate the prognostic impact of level Ib irradiation in high- and low-risk groups. The independent risk factors in the model were carotid sheath involvement, the maximal diameter of the neck lymph nodes (≥20 mm) and the involvement of the level II/III/IV lymph nodes. The involvement of level IV was assigned score 2 and the other risk factors were assigned score 1. According to the total scores, the patients were divided into the low- (total score, 0-1; level Ib metastasis rate, 0.5%) and high-risk groups (total score, 2-4; level Ib metastasis rate, 8.5%). In the validating set, the metastatic rate of level Ib in 43 low-risk patients was 0%, and the rate was 31.0% (13/42) in 42 high-risk patients. In the prognostic-research set, the prognosis of 137 low-risk patients was not affected by level Ib irradiation. However, level Ib unirradiation was an independent prognostic factor for the locoregional recurrence in 190 high-risk patients. According to the data, the novel score model could help assess the metastatic risk of level Ib in primary NPC, and the radiotherapy on level Ib may impact the locoregional recurrence in high-risk patients.

  17. Effects of community-based rehabilitation program on activities of daily living and cognition in elderly chronic stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Ju; Lee, Chun-Yeop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of community-based rehabilitation program in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven subjects received community-based rehabilitation program ten times for ten months. The main outcome measures were the Modified Barthel Index score for activities of daily living and the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination score for cognition. [Results] The results of the study demonstrated that the community-based rehabilitation program improved activities of daily living performance and cognition significantly. [Conclusion] Based on the study results, the community-based rehabilitation program is an effective method for improving activities of daily living performance and cognitive function in elderly patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27942164

  18. A Novel Murine Candidiasis Model with Severe Colonization in the Stomach Induced by N-acetylglucosamine-treatment and Its Scoring System Based on Local Characteristic Stomach Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, Sanae A; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel murine candidiasis model of the gastrointestinal tract using N-acetylglucosamine ( GlcNAc ) as a tool to aggravate symptoms. Forty-eight hours after intragastrically inoculating Candida albicans cells to immunosuppressed and GlcNAc-treated mice, vigorously accumulating patchy whitish plaques were observed on their inner stomach surface. Candida cells colonizing the plaques consisted of both yeast and mycelia, and were directly stained with Calcofluor White M2R. Aggravation of the candidiasis symptoms was dependent on GlcNAc concentration in drinking water, wherein administration of 50 mM GlcNAc not only severely worsened stomach symptoms, but also significantly increased Candida cell number in the stomach and small intestine. The aggravation effect of GlcNAc was enhanced by addition of sedative chemical chlorpromazine chloride after inoculation. In order to semi-quantitatively assess colonization by Candida in the stomach, we devised a new symptom scoring system that represents the extent of the patchy whitish plaques on the mucosal epithelium of the stomach. Histochemical analysis of Candida-infected tissues revealed not only a large amount of thick Candida mycelia invading mucosal epithelial stomach tissues but also infiltrating inflammatory cells. These results suggest that this murine gastrointestinal candidiasis model could serve as a useful tool for evaluating the protective activity of antifungal agents, probiotics, or functional foods against gastrointestinal candidiasis. Furthermore, from another point of view, this novel murine model could also be used to analyze the pathological mechanisms behind the translocation of C. albicans across intestinal barriers, which results in systemic Candida dissemination and infection.

  19. Prospective validation of a risk score based on biological markers for predicting progression free survival in Binet stage A chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients: results of the multicenter O-CLL1-GISL study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Massimo; Cutrona, Giovanna; Mosca, Laura; Matis, Serena; Fabris, Sonia; Lionetti, Marta; Ilariucci, Fiorella; Zupo, Simona; Musolino, Caterina; Levato, Luciano; Molica, Stefano; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Vincelli, Iolanda; Di Rienzo, Nicola; Pesce, Emanuela Anna; Angrilli, Francesco; Federico, Massimo; Neri, Antonino; Ferrarini, Manlio; Morabito, Fortunato

    2014-07-01

    A risk score based on three biological features (CD38, ZAP-70, and IGHV mutational status) was previously developed to predict progression-free survival (PFS) in untreated Binet A CLL patients. Here we perform a score validation analysis in a prospective and independent cohort of patients. Biological markers (CD38, ZAP-70, and IGHV mutational status) and gene expression profiles (GEP) of leukemic cells from CLL patients included in a prospective multicenter observational study (O-CLL1-GISL protocol, clinicaltrial.gov ID:NCT00917549) were used to assess the value and reproducibility of this score. To date, 468 Binet A patients were classified as low- (0 positive marker), intermediate- (1 positive marker), or high-risk (2 or 3 positive markers) using the progression risk score. The 3-year PFS probability was 91.7%, 82.9%, and 57.4% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk (P < 0.0001) cases, respectively. These values were similar to those found in the original cohort. At Cox multivariate analysis, Rai stage, absolute lymphocyte count, progression risk score, and β-2 microglobulin maintained an independent prognostic impact on PFS. This score remained a predictor of progression when analysis was limited to 371 Rai 0 cases (P < 0.0001). Finally, the cells from the different CLL risk groups showed differences in their gene expression patterns. These results confirm the ability of this progression risk score to predict PFS among Binet A patients. The utility of the score was also extended by demonstrating that it retains prognostic value when applied exclusively to Rai 0 patients. Specific transcriptional patterns were significantly associated with risk groups.

  20. Predicting active users' personality based on micro-blogging behaviors.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Li, Ang; Hao, Bibo; Guan, Zengda; Zhu, Tingshao

    2014-01-01

    Because of its richness and availability, micro-blogging has become an ideal platform for conducting psychological research. In this paper, we proposed to predict active users' personality traits through micro-blogging behaviors. 547 Chinese active users of micro-blogging participated in this study. Their personality traits were measured by the Big Five Inventory, and digital records of micro-blogging behaviors were collected via web crawlers. After extracting 839 micro-blogging behavioral features, we first trained classification models utilizing Support Vector Machine (SVM), differentiating participants with high and low scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory [corrected]. The classification accuracy ranged from 84% to 92%. We also built regression models utilizing PaceRegression methods, predicting participants' scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The Pearson correlation coefficients between predicted scores and actual scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.54. Results indicated that active users' personality traits could be predicted by micro-blogging behaviors.

  1. FRESCO: flexible alignment with rectangle scoring schemes.

    PubMed

    Dalca, A V; Brudno, M

    2008-01-01

    While the popular DNA sequence alignment tools incorporate powerful heuristics to allow for fast and accurate alignment of DNA, most of them still optimize the classical Needleman Wunsch scoring scheme. The development of novel scoring schemes is often hampered by the difficulty of finding an optimizing algorithm for each non-trivial scheme. In this paper we define the broad class of rectangle scoring schemes, and describe an algorithm and tool that can align two sequences with an arbitrary rectangle scoring scheme in polynomial time. Rectangle scoring schemes encompass some of the popular alignment scoring metrics currently in use, as well as many other functions. We investigate a novel scoring function based on minimizing the expected number of random diagonals observed with the given scores and show that it rivals the LAGAN and Clustal-W aligners, without using any biological or evolutionary parameters. The FRESCO program, freely available at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/fresco, gives bioinformatics researchers the ability to quickly compare the performance of other complex scoring formulas without having to implement new algorithms to optimize them.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Mennati, Afsaneh; Jafari, Samira; Khezri, Khadejeh; Adibkia, Khosro

    2015-01-01

    Due to the vast and inappropriate use of the antibiotics, microorganisms have begun to develop resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. So therefore, development of the new and effective antimicrobial agents seems to be necessary. According to some recent reports, carbon-based nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (especially single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles show potent antimicrobial properties. In present review, we have briefly summarized the antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanoparticles together with their mechanism of action. Reviewed literature show that the size of carbon nanoparticles plays an important role in the inactivation of the microorganisms. As major mechanism, direct contact of microorganisms with carbon nanostructures seriously affects their cellular membrane integrity, metabolic processes and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanostructures may interestingly be investigated in the near future owing to their high surface/volume ratio, large inner volume and other unique chemical and physical properties. In addition, application of functionalized carbon nanomaterials as carriers for the ordinary antibiotics possibly will decrease the associated resistance, enhance their bioavailability and provide their targeted delivery. PMID:25789215

  3. Is scoring system of computed tomography based metric parameters can accurately predicts shock wave lithotripsy stone-free rates and aid in the development of treatment strategies?

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Yasser Ali; Abdelaziz, Alsayed Saad; Shehab, Mohamed Ahmed; Mohamed, Hazem Abdelsabour Dief; Emara, Absel-Aziz Ali; Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed Ali; Ghanem, Maged Mohammed; ELHelaly, Hesham Abdel Azim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine the predicting success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) using a combination of computed tomography based metric parameters to improve the treatment plan. Patients and Methods: Consecutive 180 patients with symptomatic upper urinary tract calculi 20 mm or less were enrolled in our study underwent extracorporeal SWL were divided into two main groups, according to the stone size, Group A (92 patients with stone ≤10 mm) and Group B (88 patients with stone >10 mm). Both groups were evaluated, according to the skin to stone distance (SSD) and Hounsfield units (≤500, 500–1000 and >1000 HU). Results: Both groups were comparable in baseline data and stone characteristics. About 92.3% of Group A rendered stone-free, whereas 77.2% were stone-free in Group B (P = 0.001). Furthermore, in both group SWL success rates was a significantly higher for stones with lower attenuation <830 HU than with stones >830 HU (P < 0.034). SSD were statistically differences in SWL outcome (P < 0.02). Simultaneous consideration of three parameters stone size, stone attenuation value, and SSD; we found that stone-free rate (SFR) was 100% for stone attenuation value <830 HU for stone <10 mm or >10 mm but total number SWL sessions and shock waves required for the larger stone group were higher than in the smaller group (P < 0.01). Furthermore, SFR was 83.3% and 37.5% for stone <10 mm, mean HU >830, SSD 90 mm and SSD >120 mm, respectively. On the other hand, SFR was 52.6% and 28.57% for stone >10 mm, mean HU >830, SSD <90 mm and SSD >120 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Stone size, stone density (HU), and SSD is simple to calculate and can be reported by radiologists to applying combined score help to augment predictive power of SWL, reduce cost, and improving of treatment strategies. PMID:27141192

  4. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12–19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  5. Cost-effectiveness of chemotherapy combined with thoracic radiotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for limited stage small cell lung cancer: A population-based propensity-score matched analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Chun-Ru; Hsia, Te-Chun; Chen, Chih-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background The addition of thoracic radiotherapy improves the outcome of limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC), however, the cost-effectiveness of this process has never been reported. We aimed to estimate the short-term cost-effectiveness of chemotherapy combined with thoracic radiotherapy (C-TRT) versus chemotherapy alone (C/T) for LS-SCLC patients from the payer's perspective (Taiwan National Health Insurance). Methods We identified LS-SCLC patients diagnosed within 2007–2009 through a comprehensive population-based database containing cancer and death registries, and reimbursement data. The duration of interest was one year within diagnosis. We included potential confounding covariables through literature searching and our own experience, and used a propensity score to construct a 1:1 population for adjustment. We used a net benefit (NB) approach to evaluate the cost-effectiveness at various willingness-to-pay (WTP) levels. Sensitivity analysis regarding potential unmeasured confounder(s) was performed. Results Our study population constituted 74 patients. The mean cost (2013 USD) and survival (year) was higher for C-TRT (42 439 vs. 28 357; 0.94 vs. 0.88). At the common WTP level (50 000 USD/life-year), C-TRT was not cost effective (incremental NB − 11 082) and the probability for C-TRT to be cost effective (i.e. positive net benefit) was 0.005. The result was moderately sensitive to potential unmeasured confounder(s) in sensitivity analysis. Conclusions We provide evidence that when compared to C/T, C-TRT is effective in improving survival, but is not cost-effective in the short-term at a common WTP level from a payer's perspective. This information should be considered by clinicians when discussing thoracic radiotherapy with their LS-SCLC patients. PMID:26767048

  6. Evaluation of a Novel Renewable Hepatic Cell Model for Prediction of Clinical CYP3A4 Induction Using a Correlation-Based Relative Induction Score Approach

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Parikh, Sweta; Cao, Li; Cooper, Kirsten L.; Hong, Yulong; Liu, Jin; Faris, Ronald A.; Li, Daochuan; Wang, Hongbing

    2017-01-01

    Metabolism enzyme induction-mediated drug-drug interactions need to be carefully characterized in vitro for drug candidates to predict in vivo safety risk and therapeutic efficiency. Currently, both the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency recommend using primary human hepatocytes as the gold standard in vitro test system for studying the induction potential of candidate drugs on cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP2B6. However, primary human hepatocytes are known to bear inherent limitations such as limited supply and large lot-to-lot variations, which result in an experimental burden to qualify new lots. To overcome these shortcomings, a renewable source of human hepatocytes (i.e., Corning HepatoCells) was developed from primary human hepatocytes and was evaluated for in vitro CYP3A4 induction using methods well established by the pharmaceutical industry. HepatoCells have shown mature hepatocyte-like morphology and demonstrated primary hepatocyte-like response to prototypical inducers of all three CYP enzymes with excellent consistency. Importantly, HepatoCells retain a phenobarbital-responsive nuclear translocation of human constitutive androstane receptor from the cytoplasm, characteristic to primary hepatocytes. To validate HepatoCells as a useful tool to predict potential clinical relevant CYP3A4 induction, we tested three different lots of HepatoCells with a group of clinical strong, moderate/weak CYP3A4 inducers, and noninducers. A relative induction score calibration curve-based approach was used for prediction. HepatoCells showed accurate prediction comparable to primary human hepatocytes. Together, these results demonstrate that Corning HepatoCells is a reliable in vitro model for drug-drug interaction studies during the early phase of drug testing. PMID:28062541

  7. Active Region Segmentation Based on Stokes Asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jieun; Harker-Lundberg, B.

    2011-01-01

    During the Stokes inversion process, we would ideally use a distinct model for each structure in an active region which addresses the differences in the physical conditions of these regions. While the Milne-Eddington model of the atmosphere---a frequently-used ideal model that assumes all local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions are satisfied---is a sufficient approximation for the description of the solar photosphere, we almost always observe deviations from this model. It is thus of interest to devise a method to systematically and accurately identify the active regions based on their spectra, such that we could use a more sophisticated model catered to each structure in an active region during the actual Stokes inversion process. We present a classification scheme for different active region structures using Stokes asymmetries and line core depths as discriminators. The data used for this investigation were obtained from the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility using the Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM), observed in a 3 A bandpass around Fe I 6302.5 A, from March 27, 2008 to March 29, 2008. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) site program, which is co-funded by the Department of Defense in partnership with the National Science Foundation REU Program. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  8. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate.

  9. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  10. Active-imaging-based underwater navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnin, David; Schmitt, Gwenaël.; Fischer, Colin; Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are widely used for the localization and the navigation of unmanned and remotely operated vehicles (ROV). In contrast to ground or aerial vehicles, GNSS cannot be employed for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) without the use of a communication link to the water surface, since satellite signals cannot be received underwater. However, underwater autonomous navigation is still possible using self-localization methods which determines the relative location of an AUV with respect to a reference location using inertial measurement units (IMU), depth sensors and even sometimes radar or sonar imaging. As an alternative or a complementary solution to common underwater reckoning techniques, we present the first results of a feasibility study of an active-imaging-based localization method which uses a range-gated active-imaging system and can yield radiometric and odometric information even in turbid water.

  11. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2015-02-01

    Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP) in conjunction with multimodal characterization techniques has yielded impactful findings in microbiology, particularly in pathogen, bioenergy, drug discovery, and environmental research. Using small molecule chemical probes that react irreversibly with specific proteins or protein families in complex systems has provided insights in enzyme functions in central metabolic pathways, drug-protein interactions, and regulatory protein redox, for systems ranging from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria to mycobacteria, and combining live cell or cell extract ABPP with proteomics, molecular biology, modeling, and other techniques has greatly expanded our understanding of these systems. New opportunities for application of ABPP to microbial systems include: enhancing protein annotation, characterizing protein activities in myriad environments, and reveal signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms in microbial systems.

  12. The genetics of alcohol dependence: Twin and SNP-based heritability, and genome-wide association study based on AUDIT scores.

    PubMed

    Mbarek, Hamdi; Milaneschi, Yuri; Fedko, Iryna O; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Moor, Marleen H M; Jansen, Rick; Gelernter, Joel; Sherva, Richard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Penninx, Brenda W; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is among the most common and costly public health problems contributing to morbidity and mortality throughout the world. In this study, we investigate the genetic basis of AD in a Dutch population using data from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The presence of AD was ascertained via the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) applying cut-offs with good specificity and sensitivity in identifying those at risk for AD. Twin-based heritability of AD-AUDIT was estimated using structural equation modeling of data in 7,694 MZ and DZ twin pairs. Variance in AD-AUDIT explained by all SNPs was estimated with genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed in 7,842 subjects. GWAS SNP effect concordance analysis was performed between our GWAS and a recent AD GWAS using DSM-IV diagnosis. The twin-based heritability of AD-AUDIT was estimated at 60% (55-69%). GCTA showed that common SNPs jointly capture 33% (SE = 0.12, P = 0.002) of this heritability. In the GWAS, the top hits were positioned within four regions (4q31.1, 2p16.1, 6q25.1, 7p14.1) with the strongest association detected for rs55768019 (P = 7.58 × 10(-7) ). This first GWAS of AD using the AUDIT measure found results consistent with previous genetic studies using DSM diagnosis: concordance in heritability estimates and direction of SNPs effect and overlap with top hits from previous GWAS. Thus, the use of appropriate questionnaires may represent cost-effective strategies to phenotype samples in large-scale biobanks or other population-based datasets.

  13. The CAD-score web server: contact area-based comparison of structures and interfaces of proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes.

    PubMed

    Olechnovič, Kliment; Venclovas, Ceslovas

    2014-07-01

    The Contact Area Difference score (CAD-score) web server provides a universal framework to compute and analyze discrepancies between different 3D structures of the same biological macromolecule or complex. The server accepts both single-subunit and multi-subunit structures and can handle all the major types of macromolecules (proteins, RNA, DNA and their complexes). It can perform numerical comparison of both structures and interfaces. In addition to entire structures and interfaces, the server can assess user-defined subsets. The CAD-score server performs both global and local numerical evaluations of structural differences between structures or interfaces. The results can be exp