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Sample records for activity screen time

  1. Associations between Screen Time and Physical Activity among Spanish Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A.; Martí-Trujillo, Sara; Lera-Navarro, Angela; Dorado-García, Cecilia; González-Henríquez, Juan J.; Sanchís-Moysi, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    Background Excessive time in front of a single or several screens could explain a displacement of physical activity. The present study aimed at determining whether screen-time is associated with a reduced level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Spanish adolescents living in favorable environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select 3503 adolescents (12–18 years old) from the school population of Gran Canaria, Spain. MVPA, screen-time in front of television, computer, video game console and portable console was assessed in the classroom by fulfilling a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted by a set of social-environmental variables were carried out. Forty-six percent of girls (95% CI±2.3%) and 26% of boys (95% CI±2.1%) did not meet the MVPA recommendations for adolescents. Major gender differences were observed in the time devoted to vigorous PA, video games and the total time spent on screen-based activities. Boys who reported 4 hours•week−1 or more to total screen-time showed a 64% (OR = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.44–0.86) increased risk of failing to achieve the recommended adolescent MVPA level. Participation in organized physical activities and sports competitions were more strongly associated with MVPA than screen-related behaviors. Conclusions/Significance No single screen-related behavior explained the reduction of MVPA in adolescents. However, the total time accumulated through several screen-related behaviors was negatively associated with MVPA level in boys. This association could be due to lower availability of time for exercise as the time devoted to sedentary screen-time activities increases. Participation in organized physical activities seems to counteract the negative impact of excessive time in front of screens on physical activity. PMID:21909435

  2. Active versus Passive Screen Time for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetser, Penelope; Johnson, Daniel; Ozdowska, Anne; Wyeth, Peta

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report some initial findings from our investigations into the Australian Government's Longitudinal Study of Australian Children dataset. It is revealed that the majority of Australian children are exceeding the government's Screen Time recommendations and that most of their screen time is spent as TV viewing, as opposed to video…

  3. Screen time and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... obesity ) Screen time increases your child's risk of obesity because: Sitting and watching a screen is time that is not spent being physically active. TV commercials and other screen ads can lead to unhealthy food choices . Most of the time, the foods in ads ...

  4. Associations among physical activity, screen time, and sleep in low socioeconomic status urban girls.

    PubMed

    Greever, Cory J; Ahmadi, Matthew; Sirard, John; Alhassan, Sofiya

    2017-03-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with higher risk of poor health outcomes in low socioeconomic status (SES) urban elementary age girls. Decreased physical activity (PA) and increased screen time may be associated with poor sleep. This study examined if PA and screen time are associated with sleep in girls from a low SES urban community. Baseline data from 7 to 12 year-old girls (n = 55) from two interventions conducted in Springfield, MA between 2012 and 2015 were used. PA was measured via accelerometry for seven days. Screen time and sleep were assessed via validated questionnaires. Sleep was also assessed via accelerometry in a subsample of girls (n = 24) for 7 days. Associations among PA, screen time, and sleep were analyzed using multiple linear regression. More minutes of screen time per day (p = 0.01, r(2) = 0.35, r(2) adjusted = 0.23) was associated with worse sleep quality (β = 0.50, p = 0.02). There were negative correlations between PA and the number of awakenings per night (r = - 0.45, p = 0.04) and between counts per minute and sleep fragmentation (r = - 0.65, p = 0.002) assessed by accelerometer. In this population, increased screen time was associated with worse sleep quality and decreased PA was correlated with more awakenings per night and higher sleep fragmentation. These findings suggest that screen time and PA may be modifiable risk factors for interventions seeking to improve sleep in this population.

  5. Concurrent Associations between Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Sleep Duration with Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Lee, Joey A.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Eisenmann, Joey C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To examine the simultaneous influence of physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations on the odds of childhood obesity (including overweight). Methods. Physical activity was assessed via pedometer and screen time, and sleep duration were assessed via survey in a cross sectional sample of 674 children (aged 7–12 years) from two Midwestern communities in the fall of 2005. Participants were cross tabulated into four groups depending on how many recommendations were being met (0, 1, 2, or all 3). Linear and logistic regression were used to examine the influence of physical activity, screen time and sleep duration on obesity and interactions among the three variables. Results. Children achieving all three recommendations simultaneously (9.2% of total sample) were the least likely to be obese. Approximately 16% of boys and 9% of girls achieving all recommendations were overweight or obese compared to 53% of boys and 42.5% of girls not achieving any. Conclusions. The odds of obesity increased in a graded manner for each recommendation which was not met. Meeting all three recommendations appears to have a protective effect against obesity. Continued efforts are warranted to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors that include meeting physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations concurrently. PMID:24734210

  6. Associations of parental influences with physical activity and screen time among young children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1) parenting practices; (2) parents' role modelling; (3) parental perceptions of children's PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4) parental self-efficacy; and (5) general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents' encouragement and support can increase children's PA, and reducing parents' own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children.

  7. Is the activated partial thromboplastin time suitable to screen for von Willebrand factor deficiencies?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Poli, Giovanni; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2007-06-01

    The diagnostic approach to von Willebrand factor deficiencies is challenging and requires discretionary use of laboratory resources. Although extensive preoperative testing is not recommended, the activated partial thromboplastin time may be useful, especially in selected categories of patients. To establish the diagnostic sensitivity of this test to identify isolate von Willebrand factor deficiencies, 204 consecutive patients underwent a routine preoperative screening consisting of activated partial thromboplastin time, von Willebrand factor antigen, intrinsic pathway clotting factors activity, lupus anticoagulants and thrombin time. Thirty-seven patients were diagnosed with haemostasis disturbances other than von Willebrand factor deficiencies and were excluded from the evaluation. Isolated von Willebrand factor deficiency was diagnosed in 11 of the remaining 167 patients. A significant correlation was observed between von Willebrand factor antigen and activated partial thromboplastin time. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.982 (95% confidence interval: 0.972-0.992; P < 0.001). At the 1.17 upper limit of the activated partial thromboplastin time, sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 85%, respectively, with negative and positive predictive values of 100 and 31%, respectively. These results demonstrate that activated partial thromboplastin time has an excellent diagnostic sensitivity and a satisfactory specificity for identifying isolated von Willebrand factor deficiencies.

  8. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children's Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Amanda E; Broyles, Stephanie T; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2015-07-30

    This cross-sectional study examined differences in children's health behaviors during school term (ST) versus school holiday (SH: June-July) and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5-18 years (n = 406) from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score (BMIz) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth's physical activity and TV viewing.

  9. Early Sexual Intercourse: Prospective Associations with Adolescents Physical Activity and Screen Time

    PubMed Central

    Wijtzes, Anne; van de Bongardt, Daphne; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra; Bannink, Rienke; Raat, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study conducted in the Netherlands. The analysis sample consisted of 2,141 adolescents aged 12 to 14 years (mean age at baseline = 12.2 years, SD = 0.43). Physical activity (e.g., sports outside school), screen time (e.g., computer use), and early sexual intercourse initiation were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression models were tested to assess the associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time (separately and simultaneously) with early sexual intercourse initiation, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographics and substance use). Interaction effects with gender were tested to assess whether these associations differed significantly between boys and girls. Results The only physical activity behavior that was a significant predictor of early sexual intercourse initiation was sports club membership. Adolescent boys and girls who were members of a sports club) were more likely to have had early sex (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.33, 3.56. Significant gender interaction effects indicated that boys who watched TV ≥2 hours/day (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.08, 3.68) and girls who used the computer ≥2 hours/day (OR = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.76, 8.69) were also significantly more likely to have engaged in early sex. Conclusion These findings have implications for professionals in general pediatric healthcare, sexual health educators, policy makers, and parents, who should be aware of these possible prospective links between sports club membership, TV watching (for boys), and computer use (for girls), and early sexual intercourse initiation. However, continued research on determinants of adolescents’ early sexual initiation is needed to further contribute to

  10. Development of HomeSTEAD’s physical activity and screen time physical environment inventory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The home environment has a significant influence on children’s physical activity, sedentary behavior, dietary intake, and risk for obesity and chronic disease. Our understanding of the most influential factors and how they interact and impact child behavior is limited by current measurement tools, specifically the lack of a comprehensive instrument. HomeSTEAD (the Home Self-administered Tool for Environmental assessment of Activity and Diet) was designed to address this gap. This new tool contains four sections: home physical activity and media equipment inventory, family physical activity and screen time practices, home food inventory, and family food practices. This paper will describe HomeSTEAD’s development and present reliability and validity evidence for the first section. Methods The ANGELO framework guided instrument development, and systematic literature reviews helped identify existing items or scales for possible inclusion. Refinement of items was based on expert review and cognitive interviews. Parents of children ages 3–12 years (n = 125) completed the HomeSTEAD survey on three separate occasions over 12–18 days (Time 1, 2, and 3). The Time 1 survey also collected demographic information and parent report of child behaviors. Between Time 1 and 2, staff conducted an in-home observation and measured parent and child BMI. Kappa and intra-class correlations were used to examine reliability (test-retest) and validity (criterion and construct). Results Reliability and validity was strong for most items (97% having ICC > 0.60 and 72% having r > 0.50, respectively). Items with lower reliability generally had low variation between people. Lower validity estimates (r < 0.30) were more common for items that assessed usability and accessibility, with observers generally rating usability and accessibility lower than parents. Small to moderate, but meaningful, correlations between physical environment factors and BMI, outside

  11. A real-time fluorescence polarization activity assay to screen for inhibitors of bacterial ribonuclease P

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Chen, Yu; Fierke, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an essential endonuclease that catalyzes the 5′ end maturation of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA). Bacterial RNase P is an attractive potential antibacterial target because it is essential for cell survival and has a distinct subunit composition compared to the eukaryal counterparts. To accelerate both structure-function studies and discovery of inhibitors of RNase P, we developed the first real-time RNase P activity assay using fluorescence polarization/anisotropy (FP/FA) with a 5′ end fluorescein-labeled pre-tRNAAsp substrate. This FP/FA assay also detects binding of small molecules to pre-tRNA. Neomycin B and kanamycin B bind to pre-tRNAAsp with a Kd value that is comparable to their IC50 value for inhibition of RNase P, suggesting that binding of these antibiotics to the pre-tRNA substrate contributes to the inhibitory activity. This assay was optimized for high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify specific inhibitors of RNase P from a 2880 compound library. A natural product derivative, iriginol hexaacetate, was identified as a new inhibitor of Bacillus subtilis RNase P. The FP/FA methodology and inhibitors reported here will further our understanding of RNase P molecular recognition and facilitate discovery of antibacterial compounds that target RNase P. PMID:25249623

  12. Disentangling the roles of mammographic screening and HRT in recent breast cancer incidence trends in italy by analyses based on calendar time and time since screening activation.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Falcini, Fabio; Cortesi, Laura; De Lisi, Vincenzo; Ferretti, Stefano; Tumino, Rosario; Russo, Antonio; Paci, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the roles of screening activation and hormone replacement therapy discontinuation on the recent declining breast cancer incidence trends in Italy. We analyzed 41,358 invasive female breast cancers incident during 1991-2004 in six Italian population-based cancer registries. Overall and age-specific incidence trends were evaluated using Joinpoint analysis. In addition to calendar years, data were analyzed on a years-since-screening-activation basis. Annual percentage change of standardized rates was computed. There were statistically significant increasing trends for women 40-44 and 45-49 years that did not change after screening activation. On the contrary, for women 50-69 years old and for those 70+ years, the increasing trends flattened around 2 years after screening activation. The prevalence of hormone replacement therapy use in Italy is and was rather low. In conclusion, the recent tendency toward stabilization observed in Italy for female breast cancer incidence rates in women aged 50 years or more follows the introduction of mammographic screening.

  13. Physical Activity, Screen-Time Behavior, and Obesity among 13-Year Olds in Ireland with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Sean; Haegele, Justin A.; Grenier, Michelle; Garcia, Jeanette M.

    2017-01-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to compare (a) physical activity participation, screen-time habits, obesity, and (b) reported reasons for lack of participation in sport, between a nationally representative sample of Irish children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participation in moderate to vigorous activity, light…

  14. Children′s physical activity and screen time: qualitative comparison of views of parents of infants and preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While parents are central to the development of behaviours in their young children, little is known about how parents view their role in shaping physical activity and screen time behaviours. Methods Using an unstructured focus group design, parental views and practices around children′s physical activity and screen time (television and computer use) were explored with eight groups of new parents (n=61; child age <12 months) and eight groups of parents with preschool-aged (3–5 year old) children (n=36) in Melbourne, Australia. Results Parents generally believed children are naturally active, which may preclude their engagement in strategies designed to increase physical activity. While parents across both age groups shared many overarching views concerning parenting for children′s physical activity and screen time behaviours, some strategies and barriers differed depending on the age of the child. While most new parents were optimistic about their ability to positively influence their child′s behaviours, many parents of preschool-aged children seemed more resigned to strategies that worked for them, even when aware such strategies may not be ideal. Conclusions Interventions aiming to increase children′s physical activity and decrease screen time may need to tailor strategies to the age group of the child and address parents′ misconceptions and barriers to optimum parenting in these domains. PMID:23270548

  15. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-12-23

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours.

  16. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  17. Maternal and paternal parenting practices and their influence on children's adiposity, screen-time, diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p < .01) and mothers' control (p < .001) were significantly associated with child weight status. Fathers' reinforcement (p < .01) was significantly associated with child physical activity. For screen-time, mothers' monitoring (p < .001) and child characteristics [age (p = .01), sex (p = .01), BMI z-score (p = .03)] were significant predictors. Mothers' parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors.

  18. Body image dissatisfaction, physical activity and screen-time in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Añez, Elizabeth; Fornieles-Deu, Albert; Fauquet-Ars, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Puntí-Vidal, Joaquim; Sánchez Carracedo, David

    2016-08-24

    This cross-sectional study contributes to the literature on whether body dissatisfaction is a barrier/facilitator to engaging in physical activity and to investigate the impact of mass-media messages via computer-time on body dissatisfaction. High-school students (N = 1501) reported their physical activity, computer-time (homework/leisure) and body dissatisfaction. Researchers measured students' weight and height. Analyses revealed that body dissatisfaction was negatively associated with physical activity on both genders, whereas computer-time was associated only with girls' body dissatisfaction. Specifically, as computer-homework increased, body dissatisfaction decreased; as computer-leisure increased, body dissatisfaction increased. Weight-related interventions should improve body image and physical activity simultaneously, while critical consumption of mass-media interventions should include a computer component.

  19. Physical activity and screen time in children and adolescents in a medium size town in the South of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Greca, João Paulo de Aguiar; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Loch, Mathias Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the associations between sex and age with behaviour related to physical activity practice and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 480 (236 boys) subjects enrolled in a public school in the city of Londrina, in the south of Brazil, aged 8–17 years. Measures of physical activity, sports practice and screen times were obtained using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare variables between boys and girls. The Chi squared test was used for categorical analysis and Poisson regression was used to identify prevalence. Results: Girls (69.6%; PR=1.05 [0.99–1.12]) spent more time with sedentary behaviour than boys (62.2%). Boys (80%; PR=0.95 [0.92–0.98]) were more physically active than girls (91%). Older students aged 13–17 showed a higher prevalence of physical inactivity (91.4%; PR=1.06 [1.02–1.10]) and time spent with sedentary behaviour of ≥2h/day (71.8%; PR=0.91 [0.85–0.97]) when compared to younger peers aged 8–12 (78.7 and 58.5%, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of physical inactivity was higher in girls. Older students spent more screen time in comparison to younger students. PMID:27318767

  20. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children’s Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined differences in children’s health behaviors during school term (ST) versus school holiday (SH: June–July) and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5–18 years (n = 406) from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score(BMIz ) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth’s physical activity and TV viewing. PMID:26264005

  1. Rationale for New York City's regulations on nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in early child care centers.

    PubMed

    Nonas, Cathy; Silver, Lynn D; Kettel Khan, Laura; Leviton, Laura

    2014-10-16

    Childhood obesity is associated with health risks in childhood, and it increases the risk of adult obesity, which is associated with many chronic diseases. Therefore, implementing policies that may prevent obesity at young ages is important. In 2007, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene implemented new regulations for early childhood centers to increase physical activity, limit screen time, and provide healthful beverage offerings (ie, restrict sugar-sweetened beverages for all children, restrict whole milk for those older than 2 years, restrict juice to beverages that are 100% juice and limit serving of juice to only 6 ounces per day, and make water available and accessible at all times). This article explains why these amendments to the Health Code were created, how information about these changes was disseminated, and what training programs were used to help ensure implementation, particularly in high-need neighborhoods.

  2. Rationale for New York City’s Regulations on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Screen Time in Early Child Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Lynn D.; Kettel Khan, Laura; Leviton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with health risks in childhood, and it increases the risk of adult obesity, which is associated with many chronic diseases. Therefore, implementing policies that may prevent obesity at young ages is important. In 2007, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene implemented new regulations for early childhood centers to increase physical activity, limit screen time, and provide healthful beverage offerings (ie, restrict sugar-sweetened beverages for all children, restrict whole milk for those older than 2 years, restrict juice to beverages that are 100% juice and limit serving of juice to only 6 ounces per day, and make water available and accessible at all times). This article explains why these amendments to the Health Code were created, how information about these changes was disseminated, and what training programs were used to help ensure implementation, particularly in high-need neighborhoods. PMID:25321633

  3. Associations of Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Screen Time With Cardiovascular Fitness in United States Adolescents: Results from the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS).

    PubMed

    Porter, Anna K; Matthews, Krystin J; Salvo, Deborah; Kohl, Harold W

    2017-03-14

    Background Most US adolescents do not meet guidelines of at least 60 daily minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. Additionally, sedentary behaviors among this age group are of increasing concern. This study examined the association of movement behaviors with cardiovascular fitness among US adolescents. Methods Data from the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey were used to assess the association of movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time, screen time) with cardiovascular fitness among adolescent males and females. Multiple logistic regressions were used to test the independent and interactive effects of movement behaviors on cardiovascular fitness. Results Among females, physical activity was directly associated with cardiovascular fitness; no significant association was observed between sedentary behaviors and CVF. Among males, sedentary time moderated the relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular fitness, such that a significant, direct association was only observed among those with high sedentary time (OR: 5.01, 95% CI: 1.60, 15.70). Conclusions Results from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that among female US adolescents, physical activity, but not sedentary behavior, is associated with cardiovascular fitness. Among males, the interaction between physical activity and sedentary time seems to be important for cardiovascular fitness. Longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  4. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-Time in Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lubans, David R.; Smith, Jordan J.; Skinner, Geoff; Morgan, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app) designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys considered “at-risk” of obesity. Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the “Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time” (ATLAS) program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial with 361 boys (12.7 ± 0.5 years) in 14 secondary schools. Following the completion of the study, participants in the intervention group completed a process evaluation questionnaire and focus groups were conducted with 42 students to explore their general perceptions of the ATLAS program and their experience with the smartphone app. Barriers and challenges encountered in the development, implementation, and evaluation of the app are also described. Results: Participation in the study was not contingent on ownership of a smartphone, but 70% of participants in the intervention group reported having access to a smartphone or tablet device. Focus group participants reported an enjoyment of the program, and felt that it had provided them with new skills, techniques, and routines for the future. However, their engagement with the smartphone app was limited, due to a variety of reasons. Barriers to the implementation and evaluation of the app included limited access to smartphone devices, technical problems with the push notifications, lack of access to usage data, and the challenges of maintaining participants’ interest in using the app. Conclusion: Although participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the ATLAS program in general, the smartphone app was not used extensively. Additional strategies and features may be needed to enhance engagement in adolescent boys. PMID:24904909

  5. Do specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy associate with physical activity and screen time among primary schoolchildren? A cross-sectional study in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    De Lepeleere, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Verloigne, Maïté

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy with children's physical activity (PA) and screen time. Parental body mass index (BMI), family socioeconomic status (SES), and child's age and gender were examined as possible influencing factors. Design Cross-sectional. Setting January 2014, Flanders (Belgium). Participants 207 parents (87.4% mothers) of children aged 6–12 years. Outcome measures Specific parenting practices, related parental self-efficacy, and children's PA and screen time. Results The majority of investigated parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy were not significantly associated with children's PA or screen time. However, children were more physically active if sports equipment was available at home (p<0.10) and if parents did not find it difficult to motivate their child to be physically active (p<0.05). Children had a lower screen time if parents limited their own gaming (p<0.01). The associations between parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy with children's PA or screen time were significant for parents with a normal BMI, for medium-high SES families and for parents of younger children. Furthermore, the association between the parenting relating factors and children's PA and screen time differed for boys and girls. Conclusions In contrast to what we expected, the findings of the current study show that only a very few specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy were associated with children's PA and screen time. It was expected that parental self-efficacy would play a more important role. This can be due to the fact that parental self-efficacy was already high in this group of parents. Therefore, it is possible that parents do not realise how difficult it is to perform certain parenting practices until they are faced with it in an intervention. Trial registration number EC/2012/317. PMID:26346871

  6. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup.

  7. The Effects of Leisure-Based Screen Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Mary Dawn; Hager, Ronald L.; Vincent, Susan D.; Tucker, Larry A.; Vincent, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Use of television, computers, and video games competes with physical activity and may be a health risk factor. Purpose: This study assessed the relationship between leisure-based screen time and physical activity in families to determine whether assignment to a limited screen time group results in more physical activity. Methods:…

  8. Associations between physical activity, screen time, and fitness among 6- to 10-year-old children living in Edmonton, Canada.

    PubMed

    Potter, Morgan; Spence, John C; Boulé, Normand G; Stearns, Jodie A; Carson, Valerie

    2017-01-03

    The objectives of this study were to describe fitness levels; examine associations between physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and fitness; and examine sex-moderating effects in a sample of children. Participants were 649 children (age, 7.8 ± 0.6 years; 52.4% female) from Edmonton, Canada. Hours/week of PA and ST were parent-reported. PA was also objectively measured with pedometers and expressed in increments of 1000 steps/day. Fitness components (i.e., vertical jump, sit-and-reach, waist circumference, grip strength, predicted maximal oxygen consumption, push-ups, partial curl-ups, overall fitness) were measured according to the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness, and Lifestyle Approach protocols and expressed as z scores or low/high fitness. Positive associations were observed between PA and overall fitness for both the complete (subjective: β = 0.009, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.001-0.017) and partial (≥3 available fitness measures; subjective: β = 0.006, 95% CI: 0.000-0.011; objective: β = 0.025, 95% CI: 0.007-0.042) fitness scores. Subjective (β = 0.011, 95% CI: 0.000-0.022) and objective (β = 0.043, 95% CI: 0.008-0.078) PAs were positively associated with vertical jump. Children with higher objective PA were more likely to be in the high push-ups group (odds ratio = 1.156, 95% CI: 1.054-1.267). PA was positively associated with predicted maximal oxygen uptake (subjective: β = 0.040, 95% CI: 0.018-0.063; objective: β = 0.084, 95% CI: 0.012-0.157) and grip strength (subjective: β = 0.025, 95% CI: 0.011-0.040) in boys only. ST was negatively associated with grip strength (β = -0.016, 95% CI: -0.028 to -0.004) in boys. PA was associated with several components of fitness, especially in boys. However, few associations were observed between ST and fitness. Promoting regular PA in young children may address declining fitness levels.

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of screen and non-screen sedentary time in adolescents: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Much attention has been paid to adolescents' screen time, however very few studies have examined non-screen sedentary time (NSST). This study aimed to (1) describe the magnitude and composition of screen sedentary time (SST) and NSST in Australian adolescents, (2) describe the socio-demographic correlates of SST and NSST, and (3) determine whether screen time is an adequate surrogate for total sedentary behaviour in this population. Methods 2200 9-16 year old Australians provided detailed use of time data for four days. Non-screen sedentary time (NSST) included time spent participating in activities expected to elicit <3 METs whilst seated or lying down (other than sleeping), excluding screen-based activities (television, playing videogames or using computers). Total sedentary time was the sum of screen time and NSST. Results Adolescents spent a mean (SD) of 345 (105) minutes/day in NSST, which constituted 60% of total sedentary time. School activities contributed 42% of NSST, socialising 19%, self-care (mainly eating) 16%, and passive transport 15%. Screen time and NSST showed opposite patterns in relation to key socio-demographic characteristics, including sex, age, weight status, household income, parental education and day type. Because screen time was negatively correlated with NSST (r = -0.58), and exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.53) with total sedentary time, screen time was only a moderately effective surrogate for total sedentary time. Conclusions To capture a complete picture of young people's sedentary time, studies should endeavour to measure both screen time and NSST. PMID:21194427

  10. Informing Active Play and Screen Time Behaviour Change Interventions for Low Socioeconomic Position Mothers of Young Children: What Do Mothers Want?

    PubMed

    Downing, Katherine L; Best, Keren; Campbell, Karen J; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigated views of mothers from disadvantaged urban and regional areas (i.e., beyond major capital cities) as potential end users of child active play and screen time behaviour change interventions, with a focus on text messaging and web-based delivery platforms. Methods. Thirty-two mothers (22 urban; 10 regional) were interviewed. Purpose-designed questions covered topics regarding mothers' preferences for accessing and receiving information related to parenting and child active play and screen time. Data from transcribed interviews were analysed to identify responses and key themes. Results. Mothers reported frequently accessing parenting- and child-related information online. Regional mothers reported seeking information by talking with other people less frequently than urban mothers and seemed to have a stronger preference for receiving information online. There were few differences between responses from low and high educated mothers. The majority of mothers reported that they would be happy to receive text messages containing information about active play and screen time and that they would find a dedicated website with this information useful. Conclusions. Mothers in this study held favourable views on the potential of receiving information via new communication technologies. Future interventions targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers may benefit from delivering intervention messages via these technologies.

  11. Informing Active Play and Screen Time Behaviour Change Interventions for Low Socioeconomic Position Mothers of Young Children: What Do Mothers Want?

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Karen J.; Hesketh, Kylie D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigated views of mothers from disadvantaged urban and regional areas (i.e., beyond major capital cities) as potential end users of child active play and screen time behaviour change interventions, with a focus on text messaging and web-based delivery platforms. Methods. Thirty-two mothers (22 urban; 10 regional) were interviewed. Purpose-designed questions covered topics regarding mothers' preferences for accessing and receiving information related to parenting and child active play and screen time. Data from transcribed interviews were analysed to identify responses and key themes. Results. Mothers reported frequently accessing parenting- and child-related information online. Regional mothers reported seeking information by talking with other people less frequently than urban mothers and seemed to have a stronger preference for receiving information online. There were few differences between responses from low and high educated mothers. The majority of mothers reported that they would be happy to receive text messages containing information about active play and screen time and that they would find a dedicated website with this information useful. Conclusions. Mothers in this study held favourable views on the potential of receiving information via new communication technologies. Future interventions targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers may benefit from delivering intervention messages via these technologies. PMID:28053979

  12. Clinical and psychological effects of excessive screen time on children.

    PubMed

    Domingues-Montanari, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Over recent years, screen time has become a more complicated concept, with an ever-expanding variety of electronic media devices available throughout the world. Television remains the predominant type of screen-based activity among children. However, computer use, video games and ownership of devices, such as tablets and smart phones, are occurring from an increasingly young age. Screen time, in particular, television viewing, has been negatively associated with the development of physical and cognitive abilities, and positively associated with obesity, sleep problems, depression and anxiety. The physiological mechanisms that underlie the adverse health outcomes related to screen time and the relative contributions of different types of screen and media content to specific health outcomes are unclear. This review discusses the positive and negative effects of screen time on the physiological and psychological development of children. Furthermore, recommendations are offered to parents and clinicians.

  13. Relationship between leisure time screen activity and aggressive and violent behaviour in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV Study.

    PubMed

    Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Jari, Mohsen

    2014-08-21

    Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between leisure time spent watching television (TV) and at a computer and aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Methods: In this nationwide study, 14,880 school students, aged 6-18 years, were selected by cluster and stratified multi-stage sampling method from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization Global School-based Health Survey questionnaire (WHO-GSHS) was used. Results: Overall, 13,486 children and adolescents (50·8% boys, 75·6% urban residents) completed the study (participation rate 90·6%). The risk of physical fighting and quarrels increased by 29% (OR 1·29, 95% CI 1·19-1·40) with watching TV for >2 hr/day, by 38% (OR 1·38, 95% CI 1·21-1·57) with leisure time computer work of >2 hr/day, and by 42% (OR 1·42, 95% CI 1·28-1·58) with the total screen time of >2 hr/day. Watching TV or leisure time spent on a computer or total screen time of >2 hr/day increased the risk of bullying by 30% (OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·18-1·43), 57% (1·57, 95% CI 1·34-1·85) and 62% (OR 1·62, 95% CI 1·43-1·83). Spending >2 hr/day watching TV and total screen time increased the risk of being bullied by 12% (OR 1·12, 95% CI 1·02-1·22) and 15% (OR 1·15, 95% CI 1·02-1·28), respectively. This relationship was not statistically significant for leisure time spent on a computer (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·9-1·27). Conclusions: Prolonged leisure time spent on screen activities is associated with violent and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. In addition to the duration of screen time, the association is likely to be explained also by the media content.

  14. Poor, Unsafe, and Overweight: The Role of Feeling Unsafe at School in Mediating the Association Among Poverty Exposure, Youth Screen Time, Physical Activity, and Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Côté-Lussier, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Séguin, Louise; Barnett, Tracie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study applied socioecological and cumulative risk exposure frameworks to test the hypotheses that 1) the experience of poverty is associated with feeling less safe at school, and 2) feeling less safe is associated with engaging in poorer weight-related behaviors, as well as an increased probability of being overweight or obese. Data were from the ongoing Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, initiated in 1998 with a population-based cohort of 2,120 Québec (Canada) infants 5 months of age and their parent or primary caregiver. Measures of youths' (age, 13 years) self-reported feelings of safety, screen time, physical activity, and objectively assessed not overweight/obese (70%), overweight (22%), and obese (8%) weight status were collected in 2011. Family poverty trajectory from birth was assessed by using latent growth modeling. As hypothesized, exposure to poverty was associated with feeling less safe at school and, in turn, with an increased probability of being overweight or obese. The association was most pronounced for youths who experienced chronic poverty. Compared with youths who experienced no poverty and felt unsafe, those who experienced chronic poverty and felt unsafe were nearly 18% more likely to be obese (9.2% vs. 11.2%). Although feeling unsafe was associated with screen time, screen time did not predict weight status. PMID:25921649

  15. Poor, Unsafe, and Overweight: The Role of Feeling Unsafe at School in Mediating the Association Among Poverty Exposure, Youth Screen Time, Physical Activity, and Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Côté-Lussier, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Séguin, Louise; Barnett, Tracie A

    2015-07-01

    This study applied socioecological and cumulative risk exposure frameworks to test the hypotheses that 1) the experience of poverty is associated with feeling less safe at school, and 2) feeling less safe is associated with engaging in poorer weight-related behaviors, as well as an increased probability of being overweight or obese. Data were from the ongoing Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, initiated in 1998 with a population-based cohort of 2,120 Québec (Canada) infants 5 months of age and their parent or primary caregiver. Measures of youths' (age, 13 years) self-reported feelings of safety, screen time, physical activity, and objectively assessed not overweight/obese (70%), overweight (22%), and obese (8%) weight status were collected in 2011. Family poverty trajectory from birth was assessed by using latent growth modeling. As hypothesized, exposure to poverty was associated with feeling less safe at school and, in turn, with an increased probability of being overweight or obese. The association was most pronounced for youths who experienced chronic poverty. Compared with youths who experienced no poverty and felt unsafe, those who experienced chronic poverty and felt unsafe were nearly 18% more likely to be obese (9.2% vs. 11.2%). Although feeling unsafe was associated with screen time, screen time did not predict weight status.

  16. Automation of antimicrobial activity screening.

    PubMed

    Forry, Samuel P; Madonna, Megan C; López-Pérez, Daneli; Lin, Nancy J; Pasco, Madeleine D

    2016-03-01

    Manual and automated methods were compared for routine screening of compounds for antimicrobial activity. Automation generally accelerated assays and required less user intervention while producing comparable results. Automated protocols were validated for planktonic, biofilm, and agar cultures of the oral microbe Streptococcus mutans that is commonly associated with tooth decay. Toxicity assays for the known antimicrobial compound cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) were validated against planktonic, biofilm forming, and 24 h biofilm culture conditions, and several commonly reported toxicity/antimicrobial activity measures were evaluated: the 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50), the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Using automated methods, three halide salts of cetylpyridinium (CPC, CPB, CPI) were rapidly screened with no detectable effect of the counter ion on antimicrobial activity.

  17. Development of Neh2-Luciferase Reporter and Its Application for High Throughput Screening and Real-Time Monitoring of Nrf2 Activators

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Natalya A.; Haskew-Layton, Renee E.; Basso, Manuela; Hushpulian, Dmitry M.; Payappilly, Jimmy B.; Speer, Rachel E.; Ahn, Young-Hoon; Rakhman, Ilay; Cole, Philip A.; Pinto, John T.; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Gazaryan, Irina G.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator of antioxidant defense and detoxification. To directly monitor stabilization of Nrf2, we fused its Neh2 domain, responsible for the interaction with its nucleocytoplasmic regulator, Keap1, to firefly luciferase (Neh2-luciferase). We show that Neh2 domain is sufficient for recognition, ubiquitination, and proteasomal degradation of Neh2-luciferase fusion protein. The Neh2-luc reporter system allows direct monitoring of the adaptive response to redox stress and classification of drugs based on the time course of reporter activation. The reporter was used to screen the Spectrum library of 2000 biologically active compounds to identify activators of Nrf2. The most robust and yet nontoxic Nrf2 activators found—nordihydroguaiaretic acid, fisetin, and gedunin—induced astrocyte-dependent neuroprotection from oxidative stress via an Nrf2-dependent mechanism. PMID:21700211

  18. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Lucena, Joana Marcela Sales; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Cavalcante, Thaísa Leite Mafaldo; da Silva, Vanessa Araújo; de Farias, José Cazuza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female) from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color), physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1) and it was higher in males (84.3%) compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure. PMID:26298661

  19. Clinical use of the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time for screening: a review of the literature and current guidelines for testing.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jerrold H; Szlam, Fania; Wolberg, Alisa S; Winkler, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Although the activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and international normalized ratio are widely used in routine preoperative testing, these hemostatic tests are not reliable predictors of perioperative bleeding in patients without known bleeding risk factors. In contrast, a preoperative bleeding history and physical examination are usually obtained in an attempt to identify important bleeding risk factors. However, these coagulation tests are used extensively for monitoring anticoagulation with different pharmacologic agents.

  20. Parent-Child Relationship of Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity and Proxy-Reported Screen Time in Czech Families with Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Sigmund, Erik; Badura, Petr; Vokacova, Jana; Sigmundová, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on determining the relationship between parents’ step count (SC) and screen time (ST) and children’s SC and ST on weekdays and at weekends. The participants (278 parents aged 30–45 and their 194 children aged 4–7) were recruited from 10 randomly selected Czech kindergartens. The participants recorded SC and ST duration over a week-long monitoring (≥8 h/day) during September–October 2014 and April–May 2015. The associations between parents’ SC and ST and children’s SC and ST were estimated using general linear regression for weekdays and weekends. Each 2500 SC increase in mothers’/fathers’ daily SC at weekdays (weekends) was associated with an extra 1143/903 (928/753) daily SC in children. Each 60 min of ST increase in mothers’/fathers’ ST at weekdays (weekends) was associated with an extra 7.6/7.6 (16.8/13.0) min of child daily ST. An increase of 2500 mothers’ daily SC was associated with reduction of 2.5 (7.5) min of ST in children at weekdays (weekends). This study reveals a significant relationship between parent-child SC/day, parent-child ST/day, and mothers’ ST and children’s SC at weekends. Weekend days seem to provide a suitable space for the promotion of joint physical activity in parents and their pre-schoolers. PMID:27455293

  1. Active Case Finding of Pulmonary Tuberculosis through Screening of Respiratory Symptomatics Using Sputum Microscopy: Is It Time to Change the Paradigm?

    PubMed Central

    del Portillo-Mustieles, Eva Carolina; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background. One of the main strategies for the early detection of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is through the screening of individuals with symptoms compatible with PTB. Although this is programmatic strategy for active case finding, its yield is not well known. Objective. To determine the yield of pulmonary tuberculosis active case finding through the screening of respiratory symptomatic (RS) patients at a general hospital. Methods. RS patients were defined as subjects complaining of cough and/or sputum for a period of 2 or more weeks. Outpatients and their companions were approached while they waited in the outpatient care areas of the hospital to detect RS. Two samples from different days or 2 samples taken 2 hours apart on the same day were collected. Results. 122 RS patients were identified. Fifty-seven patients (46.7%) had at least one sputum sample analyzed. Three patients presented a positive smear and 2 were culture positive; neither had upper airway symptoms. None of the patients with productive cough and upper airway symptoms had a positive smear (P = 0.07). Only 19 (33.3%) returned to the laboratory to retrieve their results. Conclusion. Current strategy to screen RS patients based only on clinical data has a low compliance. Specific strategies to increase compliance (removal of barriers, incentives, etc.) should be implemented. PMID:23533747

  2. Temporal Trends in Overweight and Obesity, Physical Activity and Screen Time among Czech Adolescents from 2002 to 2014: A National Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Badura, Petr; Kalman, Michal; Hamrik, Zdenek; Pavelka, Jan

    2015-09-18

    This study examines trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a recent 12-year study period. Nationally representative samples consisted of 19,940 adolescents (9760 boys and 10,180 girls) aged 10.5-16.5 years from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (≥60 min per day of MVPA) and excessive ST (>2 h per day) were estimated using logistic regression. Significant increases (p < 0.001) in the prevalence of overweight/obesity between the years 2002 and 2014 were evident for both adolescent boys (18.3%(2002)-24.8%(2014)) and girls (8.3%(2002)-11.9%(2014)). Compared to 2002, in 2014 significant decreases (p < 0.001) in meeting MVPA recommendations were observed among boys (32.2%(2002)-25.6%(2014)) and girls (23.2%(2002)-19.2%(2014)). Moreover, in boys we observed significant increases (p < 0.001) in excessive ST on weekdays (75.1%(2002)-88.8%(2014)), as well as on weekends (78.3%(2002)-91.9%(2014)) between the years 2002 and 2014. Increases in overweight/obesity with concomitant decreases in PA provide evidence in support of the current and upcoming efforts of government and commercial organizations in implementing interventions aimed at reducing excessive body weight among Czech adolescents.

  3. Temporal Trends in Overweight and Obesity, Physical Activity and Screen Time among Czech Adolescents from 2002 to 2014: A National Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Badura, Petr; Kalman, Michal; Hamrik, Zdenek; Pavelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a recent 12-year study period. Nationally representative samples consisted of 19,940 adolescents (9760 boys and 10,180 girls) aged 10.5–16.5 years from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (≥60 min per day of MVPA) and excessive ST (>2 h per day) were estimated using logistic regression. Significant increases (p < 0.001) in the prevalence of overweight/obesity between the years 2002 and 2014 were evident for both adolescent boys (18.3%2002–24.8%2014) and girls (8.3%2002–11.9%2014). Compared to 2002, in 2014 significant decreases (p < 0.001) in meeting MVPA recommendations were observed among boys (32.2%2002–25.6%2014) and girls (23.2%2002–19.2%2014). Moreover, in boys we observed significant increases (p < 0.001) in excessive ST on weekdays (75.1%2002–88.8%2014), as well as on weekends (78.3%2002–91.9%2014) between the years 2002 and 2014. Increases in overweight/obesity with concomitant decreases in PA provide evidence in support of the current and upcoming efforts of government and commercial organizations in implementing interventions aimed at reducing excessive body weight among Czech adolescents. PMID:26393638

  4. Level of physical activity and screen time among Iranian children and adolescents at the national and provincial level: The CASPIAN-IV study

    PubMed Central

    Hovsepian, Silva; Kelishadi, Roya; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kasaeian, Amir; Shafiee, Gita; Arefirad, Tahereh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Khoramdad, Maliheh; Asayesh, Hamid; Heshmat, Ramin; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are few epidemiological reports on adherence to physical activity (PA) and screen-time (ST) recommendations among Iranian children and adolescents at the provincial level. We used nationally representative data to provide recent prevalence estimates of Iranian children who met the recommendations for PA and ST. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted among 14,880 students aged 6-18 years from 30 provinces of Iran. The frequency of the recommended level for PA (>1 hours/week) and ST (<2 hours/day) and different combinations of PA and ST was determined in the studied population. Results: In this study, 13,486 students (response rate: 90.6%) were studied. Overall, 18.62%, 34.11%, 50.66% and 9.63% of the students reported high ST, low level of PA, high TV watching and high computer working, respectively. The frequency of the recommended level of PA and ST was 53.92%. Of the studied population, 6.63% had low PA and high ST. Paradox combinations of low PA and low ST and moderate/high PA and high ST was prevalent among 27.47% and 6.26% of the children and adolescents. The lowest and highest frequency of recommended level of PA and ST was 38.9% and 65%, respectively. The lowest and highest frequency of low PA and high ST was 1.87% and 13.77%, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the frequency of low PA was high and that approximately 46% of the students did not meet the recommended level of PA and ST. The findings indicated that preparing facilities for improving PA level among children should be the main priority in our future interventions in this field. PMID:28210587

  5. Real-time investigation of human topoisomerase I reaction kinetics using an optical sensor: a fast method for drug screening and determination of active enzyme concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoffersen, Emil L.; Jørgensen, Line A.; Franch, Oskar; Etzerodt, Michael; Frøhlich, Rikke; Bjergbæk, Lotte; Stougaard, Magnus; Ho, Yi-Ping; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2015-05-01

    Human DNA topoisomerase I (hTopI) is a nuclear enzyme that catalyzes relaxation of super helical tension that arises in the genome during essential DNA metabolic processes. This is accomplished through a common reaction mechanism shared among the type IB topoisomerase enzymes, including eukaryotic and poxvirus topoisomerase I. The mechanism of hTopI is specifically targeted in cancer treatment using camptothecin derivatives. These drugs convert the hTopI activity into a cellular poison, and hence the cytotoxic effects of camptothecin derivatives correlate with the hTopI activity. Therefore, fast and reliable techniques for high throughput measurements of hTopI activity are of high clinical interest. Here we demonstrate potential applications of a fluorophore-quencher based DNA sensor designed for measurement of hTopI cleavage-ligation activities, which are the catalytic steps affected by camptothecin. The kinetic analysis of the hTopI reaction with the DNA sensor exhibits a characteristic burst profile. This is the result of a two-step ping-pong reaction mechanism, where a fast first reaction, the one creating the signal, is followed by a slower second reaction necessary for completion of the catalytic cycle. Hence, the burst profile holds information about two reactions in the enzymatic mechanism. Moreover, it allows the amount of active enzyme in the reaction to be determined. The presented results pave the way for future high throughput drug screening and the potential of measuring active hTopI concentrations in clinical samples for individualized treatment.Human DNA topoisomerase I (hTopI) is a nuclear enzyme that catalyzes relaxation of super helical tension that arises in the genome during essential DNA metabolic processes. This is accomplished through a common reaction mechanism shared among the type IB topoisomerase enzymes, including eukaryotic and poxvirus topoisomerase I. The mechanism of hTopI is specifically targeted in cancer treatment using

  6. Evaluation of screen time activities and their relationship with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status in children 10-12 years of age in Sanandaj, Iran: A cross-sectional study in 2015.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Nouri, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Screen time (ST), including watching television and playing electronic games are the leading cause of a growing obesity epidemic. This study aimed to evaluate ST and its association with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status (SES) in children 10 to 12 years of age in Sanandaj. Methods: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study, which was conducted in Sanandaj in 2015. ST and physical activity data were collected using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). Overweight indices are defined based on BMI age- and gender-specific percentiles, as proposed by WHO criteria. Considering household assets data, SES was calculated using principal component analysis (PCA). The relationship between ST and different determinants was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Based on the results obtained in our study, 47.28% (95% CI: 45.33-49.24) of the participants spent more than two hours a day on television and video watching and electronic games playing. People who spend greater time on ST activities, independent of their physical activities, are more susceptible to overweight and obesity (p=0.002). People in higher socioeconomic groups spent more time on watching TV and video and playing electronic games (p=0.001). There was a direct relationship between the residential area and ST (P=0.052). ST in male was found to be greater (p=0.033). In addition, ST was also lower in school-aged children whose mothers had a greater education (p=0.56). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to increase the education level and knowledge of mothers and design interventions consistent with children gender and residential location so that to reduce ST and its associated outcomes in children.

  7. Evaluation of screen time activities and their relationship with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status in children 10-12 years of age in Sanandaj, Iran: A cross-sectional study in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Nouri, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Screen time (ST), including watching television and playing electronic games are the leading cause of a growing obesity epidemic. This study aimed to evaluate ST and its association with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status (SES) in children 10 to 12 years of age in Sanandaj. Methods: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study, which was conducted in Sanandaj in 2015. ST and physical activity data were collected using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). Overweight indices are defined based on BMI age- and gender-specific percentiles, as proposed by WHO criteria. Considering household assets data, SES was calculated using principal component analysis (PCA). The relationship between ST and different determinants was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Based on the results obtained in our study, 47.28% (95% CI: 45.33-49.24) of the participants spent more than two hours a day on television and video watching and electronic games playing. People who spend greater time on ST activities, independent of their physical activities, are more susceptible to overweight and obesity (p=0.002). People in higher socioeconomic groups spent more time on watching TV and video and playing electronic games (p=0.001). There was a direct relationship between the residential area and ST (P=0.052). ST in male was found to be greater (p=0.033). In addition, ST was also lower in school-aged children whose mothers had a greater education (p=0.56). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to increase the education level and knowledge of mothers and design interventions consistent with children gender and residential location so that to reduce ST and its associated outcomes in children. PMID:28210613

  8. 'Life in the age of screens': parent perspectives on a 24-h no screen-time challenge.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Sandra; Alexander, Stephanie; Roberge, Jean-Baptiste; Henderson, Melanie; Bigras, Jean-Luc; Barnett, Tracie A

    2016-08-01

    Screens have become ubiquitous in modern society. Their use frequently underlies sedentary behaviour, a well-established determinant of obesity. As part of a family oriented clinic offering a 2-year lifestyle program for obese children and youth, we explored parents' experiences with a 24-h no screen-time challenge, an intervention designed to raise awareness of screen-time habits and to help families develop strategies to limit their use. In total, 15 parents representing 13 families participated. A focus group with nine parents and six phone interviews with those who could not join in person were conducted. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed qualitatively. Key elements to successful completion of the 24-h no screen-time challenge emerged, namely: clear rules about permitted activities during the 24-h period; togetherness, i.e. involving all family members in the challenge; and busyness, i.e. planning a full schedule in order to avoid idleness and preclude the temptation to use screens. Our findings suggest that practitioners aiming to increase awareness of screen-time or to limit their use may be more likely to succeed if they include all family members, offer concrete alternatives to screen-based activities and provide tailored strategies to manage discretionary time.

  9. Sport participation, screen time, and personality trait development during childhood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A; Laborde, Sylvain

    2015-09-01

    This investigation explored the contribution of extracurricular sport and screen time viewing (television viewing and electronic gaming) to personality trait stability and change during childhood. Two independent samples of 3,956 young children (age 6) and 3,862 older children (age 10) were taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parent-reported child sport participation, screen time, and personality traits were measured at baseline and again 24 months later. Young children who were more active recorded more of a decrease in introversion, less of a decrease in persistence, and less of an increase in reactivity, than those who were less active. Older children who were more active recorded less of an increase in introversion and more of an increase in persistence than those who were less active. In addition, young children who continued participation in extracurricular sport had greater intra-individual stability of personality for introversion. These finding suggest that an active lifestyle might help to facilitate desirable personality trait stability and change during childhood.

  10. The effect of interventions targeting screen time reduction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; Sun, Samio; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions aimed at screen time reduction, but the results have been inconsistent. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to summarize the accumulating evidence of the impact of interventions targeting screen time reduction on body mass index (BMI) reduction and screen time reduction. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for RCTs on the effect of interventions targeting screen time reduction. The primary and secondary outcomes were the mean difference between the treatment and control groups in the changes in BMI and changes in screen viewing time. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled mean differences. Fourteen trials including 2238 participants were assessed. The pooled analysis suggested that interventions targeting screen time reduction had a significant effect on BMI reduction (−0.15 kg/m2, P < 0.001, I2 = 0) and on screen time reduction (−4.63 h/w, P = 0.003, I2 = 94.6%). Subgroup analysis showed that a significant effect of screen time reduction was observed in studies in which the duration of intervention was <7 months and that the types of interventions in those studies were health promotion curricula or counseling. Interventions for screen time reduction might be effective in reducing screen time and preventing excess weight. Further rigorous investigations with larger samples and longer follow-up periods are still needed to evaluate the efficacy of screen time reduction both in children and in adults. PMID:27399085

  11. Impact of e-Discipline on Children's Screen Time.

    PubMed

    Hawi, Nazir S; Rupert, Maya Samaha

    2015-06-01

    With rapid technological advancement, the prevalence and undesirable effects of excess screen time on children have become a mounting issue worldwide. There are many studies investigating the phenomenon's impact on society (e.g., behavioral, academic, health), but studies that uncover the causes and factors that increase the odds of children's excess screen time are limited. To this end, this study introduces the term "e-discipline" to refer to systematic practices that use screen devices as discipline tools. As such, the aim of this study is to investigate the association between e-discipline and children's screen time by gender. Analysis was performed on 3,141 children aged 7-11 years old. Bivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of exceeding the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines of 2 hours of screen time per day by boys and girls whose parents practice e-discipline. The results showed that children whose parents used screen devices as discipline tools had significantly more screen time compared to children whose parents did not. Furthermore, no statistically significant gender differences were found in the odds of exceeding the recommended screen time under e-discipline. Recommendations stemming from all the results are discussed.

  12. Impact of e-Discipline on Children's Screen Time

    PubMed Central

    Rupert, Maya Samaha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With rapid technological advancement, the prevalence and undesirable effects of excess screen time on children have become a mounting issue worldwide. There are many studies investigating the phenomenon's impact on society (e.g., behavioral, academic, health), but studies that uncover the causes and factors that increase the odds of children's excess screen time are limited. To this end, this study introduces the term “e-discipline” to refer to systematic practices that use screen devices as discipline tools. As such, the aim of this study is to investigate the association between e-discipline and children's screen time by gender. Analysis was performed on 3,141 children aged 7–11 years old. Bivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of exceeding the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines of 2 hours of screen time per day by boys and girls whose parents practice e-discipline. The results showed that children whose parents used screen devices as discipline tools had significantly more screen time compared to children whose parents did not. Furthermore, no statistically significant gender differences were found in the odds of exceeding the recommended screen time under e-discipline. Recommendations stemming from all the results are discussed. PMID:26075921

  13. Timed Efficiency of Interpretation of Digital and Film-Screen Screening Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Haygood, Tamara Miner; Wang, Jihong; Atkinson, E. Neely; Lane, Deanna; Stephens, Tanya W.; Patel, Parul; Whitman, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our objective was to compare interpretation speeds for digital and film-screen screening mammograms to test whether other variables might affect interpretation times and thus contribute to the apparent difference in interpretation speed between digital mammograms and film-screen mammograms, and to test whether the use of digital rather than film comparison studies might result in significant time savings. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four readers were timed in the course of actual clinical interpretation of digital mammograms and film-screen mammograms. Interpretation times were compared for subgroups of studies based on the interpretation of the study by BI-RADS code, the number of images, the presence or absence of comparison studies and the type of comparison study, and whether the radiologist personally selected and hung additional films; the same comparisons were made among individual readers. RESULTS For all four readers, mean interpretation times were longer for digital mammograms than for film-screen mammograms, with differences ranging from 76 to 202 seconds. The difference in interpretation speed between digital and film-screen mammograms was independent of other variables. Digital mammogram interpretation times were significantly longer than film-screen mammogram interpretation times regardless of whether the digital mammograms were matched with film or digital comparison studies. CONCLUSION In screening mammography interpretation, digital mammograms take longer to read than film-screen mammograms, independent of other variables. Exclusive use of digital comparison studies may not cause interpretation times to drop enough to approach the interpretation time required for film-screen mammograms. PMID:19098202

  14. Health-Related Physical Fitness, BMI, physical activity and time spent at a computer screen in 6 and 7-year-old children from rural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Cieśla, Elżbieta; Mleczko, Edward; Bergier, Józef; Markowska, Małgorzata; Nowak-Starz, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was determination of the effect of various forms of physical activity, BMI, and time devoted to computer games on the level of Health-Related Physical Fitness (H-RF) in 6-7-year-old children from Polish rural areas. The study covered 25,816 children aged 6-7: 12,693 girls and 13,123 boys. The evaluations included body height and weight, and 4 H-RF fitness components (trunk strength, explosive leg power, arm strength and flexibility). The BMI was calculated for each child. The Questionnaire directed to parents was designed to collect information concerning the time devoted by children to computer games, spontaneous and additional physical activity. The strength of the relationships between dependent and independent variables was determined using the Spearman's rank correlation (RSp), and the relationship by using the regression analysis. The BMI negatively affected the level of all the H-RF components analysed (p=0.000). The negative effect of computer games revealed itself only with respect to flexibility (p=0.000), explosive leg power (p=0.000) and trunk muscle strength (p=0.000). A positive effect of spontaneous activity was observed for flexibility (p=0.047), explosive leg power (p=0.000), and arm strength (p=0.000). Additional activity showed a positive relationship with trunk muscles strength (p=0.000), and explosive leg power (p=0.000). The results of studies suggest that it is necessary to pay attention to the prevention of diseases related with the risk of obesity and overweight among Polish rural children as early as at pre-school age. There is also a need during education for shaping in these children the awareness of concern about own body, and the need for active participation in various forms of physical activity.

  15. Time perspective and perceived risk as related to mammography screening.

    PubMed

    Griva, Fay; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Potamianos, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the relation of time perspective to perceived risk for breast cancer and mammography screening. Women free from breast cancer (N = 194), eligible for mammography screening in terms of age, completed the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) and measures of perceived risk, attitude toward performing mammography screening, intention to get a mammogram, and mammography screening behavior. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that perceived risk of breast cancer (β= .18, p < .01) and intention to be screened (β = .35, p < .01) were significantly associated with mammography screening, after controlling for the effects of sociodemographic (e.g., age, education, and economic level) and health-related variables (e.g., family history of breast cancer and previous benign breast disease). Path analyses including the main psychological variables indicated that perceived risk was indirectly related to intention via attitude (β = .17, p < .01), and to mammography screening through attitude and intention (β = .06, p < .01). Attitude was indirectly related to mammography screening via intention (β = .20, p < .01). Also, a significant indirect association was observed between future orientation and mammography screening, via perceived risk (β = .10, p < .01). Theoretical implications of study findings and suggestions for future research on use of mammography are presented.

  16. Too Much Screen Time May Raise Kids' Diabetes Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing type 2 diabetes risk factors, in both boys and girls and in different ethnic groups from an early ... Excessive screen time was far more common among boys than girls. Children of African or Caribbean descent were also ...

  17. Activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a commonly used coagulation assay that is easy to perform, is affordable, and is therefore performed in most coagulation laboratories, both clinical and research, worldwide. The APTT is based on the principle that in citrated plasma, the addition of a platelet substitute, factor XII activator, and CaCl2 allows for formation of a stable clot. The time required for the formation of a stable clot is recorded in seconds and represents the actual APTT result.

  18. Real-Time Screening of Biocatalysts in Live Bacterial Colonies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Cunyu; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Jones, Emrys A; Claude, Emmanuelle; Hussain, Shaneela A; Turner, Nicholas J; Flitsch, Sabine L; Barran, Perdita E

    2017-02-01

    Screening of bacterial colonies to identify new biocatalytic activities is a widely adopted tool in biotechnology, but is constrained by the requirements for colorimetric or tag-based detection methods. Herein we report a label-free screening platform for biotransformations in live colonies using desorption electrospray ionization coupled with ion mobility mass spectrometry imaging (DiBT-IMMS). The screening method is demonstrated for both ammonia lyases and P450 monooxygenases expressed within live bacterial colonies and is shown to enable multiplexing of enzyme variants and substrate libraries simultaneously.

  19. A population study of 5 to 15 year olds: full time maternal employment not associated with high BMI. The importance of screen-based activity, reading for pleasure and sleep duration in children's BMI.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anne W; Winefield, Helen; Kettler, Lisa; Roberts, Rachel; Gill, Tiffany K

    2012-04-01

    To describe the relationship between maternal full time employment and health-related and demographic variables associated with children aged 5-15 years, and the factors associated with child overweight/obesity. Data from a chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system were limited to children aged 5-15 years whose mothers responded on their behalf (n = 641). Univariate/multivariate analyses described the differences between mothers who did and did not work full time. The same data were analysed comparing children who are overweight/obese against those with a normal BMI. The children of mothers who worked full time are more likely to be older, live in a household with a higher household income, be an only child or have one sibling or other child in the household, have a sole mother family structure and not spend any time reading for pleasure. No relationship was found between maternal employment and BMI. Compared with children of normal weight, those who were overweight/obese were more likely to spend no time studying, spend more than 2 h per day in screen-based activity and sleep less than 10 h per night. Child BMI status was not related to maternal employment. Although this analysis included eight diet related variables none proved to be significant in the final models.This study has shown that mothers' working status is not related to children's BMI. The relationship between overweight/obesity of children and high levels of screen-based activity, low levels of studying, and short sleep duration suggests a need for better knowledge and understanding of sedentary behaviours of children.

  20. Just-in-Time Compound Pooling Increases Primary Screening Capacity without Compromising Screening Quality.

    PubMed

    Elkin, L L; Harden, D G; Saldanha, S; Ferguson, H; Cheney, D L; Pieniazek, S N; Maloney, D P; Zewinski, J; O'Connell, J; Banks, M

    2015-06-01

    Compound pooling, or multiplexing more than one compound per well during primary high-throughput screening (HTS), is a controversial approach with a long history of limited success. Many issues with this approach likely arise from long-term storage of library plates containing complex mixtures of compounds at high concentrations. Due to the historical difficulties with using multiplexed library plates, primary HTS often uses a one-compound-one-well approach. However, as compound collections grow, innovative strategies are required to increase the capacity of primary screening campaigns. Toward this goal, we have developed a novel compound pooling method that increases screening capacity without compromising data quality. This method circumvents issues related to the long-term storage of complex compound mixtures by using acoustic dispensing to enable "just-in-time" compound pooling directly in the assay well immediately prior to assay. Using this method, we can pool two compounds per well, effectively doubling the capacity of a primary screen. Here, we present data from pilot studies using just-in-time pooling, as well as data from a large >2-million-compound screen using this approach. These data suggest that, for many targets, this method can be used to vastly increase screening capacity without significant reduction in the ability to detect screening hits.

  1. Health complaints among adolescents: Associations with more screen-based behaviours and less physical activity.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Calmeiro, Luís; Loureiro, Nuno; Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between screen-based behaviours, physical activity, and health complaints (headaches, feeling low, irritability, and nervousness). Screen-based behaviour included TV viewing, computer use, and time spent playing video games. Data were collected from 4462 Portuguese adolescents (2394 girls) aged 11-16 years. Girls who reported engaging in more screen-based behaviour (hours/day) also reported having more headaches, feeling lower, being more irritable, and feeling more nervous. Boys who reported more screen time were more irritable. Physical activity (times/week) was negatively associated with reports of feeling nervous among girls, and with headaches, feeling low, irritability, and feeling nervous among boys. Considering that time spent using the computer is related with more health complaints, and physical activity was related with fewer health complaints among boys, it is important to develop strategies to reduce adolescents' computer screen time, and to promote physical activity.

  2. Screening strategies for active tuberculosis: focus on cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Dobler, Claudia Caroline

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in screening for active tuberculosis (TB), also called active case-finding (ACF), as a possible means to achieve control of the global TB epidemic. ACF aims to increase the detection of TB, in order to diagnose and treat patients with TB earlier than if they had been diagnosed and treated only at the time when they sought health care because of symptoms. This will reduce or avoid secondary transmission of TB to other people, with the long-term goal of reducing the incidence of TB. Here, the history of screening for active TB, current screening practices, and the role of TB-diagnostic tools are summarized and the literature on cost-effectiveness of screening for active TB reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analyses indicate that community-wide ACF can be cost-effective in settings with a high incidence of TB. ACF among close TB contacts is cost-effective in settings with a low as well as a high incidence of TB. The evidence for cost-effectiveness of screening among HIV-infected persons is not as strong as for TB contacts, but the reviewed studies suggest that the intervention can be cost-effective depending on the background prevalence of TB and test volume. None of the cost-effectiveness analyses were informed by data from randomized controlled trials. As the results of randomized controlled trials evaluating different ACF strategies will become available in future, we will hopefully gain a better understanding of the role that ACF can play in achieving global TB control. PMID:27418848

  3. Follow-Up Activities for the HISD Kindergarten Screening Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Pat; Cater, Margot

    The Kindergarten Screening Instrument consists of five sub-scales and attempts to screen for possible difficulty in the areas of distant vision, hearing, eye-hand coordination, language learning, and gross motor performance. In response to many requests for follow-up activities after screening, this manual was prepared by Volunteers in Public…

  4. A confusion of tenses: Health screening and time.

    PubMed

    Stronge, Paul

    2013-07-01

    The article seeks to contribute to a re-evaluation of the role played by the contemporary health screen by exploring its relation to tense and time. Mobilizing data around operational aspects of screening for type 2 diabetes (T2D) alongside more general historical and conceptual perspectives, it challenges implicit assumptions that the screen represents either a momentary 'cut' in a longer process or a singular event with its own durational integrity. In contrast, the article argues, two distinct kinds of temporally related processes merge within any given screening episode. On one hand a rich heterogeneity of durations - physiological, technical, social, experiential - is involved. Yet this multiplicity is afforded unity and coherence insofar as the screen becomes a 'thick' site of intersection or fusion between the three major tenses. Drawing on aspects of the thought of Bergson and Deleuze as well as Mol's notion of 'ontological politics', the article reconceptualizes the screen as a 'leaky receptacle' for temporal complexity and teases out pragmatic implications of such a re-envisioning.

  5. Lung Cancers Diagnosed at Annual CT Screening: Volume Doubling Times

    PubMed Central

    Yankelevitz, David F.; Yip, Rowena; Reeves, Anthony P.; Farooqi, Ali; Xu, Dongming; Smith, James P.; Libby, Daniel M.; Pasmantier, Mark W.; Miettinen, Olli S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To empirically address the distribution of the volume doubling time (VDT) of lung cancers diagnosed in repeat annual rounds of computed tomographic (CT) screening in the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP), first and foremost with respect to rates of tumor growth but also in terms of cell types. Materials and Methods: All CT screenings in I-ELCAP from 1993 to 2009 were performed according to HIPAA-compliant protocols approved by the institutional review boards of the collaborating institutions. All instances of first diagnosis of primary lung cancer after a negative screening result 7–18 months earlier were identified, with symptom-prompted diagnoses included. Lesion diameter was calculated by using the measured length and width of each cancer at the time when the nodule was first identified for further work-up and at the time of the most recent prior screening, 7–18 months earlier. The length and width were measured a second time for each cancer, and the geometric mean of the two calculated diameters was used to calculate the VDT. The χ2 statistic was used to compare the VDT distributions. Results: The median VDT for 111 cancers was 98 days (interquartile range, 108). For 56 (50%) cancers it was less than 100 days, and for three (3%) cancers it was more than 400 days. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent cell type (50%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (19%), small cell carcinoma (19%), and others (12%). Lung cancers manifesting as subsolid nodules had significantly longer VDTs than those manifesting as solid nodules (P < .0001). Conclusion: Lung cancers diagnosed in annual repeat rounds of CT screening, as manifest by the VDT and cell-type distributions, are similar to those diagnosed in the absence of screening. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22454506

  6. Bedroom media, sedentary time and screen-time in children: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Having electronic media in the bedroom is cross-sectionally associated with greater screen-time in children, but few longitudinal studies exist. The aim of this study was to describe longitudinal patterns of ownership and examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of bedroom media with children’s sedentary behaviour. Methods Data are from the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study, collected at 3 time-points: baseline (2007, T0; age 10.3 ± 0.3 years), 1-year (T1y) and 4-year (T4y) follow-up. For each assessment, 1512 (44.9% male), 715 (41.0% male), and 319 (48.3% male) participants provided valid accelerometer data. Outcome variables were accelerometer-assessed sedentary time and self-reported screen-time. The presence of a television or computer in the bedroom was self-reported by participants and a combined bedroom media score calculated as the sum of such items. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between bedroom media and each outcome were examined using multi-level linear regression. Results Bedroom TV ownership fell from 70.9% at T0 to 42.5% at T4y. Having a TV in the bedroom (beta; 95% CI*100, T0: -1.17; -1.88, -0.46. T1y: -1.68; -2.67, -0.70) and combined bedroom media (T0: -0.76; -1.26, -0.27. T1y: -0.79; -1.51, -0.07) were negatively associated with objectively measured weekly sedentary time at T0 and T1y. Having a computer in the bedroom (beta; 95% CI, T0: 0.15; 0.02, 0.29. T4y: 0.35; 0.10, 0.60) and combined bedroom media (T0: 0.09: 0.01, 0.18. T4y: 0.20; 0.05, 0.34) were positively associated with screen-time at T0 and T4y. Relative to participants without a computer throughout the study, children that had a computer in their bedroom at T0 but not at T4y (beta; 95% CI for change in screen-time: -8.02; -12.75, -3.29) reported smaller increases in screen-time. Conclusions The bedroom media environment changes with age and exhibits a complex

  7. The influence of time perspective on cervical cancer screening among Latinas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Fernandez, Maria E

    2014-12-01

    To develop effective interventions to increase cervical cancer screening among Latinas, we should understand the role of cultural factors, such as time perspective, in the decision to be screened. We examined the relation between present time orientation, future time orientation, and self-reported cervical cancer screening among Latinas. A group of 206 Latinas completed a survey measuring factors associated with screening. Logistic regression analyses revealed that future time orientation was significantly associated with self-reported screening. Understanding the influence of time orientation on cervical cancer screening will assist us in developing interventions that effectively target time perspective and screening.

  8. The Influence of Time Perspective on Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2014-01-01

    To develop effective interventions to increase cervical cancer screening among Latinas, we should understand the role of cultural factors, such as time perspective, in the decision to be screened. We examined the relation between present time orientation, future time orientation and self-reported cervical cancer screening among Latinas. A group of 206 Latinas completed a survey measuring factors associated with screening. Logistic regression analyses revealed that future time orientation was significantly associated with self-reported screening. Understanding the influence of time orientation on cervical cancer screening will assist us in developing interventions that effectively target time perspective and screening. PMID:23928988

  9. Validity of "sputtering and re-condensation" model in active screen cage plasma nitriding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, A.; Khan, A. W.; Jan, F.; Abrar, M.; Khalid, M.; Zakaullah, M.

    2013-05-01

    The validity of "sputtering and re-condensation" model in active screen plasma nitriding for nitrogen mass transfer mechanism is investigated. The dominant species including NH, Fe-I, N2+, N-I and N2 along with Hα and Hβ lines are observed in the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analysis. Active screen cage and dc plasma nitriding of AISI 316 stainless steel as function of treatment time is also investigated. The structure and phases composition of the nitrided layer is studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surface morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hardness profile is obtained by Vicker's microhardness tester. Increasing trend in microhardness is observed in both cases but the increase in active screen plasma nitriding is about 3 times greater than that achieved by dc plasma nitriding. On the basis of metallurgical and OES observations the use of "sputtering and re-condensation" model in active screen plasma nitriding is tested.

  10. Baby unplugged: a novel, market-based approach to reducing screen time and promoting healthy alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hutton, John S

    2013-01-01

    The issue of electronic media use by young children is increasingly important in pediatrics, a major risk factor for numerous chronic conditions. Despite guidelines in place since 1999, screen time is on the rise, aided by new formats removing practically all barriers of use. Key drivers are technological allure, confusion about developmental readiness, and perception of educational value, fueled by potent marketing. This article describes the development of Baby Unplugged, a series of children's board books celebrating "old-school," screen-free childhood. Written by a pediatrician who also owns a children's bookstore, the books were inspired and informed by advocacy projects in the areas of media use and early literacy as a pediatric resident. They reinforce AAP Electronic Media Guidelines, notably discouraging screen-based media under 2 years old, largely by encouraging healthy, fun alternatives. Examples include Pets, Book, and Yard. Multi-sensorial exploration and parent-child engagement are emphasized in a non-prescriptive way, featuring gender and ethnic diversity and activities that are accessible and inexpensive. The author describes challenges faced by pediatricians providing anticipatory guidance for media use, given limited time and resources and the perception that we are out of touch. This is heightened by oft-deceptive marketing of screen-based products more likely to be perceived as "cool." Reach Out and Read is cited as an example of a successful, "cool" intervention, though limited to select populations. Baby Unplugged takes advocacy to the marketplace, where the screen time battle is being lost.

  11. Forecasting Human African Trypanosomiasis Prevalences from Population Screening Data Using Continuous Time Models

    PubMed Central

    Hasker, Epco; Lumbala, Crispin; Lutumba, Pascal; de Vlas, Sake J.; van de Klundert, Joris

    2016-01-01

    To eliminate and eradicate gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), maximizing the effectiveness of active case finding is of key importance. The progression of the epidemic is largely influenced by the planning of these operations. This paper introduces and analyzes five models for predicting HAT prevalence in a given village based on past observed prevalence levels and past screening activities in that village. Based on the quality of prevalence level predictions in 143 villages in Kwamouth (DRC), and based on the theoretical foundation underlying the models, we consider variants of the Logistic Model—a model inspired by the SIS epidemic model—to be most suitable for predicting HAT prevalence levels. Furthermore, we demonstrate the applicability of this model to predict the effects of planning policies for screening operations. Our analysis yields an analytical expression for the screening frequency required to reach eradication (zero prevalence) and a simple approach for determining the frequency required to reach elimination within a given time frame (one case per 10000). Furthermore, the model predictions suggest that annual screening is only expected to lead to eradication if at least half of the cases are detected during the screening rounds. This paper extends knowledge on control strategies for HAT and serves as a basis for further modeling and optimization studies. PMID:27657937

  12. Antituberculosis activity of the molecular libraries screening center network library.

    PubMed

    Maddry, Joseph A; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Goldman, Robert C; Hobrath, Judith V; Kwong, Cecil D; Maddox, Clinton; Rasmussen, Lynn; Reynolds, Robert C; Secrist, John A; Sosa, Melinda I; White, E Lucile; Zhang, Wei

    2009-09-01

    There is an urgent need for the discovery and development of new antitubercular agents that target novel biochemical pathways and treat drug-resistant forms of the disease. One approach to addressing this need is through high-throughput screening of drug-like small molecule libraries against the whole bacterium in order to identify a variety of new, active scaffolds that will stimulate additional biological research and drug discovery. Through the Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network, the NIAID Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition and Coordinating Facility tested a 215,110-compound library against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. A medicinal chemistry survey of the results from the screening campaign is reported herein.

  13. Influencing factors of screen time in preschool children: an exploration of parents' perceptions through focus groups in six European countries.

    PubMed

    De Decker, E; De Craemer, M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Wijndaele, K; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Grammatikaki, E; Iotova, V; Usheva, N; Fernández-Alvira, J M; Zych, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2012-03-01

    Preschoolers already spend significant proportions of their waking hours being sedentary. Screen time (i.e. television/DVD viewing and computer use) has been negatively associated with several health outcomes but interventions aiming to reduce preschoolers' sedentary behaviour are scarce. This study aimed to explore parents' perceptions of their preschool children's screen time. One hundred twenty-two parents of low and medium-high socioeconomic status from six European countries with children between 4 and 6 years old were involved in 24 focus groups. Following a qualitative content analysis, the available information and key findings were centrally analysed. Results showed that children tend to like watching television (TV) and most parents do not express worries about their children's TV viewing time. Education is considered to be the main benefit of watching TV and in general, parents only have informal rules about TV viewing. Computer and active games use are less frequent compared with TV viewing. No univocal results are found about the influence of siblings or friends on children's screen time. Weather conditions and parental habits at home are the most important factors influencing children's screen time. Alternatives for screen activities and information on how to set rules for screen time should be provided to parents to assist them in decreasing their preschool children's screen time.

  14. Perspective: On the active site model in computational catalyst screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Karsten; Plaisance, Craig P.; Oberhofer, Harald; Andersen, Mie

    2017-01-01

    First-principles screening approaches exploiting energy trends in surface adsorption represent an unparalleled success story in recent computational catalysis research. Here we argue that our still limited understanding of the structure of active sites is one of the major bottlenecks towards an ever extended and reliable use of such computational screening for catalyst discovery. For low-index transition metal surfaces, the prevalently chosen high-symmetry (terrace and step) sites offered by the nominal bulk-truncated crystal lattice might be justified. For more complex surfaces and composite catalyst materials, computational screening studies will need to actively embrace a considerable uncertainty with respect to what truly are the active sites. By systematically exploring the space of possible active site motifs, such studies might eventually contribute towards a targeted design of optimized sites in future catalysts.

  15. Substrate Activity Screening (SAS) and Related Approaches in Medicinal Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gladysz, Rafaela; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Joossens, Jurgen; Augustyns, Koen; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2016-03-04

    Substrate activity screening (SAS) was presented a decade ago by Ellman and co-workers as a straightforward methodology for the identification of fragment-sized building blocks for enzyme inhibitors. Ever since, SAS and variations derived from it have been successfully applied to the discovery of inhibitors of various families of enzymatically active drug targets. This review covers key achievements and challenges of SAS and related methodologies, including the modified substrate activity screening (MSAS) approach. Special attention is given to the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of these methodologies, as a thorough understanding thereof is crucial for successfully transforming the identified fragment-sized hits into potent inhibitors.

  16. Activity-Based Screening of Metagenomic Libraries for Hydrogenase Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Adam, Nicole; Perner, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Here we outline how to identify hydrogenase enzymes from metagenomic libraries through an activity-based screening approach. A metagenomic fosmid library is constructed in E. coli and the fosmids are transferred into a hydrogenase deletion mutant of Shewanella oneidensis (ΔhyaB) via triparental mating. If a fosmid exhibits hydrogen uptake activity, S. oneidensis' phenotype is restored and hydrogenase activity is indicated by a color change of the medium from yellow to colorless. This new method enables screening of 48 metagenomic fosmid clones in parallel.

  17. Social-cognitive predictors of low-income parents' restriction of screen time among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents (N = 147) of preschool-aged children (2-6 years) completed self-administered questionnaires examining parent and child screen time, parent restriction of screen time, self-efficacy to restrict screen time, and beliefs about screen time. Structural equation modeling results indicated that greater self-efficacy to restrict screen time (β = .29, p = .016) and greater perceived importance of restricting child screen use (β = .55, p < .001) were associated with greater restriction of child screen use, after controlling for parent screen time. Family-based interventions that consider broader attitudinal factors around child screen time may be necessary to engage parents in restricting screen use.

  18. Sickle cell disease: time for a targeted neonatal screening programme.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C; Geoghegan, R; Conroy, H; Lippacott, S; O'Brien, D; Lynam, P; Langabeer, L; Cotter, M; Smith, O; McMahon, C

    2015-02-01

    Ireland has seen a steady increase in paediatric sickle cell disease (SCD). In 2005, only 25% of children with SCD were referred to the haemoglobinopathy service in their first year. A non-funded screening programme was implemented. This review aimed to assess the impact screening has had. All children referred to the haemoglobinopathy service born in Ireland after 2005 were identified. Data was collected from the medical chart and laboratory system. Information was analysed using Microsoft Excel. 77 children with SCD were identified. The median age at antibiotic commencement in the screened group was 56 days compared with 447 days in the unscreened group, p = < 0.0003. 22 (28%) of infants were born in centre's that do not screen and 17 (81%) were over 6 months old at referral, compared with 14 (21%) in the screened group. 6 (27%) of those in the unscreened group presented in acute crisis compared with 2 (3%) in the screened population. The point prevalence of SCD in Ireland is 0.2% in children under 15 yr of African and Asian descent. We identified delays in referral and treatment, which reflect the lack of government funded support and policy. We suggest all maternity units commence screening for newborns at risk of SCD. It is a cost effective intervention with a number needed to screen of just 4 to prevent a potentially fatal crisis.

  19. Time Activities at the BIPM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    Time Section, and have been available, in the form of computer-readable files, in the BIPM INTERNET anonymous FTP since 5 April 1994. For yrars...TIME ACTIVITIES AT THE BIPM Claudine Thomas Bureau International des Poids et Mesures Pa,villion de Breteuil 32312 Skvres Cedex France...Abstract The generation and dissemination of International Atomic Time, TAI, and of Coordinated Universal Time, UTC, are explicitly mentioned in the list

  20. Time activities at the BIPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine

    1995-01-01

    The generation and dissemination of International Atomic Time, TAI, and of Coordinated Universal Time, UTC, are explicitly mentioned in the list of the principal tasks of the BIPM, recalled in the Comptes Rendus of the 18th Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures, in 1987. These tasks are fulfilled by the BIPM Time Section, thanks to international cooperation with national timing centers, which maintain, under metrological conditions, the clocks used to generate TAI. Besides the current work of data collection and processing, research activities are carried out in order to adapt the computation of TAI to the most recent improvements occurring in the time and frequency domains. Studies concerning the application of general relativity and pulsar timing to time metrology are also actively pursued. This paper summarizes the work done in all these fields and outlines future projects.

  1. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-06-01

    We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth.

  2. Screen Time and Sleep among School-Aged Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-01-01

    Summary We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1.) causal association not confirmed; 2.) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3.) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. PMID:25193149

  3. Antituberculosis Activity of the Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network Library

    PubMed Central

    MADDRY, JOSEPH A.; ANANTHAN, SUBRAMANIAM; GOLDMAN, ROBERT C.; HOBRATH, JUDITH V.; KWONG, CECIL D.; MADDOX, CLINTON; RASMUSSEN, LYNN; REYNOLDS, ROBERT C.; SECRIST, JOHN A.; SOSA, MELINDA I.; WHITE, E. LUCILE; ZHANG, WEI

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY There is an urgent need for the discovery and development of new antitubercular agents that target novel biochemical pathways and treat drug-resistant forms of the disease. One approach to addressing this need is through high-throughput screening of drug-like small molecule libraries against the whole bacterium in order to identify a variety of new, active scaffolds that will stimulate additional biological research and drug discovery. Through the Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network, the NIAID Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition and Coordinating Facility tested a 215,110-compound library against M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv. A medicinal chemistry survey of the results from the screening campaign is reported herein. PMID:19783214

  4. Destination state screening of active spaces in spin dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzystyniak, M.; Edwards, Luke J.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2011-06-01

    We propose a novel avenue for state space reduction in time domain Liouville space spin dynamics simulations, using detectability as a selection criterion - only those states that evolve into or affect other detectable states are kept in the simulation. This basis reduction procedure (referred to as destination state screening) is formally exact and can be applied on top of the existing state space restriction techniques. As demonstrated below, in many cases this results in further reduction of matrix dimension, leading to considerable acceleration of many spin dynamics simulation types. Destination state screening is implemented in the latest version of the Spinach library (http://spindynamics.org).

  5. Direct Measurements of Smartphone Screen-Time: Relationships with Demographics and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Matthew A.; Bettencourt, Laura; Kaye, Leanne; Moturu, Sai T.; Nguyen, Kaylin T.; Olgin, Jeffrey E.; Pletcher, Mark J.; Marcus, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Smartphones are increasingly integrated into everyday life, but frequency of use has not yet been objectively measured and compared to demographics, health information, and in particular, sleep quality. Aims The aim of this study was to characterize smartphone use by measuring screen-time directly, determine factors that are associated with increased screen-time, and to test the hypothesis that increased screen-time is associated with poor sleep. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis in a subset of 653 participants enrolled in the Health eHeart Study, an internet-based longitudinal cohort study open to any interested adult (≥ 18 years). Smartphone screen-time (the number of minutes in each hour the screen was on) was measured continuously via smartphone application. For each participant, total and average screen-time were computed over 30-day windows. Average screen-time specifically during self-reported bedtime hours and sleeping period was also computed. Demographics, medical information, and sleep habits (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index–PSQI) were obtained by survey. Linear regression was used to obtain effect estimates. Results Total screen-time over 30 days was a median 38.4 hours (IQR 21.4 to 61.3) and average screen-time over 30 days was a median 3.7 minutes per hour (IQR 2.2 to 5.5). Younger age, self-reported race/ethnicity of Black and "Other" were associated with longer average screen-time after adjustment for potential confounders. Longer average screen-time was associated with shorter sleep duration and worse sleep-efficiency. Longer average screen-times during bedtime and the sleeping period were associated with poor sleep quality, decreased sleep efficiency, and longer sleep onset latency. Conclusions These findings on actual smartphone screen-time build upon prior work based on self-report and confirm that adults spend a substantial amount of time using their smartphones. Screen-time differs across age and race, but is

  6. The New Screen Time: Computers, Tablets, and Smartphones Enter the Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Bradford B.; Schachtner, Laura; Pentz, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging technologies attract children and push parents' and caregivers' abilities to attend to their families. This article presents recommendations related to the new version of screen time, which includes time with computers, tablets, and smartphones. Recommendations are provided for screen time for very young children and those in middle and…

  7. Assessing Individual Risk for High-Risk Colorectal Adenoma at First-Time Screening Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yin; Rosner, Bernard A.; Ma, Jing; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Chan, Andrew T.; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing risk of colorectal adenoma at first-time colonoscopy that are of higher likelihood of developing advanced neoplasia during surveillance could help tailor first-line colorectal cancer screening. We developed prediction models for high-risk colorectal adenoma (at least one adenoma ≥1 cm, or with advanced histology, or ≥3 adenomas) among 4,881 asymptomatic white men and 17,970 women who underwent colonoscopy as their first-time screening for colorectal cancer in two prospective U.S. studies using logistic regressions. C-statistics and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were used to evaluate discrimination and calibration. Ten-fold cross-validation was used for internal validation. A total of 330 (6.7%) men and 678 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with high-risk adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy. The model for men included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, sitting watching TV/VCR, regular aspirin/NSAID use, physical activity, and a joint term of multivitamin and alcohol. For women, the model included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, alcohol, beef/pork/lamb as main dish, regular aspirin/NSAID, calcium, and oral contraceptive use. The C-statistic of the model for men was 0.67 and 0.60 for women (0.64 and 0.57 in cross-validation). Both models calibrated well. The predicted risk of high-risk adenoma for men in the top decile was 15.4% vs 1.8% for men in the bottom decile (Odds Ratio[OR]=9.41), and 6.6% vs 2.1% for women (OR=3.48). In summary, we developed and internally validated an absolute risk assessment tool for high-risk colorectal adenoma among the U.S. population that may provide guidance for first-time colorectal cancer screening. PMID:25820865

  8. Assessing individual risk for high-risk colorectal adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yin; Rosner, Bernard A; Ma, Jing; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2015-10-01

    Assessing risk of colorectal adenoma at first-time colonoscopy that are of higher likelihood of developing advanced neoplasia during surveillance could help tailor first-line colorectal cancer screening. We developed prediction models for high-risk colorectal adenoma (at least one adenoma ≥1 cm, or with advanced histology, or ≥3 adenomas) among 4,881 asymptomatic white men and 17,970 women who underwent colonoscopy as their first-time screening for colorectal cancer in two prospective US studies using logistic regressions. C-statistics and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were used to evaluate discrimination and calibration. Ten-fold cross-validation was used for internal validation. A total of 330 (6.7%) men and 678 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with high-risk adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy. The model for men included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, sitting watching TV/VCR, regular aspirin/NSAID use, physical activity, and a joint term of multivitamin and alcohol. For women, the model included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, alcohol, beef/pork/lamb as main dish, regular aspirin/NSAID, calcium, and oral contraceptive use. The C-statistic of the model for men was 0.67 and 0.60 for women (0.64 and 0.57 in cross-validation). Both models calibrated well. The predicted risk of high-risk adenoma for men in the top decile was 15.4% vs. 1.8% for men in the bottom decile (Odds Ratio [OR] = 9.41), and 6.6% vs. 2.1% for women (OR = 3.48). In summary, we developed and internally validated an absolute risk assessment tool for high-risk colorectal adenoma among the US population that may provide guidance for first-time colorectal cancer screening.

  9. Application of Protein Expression Profiling to Screen Chemicals for Androgenic Activity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protein expression changes can be used for detection of biomarkers that can be applied diagnostically to screen chemicals for endocrine modifying activity. In this study, Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) coupled with a s...

  10. Activity screening of environmental metagenomic libraries reveals novel carboxylesterase families

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Ana; Hai, Tran; Tchigvintsev, Anatoly; Hajighasemi, Mahbod; Nocek, Boguslaw; Khusnutdinova, Anna N.; Brown, Greg; Glinos, Julia; Flick, Robert; Skarina, Tatiana; Chernikova, Tatyana N.; Yim, Veronica; Brüls, Thomas; Paslier, Denis Le; Yakimov, Michail M.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshina, Olga V.; Savchenko, Alexei; Golyshin, Peter N.; Yakunin, Alexander F.

    2017-01-01

    Metagenomics has made accessible an enormous reserve of global biochemical diversity. To tap into this vast resource of novel enzymes, we have screened over one million clones from metagenome DNA libraries derived from sixteen different environments for carboxylesterase activity and identified 714 positive hits. We have validated the esterase activity of 80 selected genes, which belong to 17 different protein families including unknown and cyclase-like proteins. Three metagenomic enzymes exhibited lipase activity, and seven proteins showed polyester depolymerization activity against polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Detailed biochemical characterization of four new enzymes revealed their substrate preference, whereas their catalytic residues were identified using site-directed mutagenesis. The crystal structure of the metal-ion dependent esterase MGS0169 from the amidohydrolase superfamily revealed a novel active site with a bound unknown ligand. Thus, activity-centered metagenomics has revealed diverse enzymes and novel families of microbial carboxylesterases, whose activity could not have been predicted using bioinformatics tools. PMID:28272521

  11. Physical activity and screen-media-related parenting practices have different associations with children's objectively measured physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's physical activity (PA) is inversely associated with children's weight status. Parents may be an important influence on children's PA by restricting sedentary time or supporting PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of PA and screen-media–related [television (TV) and...

  12. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  13. The effect of interventions targeting screen time reduction: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Sun, Samio; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions aimed at screen time reduction, but the results have been inconsistent. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to summarize the accumulating evidence of the impact of interventions targeting screen time reduction on body mass index (BMI) reduction and screen time reduction. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for RCTs on the effect of interventions targeting screen time reduction. The primary and secondary outcomes were the mean difference between the treatment and control groups in the changes in BMI and changes in screen viewing time. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled mean differences. Fourteen trials including 2238 participants were assessed. The pooled analysis suggested that interventions targeting screen time reduction had a significant effect on BMI reduction (-0.15 kg/m, P < 0.001, I = 0) and on screen time reduction (-4.63 h/w, P = 0.003, I = 94.6%). Subgroup analysis showed that a significant effect of screen time reduction was observed in studies in which the duration of intervention was <7 months and that the types of interventions in those studies were health promotion curricula or counseling. Interventions for screen time reduction might be effective in reducing screen time and preventing excess weight. Further rigorous investigations with larger samples and longer follow-up periods are still needed to evaluate the efficacy of screen time reduction both in children and in adults.

  14. Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity

    PubMed Central

    Runyoro, Deborah KB; Matee, Mecky IN; Ngassapa, Olipa D; Joseph, Cosam C; Mbwambo, Zakaria H

    2006-01-01

    Background Candida albicans has become resistant to the already limited, toxic and expensive anti-Candida agents available in the market. These factors necessitate the search for new anti-fungal agents. Methods Sixty-three plant extracts, from 56 Tanzanian plant species obtained through the literature and interviews with traditional healers, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity. Aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for anti-Candida activity by bioautography agar overlay method, using a standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Results Twenty- seven (48%) out of the 56 plants were found to be active. Extracts of the root barks of Albizia anthelmintica and Balanites aegyptiaca, and roots of Plectranthus barbatus showed strong activity. Conclusion The extracts that showed strong anti-Candida activity are worth of further investigation in order to isolate and identify the active compounds. PMID:16571139

  15. Bioluminescent, Nonlytic, Real-Time Cell Viability Assay and Use in Inhibitor Screening.

    PubMed

    Duellman, Sarah J; Zhou, Wenhui; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Vidugiris, Gediminas; Cali, James J; Gautam, Prson; Wennerberg, Krister; Vidugiriene, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    Real-time continuous monitoring of cellular processes offers distinct advantages over traditional endpoint assays. A comprehensive representation of the changes occurring in live cells over the entire length of an experiment provides information about the biological status of the cell and informs decisions about the timing of treatments or the use of other functional endpoint assays. We describe a homogeneous, nonlytic, bioluminescent assay that measures cell viability in real time. This time-dependent measurement allowed us to monitor cell health for 72 h from the same test samples, distinguish differential cell growth, and investigate drug mechanism of action by analyzing time- and dose-dependent drug effects. The real-time measurements also allowed us to detect cell death immediately (>75% signal decrease within 15 min of digitonin addition), analyze drug potency versus efficacy, and identify cytostatic versus toxic drug effects. We screened an oncology compound library (Z' = 0.7) and identified compounds with varying activity at different time points (1.6% of the library showed activity within 3 h, whereas 35.4% showed a response by 47 h). The assay compared well with orthogonal endpoint cell viability assays and additionally provided data at multiple time points and the opportunity to multiplex assays on the same cells. To test the advantage of time-dependent measurements to direct optimal timing of downstream applications, we used the real-time cell viability assay to determine the ideal time to measure caspase activity by monitoring the onset of cell death and multiplexing a luminescent caspase activation assay on the same test samples.

  16. Bioluminescent, Nonlytic, Real-Time Cell Viability Assay and Use in Inhibitor Screening

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenhui; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Vidugiris, Gediminas; Cali, James J.; Gautam, Prson; Wennerberg, Krister; Vidugiriene, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Real-time continuous monitoring of cellular processes offers distinct advantages over traditional endpoint assays. A comprehensive representation of the changes occurring in live cells over the entire length of an experiment provides information about the biological status of the cell and informs decisions about the timing of treatments or the use of other functional endpoint assays. We describe a homogeneous, nonlytic, bioluminescent assay that measures cell viability in real time. This time-dependent measurement allowed us to monitor cell health for 72 h from the same test samples, distinguish differential cell growth, and investigate drug mechanism of action by analyzing time- and dose-dependent drug effects. The real-time measurements also allowed us to detect cell death immediately (>75% signal decrease within 15 min of digitonin addition), analyze drug potency versus efficacy, and identify cytostatic versus toxic drug effects. We screened an oncology compound library (Z′ = 0.7) and identified compounds with varying activity at different time points (1.6% of the library showed activity within 3 h, whereas 35.4% showed a response by 47 h). The assay compared well with orthogonal endpoint cell viability assays and additionally provided data at multiple time points and the opportunity to multiplex assays on the same cells. To test the advantage of time-dependent measurements to direct optimal timing of downstream applications, we used the real-time cell viability assay to determine the ideal time to measure caspase activity by monitoring the onset of cell death and multiplexing a luminescent caspase activation assay on the same test samples. PMID:26383544

  17. Neighbourhood urban form and individual-level correlates of leisure-based screen time in Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Gavin R; Mardinger, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite evidence for an association between the built environment and physical activity, less evidence exists regarding relations between the built environment and sedentary behaviour. This study investigated the extent to which objectively assessed and self-reported neighbourhood walkability, in addition to individual-level characteristics, were associated with leisure-based screen time in adults. We hypothesised that leisure-based screen time would be lower among adults residing in objectively assessed and self-reported ‘high walkable’ versus ‘low walkable’ neighbourhoods. Setting The study was undertaken in Calgary, Alberta, Canada in 2007/2008. Participants A random cross-section of adults who provided complete telephone interview and postal survey data (n=1906) was included. Captured information included leisure-based screen time, moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity physical activity, perceived neighbourhood walkability, sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health status, and self-reported height and weight. Based on objectively assessed built characteristics, participant's neighbourhoods were identified as being low, medium or high walkable. Primary and secondary outcome measures Using multiple linear regression, hours of leisure-based screen time per day was regressed on self-reported and objectively assessed walkability adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related covariates. Results Compared to others, residing in an objectively assessed high walkable neighbourhood, women, having a college education, at least one child at home, a household income ≥$120 000/year, and a registered motor vehicle at home, reporting very good-to-excellent health and healthy weight, and achieving 60 min/week of vigorous-intensity physical activity were associated (p<0.05) with less leisure-based screen time. Marital status, dog ownership, season, self-reported walkability and achieving 210 min of moderate-intensity physical

  18. Screen Time at Home and School among Low-Income Children Attending Head Start

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Erica N.; Whitaker, Robert C.; Marino, Alexis J.; Anderson, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the patterns of screen viewing at home and school among low-income preschool-aged children attending Head Start and identify factors associated with high home screen time in this population. Few studies have examined both home and classroom screen time, or included computer use as a component of screen viewing. Methods Participants were 2221 low-income preschool-aged children in the United States studied in the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) in spring 2007. For 5 categories of screen viewing (television, video/DVD, video games, computer games, other computer use), we assessed children’s typical weekday home (parent-reported) and classroom (teacher-reported) screen viewing in relation to having a television in the child’s bedroom and sociodemographic factors. Results Over half of children (55.7%) had a television in their bedroom, and 12.5% had high home screen time (>4 hours/weekday). Television was the most common category of home screen time, but 56.6% of children had access to a computer at home and 37.5% had used it on the last typical weekday. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, children with a television in their bedroom were more likely to have high home screen time [odds ratio=2.57 (95% confidence interval: 1.80–3.68)]. Classroom screen time consisted almost entirely of computer use; 49.4% of children used a classroom computer for ≥1 hour/week, and 14.2% played computer games at school ≥5 hours/week. Conclusions In 2007, one in eight low-income children attending Head Start had >4 hours/weekday of home screen time, which was associated with having a television in the bedroom. In the Head Start classroom, television and video viewing were uncommon but computer use was common. PMID:24891924

  19. Common Tests for Preterm Birth Not Useful for Routine Screening of First-Time Pregnancies

    MedlinePlus

    ... birth not useful for routine screening of first-time pregnancies Skip sharing on social media links Share ... hold promise in predicting preterm delivery in first-time pregnancies identified only a small proportion of cases ...

  20. Increased Screen Time: Implications for Early Childhood Development and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Radesky, Jenny S; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2016-10-01

    The authors review trends in adoption of new digital technologies (eg, mobile and interactive media) by families with young children (ages 0-8 years), continued use of television and video games, and the evidence for learning from digital versus hands-on play. The authors also discuss continued concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language, literacy, and social-emotional development. This evidence is then applied to clinical care in terms of the screening questions providers can use, tools available to providers and parents, and changes in anticipatory guidance.

  1. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Oroxylum indicum

    PubMed Central

    Das, B. K.; Al-Amin, M. M.; Russel, S. M.; Kabir, S.; Bhattacherjee, R.; Hannan, J. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study phytochemical screening and analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The dried powder of the barks of the plant was extracted with 95% ethanol and was subjected to various phytochemical tests to ascertain the principle constituents contained in the extract. The result revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides in the ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The extract was screened for analgesic activity by using hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin test. The ethanol extract of the plant at two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.05) analgesic effect in all test methods (hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin). The analgesic activity was compared with a standard drug (ketorolac at 10 mg/kg). Based on the present findings and previous literature review it can be concluded that flavonoids and tannins might be responsible for the analgesic activity. We suggest that ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum might have potential chemical constituents that could be used in the future for the development of novel analgesic agent. PMID:25593396

  2. Cell extraction combined with off-line HPLC for screening active compounds from Coptis chinensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng; Wu, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Ya-Ming; Duan, Hongquan; Zhou, Jing; Xu, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Cell membrane chromatography is a useful tool for screening active compounds from natural products. As the reason of separation mechanism, traditional cell membrane chromatography could not be used for screening the active compounds absorbed through the cell membrane and influencing the cell signal transduction pathway. In this work, we establish a new method named cell extraction combined with off-line HPLC for screening the compounds penetrating the cell membrane. This is the first time 3 T3-L1 adipocyte culture has been combined with HPLC technology. Compared with other cell membrane chromatography methods, there is good resolution and no further analysis by other chromatographic steps is required. On co-incubating crude extracts of Coptis chinensis with cells and analyzing the compounds extracted by the cells, active compounds such as berberine were detected. Glucose consumption tests showed that berberine could increase glucose consumption by insulin-resistant 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. The levels of intracellular berberine correlated with its activity. The results indicate that the developed method could be an alternative method for screening active compounds from natural products.

  3. Energy intake and expenditure during sedentary screen time and motion-controlled video gaming123

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Television watching and playing of video games (VGs) are associated with higher energy intakes. Motion-controlled video games (MC) may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen-based activities because of higher energy expenditures, but little is known about the effects of these games on energy intakes. Objective: Energy intake, expenditure, and surplus (intake − expenditure) were compared during sedentary (television and VG) and active (MC) screen-time use. Design: Young adults (n = 120; 60 women) were randomly assigned to the following 3 groups: television watching, playing traditional VGs, or playing MCs for 1 h while snacks and beverages were provided. Energy intakes, energy expenditures, and appetites were measured. Results: Intakes across these 3 groups showed a trend toward a significant difference (P = 0.065). The energy expenditure (P < 0.001) was higher, and the energy surplus (P = 0.038) was lower, in MC than in television or VG groups. All conditions produced a mean (±SD) energy surplus as follows: 638 ± 408 kcal in television, 655 ± 533 kcal in VG, and 376 ± 487 kcal in MC groups. The OR for consuming ≥500 kcal in the television compared with the MC group was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.4). Secondary analyses, in which the 2 sedentary conditions were collapsed, showed an intake that was 178 kcal (95% CI: 8, 349 kcal) lower in the MC condition than in the sedentary groups (television and VG). Conclusion: MCs may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen time because of a lower energy surplus, but the playing of these games still resulted in a positive energy balance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01523795. PMID:22760571

  4. Active Learning Strategies for Phenotypic Profiling of High-Content Screens.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin; Horvath, Peter

    2014-06-01

    High-content screening is a powerful method to discover new drugs and carry out basic biological research. Increasingly, high-content screens have come to rely on supervised machine learning (SML) to perform automatic phenotypic classification as an essential step of the analysis. However, this comes at a cost, namely, the labeled examples required to train the predictive model. Classification performance increases with the number of labeled examples, and because labeling examples demands time from an expert, the training process represents a significant time investment. Active learning strategies attempt to overcome this bottleneck by presenting the most relevant examples to the annotator, thereby achieving high accuracy while minimizing the cost of obtaining labeled data. In this article, we investigate the impact of active learning on single-cell-based phenotype recognition, using data from three large-scale RNA interference high-content screens representing diverse phenotypic profiling problems. We consider several combinations of active learning strategies and popular SML methods. Our results show that active learning significantly reduces the time cost and can be used to reveal the same phenotypic targets identified using SML. We also identify combinations of active learning strategies and SML methods which perform better than others on the phenotypic profiling problems we studied.

  5. Screening of some Nigerian plants for molluscicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    Methanolic (MEOH), evaporated crude water (ECW) and unevaporated crude water (UECW) extracts of 25 Nigerian plants, used for different medicinal and domestic purposes were screened for molluscacidal activity on laboratory-reared Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Seven of the plants were not active; extracts from 18 (72 per cent) of the plants, some of which are renowned fish poisons, had molluscicidal activity. These were Acacia nilotica, Aristolochia albida, Balanites aegyptiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Detarium microcarpum, Gnidia kraussiana, Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia, Opilia celtidefolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Sclerocarya birrea, Securidaca longipedunculata, Ximenia americana, Vetiveria nigritana and Ziziphus abyssinica. The LC50 of these extracts were determined. It is strongly recommended that the toxic effects of these extracts against fish, cercariae, snail eggs and mammals be further investigated so as to determine the right concentration, especially for use in fish ponds.

  6. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Coccinia cordifolia L. plant.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Shahanaz; Pervin, Farzana; Karim, Mohammad Rezaul; Ashraduzzaman, Mohammad; Rosma, Ahmad

    2012-10-01

    The medicinal plant, Coccinia cordifolia L. was analyzed for its chemical composition. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol, water, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Coccinia cordifolia L. plant were evaluated against some Gram positive bacteria (Sarcina lutea, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Escherichia coli) and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium notatum). Chemical analysis showed that the plant is rich in nutrients, especially antioxidant compounds such as total phenol, vitamin C and β-carotene. Phytochemical screening showed that the methanolic extract contains the bioactive constituents such as tannins, saponins, phenols, flavonoids and terpenoids. In the methanolic extract of the plant, promising antimicrobial potential was observed against the tested microorganism. Methanolic extract showed highest activity against Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans compared to the other extracts. Water extract showed less antimicrobial activity as compared to other extractants.

  7. Reducing Youth Screen Time: Qualitative Metasynthesis of Findings on Barriers and Facilitators

    PubMed Central

    Minges, Karl E.; Salmon, Jo; Dunstan, David W.; Owen, Neville; Chao, Ariana; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Objective An integrated perspective on the relevant qualitative findings on the experience of screen time in youth can inform the development of hypotheses to be tested in future research and can guide the development of interventions to decrease sedentary behavior. The purpose of this qualitative metasynthesis was to explore parent, youth, and educational professionals’ perceptions of barriers to, and facilitators of, reducing youth screen time. Method Qualitative metasynthesis techniques were used to analyze and synthesize 15 qualitative studies of screen time among youth (11–18 years) meeting inclusion criteria. The phrases, quotes, and/or author interpretations (i.e., theme or subtheme) were recorded in a data display matrix to facilitate article comparisons. Codes were collapsed into 23 categories of similar conceptual meaning and 3 overarching themes were derived using thematic analysis procedures. Results Study sample sizes ranged from 6 to 270 participants from 6 countries. Data collection methods included focus groups (n = 6), interviews (n = 4), focus group and interviews (n = 4), and naturalistic observation (n = 1) with youth and/or parents. Data analysis techniques included thematic analysis (n = 9), content analysis (n = 3), grounded theory (n = 1), observation (n = 1), and interpretive phenomenological analysis (n = 1). Three thematic categories were identified: (a) youth’s norms—screen time is an integral part of daily life, and facilitates opportunities for entertainment, social interaction, and escapism; (b) family dynamics and parental roles—parents are conflicted and send mixed messages about the appropriate uses and amounts of screen time; and, (c) resources and environment—engagement in screen time is dependent on school, community, neighborhood, and home environmental contexts. Conclusions Screen time is an established norm in many youth cultures, presenting barriers to behavior change. Parents recognize the importance of reducing

  8. Systematic review of effective strategies for reducing screen time among young children.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Haines, Jess; O'Brien, Ashley; McDonald, Julia; Price, Sarah; Sherry, Bettylou; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-07-01

    Screen-media use among young children is highly prevalent, disproportionately high among children from lower-income families and racial/ethnic minorities, and may have adverse effects on obesity risk. Few systematic reviews have examined early intervention strategies to limit TV or total screen time; none have examined strategies to discourage parents from putting TVs in their children's bedrooms or remove TVs if they are already there. In order to identify strategies to reduce TV viewing or total screen time among children <12 years of age, we conducted a systematic review of seven electronic databases to June 2011, using the terms "intervention" and "television," "media," or "screen time." Peer-reviewed intervention studies that reported frequencies of TV viewing or screen-media use in children under age 12 were eligible for inclusion. We identified 144 studies; 47 met our inclusion criteria. Twenty-nine achieved significant reductions in TV viewing or screen-media use. Studies utilizing electronic TV monitoring devices, contingent feedback systems, and clinic-based counseling were most effective. While studies have reduced screen-media use in children, there are several research gaps, including a relative paucity of studies targeting young children (n = 13) or minorities (n = 14), limited long-term (>6 month) follow-up data (n = 5), and few (n = 4) targeting removing TVs from children's bedrooms. Attention to these issues may help increase the effectiveness of existing strategies for screen time reduction and extend them to different populations.

  9. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    PubMed

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  10. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare. PMID:26658480

  11. Newborn Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activities Importance of Newborn Screening Newborn Screening and Molecular Biology Branch Pulse Oximetry Screening for CCHDs Sickle Cell Disease Laboratory SCID Quality Assurance Training and Resources ...

  12. Interactive vs passive screen time and nighttime sleep duration among school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Yland, Jennifer; Guan, Stanford; Emanuele, Erin; Hale, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Background Insufficient sleep among school-aged children is a growing concern, as numerous studies have shown that chronic short sleep duration increases the risk of poor academic performance and specific adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between weekday nighttime sleep duration and 3 types of screen exposure: television, computer use, and video gaming. Methods We used age 9 data from an ethnically diverse national birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to assess the association between screen time and sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using screen time data reported by both the child (n = 3269) and by the child's primary caregiver (n= 2770). Results Within the child-reported models, children who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had shorter sleep duration by approximately 11 minutes per night compared to those who watched less than 2 hours of television (β = −0.18; P < .001). Using the caregiver-reported models, both television and computer use were associated with reduced sleep duration. For both child- and parent-reported screen time measures, we did not find statistically significant differences in effect size across various types of screen time. Conclusions Screen time from televisions and computers is associated with reduced sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using 2 sources of estimates of screen time exposure (child and parent reports). No specific type or use of screen time resulted in significantly shorter sleep duration than another, suggesting that caution should be advised against excessive use of all screens. PMID:27540566

  13. Screening of Thai medicinal plant extracts and their active constituents for in vitro antimalarial activity.

    PubMed

    Ichino, C; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Chuakul, W; Kiyohara, H; Ishiyama, A; Sekiguchi, H; Namatame, M; Otoguro, K; Omura, S; Yamada, H

    2006-04-01

    To discover antimalarial substances from plants cultivated in Thailand 80%-EtOH extracts from selected plants were screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against the drug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. In total, 86 Thai medicinal plant samples representing 48 species from 35 genera in 16 families were screened and two species (Polyalthia viridis and Goniothalamus marcanii) were found to show notable antimalarial activity (IC50: 10.0 and 6.3 microg/mL). Marcanine A and 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide were identified as the respective major active constituents in P. viridis and G. marcanii, respectively.

  14. Genetic Screening for Bacterial Mutants in Liquid Growth Media By Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Abuaita, Basel H.; Withey, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens have defined in vitro virulence inducing conditions in liquid media which lead to production of virulence factors important during an infection. Identifying mutants that no longer respond to virulence inducing conditions will increase our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis. However, traditional genetic screens require growth on solid media. Bacteria in a single colony are in every phase of the growth curve, which complicates the analysis and make screens for growth phase-specific mutants problematic. Here, we utilize fluorescence-activated cell sorting in conjunction with random transposon mutagenesis to isolate bacteria grown in liquid media that are defective in virulence activation. This method permits analysis of an entire bacterial population in real time and selection of individual bacterial mutants with the desired gene expression profile at any time point after induction. We have used this method to identify Vibrio cholerae mutants defective in virulence induction. PMID:21094189

  15. Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Changhyun; Jung, Uhee

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC 3.1.1.3) in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity. PMID:22408418

  16. Screen Time May Not Be So Bad for Teens After All

    MedlinePlus

    ... hours of screen time every day -- on video games, smartphones, computers, TV and the like -- may not ... in one of these daily scenarios: Playing video games for about 1 hour and 40 minutes, Fooling ...

  17. CETSA screening identifies known and novel thymidylate synthase inhibitors and slow intracellular activation of 5-fluorouracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, Helena; Axelsson, Hanna; Jafari, Rozbeh; Dan, Chen; Mateus, André; Haraldsson, Martin; Larsson, Andreas; Molina, Daniel Martinez; Artursson, Per; Lundbäck, Thomas; Nordlund, Pär

    2016-03-01

    Target engagement is a critical factor for therapeutic efficacy. Assessment of compound binding to native target proteins in live cells is therefore highly desirable in all stages of drug discovery. We report here the first compound library screen based on biophysical measurements of intracellular target binding, exemplified by human thymidylate synthase (TS). The screen selected accurately for all the tested known drugs acting on TS. We also identified TS inhibitors with novel chemistry and marketed drugs that were not previously known to target TS, including the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine. By following the cellular uptake and enzymatic conversion of known drugs we correlated the appearance of active metabolites over time with intracellular target engagement. These data distinguished a much slower activation of 5-fluorouracil when compared with nucleoside-based drugs. The approach establishes efficient means to associate drug uptake and activation with target binding during drug discovery.

  18. CETSA screening identifies known and novel thymidylate synthase inhibitors and slow intracellular activation of 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Almqvist, Helena; Axelsson, Hanna; Jafari, Rozbeh; Dan, Chen; Mateus, André; Haraldsson, Martin; Larsson, Andreas; Molina, Daniel Martinez; Artursson, Per; Lundbäck, Thomas; Nordlund, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Target engagement is a critical factor for therapeutic efficacy. Assessment of compound binding to native target proteins in live cells is therefore highly desirable in all stages of drug discovery. We report here the first compound library screen based on biophysical measurements of intracellular target binding, exemplified by human thymidylate synthase (TS). The screen selected accurately for all the tested known drugs acting on TS. We also identified TS inhibitors with novel chemistry and marketed drugs that were not previously known to target TS, including the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine. By following the cellular uptake and enzymatic conversion of known drugs we correlated the appearance of active metabolites over time with intracellular target engagement. These data distinguished a much slower activation of 5-fluorouracil when compared with nucleoside-based drugs. The approach establishes efficient means to associate drug uptake and activation with target binding during drug discovery. PMID:27010513

  19. Associations among evening snacking, screen time, weight status, and overall diet quality in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J; Fryer, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among evening snacking (food choices, portion sizes), afterschool-evening screen time, overall diet quality, and weight status. Participants consisted of 1008 young adolescents (secondary analyses, n = 651) from schools in Windsor-Essex, Ontario. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, including a 24-h diet recall, was used to assess eating and screen time behaviours (television and video and computer games), as well as nutrient intake; height and weight for BMI were measured using a stadiometer. Results indicated that the majority of participants (62%) consumed an evening snack that contributed approximately 11% of their daily caloric intake. Evening snacking was associated with an overall good diet quality compared with that of non-evening snackers (p < 0.001). Increased afterschool-evening screen time was associated with fewer evening snack servings of vegetables and fruit (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in evening snack food portion sizes (p < 0.001). After accounting for other evening snacking factors, participants with greater than 6 h of afterschool-evening screen time were less likely to have a good overall diet quality compared with those with less than 1 h of afterschool-evening screen time. Therefore, increased screen time, because it is associated with greater evening snack portion sizes and overall poor diet quality, is of great concern regarding young adolescents' evening behaviour.

  20. Some Activities with Polarized Light from a Laptop LCD Screen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhruddin, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    The LCD screen of a laptop computer provides a broad, bright, and extended source of polarized light. A number of demonstrations on the properties of polarized light from a laptop computer screens are presented here.

  1. 2D focal-field aberration dependence on time/phase screen position and correlation lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näsholm, Sven Peter

    2004-05-01

    For high-frequency annular array transducers used in medical ultrasound imaging, aberrations due to tissue and body wall have a significant effect on energy transfer from the main lobe to the sidelobes of the acoustic field: that is, the aberrations make the total sidelobe level increase. This effect makes the ultrasound image poor when imaging heterogeneous organs. This study performs an analysis of the focal-field quality as a function of time/phase screen z position and time/phase screen correlation length. It establishes some rules of thumb which indicate when the focal-field sidelobe energy is at its highest. It also introduces a simple screen-scaling model which is useful as long as the screen position is not closer to the focus than a certain limit distance. The scaling model allows the real screen at a depth z=zscreen to be treated as a scaled screen at the position z=ztransd. 2D sound fields after 3D propagation from the annular arrays to the focal plane have been simulated using an angular spectrum method. The aberrators are represented by amplitude and phase/time screens.

  2. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J; Adams, David J; Leung, Hing Y

    2016-07-19

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition.

  3. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G.; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J.; Adams, David J.; Leung, Hing Y.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition. PMID:27357679

  4. In Vitro Screening for Cytotoxic Activity of Herbal Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Valter R. M.; Cacabelos, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that a variety of chemopreventive plant components affect tumor initiation, promotion, and progression and the main difference, between botanical medicines and synthetic drugs, resides in the presence of complex metabolite mixtures shown by botanical medicine which in turn exert their action on different levels and via different mechanisms. In the present study, we performed an in vitro screening of ethanol extracts from commercial plants in order to investigate potential antitumor activity against human tumor cell lines. Experimental results obtained through a variety of methods and techniques indicated that extracts of I. verum, G. glabra, R. Frangula, and L. usitatissimum present significant reduction in in vitro tumor cell proliferation, suggesting these extracts as possible chemotherapeutical adjuvants for different cancer treatments. PMID:28386288

  5. Identification and characterization of PERK activators by phenotypic screening and their effects on NRF2 activation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wensheng; Pariollaud, Marie; Wixted, William E; Chitnis, Nilesh; Fornwald, James; Truong, Maggie; Pao, Christina; Liu, Yan; Ames, Robert S; Callahan, James; Solari, Roberto; Sanchez, Yolanda; Diehl, Alan; Li, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a critical role to restore the homeostasis of protein production in eukaryotic cells. This vital process is hence involved in many types of diseases including COPD. PERK, one branch in the ER stress signaling pathways, has been reported to activate NRF2 signaling pathway, a known protective response to COPD. Based on this scientific rationale, we aimed to identify PERK activators as a mechanism to achieve NRF2 activation. In this report, we describe a phenotypic screening assay to identify PERK activators. This assay measures phosphorylation of GFP-tagged eIF2α upon PERK activation via a cell-based LanthaScreen technology. To obtain a robust assay with sufficient signal to background and low variation, multiple parameters were optimized including GFP-tagged eIF2α BacMam concentration, cell density and serum concentration. The assay was validated by a tool compound, Thapsigargin, which induces phosphorylation of eIF2α. In our assay, this compound showed maximal signal window of approximately 2.5-fold with a pEC50 of 8.0, consistent with literature reports. To identify novel PERK activators through phosphorylation of eIF2α, a focused set of 8,400 compounds was screened in this assay at 10 µM. A number of hits were identified and validated. The molecular mechanisms for several selected hits were further characterized in terms of PERK activation and effects on PERK downstream components. Specificity of these compounds in activating PERK was demonstrated with a PERK specific inhibitor and in PERK knockout mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. In addition, these hits showed NRF2-dependent anti-oxidant gene induction. In summary, our phenotypic screening assay is demonstrated to be able to identify PERK specific activators. The identified PERK activators could potentially be used as chemical probes to further investigate this pathway as well as the link between PERK activation and NRF2 pathway activation.

  6. Spectroscopic diagnostics of active screen plasma nitriding processes: on the interplay of active screen and model probe plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Röpcke, J.

    2015-09-01

    In a reactor used for active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) the interplay of two plasma types, (i) the plasma of the cylindrical active screen driven in a pulsed dc mode (f = 1 kHz, 60% duty cycle) and (ii) the plasma at an internal model probe driven in a cw dc mode, ignited in a low pressure H2-N2 gas mixture (p = 3 mbar) containing small amounts of CH4 and CO2 have been studied by tunable diode laser infrared absorption (TDLAS) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) techniques. Applying in situ TDLAS the evolution of the carbon containing precursors, CH4 and CO2, and of the reaction products, NH3, HCN, CO and H2O, has been monitored. The degree of dissociation of the carbon containing precursor molecules varied between 70% and 92%. The concentrations of the reaction products were found to be in the range 1012…1015 molecules cm-3. By analyzing the development of the molecular concentrations at changes of gas mixtures and plasma power values, it was found that (i) HCN and NH3 are the main products of plasma conversion in the case of methane admixture and (ii) CO, HCN and NH3 in the carbon dioxide case. The fragmentation efficiencies of methane and carbon dioxide (RF(CH4)  ≈  1…2   ×   1015 molecules J-1, RF(CO2)  ≈  0.5…1.0   ×   1016 molecules J-1) and the respective conversion efficiencies to the product molecules (R C(product) ≈ 1013-1015 molecules J-1) have been determined for different gas mixtures and plasma power values, while the influence of probe and screen plasmas, i.e. the phenomena caused by the interplay of both plasma sources, was analyzed. The additional usage of the plasma at the model probe has a sensitive influence on the generation of the reaction products, in particular that of NH3 and HCN. With the help of OES the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined, which increases with power from 770 K to 950 K. Also with power the ionic component of nitrogen molecules, i

  7. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) photonic microbioreactors and multiple internal reflection systems for real time cell screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Pedro; Demming, Stefanie; Fernández-Rosas, Elisabet; Ibarlucea, Bergoi; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Llobera, Andreu

    2011-06-01

    In this paper two different photonic lab-on-a-chip devices for real-time cell screening are presented. We discuss, in parallel, screening of cell viability and cell count using a multiple total internal reflection (MIR) system, and a microbioreactor (MBR) for continuous cell culture screening. Each device takes advantage, in different ways, of the enhanced light-analyte interaction provided by the full-field approach. Their performance and how they represent an improvement to current methods, are also discussed herein. Both devices integrate photonic components and are fabricated by soft lithography (PDMS) replica molding of SU-8 masters, thus making them low-cost and easily mass produced.

  8. Screening of solvent dependent antibacterial activity of Prunus domestica.

    PubMed

    Yaqeen, Zahra; Naqvi, Naim-ul-Hasan; Sohail, Tehmina; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat; Imran, Hina; Rehman, Atiqur

    2013-03-01

    Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm ± 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm ± 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 μ g/ml to 2500 μ gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  9. Screen time of infants in Sydney, Australia: a birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Meena; Jalaludin, Bin; Woolfenden, Susan; Descallar, Joseph; Nicholls, Laura; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Williams, Katrina; Murphy, Elisabeth; Walter, Amelia; Eastwood, John; Eapen, Valsamma

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the amount of daily screen time in children 18 months of age and ascertain correlations that may be contributing to excessive screen use. Design A birth cohort was followed with telephone interviews at 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Information about screen time was collected at 18 months. Setting Parents were recruited from postnatal wards of 2 major public hospitals and at home visits conducted for new mothers within 4 weeks of birth in South Western Sydney (SWS). Participants Parents of 500 children with infants 18 months of age residing in SWS. Primary and secondary outcomes Screen time in infants 18 months of age and associated correlations. Results A large percentage of children 18 months of age (40%) had screen times >2 hours daily. There were significant associations between more than 2 hours of screen time daily and mothers without a partner (OR 4.32 (95% CI 1.67 to 11.15)); having <3 siblings (no siblings: OR 2.44 (95% CI 1.20 to 4.94); 1–2 siblings: OR 2.08 (95% CI 1.06 to 4.08)); an employed father (OR 1.96 (95% CI 1.09 to 3.52)); no outdoor equipment at home (OR 1.89 (95% CI 1.08 to 3.34)) and fewer than 5 outings per week (OR 2.08 (95% CI 1.37 to 3.17)). Conclusions There is emerging evidence that excess screen time in children causes adverse cognitive, developmental and health outcomes. This study has shown that a large proportion of very young children residing in SWS have screen exposures for >2 hours per day. Factors contributing to excess screen time have also been identified in this study; however, a greater understanding of risk factors needs to be ascertained in order to facilitate greater public health efforts to reduce screen exposure. PMID:27798011

  10. Children, youth, and parents: screening for obesity risk with the spectrum of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Gable, Sara; Tosh, Aneesh K

    2014-01-01

    The current article reviews several practical approaches to screening for obesity risk among children and youth, with an emphasis on the spectrum of physical activity. We encourage physicians to utilize evidence-based strategies (e.g., 5-2-1-0), implement motivational interviewing techniques, and focus on "crunch time" (i.e., the period of day after school and before bedtime) when gathering information about physical activity type and intensity. The insights gained are useful for evaluating obesity risk and establishing goals for lifestyle interventions. Characteristics of successful interventions with youth are also discussed and include goal-setting, self-monitoring, and pedometers.

  11. [Progresses in screening active compounds from herbal medicine by affinity chromatography].

    PubMed

    Feng, Ying-shu; Tong, Shan-shan; Xu, Xi-ming; Yu, Jiang-nan

    2015-03-01

    Affinity chromatography is a chromatographic method for separating molecules using the binding characteristics of the stationary phase with potential drug molecules. This method can be performed as a high throughput screening method and a chromatographic separation method to screen a variety of active drugs. This paper summarizes the history of affinity chromatography, screening technology of affinity chromatography, and application of affinity chromatography in screening bio-active compounds in herbal medicines, and then discusses its application prospects, in order to broaden applications of the affinity chromatography in drug screening.

  12. Active screen plasma nitriding enhances cell attachment to polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Bowen, James; Mehrban, Nazia; Dong, Hanshan; Grover, Liam M.; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2013-05-01

    Active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is a well-established technique used for the surface modification of materials, the result of which is often a product with enhanced functional performance. Here we report the modification of the chemical and mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight poly(ethylene) (UHMWPE) using 80:20 (v/v) N2/H2 ASPN, followed by growth of 3T3 fibroblasts on the treated and untreated polymer surfaces. ASPN-treated UHMWPE showed extensive fibroblast attachment within 3 h of seeding, whereas fibroblasts did not successfully attach to untreated UHMWPE. Fibroblast-coated surfaces were maintained for up to 28 days, monitoring their metabolic activity and morphology throughout. The chemical properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, revealing the presence of Csbnd N, Cdbnd N, and Ctbnd N chemical bonds. The elastic modulus, surface topography, and adhesion properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied over 28 days during sample storage under ambient conditions and during immersion in two commonly used cell culture media.

  13. Experimental techniques for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Swaha; Patra, Arjun; Ahirwar, Bharti

    2015-12-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a silent epidemic, has become a major health hazard, afflicting about 50% of postmenopausal women worldwide and is thought to be a disease with one of the highest incidences in senile people. It is a chronic, progressive condition associated with micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue that results in low bone mass, decreased bone strength that predisposes to an increased risk of fracture. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone formation and increase in bone resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-7 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. In this review article we have made an attempt to collate the various methods and parameters most frequently used for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Pertaining to ovariectomized animal model, this is the most appropriate model for studying the efficacy of different drugs to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  14. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Modarresi-Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza-Sulaiman, Shaida; Mousavi, Leila

    2012-12-01

    antimicrobial activity extracts from extraction method I (33 out of 152 of crude extracts) and 6.82% from extraction method II (13 out of 190 of crude extracts). However, crude extracts from method I exhibited better antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria than the Gram-negative bacteria. The positive results on medicinal plants screening for antibacterial activity constitutes primary information for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Therefore, the extracts could be suitable as antimicrobial agents in pharmaceutical and food industry.

  15. Who participates in the gastric cancer screening and on-time rescreening in the National Cancer Screening Program? A population-based study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Myung-Il; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan; Oh, Dongkwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2011-12-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) screening is a major challenge in countries where the disease is highly prevalent. This study was conducted to identify the factors associated with participation in GC screening and on-time rescreening among the average-risk population in Korea. The study population was derived from the National Cancer Screening Program database. The population for this study was 22 913 618 individuals aged ≥40 years who had been invited to participate in a GC screening program from 2005 to 2006. We determined whether these individuals had attended the GC screening program and which method - an upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy-they underwent. We followed the participants to determine whether they had a second GC screening after 2 years. The overall participation rate in the GC screening was 20.5%. More people underwent UGIS than endoscopy. Individuals who had been screened by endoscopy rather than UGIS were more likely to be younger, male, or those who were National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries with a higher premium rate. Of those who underwent baseline screening, 59.4% participated in a rescreening program 2 years later. NHI beneficiaries with a higher premium rate were significantly more likely to be rescreened than medical aid recipients. The results from this study showed that the UGIS were more commonly used in organized GC screenings in Korea, and those who underwent UGIS were more likely to return for subsequent screening compared to those who underwent an endoscopy.

  16. Reconstruction of burst activity from calcium imaging of neuronal population via Lq minimization and interval screening

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Tingwei; Lv, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiuli; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Calcium imaging is becoming an increasingly popular technology to indirectly measure activity patterns in local neuronal networks. Based on the dependence of calcium fluorescence on neuronal spiking, two-photon calcium imaging affords single-cell resolution of neuronal population activity. However, it is still difficult to reconstruct neuronal activity from complex calcium fluorescence traces, particularly for traces contaminated by noise. Here, we describe a robust and efficient neuronal-activity reconstruction method that utilizes Lq minimization and interval screening (IS), which we refer to as LqIS. The simulation results show that LqIS performs satisfactorily in terms of both accuracy and speed of reconstruction. Reconstruction of simulation and experimental data also shows that LqIS has advantages in terms of the recall rate, precision rate, and timing error. Finally, LqIS is demonstrated to effectively reconstruct neuronal burst activity from calcium fluorescence traces recorded from large-size neuronal population. PMID:27375930

  17. The Leisure-Time Activity of Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedova, N. N.

    2011-01-01

    Survey data show that Russians relegate free time and leisure activity to secondary status compared to work, and free time faces the threat of becoming devalued and losing its importance as a life value. At the same time, in the structure of Russians' leisure activities there is an ongoing tendency for leisure to become simpler, for active types…

  18. Screen-time Weight-loss Intervention Targeting Children at Home (SWITCH): A randomized controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Approximately one third of New Zealand children and young people are overweight or obese. A similar proportion (33%) do not meet recommendations for physical activity, and 70% do not meet recommendations for screen time. Increased time being sedentary is positively associated with being overweight. There are few family-based interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behavior in children. The aim of this trial is to determine the effects of a 24 week home-based, family oriented intervention to reduce sedentary screen time on children's body composition, sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet. Methods/Design The study design is a pragmatic two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Two hundred and seventy overweight children aged 9-12 years and primary caregivers are being recruited. Participants are randomized to intervention (family-based screen time intervention) or control (no change). At the end of the study, the control group is offered the intervention content. Data collection is undertaken at baseline and 24 weeks. The primary trial outcome is child body mass index (BMI) and standardized body mass index (zBMI). Secondary outcomes are change from baseline to 24 weeks in child percentage body fat; waist circumference; self-reported average daily time spent in physical and sedentary activities; dietary intake; and enjoyment of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Secondary outcomes for the primary caregiver include change in BMI and self-reported physical activity. Discussion This study provides an excellent example of a theory-based, pragmatic, community-based trial targeting sedentary behavior in overweight children. The study has been specifically designed to allow for estimation of the consistency of effects on body composition for Māori (indigenous), Pacific and non-Māori/non-Pacific ethnic groups. If effective, this intervention is imminently scalable and could be integrated within existing weight management programs. Trial

  19. Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Gyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, Kug Chan; Choung, Eui Su; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2008-01-01

    The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10(-3); RP of 17β-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10(-3)). Next potent were a group consisting of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum undulatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum, and Pueraria lobata (root) (ranging from 9.5×10(-4) to 1.0×10(-4)). Least potent were Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus, and Adenophora stricta (ranging from 9.0×10(-5) to 8.0×10(-5)). The extracts exerting antiestrogenic effects, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica, had relative potencies of 1.14×10(-3) and 7.4×10(-4), respectively (RP of tamoxifen=1). The solvent fractions from selected estrogenic or antiestrogenic herbs had higher estrogenic relative potencies, with their RP ranging from 9.3×10(-1) to 2.7×10(-4) and from 8.2×10(-1) to 9.1×10(-3), respectively. These results support previous reports on the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used or not used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy.

  20. Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A; Visozo, A; Piloto, J; García, A; Rodríguez, C A; Rivero, R

    2003-08-01

    The reducing activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, z.rad;OH radical scavenging potential, in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of mutagenicity induced by ter-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in Escherichia coli were sequentially screened in 45 species of plants used with medicinal purposes in Cuba, in a search for antioxidant agents which protect DNA against oxidative stress.Five species, e.g. Tamarindus indica L., Lippia alba L., Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr, Rheedia aristata Griseb. and Curcuma longa L. displayed IC(50)<30 micro g/ml in the DPPH radical reduction assay and IC(50)<32 micro g/ml in lipid peroxidation inhibition testing. Pimenta dioica and Curcuma longa L. showed also a 20% inhibition of the in vitro induced z.rad;OH attack to deoxyglucose. Further antimutagenesis assay in Escherichia coli IC 188 evidenced that only Pimenta dioica prevents DNA damage by TBH to the test bacteria. A role of antioxidant enzymes is presumed in this case, as judged by a different response in the isogenic Escherichia coli IC 203 deficient in catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and the discrete inhibition of oxidative mutagenesis also observed when pre-treatment of the extract was assayed. Eugenol, the main constituent of the essential oil of Pimenta dioica, also inhibited oxidative mutagenesis by TBH in Escherichia coli, at concentrations ranging from 150 to 400 micro g/plate.

  1. Screening Retinopathy of Prematurity in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in China and the Need for Earlier Screening Times

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianxun; Chen, Feng; He, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To convey the need for a revised screening strategy for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants in China. Design. A retrospective longitudinal study. Methods. The medical charts of infants with a birth weight (BW) of less than 1 kg were reviewed. The infants were divided into three groups: group A, without ROP; group B, with ROP but not up to type 1 prethreshold or threshold ROP; group C, with type 1 prethreshold or threshold ROP. Data collected included gender, gestational age (GA), BW, postmenstrual age (PMA), age of onset of ROP, and age at which treatment was carried out, if required. Results. A total of 77 infants were involved. Fifty-six infants developed ROP at any stage and 38 infants developed type 1 prethreshold or threshold ROP. The mean BW and GA of infants in group A were significantly different compared with groups B and C. The mean PMA of onset of ROP in infants who developed mild ROP was 37 weeks compared with 34 weeks for infants who developed severe ROP. Conclusion. ELBW infants have a higher incidence of ROP in China which highlights the need for optimizing neonatal care for these infants. In ELBW infants, ROP tends to develop more severely when it occurs earlier. It is necessary for ELBW infants, especially for those with a BW less than 800 g or a GA less than 25 weeks, to be initially screened at an earlier time. PMID:28116141

  2. Quantitative real-time PCR eliminates false-positives in colony screening PCR.

    PubMed

    Skarratt, Kristen K; Fuller, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    We report an alternative approach to colony screening using real-time PCR (qPCR) which can be used instead of the traditional end-point PCR to eliminate false-positives and reduce processing times. False-positive transformants can easily be distinguished from true-positives by comparing Ct values derived from qPCR amplification curves. In addition, the use of qPCR allows for more efficient processing since a gel electrophoresis step is not required and the screening process is no longer limited by the capacity of the gel apparatus.

  3. Association Between Time Spent Interpreting, Level of Confidence and Accuracy of Screening Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Patricia A.; Bogart, Andy; Geller, Berta M.; Haneuse, Sebastian; Kerlikowske, Karla; Buist, Diana SM; Smith, Robert; Rosenberg, Robert; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Onega, Tracy; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of time spent viewing images and level of confidence on a screening mammography test set on interpretive performance. Materials and Methods Radiologists from six mammography registries participated in the study and were randomized to interpret one of four test sets and complete 12 survey questions. Each test set had 109 cases of digitized four-view screening film-screen mammograms with prior comparison screening views. Viewing time for each case was defined as the cumulative time spent viewing all mammographic images before recording which visible feature, if any, was the “most significant finding”. Log-linear regression fit via GEE was used to test the effect of viewing time and level of confidence in the interpretation on test set sensitivity and false-positive rate. Results 119 radiologists completed a test set and contributed data on 11,484 interpretations. Radiologists spent more time viewing cases that had significant findings or for which they had less confidence in interpretation. Each additional minute of viewing time increased the probability of a true positive interpretation among cancer cases by 1.12 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.19, p<0.001), regardless of confidence in the assessment. Among radiologists who were ‘very confident’ in their assessment, each additional minute of viewing time increased the adjusted risk of a false positive interpretation among non-cancer cases by 1.42 (95% CI 1.21, 1.68), and this viewing-time effect diminished with decreasing confidence. Conclusions Longer interpretation times and higher levels of confidence in the interpretation are both associated with higher sensitivity and false positive rates in mammography screening. PMID:22451568

  4. Deliberative and intuitive risk perceptions as predictors of colorectal cancer screening over time

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Ramos, Marcel; Li, Yuelin; Holland, Susan; Brennessel, Debra; Kemeny, M. Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Cancer risk perceptions may involve intuitions – including both affect as well as gut-level thoughts about risk – and deliberative risk magnitudes. Yet, little research has examined the potentially diverse relations between risk perceptions and behavior across time. A highly diverse primary care sample (N=544, aged ≥50) was utilized to compare how deliberative and intuitive perceptions of risk relate to chart-confirmed colorectal cancer screening at cross-sectional and prospective time points. At baseline, deliberative and intuitive risk perceptions were negatively associated with chart-confirmed colorectal cancer screening adherence in bivariable but not multivariable analyses. Among those who were non-adherent with colorectal cancer screening at baseline, deliberative and intuitive risk perceptions were positively associated with prospective uptake of chart-confirmed colorectal cancer screening adherence at 12-months in bivariable analyses; only deliberative risk perceptions remained significant in the multivariable model. This study indicates that diverse risk perceptions are differentially important for screening at different time points. PMID:26280754

  5. Neither One-Time Negative Screening Tests nor Negative Colposcopy Provides Absolute Reassurance against Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Rodríguez, Ana C.; Burk, Robert D.; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Solomon, Diane; Sherman, Mark E.; Jeronimo, Jose; Alfaro, Mario; Morales, Jorge; Guillén, Diego; Hutchinson, Martha L.; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A population sample of 10,049 women living in Guanacaste, Costa Rica was recruited into a natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia study in 1993–4. At the enrollment visit, we applied multiple state-of-the-art cervical cancer screening methods to detect prevalent cervical cancer and to prevent subsequent cervical cancers by the timely detection and treatment of precancerous lesions. Women were screened at enrollment with 3 kinds of cytology (often reviewed by more than one pathologist), visual inspection, and Cervicography. Any positive screening test led to colposcopic referral and biopsy and/or excisional treatment of CIN2 or worse. We retrospectively tested stored specimens with an early HPV test (Hybrid Capture Tube Test) and for >40 HPV genotypes using a research PCR assay. We followed women typically 5–7 years and some up to 11 years. Nonetheless, sixteen cases of invasive cervical cancer were diagnosed during follow-up. Six cancer cases were failures at enrollment to detect abnormalities by cytology screening; three of the six were also negative at enrollment by sensitive HPV DNA testing. Seven cancers represent failures of colposcopy to diagnose cancer or a precancerous lesion in screen-positive women. Finally, three cases arose despite attempted excisional treatment of precancerous lesions. Based on this evidence, we suggest that no current secondary cervical cancer prevention technologies applied once in a previously under-screened population is likely to be 100% efficacious in preventing incident diagnoses of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:19569231

  6. Does Patient Time Spent Viewing Computer-Tailored Colorectal Cancer Screening Materials Predict Patient-Reported Discussion of Screening with Providers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mechelle; Fiscella, Kevin; Veazie, Peter; Dolan, James G.; Jerant, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The main aim is to examine whether patients' viewing time on information about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening before a primary care physician (PCP) visit is associated with discussion of screening options during the visit. We analyzed data from a multi-center randomized controlled trial of a tailored interactive multimedia computer program…

  7. A real-time screening assay for GIRK1/4 channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth B

    2010-12-01

    The cardiac acetylcholine-activated K(+) channel (I(K,Ach)) represents a novel target for drug therapy in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). This channel is a member of the G-protein-coupled inward rectifier K(+) (GIRK) channel superfamily and is composed of the GIRK1/4 (Kir3.1 and Kir3.4) subunits. The goal of this study was to develop a cell-based screening assay for identifying new blockers of the GIRK1/4 channel. The mouse atrial HL-1 cell line, expressing the GIRK1/4 channel, was plated in 96-well plate format, loaded with the fluorescent membrane potential-sensitive dye bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiBAC(4)(3)) and measured using a fluorescent imaging plate reader (FLIPR). Application of the muscarinic agonist carbachol to the cells caused a rapid, time-dependent decrease in the fluorescent signal, indicative of K(+) efflux through the GIRK1/4 channel (carbachol vs. control solution, Z' factor = 0.5-0.6). The GIRK1/4 channel fluorescent signal was blocked by BaCl(2) and enhanced by increasing the driving force for K(+) across the cell membrane. To test the utility of the assay for screening GIRK1/4 channel blockers, cells were treated with a small compound library of Na(+) and K(+) channel modulators. Analogues of amiloride and propafenone were identified as channel blockers at concentrations less than 1 µM. Thus, the GIRK1/4 channel assay may be used in the development of new and selective agents for treating AF.

  8. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activity: a screening test for rickets in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Kovar, I; Mayne, P; Barltrop, D

    1982-02-06

    Both rickets and raised plasma alkaline phosphatase activity are common in the preterm infant. Measurement of plasma alkaline phosphatase activity is valuable in screening for active disease and in diagnosis, but normal reference data are not available for preterm babies. In 30 consecutive preterm infants (birthweight 1580 +/- 410 g, gestational age 31 +/- 2.5 weeks) serial measurements of plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, plasma levels of calcium and inorganic phosphorus, and the pattern of alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes were made. Four patterns of changes in plasma alkaline phosphatase activity with time were seen. 4 of the 30 infants were shown to have rickets; these children and 14 of the 26 non-rachitic infants showed an increasing/peak/decreasing pattern with increasing age, but levels were much higher in the rachitic infants. The activity in all 30 was raised above the adult and childhood reference ranges at some point in time. The data suggest that an activity of five times the upper limit of the normal adult reference range is acceptable in the preterm infant but an activity higher than this may suggest rickets.

  9. Developing a QSAR model for hepatotoxicity screening of the active compounds in traditional Chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shan-Han; Tung, Chun-Wei; Fülöp, Ferenc; Li, Jih-Heng

    2015-04-01

    The perception that natural substances are deemed safe has made traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) popular in the treatment and prevention of disease globally. However, such an assumption is often misleading owing to a lack of scientific validation. To assess the safety of TCM, in silico screening provides major advantages over the classical laboratory approaches in terms of resource- and time-saving and full reproducibility. To screen the hepatotoxicity of the active compounds of TCMs, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was firstly established by utilizing drugs from the Liver Toxicity Knowledge Base. These drugs were annotated with drug-induced liver injury information obtained from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance. The performance of the model after nested 10-fold cross-validation was 79.1%, 91.2%, 53.8% for accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively. The external validation of 91 well-known ingredients of common herbal medicines yielded a high accuracy (87%). After screening the TCM Database@Taiwan, the world's largest TCM database, a total of 6853 (74.8%) ingredients were predicted to have hepatotoxic potential. The one-hundred chemical ingredients predicted to have the highest hepatotoxic potential by our model were further verified by published literatures. Our study indicated that this model can serve as a complementary tool to evaluate the safety of TCM.

  10. Factors Associated with Screen Time among School-Age Children in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Sung, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics with screen time among school-age children in Korea. This study employed a nonexperimental, cross-sectional study design. A total of 370 children attending four elementary schools participated in the study. Self-report…

  11. Extending the Global Dialogue about Media, Technology, Screen Time, and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, James M.; Causey, Cora; Newton, Allison B.; Sharkins, Kimberly; Summerlin, Jennifer; Albaiz, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Questions about the potential benefits and dangers of media and technology use abound, with competing theories regarding its effects among young children. This article explores global perspectives on children's exposure to media, technology, and screen time (MeTS) in the schools, homes, and communities of an increasingly technology-driven world.…

  12. Moving beyond Screen Time: Redefining Developmentally Appropriate Technology Use in Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about what constitutes "developmentally appropriate" use of technology in early childhood education have, to date, focused largely on a single, blunt measure--screen time--that fails to capture important nuances, such as what type of media a child is accessing and whether technology use is taking place solo or with peers.…

  13. Young Children and Screen Time: Creating a Mindful Approach to Digital Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle Margaret

    2015-01-01

    To effectively address early childhood screen time concerns raised by parents and policy makers it is important to examine the current home digital environments of young children. The present study draws upon research that examined the home digital environment of Australian parents and their children (aged 2 to 4; N = 69). Parents completed a…

  14. Screening of anticancer activity from agarwood essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun; Phirdaous, Abbas; Azura, Amid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Agarwood is a priceless non-timber forest product from Aquilaria species belonging to the Thymelaeaceae family. As a result of a defence mechanism to fend off pathogens, Aquilaria species develop agarwood or resin which can be used for incense, perfumery, and traditional medicines. Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices showed that Aquilaria spp. have been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic practice and Chinese medicine to treat various diseases particularly the inflammatory-associated diseases. There have been no reports on traditional use of agarwood towards cancer treatment. However, this is most probably due to the fact that cancer nomenclature is used in modern medicine to describe the diseases associated with unregulated cell growth in which inflammation and body pain are involved. Objective: The aim of this current study was therefore to investigate the potential anticancer properties of agarwood essential oil obtained from distillation of agarwood (resin) towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was subjected to screening assays namely cell viability, cell attachment and sulforhodamine B (SRB)-based cytotoxicity assay to determine the IC50 value. Results: The agarwood essential oil caused reduction of the cell number in both the cell viability and attachment assay suggesting a cumulative effect of the cell killing, inhibition of the cell attachment and or causing cells to detach. The agarwood essential oil showed IC50 value of 900 μg/ml towards the cancer cells. Conclusion: The agarwood essential oil exhibited anticancer activity which supports the traditional use against the inflammatory-associated diseases. This warrants further investigation towards the development of alternative remedy towards cancer. PMID:25002797

  15. Is a Perceived Activity-Friendly Environment Associated with More Physical Activity and Fewer Screen-Based Activities in Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Bucksch, Jens; Nalecz, Hanna; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study from four European countries (n = 13,800, mean age = 14.4, 49.4% boys). We explored the association of perceived environment (e.g., “There are other children nearby home to go out and play with”) with physical activity and screen-based activities using a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, family affluence and country. Results: An environment perceived as activity-friendly was associated with higher odds that adolescents meet recommendations for physical activity (odds ratio (OR) for one standard deviation (SD) change = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.18) and lower odds for excessive screen-based activities (OR for 1 SD better = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88–0.98). Conclusions: Investment into an activity-friendly environment may support the promotion of active life styles in adolescence. PMID:28054953

  16. Is a Perceived Activity-Friendly Environment Associated with More Physical Activity and Fewer Screen-Based Activities in Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Bucksch, Jens; Nalecz, Hanna; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-01-03

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study from four European countries (n = 13,800, mean age = 14.4, 49.4% boys). We explored the association of perceived environment (e.g., "There are other children nearby home to go out and play with") with physical activity and screen-based activities using a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, family affluence and country. Results: An environment perceived as activity-friendly was associated with higher odds that adolescents meet recommendations for physical activity (odds ratio (OR) for one standard deviation (SD) change = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.18) and lower odds for excessive screen-based activities (OR for 1 SD better = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.98). Conclusions: Investment into an activity-friendly environment may support the promotion of active life styles in adolescence.

  17. Anti-Prion Screening for Acridine, Dextran, and Tannic Acid using Real Time-Quaking Induced Conversion: A Comparison with PrPSc-Infected Cell Screening.

    PubMed

    Hyeon, Jae Wook; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Sol Moe; Lee, Jeongmin; An, Seong Soo A; Lee, Myung Koo; Lee, Yeong Seon

    2017-01-01

    Prion propagation is mediated by the structural alteration of normal prion protein (PrPC) to generate pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc). To date, compounds for the inhibition of prion propagation have mainly been screened using PrPSc-infected cells. Real time-quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) is one alternative screening method. In this study, we assessed the propagation inhibition effects of known anti-prion compounds using RT-QuIC and compared the results with those from a PrPSc-infected cell assay. Compounds were applied to RT-QuIC reactions at 0 h or 22 h after prion propagation to determine whether they inhibited propagation or reduced amplified aggregates. RT-QuIC reactions in presence of acridine, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), and tannic acid inhibited seeded aggregation with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease at 0 h. After treatment at 22 h, amplified fluorescence was decreased in wells treated with either acridine or tannic acid. Compound activities were verified by western blot of RT-QuIC products and in a dye-independent conversion assay, the Multimer Detection System. Protease K-resistant PrPSc fragments (PrPres) were reduced by DSS and tannic acid in the PrPSc-infected cell assay. Importantly, these inhibitory effects were similar despite different treatment times (0 h versus 3 days). Consequentially, RT-QuIC enabled the more specific classification of compounds according to action (i.e., inhibition of prion propagation versus reduction of amplified aggregates). RT-QuIC addresses the limitations of cell-based screening methods and can be used to further aid our understanding of the mechanisms of action of anti-prion compounds.

  18. Low cost whole-organism screening of compounds for anthelmintic activity.

    PubMed

    Preston, Sarah; Jabbar, Abdul; Nowell, Cameron; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Baell, Jonathan; Cardno, Tony; Korhonen, Pasi K; Piedrafita, David; Ansell, Brendan R E; Jex, Aaron R; Hofmann, Andreas; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-04-01

    Due to major problems with drug resistance in parasitic nematodes of animals, there is a substantial need and excellent opportunities to develop new anthelmintics via genomic-guided and/or repurposing approaches. In the present study, we established a practical and cost-effective whole-organism assay for the in vitro-screening of compounds for activity against parasitic stages of the nematode Haemonchus contortus (barber's pole worm). The assay is based on the use of exsheathed L3 (xL3) and L4 stages of H. contortus of small ruminants (sheep and goats). Using this assay, we screened a panel of 522 well-curated kinase inhibitors (GlaxoSmithKline, USA; code: PKIS2) for activity against H. contortus by measuring the inhibition of larval motility using an automated image analysis system. We identified two chemicals within the compound classes biphenyl amides and pyrazolo[1,5-α]pyridines, which reproducibly inhibit both xL3 and L4 motility and development, with IC50s of 14-47 μM. Given that these inhibitors were designed as anti-inflammatory drugs for use in humans and fit the Lipinski rule-of-five (including bioavailability), they show promise for hit-to-lead optimisation and repurposing for use against parasitic nematodes. The screening assay established here has significant advantages over conventional methods, particularly in terms of ease of use, throughput, time and cost. Although not yet fully automated, the current assay is readily suited to the screening of hundreds to thousands of compounds for subsequent hit-to-lead optimisation. The current assay is highly adaptable to many parasites of socioeconomic importance, including those causing neglected tropical diseases. This aspect is of major relevance, given the urgent need to deliver the goals of the London Declaration (http://unitingtocombatntds.org/resource/london-declaration) through the rapid and efficient repurposing of compounds in public-private partnerships.

  19. Screening for new antitrichomonal substances of microbial origin and antitrichomonal activity of trichostatin A.

    PubMed

    Otoguro, K; Oiwa, R; Iwai, Y; Tanaka, H; Omura, S

    1988-04-01

    In vitro and in vivo screening methods for new antitrichomonal substances were established. Primary screening is based on in vitro antitrichomonal activities of culture broths of actinomycetes isolated from soil. With secondary screening, after crude materials obtained from the cultured broths were administered orally to mice, excretion of antitrichomonal activity into urine was examined. Tertiary screening was done by examining therapeutic activity for experimental trichomoniasis in mice with Trichomonas foetus. Using the screening systems, a new antibiotic (setamycin)-producing strain was picked out among about six thousands soil isolates, and the therapeutic efficacy of KM-3851, which was identified as trichostatin A, was found. It was active against T. foetus both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Multiple-Time Step Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Based on Two-Electron Integral Screening.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Shervin; Steele, Ryan P

    2015-03-10

    A multiple-timestep ab initio molecular dynamics scheme based on varying the two-electron integral screening method used in Hartree-Fock or density functional theory calculations is presented. Although screening is motivated by numerical considerations, it is also related to separations in the length- and timescales characterizing forces in a molecular system: Loose thresholds are sufficient to describe fast motions over short distances, while tight thresholds may be employed for larger length scales and longer times, leading to a practical acceleration of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Standard screening approaches can lead, however, to significant discontinuities in (and inconsistencies between) the energy and gradient when the screening threshold is loose, making them inappropriate for use in dynamics. To remedy this problem, a consistent window-screening method that smooths these discontinuities is devised. Further algorithmic improvements reuse electronic-structure information within the dynamics step and enhance efficiency relative to a naı̈ve multiple-timestepping protocol. The resulting scheme is shown to realize meaningful reductions in the cost of Hartree-Fock and B3LYP simulations of a moderately large system, the protonated sarcosine/glycine dipeptide embedded in a 19-water cluster.

  1. Applications of real-time PCR in the screening of platelet concentrates for bacterial contamination.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Pietersz, Ruby N I; Reesink, Henk W

    2006-11-01

    Although there have been major improvements over the past few decades in detection methods for blood-borne infectious agents, platelet concentrates are still responsible for most cases of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections. To date, real-time PCR is an indispensable tool in diagnostic laboratories to detect pathogens in a variety of biological samples. In this article, the applications of this powerful technique in the screening of platelet concentrates for bacterial contamination are discussed. Next to pathogen-specific (real-time) PCR assays, particular attention is directed to the recently developed 16S rDNA real-time PCR. This assay has been proven as a convenient way to detect bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates. The assay is sensitive and enables rapid detection of low initial numbers of bacteria in platelet concentrates. The short turnaround time of this assay allows high-throughput screening and reduction of the risk of transfusion of bacterially contaminated units. As with every method, real-time PCR has its advantages and disadvantages. These and especially limitations inherent to generation of false-positive or -negative results are emphasized. The universal nature of detection of the assay may be suitable for generalized bacterial screening of other blood components, such as red blood cells and plasma. Therefore, it is necessary to adapt and optimize detection in red blood cells and plasma with real-time PCR. Further sophistication, miniaturization and standardization of extraction and amplification methods should improve the total performance and robustness of the assay. Hence, real-time PCR is an attractive method in development as a more rapid screening test than currently used culture methods to detect bacterial contamination in blood components.

  2. A Sleeping Beauty screen reveals NF-kB activation in CLL mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zanesi, Nicola; Balatti, Veronica; Riordan, Jesse; Burch, Aaron; Rizzotto, Lara; Palamarchuk, Alexey; Cascione, Luciano; Lagana, Alessandro; Dupuy, Adam J; Croce, Carlo M; Pekarsky, Yuri

    2013-05-23

    TCL1 oncogene is overexpressed in aggressive form of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and its dysregulation in mouse B cells causes a CD5-positive leukemia similar to the aggressive form of human CLLs. To identify oncogenes that cooperate with Tcl1, we performed genetic screen in Eμ-TCL1 mice using Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated mutagenesis. Analysis of transposon common insertion sites identified 7 genes activated by transposon insertions. Overexpression of these genes in mouse CLL was confirmed by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, the main known function of 4 of 7 genes (Nfkb1, Tab2, Map3K14, and Nfkbid) is participation in or activation of the nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) pathway. In addition, activation of the NF-kB is 1 of main functions of Akt2, also identified in the screen. These findings demonstrate cooperation of Tcl1 and the NF-kB pathway in the pathogenesis of aggressive CLL. Identification cooperating cancer genes will result in the development of combinatorial therapies to treat CLL.

  3. An actor-based model of social network influence on adolescent body size, screen time, and playing sports.

    PubMed

    Shoham, David A; Tong, Liping; Lamberson, Peter J; Auchincloss, Amy H; Zhang, Jun; Dugas, Lara; Kaufman, Jay S; Cooper, Richard S; Luke, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that obesity may be "contagious" between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence), however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves) or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM) framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI), screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network) and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151). Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers' influence on one another, rather than treating "high risk" adolescents in isolation.

  4. An Actor-Based Model of Social Network Influence on Adolescent Body Size, Screen Time, and Playing Sports

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, David A.; Tong, Liping; Lamberson, Peter J.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Zhang, Jun; Dugas, Lara; Kaufman, Jay S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that obesity may be “contagious” between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence), however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves) or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM) framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI), screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network) and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151). Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers’ influence on one another, rather than treating “high risk” adolescents in isolation. PMID:22768124

  5. Computational reverse chemical ecology: Virtual screening and predicting behaviorally active semiochemicals for Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Semiochemical is a generic term used for a chemical substance that influences the behaviour of an organism. It is a common term used in the field of chemical ecology to encompass pheromones, allomones, kairomones, attractants and repellents. Insects have mastered the art of using semiochemicals as communication signals and rely on them to find mates, host or habitat. This dependency of insects on semiochemicals has allowed chemical ecologists to develop environment friendly pest management strategies. However, discovering semiochemicals is a laborious process that involves a plethora of behavioural and analytical techniques, making it expansively time consuming. Recently, reverse chemical ecology approach using odorant binding proteins (OBPs) as target for elucidating behaviourally active compounds is gaining eminence. In this scenario, we describe a “computational reverse chemical ecology” approach for rapid screening of potential semiochemicals. Results We illustrate the high prediction accuracy of our computational method. We screened 25 semiochemicals for their binding potential to a GOBP of B. dorsalis using molecular docking (in silico) and molecular dynamics. Parallely, compounds were subjected to fluorescent quenching assays (Experimental). The correlation between in silico and experimental data were significant (r2 = 0.9408; P < 0.0001). Further, predicted compounds were subjected to behavioral bioassays and were found to be highly attractive to insects. Conclusions The present study provides a unique methodology for rapid screening and predicting behaviorally active semiochemicals. This methodology may be developed as a viable approach for prospecting active semiochemicals for pest control, which otherwise is a laborious process. PMID:24640964

  6. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, L.B.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Selph, M.M.; Williams, C.V.

    1999-02-22

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. An alternative screening technology, Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD), could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Real time measurements provided by an EMWD system enable on-the-spot decisions to be made regarding sampling strategies. The system also enhances worker safety and provides the added flexibility of being able to steer a drill bit in or out of hazardous zones.

  7. Parental perceptions of technology and technology-focused parenting: Associations with youth screen time

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Wesley; Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Sullivan, Alexandra D.W.; Jones, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we propose a model linking parental perceptions of technology to technology-related parenting strategies to youth screen time, and, finally, to internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Participants were 615 parents drawn from three community samples of families with children across three developmental stages: young childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. The model was tested at each stage with the strongest support emerging in the young childhood sample. One component of parental perceptions of technology, perceived efficacy, was related to technology-related parenting strategies across developmental stages. However, the association of these strategies to child screen time and, in turn, problem behaviors, diminished as children increased in age. Implications for intervention are considered. PMID:27795603

  8. Cost–effectiveness of screening for active cases of tuberculosis in Flanders, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Smit, G Suzanne A; Apers, Ludwig; Arrazola de Onate, Wouter; Beutels, Philippe; Dorny, Pierre; Forier, An-Marie; Janssens, Kristien; Macq, Jean; Mak, Ruud; Schol, Sandrina; Wildemeersch, Dirk; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the cost–effectiveness of the tuberculosis screening activities currently funded by the Flemish government in Flanders, Belgium. Methods After estimating the expenses for 2013–2014 of each of nine screening components – which include high-risk groups, contacts and people who are seeking tuberculosis consultation at a centre for respiratory health care – and the associated costs per active case of tuberculosis identified between 2007 and 2014, we compared the cost–effectiveness of each component. The applied perspective was that of the Flemish government. Findings The three most cost-effective activities appeared to be the follow-up of asylum seekers who were found to have abnormal X-rays in initial screening at the Immigration Office, systematic screening in prisons and contact investigation. The mean costs of these activities were 5564 (95% uncertainty interval, UI: 3791–8160), 11 603 (95% UI: 9010–14 909) and 13 941 (95% UI: 10 723–18 201) euros (€) per detected active case, respectively. The periodic or supplementary initial screening of asylum seekers and the screening of new immigrants from high-incidence countries – which had corresponding costs of €51 813 (95% UI: 34 855–76 847), €126 236 (95% UI: 41 984–347 822) and €418 359 (95% UI: 74 975–1 686 588) – appeared much less cost-effective. Between 2007 and 2014, no active tuberculosis cases were detected during screening in the juvenile detention centres. Conclusion In Flanders, tuberculosis screening in juvenile detention centres and among new immigrants and the periodic or supplementary initial screening of asylum seekers appear to be relatively expensive ways of detecting people with active tuberculosis. PMID:28053362

  9. 77 FR 25187 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening Program AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the Transportation Security...

  10. 75 FR 9915 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening Program AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-Day notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the Transportation Security...

  11. Sensitive colorimetric assays for α-glucosidase activity and inhibitor screening based on unmodified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxia; Zhang, Jiangjiang; Wu, Heng; Koh, Kwangnak; Yin, Yongmei

    2015-05-22

    A colorimetric sensor has been developed in this work to sensitively detect α-glucosidase activity and screen α-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) utilizing unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The sensing strategy is based on triple-catalytic reaction triggered by α-glucosidase. In the presence of α-glucosidase, aggregation of AuNPs is prohibited due to the oxidation of cysteine to cystine in the system. However, with addition of AGIs, cysteine induced aggregation of AuNPs occurs. Thus, a new method for α-glucosidase activity detection and AGIs screening is developed by measuring the UV-vis absorption or visually distinguishing. A well linear relation is presented in a range of 0.0025-0.05 U mL(-1). The detection limit is found to be 0.001 U mL(-1) for α-glucosidase assay, which is one order of magnitude lower than other reports. The IC50 values of four kinds of inhibitors observed with this method are in accordance with other reports. The using of unmodified AuNPs in this work avoids the complicated and time-consuming modification procedure. This simple and efficient colorimetric method can also be extended to other enzymes assays.

  12. Non-parametric estimation of the post-lead-time survival distribution of screen-detected cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, J L; Prorok, P C

    1995-12-30

    The goal of screening programmes for cancer is early detection and treatment with a consequent reduction in mortality from the disease. Screening programmes need to assess the true benefit of screening, that is, the length of time of extension of survival beyond the time of advancement of diagnosis (lead-time). This paper presents a non-parametric method to estimate the survival function of the post-lead-time survival (or extra survival time) of screen-detected cancer cases based on the observed total life time, namely, the sum of the lead-time and the extra survival time. We apply the method to the well-known data set of the HIP (Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York) breast cancer screening study. We make comparisons with the survival of other groups of cancer cases not detected by screening such as interval cases, cases among individuals who refused screening, and randomized control cases. As compared with Walter and Stitt's model, in which they made parametric assumptions for the extra survival time, our non-parametric method provides a better fit to HIP data in the sense that our estimator for the total survival time has a smaller sum of squares of residuals.

  13. Chemical Composition Analysis, Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity Screening of Moss Extracts (Moss Phytochemistry).

    PubMed

    Klavina, Laura; Springe, Gunta; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Martsinkevich, Illia; Nakurte, Ilva; Dzabijeva, Diana; Steinberga, Iveta

    2015-09-18

    Mosses have been neglected as a study subject for a long time. Recent research shows that mosses contain remarkable and unique substances with high biological activity. The aim of this study, accordingly, was to analyze the composition of mosses and to screen their antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The total concentration of polyphenols and carbohydrates, the amount of dry residue and the radical scavenging activity were determined for a preliminary evaluation of the chemical composition of moss extracts. In order to analyze and identify the substances present in mosses, two types of extrahents (chloroform, ethanol) and the GC/MS and LC-TOF-MS methods were used. The antimicrobial activity was tested on four bacteria strains, and the anticancer activity on six cancer cell lines. The obtained results show the presence of a high number of primary (fatty acids and amino acids), but mainly secondary metabolites in moss extracts-including, sterols, terpenoids, polyphenols and others-and a high activity with respect to the studied test organisms.

  14. Identification of mangiferin as a potential Glucokinase activator by structure-based virtual ligand screening

    PubMed Central

    Min, Qiuxia; Cai, Xinpei; Sun, Weiguang; gao, Fei; Li, Zhimei; Zhang, Qian; Wan, Luo-Sheng; Li, Hua; Chen, Jiachun

    2017-01-01

    The natural product mangiferin (compound 7) has been identified as a potential glucokinase activator by structure-based virtual ligand screening. It was proved by enzyme activation experiment and cell-based assays in vitro, with potency in micromolar range. Meanwhile, this compound showed good antihyperglycemic activity in db/db mice without obvious side effects such as excessive hypoglycaemia. PMID:28317897

  15. Biological and analytical variations of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests and the activity of coagulation factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Shou, Weiling; Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Zhang, Yujuan; Huang, Chunmei; Cui, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To accurately estimate longitudinal changes in individuals, it is important to take into consideration the biological variability of the measurement. The few studies available on the biological variations of coagulation parameters are mostly outdated. We confirmed the published results using modern, fully automated methods. Furthermore, we added data for additional coagulation parameters. At 8:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm on days 1, 3, and 5, venous blood was collected from 31 healthy volunteers. A total of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests as well as the activity of coagulation factors were analyzed; these included prothrombin time, fibrinogen (Fbg), activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time activity, activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, fibrin(-ogen) degradation products, as well as the activity of factor II, factor V, factor VII, factor VIII, factor IX, and factor X. All intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVI) values for the parameters of the screening tests (except Fbg) were less than 5%. Conversely, the CVI values for the activity of coagulation factors were all greater than 5%. In addition, we calculated the reference change value to determine whether a significant difference exists between two test results from the same individual.

  16. A straightforward ninhydrin-based method for collagenase activity and inhibitor screening of collagenase using spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfang; Fu, Yun; Zhou, Sufeng; Kang, Lixia; Li, Changzheng

    2013-06-01

    Currently protease assay kits, requiring substrate that is either radiolabeled or fluorescence labeled and specialized instruments, are all expensive. A simple, reliable assay of protease activity and its inhibitor screening for general laboratory is rare. Here we demonstrated a straightforward ninhydrin-based method for assay of collagenase activity and its inhibitor screening using spectrophotometry. In the method, without multistep sample treatments and substrate labeling, the hydrolytic products were directly traced by ninhydrin. The method is expected to be suitable for not only the assay of collagenase activity but also the others matrix metalloproteinases activities, and can be used for kinetic study.

  17. Mouse Activity across Time Scales: Fractal Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Lima, G. Z. dos Santos; Lobão-Soares, B.; do Nascimento, G. C.; França, Arthur S. C.; Muratori, L.; Ribeiro, S.; Corso, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity - a typical 1/f complex pattern - while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals ( to : waking state and to : SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales ( to : waking state and to : SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anti-correlation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep-wake dynamics could lead to a better

  18. Real-time and online screening method for materials emitting volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changhyuk; Sul, Yong Tae; Pui, David Y. H.

    2016-09-01

    In the semiconductor industry, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the cleanroom air work as airborne molecular contamination, which reduce the production yield of semiconductor chips by forming nanoparticles and haze on silicon wafers and photomasks under ultraviolet irradiation during photolithography processes. Even though VOCs in outdoor air are removed by gas filters, VOCs can be emitted from many kinds of materials used in cleanrooms, such as organic solvents and construction materials (e.g., adhesives, flame retardants and sealants), threatening the production of semiconductors. Therefore, finding new replacements that emit lower VOCs is now essential in the semiconductor industry. In this study, we developed a real-time and online method to screen materials for developing the replacements by converting VOCs into nanoparticles under soft X-ray irradiation. This screening method was applied to measure VOCs emitted from different kinds of organic solvents and adhesives. Our results showed good repeatability and high sensitivity for VOCs, which come from aromatic compounds, some alcohols and all tested adhesives (Super glue and cleanroom-use adhesives). In addition, the overall trend of measured VOCs from cleanroom-use adhesives was well matched with those measured by a commercial thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is a widely used off-line method for analyzing VOCs. Based on the results, this screening method can help accelerate the developing process for reducing VOCs in cleanrooms.

  19. Time-driven activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Anderson, Steven R

    2004-11-01

    In the classroom, activity-based costing (ABC) looks like a great way to manage a company's limited resources. But executives who have tried to implement ABC in their organizations on any significant scale have often abandoned the attempt in the face of rising costs and employee irritation. They should try again, because a new approach sidesteps the difficulties associated with large-scale ABC implementation. In the revised model, managers estimate the resource demands imposed by each transaction, product, or customer, rather than relying on time-consuming and costly employee surveys. This method is simpler since it requires, for each group of resources, estimates of only two parameters: how much it costs per time unit to supply resources to the business's activities (the total overhead expenditure of a department divided by the total number of minutes of employee time available) and how much time it takes to carry out one unit of each kind of activity (as estimated or observed by the manager). This approach also overcomes a serious technical problem associated with employee surveys: the fact that, when asked to estimate time spent on activities, employees invariably report percentages that add up to 100. Under the new system, managers take into account time that is idle or unused. Armed with the data, managers then construct time equations, a new feature that enables the model to reflect the complexity of real-world operations by showing how specific order, customer, and activity characteristics cause processing times to vary. This Tool Kit uses concrete examples to demonstrate how managers can obtain meaningful cost and profitability information, quickly and inexpensively. Rather than endlessly updating and maintaining ABC data,they can now spend their time addressing the deficiencies the model reveals: inefficient processes, unprofitable products and customers, and excess capacity.

  20. Screening and biological activities of pedopeptins, novel inhibitors of LPS produced by soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kozuma, Shiho; Hirota-Takahata, Yuki; Fukuda, Daisuke; Kuraya, Nahoki; Nakajima, Mutsuo; Ando, Osamu

    2014-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a strong endotoxin and is delivered to the cell surface signaling receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 and MD-2 complex, via soluble cluster of differentiation (CD) 14 or membranous CD14, resulting in the induction of the inflammatory response. To obtain new compounds that block LPS binding to CD14, we designed a high-throughput screening based on time-resolved intermolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer. This cell-free screening system successfully led to the discovery of novel inhibitors of LPS-CD14 interaction from the library of the secondary metabolites of microorganisms. We identified the novel compounds pedopeptin A, B and C from a culture broth of Pedobacter sp. SANK 72003. Pedopeptins blocked LPS binding to CD14 in vitro with IC50 values of 20, 11 and 47 nM, respectively, and also inhibited LPS binding to the cells expressing CD14, leading to the suppression of cytokine production. Moreover, they showed antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 2 to 4 μg ml(-1).

  1. Profiling Physical Activity, Diet, Screen and Sleep Habits in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Maia, José A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children’s lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74–10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98–4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43–0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05). PMID:26043034

  2. Profiling physical activity, diet, screen and sleep habits in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Chaves, Raquel N; Champagne, Catherine M; Barreira, Tiago V; Maia, José A R

    2015-06-02

    Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children's lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/ socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74-10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98-4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43-0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05).

  3. Screening the Hemostatic Active Fraction of Artemisia annua L. In-vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bochu; Sui, Jing; Yu, Zhengwen; Zhu, Liancai

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua L. is the best medicine with the highest efficiency, the most effective and the lowest toxicity in treating ague nowadays. At present, most studies focus on artemisinin and its derivatives, while the study and report about the other active components are rare. This paper purposed to further discover new indication of Artemisia annua L. connecting with the record of traditional medicine. We screened the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. in-vitro by plasma recalcification time (PRT). The crude extract and the extract of n-butanol were purified by polyamide, MCI, gel column in order. Determining the part of 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel is the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. The shorten rate of clotting time are followed by: crude extract of Artemisin annua L. (8.51%); the n-butanol extract (14.89%); water eluting fraction after the extract of n-butanol was purificated by polyamide (22.11%); 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel (27.37%). It can provide experimental data for the clinical application of Artemisia annua L. which can be exploited as hemostatic. This topic has a certain academic value and potential prospects on the deep research of the Artemisia annua L. resource.

  4. Screening the Hemostatic Active Fraction of Artemisia annua L. In-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bochu; Sui, Jing; Yu, Zhengwen; Zhu, Liancai

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua L. is the best medicine with the highest efficiency, the most effective and the lowest toxicity in treating ague nowadays. At present, most studies focus on artemisinin and its derivatives, while the study and report about the other active components are rare. This paper purposed to further discover new indication of Artemisia annua L. connecting with the record of traditional medicine. We screened the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. in-vitro by plasma recalcification time (PRT). The crude extract and the extract of n-butanol were purified by polyamide, MCI, gel column in order. Determining the part of 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel is the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. The shorten rate of clotting time are followed by: crude extract of Artemisin annua L. (8.51%); the n-butanol extract (14.89%); water eluting fraction after the extract of n-butanol was purificated by polyamide (22.11%); 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel (27.37%). It can provide experimental data for the clinical application of Artemisia annua L. which can be exploited as hemostatic. This topic has a certain academic value and potential prospects on the deep research of the Artemisia annua L. resource. PMID:24363681

  5. Sunspot Time Series: Passive and Active Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zięba, S.; Nieckarz, Z.

    2014-07-01

    Solar activity slowly and irregularly decreases from the first spotless day (FSD) in the declining phase of the old sunspot cycle and systematically, but also in an irregular way, increases to the new cycle maximum after the last spotless day (LSD). The time interval between the first and the last spotless day can be called the passive interval (PI), while the time interval from the last spotless day to the first one after the new cycle maximum is the related active interval (AI). Minima of solar cycles are inside PIs, while maxima are inside AIs. In this article, we study the properties of passive and active intervals to determine the relation between them. We have found that some properties of PIs, and related AIs, differ significantly between two group of solar cycles; this has allowed us to classify Cycles 8 - 15 as passive cycles, and Cycles 17 - 23 as active ones. We conclude that the solar activity in the PI declining phase (a descending phase of the previous cycle) determines the strength of the approaching maximum in the case of active cycles, while the activity of the PI rising phase (a phase of the ongoing cycle early growth) determines the strength of passive cycles. This can have implications for solar dynamo models. Our approach indicates the important role of solar activity during the declining and the rising phases of the solar-cycle minimum.

  6. Screening of Australian medicinal plants for antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Semple, S J; Reynolds, G D; O'Leary, M C; Flower, R L

    1998-03-01

    Extracts of 40 different plant species used in the traditional medicine of the Australian Aboriginal people have been investigated for antiviral activity. The extracts have been tested for activity against one DNA virus, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and two RNA viruses, Ross River virus (RRV) and poliovirus type 1, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The most active extracts were the aerial parts of Pterocaulon sphacelatum (Asteraceae) and roots of Dianella longifolia var. grandis (Liliaceae), which inhibited poliovirus at concentrations of 52 and 250 microg/ml, respectively. The extracts of Euphorbia australis (Euphorbiaceae) and Scaevola spinescens (Goodeniaceae) were the most active against HCMV. Extracts of Eremophila latrobei subsp. glabra (Myoporaceae) and Pittosporum phylliraeoides var. microcarpa (Pittosporaceae) exhibited antiviral activity against RRV.

  7. Preference as a Function of Active Interresponse Times: A Test of the Active Time Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misak, Paul; Cleaveland, J. Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe a test of the active time model for concurrent variable interval (VI) choice. The active time model (ATM) suggests that the time since the most recent response is one of the variables controlling choice in concurrent VI VI schedules of reinforcement. In our experiment, pigeons were trained in a multiple concurrent…

  8. [High throughput screening atrazine chlorohydrolase mutants with enhanced activity through Haematococcus pluvialis expression system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Huizhuan; Chen, Xiwen; Hao, Xiaohua; Chen, Defu

    2011-04-01

    Developing a high-throughput screening method is of great importance for directed evolution of atrazine chlorohydrolase. A mutagenesis library of atzA from Pseudomonas sp. ADP and Arthrobacter sp. AD1 was constructed using error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling. Candidate mutants were screened through Haematococcus pluvialis expression system, using atrazine as selection pressure. Sequence analysis showed that mutations in the obtained 12 mutants with enhanced activity were all point-substitutions and scattered throughout the gene. Enzymatic activity analysis showed that the mutants all had higher activities than that of the wild type. The activities were 1.8-3.6 fold of the wild-type enzyme when cultured in BBM medium with 1 mg/L atrazine, whereas 1.8-2.6 fold with 2 mg/L atrazine. These results indicated that Haematococcus pluvialis expression system is an ideal high throughput screening system for directed evolution of atrazine chlorohydrolase.

  9. A modified reverse one-hybrid screen identifies transcriptional activation in Phyochrome-Interacting Factor 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional activation domains (TAD) are difficult to predict and identify, since they are not conserved and have little consensus. Here, we describe a yeast-based screening method that is able to identify individual amino acid residues involved in transcriptional activation in a high throughput...

  10. Barriers to Screening and Possibilities for Active Detection of Family Medicine Attendees Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    KOPČAVAR GUČEK, Nena; PETEK, Davorina; ŠVAB, Igor; SELIČ, Polona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 1996 the World Health Organization declared intimate partner violence (IPV) the most important public health problem. Meta-analyses in 2013 showed every third female globally had been a victim of violence. Experts find screening controversial; family medicine is the preferred environment for identifying victims of violence, but barriers on both sides prevent patients from discussing it with doctors. Methods In July 2014, a qualitative study was performed through semi-structured interviews with ten family doctors of different ages and gender, working in rural or urban environments. Sound recordings of the interviews were transcribed, and the record verified. The data were interpreted using content analysis. A coding scheme was developed and later verified and analysed by two independent researchers. The text of the interviews was analysed according to the coding scheme. Results Two coding schemes were developed: one for screening, and the other for the active detection of IPV. The main themes emerging as barriers to screening were lack of time, staff turnover, inadequate finance, ignorance of a clear definition, poor commitment to screening, obligatory follow-up, risk of deterioration of the doctor-patient relationship, and insincerity on the part of the patient. Additionally, cultural aspects of violence, uncertainty/ helplessness, fear, lack of competence and qualifications, autonomy/negative experience, and passive role/stigma/ fear on the part of the patients were barriers to active detection. Conclusion All the participating doctors had had previous experience with active detection of IPV and were aware of its importance. Due to several barriers to screening for violence they preferred active detection. PMID:27647084

  11. Real-Time Monitoring of Cellular Bioenergetics with a Multi-Analyte Screen-Printed Electrode

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jennifer R.; Cognata, Andrew C.; Davis, Anna N.; Wikswo, John P.; Cliffel, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of changes to cellular bioenergetics can provide new insights into mechanisms of action for disease and toxicity. This work describes the development of a multi-analyte screen-printed electrode for the detection of analytes central to cellular bioenergetics: glucose, lactate, oxygen, and pH. Platinum screen-printed electrodes were designed in-house and printed by Pine Research Instrumentation. Electrochemical plating techniques were used to form quasi-reference and pH electrodes. A Dimatix materials inkjet printer was used to deposit enzyme and polymer films to form sensors for glucose, lactate, and oxygen. These sensors were evaluated in bulk solution and microfluidic environments, and found to behave reproducibly and possess a lifetime of up to six weeks. Linear ranges and limits of detection for enzyme-based sensors were found to have an inverse relationship with enzyme loading, and iridium oxide pH sensors were found to have super-Nernstian responses. Preliminary measurements where the sensor was enclosed within a microfluidic channel with RAW 264.7 macrophages were performed to demonstrate the sensors’ capabilities for performing real-time microphysiometry measurements. PMID:26125545

  12. No Time To Lose - High Throughput Screening To Assess Nanomaterial Safety

    PubMed Central

    Damoiseaux, R; George, S; Li, M; Pokhrel, S; Ji, Z; France, B; Xia, T; Suarez, E; Rallo, R; Mädler, L; Cohen, Y; Hoek, EMV; Nel, A

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials hold great promise for medical, technological and economical benefits. Knowledge concerning the toxicological properties of these novel materials is typically lacking. At the same time, it is becoming evident that some nanomaterials could have a toxic potential in humans and the environment. Animal based systems lack the needed capacity to cope with the abundance of novel nanomaterials being produced, and thus we have to employ in vitro methods with high throughput to manage the rush logistically and use high content readouts wherever needed in order to gain more depth of information. Towards this end, high throughput screening (HTS) and high content screening (HCS) approaches can be used to speed up the safety analysis on a scale that commensurate with the rate of expansion of new materials and new properties. The insights gained from HTS/HCS should aid in our understanding of the tenets of nanomaterial hazard at biological level as well as asset the development of safe-by-design approaches. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the HTS/HCS methodology employed for safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including data analysis and prediction of potentially hazardous material properties. Given the current pace of nanomaterial development, HTS/HCS is a potentially effective means of keeping up with the rapid progress in this field – we have literally no time to lose. PMID:21301704

  13. Association of screen time with self-perceived attention problems and hyperactivity levels in French students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Guichard, Elie; Kurth, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether high levels of screen time exposure are associated with self-perceived levels of attention problems and hyperactivity in higher education students. Design Cross-sectional study among participants of the i-Share cohort. Setting French-speaking students of universities and higher education institutions. Participants 4816 graduate students who were at least 18 years old. Exposure Screen time was assessed by self-report of the average time spent on five different screen activities on smartphone, television, computer and tablet and categorised into quartiles. Main outcome measure We used the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) concerning students’ behaviour over the past 6 months to measure self-perceived levels of attention problems and hyperactivity. Responses were summarised into a global score as well as scores for attention problems and hyperactivity. Results The 4816 participants of this study had a mean age of 20.8 years and 75.5% were female. Multivariable ordinary regression models showed significant associations of screen time exposure with quintiles of the total score of self-perceived attention problems and hyperactivity levels as well as the individual domains. Compared to the lowest screen time exposure category, the ORs (95% CI) were 1.58 (1.37 to 1.82) for each increasing level of quintiles of the global score, 1.57 (1.36 to 1.81) for increasing quintiles of attention levels and 1.25 (1.09 to 1.44) for increasing quartiles of hyperactivity. Conclusions Results of this large cross-sectional study among French university and higher education students show dose-dependent associations between screen time and self-perceived levels of attention problems and hyperactivity. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether interventions could positively influence these associations. PMID:26920440

  14. Abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Delicata, M; Hambley, H

    2011-08-01

    Malignancy often results in clotting abnormalities. The aetiology of haemostasis problems in cancer is complex, and is still not completely understood. We describe a case of a patient with malignant mesothelioma, who was found to have elevated activated partial thromboplastin time, due to lupus anticoagulant. We suggest that patients with malignancy should have their coagulation checked prior to any invasive procedures.

  15. Screening of Uruguayan plants for deterrent activity against insects.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Lucía; González-Coloma, Azucena; González, Andrés; Díaz, Martina; Santos, Estela; Alonso-Paz, Eduardo; Bassagoda, María Julia; Rossini, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the anti-insectan activity of extracts from different vegetative parts of ten plant species native to Uruguay. The selected plants belong to five families: Bignoniaceae: Clytostoma callistegioides, Dolichandra cynanchoides, Macfadyena unguis-cati; Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa, Allophylus edulis, Serjania meridionalis; Lamiaceae: Salvia procurrens, Salvia guaranitica; Solanaceae: Lycium cestroides; and Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca dioica. The extracts were evaluated in independent bioassays against four insect pests and one beneficial insect. Aphid settling inhibition was evaluated with a grass specialist, Rhopalosiphum padi, and a feeding generalist, Myzus persicae (both Hemiptera: Aphididae). Antifeedant activity was tested with adults of the specialist Epilachna paenulata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and larvae of the generalist Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Finally, contact toxicity was assessed with honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Strong settling inhibition (SI) activity (expressed as %SI, where 100% means complete inhibition by the extract) was found only for the twig extracts of A. edulis (Sapindaceae) against M. persicae (% SI = 77 +/- 4). Antifeedant activity (expressed as % of feeding reduction (FR), where 100% means no consumption on extract-treated diet) against E. paenulata was significant for the leaf extracts of L. cestroides (Solanaceae) (% FR = 100 +/- 0) as well as of all Bignoniaceae and Sapindaceae species. No extracts were active against S. littoralis larvae, and most of them were innocuous to honey bees, with the exception of L. cestroides and S. meridionalis leaf extracts.

  16. Screening of Uruguayan plants for deterrent activity against insects

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Lucía; González-Coloma, Azucena; González, Andrés; Díaz, Martina; Santos, Estela; Alonso-Paz, Eduardo; Bassagoda, María Julia; Rossini, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the anti-insectan activity of extracts from different vegetative parts of ten plant species native to Uruguay. The selected plants belong to five families: Bignoniaceae: Clytostoma callistegioides, Dolichandra cynanchoides, Macfadyena unguis-cati; Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa, Allophylus edulis, Serjania meridionalis; Lamiaceae: Salvia procurrens, Salvia guaranitica; Solanaceae: Lycium cestroides; and Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca dioica. The extracts were evaluated in independent bioassays against four insect pests and one beneficial insect. Aphid settling inhibition was evaluated with a grass specialist, Rhopalosiphum padi, and a feeding generalist, Myzus persicae (both Hemiptera: Aphididae). Antifeedant activity was tested with adults of the specialist Epilachna paenulata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and larvae of the generalist Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Finally, contact toxicity was assessed with honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Strong settling inhibition (SI) activity (expressed as %SI, where 100% means complete inhibition by the extract) was found only for the twig extracts of A. edulis (Sapindaceae) against M. persicae (% SI = 77 ± 4). Antifeedant activity (expressed as % of feeding reduction (FR), where 100% means no consumption on extract-treated diet) against E. paenulata was significant for the leaf extracts of L. cestroides (Solanaceae) (% FR = 100 ± 0) as well as of all Bignoniaceae and Sapindaceae species. No extracts were active against S. littoralis larvae, and most of them were innocuous to honey bees, with the exception of L. cestroides and S. meridionalis leaf extracts. PMID:20046902

  17. A Focused Screen Identifies Antifolates with Activity on Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anuradha; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Pérez, Esther; Gonzalez, Ruben R.; Torres, Pedro; Calvo, David; Gómez, Ruben M.; Ortega, Fátima; Jiménez, Elena; Gabarro, Raquel C.; Rullás, Joaquín; Ballell, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    Antifolates are widely used to treat several diseases but are not currently used in the first-line treatment of tuberculosis, despite evidence that some of these molecules can target Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli in vitro. To identify new antifolate candidates for animal-model efficacy studies of tuberculosis, we paired knowledge and tools developed in academia with the infrastructure and chemistry resources of a large pharmaceutical company. Together we curated a focused library of 2508 potential antifolates, which were then tested for activity against live Mtb. We identified 210 primary hits, confirmed the on-target activity of potent compounds, and now report the identification and characterization of 5 hit compounds, representative of 5 different chemical scaffolds. These antifolates have potent activity against Mtb and represent good starting points for improvement that could lead to in vivo efficacy studies. PMID:26771003

  18. Screening of a Marine Algal Extract for Antifungal Activities.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Graciliana; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years algal extracts have become increasingly interesting to the scientific community due to their promising biological properties. Phlorotannin extracts are particularly attractive partly due to their reported antifungal activity against several yeast and dermatophyte strains.The micromethod used for the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) represents an effective and solvent-saving procedure to evaluate the antifungal activity of algae extracts. Here we describe the micromethod for determining the MIC and the MLC of algal extracts by using the example of a purified phlorotannin extract of brown algae.

  19. [Antitumor components screening of Stellera chamaejasme L. under the case of discrete distribution of active data].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian-Xu; Cheng, Meng-Chun; Wang, Li; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Xin; Xiao, Hong-Bin

    2014-06-01

    This is to report the screening, extracting and validating antitumor components and compounds from Stellera chamaejasme L. under the case of discrete distribution of active data. In this work, different components from Stellera chamaejasme L. were collected by HPD macroporous resin and polyamide resin column, and their antitumor activity on A549 were tested by MTT assay. Activity results indicate that activity of components at 30-39 min is more potent than that of Stellera chamaejasme L. extract, and the activity of components at 33.97 min is equivalent to positive drug, cis-platinum at 100 microg x mL(-1), but with totally different mode of action. Under the case of discrete activity, the weight analysis is capable of screening active components and compounds from natural products.

  20. Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils.

    PubMed

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60-80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40-98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.

  1. Screening for antibacterial and antibiofilm activities in Astragalus angulosus

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Hussein; El-Mestrah, Majid; Sweidan, Alaa; As-Sadi, Falah; Bazzal, Ali Al; Chokr, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Aim: In a search for finding novel therapeutic agents, extracts from an endemic Lebanese plant, Astragalus angulosus, were evaluated for their potential in-vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against three Gram-positive bacterial strains; Staphylococcus epidermidis (CIP444), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212); in addition to two Gram-negative strains, Escherichia coli (ATCC35218) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853). Materials and Methods: The plant was collected in April of 2013 and divided into several different portions, then its extracts were obtained by maceration using two different solvents. Extract analysis followed directly where microtiter broth dilution method was employed to assess antibacterial activity, while antibiofilm potential was tested using colorimetric method. Results: Whole plant ethanolic extract showed the highest bacteriostatic effect at a concentration of 12.78 mg/ml and also was the most versatile exerting its effect against 3 different strains. Other extracts also exhibited an effect but at higher concentrations and each against a single strain. Regarding antibiofilm activity, the majority of the extracts were able to eradicate >50% of S. epidermidis preformed biofilm, where the highest activity was obtained with flower fraction extracted in water, achieving 67.7% biofilm eradication at 0.2 mg/ml. Conclusions: This plant possesses a promising potential in regard to eradicating bacteria and their biofilms and it is the first contributing step of establishing a library for the endemic Lebanese plants in this domain. PMID:28163960

  2. Repositioning the substrate activity screening (SAS) approach as a fragment-based method for identification of weak binders.

    PubMed

    Gladysz, Rafaela; Cleenewerck, Matthias; Joossens, Jurgen; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Augustyns, Koen; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2014-10-13

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has evolved into an established approach for "hit" identification. Typically, most applications of FBDD depend on specialised cost- and time-intensive biophysical techniques. The substrate activity screening (SAS) approach has been proposed as a relatively cheap and straightforward alternative for identification of fragments for enzyme inhibitors. We have investigated SAS for the discovery of inhibitors of oncology target urokinase (uPA). Although our results support the key hypotheses of SAS, we also encountered a number of unreported limitations. In response, we propose an efficient modified methodology: "MSAS" (modified substrate activity screening). MSAS circumvents the limitations of SAS and broadens its scope by providing additional fragments and more coherent SAR data. As well as presenting and validating MSAS, this study expands existing SAR knowledge for the S1 pocket of uPA and reports new reversible and irreversible uPA inhibitor scaffolds.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Screening and Free-Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Novel Substituted Pyrazoles.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Nagwa Mohamed Mahrous; Abdo, Nadia Yousef Megally

    2015-06-08

    The present work deals with the synthesis of acetoxysulfonamide pyrazole derivatives, substituted 4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-carbothioamide and 4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-isonicotinoyl derivatives starting from substituted vanillin chalcones. Acetoxysulfonamide pyrazole derivatives were prepared from the reaction of chalcones with p-sulfamylphenylhydrazine followed by treatment with acetic anhydride. At the same time 4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-carbothioamide and 4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-isonicotinoyl derivatives were prepared from the reaction of chalcones with either thiosemicarbazide or isonicotinic acid hydrazide, respectively. The synthesized compounds were structurally characterized on the basis of IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectral data and microanalyses. All of the newly isolated compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial screening using the agar well-diffusion method revealed that the chloro derivatives are the most active ones. Moreover, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of these chloro derivatives are also studied using the DPPH radical scavenging and NO radical scavenging methods, respectively.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of an audit and feedback reporting tool on screening participation: The Primary Care Screening Activity Report (PCSAR).

    PubMed

    Jonah, Leigh; Pefoyo, Anna Kone; Lee, Alex; Hader, Joanne; Strasberg, Suzanne; Kupets, Rachel; Chiarelli, Anna M; Tinmouth, Jill

    2017-03-01

    Participation in cancer screening is critical to its effectiveness in reducing the burden of cancer. The Primary Care Screening Activity Report (PCSAR), an electronic report, was developed as an innovative audit and feedback tool to increase screening participation in Ontario's cancer screening programs. This study aims to assess its impact on patient screening participation. This study used a retrospective cohort design to evaluate the effectiveness of the 2014 PCSAR on screening participation in Ontario's three screening programs (breast, cervix and colorectal). The 3 cohorts comprised all participants eligible for each of the programs enrolled with a primary care physician in Ontario. Two exposures were evaluated for each cohort: enrollment with a physician who was registered to receive the PCSAR and enrollment with a registered physician who also logged into the PCSAR. Logistic regression modelling was used to assess the magnitude of the effect of PCSAR on participation, adjusting for participant and physician characteristics. Across all three screening programs, 63% of eligible physicians registered to receive the PCSAR and 38% of those registered logged-in to view it. Patients of physicians who registered were significantly more likely to participate in screening, with odds ratios ranging from 1.06 [1.04;1.09] to 1.15 [1.12;1.19]. The adjusted odds ratios associated with PCSAR log-in were 1.07 [1.03;1.12] to 1.18 [1.14;1.22] across all screening programs. Implementation of the PCSAR was associated with a small increase in screening participation. The PCSAR appears to be modestly effective in assisting primary care physicians in optimizing cancer screening participation among their patients.

  5. Extracting multistage screening rules from online dating activity data.

    PubMed

    Bruch, Elizabeth; Feinberg, Fred; Lee, Kee Yeun

    2016-09-20

    This paper presents a statistical framework for harnessing online activity data to better understand how people make decisions. Building on insights from cognitive science and decision theory, we develop a discrete choice model that allows for exploratory behavior and multiple stages of decision making, with different rules enacted at each stage. Critically, the approach can identify if and when people invoke noncompensatory screeners that eliminate large swaths of alternatives from detailed consideration. The model is estimated using deidentified activity data on 1.1 million browsing and writing decisions observed on an online dating site. We find that mate seekers enact screeners ("deal breakers") that encode acceptability cutoffs. A nonparametric account of heterogeneity reveals that, even after controlling for a host of observable attributes, mate evaluation differs across decision stages as well as across identified groupings of men and women. Our statistical framework can be widely applied in analyzing large-scale data on multistage choices, which typify searches for "big ticket" items.

  6. Mixing tests: diagnostic aides in the investigation of prolonged prothrombin times and activated partial thromboplastin times.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Geoffrey; Orellana, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Mixing tests are a relatively simple procedure used in the hemostasis laboratory as a first-line investigation into the cause of an abnormal screening test, typically a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and/or a prolonged prothrombin time. The mixing test involves combining the test plasma with normal plasma, then repeating the screening test on the mixture to assess whether the clotting time becomes normal or remains prolonged. The primary purpose of a mixing test is to guide further investigations. When mixing test results "normalize," this suggests the test plasma is deficient in clotting factor(s) and thus specific factor assays can be performed to determine which are reduced. When the mixing test result does not "normalize," this suggests the presence of an inhibitor or other type of interference (e.g., the presence of an anticoagulant such as high-dose heparinoids), and so the laboratory needs to determine if this is a lupus anticoagulant or a specific coagulation factor inhibitor, or another type of inhibitor. Because these follow-up investigations are more costly and time-consuming than the basic screening tests, the appropriate performance and interpretation of mixing tests is advantageous for the laboratory. Moreover, the correct laboratory approach is also clinically relevant, as patient management is ultimately affected, and an incorrect interpretation may lead to inappropriate therapies being established. Components of a mixing test that can influence result interpretation include the sensitivity of the used screening reagents to various factor deficiencies and inhibitors, the source or composition of the normal plasma, and the setting of cutoffs for the formula used in expressing mixing test results. Numerous and differing criteria for mixing test interpretation have been suggested historically, which can lead to confusion as to which approach is the most appropriate. The use of differing criteria will also lead to differing

  7. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development.

  8. Preliminary Screening of a Classical Ayurvedic Formulation for Anticonvulsant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Arnab; Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Ashish; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Seth, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a serious and complex central nervous system disorder associated with recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures due to the imbalance between excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) neurotransmitters level in the brain. The available treatments are neither competent to control the seizures nor prevent progress of disease. Since ages, Herbal medicines have remained important sources of medicines in many parts of world which is evidenced through their uses in traditional systems of medicine i.e. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy and Chinese etc. Aim: A polyherbal formulation (containing Terminalia chebula Retz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Embelia ribes Burm. F, Acorus calamus L., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers, Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy, Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke, Achyranthes aspera L.) is mentioned in Ayurvedic classics Bhaiṣajya Ratnāvali. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the formulation in Maximum electroshock and Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a polyherbal formulation was developed as directed by classical text and evaluated for the anticonvulsant activity using Maximal Electroshock Shock (MES) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions in rats. Statistical comparison was done by one way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's multiple comparison test. Results: The obtained results showed that the PHF had a protective role on epilepsy. Treatment with PHF significantly improves antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels significantly as compared to controls. PHF also significantly decreased malonaldialdehyde (MDA) levels in the brain. Moreover, it also attenuated the PTZ-induced increase in the activity of GABA-T in the rat brain. Conclusion: These findings suggest that PHF might have possible efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:28182033

  9. Endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water: estrogenic activity in the E-Screen.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2011-10-01

    Human exposure to endocrine disruptors is well documented by biomonitoring data. However, this information is limited to few chemicals like bisphenol A or phthalate plasticizers. To account for so-far unidentified endocrine disruptors and potential mixture effects we employ bioassays to detect endocrine activity in foodstuff and consequently characterize the integrated exposure to endocrine active compounds. Recently, we reported a broad contamination of commercially available bottled water with estrogenic activity and presented evidence for the plastic packaging being a source of this contamination. In continuation of that work, we here compare different sample preparation methods to extract estrogen-like compounds from bottled water. These data demonstrate that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may lead to false-negative results when testing water extracts in bioassays. Using an optimized sample preparation strategy, we furthermore present data on the estrogenic activity of bottled water from France, Germany, and Italy: eleven of the 18 analyzed water samples (61.1%) induced a significant estrogenic response in a bioassay employing a human carcinoma cell line (MCF7, E-Screen). The relative proliferative effects ranged from 19.8 to 50.2% corresponding to an estrogenic activity of 1.9-12.2 pg estradiol equivalents per liter bottled water. When comparing water of the same spring that is packed in glass or plastic bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), estrogenic activity is three times higher in water from plastic bottles. These data support the hypothesis that PET packaging materials are a source of estrogen-like compounds. Furthermore, the findings presented here conform to previous studies and indicate that the contamination of bottled water with endocrine disruptors is a transnational phenomenon.

  10. In vitro screening of antifungal activity of marine sponge extracts against five phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    El Amraoui, Belkassem; El Wahidi, Majida; Fassouane, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our research is the screening of extracts of marine sponges for their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. The in vitro screening of hydroalcoholic and organic extracts of ten marine sponges from Atlantic coast of Morocco against five phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum) showed that only two sponges (Haliclona viscosa and Cynachirella tarentina) are active against all phytopathogenic fungi studied.

  11. The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    Sedentary screen time may be an important determinant of childhood obesity. A number of potential mechanisms to explain the link between screen time and increased bodyweight have been proposed; however, the relationship appears to be best explained by the effects on dietary intake, which is attributed to either food advertising or effects independent of food advertising. Technological advances have allowed for greater accessibility and exposure to advertisement-free screen-based media. This review was conducted to systematically synthesise the evidence from laboratory based studies which have investigated the non-advertising effects of screen time (TV viewing, sedentary video games, and computer use) on dietary intake in children, adolescents, and young adults. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Embase were searched from inception through 5 July 2013. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Risk of study bias was judged to range from low to high. Screen time in the absence of food advertising was consistently found to be associated with increased dietary intake compared with non-screen behaviours. Suggested explanations for this relationship included: distraction, interruption of physiologic food regulation, screen time as a conditioned cue to eat, disruption of memory formation, and the effects of the stress-induced reward system. Due to the limited number of high-quality studies available for this review, our findings are preliminary. More work is required to better establish the link between dietary intake and advertisement-free screen time and assess whether differences exist between the different screen-based activities.

  12. The screening of chemicals for juvenoid-related endocrine activity using the water flea Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Wang, Helen Ying; Olmstead, Allen W; Li, Hong; Leblanc, Gerald A

    2005-09-10

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is charged with developing a screening and testing paradigm for detecting endocrine toxicity of chemicals that are subject to regulation under the Food Quality Protection and the Safe Drinking Water Acts. In this study, we developed and evaluated a screening assay that could be employed to detect juvenoid-related endocrine-modulating activity in an invertebrate species. Juvenoid activity, anti-juvenoid activity, and juvenoid potentiator activity of chemicals was assessed using the water flea Daphnia magna. Male sex determination is under the regulatory control of juvenoid hormone, presumably methyl farnesoate, and this endpoint was used to detect juvenoid modulating activity of chemicals. Eighteen chemicals were evaluated for juvenoid agonist activity. Positive responses were detected with the juvenoid hormones methyl farnesoate and juvenile hormone III along with the insect growth regulating insecticides pyriproxyfen, fenoxycarb, and methoprene. Weak juvenoid activity also was detected with the cyclodiene insecticide dieldrin. Assays performed repetitively with compounds that gave either strong positive, weak positive, or negative response were 100% consistent indicating that the assay is not prone to false positive or negative responses. Five candidate chemicals were evaluated for anti-juvenoid activity and none registered positive. Four chemicals (all trans-retinoic acid, methoprene, kinoprene, bisphenol A) also were evaluated for their ability to potentiate the activity of methyl farnesoate. All registered positive. Results demonstrate that an in vivo assay with a crustacean species customarily employed in toxicity testing can be used to effectively screen chemicals for juvenoid-modulating activity.

  13. Screen Fingerprints as a Novel Modality for Active Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    have been the target of research for much longer time (33 years for keystroke dynamics [6] and 9 years for mouse dynamics [9]) and the performance of...Rajkumar Janakiraman. Are digraphs good for free- text keystroke dynamics ? In Proc. IEEE Conf. on Comput. Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pages...such as voice, expression, keystroke , etc., are unique to an individual, biometric analysis offers a reliable and natural solution to the problem

  14. A screening for antimicrobial activities of Caribbean herbal remedies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The TRAMIL program aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, which is a “biodiversity hotspot” due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. The antibacterial activity was examined for thirteen plant species from several genera that were identified as a result of TRAMIL ethnopharmacological surveys or were reported in ethnobotanical accounts from Puerto Rico. The aim of this study was to validate the traditional use of these plant species for the treatment of bacterial infections, such as conjunctivitis, fever, otitis media and furuncles. Methods An agar disc diffusion assay was used to examine five bacterial strains that are associated with the reported infections, including Staphylococcus saprophyticus (ATCC 15305), S. aureus (ATCC 6341), Escherichia coli (ATCC 4157), Haemophilus influenzae (ATCC 8142), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 7700) and Proteus vulgaris (ATCC 6896), as well as the fungus Candida albicans (ATCC 752). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined for each of the extracts that showed inhibitory activity. Results The decoctions of Pityrogramma calomelanos, Tapeinochilus ananassae, and Syzygium jambos, as well as the juice of Gossypium barbadense, showed > 20% growth inhibition against several bacteria relative to the positive control, which was the antibiotic Streptomycin. Extracts with the best antimicrobial activities were S. jambos that showed MIC = 31 μg/mL and MBC = 1.0 mg/mL against P. vulgaris and T. ananassae that showed MIC = 15 μg/mL against S. aureus. Conclusion This report confirms the traditional use of P. calomelanos for the treatment of kidney infections that are associated with stones, as well as the antimicrobial and bactericidal effects of T. ananassae against P. vulgaris and S. saprophyticus and the effects of S. jambos against S

  15. Extracting multistage screening rules from online dating activity data

    PubMed Central

    Bruch, Elizabeth; Feinberg, Fred; Lee, Kee Yeun

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical framework for harnessing online activity data to better understand how people make decisions. Building on insights from cognitive science and decision theory, we develop a discrete choice model that allows for exploratory behavior and multiple stages of decision making, with different rules enacted at each stage. Critically, the approach can identify if and when people invoke noncompensatory screeners that eliminate large swaths of alternatives from detailed consideration. The model is estimated using deidentified activity data on 1.1 million browsing and writing decisions observed on an online dating site. We find that mate seekers enact screeners (“deal breakers”) that encode acceptability cutoffs. A nonparametric account of heterogeneity reveals that, even after controlling for a host of observable attributes, mate evaluation differs across decision stages as well as across identified groupings of men and women. Our statistical framework can be widely applied in analyzing large-scale data on multistage choices, which typify searches for “big ticket” items. PMID:27578870

  16. Screening of Panamanian Plant Extracts for Pesticidal Properties and HPLC-Based Identification of Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Guldbrandsen, Niels; De Mieri, Maria; Gupta, Mahabir; Seiser, Tobias; Wiebe, Christine; Dickhaut, Joachim; Reingruber, Rüdiger; Sorgenfrei, Oliver; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    A library of 600 taxonomically diverse Panamanian plant extracts was screened for fungicidal, insecticidal, and herbicidal activities. A total of 19 active extracts were submitted to HPLC-based activity profiling, and extracts of Bocconia frutescens, Miconia affinis, Myrcia splendens, Combretum aff. laxum, and Erythroxylum macrophyllum were selected for the isolation of compounds. Chelerythrine (2), macarpine (3), dihydrosanguinarine (5), and arjunolic acid (8) showed moderate-to-good fungicidal activity. Myricetin-3-O-(6’’-O-galloyl)-β-galactopyranoside (13) showed moderate insecticidal activity, but no compound with herbicidal activity was identified. PMID:26839818

  17. Screen Time, How Much Is Too Much? The Social and Emotional Costs of Technology on the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeese, Katherine Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Screen time no longer means just the amount of time one spends in front of the television. Now it is an aggregate amount of time spent on smartphones, computers as well as multitasking with different devices. How much are the glowing rectangles taking away from adolescent social and emotional health? How is it changing how students learn and how…

  18. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of One-Time Screening and Treatment for Hepatitis C in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Young; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Jun, Byungyool; Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Sohee; Ward, Thomas; Webster, Samantha; McEwan, Phil

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims This study aims to investigate the cost-effectiveness of a one-time hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening and treatment program in South Korea where hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevails, in people aged 40–70, compared to current practice (no screening). Methods A published Markov model was used in conjunction with a screening and treatment decision tree to model patient cohorts, aged 40–49, 50–59 and 60–69 years, distributed across chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and compensated cirrhosis (CC) health states (82.5% and 17.5%, respectively). Based on a published seroepidemiology study, HCV prevalence was estimated at 0.60%, 0.80% and 1.53%, respectively. An estimated 71.7% of the population was screened. Post-diagnosis, 39.4% of patients were treated with a newly available all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimen over 5 years. Published rates of sustained virologic response, disease management costs, transition rates and utilities were utilised. Results Screening resulted in the identification of 43,635 previously undiagnosed patients across all cohorts. One-time HCV screening and treatment was estimated to be cost-effective across all cohorts; predicted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from $5,714 to $8,889 per quality-adjusted life year gained. Incremental costs associated with screening, treatment and disease management ranged from $156.47 to $181.85 million USD; lifetime costs-offsets associated with the avoidance of end stage liver disease complications ranged from $51.47 to $57.48 million USD. Conclusions One-time HCV screening and treatment in South Korean people aged 40–70 is likely to be highly cost-effective compared to the current practice of no screening. PMID:28060834

  19. Recent improvement in lung cancer screening: a comparison of the results carried out in two different time periods.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Takuji; Nishii, Kenji; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Takuo; Gemba, Kenichi; Kodani, Tsuyoshi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tabata, Masahiro; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate recent improvements in lung cancer screening, we compared the results of recently conducted lung cancer screening with those of a previous screening. This study compared the survival of lung cancer patients detected by lung cancer screening conducted between 1976 and 1984 (early period) with that conducted between 1989 and 1997 (late period). Two hundred seventy-six patients with lung cancer were detected in the early period and 541 patients with lung cancer were detected in the late period. The median survival time (late : 49.8 vs. early : 27.8 months) and the 5-year survival rate (late : 47.8 vs. early : 34.8%) of the patients with lung cancer detected in the late period were significantly better than those in the early period (p = 0.0054). Among patients undergoing resection, the proportion of pathological stage I patients in the late period was significantly higher than that in the early period (late : 60.8 vs. early : 54.9%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that the screening time period was a significant prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 0.685, 95% confidence interval : 0.563-0.832, p = 0.0002). These results were consistent with the findings of case-control studies of lung cancer screening programs in the late period recently conducted in Japan, which also showed a greater efficacy for screening than for previous case-control studies in the early period.

  20. A consolidated method for screening the endocrine activity of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chevolleau, Sylvie; Debrauwer, Laurent; Stroheker, Thomas; Viglino, Liza; Mourahib, Issam; Meireles, Maria-Helena; Grimaldi, Marina; Balaguer, Patrick; di Gioia, Lodovico

    2016-12-15

    Endocrine activity of drinking water is a matter of growing interest for scientists as well as health authorities. A concentration technique for endocrine activity screening was developed, optimized, and transposed from 200mL to 10L water samples. To avoid any contamination during concentration, the method was developed using exclusively glass, Teflon and stainless steel materials. Any potential losses were tracked using three model radiolabeled molecules, namely BPA, DEHP and 4n-NP. The final method allowed 10L water samples to be concentrated 5000-fold, with good recovery and repeatability. After validation, by concentrating spiked and non-spiked 10L samples of EVIAN natural mineral water, 14 different drinking water samples were concentrated and screened for endocrine disrupting activity using bioluminescent assays. Samples consisting of bottled water, conditioned in various materials (glass, PET) and subjected to different storage conditions, had no hormone-like activities whereas estrogenic activity was found in the filtered tap water.

  1. Screening of some New Caledonian and Vanuatu medicinal plants for antimycobacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Billo, M; Cabalion, P; Waikedre, J; Fourneau, C; Bouttier, S; Hocquemiller, R; Fournet, A

    2005-01-04

    Twenty plants, belonging to sixteen families, used in traditional New Caledonian and Vanuatu medicine for treatment of symptoms potentially related to tuberculosis (cough, fever or inflammation) were screened for antimycobacterial activity. We also screened an original endemic plant, Amborella trichopoda, only member of the monogeneric family Amborellaceae and considered the most primitive living angiosperm. In total, 55 extracts were evaluated for inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. Methanolic and dichloromethane extracts of Amborella trichopoda, Codiaeum peltatum, Myristica fatua, and essential oils Myoporum crassifolium showed an activity at this concentration. Methanolic extract of Amborella trichopoda fruits presented a significant activity with a minimal inhibitory concentration included between 1 and 2.5 microg/ml. In the same conditions, this activity was comparable with those of the reference drugs pyrazynamide and ethambutol, at 20 and 2.5 microg/ml, respectively.

  2. Bacillus subtilis as a tool for screening soil metagenomic libraries for antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Biver, Sophie; Steels, Sébastien; Portetelle, Daniel; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2013-06-28

    Finding new antimicrobial activities by functional metagenomics has been shown to depend on the heterologous host used to express the foreign DNA. Therefore, efforts are devoted to developing new tools for constructing metagenomic libraries in shuttle vectors replicatable in phylogenetically distinct hosts. Here we evaluated the use of the Escherichia coli-Bacillus subtilis shuttle vector pHT01 to construct a forest-soil metagenomic library. This library was screened in both hosts for antimicrobial activities against four opportunistic bacteria: Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Micrococcus luteus. A new antibacterial activity against B. cereus was found upon screening in B. subtilis. The new antimicrobial agent, sensitive to proteinase K, was not active when the corresponding DNA fragment was expressed in E. coli. Our results validate the use of pHT01 as a shuttle vector and B. subtilis as a host to isolate new activities by functional metagenomics.

  3. Solar activity affects avian timing of reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Marcel E.; Sanz, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    Avian timing of reproduction is strongly affected by ambient temperature. Here we show that there is an additional effect of sunspots on laying date, from five long-term population studies of great and blue tits (Parus major and Cyanistes caeruleus), demonstrating for the first time that solar activity not only has an effect on population numbers but that it also affects the timing of animal behaviour. This effect is statistically independent of ambient temperature. In years with few sunspots, birds initiate laying late while they are often early in years with many sunspots. The sunspot effect may be owing to a crucial difference between the method of temperature measurements by meteorological stations (in the shade) and the temperatures experienced by the birds. A better understanding of the impact of all the thermal components of weather on the phenology of ecosystems is essential when predicting their responses to climate change. PMID:19574283

  4. A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chenyu; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-01-01

    Breath analysis has been considered a suitable tool to evaluate diseases of the respiratory system and those that involve metabolic changes, such as diabetes. Breath acetone has long been known as a biomarker for diabetes. However, the results from published data by far have been inconclusive regarding whether breath acetone is a reliable index of diabetic screening. Large variations exist among the results of different studies because there has been no “best-practice method” for breath-acetone measurements as a result of technical problems of sampling and analysis. In this mini-review, we update the current status of our development of a laser-based breath acetone analyzer toward real-time, one-line diabetic screening and a point-of-care instrument for diabetic management. An integrated standalone breath acetone analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique has been developed. The instrument was validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linear fittings suggest that the obtained acetone concentrations via both methods are consistent. Breath samples from each individual subject under various conditions in total, 1257 breath samples were taken from 22 Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, which is one of the largest numbers of T2D subjects ever used in a single study, and 52 non-diabetic healthy subjects. Simultaneous blood glucose (BG) levels were also tested using a standard diabetic management BG meter. The mean breath acetone concentrations were determined to be 4.9 ± 16 ppm (22 T1D), and 1.5 ± 1.3 ppm (312 T2D), which are about 4.5 and 1.4 times of the one in the 42 non-diabetic healthy subjects, 1.1 ± 0.5 ppm, respectively. A preliminary quantitative correlation (R = 0.56, p < 0.05) between the mean individual breath acetone concentration and the mean individual BG levels does exist in 20 T1D subjects with no ketoacidosis. No direct correlation is observed in T1D subjects, T

  5. Screen media usage, sleep time and academic performance in adolescents: clustering a self-organizing maps analysis.

    PubMed

    Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; González, Luis M; García-Massó, Xavier; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Devís-Devís, José

    2014-01-01

    Screen media usage, sleep time and socio-demographic features are related to adolescents' academic performance, but interrelations are little explored. This paper describes these interrelations and behavioral profiles clustered in low and high academic performance. A nationally representative sample of 3,095 Spanish adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was surveyed on 15 variables linked to the purpose of the study. A Self-Organizing Maps analysis established non-linear interrelationships among these variables and identified behavior patterns in subsequent cluster analyses. Topological interrelationships established from the 15 emerging maps indicated that boys used more passive videogames and computers for playing than girls, who tended to use mobile phones to communicate with others. Adolescents with the highest academic performance were the youngest. They slept more and spent less time using sedentary screen media when compared to those with the lowest performance, and they also showed topological relationships with higher socioeconomic status adolescents. Cluster 1 grouped boys who spent more than 5.5 hours daily using sedentary screen media. Their academic performance was low and they slept an average of 8 hours daily. Cluster 2 gathered girls with an excellent academic performance, who slept nearly 9 hours per day, and devoted less time daily to sedentary screen media. Academic performance was directly related to sleep time and socioeconomic status, but inversely related to overall sedentary screen media usage. Profiles from the two clusters were strongly differentiated by gender, age, sedentary screen media usage, sleep time and academic achievement. Girls with the highest academic results had a medium socioeconomic status in Cluster 2. Findings may contribute to establishing recommendations about the timing and duration of screen media usage in adolescents and appropriate sleep time needed to successfully meet the demands of school academics and to improve

  6. Screen Media Usage, Sleep Time and Academic Performance in Adolescents: Clustering a Self-Organizing Maps Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; González, Luis M.; García-Massó, Xavier; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Devís-Devís, José

    2014-01-01

    Screen media usage, sleep time and socio-demographic features are related to adolescents' academic performance, but interrelations are little explored. This paper describes these interrelations and behavioral profiles clustered in low and high academic performance. A nationally representative sample of 3,095 Spanish adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was surveyed on 15 variables linked to the purpose of the study. A Self-Organizing Maps analysis established non-linear interrelationships among these variables and identified behavior patterns in subsequent cluster analyses. Topological interrelationships established from the 15 emerging maps indicated that boys used more passive videogames and computers for playing than girls, who tended to use mobile phones to communicate with others. Adolescents with the highest academic performance were the youngest. They slept more and spent less time using sedentary screen media when compared to those with the lowest performance, and they also showed topological relationships with higher socioeconomic status adolescents. Cluster 1 grouped boys who spent more than 5.5 hours daily using sedentary screen media. Their academic performance was low and they slept an average of 8 hours daily. Cluster 2 gathered girls with an excellent academic performance, who slept nearly 9 hours per day, and devoted less time daily to sedentary screen media. Academic performance was directly related to sleep time and socioeconomic status, but inversely related to overall sedentary screen media usage. Profiles from the two clusters were strongly differentiated by gender, age, sedentary screen media usage, sleep time and academic achievement. Girls with the highest academic results had a medium socioeconomic status in Cluster 2. Findings may contribute to establishing recommendations about the timing and duration of screen media usage in adolescents and appropriate sleep time needed to successfully meet the demands of school academics and to improve

  7. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J.; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  8. Stably transfected human cell lines as fluorescent screening assay for nuclear factor KB activation dependent gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Horneck, Gerda

    2004-06-01

    Activation of the Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway as a possible antiapoptotic route represents one important cellular stress response. For identifying conditions which are capable to modify this pathway, a screening assay for detection of NF-kappaB-dependent gene activation using the reporter proteins Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) and its destabilized variant (d2EGFP) has been developed. Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK/293) cells were stably transfected with a vector carrying EGFP or d2EGFP under control of a synthetic promoter containing four copies of the NF-kappaB response element. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gave rise to substantial EGFP / d2EGFP expression in up to 90 % of the cells and was therefore used to screen different stably transfected clones for induction of NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The time course of d2EGFP expression after treatment with TNF-alpha or phorbol ester was measured using flow cytometry. Cellular response to TNF-alpha was faster than to phorbol ester. Treatment of cells with TNF-alpha and DMSO revealed antagonistic interactions of these substances in the activation NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The detection of d2EGFP expression required FACS analysis or fluorescence microscopy, while EGFP could also be measured in the microplate reader, rendering the assay useful for high-throughput screening.

  9. Associations of Caffeinated Beverage Consumption and Screen Time with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean High School Students

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated caffeinated beverage consumption and screen time in the association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep duration. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 249 Korean male high school students. These participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring the information on lifestyle factors, consumption of caffeinated beverages, time spent for screen media, and sleep duration as well as to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire. EDS was defined as ESS scores of 9 or greater. Students with EDS consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks and spent longer time for a TV and a mobile phone than those without EDS (p < 0.05). In addition, students with short sleep (≤ 6 hours) consumed greater amount of coffee than others whereas students with long sleep (> 8 hours) consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks than others (p < 0.05). Screen time did not differ according to the categories of sleep duration. Although these findings do not support causal relationships, they suggest that screen time is associated with EDS, but not with sleep duration, and that consumption of certain types of caffeinated beverages is associated with EDS and sleep duration. Adolescents may need to reduce screen time and caffeine consumption to improve sleep quality and avoid daytime sleepiness. PMID:28168182

  10. Associations of Caffeinated Beverage Consumption and Screen Time with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean High School Students.

    PubMed

    Jun, Nuri; Lee, Aeri; Baik, Inkyung

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated caffeinated beverage consumption and screen time in the association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep duration. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 249 Korean male high school students. These participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring the information on lifestyle factors, consumption of caffeinated beverages, time spent for screen media, and sleep duration as well as to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire. EDS was defined as ESS scores of 9 or greater. Students with EDS consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks and spent longer time for a TV and a mobile phone than those without EDS (p < 0.05). In addition, students with short sleep (≤ 6 hours) consumed greater amount of coffee than others whereas students with long sleep (> 8 hours) consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks than others (p < 0.05). Screen time did not differ according to the categories of sleep duration. Although these findings do not support causal relationships, they suggest that screen time is associated with EDS, but not with sleep duration, and that consumption of certain types of caffeinated beverages is associated with EDS and sleep duration. Adolescents may need to reduce screen time and caffeine consumption to improve sleep quality and avoid daytime sleepiness.

  11. A Pipeline for Screening Small Molecules with Growth Inhibitory Activity against Burkholderia cenocepacia

    PubMed Central

    Selin, Carrie; Stietz, Maria S.; Blanchard, Jan E.; Hall, Dennis G.; Brown, Eric D.; Cardona, Silvia T.

    2015-01-01

    Infections with the bacteria Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are very difficult to eradicate in cystic fibrosis patients due the intrinsic resistance of Bcc to most available antibiotics and the emergence of multiple antibiotic resistant strains during antibiotic treatment. In this work, we used a whole-cell based assay to screen a diverse collection of small molecules for growth inhibitors of a relevant strain of Bcc, B. cenocepacia K56-2. The primary screen used bacterial growth in 96-well plate format and identified 206 primary actives among 30,259 compounds. From 100 compounds with no previous record of antibacterial activity secondary screening and data mining selected a total of Bce bioactives that were further analyzed. An experimental pipeline, evaluating in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity, toxicity and in vivo antibacterial activity using C. elegans was used for prioritizing compounds with better chances to be further investigated as potential Bcc antibacterial drugs. This high throughput screen, along with the in vitro and in vivo analysis highlights the utility of this experimental method to quickly identify bioactives as a starting point of antibacterial drug discovery. PMID:26053039

  12. 77 FR 10761 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Screening Requirements for Carriers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Screening Requirements for Carriers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security ACTION: 30-Day notice and request for comments; extension of an existing collection of information. SUMMARY: U.S....

  13. No time for the gym? Housework and other non-labor market time use patterns are associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among adults in full-time, sedentary jobs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-11-01

    Physical activity and inactivity have distinct cardio-metabolic consequences, suggesting that combinations of activities can impact health above and beyond the effects of a single activity. However, little work has examined patterns of non-labor market time activity in the US population, particularly among full-time employees in sedentary occupations, who are at increased risk of adverse health consequences associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Identification of these patterns, and how they are related to total physical activity levels, is important for developing effective, attainable physical activity recommendations among sedentary employees, who typically have less time available for exercise. This is especially the case for low-income employees who face the highest time and financial barriers to achieving physical activity goals. This study uses cluster analysis to examine patterns of non-labor market time use among full-time (≥40 h/week) employed adults in sedentary occupations (<3 MET-h) on working days in the American Time Use Study. We then examine whether these patterns are associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations and higher overall physical activity (MET-h). We find that non-labor market time use patterns include those characterized by screen activities, housework, caregiving, sedentary leisure, and exercise. For both genders, the screen pattern was the most common and increased from 2003 to 2012, while the exercise pattern was infrequent and consistent across time. Screen, sedentary leisure, and community patterns were associated with lower likelihoods of meeting physical activity recommendations, suggesting that interventions targeting screen time may miss opportunities to improve physical activity among similarly sedentary groups. Alternately, non-labor market time use patterns characterized by housework and caregiving represented feasible avenues for increasing overall physical activity levels, especially for

  14. Organ donor screening using parallel nucleic acid testing allows assessment of transmission risk and assay results in real time.

    PubMed

    Baleriola, C; Tu, E; Johal, H; Gillis, J; Ison, M G; Law, M; Coghlan, P; Rawlinson, W D

    2012-06-01

    Expansion of the donor pool may lead to utilization of donors with risk factors for viral infections. Donor laboratory screening relies on serological and nucleic acid testing (NAT). The increased sensitivity of NAT in low prevalence populations may result in false-positive results (FPR) and may cause unnecessary discard of organs.We developed a screening algorithm to deal, in real time, with potential FPR. Three NAT assays: COBAS AmpliScreen assay (CAS), AmpliPrep Total Nucleic Acid Isolation/CAS, and AmpliPrep/TaqMan assays, were validated and used in parallel for prospective screening of increased-risk donors (IRD), and the probability of FPR was calculated. The lower limit of detection of this algorithm was 9.79, 21.02, and 4.31 IU/mL for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus, respectively, with an average turn-around-time of 7.67 h from sample receipt to result reporting. The probability that a donor is potentially infectious with two NAT concordant results was >90%. NAT screening of 35 IRD within 18 months resulted in transplantation of 102 additional organs that without screening would either not be used or used with restrictions in Australia. Using a parallel testing algorithm, real-time confirmation of seropositive donors allows use of organs from IRD and safer expansion of the donor pool.

  15. PROTEOMICS IN ECOTOXICOLOGY: PROTEIN EXPRESSION PROFILING TO SCREEN CHEMICALS FOR ENDOCRINE ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for poster.

    Current endocrine testing methods are animal intensive and lack the throughput necessary to screen large numbers of environmental chemicals for adverse effects. In this study, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry...

  16. Activated partial thromboplastin time and minor coagulopathies.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, W E; Assmus, S L; Montgomery, R R; Dubansky, A S

    1979-01-01

    Five commercially available activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test systems were compared with the kaolin partial thromboplastin time (KPTT) method to determine sensitivity in detecting minor coagulation defects. All reagent systems detected severe factor VIII-, IX-, and XI-deficient hemophilia. Homozygous states of factor XII deficiency, Fletcher factor deficiency, and high-molecular-weight kininogen deficiency (Fitzgerald trait) also showed abnormally long APTTs by all systems. Of 19 samples from patients with deficiencies of factors XII, VIII, IX, XI, and II ranging from 2.5 to 52%, eight had deficiencies that were not detected by reagent A (ellagic acid); two, by reagent B (ellagic acid); two, by reagent C (kaolin); one, by reagent D (silica); one, by the KPTT method. All deficiencies were detected by reagent E (celite). Heparin effect on plasma was less well detected by reagent A (ellagic acid) than with the other test systems. APTT test systems can vary greatly in their abilities to detect minor coagulation abnormalities.

  17. Studies on free radical scavenging activity in Chinese seaweeds part I. Screening results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Fang, Guo-Ming; Lou, Qing-Xiang

    1999-09-01

    Antioxidants have attracted the attention of researchers due to their beneficial effects as free radical scavengers. Application of a stable free radical named 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) to screen the free radical scavenging activity in 27 species of Chinese seaweed showed that 15 of them had significant activity in at least one of the organic solvent extracts. The most interesting seaweed species were Gelidium amansii, Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Polysiphonia urceolata, Sargassum kjellmanianum, Desmarestia viridis, and Rhodomela teres.

  18. Two-Step Bipolar Electrochemistry: Generation of Composition Gradient and Visual Screening of Electrocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Termebaf, Hajar; Shayan, Mohsen; Kiani, Abolfazl

    2015-12-08

    Bipolar electrochemistry (BE) is employed for both creating electrocatalysts composition gradient and visual screening of the prepared composition on a single substrate in just two experiment runs. In a series of proof-of-principle experiments, we demonstrate gradient electrodeposition of Ni-Cu using BE; then the electrocatalytic activity of the prepared composition gradient toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is visually screened in the BE system using array of BPEs. Moreover, the morphology and the chemical composition of the Ni-Cu gradient are screened along the length of the bipolar electrode (BPE). By measuring the potential gradient over the BPE, it is also demonstrated that by controlling the concentration of the metals precursor and the supporting electrolyte, the length of the bipolar electrodeposited gradient can be controlled.

  19. A high throughput gas exchange screen for determining rates of photorespiration or regulation of C4 activity.

    PubMed

    Bellasio, Chandra; Burgess, Steven J; Griffiths, Howard; Hibberd, Julian M

    2014-07-01

    Large-scale research programmes seeking to characterize the C4 pathway have a requirement for a simple, high throughput screen that quantifies photorespiratory activity in C3 and C4 model systems. At present, approaches rely on model-fitting to assimilatory responses (A/C i curves, PSII quantum yield) or real-time carbon isotope discrimination, which are complicated and time-consuming. Here we present a method, and the associated theory, to determine the effectiveness of the C4 carboxylation, carbon concentration mechanism (CCM) by assessing the responsiveness of V O/V C, the ratio of RuBisCO oxygenase to carboxylase activity, upon transfer to low O2. This determination compares concurrent gas exchange and pulse-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence under ambient and low O2, using widely available equipment. Run time for the procedure can take as little as 6 minutes if plants are pre-adapted. The responsiveness of V O/V C is derived for typical C3 (tobacco, rice, wheat) and C4 (maize, Miscanthus, cleome) plants, and compared with full C3 and C4 model systems. We also undertake sensitivity analyses to determine the impact of R LIGHT (respiration in the light) and the effectiveness of the light saturating pulse used by fluorescence systems. The results show that the method can readily resolve variations in photorespiratory activity between C3 and C4 plants and could be used to rapidly screen large numbers of mutants or transformants in high throughput studies.

  20. The time is now to implement HPV testing for primary screening in low resource settings.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Louise; Denny, Lynette

    2017-05-01

    Unacceptable disparities in cervical cancer between richer and poorer countries persist and serve as reminders of gross disparities in access to and quality of screening services. HPV testing is well-suited to address some of the barriers to implementing adequate screening programs in low resource settings. HPV testing has considerably better sensitivity than cytology providing the same extent of safety with fewer rounds of screening. New robust HPV testing platforms require little to no skill by laboratory workers and some can be used at the point-of-care. This allows for a round of screening to be accomplished in one or two visits, reducing costs and the inevitable attrition that occurs when women need to be recalled to obtain their results. HPV testing is ideal for incorporating into the new "screen-and-treat" approaches designed to overcome limitations of conventional, multi-visit, colposcopy-based approaches to screening. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is the screening test that has been used most widely in screen-and-treat programs to date but the performance characteristics of this test are poor. HPV-based screen-and-treat is more effective in reducing disease in the population and reduces over-treatment intrinsic to this approach. HPV testing can be adapted or combined with other molecular tests to improve treatment algorithms. Infrastructure established to support VIA-based screen-and-treat can effectively incorporate HPV testing. We are poised at a critical juncture in public health history to implement HPV testing as part of primary screening and thereby improve women's health in low resource settings.

  1. Time-resolved luminescence screening method for enrofloxacin in beef serum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enrofloxacin is one of only two fluoroquinolone antibiotics approved for use in cattle in the U.S. Microbial screening methods currently used in the U.S. for monitoring veterinary drug residues are not sensitive or selective for fluoroquinolones. In this work, a luminescence-based screening assay ...

  2. Screening for catalytically active Type II restriction endonucleases using segregation-induced methylation deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ukanis, Mindaugas; Sapranauskas, Rimantas; Lubys, Arvydas

    2012-01-01

    Type II restriction endonucleases (REases) are one of the basic tools of recombinant DNA technology. They also serve as models for elucidation of mechanisms for both site-specific DNA recognition and cleavage by proteins. However, isolation of catalytically active mutants from their libraries is challenging due to the toxicity of REases in the absence of protecting methylation, and techniques explored so far had limited success. Here, we present an improved SOS induction-based approach for in vivo screening of active REases, which we used to isolate a set of active variants of the catalytic mutant, Cfr10IE204Q. Detailed characterization of plasmids from 64 colonies screened from the library of ∼200 000 transformants revealed 29 variants of cfr10IR gene at the level of nucleotide sequence and 15 variants at the level of amino acid sequence, all of which were able to induce SOS response. Specific activity measurements of affinity-purified mutants revealed >200-fold variance among them, ranging from 100% (wild-type isolates) to 0.5% (S188C mutant), suggesting that the technique is equally suited for screening of mutants possessing high or low activity and confirming that it may be applied for identification of residues playing a role in catalysis. PMID:22753027

  3. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Fiber Paper by Active Screen Plasma Nitriding and Its Microwave Heating Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Naishu; Ma, Shining; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2016-12-28

    In this paper, active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) treatment was performed on polyacrylonitrile carbon fiber papers. Electric resistivity and microwave loss factor of carbon fiber were described to establish the relationship between processing parameters and fiber's ability to absorb microwaves. The surface processing effect of carbon fiber could be characterized by dynamic thermal mechanical analyzer testing on composites made of carbon fiber. When the process temperature was at 175 °C, it was conducive to obtaining good performance of dynamical mechanical properties. The treatment provided a way to change microwave heating properties of carbon fiber paper by performing different treatment conditions, such as temperature and time parameters. Atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that, during the course of ASPN treatment on carbon fiber paper, nitrogen group was introduced and silicon group was removed. The treatment of nitrogen-doped carbon fiber paper represented an alternative promising candidate for microwave curing materials used in repairing and heating technology, furthermore, an efficient dielectric layer material for radar-absorbing structure composite in metamaterial technology.

  4. Syringe test screening of microbial gas production activity: Cases denitrification and biogas formation.

    PubMed

    Østgaard, Kjetill; Kowarz, Viktoria; Shuai, Wang; Henry, Ingrid A; Sposob, Michal; Haugen, Hildegunn Hegna; Bakke, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Mass produced plastic syringes may be applied as vessels for cheap, simple and large scale batch culture testing. As illustrated for the cases of denitrification and of biogas formation, metabolic activity was monitored by direct reading of the piston movement due to the gas volume formed. Pressure buildup due to friction was shown to be moderate. A piston pull and slide back routine can be applied before recording gas volume to minimize experimental errors due to friction. Inoculum handling and activity may be conveniently standardized as illustrated by applying biofilm carriers. A robust set of positive as well as negative controls ("blanks") should be included to ensure quality of the actual testing. The denitrification test showed saturation response at increasing amounts of inoculum in the form of adapted moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers, with well correlated nitrate consumption vs. gas volume formed. As shown, the denitrification test efficiently screened different inocula at standardized substrates. Also, different substrates were successfully screened and compared at standardized inocula. The biogas potential test showed efficient screening of different substrates with effects of relative amounts of carbohydrate, protein, fat. A second case with CO2 capture reclaimer waste as substrate demonstrated successful use of co-feeding to support waste treatment and how temperature effects on kinetics and stoichiometry can be observed. In total, syringe test screening of microbial gas production seems highly efficient at a low cost when properly applied.

  5. Screening of Pharmacologically Active Small Molecule Compounds Identifies Antifungal Agents Against Candida Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Watamoto, Takao; Egusa, Hiroshi; Sawase, Takashi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Candida species have emerged as important and common opportunistic human pathogens, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The current antifungal therapies either have toxic side effects or are insufficiently effect. The aim of this study is develop new small-molecule antifungal compounds by library screening methods using Candida albicans, and to evaluate their antifungal effects on Candida biofilms and cytotoxic effects on human cells. Wild-type C. albicans strain SC5314 was used in library screening. To identify antifungal compounds, we screened a small-molecule library of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC1280TM) using an antifungal susceptibility test (AST). To investigate the antifungal effects of the hit compounds, ASTs were conducted using Candida strains in various growth modes, including biofilms. We tested the cytotoxicity of the hit compounds using human gingival fibroblast (hGF) cells to evaluate their clinical safety. Only 35 compounds were identified by screening, which inhibited the metabolic activity of C. albicans by >50%. Of these, 26 compounds had fungistatic effects and nine compounds had fungicidal effects on C. albicans. Five compounds, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate, ellipticine and CV-3988, had strong fungicidal effects and could inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida biofilms. However, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate and ellipticine were cytotoxic to hGF cells at low concentrations. CV-3988 showed no cytotoxicity at a fungicidal concentration. Four of the compounds identified, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate and ellipticine, had toxic effects on Candida strains and hGF cells. In contrast, CV-3988 had fungicidal effects on Candida strains, but low cytotoxic effects on hGF cells. Therefore, this screening reveals agent, CV-3988 that was previously unknown to be antifungal agent, which could be a novel therapies for superficial mucosal candidiasis. PMID

  6. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Some Yemeni Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Salah A. A.; Hasson, Sidgi; Althawab, Faisal M. N.; Alaghbari, Sama A. Z.; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    The traditional medicine still plays an important role in the primary health care in Yemen. The current study represents the investigation of 16 selected plants, which were collected from different localities of Yemen. The plants were dried and extracted with two different solvents (methanol and hot water) to yield 34 crude extracts. The obtained extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains using agar diffusion method, for their antioxidant activity using scavenging activity of DPPH radical method and for their cytotoxic activity using the neutral red uptake assay. In addition, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Antibacterial activity was shown only against Gram-positive bacteria, among them multiresistant bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity was exhibited by the methanolic extracts of Acalypha fruticosa, Centaurea pseudosinaica, Dodonaea viscosa, Jatropha variegata, Lippia citriodora, Plectranthus hadiensis, Tragia pungens and Verbascum bottae. Six methanolic extracts especially those of A. fruticosa, Actiniopteris semiflabellata, D. viscosa, P. hadiensis, T. pungens and V. bottae showed high free radical scavenging activity. Moreover, remarkable cytotoxic activity against FL-cells was found for the methanolic extracts of A. fruticosa, Iris albicans, L. citriodora and T. pungens. The phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of different types of compounds like flavonoids, terpenoids and others, which could be responsible for the obtained activities. PMID:18955315

  7. An exposure:activity profiling method for interpreting high-throughput screening data for estrogenic activity--proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Becker, Richard A; Friedman, Katie Paul; Simon, Ted W; Marty, M Sue; Patlewicz, Grace; Rowlands, J Craig

    2015-04-01

    Rapid high throughput in vitro screening (HTS) assays are now available for characterizing dose-responses in assays that have been selected for their sensitivity in detecting estrogen-related endpoints. For example, EPA's ToxCast™ program recently released endocrine assay results for more than 1800 substances and the interagency Tox21 consortium is in the process of releasing data for approximately 10,000 chemicals. But such activity measurements alone fall short for the purposes of priority setting or screening because the relevant exposure context is not considered. Here, we extend the method of exposure:activity profiling by calculating the exposure:activity ratios (EARs) using human exposure estimates and AC50 values for a range of chemicals tested in a suite of seven estrogenic assays in ToxCast™ and Tox21. To provide additional context, relative estrogenic exposure:activity quotients (REEAQ) were derived by comparing chemical-specific EARs to the EAR of the ubiquitous dietary phytoestrogen, genistein (GEN). Although the activity of a substance in HTS-endocrine assays is not a measure of health hazard or risk, understanding how such a dose compares to human exposures provides a valuable additional metric that can be used in decision-making; substances with small EARs and REEAQs would indicate low priority for further endocrine screening or testing.

  8. REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES [11505

    SciTech Connect

    BROCK CT

    2011-01-13

    Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

  9. Brief Report: Association between Socio-Demographic Factors, Screen Media Usage and Physical Activity by Type of Day in Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Tomas, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors, screen media time usage, and light, moderate and vigorous activities on weekdays and weekends. Cross-sectional data was collected from 323 Spanish adolescents (mean age 13.59 years) who completed an interview administered recall questionnaire. Structural equation models…

  10. Cluster Randomized Trial of a Church-Based Peer Counselor and Tailored Newsletter Intervention to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening and Physical Activity among Older African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Lucia A.; Allicock, Marlyn; Pignone, Michael P.; Walsh, Joan F.; Johnson, La-Shell; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Carr, Carol C.; Langford, Aisha; Ni, Andy; Resnicow, Ken; Campbell, Marci K.

    2016-01-01

    Action Through Churches in Time to Save Lives (ACTS) of Wellness was a cluster randomized controlled trial developed to promote colorectal cancer screening and physical activity (PA) within urban African American churches. Churches were recruited from North Carolina (n = 12) and Michigan (n = 7) and were randomized to intervention (n = 10) or…

  11. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo screening models for androgenic and estrogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Sonneveld, Edwin; Riteco, Jacoba A C; Jansen, Hendrina J; Pieterse, Bart; Brouwer, Abraham; Schoonen, Willem G; van der Burg, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Identification of nuclear receptor-mediated endocrine activities is important in a variety of fields, ranging from pharmacological and clinical screening, to food and feed safety, toxicological monitoring, and risk assessment. Traditionally animal studies such as the Hershberger and Allen-Doisy tests are used for the assessment of androgenic and estrogenic potencies, respectively. To allow fast analysis of the activities of new chemicals, food additives, and pharmaceutical compounds, high-throughput screening strategies have been developed. Here, a panel of mainly steroidal compounds, screened in different in vitro assays, was compared with two human U2-OS cell line-based CALUX (Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression) reporter gene assays for androgens (AR CALUX) and estrogens (ERalpha CALUX). Correlations found between the data of these two CALUX reporter gene assays and data obtained with other in vitro screening assays measuring receptor binding or reporter gene activation (CHO cell line-based) were good (correlation coefficients (r2) between 0.54 and 0.76; p < 0.0001). Good correlations were also found between the in vitro and in vivo data (correlation coefficient r2 = 0.46 for the AR CALUX vs. Hershberger assay and r2 = 0.87 for the ERalpha CALUX vs. Allen-Doisy assay). The variations in the results obtained with the reporter gene assays (CALUX vs. CHO cell line based) were relatively small, showing the robustness of these types of assays. Using hierarchical clustering, bioactivity relationships between compounds but also relationships between various bioassays were determined. The in vitro assays were found to be good predictors of in vivo androgenic or estrogenic activity of a range of compounds, allowing prescreen and/or possible reduction of animal studies.

  12. Estrogenic activity of constituents of underarm deodorants determined by E-Screen assay.

    PubMed

    Lange, Claudia; Kuch, Bertram; Metzger, Jörg W

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether different kinds of underarm deodorants commercially available in Germany might contain substances with estrogenic potential which after use enter the aquatic environment via wastewater. Twenty five deodorants produced by ten different manufacturers in the form of sprays, roll-ons and sticks were investigated using an in vitro-test system (E-Screen assay) for the determination of estrogenic activity based on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Seven out of ten spray deodorant samples showed a quantifiable estrogenic activity. In the case of the sticks and roll-ons it was only one out of six and one out of nine, respectively. The 17β-estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs) of the samples ranged from 0.1 ng g(-1) to 9 ng g(-1) deodorant. Spray deodorant samples showed the highest activities in the E-Screen assay compared to the stick and roll-on deodorants. In order to identify substances possibly contributing to the observed biological activity the samples were additionally analyzed by GC/MS. The obtained results of this non-target screening led to the selection of 62 single substances present in the deodorants which for their part were analyzed by E-Screen assay. Eight of these single substances, all of them fragrances, showed estrogenic effects with estradiol equivalence factors (EEFs) similar to parabens, a group of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters commonly used as preservatives in personal care products, which are known to have a slight estrogenic effect. Thus, these fragrances are obviously responsible to a substantial degree for the observed estrogenic activity of the deodorants.

  13. A new versatile microarray-based method for high throughput screening of carbohydrate-active enzymes.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Pedersen, Henriette L; Schückel, Julia; Arnal, Grégory; Dumon, Claire; Amby, Daniel B; Monrad, Rune Nygaard; Westereng, Bjørge; Willats, William G T

    2015-04-03

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes have multiple biological roles and industrial applications. Advances in genome and transcriptome sequencing together with associated bioinformatics tools have identified vast numbers of putative carbohydrate-degrading and -modifying enzymes including glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. However, there is a paucity of methods for rapidly screening the activities of these enzymes. By combining the multiplexing capacity of carbohydrate microarrays with the specificity of molecular probes, we have developed a sensitive, high throughput, and versatile semiquantitative enzyme screening technique that requires low amounts of enzyme and substrate. The method can be used to assess the activities of single enzymes, enzyme mixtures, and crude culture broths against single substrates, substrate mixtures, and biomass samples. Moreover, we show that the technique can be used to analyze both endo-acting and exo-acting glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate esterases, and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. We demonstrate the potential of the technique by identifying the substrate specificities of purified uncharacterized enzymes and by screening enzyme activities from fungal culture broths.

  14. Extensive screening for edible herbal extracts with potent scavenging activity against superoxide anions.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2008-06-01

    To search for edible herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity, we conducted a large scale screening based on the superoxide scavenging activity. That is, scavenging activity against superoxide anions were extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1,000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method. Among them we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to reduce the signal intensity of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO)-OOH, a spin adduct formed by DMPO and superoxide anion. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit), and are allowed to be used as foodstuffs according to the Japanese legal regulation. The ESR-spin trapping method coupled with steady state kinetic analysis showed that all of the four extracts directly scavenge superoxide anions, and that the superoxide scavenging potential of any of the extracts was comparable to that of L-ascorbic acid. Furthermore, polyphenol determination indicates that the activity is at least in part attributable to polyphenols. These results with such large scale screening might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff.

  15. Rapid ester biosynthesis screening reveals a high activity alcohol-O-acyltransferase (AATase) from tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jyun-Liang; Zhu, Jie; Wheeldon, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Ethyl and acetate esters are naturally produced in various yeasts, plants, and bacteria. The biosynthetic pathways that produce these esters share a common reaction step, the condensation of acetyl/acyl-CoA with an alcohol by alcohol-O-acetyl/acyltransferase (AATase). Recent metabolic engineering efforts exploit AATase activity to produce fatty acid ethyl esters as potential diesel fuel replacements as well as short- and medium-chain volatile esters as fragrance and flavor compounds. These efforts have been limited by the lack of a rapid screen to quantify ester biosynthesis. Enzyme engineering efforts have also been limited by the lack of a high throughput screen for AATase activity. Here, we developed a high throughput assay for AATase activity and used this assay to discover a high activity AATase from tomato fruit, Solanum lycopersicum (Atf-S.l). Atf1-S.l exhibited broad specificity towards acyl-CoAs with chain length from C4 to C10 and was specific towards 1-pentanol. The AATase screen also revealed new acyl-CoA substrate specificities for Atf1, Atf2, Eht1, and Eeb1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Atf-C.m from melon fruit, Cucumis melo, thus increasing the pool of characterized AATases that can be used in ester biosynthesis of ester-based fragrance and flavor compounds as well as fatty acid ethyl ester biofuels.

  16. A New Versatile Microarray-based Method for High Throughput Screening of Carbohydrate-active Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Pedersen, Henriette L.; Schückel, Julia; Arnal, Grégory; Dumon, Claire; Amby, Daniel B.; Monrad, Rune Nygaard; Westereng, Bjørge; Willats, William G. T.

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes have multiple biological roles and industrial applications. Advances in genome and transcriptome sequencing together with associated bioinformatics tools have identified vast numbers of putative carbohydrate-degrading and -modifying enzymes including glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. However, there is a paucity of methods for rapidly screening the activities of these enzymes. By combining the multiplexing capacity of carbohydrate microarrays with the specificity of molecular probes, we have developed a sensitive, high throughput, and versatile semiquantitative enzyme screening technique that requires low amounts of enzyme and substrate. The method can be used to assess the activities of single enzymes, enzyme mixtures, and crude culture broths against single substrates, substrate mixtures, and biomass samples. Moreover, we show that the technique can be used to analyze both endo-acting and exo-acting glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate esterases, and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. We demonstrate the potential of the technique by identifying the substrate specificities of purified uncharacterized enzymes and by screening enzyme activities from fungal culture broths. PMID:25657012

  17. Screening a Commercial Library of Pharmacologically Active Small Molecules against Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Nelson S.; Abercrombie, Johnathan J.; Srinivasan, Anand; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that bacterial infections are often associated with biofilm phenotypes that demonstrate increased resistance to common antimicrobials. Further, due to the collective attrition of new antibiotic development programs by the pharmaceutical industries, drug repurposing is an attractive alternative. In this work, we screened 1,280 existing commercially available drugs in the Prestwick Chemical Library, some with previously unknown antimicrobial activity, against Staphylococcus aureus, one of the commonly encountered causative pathogens of burn and wound infections. From the primary screen of the entire Prestwick Chemical Library at a fixed concentration of 10 μM, 104 drugs were found to be effective against planktonic S. aureus strains, and not surprisingly, these were mostly antimicrobials and antiseptics. The activity of 18 selected repurposing candidates, that is, drugs that show antimicrobial activity that are not already considered antimicrobials, observed in the primary screen was confirmed in dose-response experiments. Finally, a subset of nine of these drug candidates was tested against preformed biofilms of S. aureus. We found that three of these drugs, niclosamide, carmofur, and auranofin, possessed antimicrobial activity against preformed biofilms, making them attractive candidates for repurposing as novel antibiofilm therapies. PMID:27401577

  18. Screening of Endophytic Fungi from Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta for Antibacterial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaweman, A. C.; Pamungkas, J.; Madduppa, H.; Thoms, C.; Tarman, K.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta macroalgae are important sources of secondary metabolites with pharmaceutically relevant antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral bioactivities. Oftentimes, these algae-derived compounds are, in fact, produced by endophytic fungi living inside the macroalgal tissue. Numerous studies have shown that endophytic fungi can produce a broad range of active metabolites such as terpenes, alkaloids, and quinones. The aim of the present study was to screen fungal strains isolated from a variety of Caulerpa spp., Halimeda spp., and Sargassum spp. for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Thirteen morphologically different isolates were tested. Two of them showed pronounced activity against S. aureus in agar diffusion assays.

  19. Estrogenic activity of cosmetic components in reporter cell lines: parabens, UV screens, and musks.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E; Pillon, A; Fenet, H; Rosain, D; Duchesne, M J; Nicolas, J C; Balaguer, P; Casellas, C

    2005-02-27

    In this work, the estrogenic effects of three classes of substances included in cosmetic formulations-parabens, ultraviolet (UV) screens, and musk fragrances-were studied. Their estrogenic activity was measured with the use of three reporter cell lines: HELN, HELN ERalpha, and HELN ERbeta. These three cell lines allowed for the measurement of estrogenic activity toward estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERalpha and ERbeta, while taking nonspecific interactions into account. Eight of the 15 substances tested showed specific estrogenic activity with the following degree of potency on ERalpha butylparaben > propylparaben > homosalate = octyl-dimethyl-PABA = 4-methyl-benzylidenecamphor = octyl-methoxycinnamate > ethylparaben = galaxolide. Among these active substances, parabens activated ERalpha and ERbeta similarly, UV screens activated ERalpha moderately and had almost no effect on ERbeta, and fragrances did not activate ERbeta. Methylparaben, ethylparaben, musk moskene, celestolide, and cashmeran did not activate estrogenic responses up to 10(-5) M. Musk ketone and benzophenone-3 were not considered estrogenic at 10(-5) M.

  20. Shackleton's Antarctic Adventure: The Greatest Survival Story of All Time. Teacher's Guide To Accompany the Giant-Screen Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Reen

    This teacher's guide was developed to accompany the giant-screen film, "Shackleton's Antarctic Adventure". The activities featured use a multidisciplinary approach and target students ages 7 through 14. Teacher pages include background information and student pages include instructions and additional information for understanding the…

  1. Flexible transistor active matrix array with all screen-printed electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Boyu; Lin, Jiawei; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2013-09-01

    Flexible transistor active matrix array is fabricated on PEN substrate using all screen-printed gate, source and drain electrodes. Parylene-C and DNTT act as gate dielectric layer and semiconductor, respectively. The transistor possesses high mobility (0.33 cm2V-1 s-1), large on/off ratio (< 106) and low leakage current (~10 pA). Active matrix array consists of 10×10 transistors were demonstrated. Transistors exhibited average mobility of 0.29 cm2V-1s-1 and on/off ratio larger than 104 in array form. In the transistor array, we achieve 75μm channel length and a size of 2 mm × 2 mm for each element in the array which indicates the current screen-printing method has large potential in large-area circuits and display applications.

  2. Whole-organism screening for gluconeogenesis identifies activators of fasting metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gut, Philipp; Baeza-Raja, Bernat; Andersson, Olov; Hasenkamp, Laura; Hsiao, Joseph; Hesselson, Daniel; Akassoglou, Katerina; Verdin, Eric; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the control of energy homeostasis can lower cardiovascular risk in metabolically compromised individuals. To identify new regulators of whole-body energy control, we conducted a high-throughput screen in transgenic reporter zebrafish for small molecules that modulate the expression of the fasting-inducible gluconeogenic gene pck1. We show that this in vivo strategy identified several drugs that impact gluconeogenesis in humans, as well as metabolically uncharacterized compounds. Most notably, we find that the Translocator Protein (TSPO) ligands PK 11195 and Ro5-4864 are glucose lowering agents despite a strong inductive effect on pck1 expression. We show that these drugs are activators of a fasting-like energy state, and importantly that they protect high-fat diet induced obese mice from hepatosteatosis and glucose intolerance, two pathological manifestations of metabolic dysregulation. Thus, using a whole-organism screening strategy, this study has identified new small molecule activators of fasting metabolism. PMID:23201900

  3. Time to Work or Time to Play: The Effect of Student Employment on Homework, Housework, Screen Time, and Sleep. Working Paper 423

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that working while in high school reduces the amount of time students spend doing homework. However, an additional hour of work leads to a reduction in homework by much less than one hour, suggesting a reduction in other activities. This paper uses data from the 2003-2007 American Time Use Surveys (ATUS) to investigate the…

  4. Screening of some rare endemic Italian plants for inhibitory activity on 5-lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Prieto, José-María; Bader, Ammar; Martini, Francesca; Ríos, José-Luis; Morelli, Ivano

    2005-12-01

    The extracts of four rare plants found on the islands of Sicily, Vulcano and Marettimo, Southern Italy, were screened for their inhibitory effect on the production of leukotriene B4 by 5-lipoxygenase in intact cells. The methanol extracts of pods of Cytisus aeolicus and aerial parts of Thymus richardii were the most active extracts, inhibiting almost completely the leukotriene B4 production at 200 and 50 microg/ml, respectively.

  5. ANALYSES OF NEUROBEHAVIORAL SCREENING DATA: DOSE-TIME-RESPONSE MODELING OF CONTINUOUS OUTCOMES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of neurotoxicological screening data such as those of the functional observational battery (FOB) traditionally relies on analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measurements. Although ANOVA is effective in detecting dose-induced neurotoxic effects, it does not directl...

  6. Active screening at entry for tuberculosis among new immigrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Arshad, S; Bavan, L; Gajari, K; Paget, S N J; Baussano, I

    2010-06-01

    Although there is no evidence that imported tuberculosis increases the incidence of the disease in host countries, the rise in migration worldwide raises concerns regarding the adequacy of surveillance and control of immigrant-associated tuberculosis in low incidence countries. Assessing the performance of screening of immigrants for tuberculosis is key to rationalizing control policies for the detection and management of immigrant-associated tuberculosis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the yield of active screening for tuberculosis among new immigrants at the point of entry. The yield for pulmonary tuberculosis was 3.5 cases per 1,000 screened (95% CI 2.9-4.1; I(2) = 94%); for refugees, asylum seekers and regular immigrants the estimates were 11.9 (95% CI 6.7-17.2; I(2) = 92%), 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-3.7; I(2) = 96%) and 2.7 (95% CI 2.0-3.4; I(2) = 81%), respectively. The yield estimates for immigrants from Europe, Africa and Asia were 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-3.4; I(2) = 51.5%), 6.5 (95% CI 3.2-10.0; I(2) = 62%) and 11.2 (95% CI 6.2-16.1; I(2) = 95%), respectively. These results provide useful data to inform the development of coherent policies and rational screening services for the detection of immigrant-associated tuberculosis.

  7. A High-Throughput Screen Identifies a New Natural Product with Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ymele-Leki, Patrick; Cao, Shugeng; Sharp, Jared; Lambert, Kathleen G.; McAdam, Alexander J.; Husson, Robert N.; Tamayo, Giselle; Clardy, Jon; Watnick, Paula I.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the inexorable invasion of our hospitals and communities by drug-resistant bacteria, there is a pressing need for novel antibacterial agents. Here we report the development of a sensitive and robust but low-tech and inexpensive high-throughput metabolic screen for novel antibiotics. This screen is based on a colorimetric assay of pH that identifies inhibitors of bacterial sugar fermentation. After validation of the method, we screened over 39,000 crude extracts derived from organisms that grow in the diverse ecosystems of Costa Rica and identified 49 with reproducible antibacterial effects. An extract from an endophytic fungus was further characterized, and this led to the discovery of three novel natural products. One of these, which we named mirandamycin, has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This demonstrates the power of simple high throughput screens for rapid identification of new antibacterial agents from environmental samples. PMID:22359585

  8. Toward an objective indexing system for ADHD-screening using children's activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kam, Hye Jin; Choi, Jong Pil; Park, Rae Woong

    2008-11-06

    Signs of ADHD are discernible in specific situations, and usually assessed according to subjective impressions. We performed a preliminary comparative study from children's activity at a natural classroom environment with 3-axis accelerator for a feasible objective index. From a total of 157 children (7-9 yrs) and clinically diagnosed 24 children out of them, variances in 1-min epoch mean activity had shown significant differences among the subgroups: (1) ADHD=.0194, Other Diseases=.0080, Normal=.0009; (2) ADHD=.0194, non-ADHD=.0057(p<.01, respectively). There were also significant differences in high-level activity (>1.6G) features among subgroups with the same order (p<.01, respectively). ADHD patients exhibited more dispersed activities and higher high-level activity ratio than normal. Activity features can be useful to build an objective indexing system for screening ADHD patients.

  9. Preschool Children's Exposure to Media, Technology, and Screen Time: Perspectives of Caregivers from Three Early Childcare Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkins, Kimberly A.; Newton, Allison B.; Albaiz, Najla Essa A.; Ernest, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Young children are being increasingly exposed to media, technology, and screen time (MeTS) at home and in instructional settings. Little is known about the long-term effects of MeTS and there is a lack of research concerning caregivers' opinions regarding young children's exposure to and utilization of MeTS. Therefore, this study explored the…

  10. Fe en Accion/Faith in Action: Design and implementation of a church-based randomized trial to promote physical activity and cancer screening among churchgoing Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo, Elva M.; Haughton, Jessica; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Slymen, Donald J.; Sallis, James F.; Burke, Kari; Holub, Christina; Chanson, Dayana; Perez, Lilian G.; Valdivia, Rodrigo; Ryan, Sherry; Elder, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe both conditions of a two-group randomized trial, one that promotes physical activity and one that promotes cancer screening, among churchgoing Latinas. The trial involves promotoras (community health workers) targeting multiple levels of the Ecological Model. This trial builds on formative and pilot research findings. Design Sixteen churches were randomly assigned to either the physical activity intervention or cancer screening comparison condition (approximately 27 women per church). In both conditions, promotoras from each church intervened at the individual- (e.g., beliefs), interpersonal- (e.g., social support), and environmental- (e.g., park features and access to health care) levels to affect change on target behaviors. Measurements The study’s primary outcome is min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and 12 and 24 months following implementation of intervention activities. We enrolled 436 Latinas (aged 18–65 years) who engaged in less than 250 min/wk of MVPA at baseline as assessed by accelerometer, attended church at least four times per month, lived near their church, and did not have a health condition that could prevent them from participating in physical activity. Participants were asked to complete measures assessing physical activity and cancer screening as well as their correlates at 12- and 24-months. Summary Findings from the current study will address gaps in research by showing the long term effectiveness of multi-level faith-based interventions promoting physical activity and cancer screening among Latino communities. PMID:26358535

  11. Data-Driven Derivation of an "Informer Compound Set" for Improved Selection of Active Compounds in High-Throughput Screening.

    PubMed

    Paricharak, Shardul; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Bender, Andreas; Nigsch, Florian

    2016-09-26

    Despite the usefulness of high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, for some systems, low assay throughput or high screening cost can prohibit the screening of large numbers of compounds. In such cases, iterative cycles of screening involving active learning (AL) are employed, creating the need for smaller "informer sets" that can be routinely screened to build predictive models for selecting compounds from the screening collection for follow-up screens. Here, we present a data-driven derivation of an informer compound set with improved predictivity of active compounds in HTS, and we validate its benefit over randomly selected training sets on 46 PubChem assays comprising at least 300,000 compounds and covering a wide range of assay biology. The informer compound set showed improvement in BEDROC(α = 100), PRAUC, and ROCAUC values averaged over all assays of 0.024, 0.014, and 0.016, respectively, compared to randomly selected training sets, all with paired t-test p-values <10(-15). A per-assay assessment showed that the BEDROC(α = 100), which is of particular relevance for early retrieval of actives, improved for 38 out of 46 assays, increasing the success rate of smaller follow-up screens. Overall, we showed that an informer set derived from historical HTS activity data can be employed for routine small-scale exploratory screening in an assay-agnostic fashion. This approach led to a consistent improvement in hit rates in follow-up screens without compromising scaffold retrieval. The informer set is adjustable in size depending on the number of compounds one intends to screen, as performance gains are realized for sets with more than 3,000 compounds, and this set is therefore applicable to a variety of situations. Finally, our results indicate that random sampling may not adequately cover descriptor space, drawing attention to the importance of the composition of the training set for predicting actives.

  12. A simple liposome assay for the screening of zinc ionophore activity of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Clergeaud, Gael; Dabbagh-Bazarbachi, Husam; Ortiz, Mayreli; Fernández-Larrea, Juan B; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2016-04-15

    An efficient liposomal system for screening the zinc ionophore activity of a selected library consisting of the most relevant dietary polyphenols is presented. The zinc ionophore activity was demonstrated by exploring the use of zinc-specific fluorophore FluoZin-3 loaded liposomes as simple membrane tools that mimic the cell membrane. The zinc ionophore activity was demonstrated as the capacity of polyphenols to transport zinc cations across the liposome membrane and increase the zinc-specific fluorescence of the encapsulated fluorophore FluoZin-3. In addition, the zinc chelation strength of the polyphenols was also tested in a competition assay based on the fluorescence quenching of zinc-dependent fluorescence emitted by zinc-FluoZin-3 complex. Finally, the correlation between the chelation capacity and ionophore activity is demonstrated, thus underlining the sequestering or ionophoric activity that the phenolic compounds can display, thus, providing better knowledge of the importance of the structural conformation versus their biological activity. Furthermore, the assays developed can be used as tools for rapid, high-throughput screening of families of polyphenols towards different biometals.

  13. Screening of Potential Free Radicals Scavenger and Antibacterial Activities of Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk).

    PubMed

    Wahyuningrum, Retno; Utami, Pri Iswati; Dhiani, Binar Asrining; Kumalasari, Malikhah; Kusumawardani, Rizka Sari

    2016-11-01

    Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk) is a traditional medicinal plant used for its aphrodisiac values. This plant was originated Dieng Plateu, Central Java, Indonesia. Purwoceng has been reported to contain steroid, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, tannins, and phenolic. Based on secondary metabolite compounds of Purwoceng herbs, a research need to be done to determine the other potential free radicals scavenger and antibacterial activities of Purwoceng. The objectives of this research are to screen the potential free radicals scavenger activity of in vitro using DPPH (1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) radicals and NO• (nitric oxide) radicals, and antibacterial activity of Purwoceng. The extraction is done by a maceration method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and ethanol solvent, respectively. Free radicals scavenger test was performed using DPPH radicals and NO• radicals, while antibacterial activity screening was performed using agar diffusion test. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Purwoceng has free radical scavenger activity with IC50 53.07 ppm lower than butylated hydroxytoluene. Ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract of Purwoceng have antibacterial activity against Staphyloccus aureus, Escherichia coli, and MG42 bacterial isolate.

  14. Screening of Potential Free Radicals Scavenger and Antibacterial Activities of Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk)

    PubMed Central

    Wahyuningrum, Retno; Utami, Pri Iswati; Dhiani, Binar Asrining; Kumalasari, Malikhah; Kusumawardani, Rizka Sari

    2016-01-01

    Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk) is a traditional medicinal plant used for its aphrodisiac values. This plant was originated Dieng Plateu, Central Java, Indonesia. Purwoceng has been reported to contain steroid, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, tannins, and phenolic. Based on secondary metabolite compounds of Purwoceng herbs, a research need to be done to determine the other potential free radicals scavenger and antibacterial activities of Purwoceng. The objectives of this research are to screen the potential free radicals scavenger activity of in vitro using DPPH (1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) radicals and NO• (nitric oxide) radicals, and antibacterial activity of Purwoceng. The extraction is done by a maceration method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and ethanol solvent, respectively. Free radicals scavenger test was performed using DPPH radicals and NO• radicals, while antibacterial activity screening was performed using agar diffusion test. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Purwoceng has free radical scavenger activity with IC50 53.07 ppm lower than butylated hydroxytoluene. Ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract of Purwoceng have antibacterial activity against Staphyloccus aureus, Escherichia coli, and MG42 bacterial isolate. PMID:27965755

  15. Combinatorial engineering to enhance amylosucrase performance: construction, selection, and screening of variant libraries for increased activity.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Bart A; Potocki-Véronèse, Gabrielle; Albenne, Cécile; Joucla, Gilles; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Simeon, Magali

    2004-02-27

    Amylosucrase is a glucosyltransferase belonging to family 13 of glycoside hydrolases and catalyses the formation of an amylose-type polymer from sucrose. Its potential use as an industrial tool for the synthesis or the modification of polysaccharides, however, is limited by its low catalytic efficiency on sucrose alone, its low stability, and its side reactions resulting in sucrose isomer formation. Therefore, combinatorial engineering of the enzyme through random mutagenesis, gene shuffling, and selective screening (directed evolution) was started, in order to generate more efficient variants of the enzyme. A convenient zero background expression cloning strategy was developed. Mutant gene libraries were generated by error-prone polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using Taq polymerase with unbalanced dNTPs or Mutazyme trade mark, followed by recombination of the PCR products by DNA shuffling. A selection method was developed to allow only the growth of amylosucrase active clones on solid mineral medium containing sucrose as the sole carbon source. Automated protocols were designed to screen amylosucrase activity from mini-cultures using dinitrosalicylic acid staining of reducing sugars and iodine staining of amylose-like polymer. A pilot experiment using the described mutagenesis, selection, and screening methods yielded two variants with significantly increased activity (five-fold under the screening conditions). Sequence analysis of these variants revealed mutations in amino acid residues which would not be considered for rational design of improved amylosucrase variants. A method for the characterisation of amylosucrase action on sucrose, consisting of accurate measurement of glucose and fructose concentrations, was introduced. This allows discrimination between hydrolysis and transglucosylation, enabling a more detailed comparison between wild-type and mutant enzymes.

  16. The relationship between screen time, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems in preschool children in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Tao, Shuman; Rutayisire, Erigene; Chen, Yunxiao; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between screen time (ST), nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems in a sample of preschool children in China. A sample of 8900 children aged 3-6 years was enrolled from 35 kindergartens, in four cities, in two provinces, in China to evaluate the relationships between ST, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems. Children's ST and nighttime sleep duration were assessed by questionnaires completed by parents or guardians. Behavioural problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Clancy Autism Behaviour Scale (CABS). Multivariate analysis was used to assess the associations between ST, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems. The total SDQ and CABS scores were higher in children with ST ≥2 h/day and sleep duration <9.15 h/day (a P < 0.001 for all). After adjusting for potential confounders, children with ST ≥2 h/day had a significantly increased risk of having total difficulties, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and prosocial problems, as well as behavioural symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Similar results were found in children with sleep duration <9.15 h/day. No significantly increased risk of emotional symptoms was observed for short sleep duration. Preschool children with more ST and short nighttime sleep duration were significantly more likely to have behavioural problems. These results may contribute to a better understanding of prevention and intervention for psychosocial problems in children.

  17. Screening for Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae).

    PubMed

    Ji, Nanjing; Li, Ling; Lin, Lingxiao; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    The raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo is a globally distributed harmful alga that has been associated with fish kills in coastal waters. To understand the mechanisms of H. akashiwo bloom formation, gene expression analysis is often required. To accurately characterize the expression levels of a gene of interest, proper reference genes are essential. In this study, we assessed ten of the previously reported algal candidate genes (rpL17-2, rpL23, cox2, cal, tua, tub, ef1, 18S, gapdh, and mdh) for their suitability as reference genes in this species. We used qRT-PCR to quantify the expression levels of these genes in H. akashiwo grown under different temperatures, light intensities, nutrient concentrations, and time points over a diel cycle. The expression stability of these genes was evaluated using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Although none of these genes exhibited invariable expression levels, cal, tub, rpL17-2 and rpL23 expression levels were the most stable across the different conditions tested. For further validation, these selected genes were used to normalize the expression levels of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large unite (HrbcL) over a diel cycle. Results showed that the expression of HrbcL normalized against each of these reference genes was the highest at midday and lowest at midnight, similar to the diel patterns typically documented for this gene in algae. While the validated reference genes will be useful for future gene expression studies on H. akashiwo, we expect that the procedure used in this study may be helpful to future efforts to screen reference genes for other algae.

  18. A time-table organizer for the planning and implementation of screenings in manual or semi-automation mode

    PubMed Central

    Goktug, Asli N.; Chai, Sergio C.; Chen, Taosheng

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a software to facilitate the planning and execution of screenings performed manually or in semi-automation mode, which follow a sequential sequence of events. Many assays involve multiple steps, often including time-sensitive stages, thus complicating the proper implementation to ensure that all plates are treated equally in order to achieve reliable outcomes. The Excel Macro-Enabled Workbook presented in this study analyzes and breaks down the timings for all tasks, calculates the maximum number of plates that suit the desired parameters, and allows for optimization based on tolerance of time delay and equal treatment of plates when possible. The generated Gantt charts allow for visual inspection of the screening process, and provide timings in tabulated form to assist the user to conduct the experiments as projected by the software. The program can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/sams-hts/. PMID:23653394

  19. A High-Throughput Screen Reveals New Small-Molecule Activators and Inhibitors of Pantothenate Kinases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase (PanK) is a regulatory enzyme that controls coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. The association of PanK with neurodegeneration and diabetes suggests that chemical modifiers of PanK activity may be useful therapeutics. We performed a high throughput screen of >520000 compounds from the St. Jude compound library and identified new potent PanK inhibitors and activators with chemically tractable scaffolds. The HTS identified PanK inhibitors exemplified by the detailed characterization of a tricyclic compound (7) and a preliminary SAR. Biophysical studies reveal that the PanK inhibitor acts by binding to the ATP–enzyme complex. PMID:25569308

  20. Biochemical genetic studies on cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae)—active loci screening of isozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Natsukari, Yutaka; Wang, Ru-Cai; Wang, Zhao-Ping; Li, Yun

    2001-12-01

    Screening of 46 putative enzyme-coding loci and 4 different kinds of tissues of Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrone, 1884 for enzymatic activities using starch gel electrophoretic technique proved that the 21 enzymes such as AAT, AK, ALP, AP, CK, DIA, ES, FBP, G3PDH, GPI, GRS, IDH, LDH, MDH, MEP, MPI, NP, PGDH, PGM, SOD and XO*, were active to Sepiella maindroni after being stained. The tissue exhibiting stable and clear bands was also determined. Among tissues tested, mantle muscle tissue was the best for electrophoretic survey of isozymes. Buccal bulb muscle, eye and liver were fairly good for some special enzymes, such as DIA, ES, MPI, NP, etc.

  1. Comparison of the clinical performances of the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR, the Abbott Real-Time High-Risk HPV Test, and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA Test for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hae-Sun; Hahm, Chorong; Lee, Miae

    2014-09-01

    The clinical performance of three human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA commercial assays for cervical cancer screening was evaluated; the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR (AdvanSure PCR; LG Life Sciences) that was developed recently for the detection of both high-risk and low-risk genotypes, the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV Test (Abbott PCR; Abbott Molecular) and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA test (HC2; Qiagen). The three different HPV DNA tests were compared using cytology samples obtained from 619 women who underwent routine cervical cancer screening. The gold-standard assay was histopathological confirmation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse. The clinical sensitivities of the AdvanSure PCR, the Abbott PCR and the HC2 for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse were 95.5%, 95.5% and 100%, respectively, while the clinical specificities were 61.6%, 86.4% and 83.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the clinical sensitivities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR compared to the HC2. The clinical specificities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR for the detection of HPV types 16/18 were 97.8% and 98.5%, respectively. For cervical cancer screening, all three tests showed relatively good clinical sensitivities, but the AdvanSure PCR had lower clinical specificity than the Abbott PCR and the HC2. The AdvanSure PCR and the Abbott PCR assays have the advantage of being automated and the ability to distinguish between HPV types 16/18 and other HPV types. The two real-time PCR assays could be useful tools in HPV testing for cervical cancer screening.

  2. High-content screen using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos identifies a novel kinase activator and inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Werner J; Bergeron, Sadie A; Mullins, Jackie E; Aljammal, Rowaa; Gaasch, Briah L; Chen, Wei-Chi; Yun, June; Hazlehurst, Lori A

    2017-02-28

    In this report we utilized zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in a phenotypical high-content screen (HCS) to identify novel leads in a cancer drug discovery program. We initially validated our HCS model using the flavin adenosine dinucleotide (FAD) containing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) enzyme, endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase (ERO1) inhibitor EN460. EN460 showed a dose response effect on the embryos with a dose of 10μM being significantly lethal during early embryonic development. The HCS campaign which employed a small library identified a promising lead compound, a naphthyl-benzoic acid derivative coined compound 1 which had significant dosage and temporally dependent effects on notochord and muscle development in zebrafish embryos. Screening a 369 kinase member panel we show that compound 1 is a PIM3 kinase inhibitor (IC50=4.078μM) and surprisingly a DAPK1 kinase agonist/activator (EC50=39.525μM). To our knowledge this is the first example of a small molecule activating DAPK1 kinase. We provide a putative model for increased phosphate transfer in the ATP binding domain when compound 1 is virtually docked with DAPK1. Our data indicate that observable phenotypical changes can be used in future zebrafish screens to identify compounds acting via similar molecular signaling pathways.

  3. To examine the relationship between the Functional Movement Screen and the Landing Error Scoring System in an active collegiate population.

    PubMed

    Everard, E; Harrison, Aj; Lyons, M

    2016-07-25

    In recent years there has been an increasing focus on movement screening as the principal aspect of pre-participation testing. Two of the most common movement screening tools are the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Several studies have examined the reliability and validity of these tools but so far there have been no studies comparing the results of these two screening tools against each other. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores and Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) scores. Ninety-eight male college athletes actively competing in sport (Gaelic games, soccer, athletics, boxing/mixed martial arts, Olympic weight lifting) participated in the study and performed the FMS and LESS screens. Both the 21 point and 100 point scoring systems were used to score the FMS. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between the two screening scores. The results showed a significant moderate correlation between FMS and LESS scores (rho 100 and 21 point = -.528; -.487; p< .001). In addition, r values of .26 and .23 indicate a poor shared variance between the two screens. The results indicate that performing well in one of the screens does not necessarily equate to performing well in the other. This has practical implications as it highlights that both screens may assess different movement patterns and should not be used as a substitute for each other.

  4. Surface modification of 30CrNiMo8 low-alloy steel by active screen setup and conventional plasma nitriding methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahangarani, Sh.; Sabour, A. R.; Mahboubi, F.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we report on a comparative study of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) and conventional dc plasma nitriding (CPN) behavior of 30CrNiMo8 low-alloy steel that has been examined under various process conditions. The process variables included active screen setup parameters (screen and iron plate top lids placed on the screen setup with 8 mm of hole size), treatment temperature (550 and 580 °C), gas mixture (75/25 and 25/75 of N 2/H 2) and treatment time (5 and 10 h) in 500 Pa pressure. The structure and phases composition of the diffusion zone and compound layer were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness tests, light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was observed that treated sample surfaces in both CPN and ASPN methods consist of γ' and ɛ phases, and while the nitriding time and/or temperature increases, the intensity of ɛ phase in the compound layer will increase for ASPN and decrease for CPN method. Results show that the amount of nitrogen transferred from holes of screen toward the sample surface via sputtering and re-condensation mechanism can be affected due to the hardness and thickness of the layer.

  5. Effective virtual screening strategy toward covalent ligands: identification of novel NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengping; Tan, Jiani; Lai, Zhonghui; Li, Ying; Pang, Junxia; Xiao, Jianhu; Huang, Zhangjian; Zhang, Yihua; Ji, Hui; Lai, Yisheng

    2014-06-23

    The NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) is an emerging target for cancer therapy, which regulates the degradation and turnover of a variety of cancer-related proteins by activating the cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases. Among a limited number of known NAE inhibitors, the covalent inhibitors have demonstrated the most potent efficacy through their covalently linked adducts with NEDD8. Inspired by this unique mechanism, in this study, a novel combined strategy of virtual screening (VS) was adopted with the aim to identify diverse covalent inhibitors of NAE. To be specific, a docking-enabled pharmacophore model was first built from the possible active conformations of chosen covalent inhibitors. Meanwhile, a dynamic structure-based phamacophore was also established based on the snapshots derived from molecular dynamic simulation. Subsequent screening of a focused ZINC database using these pharmacophore models combined with covalent docking discovered three novel active compounds. Among them, compound LZ3 exhibited the most potent NAE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 1.06 ± 0.18 μM. Furthermore, a cell-based washout experiment proved the proposed covalent binding mechanism for compound LZ3, which confirmed the successful application of our combined VS strategy, indicating it may provide a viable solution to systematically discover novel covalent ligands.

  6. Catalytic Activity and Impedance Behavior of Screen-Printed Nickel Oxide as Efficient Water Oxidation Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Archana; Fekete, Monika; Gengenbach, Thomas; Simonov, Alexandr N; Hocking, Rosalie K; Chang, Shery L Y; Rothmann, Mathias; Powar, Satvasheel; Fu, Dongchuan; Hu, Zheng; Wu, Qiang; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Bach, Udo; Spiccia, Leone

    2015-12-21

    We report that films screen printed from nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles and microballs are efficient electrocatalysts for water oxidation under near-neutral and alkaline conditions. Investigations of the composition and structure of the screen-printed films by X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the material was present as the cubic NiO phase. Comparison of the catalytic activity of the microball films to that of films fabricated by using NiO nanoparticles, under similar experimental conditions, revealed that the microball films outperform nanoparticle films of similar thickness owing to a more porous structure and higher surface area. A thinner, less-resistive NiO nanoparticle film, however, was found to have higher activity per Ni atom. Anodization in borate buffer significantly improved the activity of all three films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that during anodization, a mixed nickel oxyhydroxide phase formed on the surface of all films, which could account for the improved activity. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that surface traps contribute significantly to the resistance of the NiO films. On anodization, the trap state resistance of all films was reduced, which led to significant improvements in activity. In 1.00 m NaOH, both the microball and nanoparticle films exhibit high long-term stability and produce a stable current density of approximately 30 mA cm(-2) at 600 mV overpotential.

  7. Tetrandrine identified in a small molecule screen to activate mesenchymal stem cells for enhanced immunomodulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zijiang; Concannon, John; Ng, Kelvin S.; Seyb, Kathleen; Mortensen, Luke J.; Ranganath, Sudhir; Gu, Fangqi; Levy, Oren; Tong, Zhixiang; Martyn, Keir; Zhao, Weian; Lin, Charles P.; Glicksman, Marcie A.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Pre-treatment or priming of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) prior to transplantation can significantly augment the immunosuppressive effect of MSC-based therapies. In this study, we screened a library of 1402 FDA-approved bioactive compounds to prime MSC. We identified tetrandrine as a potential hit that activates the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent immunosuppressive agent, by MSC. Tetrandrine increased MSC PGE2 secretion through the NF-κB/COX-2 signaling pathway. When co-cultured with mouse macrophages (RAW264.7), tetrandrine-primed MSC attenuated the level of TNF-α secreted by RAW264.7. Furthermore, systemic transplantation of primed MSC into a mouse ear skin inflammation model significantly reduced the level of TNF-α in the inflamed ear, compared to unprimed cells. Screening of small molecules to pre-condition cells prior to transplantation represents a promising strategy to boost the therapeutic potential of cell therapy. PMID:27457881

  8. Tetrandrine identified in a small molecule screen to activate mesenchymal stem cells for enhanced immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zijiang; Concannon, John; Ng, Kelvin S; Seyb, Kathleen; Mortensen, Luke J; Ranganath, Sudhir; Gu, Fangqi; Levy, Oren; Tong, Zhixiang; Martyn, Keir; Zhao, Weian; Lin, Charles P; Glicksman, Marcie A; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2016-07-26

    Pre-treatment or priming of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) prior to transplantation can significantly augment the immunosuppressive effect of MSC-based therapies. In this study, we screened a library of 1402 FDA-approved bioactive compounds to prime MSC. We identified tetrandrine as a potential hit that activates the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent immunosuppressive agent, by MSC. Tetrandrine increased MSC PGE2 secretion through the NF-κB/COX-2 signaling pathway. When co-cultured with mouse macrophages (RAW264.7), tetrandrine-primed MSC attenuated the level of TNF-α secreted by RAW264.7. Furthermore, systemic transplantation of primed MSC into a mouse ear skin inflammation model significantly reduced the level of TNF-α in the inflamed ear, compared to unprimed cells. Screening of small molecules to pre-condition cells prior to transplantation represents a promising strategy to boost the therapeutic potential of cell therapy.

  9. [Screening for cardiovascular diseases among teenagers that will engage in sport activities].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Franco; Mercado, Carolina; Troncoso, Ivana; Heusser, Felipe; Clavería, Cristián

    2010-02-01

    Promotion of physical activity must be a priority in all modern societies, but there are some persons with medical conditions that can develop serious symptoms associated with sports, that can even be fatal, such as sudden death (SD). Adolescents are the age groups with the higher level of participation in recreation or competitive sports. International studies have demonstrated that approximately 1:250.000 adolescents die during the practice of sports. Of these, 50% had a prodrome 24 hours before the event and 75% had an underlying cardiovascular disease. Therefore, adolescents should be screened for cardiovascular diseases prior to their engagement in sports. This review gives a scientific approach to this issue, usually oversized by mass media. It also analyzes and reports international governmental strategies and practical tools for the clinician that must perform this type of screening.

  10. Multipoint measurements of substorm timing and activations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuyin, Pu; Cao, X.; Zhang, H.; Ma, Z. W.; Mishin, M. V.; Kubyshkina, M. V.; Pulkkinen, T.; Reeves, G. D.; Escoubet, C. Philippe

    Substorm timing and activations are studied based on Double Star TC1, Cluster, Polar, IM- AGE, LANL satellites and ground-based Pi2 measurements. Substorm expansion onset is found to begin in the near-Earth tail around X= -(8-9) Re, then progresses both earthward and tailward. About 8-10 minutes before aurora breakup, Cluster measured an earthward flow associated with plasma sheet thinning. A couple of minutes after the breakup, TC1 first detects plasma sheet expansion and then LANL satellites near the midnight measure energetic electron injections, or vise versus. About 20 minutes (or more) later, Cluster and Polar observe plasma sheet expansion successively. Of interest are also the following findings. Auroral bulge is found to quickly broaden and expand poleward when the open magnetic flux of the polar cap is rapidly dissipated, indicating the role of tail lobe reconnection of open field lines in the development of the expansion phase. In addition, poleward expansion of auroral bulges and tailward progression of substorm expansion are shown to be closely related. An initial dipolarization in the near-Earth eventually evolve to enable disruption of the cross-tail current in a wide range of the magnetotail, until the open magnetic flux of the polar cap reaches its minimum. Acknowledgements This work is supported by the NSFC Grants 40390152 and 40536030 and Chinese Key Research Project Grant 2006CB806300. The authors acknowledge all PIs of instruments onboard Double Star and Cluster spacecraft. We also appreciate the useful discussions with R. L. McPherron and A. T. Y. Lui.

  11. Field screening at petroleum contaminated sites: A tool to save time, money

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, G.M.; Pucel, P.G.; Allee, P.

    1998-01-01

    The most expensive part of an environmental assessment is often lab services. Control of these costs while still collecting adequate data to assess a site is sometimes the difference between solvency and bankruptcy, especially for small companies. Fortunately, the use of field screening techniques can significantly reduce the quantity of samples going to the laboratory for analysis, thus controlling overall project costs. Chemical and Environmental Consultants, Inc. (CEC) has been field evaluating a rapid, widely applicable method for field screening petroleum contaminated soils and wastes for SVOCs. The method is similar in application to US EPA Method 418.1 and allows for the field screening of soil and waste samples in about 10 minutes. The method uses fluorescence spectroscopy analysis of a solvent extract of the soil or waste sample.

  12. Time for change? An economic evaluation of integrated cervical screening and HPV immunization programs in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tully, Stephen P; Anonychuk, Andrea M; Sanchez, Diana Maria; Galvani, Alison P; Bauch, Chris T

    2012-01-05

    Many jurisdictions have implemented universal human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization programs in preadolescent females. However, the cost-effectiveness of modified cervical screening guidelines and/or catch-up immunization in older females in Canada has not been evaluated. We conducted a cost-utility analysis of screening and immunization with the bivalent vaccine for the Canadian setting from the Ministry of Health perspective. We used a dynamic model to capture herd immunity and included cross-protection against strains not included in the vaccine. We found that adding catch-up immunization to the current program would be cost-effective, and that combining catch-up immunization with delaying the age at which screening is first initiated could result in cost savings and net health gains.

  13. Computational approaches to screen candidate ligands with anti- Parkinson's activity using R programming.

    PubMed

    Jayadeepa, R M; Niveditha, M S

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that by 2050 over 100 million people will be affected by the Parkinson's disease (PD). We propose various computational approaches to screen suitable candidate ligand with anti-Parkinson's activity from phytochemicals. Five different types of dopamine receptors have been identified in the brain, D1-D5. Dopamine receptor D3 was selected as the target receptor. The D3 receptor exists in areas of the brain outside the basal ganglia, such as the limbic system, and thus may play a role in the cognitive and emotional changes noted in Parkinson's disease. A ligand library of 100 molecules with anti-Parkinson's activity was collected from literature survey. Nature is the best combinatorial chemist and possibly has answers to all diseases of mankind. Failure of some synthetic drugs and its side effects have prompted many researches to go back to ancient healing methods which use herbal medicines to give relief. Hence, the candidate ligands with anti-Parkinson's were selected from herbal sources through literature survey. Lipinski rules were applied to screen the suitable molecules for the study, the resulting 88 molecules were energy minimized, and subjected to docking using Autodock Vina. The top eleven molecules were screened according to the docking score generated by Autodock Vina Commercial drug Ropinirole was computed similarly and was compared with the 11 phytochemicals score, the screened molecules were subjected to toxicity analysis and to verify toxic property of phytochemicals. R Programming was applied to remove the bias from the top eleven molecules. Using cluster analysis and Confusion Matrix two phytochemicals were computationally selected namely Rosmarinic acid and Gingkolide A for further studies on the disease Parkinson's.

  14. Screening SIRT1 Activators from Medicinal Plants as Bioactive Compounds against Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Liang, Xinying; Chen, Yaqi; Zhao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1) belongs to the family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases and plays a critical role in cellular metabolism and response to oxidative stress. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), as an important part of natural products, have been reported to exert protective effect against oxidative stress in mitochondria. In this study, we screened SIRT1 activators from TCMs and investigated their activities against mitochondrial damage. 19 activators were found in total by in vitro SIRT1 activity assay. Among those active compounds, four compounds, ginsenoside Rb2, ginsenoside F1, ginsenoside Rc, and schisandrin A, were further studied to validate the SIRT1-activation effects by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirm their activities against oxidative damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). The results showed that those compounds enhanced the deacetylated activity of SIRT1, increased ATP content, and inhibited intracellular ROS formation as well as regulating the activity of Mn-SOD. These SIRT1 activators also showed moderate protective effects on mitochondrial function in t-BHP cells by recovering oxygen consumption and increasing mitochondrial DNA content. Our results suggested that those compounds from TCMs attenuated oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes through activation of SIRT1. PMID:26981165

  15. Passive versus Active Parental Permission: Implications for the Ability of School-Based Depression Screening to Reach Youth at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Maggie; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; Herting, Jerald R.; Tracy, Melissa; Lymp, James

    2008-01-01

    Background: Depression is prevalent among children and adolescents and often goes untreated with adverse effects on academic success and healthy development. Depression screening can facilitate early identification and timely referral to prevention and treatment programs. Conducting school-based emotional health screening, however, raises the…

  16. Editorial: risk scoring for colon cancer screening: validated, but still not ready for prime time.

    PubMed

    Lin, Otto S

    2011-06-01

    Risk stratification for colorectal cancer screening would allow us to use less expensive screening tests, such as sigmoidoscopy with or without fecal blood testing, on lower risk individuals, and reserve colonoscopy for those at higher risk. In this issue, Levitzky et al. validates a risk score that was previously developed by Imperiale et al., finding similar results among three ethnic groups. Risk scoring would detect 82-87% of proximal advanced neoplasia while decreasing colonoscopy use by 33-46%. However, before risk scoring is ready for widespread use, sigmoidoscopy access and performance issues need to be addressed, and we must be comfortable with missing some proximal neoplasms.

  17. A color-reaction-based rapid screening for null activity of butyrylcholinesterase: a step toward point-of-care screening for succinylcholine apnea.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Nitish; Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Succinylcholine apnea happens in cases of null butyrylcholinesterase activity after administration of preintubation succinylcholine. So far, there is no such popular test that can rapidly screen null butyrylcholinesterase activity from plasma. Development of a novel method for rapid screening of null butyrylcholinesterase activity of plasma samples was the objective of the current work. Dichromate reagent was added to 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, phenol, and para-nitrophenol in separate aliquots and watched for the color formation. Plasma samples preincubated with and without selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor were mixed with 1-naphthylacetate and watched for color development after addition of dichromate reagent. Fitting of 1-naphthylacetate at the active site of butyrylcholinesterase was analyzed by using tools of computational biology. It was seen that 1-naphthol formed color with dichromate reagent in a concentration-dependent manner. Other phenols did not form color with dichromate reagent even at 500-µm concentrations. Plasma sample with and without selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor (tetra isopropyl pyrophosphoramide) was distinguishable by color formation when incubated with 1-naphthylacetate, followed by the addition of dichromate reagent. In silico analysis also showed that 1-naphthylacetate fitted well at the active site of butyrylcholinesterase. The developed method may be used for rapid screening for null butyrylcholinesterase activity at point of care.

  18. Screening for oestrogenic activity of plant and food extracts using in vitro trout hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Bennetau-Pelissero, C; Latonnelle, K Gontier; Lamothe, V; Shinkaruk-Poix, S; Kaushik, S J

    2004-01-01

    The use of in vitro trout hepatocyte cultures is shown to provide a simple and effective way to screen plant and food products for oestrogenic activity. The relative oestrogenic activities of 0.1 g each of extracts of phytosterol, soy isoflavone, red clover, kudzu and soybean extracts were determined using this assay and found to be equivalent to 212, 1, 3.2, 132 and 1025 nM of 17beta-estradiol, respectively. Controls were performed on soybean and kudzu extracts using specific ELISAs for isoflavones and these confirmed the validity of the cell culture assay. The method described offers an advantage over current methods in that it can detect increased oestrogenic activity that may occur as a result of metabolic activation of pre- or pro-oestrogens liver cells.

  19. Development and understanding of cobaloxime activity through electrochemical molecular catalyst screening.

    PubMed

    Wakerley, David W; Reisner, Erwin

    2014-03-28

    Electrochemical molecular catalyst screening (EMoCS) has been developed. This technique allows fast analysis and identification of homogeneous catalytic species through tandem catalyst assembly and electrochemistry. EMoCS has been used to study molecular proton reduction catalysts made from earth abundant materials to improve their viability for water splitting systems. The efficacy of EMoCS is proven through investigation of cobaloxime proton reduction activity with respect to the axial ligand in aqueous solution. Over 20 axial ligands were analysed, allowing rapid identification of the most active catalysts. Structure-activity relationships showed that more electron donating pyridine ligands result in enhanced catalytic currents due to the formation of a more basic Co-H species. The EMoCS results were validated by isolating and assaying the most electroactive cobaloximes identified during screening. The most active catalyst, [Co(III)Cl(dimethyl glyoximato)2(4-methoxypyridine)], showed high electro- and photoactivity in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions in pH neutral aqueous solution.

  20. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    PubMed Central

    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed. PMID:21716926

  1. Spiperone, identified through compound screening, activates calcium-dependent chloride secretion in the airway

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lihua; MacDonald, Kelvin; Schwiebert, Erik M.; Zeitlin, Pamela L.; Guggino, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene producing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). CFTR functions as a Cl− channel. Its dysfunction limits Cl− secretion and enhances Na+ absorption, leading to viscous mucus in the airway. Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs) are coexpressed with CFTR in the airway surface epithelia. Increases in cytosolic Ca2+ activate the epithelial CaCCs, which provides an alternative Cl− secretory pathway in CF. We developed a screening assay and screened a library for compounds that could enhance cytoplasmic Ca2+, activate the CaCC, and increase Cl− secretion. We found that spiperone, a known antipsychotic drug, is a potent intracellular Ca2+ enhancer and demonstrated that it stimulates intracellular Ca2+, not by acting in its well-known role as an antagonist of serotonin 5-HT2 or dopamine D2 receptors, but through a protein tyrosine kinase-coupled phospholipase C-dependent pathway. Spiperone activates CaCCs, which stimulates Cl− secretion in polarized human non-CF and CF airway epithelial cell monolayers in vitro and in CFTR-knockout mice in vivo. In conclusion, we have identified spiperone as a new therapeutic platform for correction of defective Cl− secretion in CF via a pathway independent of CFTR. PMID:18987251

  2. Phytochemical screening of five medicinal legumes and their evaluation for in vitro anti-tubercular activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J. Komal; Devi Prasad, A. G.; Chaturvedi, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death in the world. A new alternative for the treatment of tuberculosis is urgently required, due to the emergence of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aim: There is currently considerable interest in developing potential drugs from medicinal plants for treating tuberculosis. To evaluate anti-tubercular activity in the leaves of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams., Humboldtia brunonis Wall., Indigofera cassioides Rottl.ex DC., Derris scandens Benth. and Ceasalpinia mimosoides Lamk. Materials and Methods: Non-polar and polar solvent extracts of leaves of these medicinal legumes were tested against M. tuberculosis H37RV and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar based proportion assay. Results: Phytochemical screening for secondary metabolites revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, anthro-quinones, terpinods, flavonoids and phlabotanins. Crude leaf extracts of these plants have shown MIC value of 50 μg/ml as against the standard drug Isoniazid value of 0.025 μg/ml. Conclusion: Results showed that crude extracts of legume leaves screened exhibited potential anti-tubercular activity against M. tuberculosis and further work is required to identify the active molecule of these legumes, to get a novel anti-tubercular drug. This is the maiden finding on anti-tubercular activity of these medicinal legumes. PMID:25364208

  3. Dwell Time and Psychological Screening Outcomes Among Military Service Members With Multiple Combat Deployments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    on mental health outcomes and should be exam- ined to identify key determinants of resilience. The issues of a dwell-titTie policy and whether certain...Gahm GA, Swanson RD, Duma SJ; Association between number of deployments to Iraq and niental health screening outcomes in US Army soldiers. J Clin

  4. TRPA1 agonist activity of probenecid desensitizes channel responses: consequences for screening.

    PubMed

    McClenaghan, Conor; Zeng, Fanning; Verkuyl, Jan Martin

    2012-12-01

    The transient receptor potential channel subtype A member 1 (TRPA1) is a nonselective cation channel widely viewed as having therapeutic potential, particularly for pain-related indications. Realization of this potential will require potent, selective modulators; however, currently the pharmacology of TRPA1 is poorly defined. As TRPA1 is calcium permeable, calcium indicators offer a simple assay format for high-throughput screening. In this report, we show that probenecid, a uricosuric agent used experimentally in screening to increase loading of calcium-sensitive dyes, activates TRPA1. Prolonged probenecid incubation during the dye-loading process reduces agonist potency upon subsequent challenge. When Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-hTRPA1 or STC-1 cells, which endogenously express TRPA1, were dye loaded in the presence of 2 mM probenecid TRPA1, agonists appeared less potent; EC(50) for allyl isothiocyante agonists in CHO-hTRPA1 was increased from 1.5±0.19 to 7.32±1.20 μM (P<0.01). No significant effect on antagonist potency was observed when using the agonist EC(80) concentration determined under the appropriate dye-loading conditions. We suggest an alternative protocol for calcium imaging using another blocker of anion transport, sulfinpyrazone. This blocker significantly augments indicator dye loading and the screening window, but is not a TRPA1 agonist and has no effect on agonist potency.

  5. Combinatorial Library Screening with Liposomes for Discovery of Membrane Active Peptides.

    PubMed

    Carney, Randy P; Thillier, Yann; Kiss, Zsofia; Sahabi, Amir; Heleno Campos, Jean Carlos; Knudson, Alisha; Liu, Ruiwu; Olivos, David; Saunders, Mary; Tian, Lin; Lam, Kit S

    2017-04-05

    Membrane active peptides (MAPs) represent a class of short biomolecules that have shown great promise in facilitating intracellular delivery without disrupting cellular plasma membranes. Yet their clinical application has been stalled by numerous factors: off-target delivery, a requirement for high local concentration near cells of interest, degradation en route to the target site, and, in the case of cell-penetrating peptides, eventual entrapment in endolysosomal compartments. The current method of deriving MAPs from naturally occurring proteins has restricted the discovery of new peptides that may overcome these limitations. Here we describe a new branch of assays featuring high-throughput functional screening capable of discovering new peptides with tailored cell uptake and endosomal escape capabilities. The one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial method is used to screen libraries containing millions of potential MAPs for binding to synthetic liposomes, which can be adapted to mimic various aspects of limiting membranes. By incorporating unnatural and D-amino acids in the library, in addition to varying buffer conditions and liposome compositions, we have identified several new highly potent MAPs that improve on current standards and introduce motifs that were previously unknown or considered unsuitable. Since small variations in pH and lipid composition can be controlled during screening, peptides discovered using this methodology could aid researchers building drug delivery platforms with unique requirements, such as targeted intracellular localization.

  6. Determination of estrogenic activity by LYES-assay (yeast estrogen screen-assay assisted by enzymatic digestion with lyticase).

    PubMed

    Schultis, T; Metzger, J W

    2004-12-01

    In order to enhance the sensitivity and the speed of the yeast estrogen screen (YES)-assay, which has been established in many laboratories for the determination of estrogenic activity of compounds and environmental samples, the LYES-assay, a modified version of the YES-assay including a digestion step with the enzyme lyticase, was developed. With the LYES-assay the estrogenic activities of natural (17beta-estradiol E2 and estrone), synthetic (17alpha-ethinylestradiol EE2) and pharmaceutical estrogens (diethylstilbestrol DES) as well as xenoestrogens (4-nonylphenol NP and five parabens) were determined and compared with the results obtained by other in vitro-assays namely the conventional YES-assay, the E-Screen-assay (MCF-7 breast tumor cell proliferation) and a receptor binding-assay (RB) with human estrogen receptors hER-alpha and hER-beta. In the case of E2 the LYES-assay had a significantly lower limit of quantification (LOQ) than the conventional YES-assay and even two orders of magnitude lower than the RB-assay. Compared to the E-Screen-assay the LOQ of the LYES-assay was almost one order of magnitude higher. The time required to perform the LYES-assay was as little as seven hours compared to three to five days for the conventional YES-assay. Thus, the LYES-assay is a very good alternative to existing estrogenic in vitro-assays, since it has a good sensitivity, is cheap and much faster than the other assays.

  7. DRIED BLOOD SPOT REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAYS TO SCREEN NEWBORNS FOR CONGENITAL CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Boppana, Suresh B.; Ross, Shannon A.; Novak, Zdenek; Shimamura, Masako; Tolan, Robert W.; Palmer, April L.; Ahmed, Amina; Michaels, Marian G.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Bernstein, David I.; Britt, William J.; Fowler, Karen B.

    2010-01-01

    Context Reliable methods to screen newborns for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are needed for identification of infants at increased risk for hearing loss. Since dried blood spots (DBS) are routinely collected for metabolic screening from all newborns in the United States, there has been interest in using DBS polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for newborn CMV screening. Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of DBS real-time PCR assays for newborn CMV screening Design, Setting, and Participants Between March 2007 and May 2008, infants born at seven medical centers in the U.S. were enrolled in the CMV and Hearing Multicenter Screening (CHIMES) study. Newborn saliva specimens were tested for the detection of early antigen fluorescent foci (DEAFF). Results of saliva DEAFF were compared with a single-primer (from 03/07 to 12/07) and a two-primer (from 01/08 to 05/08) DBS real-time PCR. Infants positive by screening DEAFF or PCR were enrolled in follow-up to confirm congenital infection by the reference standard method, DEAFF on saliva or urine. Main Outcome Measures Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) of single-primer and two-primer DBS real-time PCR assays for identifying infants with confirmed congenital CMV infection. Results Congenital CMV infection was confirmed in 92 of 20,448 (0.45%; 95% CI, 0.36–0.55) infants. Ninety-one of 92 infants were saliva DEAFF positive on screening. Of the 11,422 infants screened using the single-primer DBS PCR, 17 of 60 (28%) infants were positive with this assay, whereas, among the 9,026 infants screened using the two-primer DBS PCR, 11 of 32 (34%) infants were positive. The single-primer DBS PCR identified congenital CMV infection with a sensitivity of 28.3% (95% CI, 17.4–41.4%), specificity, 99.9% (95% CI, 99.9–100%), positive LR, 803.7 (95% CI, 278.7–2317.9), and negative LR, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.6–0.8). The positive and negative predictive values of the

  8. Pharmacophore modeling improves virtual screening for novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Stephanie N.; Garcia, Zulma; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Bevan, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in regulating various metabolic and immune processes. The PPAR family of receptors possesses a large binding cavity that imparts promiscuity of ligand binding not common to other nuclear receptors. This feature increases the challenge of using computational methods to identify PPAR ligands that will dock favorably into a structural model. Utilizing both ligand- and structure-based pharmacophore methods, we sought to improve agonist prediction by grouping ligands according to pharmacophore features, and pairing models derived from these features with receptor structures for docking. For 22 of the 33 receptor structures evaluated we observed an increase in true positive rate (TPR) when screening was restricted to compounds sharing molecular features found in rosiglitazone. A combination of structure models used for docking resulted in a higher TPR (40%) when compared to docking with a single structure model (less than 20%). Prediction was also improved when specific protein-ligand interactions between the docked ligands and structure models were given greater weight than the calculated free energy of binding. A large-scale screen of compounds using a marketed drug database verified the predictive ability of the selected structure models. This study highlights the steps necessary to improve screening for PPARγ ligands using multiple structure models, ligand-based pharmacophore data, evaluation of protein-ligand interactions, and comparison of docking datasets. The unique combination of methods presented here holds potential for more efficient screening of compounds with unknown affinity for PPARγ that could serve as candidates for therapeutic development. PMID:25616366

  9. Pharmacophore modeling improves virtual screening for novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Stephanie N.; Garcia, Zulma; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Bevan, David R.

    2015-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in regulating various metabolic and immune processes. The PPAR family of receptors possesses a large binding cavity that imparts promiscuity of ligand binding not common to other nuclear receptors. This feature increases the challenge of using computational methods to identify PPAR ligands that will dock favorably into a structural model. Utilizing both ligand- and structure-based pharmacophore methods, we sought to improve agonist prediction by grouping ligands according to pharmacophore features, and pairing models derived from these features with receptor structures for docking. For 22 of the 33 receptor structures evaluated we observed an increase in true positive rate (TPR) when screening was restricted to compounds sharing molecular features found in rosiglitazone. A combination of structure models used for docking resulted in a higher TPR (40 %) when compared to docking with a single structure model (<20 %). Prediction was also improved when specific protein-ligand interactions between the docked ligands and structure models were given greater weight than the calculated free energy of binding. A large-scale screen of compounds using a marketed drug database verified the predictive ability of the selected structure models. This study highlights the steps necessary to improve screening for PPARγ ligands using multiple structure models, ligand-based pharmacophore data, evaluation of protein-ligand interactions, and comparison of docking datasets. The unique combination of methods presented here holds potential for more efficient screening of compounds with unknown affinity for PPARγ that could serve as candidates for therapeutic development.

  10. Rare earth phosphors and phosphor screens

    DOEpatents

    Buchanan, Robert A.; Maple, T. Grant; Sklensky, Alden F.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to rare earth phosphor screens for converting image carrying incident radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation and to the rare earth phosphor materials utilized in such screens. The invention further relates to methods for converting image carrying charged particles to image carrying radiation principally in the blue and near-ultraviolet region of the spectrum and to stabilized rare earth phosphors characterized by having a continuous surface layer of the phosphors of the invention. More particularly, the phosphors of the invention are oxychlorides and oxybromides of yttrium, lanthanum and gadolinium activated with trivalent cerium and the conversion screens are of the type illustratively including x-ray conversion screens, image amplifier tube screens, neutron imaging screens, cathode ray tube screens, high energy gamma ray screens, scintillation detector screens and screens for real-time translation of image carrying high energy radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation.

  11. A microfluidic platform for high-sensitivity, real-time drug screening on C. elegans and parasitic nematodes†

    PubMed Central

    Carr, John A.; Parashar, Archana; Gibson, Richard; Robertson, Alan P.; Martin, Richard J.; Pandey, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new microfluidic platform for screening drugs and their dose response on the locomotion behavior of free living nematodes and parasitic nematodes. The system offers a higher sensitivity drug screening chip which employs a combination of existing and newly developed methods. Real-time observation of the entire drug application process (i.e. the innate pre-exposure locomotion, the transient response during drug exposure and the time-resolved, post-exposure behavior) at a single worm resolution is made possible. The chip enables the monitoring of four nematode parameters (number of worms responsive, number of worms leaving the drug well, average worm velocity and time until unresponsiveness). Each parameter generates an inherently different dose response; allowing for a higher resolution when screening for resistance. We expect this worm chip could be used as a robust cross species, cross drug platform. Existing nematode motility and migration assays do not offer this level of sophistication. The device comprises two principal components: behavioral microchannels to study nematode motility and a drug well for administering the dose and observing drug effects as a function of exposure time. The drug screening experiment can be described by three main steps: (i) ‘pre-exposure study’ – worms are inserted into the behavioral channels and their locomotion is characterized, (ii) ‘dose exposure’ – worms are guided from the behavioral microchannels into the drug well and held for a predefined time, during which time their transient response to the dose is characterized and (iii) ‘post-exposure study’ – worms are guided back into the behavioral microchannels where their locomotion (i.e. their time-resolved response to the dose) is characterized and compared to pre-exposure motility. The direction of nematodes’ movement is reliably controlled by the application of an electric field within a defined range. Control experiments (e.g. in

  12. Activity-based metagenomic screening and biochemical characterization of bovine ruminal protozoan glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Findley, Seth D; Mormile, Melanie R; Sommer-Hurley, Andrea; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Tipton, Peter; Arnett, Krista; Porter, James H; Kerley, Monty; Stacey, Gary

    2011-11-01

    The rumen, the foregut of herbivorous ruminant animals such as cattle, functions as a bioreactor to process complex plant material. Among the numerous and diverse microbes involved in ruminal digestion are the ruminal protozoans, which are single-celled, ciliated eukaryotic organisms. An activity-based screen was executed to identify genes encoding fibrolytic enzymes present in the metatranscriptome of a bovine ruminal protozoan-enriched cDNA expression library. Of the four novel genes identified, two were characterized in biochemical assays. Our results provide evidence for the effective use of functional metagenomics to retrieve novel enzymes from microbial populations that cannot be maintained in axenic cultures.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of Apium graveolens.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Zakir; Shad, Anwar Ali; Bakht, Jehan; Ullah, Inam; Jan, Saleem

    2015-09-01

    The present study evaluates the phytochemical screenings, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial assay of Apium graveolens L. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and steroids in Apium graveolens while terpenoids was absent. The total phenolic content was slightly higher in methanolic fraction (63.46 ± 12.00 mg GAE/g) followed by ethanol (36.60 ± 12.28 mg GAE/g) and hexane fractions (34.86 ± 6.96 mg GAE/g). The flavonoid content was high in methanolic extract (56.95 ± 7.14 mg Quorcetin/g) and low level of the content was found in methylated spirit extract (29.2 ± 3.15 mg Quercitin/g). Antioxidant activity assayed by FRAP was higher in methanolic fraction (12.48 ± 1.06 mmole of FeSO₄equivalent/litre of extract) compared with other extracts. Likewise, good antimicrobial activity was measured by crude ethanol fraction against S. aureus (MIC=0.12 ± 0.03 μg/ml) and S. typhi (MIC= 0.5 ± 0.2 μg/ml). Results also that ethanolic fraction was effective against A. flavus (MIC= 05 ± 1.0 μg/ml).

  14. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M

    2006-02-23

    Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids.

  15. Exploring the structure–activity relationships of ABCC2 modulators using a screening approach

    PubMed Central

    Wissel, Gloria; Kudryavtsev, Pavel; Ghemtio, Leo; Tammela, Päivi; Wipf, Peter; Yliperttula, Marjo; Finel, Moshe; Urtti, Arto; Kidron, Heidi; Xhaard, Henri

    2015-01-01

    ABCC2 is a transporter with key influence on liver and kidney pharmacokinetics. In order to explore the structure–activity relationships of compounds that modulate ABCC2, and by doing so gain insights into drug–drug interactions, we screened a library of 432 compounds for modulators of radiolabeled β-estradiol 17-(β-D-glucuronide) (EG) and fluorescent 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin transport (CDCF) in membrane vesicles. Following the primary screen at 80 μM, dose–response curves were used to investigate in detail 86 compounds, identifying 16 low μM inhibitors and providing data about the structure–activity relationships in four series containing 19, 24, 10, and eight analogues. Measurements with the CDCF probe were consistently more robust than for the EG probe. Only one compound was clearly probe-selective with 50-fold difference in the IC50s obtained by the two assays. We built 24 classification models using the SVM and fused-XY Kohonen methods, revealing molecular descriptors related to number of rings, solubility and lipophilicity as important to distinguish inhibitors from inactive compounds. This study is to our best knowledge the first to provide details about structure–activity relationships in ABCC2 modulation. PMID:25935289

  16. Screening and HPLC-Based Activity Profiling for New Antiprotozoal Leads from European Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Stefanie; Thomi, Semira; Kaiser, Marcel; Hamburger, Matthias; Adams, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Based on a survey of remedies used in Renaissance Europe to treat malaria, we prepared and screened a library of 254 extracts from 61 plants for antiplasmodial activity in vitro. HPLC-based activity profiling was performed for targeted identification of active constituents in extracts. One of the most remarkable results was the identification of onopordopicrin, a germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Arctium nemorosum as a potent inhibitor of P. falciparum with an IC50 of 6.9 μM. It was tested similarly against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the parasite which causes African sleeping sickness. With an IC50 of 0.37 μM, onopordopicrin was one of the most potent natural products reported so far. Cytotoxicity was determined against rat myoblast L6 cells (IC50: 3.06). PMID:22396915

  17. Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Anesini, C; Perez, C

    1993-06-01

    Screening of 132 extracts from Argentine folk-medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity has been conducted using a penicillin G resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger as test microorganisms. Cephazolin, ampicillin and miconazole were used as standard antibiotics and concentration-response curves were obtained using the agar-well diffusion method. Boiling water extracts of plant materials were tested and 12 species were active against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas 10 were effective against Escherichia coli and 4 against Aspergillus niger. Tabebuia impetiginosa bark, Achyrocline sp. aerials parts, Larrea divaricata leaves, Rosa borboniana flowers, Punica granatum fruit pericarp, Psidium guineense fruit pericarp, Lithrea ternifolia leaves and Allium sativum bulbs produced some of the more active extracts.

  18. Screening for novel human genes associated with CRE pathway activation with cell microarray.

    PubMed

    Tian, Linjie; Wang, Pingzhang; Guo, Jinhai; Wang, Xinyu; Deng, Weiwei; Zhang, Chenying; Fu, Dongxu; Gao, Xia; Shi, Taiping; Ma, Dalong

    2007-07-01

    In this study, cell microarray technology is used to identify novel human genes associated with CRE pathway activation. By reverse transfection, expression plasmids containing full-length cDNAs were cotransfected with the reporter plasmid pCRE-d2EGFP to monitor the activation of the CRE pathway via enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) expression. Of the 575 predominantly novel genes screened, 22 exhibited relatively higher EGFP fluorescence compared with a negative control. After a functional validation with a dual luciferase reporter system that included both cis- and trans-luciferase assays, 4 of the 22 genes (RNF41, C8orf32, C6orf208, and MEIS3P1) were confirmed as CRE-pathway activators. Western blot analysis revealed that RNF41 can promote CREB phosphorylation. These results demonstrate the successful combination of cell microarray technology with this reporting system and the potential of this tool to characterize functions of novel genes in a highly parallel format.

  19. Significantly different coagulation factor activities underlying the variability of 'normal' activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Jin; Kwon, Eui-Hoon; Ma, Youngeun; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Seon-Woo; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is a widely used coagulation screening test in routine laboratories. The aPTT level in the control population varies and is reflected by the reference interval. However, there have been no studies to investigate the coagulation status determining the variability of the aPTT. The aim of this study was to investigate the coagulation factor activities underlying the variability of aPTT in the population. The study participants were reference individuals with prothrombin time and aPTT within reference intervals. The aPTT was determined using STA-PTT Automate (Diagnostica Stago, Asnieres, France; local reference interval, 29.1-41.9 s). Those with aPTT within the marginal ranges of reference interval were selected for factor assays. We defined the lower marginal group as the lowest 10 percentile of reference interval (29.1-30.9 s) and the upper marginal group as the highest 10 percentile (38.0-41.9 s). Activities of factor II, V, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII were determined in both groups. The lower marginal and upper marginal groups consisted of 220 and 209 individuals, respectively. All coagulation factors were significantly higher in the lower marginal than in the upper marginal group (P = 0.0127 for factor II and P < 0.0001 for the others). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed factor XII and VIII were two strongest contributors determining the aPTT level, whereas factor XI was not significantly different between the groups (P = 0.095). This study firstly demonstrated significantly different coagulation factor activities underlying the variability of aPTT in reference individuals. The results suggested the possibility of disease association or phenotypic contribution of variable coagulation activities in the population.

  20. Time and Frequency Transfer Activities at NIST

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Metrologia (SIM) Time Network The Sistema Interamericano de Metrologia (SIM) consists of national metrology institutes (NMIs) located in the 34...2003, “Time Transfer to TAI Using Geodetic Receivers,” Metrologia , 40, 184-188. [5] K. M. Larson, J. Levine, L. M. Nelson, and T. E. Parker, 2000... Metrologia , 40, 270-288. [7] G. Petit and Z. Jiang, 2008, “Precise point positioning for TAI computation,” International Journal of Navigation

  1. Molecular screening of Chinese medicinal plants for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, H M Manir; Yeh, Jan-Ying; Tang, Yi-Chia; Cheng, Winston Teng-Kuei; Ou, Bor-Rung

    2014-06-01

    Estrogen and progestins have adverse effects, and many of these adverse effects are caused by progestins. Due to this, many women choose to use botanical alternatives for hormone replacement therapy, which does not trigger steroidogenic properties. Therefore, it is necessary to screen these herbs for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic properties. Extract of 13 Chinese medicinal plants were analysed for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic activities by using progesterone response element-driven luciferase reporter gene bioassay. MTT assay was carried out to investigate the cytotoxic effect of herb extract on PAE cells. Among the 13 herbs, Dipsacus asperoides extract exhibited progestogenic activity, and 10 species - Cortex eucommiae, Folium artemisiae argyi, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Angelica sinensis, Atractylodes macrocephala koidz, Scutellaria baicalensis, Cuscuta chinensis, Euscaphis japonica, Ailanthus altissima, and Dioscorea opposita - were recognized to have anti-progestogenic like activities. Extract of Dipsacus asperoides demonstrated dose-dependent progestogenic activity, and the progestogenic activity of 100 (mu)g/mL extracts was equivalent to 31.45 ng/mL progesterone activity. Herbs extracts that exhibited anti-progestogenic-like activity also inhibited the 314.46 ng/mL progesterone activity in a dose-response manner. None of the herb extracts shown significant toxic effect on PAE cells at 40-100 (mu)g/mL compared to control. This discovery will aid selection of suitable herbs for hormone replacement therapy.

  2. Screening of Panamanian Plants for Cosmetic Properties, and HPLC-Based Identification of Constituents with Antioxidant and UV-B Protecting Activities

    PubMed Central

    Guldbrandsen, Niels; De Mieri, Maria; Gupta, Mahabir; Liakou, Eleni; Pratsinis, Harris; Kletsas, Dimitris; Chaita, Eliza; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    A library of 600 taxonomically diverse Panamanian plant extracts was screened for DPPH scavenging and UV-B protective activities, and the methanolic extracts of Mosquitoxylum jamaicense, Combretum cacoucia, and Casearia commersionia were submitted to HPLC-based activity profiling. The compounds located in the active time windows were isolated and identified as gallic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Gallic acid methyl ester (3) and digallic acid derivatives (2, 6) showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity (<10 μg/mL), while protocatechuic acid (7) and isoquercitrin (10) exhibited the highest UV-B protective properties. PMID:26839809

  3. The Association of Screen Time, Television in the Bedroom, and Obesity among School-Aged Youth: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Among school-aged youth, we sought to identify characteristics associated with (1) exceeding screen time recommendations (ie, television/videos/video games more than 2 hours/weekday), and (2) exceeding screen time recommendations, the presence of a television in the bedroom, and obesity. Methods: Using 2007 National Survey of…

  4. Physical terms and leisure time activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valovičová, Ľubomíra; Siptáková, Mária; ŠtubÅa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    People have to educate not only in school but also outside it. One approach to acquire new knowledge are leisure activities such as hobby groups or camps. Leisure activities, more and more seem to be the appropriate form for informal learning of physics concepts. Within leisure activities pupils have the possibility to acquire new concepts in unusual and interesting way. It is possible to inspire their intrinsic motivation on the matter or the phenomenon which is the aim of all teachers. This article deals with the description of and insights on acquisition of the concept of uniform and non-uniform rectilinear movement during a physics camp where pupils had the opportunity to use modern technologies which are despite of modernization of education still unconventional teaching methods in our schools.

  5. Examination of adolescents' screen time and physical fitness as independent correlates of weight status and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Ullrich-French, Sarah C; Power, Thomas G; Daratha, Kenn B; Bindler, Ruth C; Steele, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Physical fitness performance is an important health correlate yet is often unrelated to sedentary behaviour in early adolescence. In this study, we examined the association of sedentary behaviour (i.e. screen time) with weight-related health markers and blood pressure, after controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance. American middle school students (N = 153, 56% females) aged 11-15 years (mean 12.6 years, s = 0.5) completed assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness performance, screen time, weight status (BMI percentile, waist-to-height ratio), and blood pressure. Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance, found those who met the daily recommendation of 2 h or less of screen time (n = 36, 23.5%) had significantly lower BMI (p < 0.05) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01) compared with those who exceeded this recommendation. Findings suggest specific intervention programmes may be designed to target both cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary behaviours to maximize early adolescent health because these behaviours are likely to have unique and independent effects on youth health markers.

  6. Haida Story Telling Time with Activity Folder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogo, Robert

    One in a series of curriculum materials on Southeast Alaska Natives, this booklet contains seven myths and legends from the Haida oral tradition, each accompanied by discussion questions and suggested learning activities. Intended for use in the intermediate grades, the stories are two to four pages long with many Haida words included in the text…

  7. Chlamydia screening among sexually active young female enrollees of health plans--United States, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-17

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States, with more than 2.8 million new cases estimated to occur each year. During 2007, approximately 1.1 million cases of chlamydia were reported to CDC; more than half of these were in females aged 15-25 years. Untreated chlamydia can progress to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In 1989, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended routine chlamydia screening of sexually active young women. To evaluate the rates of chlamydia screening among sexually active young females, CDC analyzed data reported by commercial and Medicaid health plans to the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) during 2000-2007. The percentage of enrolled sexually active females who were screened for chlamydia was estimated for each of 41 states that had at least five health plans reporting HEDIS chlamydia screening data and for four U.S. geographic regions. Nationally, the annual screening rate increased from 25.3% in 2000 to 43.6% in 2006, and then decreased slightly to 41.6% in 2007. The regional rate of chlamydia screening in 2007 was highest in the Northeast (45.5%) and lowest in the South (37.3%). Increased screening by health-care providers is necessary to reduce the burden of chlamydial infection in the United States.

  8. The Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (zero to four years of age) and screen time among children from Kingston, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Valerie; Tremblay, Mark S; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian W; Janssen, Ian

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the proportion of children meeting the new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (zero to four years of age) and to describe parental attitudes toward and barriers to reducing screen time. METHODS: Participants included 657 children zero to four years of age from the Kingston, Ontario, area. From May to September 2011, parents completed a questionnaire regarding their child’s screen time and their attitudes toward and barriers to reducing their child’s screen time. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 32% of children younger than two years of age engaged in no screen time and approximately 46% of children two to four years of age engaged in <1 h per day; thereby, meeting the recommendations of the new guidelines. Most parents believed that their child did not engage in excessive screen time. Physicians and other health professionals should inform parents of these new guidelines and provide strategies to help their children meet targets. PMID:24381488

  9. Gametocytocidal Screen Identifies Novel Chemical Classes with Plasmodium falciparum Transmission Blocking Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Natalie G.; Sullivan, David J.; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George; Tripathi, Abhai K.

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of transmission blocking compounds is an important intervention strategy necessary to eliminate and eradicate malaria. To date only a small number of drugs that inhibit gametocyte development and thereby transmission from the mosquito to the human host exist. This limitation is largely due to a lack of screening assays easily adaptable to high throughput because of multiple incubation steps or the requirement for high gametocytemia. Here we report the discovery of new compounds with gametocytocidal activity using a simple and robust SYBR Green I- based DNA assay. Our assay utilizes the exflagellation step in male gametocytes and a background suppressor, which masks the staining of dead cells to achieve healthy signal to noise ratio by increasing signal of viable parasites and subtracting signal from dead parasites. By determining the contribution of exflagellation to fluorescent signal and using appropriate cutoff values, we were able to screen for gametocytocidal compounds. After assay validation and optimization, we screened an FDA approved drug library of approximately 1500 compounds, as well as the 400 compound MMV malaria box and identified 44 gametocytocidal compounds with sub to low micromolar IC50s. Major classes of compounds with gametocytocidal activity included quaternary ammonium compounds with structural similarity to choline, acridine-like compounds similar to quinacrine and pyronaridine, as well as antidepressant, antineoplastic, and anthelminthic compounds. Top drug candidates showed near complete transmission blocking in membrane feeding assays. This assay is simple, reproducible and demonstrated robust Z-factor values at low gametocytemia levels, making it amenable to HTS for identification of novel and potent gametocytocidal compounds. PMID:25157792

  10. Identification of Three Classes of Heteroaromatic Compounds with Activity against Intracellular Trypanosoma cruzi by Chemical Library Screening

    PubMed Central

    Bettiol, Esther; Samanovic, Marie; Murkin, Andrew S.; Raper, Jayne; Buckner, Frederick; Rodriguez, Ana

    2009-01-01

    The development of new drugs against Chagas disease is a priority since the currently available medicines have toxic effects, partial efficacy and are targeted against the acute phase of disease. At present, there is no drug to treat the chronic stage. In this study, we have optimized a whole cell-based assay for high throughput screening of compounds that inhibit infection of mammalian cells by Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes. A 2000-compound chemical library was screened using a recombinant T. cruzi (Tulahuen strain) expressing β-galactosidase. Three hits were selected for their high activity against T. cruzi and low toxicity to host cells in vitro: PCH1, NT1 and CX1 (IC50: 54, 190 and 23 nM, respectively). Each of these three compounds presents a different mechanism of action on intracellular proliferation of T. cruzi amastigotes. CX1 shows strong trypanocidal activity, an essential characteristic for the development of drugs against the chronic stage of Chagas disease where parasites are found intracellular in a quiescent stage. NT1 has a trypanostatic effect, while PCH1 affects parasite division. The three compounds also show high activity against intracellular T. cruzi from the Y strain and against the related kinetoplastid species Leishmania major and L. amazonensis. Characterization of the anti–T. cruzi activity of molecules chemically related to the three library hits allowed the selection of two compounds with IC50 values of 2 nM (PCH6 and CX2). These values are approximately 100 times lower than those of the medicines used in patients against T. cruzi. These results provide new candidate molecules for the development of treatments against Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. PMID:19238193

  11. Screening for basic drugs in hair of drug addicts by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pelander, Anna; Ristimaa, Johanna; Rasanen, Ilpo; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2008-12-01

    Hair analysis in forensic and clinical toxicology has been strongly focused on drugs of abuse, and comprehensive, drug class-independent screening methods based on mass spectrometric detection have not been applied to date. In this study, a qualitative drug screening method by liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, earlier developed and evaluated for forensic toxicological urine analysis, was adapted for screening of basic drugs in hair. The method included alkaline hydrolysis, purification with mixed-mode solid phase extraction, and analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry with automated data analysis and reporting. Identification was based on accurate mass, isotopic pattern fit, and retention time, if available. Analysis of 32 hair samples from deceased drug addicts revealed 35 different drugs. The drug classes identified included antidepressants, antipsychotics, antiepileptics, amphetamines, opioids, beta-blockers, a benzodiazepine, a hypnotic, a local anesthetic, an antiemetic, and an antipyretic analgesic. The findings were in good agreement with the findings in blood and urine by other methods. Moreover, information about previous drug use not evident in the analysis of other matrices was obtained in the majority (72%) of the cases. Tramadol was an especially predominant finding, suggesting tramadol abuse as an opioid substitute. One apparent false-positive finding was identified. The mean and median mass accuracies of positive findings were 2.3 and 1.8 ppm, corresponding to 0.5 and 0.4 mDa, respectively. Cutoff values for tramadol and methamphetamine in hair were 100 and 200 pg/mg, respectively. The method proved to be a simple and straightforward tool for comprehensive screening of basic drugs in hair.

  12. Capturing Cognitive Processing Time for Active Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    biometrics, extracted from keystroke dynamics , as “something a user is” for active authentication. This scheme performs continual verification in the...fingerprint for continuous authentication. Its effectiveness has been verified through a large-scale dataset. 2.0 INTRODUCTION Keystroke dynamics —the...measure the similarity. A recent survey on biometric authentication using keystroke dynamics classified research papers on the basis of their

  13. Basophil activation tests: time for a reconsideration.

    PubMed

    Uyttebroek, Astrid P; Sabato, Vito; Faber, Margaretha A; Cop, Nathalie; Bridts, Chris H; Lapeere, Hilde; De Clerck, Luc S; Ebo, Didier G

    2014-10-01

    Challenges in in vitro allergy diagnostics lie in the development of accessible and reliable assays allowing identification of all offending allergens and cross-reactive structures. Flow-assisted analysis and quantification of in vitro activated basophils serves as a diagnostic instrument with increasing applications developed over the years. From the earliest days it was clear that the test could constitute a diagnostic asset in basophil-mediated hypersensitivity. However, utility of the basophil activation test should be reassessed regarding difficulties with preparation, characterization and validation of allergen extracts; availability and the potential of more accessible diagnostics. Today, the added value mainly lies in diagnosis of immediate drug hypersensitivity. Other potential indications are monitoring venom-immunotherapy and follow-up of natural history of food allergies. However, results in these nondiagnostic applications are preliminary. We review the most relevant clinical applications of the basophil activation test. Some personal comments and views about perspectives and challenges about flow-assisted allergy diagnosis are made.

  14. A Global Genomic Screening Strategy Reveals Diverse Activators of Constitutive Activated Receptor (CAR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive survey of conditions that activate CAR in the mouse liver has not been carried out but would be useful in understanding their impact on CAR-dependent liver tumor induction. A gene signature dependent on CAR activation was identified by comparing the transcript pr...

  15. Research resource: modulators of glucocorticoid receptor activity identified by a new high-throughput screening assay.

    PubMed

    Blackford, John A; Brimacombe, Kyle R; Dougherty, Edward J; Pradhan, Madhumita; Shen, Min; Li, Zhuyin; Auld, Douglas S; Chow, Carson C; Austin, Christopher P; Simons, S Stoney

    2014-07-01

    Glucocorticoid steroids affect almost every type of tissue and thus are widely used to treat a variety of human pathological conditions. However, the severity of numerous side effects limits the frequency and duration of glucocorticoid treatments. Of the numerous approaches to control off-target responses to glucocorticoids, small molecules and pharmaceuticals offer several advantages. Here we describe a new, extended high-throughput screen in intact cells to identify small molecule modulators of dexamethasone-induced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) transcriptional activity. The novelty of this assay is that it monitors changes in both GR maximal activity (A(max)) and EC(50) (the position of the dexamethasone dose-response curve). Upon screening 1280 chemicals, 10 with the greatest changes in the absolute value of A(max) or EC(50) were selected for further examination. Qualitatively identical behaviors for 60% to 90% of the chemicals were observed in a completely different system, suggesting that other systems will be similarly affected by these chemicals. Additional analysis of the 10 chemicals in a recently described competition assay determined their kinetically defined mechanism and site of action. Some chemicals had similar mechanisms of action despite divergent effects on the level of the GR-induced product. These combined assays offer a straightforward method of identifying numerous new pharmaceuticals that can alter GR transactivation in ways that could be clinically useful.

  16. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Dracaena reflexa Lam. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Abha; Vats, Swati; Shukla, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of successive leaf extracts of Dracaena reflexa was investigated using the scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Methanol extract was found potent in both the assays. IC50 values of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay for methanol extract was 0.97 mg/ml and ferric reducing antioxidant power value for the same is 1.19. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and total phenolic content were also determined. Qualitative screening for phytochemical showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and saponins. Highest phenolic content was shown by methanol extract (49.69 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight). Proximate analysis showed moisture content (3.31%), ash content (8.02%), crude fibre (1.31%), crude fat (0.97%), total protein (3.70%), total carbohydrate (86.01) and nutritive value (367.56 kcal/100 g), which would make it a potential nutraceutical. This study suggested that Dracaena reflexa, a potential natural free radical scavenger, which could find use as an antioxidative. PMID:26798184

  17. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Dracaena reflexa Lam. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Abha; Vats, Swati; Shukla, R K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of successive leaf extracts of Dracaena reflexa was investigated using the scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Methanol extract was found potent in both the assays. IC50 values of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay for methanol extract was 0.97 mg/ml and ferric reducing antioxidant power value for the same is 1.19. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and total phenolic content were also determined. Qualitative screening for phytochemical showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and saponins. Highest phenolic content was shown by methanol extract (49.69 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight). Proximate analysis showed moisture content (3.31%), ash content (8.02%), crude fibre (1.31%), crude fat (0.97%), total protein (3.70%), total carbohydrate (86.01) and nutritive value (367.56 kcal/100 g), which would make it a potential nutraceutical. This study suggested that Dracaena reflexa, a potential natural free radical scavenger, which could find use as an antioxidative.

  18. Electrochemical assay of α-glucosidase activity and the inhibitor screening in cell medium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Liu, Ying; Wang, Xiaonan; Chen, Yangyang; Li, Genxi

    2015-12-15

    An electrochemical method is established in this work for the assay of α-glucosidase activity and the inhibitor screening through one-step displacement reaction, which can be directly used in cell medium. The displacement reaction can be achieved via strong binding of 4-aminophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (pAPG)/magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to pyrene boric acid (PBA) immobilized on the surface of graphite electrode (GE), compared to that of dopamine (DA)/sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Since α-glucosidase can specifically catalyze MNPs/pAPG into MNPs/pAP which has no binding capacity with PBA, the activity of both isolated and membrane bound enzyme can be well evaluated by using this proposed method. Meanwhile, signal amplification can be accomplished via the immobilization of DA at the outer layer of AgNPs, and the accuracy can be strengthened through magnetic separation. Moreover, this method can also be utilized for inhibitor screening not only in the medium containing the enzyme but also in cell medium. With good precision and accuracy, it may be extended to other proteases and their inhibitors as well.

  19. Multidimensional GPCR profiling and screening using impedance-based label-free and real-time assay.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ning; Nguyen, Khanh; Irelan, Jeffery; Abassi, Yama A

    2015-01-01

    GPCRs constitute one of the most sought-after targets in drug discovery because they are associated with conditions ranging from cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, inflammation, cancer, and diseases of the nervous system. Moreover, they are one of the most amenable targets for drug discovery because they can be modulated by small molecules, peptides, proteins, and antibodies. Therefore it may not come as a surprise that close to 40 % of the drugs that are currently on the market are targeting GPCRs. It has become evident that GPCR signaling is highly complex and may involve multiple or a subset of pathways depending on the interaction of a GPCR with an agonist or antagonist. It is imperative that any functional screening for GPCR activity integrates this complexity. In this assay protocol, we describe how the xCELLigence RTCA HT impedance-based platform which can be used for functional cell-based GPCR assays can be utilized for GPCR screening.

  20. A Virtual Screening Approach For Identifying Plants with Anti H5N1 Neuraminidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic and occasional drug-resistant influenza strains have highlighted the need to develop novel anti-influenza therapeutics. Here, we report computational and experimental efforts to identify influenza neuraminidase inhibitors from among the 3000 natural compounds in the Malaysian-Plants Natural-Product (NADI) database. These 3000 compounds were first docked into the neuraminidase active site. The five plants with the largest number of top predicted ligands were selected for experimental evaluation. Twelve specific compounds isolated from these five plants were shown to inhibit neuraminidase, including two compounds with IC50 values less than 92 μM. Furthermore, four of the 12 isolated compounds had also been identified in the top 100 compounds from the virtual screen. Together, these results suggest an effective new approach for identifying bioactive plant species that will further the identification of new pharmacologically active compounds from diverse natural-product resources. PMID:25555059

  1. Screening of photosynthetic pigments for herbicidal activity with a new computational molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, R Navanietha; Chandran, Saravanan; Pal, Parimal; Berchmans, Sheela

    2013-12-01

    There is an immense interest among the researchers to identify new herbicides which are effective against the herbs without affecting the environment. In this work, photosynthetic pigments are used as the ligands to predict their herbicidal activity. The enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase is a good target for the herbicides. Homology modeling of the target enzyme is done using Modeler 9.11 and the model is validated. Docking studies were performed with AutoDock Vina algorithm to predict the binding of the natural pigments such as β-carotene, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin to the target. β-carotene, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin have higher binding energies indicating the herbicidal activity of the pigments. This work reports a procedure to screen herbicides with computational molecular approach. These pigments will serve as potential bioherbicides in the future.

  2. Screening of antimicrobial activity of macroalgae extracts from the Moroccan Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    El Wahidi, M; El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Bamhaoud, T

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work is the screening of the antimicrobial activity of seaweed extracts against pathogenic bacteria and yeasts. The antimicrobial activity of the dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of ten marine macroalgae collected from the Moroccan's Atlantic coast (El-Jadida) was tested against two Gram+ (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram- (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) human pathogenic bacteria, and against two pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) using the agar disk-diffusion method. Seven algae (70%) of ten seaweeds are active against at least one pathogenic microorganisms studied. Five (50%) are active against the two studied yeast with an inhibition diameter greater than 15 mm for Cystoseira brachycarpa. Six (60%) seaweeds are active against at least one studied bacteria with five (50%) algae exhibiting antibacterial inhibition diameter greater than 15 mm. Cystoseira brachycarpa, Cystoseira compressa, Fucus vesiculosus, and Gelidium sesquipedale have a better antimicrobial activity with a broad spectrum antimicrobial and are a potential source of antimicrobial compounds and can be subject of isolation of the natural antimicrobials.

  3. Functional Screening of Hydrolytic Activities Reveals an Extremely Thermostable Cellulase from a Deep-Sea Archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Leis, Benedikt; Heinze, Simon; Angelov, Angel; Pham, Vu Thuy Trang; Thürmer, Andrea; Jebbar, Mohamed; Golyshin, Peter N.; Streit, Wolfgang R.; Daniel, Rolf; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Extreme habitats serve as a source of enzymes that are active under extreme conditions and are candidates for industrial applications. In this work, six large-insert mixed genomic libraries were screened for hydrolase activities in a broad temperature range (8–70°C). Among a variety of hydrolytic activities, one fosmid clone, derived from a library of pooled isolates of hyperthermophilic archaea from deep sea vents, displayed hydrolytic activity on carboxymethyl cellulose substrate plates at 70°C but not at lower temperatures. Sequence analysis of the fosmid insert revealed a gene encoding a novel glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GHF12) endo-1,4-β-glucanase, termed Cel12E. The enzyme shares 45% sequence identity with a protein from the archaeon Thermococcus sp. AM4 and displays a unique multidomain architecture. Biochemical characterization of Cel12E revealed a remarkably thermostable protein, which appears to be of archaeal origin. The enzyme displayed maximum activity at 92°C and was active on a variety of linear 1,4-β-glucans like carboxymethyl cellulose, β-glucan, lichenan, and phosphoric acid swollen cellulose. The protein is able to bind to various insoluble β-glucans. Product pattern analysis indicated that Cel12E is an endo-cleaving β-glucanase. Cel12E expands the toolbox of hyperthermostable archaeal cellulases with biotechnological potential. PMID:26191525

  4. Time perspective and physical activity among central Appalachian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gulley, Tauna

    2013-04-01

    Time perspective is a cultural behavioral concept that reflects individuals' orientations or attitudes toward the past, present, or future. Individuals' time perspectives influence their choices regarding daily activities. Time perspective is an important consideration when teaching adolescents about the importance of being physically active. However, little is known about the relationship between time perspective and physical activity among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the time perspective of central Appalachian adolescents and explore the relationship between time perspective and physical activity. This study was guided by The theory of planned behavior (TPB). One hundred and ninety-three students completed surveys to examine time perspective and physical activity behaviors. Data were collected in one school. Results of this study can inform school nurses and high school guidance counselors about the importance of promoting a future-oriented time perspective to improve physical activity and educational outcomes.

  5. Screening for vesicoureteral reflux in children using real-time sonography.

    PubMed

    Schneider, K; Jablonski, C; Wiessner, M; Kohn, M; Fendel, H

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and ten children, ages 6 days to 14 years, were investigated for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) using ultrasound before voiding cystourethrography (VCU). Sonographically a VUR was assumed if a retrovesical dilated ureter and/or an increase of the separation of the central renal echo complex (CRC) could be detected. By means of sonography VUR grades III and IV were seen in 100%, grade II in 84% of all cases. There was a false positive rate of 10%. Sonographic reflux study is a sensitive and specific screening and follow-up procedure for VUR.

  6. High content screening of a kinase-focused library reveals compounds broadly-active against dengue viruses.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Deu John M; Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Taniguchi, Juliana Bosso; Li, Xiaolan; Milan Bonotto, Rafaela; No, Joo Hwan; Kim, Keum Hyun; Baek, Sungmin; Kim, Hee Young; Windisch, Marc Peter; Pamplona Mosimann, Ana Luiza; de Borba, Luana; Liuzzi, Michel; Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Freitas-Junior, Lucio Holanda

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has a large impact in global health. It is considered as one of the medically important arboviruses, and developing a preventive or therapeutic solution remains a top priority in the medical and scientific community. Drug discovery programs for potential dengue antivirals have increased dramatically over the last decade, largely in part to the introduction of high-throughput assays. In this study, we have developed an image-based dengue high-throughput/high-content assay (HT/HCA) using an innovative computer vision approach to screen a kinase-focused library for anti-dengue compounds. Using this dengue HT/HCA, we identified a group of compounds with a 4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-methylthiazol-2-amine as a common core structure that inhibits dengue viral infection in a human liver-derived cell line (Huh-7.5 cells). Compounds CND1201, CND1203 and CND1243 exhibited strong antiviral activities against all four dengue serotypes. Plaque reduction and time-of-addition assays suggests that these compounds interfere with the late stage of viral infection cycle. These findings demonstrate that our image-based dengue HT/HCA is a reliable tool that can be used to screen various chemical libraries for potential dengue antiviral candidates.

  7. Brief report: Association between socio-demographic factors, screen media usage and physical activity by type of day in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Devís-Devís, José; Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J; Tomás, José Manuel

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors, screen media time usage, and light, moderate and vigorous activities on weekdays and weekends. Cross-sectional data was collected from 323 Spanish adolescents (mean age 13.59 years) who completed an interview administered recall questionnaire. Structural equation models indicated that male and younger adolescents spent more time on vigorous activities at the weekend, while females and older adolescents showed a greater involvement in light activities both on weekdays and weekends. State school students reported engaging in light and vigorous activities for longer periods than private school students on weekends. TV viewing was negatively linked to vigorous activities during weekdays and to light and moderate activities on weekends. The amount of mobile phone usage, however, was positively linked to light activities during weekdays, but negatively on weekends. The negative relationship between adolescents' use of screen media (TV and mobile phone) and physical activity and its possible displacement, depending on the type of day, added useful comparable knowledge for policies promoting an active lifestyle. Further research is required to provide evidence of the causality in the observed relationships.

  8. Massive screening yields novel and selective Trypanosoma cruzi triosephosphate isomerase dimer-interface-irreversible inhibitors with anti-trypanosomal activity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Guzmán; Aguirre-López, Beatriz; Varela, Javier; Cabrera, Mauricio; Merlino, Alicia; López, Gloria V; Lavaggi, María Laura; Porcal, Williams; Di Maio, Rossanna; González, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo; Cabrera, Nallely; Pérez-Montfort, Ruy; de Gómez-Puyou, Marieta Tuena; Gómez-Puyou, Armando

    2010-12-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTIM), an enzyme in the glycolytic pathway that exhibits high catalytic rates of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate- and dihydroxyacetone-phosphate-isomerization only in its dimeric form, was screened against an in-house chemical library containing nearly 230 compounds belonging to different chemotypes. After secondary screening, twenty-six compounds from eight different chemotypes were identified as screening positives. Four compounds displayed selectivity for TcTIM over TIM from Homo sapiens and, concomitantly, in vitro activity against T. cruzi.

  9. Quantitative High-Throughput Screening Identifies 8-Hydroxyquinolines as Cell-Active Histone Demethylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Akane; Rose, Nathan R.; Ng, Stanley S.; Quinn, Amy M.; Rai, Ganesha; Mott, Bryan T.; Beswick, Paul; Klose, Robert J.; Oppermann, Udo; Jadhav, Ajit; Heightman, Tom D.; Maloney, David J.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Simeonov, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Background Small molecule modulators of epigenetic processes are currently sought as basic probes for biochemical mechanisms, and as starting points for development of therapeutic agents. Nε-Methylation of lysine residues on histone tails is one of a number of post-translational modifications that together enable transcriptional regulation. Histone lysine demethylases antagonize the action of histone methyltransferases in a site- and methylation state-specific manner. Nε-Methyllysine demethylases that use 2-oxoglutarate as co-factor are associated with diverse human diseases, including cancer, inflammation and X-linked mental retardation; they are proposed as targets for the therapeutic modulation of transcription. There are few reports on the identification of templates that are amenable to development as potent inhibitors in vivo and large diverse collections have yet to be exploited for the discovery of demethylase inhibitors. Principal Findings High-throughput screening of a ∼236,000-member collection of diverse molecules arrayed as dilution series was used to identify inhibitors of the JMJD2 (KDM4) family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone demethylases. Initial screening hits were prioritized by a combination of cheminformatics, counterscreening using a coupled assay enzyme, and orthogonal confirmatory detection of inhibition by mass spectrometric assays. Follow-up studies were carried out on one of the series identified, 8-hydroxyquinolines, which were shown by crystallographic analyses to inhibit by binding to the active site Fe(II) and to modulate demethylation at the H3K9 locus in a cell-based assay. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that diverse compound screening can yield novel inhibitors of 2OG dependent histone demethylases and provide starting points for the development of potent and selective agents to interrogate epigenetic regulation. PMID:21124847

  10. Screening for antibacterial and antifungal activities in marine benthic invertebrates from northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Margey; Gulliksen, Bjørn; Strøm, Morten B; Styrvold, Olaf B; Haug, Tor

    2008-11-01

    Benthic marine invertebrates collected from sub-Arctic regions of northern Norway, were found to be a promising source of novel bioactive compounds against human and fish pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Lyophilized material from seven species of ascidians, six sponges and one soft alcyonid coral were extracted with 60% acidified acetonitrile (ACN). After separation into an ACN-rich phase (ACN-extract) and an aqueous phase, and subsequent solid-phase extraction of the aqueous phase, fractions differing in polarity were obtained and screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities, along with the more lipophilic ACN-extracts. Antimicrobial activity was determined against two gram-negative, two gram-positive bacteria, and two strains of fungi. Notably, all the invertebrate species in the study showed activity against all four strains of bacteria and the two strains of fungi. In general, the aqueous fractions displayed highest antimicrobial activity, and the most potent extracts were obtained from the colonial ascidian Synoicum pulmonaria which displayed activity against bacteria and fungi at a concentration of 0.02 mg/ml; the lowest concentration tested.

  11. In vivo screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves for antinociceptive and antipyretic activity

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Naveed; Barkatullah; Ibrar, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Saeed, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Zada; Kaleem, Waqar Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves (SLO) for acute toxicity, antinociceptive, antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities in various animal models. Methods SLO were extracted using modified Clevenger type apparatus. Acute toxicity test was used in mice to observe its safety level. Antinociceptive activity of SLO was evaluated in acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests. Yeast induced hyperthermic mice and pentylenetetrazole induced convulsive mice were used for the assessment of its antipyretic and anticonvulsant profile respectively. Results Substantial safety was observed for SLO in acute toxicity test. SLO showed a high significant activity in acetic acid induced writhing test in a dose dependent manner with maximum pain attenuation of 68.48% at 200 mg/kg i.p. However, it did not produce any relief in thermal induced pain at test doses. When challenged against pyrexia evoked by yeast, SLO manifested marked amelioration in hyperthermic mice, dose dependently. Maximum anti-hyperthermic activity (75%) was observed at 200 mg/kg i.p. after 4 h of drug administration. Nevertheless, SLO had no effect on seizures control and mortality caused by pentylenetetrazole. Conclusions In vivo studies of SLO showed prominent antinociceptive and antipyretic activities with ample safety profile and thus provided pharmacological base for the traditional uses of the plant in various painful conditions and pyrexia. Additional detail studies are required to ascertain its clinical application. PMID:23620838

  12. Survey of estrogenic activity in fish feed by yeast estrogen-screen assay.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeru; Kobayashi, Makito; Moriwaki, Toshihisa; Kawai, Shin'ichiro; Watabe, Shugo

    2004-10-01

    Fishes have been used as laboratory animal for research of estrogenic endocrine disrupters by many researchers. However, much less attention was paid to the possibility that compounds with estrogenic activity are present in fish diets. In order to examine this possibility, we measured the estrogenic activity in commercial fish feed by in vitro yeast estrogen-screen (YES) assay based on the binding ability of tested compounds to estrogen receptors. Estrogenic activity was detected in all the commercial fish feed examined (0.2-6.2 ng estradiol equivalent/g fish feed), some phytoestrogens (genistein, formononetin, equol and coumestrol; relative activity to estradiol, 8.6 x 10(-6)-1.1 x 10(-4) by giving a value of 1.0 to estradiol) and some androgens (testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone; relative activity to estradiol, 3.0 x 10(-6)-1.2 x 10(-4)). Therefore, it is possible that these compounds could affect the results of in vivo estrogen assay, such as vitellogenin production in male fish, especially when fish are fed commercial feed.

  13. High-content fluorescent-based assay for screening activators of DNA damage checkpoint pathways.

    PubMed

    Bin Zhang; Xiubin Gu; Uppalapati, Uma; Ashwell, Mark A; Leggett, David S; Li, Chiang J

    2008-07-01

    Activation of DNA damage checkpoint pathways, including Chk2, serves as an anticancer barrier in precancerous lesions. In an effort to identify small-molecule activators of Chk2, the authors developed a quantitative cell-based assay using a high-content analysis (HCA) platform. Induction of phosphorylated Chk2 was evaluated using several different parameters, including fold induction, Kolmogorov-Smirnov score, and percentage of positively stained cells. These measurements were highly correlated and provided an accurate method for compound ranking/binning, structure-activity relationship studies, and lead identification. Screening for Chk2 activators was undertaken with a target-focused library and a diversified library from ArQule chemical space. Several compounds exhibited submicromolar EC( 50) values for phosphorylated Chk2 induction. These compounds were further analyzed for Chk2-dependent cytotoxicity, as assessed through a high-content cell death assay in combination with siRNA silencing of Chk2 expression. Several compounds were identified and showed specific inhibition or lethality in a target-dependent manner. Therefore, identification of DNA damage checkpoint pathway activators by HCA is an attractive approach for discovering the next generation of targeted cancer therapeutics.

  14. Colorimetry and SERS dual-mode detection of telomerase activity: combining rapid screening with high sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Chen, Hui; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Min; Chen, Peng; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode telomerase activity detection method, which has several distinctive advantages. First, colorimetric functionality allows rapid preliminary discrimination of telomerase activity by the naked eye. Second, the employment of SERS technique results in greatly improved detection sensitivity. Third, the combination of colorimetry and SERS into one detection system can ensure highly efficacious and sensitive screening of numerous samples. Besides, the avoidance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures further guarantees fine reliability and simplicity. Generally, the presented method is realized by an ``elongate and capture'' procedure. To be specific, gold nanoparticles modified with Raman molecules and telomeric repeat complementary oligonucleotide are employed as the colorimetric-SERS bifunctional reporting nanotag, while magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with telomerase substrate oligonucleotide are used as the capturing substrate. Telomerase can synthesize and elongate telomeric repeats onto the capturing substrate. The elongated telomeric repeats subsequently facilitate capturing of the reporting nanotag via hybridization between telomeric repeat and its complementary strand. The captured nanotags can cause a significant difference in the color and SERS intensity of the magnetically separated sediments. Thus both the color and SERS can be used as indicators of the telomerase activity. With fast screening ability and outstanding sensitivity, we anticipate that this method would greatly promote practical application of telomerase-based early-stage cancer diagnosis.As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and

  15. Classification of biosensor time series using dynamic time warping: applications in screening cancer cells with characteristic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Shesh N; Trainor, Patrick J; Khosravi, Farhad; Kloecker, Goetz; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2016-01-01

    The development of biosensors that produce time series data will facilitate improvements in biomedical diagnostics and in personalized medicine. The time series produced by these devices often contains characteristic features arising from biochemical interactions between the sample and the sensor. To use such characteristic features for determining sample class, similarity-based classifiers can be utilized. However, the construction of such classifiers is complicated by the variability in the time domains of such series that renders the traditional distance metrics such as Euclidean distance ineffective in distinguishing between biological variance and time domain variance. The dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm is a sequence alignment algorithm that can be used to align two or more series to facilitate quantifying similarity. In this article, we evaluated the performance of DTW distance-based similarity classifiers for classifying time series that mimics electrical signals produced by nanotube biosensors. Simulation studies demonstrated the positive performance of such classifiers in discriminating between time series containing characteristic features that are obscured by noise in the intensity and time domains. We then applied a DTW distance-based k-nearest neighbors classifier to distinguish the presence/absence of mesenchymal biomarker in cancer cells in buffy coats in a blinded test. Using a train-test approach, we find that the classifier had high sensitivity (90.9%) and specificity (81.8%) in differentiating between EpCAM-positive MCF7 cells spiked in buffy coats and those in plain buffy coats.

  16. A high-resolution peak fractionation approach for streamlined screening of nuclear-factor-E2-related factor-2 activators in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Luo, Li-Ping; Song, Hui-Peng; Hao, Hai-Ping; Zhou, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-24

    Generation of a high-purity fraction library for efficiently screening active compounds from natural products is challenging because of their chemical diversity and complex matrices. In this work, a strategy combining high-resolution peak fractionation (HRPF) with a cell-based assay was proposed for target screening of bioactive constituents from natural products. In this approach, peak fractionation was conducted under chromatographic conditions optimized for high-resolution separation of the natural product extract. The HRPF approach was automatically performed according to the predefinition of certain peaks based on their retention times from a reference chromatographic profile. The corresponding HRPF database was collected with a parallel mass spectrometer to ensure purity and characterize the structures of compounds in the various fractions. Using this approach, a set of 75 peak fractions on the microgram scale was generated from 4mg of the extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza. After screening by an ARE-luciferase reporter gene assay, 20 diterpene quinones were selected and identified, and 16 of these compounds were reported to possess novel Nrf2 activation activity. Compared with conventional fixed-time interval fractionation, the HRPF approach could significantly improve the efficiency of bioactive compound discovery and facilitate the uncovering of minor active components.

  17. Screening for motor coordination challenges in children using teacher ratings of physical ability and activity.

    PubMed

    Faught, Brent E; Cairney, John; Hay, John; Veldhuizen, Scott; Missiuna, Cheryl; Spironello, Cristina A

    2008-04-01

    We examined the effectiveness of a teacher-based rating scale called the teacher estimation of activity form (TEAF) to screen for developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in children. A random selection of 15 of 75 schools from the District School Board of Niagara in Ontario, Canada was chosen for this study. Every consented child in Grade 4 (n=502) was evaluated for probable DCD (pDCD) in school using the short form Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOTMP-SF). Each student also completed the children's self perceptions of adequacy in and predilection toward physical activity (CSAPPA) scale, participation questionnaire, and Léger 20-meter shuttle run, and had their height and weight measured. The 27 children (5.1%) who scored below the 5th percentile on BOTMP-SF were designated as pDCD cases and the 475 children who scored above the 5th percentile served as controls. Results showed that mean TEAF scores were significantly lower for pDCD children than controls (p<.001). Total TEAF scores ranging from 28 to 32 were preferred in maintaining good sensitivity (.74, 95% CI=.55-.87 to .85, 95% CI=.68-.94). The area under the ROC curve was .77 (95% CI, .68-.86) for the TEAF total score, and some individual items performed approximately as well as the full scale. The TEAF was positively correlated with measures of physical activity and fitness. The TEAF appears to be an effective tool in screening for DCD, particularly in a population setting. Considering the brevity of the TEAF and the discriminative power of individual items, this instrument would be effective in an abbreviated version.

  18. Inhibitors of VIM-2 by screening pharmacologically active and click-chemistry compound libraries.

    PubMed

    Minond, Dmitriy; Saldanha, S Adrian; Subramaniam, Prem; Spaargaren, Michael; Spicer, Timothy; Fotsing, Joseph R; Weide, Timo; Fokin, Valery V; Sharpless, K Barry; Galleni, Moreno; Bebrone, Carine; Lassaux, Patricia; Hodder, Peter

    2009-07-15

    VIM-2 is an Ambler class B metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) capable of hydrolyzing a broad-spectrum of beta-lactam antibiotics. Although the discovery and development of MBL inhibitors continue to be an area of active research, an array of potent, small molecule inhibitors is yet to be fully characterized for VIM-2. In the presented research, a compound library screening approach was used to identify and characterize VIM-2 inhibitors from a library of pharmacologically active compounds as well as a focused 'click' chemistry library. The four most potent VIM-2 inhibitors resulting from a VIM-2 screen were characterized by kinetic studies in order to determine K(i) and mechanism of enzyme inhibition. As a result, two previously described pharmacologic agents, mitoxantrone (1,4-dihydroxy-5,8-bis([2-([2-hydroxyethyl]amino)ethyl]amino)-9,10-anthracenedione) and 4-chloromercuribenzoic acid (pCMB) were found to be active, the former as a non-competitive inhibitor (K(i)=K(i)(')=1.5+/-0.2microM) and the latter as a slowly reversible or irreversible inhibitor. Additionally, two novel sulfonyl-triazole analogs from the click library were identified as potent, competitive VIM-2 inhibitors: N-((4-((but-3-ynyloxy)methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)methyl)-4-iodobenzenesulfonamide (1, K(i)=0.41+/-0.03microM) and 4-iodo-N-((4-(methoxymethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)methyl)benzenesulfonamide (2, K(i)=1.4+/-0.10microM). Mitoxantrone and pCMB were also found to potentiate imipenem efficacy in MIC and synergy assays employing Escherichia coli. Taken together, all four compounds represent useful chemical probes to further investigate mechanisms of VIM-2 inhibition in biochemical and microbiology-based assays.

  19. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

    1996-07-05

    Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated.

  20. Virtual screening for environmental pollutants: structure-activity relationships applied to a database of industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Tomas

    2006-04-01

    The current risk paradigm calls for individual consideration and evaluation of each separate environmental pollutant, but this does not reflect accurately the cumulative impact of anthropogenic chemicals. In the present study, previously validated structure-activity relationships were used to estimate simultaneously the baseline toxicity and atmospheric persistence of approximately 50,000 compounds. The results from this virtual screening indicate fairly stable statistical distributions among small anthropogenic compounds. The baseline toxicity was not changed much by halogen substitution, but a distinct increase seemed to occur in the environmental persistence with increased halogenation. The ratio of the atmospheric half-lives to the median lethal concentrations provides a continuous scale with which to rank and summarize the incremental environmental impacts in a mixture-exposure situation. Halogenated compounds as a group obtained a high ranking in this data set, with well-known pollutants at the very top: DDT metabolites and derivatives, polychlorinated biphenyls, diphenyl ethers and dibenzofurans, chlorinated paraffins, chlorinated benzenes and derivatives, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and dichlorononylphenol. Environmentally friendly chemicals that obtained the lowest rank are nearly all hydroxylated and water-soluble. Virtual screening can assist with "green chemistry" in designing safe and degradable products and enable assessment of the efficiency in chemicals risk management.

  1. Screening of lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains and determination of their CMCase and laccase activity.

    PubMed

    Fen, Li; Xuwei, Zhu; Nanyi, Li; Puyu, Zhang; Shuang, Zhang; Xue, Zhao; Pengju, Li; Qichao, Zhu; Haiping, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola) were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase). The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P < 0.01) higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels.

  2. Screening of Lignocellulose-Degrading Superior Mushroom Strains and Determination of Their CMCase and Laccase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fen, Li; Xuwei, Zhu; Nanyi, Li; Puyu, Zhang; Shuang, Zhang; Xue, Zhao; Pengju, Li; Qichao, Zhu; Haiping, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola) were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase). The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P < 0.01) higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels. PMID:24693246

  3. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, S. Röpcke, J.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.

    2015-12-15

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  4. [Cardiovascular screening for recreational, leisure, vigorous and competitive sport activities over 35 years].

    PubMed

    Leischik, R; Littwitz, H; Dworrak, B; Spelsberg, N; Seyfarth, M; Tiroch, K

    2014-10-01

    Particularly among over 30 years old ambitious hobby- and competitive athletes arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac deaths occur again and again. The spectacular sudden deaths during marathon, football and, just recently, in the trend discipline triathlon seem to support that view. Reports about the "athlete`s heart" and complications in the elderly causes uncertainty among athletes, fitness fans and sports physicians. The question arises, how to avoid complications caused by ambitious sporting activity in the elderly and how to screen hobby- and ambitious athletes between the age of 35 and 75 years. For athletes > 35 years old besides medical history and physical examination basic examinations including resting ECG, echocardiography and exercise ECG/stress echocardiography are mandatory. Further examinations, if clinically necessary, should be spiroergometry, Holter ECG or magnetic resonance tomography and Carotis-Duplex or Cardio-CT for the purpose of arteriosclerosis screening. In suspicious inflammation a further extended laboratory testing may become necessary (incl. viral/bacterial antibodies) or even a multidisciplinary approach (immunological, neurological, dental or orthodontic examination).

  5. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.; Röpcke, J.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH4, C2H2, HCN, and NH3). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  6. Free Time Motivation and Physical Activity in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozub, Francis M.; Farmer, James

    2011-01-01

    This study examined free time motivation and physical activity in 68 middle school children from a rural public school system (N = 24) and a private school located in the same area of the Midwest (N = 44). Results indicated that free time motivation did not explain variability in physical activity behavior during free time or while students were…

  7. Time Perspective and Physical Activity among Central Appalachian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulley, Tauna

    2013-01-01

    Time perspective is a cultural behavioral concept that reflects individuals' orientations or attitudes toward the past, present, or future. Individuals' time perspectives influence their choices regarding daily activities. Time perspective is an important consideration when teaching adolescents about the importance of being physically active.…

  8. How Young Children Spend Their Time: Television and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; Wright, John C.; Marquis, Janet; Green, Samuel B.

    1999-01-01

    Examined television viewing over three years among two cohorts of 2- and 4-year olds. Found that viewing declined with age. With age, time in reading and educational activities increased on weekdays but declined on weekends, and sex differences in time-use patterns increased. Increased time in educational activities, social interaction, and video…

  9. Yeast-Based High-Throughput Screens to Identify Novel Compounds Active against Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    Bilsland, Elizabeth; Bean, Daniel M.; Devaney, Eileen; Oliver, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis is caused by the parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi or B. timori, which are transmitted via the bites from infected mosquitoes. Once in the human body, the parasites develop into adult worms in the lymphatic vessels, causing severe damage and swelling of the affected tissues. According to the World Health Organization, over 1.2 billion people in 58 countries are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis. Very few drugs are available to treat patients infected with these parasites, and these have low efficacy against the adult stages of the worms, which can live for 7–15 years in the human body. The requirement for annual treatment increases the risk of drug-resistant worms emerging, making it imperative to develop new drugs against these devastating diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed a yeast-based, high-throughput screening system whereby essential yeast genes are replaced with their filarial or human counterparts. These strains are labeled with different fluorescent proteins to allow the simultaneous monitoring of strains with parasite or human genes in competition, and hence the identification of compounds that inhibit the parasite target without affecting its human ortholog. We constructed yeast strains expressing eight different Brugia malayi drug targets (as well as seven of their human counterparts), and performed medium-throughput drug screens for compounds that specifically inhibit the parasite enzymes. Using the Malaria Box collection (400 compounds), we identified nine filarial specific inhibitors and confirmed the antifilarial activity of five of these using in vitro assays against Brugia pahangi. Conclusions/Significance We were able to functionally complement yeast deletions with eight different Brugia malayi enzymes that represent potential drug targets. We demonstrated that our yeast-based screening platform is efficient in identifying compounds that can discriminate between

  10. Synthesis of Resveratrol Derivatives and In Vitro Screening for Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Activities.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Fulvia; Verotta, Luisella; Klimo, Karin; Gerhäuser, Clarissa

    2016-06-01

    New resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) analogs were synthesized and screened for their in vitro cancer chemopreventive potential using various bioassays relevant for the prevention of carcinogenesis in humans: two assays to detect modulators of carcinogen metabolism (Cyp1A inhibition; determination of NAD(P)H/quinone reductase (QR) activity), three assays to identify radical scavenging and antioxidant properties (DPPH, ORAC, superoxide anion radicals in differentiated HL-60 cells), four assays to determine anti-inflammatory and anti-hormonal effects (iNOS, Cox-1 and aromatase inhibition, anti-estrogenic potential). 3,4',5-Tri-O-methyl resveratrol 1a was about sevenfold more active than resveratrol in inhibiting Cyp1A activity, it was a potent inducer of QR activity, and it showed pure anti-estrogenic activity (whereas resveratrol is a known mixed estrogen (ant)agonist with both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties). Dual estrogen ant-/agonist activity was restored in the mono-O-benzyl-substituted derivatives 4b (4'-O-benzyl resveratrol) and 5b (3-O-benzyl resveratrol). With respect to aromatase inhibition (Cyp19), which provided the highest number of actives, the benzyl-substituted series was more potent than the methyl-substituted derivatives of resveratrol, and 3-O-benzyl resveratrol 5b was about eightfold more active than resveratrol. Overall, 3,4',5-tri-O-pivaloyl resveratrol oxide 7c was identified as a potent inducer of phase 2 enzymes concomitant with inhibition of LPS-mediated iNOS induction.

  11. Mutagenesis and behavioral screening for altered circadian activity identifies the mouse mutant, Wheels.

    PubMed

    Pickard, G E; Sollars, P J; Rinchik, E M; Nolan, P M; Bucan, M

    1995-12-24

    The molecular processes underlying the generation of circadian behavior in mammals are virtually unknown. To identify genes that regulate or alter circadian activity rhythms, a mouse mutagenesis program was initiated in conjunction with behavioral screening for alterations in circadian period (tau), a fundamental property of the biological clock. Male mice of the inbred BALB/c strain, treated with the potent mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea were mated with wild-type hybrids. Wheel-running activity of approximately 300 male progeny was monitored for 6-10 weeks under constant dark (DD) conditions. The tau DD of a single mouse (#187) was longer than the population mean by more than three standard deviations (24.20 vs. 23.32 +/- 0.02 h; mean +/- S.E.M.; n = 277). In addition, mouse #187 exhibited other abnormal phenotypes, including hyperactive bi-directional circling/spinning activity and an abnormal response to light. Heterozygous progeny of the founder mouse, generated from outcrossings with wild-type C57BL/6J mice, displayed lengthened tau DD although approximately 20% of the animals showed no wheel-running activity despite being quite active. Under light:dark conditions, all animals displaying circling behavior that ran in the activity wheels exhibited robust wheel-running activity at lights-ON and these animals also showed enhanced wheel-running activity in constant light conditions. The genetic dissection of the complex behavior associated with this mutation was facilitated by the previously described genetic mapping of the mutant locus causing circling behavior, designated Wheels (Whl), to the subcentromeric portion of mouse chromosome 4. In this report, the same locus is shown to be responsible for the abnormal responses to light and presumably for the altered circadian behavior. Characterization of the gene altered in the novel Whl mutation will contribute to understanding the molecular elements involved in mammalian circadian regulation.

  12. The Application of Pattern Recognition to Screening Prospective Anti-Cancer Drugs: Adenocarcinoma 775 Biological Activity Test.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A novel application of pattern recognition to the screening of potential anti-cancer drugs is presented. Structural features of 200 drugs previously tested by the National Cancer Institute for activity in the solid tumor adenocarcinoma 755 screening test are input to a master program of pattern recognition methods. The programs were 93.5% accurate in discriminating drugs with positive anti-neoplastic activity versus those with no anti-cancer activity. Extensions to a more rational approach to ’ drug design ’ are also discussed. (Author)

  13. Combined Rational Design and a High Throughput Screening Platform for Identifying Chemical Inhibitors of a Ras-activating Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Evelyn, Chris R.; Biesiada, Jacek; Duan, Xin; Tang, Hong; Shang, Xun; Papoian, Ruben; Seibel, William L.; Nelson, Sandra; Meller, Jaroslaw; Zheng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The Ras family small GTPases regulate multiple cellular processes, including cell growth, survival, movement, and gene expression, and are intimately involved in cancer pathogenesis. Activation of these small GTPases is catalyzed by a special class of enzymes, termed guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we developed a small molecule screening platform for identifying lead hits targeting a Ras GEF enzyme, SOS1. We employed an ensemble structure-based virtual screening approach in combination with a multiple tier high throughput experimental screen utilizing two complementary fluorescent guanine nucleotide exchange assays to identify small molecule inhibitors of GEF catalytic activity toward Ras. From a library of 350,000 compounds, we selected a set of 418 candidate compounds predicted to disrupt the GEF-Ras interaction, of which dual wavelength GDP dissociation and GTP-loading experimental screening identified two chemically distinct small molecule inhibitors. Subsequent biochemical validations indicate that they are capable of dose-dependently inhibiting GEF catalytic activity, binding to SOS1 with micromolar affinity, and disrupting GEF-Ras interaction. Mutagenesis studies in conjunction with structure-activity relationship studies mapped both compounds to different sites in the catalytic pocket, and both inhibited Ras signaling in cells. The unique screening platform established here for targeting Ras GEF enzymes could be broadly useful for identifying lead inhibitors for a variety of small GTPase-activating GEF reactions. PMID:25825487

  14. Combined rational design and a high throughput screening platform for identifying chemical inhibitors of a Ras-activating enzyme.

    PubMed

    Evelyn, Chris R; Biesiada, Jacek; Duan, Xin; Tang, Hong; Shang, Xun; Papoian, Ruben; Seibel, William L; Nelson, Sandra; Meller, Jaroslaw; Zheng, Yi

    2015-05-15

    The Ras family small GTPases regulate multiple cellular processes, including cell growth, survival, movement, and gene expression, and are intimately involved in cancer pathogenesis. Activation of these small GTPases is catalyzed by a special class of enzymes, termed guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we developed a small molecule screening platform for identifying lead hits targeting a Ras GEF enzyme, SOS1. We employed an ensemble structure-based virtual screening approach in combination with a multiple tier high throughput experimental screen utilizing two complementary fluorescent guanine nucleotide exchange assays to identify small molecule inhibitors of GEF catalytic activity toward Ras. From a library of 350,000 compounds, we selected a set of 418 candidate compounds predicted to disrupt the GEF-Ras interaction, of which dual wavelength GDP dissociation and GTP-loading experimental screening identified two chemically distinct small molecule inhibitors. Subsequent biochemical validations indicate that they are capable of dose-dependently inhibiting GEF catalytic activity, binding to SOS1 with micromolar affinity, and disrupting GEF-Ras interaction. Mutagenesis studies in conjunction with structure-activity relationship studies mapped both compounds to different sites in the catalytic pocket, and both inhibited Ras signaling in cells. The unique screening platform established here for targeting Ras GEF enzymes could be broadly useful for identifying lead inhibitors for a variety of small GTPase-activating GEF reactions.

  15. Killing two birds with one stone: screening for chronic hepatitis C at the time of colonoscopy in the baby boomer cohort.

    PubMed

    Torres, Dawn M; Harrison, Stephen A

    2013-06-01

    Colonoscopy is a well-accepted colon cancer screening modality that is recommended by the United States Multi-Society Task Force on all individuals greater than 50 years of age. Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a common cause of chronic liver disease with notably increased rates of infection in individuals born between 1945 and 1965. The Centers for Disease Control recently recommended all individuals of this "Baby Boomer" cohort undergo one time screening for CHC. As gastroenterologists interface with these patients for screening colonoscopy, this represents a unique opportunity to complete this screening and identify CHC patients at risk for advanced liver disease.

  16. Use of stable isotope labeled probes to facilitate liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry based high-throughput screening of time-dependent CYP inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Malini; Tang, Weimin; Caldwell, Gary W; Yan, Zhengyin

    2010-08-15

    Inhibition curve shift is a commonly used approach for screening of time-dependent CYP inhibitors which requires parallel paired incubations to obtain two inhibition curves for comparison. For the control incubation, a test compound is co-incubated with a probe substrate in human liver microsomes (HLM) fortified with NADPH; for the time-dependent incubation (TDI), the test compound is pre-incubated with NADPH-fortified HLM followed by a secondary incubation with a probe substrate. For both incubations, enzyme activity is measured respectively by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis of the CYP-specific metabolite, and a TDI inhibitor can be readily identified by inhibition curve shifting as a result of CYP inactivation by the test compound during the pre-incubation. In the present study, we describe an alternative approach to facilitate TDI screening in which stable isotope labeled CYP-specific probes are used for the TDI, and non-labeled substrates are included in the control incubation. Because CYP-specific metabolites produced in the TDI are stable isotope labeled, two sets of incubation samples can be combined and then simultaneously analyzed by LC/MS/MS in the same batch run to reduce the run time. This new method has been extensively validated using both a number of known competitive and TDI inhibitors specific to five most common CYPs such as 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4. The assay is performed in a 96-well format and can be fully automated. Compared to the traditional method, this approach in combination with sample pooling and a short LC/MS/MS gradient significantly enhances the throughput of TDI screening and thus can be easily implemented in drug discovery to evaluate a large number of compounds without adding additional resource.

  17. Comparison of array comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR-based aneuploidy screening of blastocyst biopsies.

    PubMed

    Capalbo, Antonio; Treff, Nathan R; Cimadomo, Danilo; Tao, Xin; Upham, Kathleen; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Rienzi, Laura; Scott, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    Comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) methods are being extensively used to select chromosomally normal embryos in human assisted reproduction. Some concerns related to the stage of analysis and which aneuploidy screening method to use still remain. In this study, the reliability of blastocyst-stage aneuploidy screening and the diagnostic performance of the two mostly used CCS methods (quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH)) has been assessed. aCGH aneuploid blastocysts were rebiopsied, blinded, and evaluated by qPCR. Discordant cases were subsequently rebiopsied, blinded, and evaluated by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based CCS. Although 81.7% of embryos showed the same diagnosis when comparing aCGH and qPCR-based CCS, 18.3% (22/120) of embryos gave a discordant result for at least one chromosome. SNP array reanalysis showed that a discordance was reported in ten blastocysts for aCGH, mostly due to false positives, and in four cases for qPCR. The discordant aneuploidy call rate per chromosome was significantly higher for aCGH (5.7%) compared with qPCR (0.6%; P<0.01). To corroborate these findings, 39 embryos were simultaneously biopsied for aCGH and qPCR during blastocyst-stage aneuploidy screening cycles. 35 matched including all 21 euploid embryos. Blinded SNP analysis on rebiopsies of the four embryos matched qPCR. These findings demonstrate the high reliability of diagnosis performed at the blastocyst stage with the use of different CCS methods. However, the application of aCGH can be expected to result in a higher aneuploidy rate than other contemporary methods of CCS.

  18. Microplate-based active/inactive 1 screen for biomass degrading enzyme library purification and gene discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present here a whole-cell and permeabilized E. coli cell 1' active/inactive microplate screen for ß-D-xylosidase, xylanase, endocellulase, and ferulic acid esterase enzyme activities which are critical for the enzymatic deconstruction of biomass for fuels and chemicals. Transformants from genomic...

  19. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, O.; Kumar, D.; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana. PMID:26798167

  20. QSAR classification models for the screening of the endocrine-disrupting activity of perfluorinated compounds.

    PubMed

    Kovarich, S; Papa, E; Li, J; Gramatica, P

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a class of emerging pollutants still widely used in different materials as non-adhesives, waterproof fabrics, fire-fighting foams, etc. Their toxic effects include potential for endocrine-disrupting activity, but the amount of experimental data available for these pollutants is limited. The use of predictive strategies such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) is recommended under the REACH regulation, to fill data gaps and to screen and prioritize chemicals for further experimentation, with a consequent reduction of costs and number of tested animals. In this study, local classification models for PFCs were developed to predict their T4-TTR (thyroxin-transthyretin) competing potency. The best models were selected by maximizing the sensitivity and external predictive ability. These models, characterized by robustness, good predictive power and a defined applicability domain, were applied to predict the activity of 33 other PFCs of environmental concern. Finally, classification models recently published by our research group for T4-TTR binding of brominated flame retardants and for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were applied to the studied perfluorinated chemicals to compare results and to further evaluate the potential for these PFCs to cause endocrine disruption.

  1. Cholesterol oxidase with high catalytic activity from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Screening, molecular genetic analysis, expression and characterization.

    PubMed

    Doukyu, Noriyuki; Nihei, Shyou

    2015-07-01

    An extracellular cholesterol oxidase producer, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA157, was isolated by a screening method to detect 6β-hydroperoxycholest-4-en-3-one-forming cholesterol oxidase. On the basis of a putative cholesterol oxidase gene sequence in the genome sequence data of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1, the cholesterol oxidase gene from strain PA157 was cloned. The mature form of the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. The overexpressed enzyme formed inclusion bodies in recombinant E. coli cells grown at 20 °C and 30 °C. A soluble and active PA157 enzyme was obtained when the recombinant cells were grown at 10 °C. The purified enzyme was stable at pH 5.5 to 10 and was most active at pH 7.5-8.0, showing optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 70 °C. The enzyme retained about 90% of its activity after incubation for 30 min at 70 °C. The enzyme oxidized 3β-hydroxysteroids such as cholesterol, β-cholestanol, and β-sitosterol at high rates. The Km value and Vmax value for the cholesterol were 92.6 μM and 15.9 μmol/min/mg of protein, respectively. The Vmax value of the enzyme was higher than those of commercially available cholesterol oxidases. This is the first report to characterize a cholesterol oxidase from P. aeruginosa.

  2. Functional marine metagenomic screening for anti-quorum sensing and anti-biofilm activity.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Karin; Golberg, Karina; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Marks, Robert; Pushkarev, Alina; Béjà, Oded; Kushmaro, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication process, entails the production of signaling molecules that enable synchronized gene expression in microbial communities to regulate myriad microbial functions, including biofilm formation. QS disruption may constitute an innovative approach to the design of novel antifouling and anti-biofilm agents. To identify novel quorum sensing inhibitors (QSI), 2,500 environmental bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from uncultured marine planktonic bacteria were screened for QSI activity using soft agar overlaid with wild type Chromobacterium violaceum as an indicator. Of the BAC library clones, 7% showed high QSI activity (>40%) against the indicator bacterium, suggesting that QSI is common in the marine environment. The most active compound, eluted from BAC clone 14-A5, disrupted QS signaling pathways and reduced biofilm formation in both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. The mass spectra of the active BAC clone (14-A5) that had been visualized by thin layer chromatography was dominated by a m/z peak of 362.1.

  3. Screening of certain medicinal plants from India for their anti-quorum sensing activity.

    PubMed

    Zahin, Maryam; Hasan, Sameena; Aqil, Farrukh; Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2010-12-01

    Discovery of quorum sensing (QS) system to coordinate virulence and biofilm formation in bacterial pathogens has triggered search for safe, stable and non-toxic anti-QS compounds from natural products. Ethanolic extracts of 24 Indian medicinal plants were tested by agar well and disc diffusion assay for anti-QS activity using Chromobacterium violaceum (CV12472 and CVO26) reporter strains. AHL from C. violaceum CV31532 was isolated and partially purified for its use in CVO26 based bioassay. Effect on swarming-motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) was also recorded at sub-MIC concentrations of extracts. Of the 24 medicinal plants screened Hemidesmus indicus (L.) Schult (root), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roth) A.DC. (bark), Mangifera indica L. (seed) Punica granatum L. (pericarp) and Psoralea corylifolia L. (seed) demonstrated varying level of inhibition of violacein production in the reporter strains. Moreover, a significant reduction in swarms was recorded over control. The inhibition of violacein production and swarming motility may be due to direct or indirect interference on QS by active constituents or the interactive effect of different phytocompounds present in the extracts. These plant extracts may be selected for activity guided fractionation to identify and characterize the active principle.

  4. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities.

    PubMed

    Parkash, O; Kumar, D; Kumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana.

  5. Screening of Bothrops snake venoms for L-amino acid oxidase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pessati, M.L.; Fontana, J.D.; Guimaraes, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Toxins, enzymes, and biologically active peptides are the main components of snake venoms from the genus Bothrops. Following the venom inoculation, the local effects are hemorrhage, edema, and myonecrosis. Nineteen different species of Brazilian Bothrops were screened for protein content and L-amino acid oxidase activity. B. cotiara, formerly found in the South of Brazil, is now threatened with extinction. Its venom contains a highly hemorrhagic fraction and, as expected from the deep yellow color of the corresponding lyophilized powder, a high L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) activity was also characterized. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is its associate coenzyme. B. cotiara venom LAO catalyzed the oxidative deamination of several L-amino acids, and the best substrates were methionine, leucine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine, hence, its potential application for the use in biosensors for aspartame determination and for the removal of amino acids from plasma. High levels for LAO were also found in other species than B. cotiara. In addition, the technique of isoelectric focusing (IEF) was employed as a powerful tool to study the iso- or multi-enzyme distribution for LAO activity in the B. cotiara snake venom.

  6. How young children spend their time: television and other activities.

    PubMed

    Huston, A C; Wright, J C; Marquis, J; Green, S B

    1999-07-01

    Time-use diaries were collected over a 3-year period for 2 cohorts of 2- and 4-year-old children. TV viewing declined with age. Time spent in reading and educational activities increased with age on weekdays but declined on weekends. Time-use patterns were sex-stereotyped, and sex differences increased with age. As individuals' time in educational activities, social interaction, and video games increased, their time watching entertainment TV declined, but time spent playing covaried positively with entertainment TV. Educational TV viewing was not related to time spent in non-TV activities. Maternal education and home environment quality predicted frequent viewing of educational TV programs and infrequent viewing of entertainment TV. The results do not support a simple displacement hypothesis; the relations of TV viewing to other activities depend on the program content, the nature of the competing activity, and the environmental context.

  7. Screening bioactives reveals nanchangmycin as a broad spectrum antiviral active against Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Keiko; Hackett, Brent; Weinbren, Nathan; Reeder, Sophia; Sadovsky, Yoel; Hunter, Christopher; Schultz, David C.; Coyne, Carolyn; Cherry, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arthropod-borne flavivirus for which there are no vaccines or specific therapeutics. We screened a library of 2000 ‘bioactive’ compounds for their ability to block Zika virus infection in three distinct cell-types with two different strains of Zika virus. Using a microscopy-based assay, we validated 38 drugs that inhibited Zika virus infection, including FDA approved nucleoside analogs. Cells expressing high levels of the attachment factor AXL can be protected from infection with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, while placental-derived cells that lack AXL expression are insensitive to this inhibition. Importantly, we identified nanchangmycin as a potent inhibitor of Zika virus entry across all cell types tested including physiologically relevant primary cells. Nanchanmycin was also active against other medically relevant viruses including West Nile, dengue, and chikungunya virus that use a similar route of entry. This study provides a resource of small molecules to study Zika virus pathogenesis. PMID:28099856

  8. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of hexane fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismaeel, Mahmud Yusef Yusef; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Tahir, Mariya Mohd.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa fruits have been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of several infections. The current study was done to determine the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the hexane fraction (HF) of P. macrocarpa fruits. In the hexane fraction of P. macarocarpa fruits, phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids whereas saponins, alkaloids, tannins and anthraquinones were not present. Evaluation on Vero cell lines by using MTT assay showed that the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value was 0.48 mg/mL indicating that the fraction is not cytotoxic. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The effective concentration (EC50) was 0.18 mg/mL. Whereas the selective index (SI = CC50/EC50) of hexane fraction is 2.6 indicating low to moderate potential as antiviral agent.

  9. Material screening metrics and optimal performance of an active magnetic regenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niknia, I.; Trevizoli, P. V.; Christiaanse, T. V.; Govindappa, P.; Teyber, R.; Rowe, A.

    2017-02-01

    A variety of metrics to rank the magnetocaloric materials can be found in the literature, but a quantitative assessment showing their efficacy has not been reported. A numerical model of an active magnetic regenerator cycle is used to assess the predictive ability of a set of material metrics. The performance of eight cases of known magnetocaloric material (including first order MnFeP1-xAsx and second order materials Gd, GdDy, Tb), and 15 cases of hypothetical materials are considered. Using a fixed regenerator matrix geometry, magnetic field, and flow waveforms, the maximum exergetic cooling power of each material is identified. Several material screening metrics such as relative cooling power (RCP) are tested and a linear correlation is found between maximum RCP and the maximum exergetic cooling power. The sensitivity of performance to variations in the hot side and cold side temperatures from the conditions giving maximum exergetic power are determined.

  10. Interrelationships of adolescent physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and social and psychological health

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Ronald J.; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Methods Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Results Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and quality of life were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Conclusions Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences. PMID:19639256

  11. Identification of structure-activity relationships from screening a structurally compact DNA-encoded chemical library.

    PubMed

    Franzini, Raphael M; Ekblad, Torun; Zhong, Nan; Wichert, Moreno; Decurtins, Willy; Nauer, Angela; Zimmermann, Mauro; Samain, Florent; Scheuermann, Jörg; Brown, Peter J; Hall, Jonathan; Gräslund, Susanne; Schüler, Herwig; Neri, Dario

    2015-03-23

    Methods for the rapid and inexpensive discovery of hit compounds are essential for pharmaceutical research and DNA-encoded chemical libraries represent promising tools for this purpose. We here report on the design and synthesis of DAL-100K, a DNA-encoded chemical library containing 103 200 structurally compact compounds. Affinity screening experiments and DNA-sequencing analysis provided ligands with nanomolar affinities to several proteins, including prostate-specific membrane antigen and tankyrase 1. Correlations of sequence counts with binding affinities and potencies of enzyme inhibition were observed and enabled the identification of structural features critical for activity. These results indicate that libraries of this type represent a useful source of small-molecule binders for target proteins of pharmaceutical interest and information on structural features important for binding.

  12. Bioassay technique using nonspecific esterase activities of Tetrahymena pyriformis for screening and assessing cytotoxicity of xenobiotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaerts, P.; Senaud, J.; Bohatier, J. |

    1998-08-01

    A simple and rapid test for screening and assessing the cytotoxicity of xenobiotics was developed with Tetrahymena pyriformis. The method estimates the activities of nonspecific esterases of a cell by concentrating within it a specific amount of fluorescence associated with fluorescein dye. The 2-h median effective concentration (EC50) values of 10 inorganic and eight organic substances are presented and compared to those of three other bioassays: the conventional T. pyriformis proliferation rate 9-h median inhibitory concentrations, the Microtox 30-min EC50s, and the Daphnia magna 4-methylumbelliferyl {beta}-D galactoside 1-h EC50s. A highly significant correlation was found between the results obtained with the fluorescein diacetate test and those obtained with the growth inhibition and Microtox tests. This in vivo enzymatic test showed high sensitivity to all compounds tested except Cr{sup 6+} and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

  13. Function-Based Metagenomic Library Screening and Heterologous Expression Strategy for Genes Encoding Phosphatase Activity.

    PubMed

    Villamizar, Genis A Castillo; Nacke, Heiko; Daniel, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    The release of phosphate from inorganic and organic phosphorus compounds can be mediated enzymatically. Phosphate-releasing enzymes, comprising acid and alkaline phosphatases, are recognized as useful biocatalysts in applications such as plant and animal nutrition, bioremediation and diagnostic analysis. Metagenomic approaches provide access to novel phosphatase-encoding genes. Here, we describe a function-based screening approach for rapid identification of genes conferring phosphatase activity from small-insert and large-insert metagenomic libraries derived from various environments. This approach bears the potential for discovery of entirely novel phosphatase families or subfamilies and members of known enzyme classes hydrolyzing phosphomonoester bonds such as phytases. In addition, we provide a strategy for efficient heterologous phosphatase gene expression.

  14. Screening of the Enterocin-Encoding Genes and Antimicrobial Activity in Enterococcus Species.

    PubMed

    Ogaki, Mayara Baptistucci; Rocha, Katia Real; Terra, MÁrcia Regina; Furlaneto, MÁrcia Cristina; Maia, Luciana Furlaneto

    2016-06-28

    In the current study, a total of 135 enterococci strains from different sources were screened for the presence of the enterocin-encoding genes entA, entP, entB, entL50A, and entL50B. The enterocin genes were present at different frequencies, with entA occurring the most frequently, followed by entP and entB; entL50A and L50B were not detected. The occurrence of single enterocin genes was higher than the occurrence of multiple enterocin gene combinations. The 80 isolates that harbor at least one enterocin-encoding gene (denoted "Gene(+) strains") were screened for antimicrobial activity. A total of 82.5% of the Gene(+) strains inhibited at least one of the indicator strains, and the isolates harboring multiple enterocin-encoding genes inhibited a larger number of indicator strains than isolates harboring a single gene. The indicator strains that exhibited growth inhibition included Listeria innocua strain CLIP 12612 (ATCC BAA-680), Listeria monocytogenes strain CDC 4555, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC 6538, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Salmonella typhimurium strain UK-1 (ATCC 68169), and Escherichia coli BAC 49LT ETEC. Inhibition due to either bacteriophage lysis or cytolysin activity was excluded. The growth inhibition of antilisterial Gene+ strains was further tested under different culture conditions. Among the culture media formulations, the MRS agar medium supplemented with 2% (w/v) yeast extract was the best solidified medium for enterocin production. Our findings extend the current knowledge of enterocin-producing enterococci, which may have potential applications as biopreservatives in the food industry due to their capability of controlling food spoilage pathogens.

  15. Interlaboratory validation of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Masaki; Takashima, Kaori; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the cost and time required to routinely perform the genetically modified organism (GMO) test, we developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR method for a screening analysis simultaneously targeting an event-specific segment for GA21 and Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (P35S) segment [Oguchi et al., J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 50, 117-125 (2009)]. To confirm the validity of the method, an interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted. In the collaborative study, conversion factors (Cfs), which are required to calculate the GMO amount (%), were first determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the ABI PRISM 7900HT and the ABI PRISM 7500. A blind test was then conducted. The limit of quantitation for both GA21 and P35S was estimated to be 0.5% or less. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)). The determined bias and RSD(R) were each less than 25%. We believe the developed method would be useful for the practical screening analysis of GM maize.

  16. New approach for natural products screening by real-time monitoring of hemoglobin hydrolysis using quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Cornelio, Vivian E; Pedroso, Mariele M; Afonso, André S; Fernandes, João B; da Silva, M Fátima G F; Faria, Ronaldo C; Vieira, Paulo C

    2015-03-03

    The hemoglobin (Hb) released from erythrocytes is a primary nutritive component for many blood-feeding parasites. The aspartic protease cathepsin D is a hemoglobinase that is involved in the Hb degradation process and is considered an interesting target for chemotherapy intervention. However, traditional enzymatic assays for studying Hb degradation utilize spectrophotometric techniques, which do not allow real-time monitoring and can present serious interference problems. Herein, we describe a biosensor using simple approach for the real-time monitoring of Hb hydrolysis as well as an efficient screening method for natural products as enzymatic inhibitors using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique. Hemoglobin was anchored on the quartz crystal surface using mixed self-assembled monolayers. The addition of the enzyme caused a mass change (frequency shift) due to Hb hydrolysis, which was monitored in real time. From the frequency change patterns of the Hb-functionalized QCM, we evaluated the enzymatic reaction by determining the kinetic parameters of product formation (k(cat)). The QCM enzymatic assay using immobilized human Hb was shown to be an excellent approach for screening possible inhibitors in complex mixtures, opening up a new avenue for the discovery of novel inhibitors.

  17. Evaluation of anti-Zika virus activities of broad-spectrum antivirals and NIH clinical collection compounds using a cell-based, high-throughput screen assay.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Robert S; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Golden, Jennifer E; Chung, Dong-Hoon

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have clearly underscored the association between Zika virus (ZIKV) and severe neurological diseases such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Given the historical complacency surrounding this virus, however, no significant antiviral screenings have been performed to specifically target ZIKV. As a result, there is an urgent need for a validated screening method and strategy that is focused on highlighting potential anti-ZIKV inhibitors that can be further advanced via rigorous validation and optimization. To address this critical gap, we sought to test whether a cell-based assay that measures protection from the ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect could serve as a high-throughput screen assay for discovering novel anti-ZIKV inhibitors. Employing this approach, we tested the anti-ZIKV activity of previously known broad-spectrum antiviral compounds and discovered several compounds (e.g., NITD008, SaliPhe, and CID 91632869) with anti-ZIKV activity. Interestingly, while GTP synthesis inhibitors (e.g., ribavirin or mycophenolic acid) were too toxic or showed no anti-ZIKV activity (EC50 > 50 μM), ZIKV was highly susceptible to pyrimidine synthesis inhibitors (e.g., brequinar) in the assay. We amended the assay into a high-throughput screen (HTS)-compatible 384-well format and then screened the NIH Clinical Compound Collection library, which includes a total of 727 compounds organized, using an 8-point dose response format with two Zika virus strains (MR766 and PRVABC59, a recent human isolate). The screen discovered 6-azauridine and finasteride as potential anti-ZIKV inhibitors with EC50 levels of 3.18 and 9.85 μM for MR766, respectively. We further characterized the anti-ZIKV activity of 6-azauridine and several pyrimidine synthesis inhibitors such as brequinar in various secondary assays including an antiviral spectrum test within flaviviruses and alphaviruses, Western blot (protein), real-time PCR (RNA), and plaque reduction assays (progeny

  18. Inhibition in vivo of the activity of botulinum neurotoxin A by small molecules selected by virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Tolga; Dolimbek, Behzod Z; Deeg, Katharina; Efferth, Thomas; Atassi, M Zouhair

    2012-11-01

    To search for small molecular size inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) endopeptidase activity, we have screened the NCI library containing about 1 million structures against the substrate binding pocket of BoNT/A. Virtual screening (VS) was performed with the software Glide (Grid-based ligand docking energetics) and the findings were confirmed by AutoDock. Ten compounds were found that had favorable energetic and glide criteria and 5 of these compounds were selected for their ability to protect mice in vivo against a lethal dose of BoNT/A. Each compound was incubated at different molar excesses with a lethal dose of the toxin and then the mixture injected intravenously into mice. At 4690 M excess, compounds NSC94520 and NSC99639 protected all (100%) the mice from lethal toxicity. Compounds NSC48461 and NSC627733 gave 75% protection. Compound NSC348884 showed the least inhibition of toxicity allowing only a fraction (25%) of the mice to survive challenge with a lethal dose; and in the case of the mice that did not survive there was a considerable delay of mortality. At 2400 M excess compounds NSC94520 remained fully protective while and NSC99639 afforded 75% protection and at 1200 M excess each of these two compounds gave 50% protection. The two compounds gave no protection at 600 or less molar excess. When each compound was administered intravenously at 4690 M excess at different times (from 1 h to 6 h) after the intravenous injection of the active toxin, none of the compounds was able to protect the animals from toxicity. The findings show the value of VS in identifying potential inhibitors of the toxin for further development and improvement.

  19. Sensitive fluorimetric assays for α-glucosidase activity and inhibitor screening based on β-cyclodextrin-coated quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Yao; Wang, Huan; He, Tian; Qi, Liang; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2016-02-01

    A fluorescence method was established for a α-glucosidase activity assay and inhibitor screening based on β-cyclodextrin-coated quantum dots. p-Nitrophenol, the hydrolysis product of the α-glucosidase reaction, could quench the fluorescence of β-cyclodextrin-coated quantum dots via an electron transfer process, leading to fluorescence turn-off, whereas the fluorescence of the system turned on in the presence of α-glucosidase inhibitors. Taking advantage of the excellent properties of quantum dots, this method provided a very simple, rapid and sensitive screening method for α-glucosidase inhibitors. Two α-glucosidase inhibitors, 2,4,6-tribromophenol and acarbose, were used to evaluate the feasibility of this screening model, and IC50 values of 24 μM and 0.55 mM were obtained respectively, which were lower than those previously reported. The method may have potential application in screening α-glucosidase inhibitors.

  20. Investigation of plasma parameters in an active screen cage-pulsed dc plasma used for plasma nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, M.; Khattak, Z. I.; Zaka-ul-Islam, M.; Shabir, S.; Khan, A. W.; Zakaullah, M.

    2014-11-01

    Active screen cage-pulsed dc plasmas are widely used in the material processing applications such as plasma nitriding, carburizing and nitrocarburizing. Specifically for plasma nitriding applications, a H2-N2 mixture is used. In this article, a study of the electron number density (ne), atomic nitrogen density ([N]), electron temperature ? and the excitation temperature ? is reported in the presence of an active screen cage-pulsed dc plasma. The ne and ? are determined here by a triple Langmuir probe, while [N] and ? are estimated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The two temperatures and their ratio ? are compared for different input parameters (such as applied power, gas pressure and H2 percentage). This study is useful in active screen cage plasma nitriding applications where only few plasma diagnostic measurements have been reported.

  1. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    PubMed Central

    Formagio, A.S.N.; Vieira, M.C.; Volobuff, C.R.F.; Silva, M.S.; Matos, A.I.; Cardoso, C.A.L.; Foglio, M.A.; Carvalho, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs. PMID:25714885

  2. Unbiased identification of signal-activated transcription factors by barcoded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM)

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, Pauline; Rando, Gianpaolo; Fleury-Olela, Fabienne; Schibler, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of transcription factors (TFs) controlling pathways in health and disease is of paramount interest. We designed a widely applicable method, dubbed barcorded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM), to identify signal-activated TFs without any a priori knowledge about their properties. The BC-STAR-PROM library consists of ∼3000 luciferase expression vectors, each harboring a promoter (composed of six tandem repeats of synthetic random DNA) and an associated barcode of 20 base pairs (bp) within the 3′ untranslated mRNA region. Together, the promoter sequences encompass >400,000 bp of random DNA, a sequence complexity sufficient to capture most TFs. Cells transfected with the library are exposed to a signal, and the mRNAs that it encodes are counted by next-generation sequencing of the barcodes. This allows the simultaneous activity tracking of each of the ∼3000 synthetic promoters in a single experiment. Here we establish proof of concept for BC-STAR-PROM by applying it to the identification of TFs induced by drugs affecting actin and tubulin cytoskeleton dynamics. BC-STAR-PROM revealed that serum response factor (SRF) is the only immediate early TF induced by both actin polymerization and microtubule depolymerization. Such changes in cytoskeleton dynamics are known to occur during the cell division cycle, and real-time bioluminescence microscopy indeed revealed cell-autonomous SRF–myocardin-related TF (MRTF) activity bouts in proliferating cells. PMID:27601530

  3. Rapid screening and quantitative determination of bioactive compounds from fruit extracts of Myristica species and their in vitro antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Renu; Mahar, Rohit; Hasanain, Mohammad; Shukla, Sanjeev K; Sarkar, Jayanta; Rameshkumar, K B; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-11-15

    Efficient and sensitive LC-MS/MS methods have been developed for the rapid screening and determination of bioactive compounds in different fruit parts of four Myristica species, viz., Myristica beddomeii, Myristica fragrans, Myristica fatua and Myristica malabarica. Twenty-one compounds were identified and characterized on the basis of their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation pattern using HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and NMR analysis. Quantitative determination of five major bioactive compounds was performed using multiple-reaction monitoring mode with continuous polarity switching by UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS. Moreover, in vitro antiproliferative activity of these Myristica species was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines A549, DLD-1, DU145, FaDu and MCF-7 using SRB assay. Seventeen phytoconstituents were identified and reported for the first time from M. beddomeii and sixteen from M. fatua. Quantification result showed highest total content of five major bioactive compounds in mace of M. fragrans. Evaluation of in vitro antiproliferative activity revealed potent activity in all investigated species except M. fragrans.

  4. Electrocardiography and the preparticipation physical examination: is it time for routine screening?

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Diane K; Howard, Thomas M

    2006-04-01

    The preparticipation physical examination (PPE) is a screening tool endorsed by numerous organizations and used to evaluate young athletes prior to competition for both medical and musculoskeletal conditions that may predispose them to injury. The cardiac portion of the examination, as recommended by the American Heart Association, is detailed specifically to detect signs or symptoms consistent with certain congenital heart conditions that may increase a young athlete's risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Much controversy has erupted over the years as to whether this examination has the diagnostic sensitivity to detect these conditions and prevent SCD, and whether additional modalities, such as the 12-lead electrocardiograph (ECG), should be incorporated. Given the rarity of SCD events, the large population of young athletes that would qualify yearly for the examination, and the limitations that an ECG would present, it would not be efficient to add the ECG to the standard PPE on the symptomatic athlete. More efforts should be spent in standardizing the PPE on a national level to further improve its efficiency.

  5. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied.

  6. Screening for hetero-transglycosylating activities in extracts from nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus).

    PubMed

    Mohand, Fairouz Ait; Farkas, Vladimír

    2006-04-10

    Using combinations of different polysaccharides as glycosyl donors and of oligosaccharides fluorescently labeled by sulforhodamine (SR) as glycosyl acceptors, we screened for the presence of transglycosylating activities in extracts from nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus). Besides xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH/XET, EC 2.4.1.207) activity, which transfers xyloglucanosyl residues from xyloglucan (XG) to XG-derived oligosaccharides (XGOs), a glycosyl transfer from XG to SR-labeled cellooligosaccharides and laminarioligosaccharides has been detected. The XGOs also served as acceptors for the glycosyl transfer from soluble cellulose derivatives carboxymethyl cellulose and hydroxyethylcellulose. The effectivity of these polysaccharides as glycosyl donors for transfer to XG-derived octasaccharide [1-3H]XXLGol decreased in the order XG > HEC > CMC. Isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels showed that bands corresponding to hetero-transglycosylase activities coincided with zones corresponding to XTH/XET. These results can be explained as due either to substrate non-specificity of certain isoenzymes of XTH/XET or to existence of enzymes catalyzing a hetero-transfer, that is the formation of covalent linkages between different types of carbohydrate polymers.

  7. Screening of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South Africa for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic), that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito larvicidal properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of plant taxa sourced in South Africa were tested for larvicidal properties in an applicable assay. Thirty 3rd instar Anopheles arabiensis larvae were exposed to various extract types (dichloromethane, dichloromethane/methanol) (1:1), methanol and purified water) of each species investigated. Mortality was evaluated relative to the positive control Temephos (Mostop; Agrivo), an effective emulsifiable concentrate larvicide. Results Preliminary screening of crude extracts revealed substantial variation in toxicity with 24 of the 381 samples displaying 100% larval mortality within the seven day exposure period. Four of the high activity plants were selected and subjected to bioassay guided fractionation. The results of the testing of the fractions generated identified one fraction of the plant, Toddalia asiatica as being very potent against the An. arabiensis larvae. Conclusion The present study has successfully identified a plant with superior larvicidal activity at both the crude and semi pure fractions generated through bio-assay guided fractionation. These results have initiated further research into isolating the active compound and developing a malaria vector control tool. PMID:22963538

  8. Screening of active lyssavirus infection in wild bat populations by viral RNA detection on oropharyngeal swabs.

    PubMed

    Echevarría, J E; Avellón, A; Juste, J; Vera, M; Ibáñez, C

    2001-10-01

    Brain analysis cannot be used for the investigation of active lyssavirus infection in healthy bats because most bat species are protected by conservation directives. Consequently, serology remains the only tool for performing virological studies on natural bat populations; however, the presence of antibodies merely reflects past exposure to the virus and is not a valid marker of active infection. This work describes a new nested reverse transcription (RT)-PCR technique specifically designed for the detection of the European bat virus 1 on oropharyngeal swabs obtained from bats but also able to amplify RNA from the remaining rabies-related lyssaviruses in brain samples. The technique was successfully used for surveillance of a serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) colony involved in a case of human exposure, in which 15 out of 71 oropharyngeal swabs were positive. Lyssavirus infection was detected on 13 oropharyngeal swabs but in only 5 brains out of the 34 animals from which simultaneous brain and oropharyngeal samples had been taken. The lyssavirus involved could be rapidly identified by automatic sequencing of the RT-PCR products obtained from 14 brains and three bat oropharyngeal swabs. In conclusion, RT-PCR using oropharyngeal swabs will permit screening of wild bat populations for active lyssavirus infection, for research or epidemiological purposes, in line not only with conservation policies but also in a more efficient manner than classical detection techniques used on the brain.

  9. Screening of lactic acid bacteria from vacuum packaged beef for antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Roseane B. P.; de L. Oliveira, Afonso; Glória, M. Beatriz A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from vacuum packaged beef and to investigate their antagonist activity. LAB mean counts of 5.19 log cfu/cm2 were obtained from five samples of vacuum packaged beef. Two hundred isolates were selected and screened for the inhibitory effect on five ATCC reference Lactobacillus strains. Thirty six isolates showed activity in the agar spot test against at least two of the indicator strains. However, only six cell free supernatants (CFS) from these isolates exhibited activity against the indicator strains using the well-diffusion test and conditions that eliminated the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. L. acidophilus was the most sensitive indicator tested, whereas L. plantarum and L. fermentum were the most resistant ones. Identification by MIDI system indicated that these LAB isolates were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei GC subgroup A. The antagonistic factors produced by most of these LAB against L. acidophilus were resistant to heat treatment (100°C for 10 min) and stable over a wide pH range (4.0 to 9.0). These data suggest that these isolates could be used as promising hurdles aiming increased safety and extended shelf life of meat products. PMID:24031232

  10. A Novel High-Throughput 3D Screening System for EMT Inhibitors: A Pilot Screening Discovered the EMT Inhibitory Activity of CDK2 Inhibitor SU9516

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Takanori; Rahman, M. Mamunur; Sakamoto, Ruriko; Masuda, Norio; Nakatsura, Tetsuya; Calderwood, Stuart K.; Kozaki, Ken-ichi; Itoh, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial pathological event in cancer, particularly in tumor cell budding and metastasis. Therefore, control of EMT can represent a novel therapeutic strategy in cancer. Here, we introduce an innovative three-dimensional (3D) high-throughput screening (HTS) system that leads to an identification of EMT inhibitors. For the establishment of the novel 3D-HTS system, we chose NanoCulture Plates (NCP) that provided a gel-free micro-patterned scaffold for cells and were independent of other spheroid formation systems using soft-agar. In the NCP-based 3D cell culture system, A549 lung cancer cells migrated, gathered, and then formed multiple spheroids within 7 days. Live cell imaging experiments showed that an established EMT-inducer TGF-β promoted peripheral cells around the core of spheroids to acquire mesenchymal spindle shapes, loss of intercellular adhesion, and migration from the spheroids. Along with such morphological change, EMT-related gene expression signatures were altered, particularly alteration of mRNA levels of ECAD/CDH1, NCAD/CDH2, VIM and ZEB1/TCF8. These EMT-related phenotypic changes were blocked by SB431542, a TGF-βreceptor I (TGFβR1) inhibitor. Inside of the spheroids were highly hypoxic; in contrast, spheroid-derived peripheral migrating cells were normoxic, revealed by visualization and quantification using Hypoxia Probe. Thus, TGF-β-triggered EMT caused spheroid hypoplasia and loss of hypoxia. Spheroid EMT inhibitory (SEMTIN) activity of SB431542 was calculated from fluorescence intensities of the Hypoxia Probe, and then was utilized in a drug screening of EMT-inhibitory small molecule compounds. In a pilot screening, 9 of 1,330 compounds were above the thresholds of the SEMTIN activity and cell viability. Finally, two compounds SB-525334 and SU9516 showed SEMTIN activities in a dose dependent manner. SB-525334 was a known TGFβR1 inhibitor. SU9516 was a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inhibitor

  11. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    PubMed Central

    Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Bellakhdar, Wafaa; Belkacem, Nacera; Kadiata, Marcel; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2 000 µg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 µg/mL as compared to 1.1 µg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant. PMID:23570014

  12. Cell-Based Screening Identifies the Active Ingredients from Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula Shixiao San as the Inhibitors of Atherosclerotic Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofan; Zhang, Ruowen; Gu, Liqiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we performed a phenotypic screening in human endothelial cells exposed to oxidized low density lipoprotein (an in vitro model of atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction) to identify the effective compounds in Shixiao San. After investigating the suitability and reliability of the cell-based screening method using atorvastatin as the positive control drug, this method was applied in screening Shixiao San and its extracts. The treatment of n-butanol fraction on endothelial cells exhibited stronger healing effects against oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced insult when compared with other fractions. Cell viability, the level of nitric oxide, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelin-1 were measured, respectively. The assays revealed n-butanol fraction significantly elevated the survival ratio of impaired cells in culture. In parallel, n-butanol fraction exhibited the highest inhibition of inflammation. The generation of prostaglandin-2 and adhesion molecule (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1) was obviously declined. Furthermore, n-butanol fraction suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and restored the activity of superoxide dismutase. Compounds identification of the n-butanol fraction was carried out by ultra high liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The active ingredients including quercetin-3-O-(2G-α-l-rhamnosyl)-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-neohesperidoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside revealed the ability of anti-atherosclerosis after exposing on endothelial cells. The current work illustrated the pharmacology effect of Shixiao San and clearly indicated the major active components in Shixiao San. More importantly, the proposed cell-based screening method might be particularly suitable for fast evaluating the anti-atherosclerosis efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicines and screening out the interesting

  13. Impact of screen time on mental health problems progression in youth: a 1-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Tao, Shuman; Zhang, Shichen; Zhang, Yukun; Chen, Kaihua; Yang, Yajuan; Hao, Jiahu; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined the relationships between screen time (ST) and mental health problems and also increment of ST and progression of mental health problems in a college-based sample of Chinese youth. Methods We assessed 2521 Chinese college freshmen from October 2013 to December 2014. At baseline, the mean age of participants was 18.43 years (SD 0.96 years), and 1215 (48.2%) participants reported ST >2 h/day. We estimated multivariable-adjusted ORs by using logistic regression models for the risk of developing mental health problems (anxiety, depression and psychopathological symptoms) and/or progression of these problems, according to baseline ST exposure and changes in exposure at follow-up. Results At baseline, when ST >2 h/day was compared with ST ≤2 h/day, the OR was 1.38 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.65) for anxiety, 1.55 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.93) for depression and 1.49 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.83) for psychopathological symptoms. The results remained unchanged for depressive and psychopathological symptoms but not for anxiety, after additional adjustment for sex, age, residential background, body mass index, perceived family economy, sleep quality, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise after school and physical activity. When participants who had increased their ST exposure to >2 h/day were compared with those with no change and ST ≤2 h/day, the OR was 1.78 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.83) for anxiety, 1.92 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.83) for depression and 1.93 (95% CI 1.16 to 3.21) for psychopathological symptoms. These associations also remained after additional adjustment. Conclusions The overall effects are consistent yet small for ST/ST increment on mental health problems and its progression. Given the small effect size of the current results, it remains unclear the degree to which ST is a practically significant risk factor for mental health outcomes. Future studies of high quality are necessary to further examine this association and the direction of causality. PMID:28186926

  14. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant, antimitotic, and antiproliferative activities of Trichodesma indicum shoot

    PubMed Central

    Saboo, Shweta S.; Tapadiya, Ganesh G.; Lamale, Jasvant J.; Khadabadi, Somshekhar S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traditionally Trichodesma indicum has been used for its therapeutic effect in folk medicine that include anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticancer properties. In this work, we validate the anticancer potential of the plant. Aims: To screen the shoot extracts T. indicum for their antimitotic and antiproliferative activities. Materials and Methods: The dried aerial parts of T. indicum were successively extracted with petroleum ether, successive chloroform extract (SCH), successive ethanol extract (SEE) and water. The plant extracts were subjected to study of in vitro antioxidant activity using 2,2’- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical inhibition systems. The extracts were also tested for their in vitro antimitotic activity in Allium cepa root and antiproliferative activity using the yeast model and five human cell lines (MCF-7, HOP-62, MOLT-4, HCT-15 and PRO). Result and Conclusion: The mitotic index for SCH and SEE was found to be 12.01 ± 1.34 and 12.99 ± 0.25 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value in the antiproliferative assay was found to be 30.14s–35.36 mg/mL for SCH and SEE respectively. Both SCH and SEE extracts showed significant antimitotic and antiproliferative activity when compared to the standard methothreaxate, vincreastine and adriamycin. Among the extracts, SEE showed strong inhibition against MCF-7 and MOLT-4 cell lines at concentration <30 μg/mL. Phytochemical analysis of extracts indicated the presence of β-sitosterol, gallic acid and catechin. Based on these results, it is concluded that T. indicum may be a good candidate for the treatment of a variety of cancer. Thus, its traditional use is validated. PMID:25861148

  15. High-throughput screening system based on phenolics-responsive transcription activator for directed evolution of organophosphate-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Su; Choi, Su-Lim; Kyeong, Hyun-Ho; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Kim, Eui-Joong; Pan, Jae-Gu; Rha, Eugene; Song, Jae Jun; Lee, Seung-Goo; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2012-11-01

    Synthetic organophosphates (OPs) have been used as nerve agents and pesticides due to their extreme toxicity and have caused serious environmental and human health problems. Hence, effective methods for detoxification and decontamination of OPs are of great significance. Here we constructed and used a high-throughput screening (HTS) system that was based on phenolics-responsive transcription activator for directed evolution of OP-degrading enzymes. In the screening system, phenolic compounds produced from substrates by OP-degrading enzymes bind a constitutively expressed transcription factor DmpR, initiating the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein located at the downstream of the DmpR promoter. Fluorescence intensities of host cells are proportional to the levels of phenolic compounds, enabling the screening of OP-degrading enzymes with high catalytic activities by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Methyl parathion hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. WBC-3 and p-nitrophenyl diphenylphosphate were used as a model enzyme and an analogue of G-type nerve agents, respectively. The utility of the screening system was demonstrated by generating a triple mutant with a 100-fold higher k(cat)/K(m) than the wild-type enzyme after three rounds of directed evolution. The contributions of individual mutations to the catalytic efficiency were elucidated by mutational and structural analyses. The DmpR-based screening system is expected to be widely used for developing OP-degrading enzymes with greater potential.

  16. The better the story, the bigger the serving: narrative transportation increases snacking during screen time in a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Watching television and playing video games increase energy intake, likely due to distraction from satiety cues. A study comparing one hour of watching TV, playing typical video games, or playing motion-controlled video games found a difference across groups in energy intake, but the reasons for this difference are not clear. As a secondary analysis, we investigated several types of distraction to determine potential psychosocial mechanisms which may account for greater energy intake observed during sedentary screen time as compared to motion-controlled video gaming. Methods Feelings of enjoyment, engagement (mental immersion), spatial presence (the feeling of being in the game), and transportation (immersion in a narrative) were investigated in 120 young adults aged 18 – 35 (60 female). Results Only narrative transportation was associated with total caloric intake (ρ = .205, P = .025). Transportation was also higher in the TV group than in the gaming groups (P = .002) and higher in males than in females (P = .003). Transportation mediated the relationship between motion-controlled gaming (as compared to TV watching) and square root transformed energy intake (indirect effect = −1.34, 95% confidence interval −3.57, −0.13). No other distraction-related variables were associated with intake. Conclusions These results suggest that different forms of distraction may differentially affect eating behavior during screen time, and that narrative appears to be a particularly strong distractor. Future studies should further investigate the effects of narrative on eating behavior. PMID:23680389

  17. Perspective: Web-based machine learning models for real-time screening of thermoelectric materials properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaultois, Michael W.; Oliynyk, Anton O.; Mar, Arthur; Sparks, Taylor D.; Mulholland, Gregory J.; Meredig, Bryce

    2016-05-01

    The experimental search for new thermoelectric materials remains largely confined to a limited set of successful chemical and structural families, such as chalcogenides, skutterudites, and Zintl phases. In principle, computational tools such as density functional theory (DFT) offer the possibility of rationally guiding experimental synthesis efforts toward very different chemistries. However, in practice, predicting thermoelectric properties from first principles remains a challenging endeavor [J. Carrete et al., Phys. Rev. X 4, 011019 (2014)], and experimental researchers generally do not directly use computation to drive their own synthesis efforts. To bridge this practical gap between experimental needs and computational tools, we report an open machine learning-based recommendation engine (http://thermoelectrics.citrination.com) for materials researchers that suggests promising new thermoelectric compositions based on pre-screening about 25 000 known materials and also evaluates the feasibility of user-designed compounds. We show this engine can identify interesting chemistries very different from known thermoelectrics. Specifically, we describe the experimental characterization of one example set of compounds derived from our engine, RE12Co5Bi (RE = Gd, Er), which exhibits surprising thermoelectric performance given its unprecedentedly high loading with metallic d and f block elements and warrants further investigation as a new thermoelectric material platform. We show that our engine predicts this family of materials to have low thermal and high electrical conductivities, but modest Seebeck coefficient, all of which are confirmed experimentally. We note that the engine also predicts materials that may simultaneously optimize all three properties entering into zT; we selected RE12Co5Bi for this study due to its interesting chemical composition and known facile synthesis.

  18. System, device, and methods for real-time screening of live cells, biomarkers, and chemical signatures

    DOEpatents

    Sundaram, S Kamakshi [Richland, WA; Riley, Brian J [West Richland, WA; Weber, Thomas J [Richland, WA; Sacksteder, Colette A [West Richland, WA; Addleman, R Shane [Benton City, WA

    2011-06-07

    An ATR-FTIR device and system are described that defect live-cell responses to stimuli and perturbations in real-time. The system and device can monitor perturbations resulting from exposures to various physical, chemical, and biological materials in real-time, as well as those sustained over a long period of time, including those associated with stimuli having unknown modes-of-action (e.g. nanoparticles). The device and system can also be used to identify specific chemical species or substances that profile cellular responses to these perturbations.

  19. Screening and characterization of natural antioxidants in four Glycyrrhiza species by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Jing; Chen, Jun; Li, Ying; Li, Qin; Zheng, Yun-Feng; Fu, Yu; Li, Ping

    2011-11-11

    Licorice, derived from the dried roots and rhizomes of several species of genus Glycyrrhiza L. (Leguminosae family), has been traditionally used in herbal medicine for over 4000 years. In recent years, the interest in antioxidative constituents in licorice has greatly increased. In this work, a new method based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) spiking test combined with HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) analysis was developed to screen and identify the antioxidants in licorice. The results of the method validation indicated that the developed method was reliable and repeatable. Compared with DPPH on-line method, the HPLC-Q-TOF MS/MS method combined with DPPH spiking test offered much higher sensitivity and resolution. Using this method, 35 radical scavengers were screened from four Glycyrrhiza species (G. inflata, G. glabra, G. pallidiflora and G. uralensis), and 21 of them were unambiguously or tentatively identified by HPLC-Q-TOF MS/MS. Among the 21 identified flavonoids, 10 compounds had been reported to possess antioxidative activities in the previous studies, and the radical scavenging activities of the other 11 compounds were reported for the first time. The effects of six purified flavonoids on DPPH radical and lipid peroxidation were evaluated for validation of the developed method. The results indicated that HPLC-Q-TOF MS/MS coupled with DPPH treatment is an efficient and powerful method to discover the potential antioxidative compounds from the complex natural product mixtures. In this study, the identified components with free radical scavenging activity, would help to explain the therapeutic benefit of licorice in the treatment of human disease associated with oxidative stress.

  20. Real-time spectroscopic monitoring of photocatalytic activity promoted by graphene in a microfluidic reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifan; Lin, Beichen; Ge, Likai; Guo, Hongchen; Chen, Xinyi; Lu, Miao

    2016-06-01

    Photocatalytic microreactors have been utilized as rapid, versatile platforms for the characterization of photocatalysts. In this work, a photocatalytic microreactor integrated with absorption spectroscopy was proposed for the real-time monitoring of photocatalytic activity using different catalysts. The validity of this method was investigated by the rapid screening on the photocatalytic performance of a titanium oxide (TiO2)-decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheet for the degradation of methylene blue under monochromatic visible irradiation. The sampling interval time could be minimized to 10 s for achieving real-time detection. The best photocatalytic activity was observed for an optimized TiO2/GO weight mixing ratio of 7:11, with a reaction rate constant up to 0.067 min‑1. The addition of GO into TiO2 enhances photocatalytic activity and adsorption of MB molecules. The synthetic reaction rate constant was up to approximately 0.11 min‑1, which was also the highest among the catalysts. The microreactor exhibited good sensitivity and reproducibility without weakening the performance of the photocatalysts. Consequently, the photocatalytic microreactor is promising as a simple, portable, and rapid screening tool for new photocatalysts.

  1. Real-time spectroscopic monitoring of photocatalytic activity promoted by graphene in a microfluidic reactor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yifan; Lin, Beichen; Ge, Likai; Guo, Hongchen; Chen, Xinyi; Lu, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic microreactors have been utilized as rapid, versatile platforms for the characterization of photocatalysts. In this work, a photocatalytic microreactor integrated with absorption spectroscopy was proposed for the real-time monitoring of photocatalytic activity using different catalysts. The validity of this method was investigated by the rapid screening on the photocatalytic performance of a titanium oxide (TiO2)-decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheet for the degradation of methylene blue under monochromatic visible irradiation. The sampling interval time could be minimized to 10 s for achieving real-time detection. The best photocatalytic activity was observed for an optimized TiO2/GO weight mixing ratio of 7:11, with a reaction rate constant up to 0.067 min−1. The addition of GO into TiO2 enhances photocatalytic activity and adsorption of MB molecules. The synthetic reaction rate constant was up to approximately 0.11 min−1, which was also the highest among the catalysts. The microreactor exhibited good sensitivity and reproducibility without weakening the performance of the photocatalysts. Consequently, the photocatalytic microreactor is promising as a simple, portable, and rapid screening tool for new photocatalysts. PMID:27346555

  2. Development and Validation of a High Throughput Screen for Compounds with Antiviral Activity Against Encephalitic Alphaviruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-15

    determined the compounds as cytotoxic if the viability is less than 85% in the screening. 1. Single dose study A. Small library screening We have...run on two independent days and the results are shown below (Table 8). The assay metrics meet the requirement for a successful HTS assay for a library ... screening . The assay performance was ascertained by testing plate-to-plate variation (data not shown). Table 8. Assay performance of the assay

  3. Screening of plant extracts for anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ai-Guo; Yi, Yang-Lei; Ling, Fei; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    With the aim of finding natural anthelmintic agents against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus), 26 plants were screened for antiparasitic properties using in vivo anthelmintic efficacy assay. The results showed that Caesalpinia sappan, Lysima chiachristinae, Cuscuta chinensis, Artemisia argyi, and Eupatorium fortunei were found to have 100% anthelmintic efficacy at 125, 150, 225, 300, and 500 mg L(-1) after 48 h of exposure. Crude extract of the five plants were further partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water to obtain anthelmintically active fractions with various polarity. Among these fractions tested, the ethyl acetate extract of L. chiachristinae was found to be the most effective with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 5.1 mg/L after 48 h of exposure. This was followed by ethyl acetate extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 8.5 mg L(-1)), chloroform extracts of C. sappan (48 h-EC50 = 15.6 mg L(-1)), methanol extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 15.9 mg L(-1)), and chloroform and petroleum ether extract of L. chiachristinae (EC50 values of 17.2 and 21.1 mg/L, respectively), suggesting that these plants, as well as the active fractions, provide potential sources of botanic drugs for the control of D. intermedius in aquaculture.

  4. Screening of traditional Chinese medicinal plants for quorum-sensing inhibitors activity.

    PubMed

    Koh, Khee Hoon; Tham, Foong-Yee

    2011-04-01

    The misuse of antibiotics has contributed to widespread development of antimicrobial resistance among clinically significant bacterial species. Alternative approaches other than those using antibiotics are needed in the fight against infectious diseases. Quorum sensing (QS) is an intercellular signaling and gene regulatory mechanism, which is used by a number of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in determining virulence gene expression. The study of QS may yield another strategy for disease control by interference with QS signals. Scientific research on complementary therapies such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has focused mainly on its antibacterial properties. To test for anti-QS activity, 10 TCM herbs were screened using two biomonitor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. Interference with violacein (purple pigment) production in CV026 (exogenously supplied with homoserine lactone signals), and swarming in PA01, both QS-regulated phenomena, was used as indication of anti-QS activity. Eight of the selected TCM (80%) yielded QS inhibitors: Prunus armeniaca, Prunella vulgaris, Nelumbo nucifera, Panax notoginseng (root and flower), Punica granatum, Areca catechu, and Imperata cylindrica. Compounds that interfere with QS are present in TCM herbs and these medicines may be a rich source of compounds to combat pathogenic bacteria and reduce the development of antibiotic resistance.

  5. Discovery of New Compounds Active against Plasmodium falciparum by High Throughput Screening of Microbial Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Moreno, Guiomar; Cantizani, Juan; Sánchez-Carrasco, Paula; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis Miguel; Martín, Jesús; El Aouad, Noureddine; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Tormo, José Rubén; González-Menendez, Víctor; González, Ignacio; de Pedro, Nuria; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca; González-Pacanowska, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Due to the low structural diversity within the set of antimalarial drugs currently available in the clinic and the increasing number of cases of resistance, there is an urgent need to find new compounds with novel modes of action to treat the disease. Microbial natural products are characterized by their large diversity provided in terms of the chemical complexity of the compounds and the novelty of structures. Microbial natural products extracts have been underexplored in the search for new antiparasitic drugs and even more so in the discovery of new antimalarials. Our objective was to find new druggable natural products with antimalarial properties from the MEDINA natural products collection, one of the largest natural product libraries harboring more than 130,000 microbial extracts. In this work, we describe the optimization process and the results of a phenotypic high throughput screen (HTS) based on measurements of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase. A subset of more than 20,000 extracts from the MEDINA microbial products collection has been explored, leading to the discovery of 3 new compounds with antimalarial activity. In addition, we report on the novel antiplasmodial activity of 4 previously described natural products.

  6. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of crude aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium using tests involving inhibition of superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS. The flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract were also determined using standard phytochemical reaction methods. Results Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract was 0.499 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder. The total flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of the plant were 0.705 and 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder respectively. The percentage inhibition of lipid peroxide at the initial stage of oxidation showed antioxidant activity of 87% compared to those of BHT (84.6%) and gallic acid (96%). Also, the percentage inhibition of malondialdehyde by the extract showed percentage inhibition of 78% comparable to those of BHT (72.24%) and Gallic (94.82%). Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of H. longifolium is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines. PMID:20470421

  7. Microplate assay for screening the antibacterial activity of Schiff bases derived from substituted benzopyran-4-one.

    PubMed

    Amin, Rehab M; Abdel-Kader, Nora S; El-Ansary, Aida L

    2012-09-01

    Schiff bases (SB(1)-SB(3)) were synthesized from the condensation of 6-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one with 2-aminopyridine (SB(1)), p-phenylenediamine (SB(2)) and o-phenylenediamine (SB(3)), while Schiff bases (SB(4)-SB(6)) were synthesized by condensation of 5,7-dihydroxy-6-formyl-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one with 2-aminopyridine (SB(4)), p-phenylenediamine (SB(5)) and o-phenylenediamine (SB(6)). Schiff bases were characterized using elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectroscopy. These compounds were screened for antibacterial activities by micro-plate assay technique. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus capitis were exposed to different concentrations of the Schiff bases. Results showed that the antibacterial effect of these Schiff bases on Gram-negative bacteria were higher than that on Gram-positive bacteria moreover, the Schiff bases containing substituent OCH(3) on position five have higher antibacterial activity than that containing hydroxy group on the same position.

  8. Correlating In Vitro Target-Oriented Screening and Docking: Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases Activities by Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Crascì, Lucia; Basile, Livia; Panico, Annamaria; Puglia, Carmelo; Bonina, Francesco P; Basile, Pierluigi Maria; Rizza, Luisa; Guccione, Salvatore

    2017-03-13

    Metalloproteases are a family of zinc-containing endopeptidases involved in a variety of pathological disorders. The use of flavonoid derivatives as potential metalloprotease inhibitors has recently increased.Particular plants growing in Sicily are an excellent yielder of the flavonoids luteolin, apigenin, and their respective glycoside derivatives (7-O-rutinoside, 7-O-glucoside, and 7-O-glucuronide).The inhibitory activity of luteolin, apigenin, and their respective glycoside derivatives on the metalloproteases MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, MMP-8, and MMP-9 was assessed and rationalized correlating in vitro target-oriented screening and in silico docking.The flavones apigenin, luteolin, and their respective glucosides have good ability to interact with metalloproteases and can also be lead compounds for further development. Glycones are more active on MMP-1, -3, -8, and -13 than MMP-9. Collagenases MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-13 are inhibited by compounds having rutinoside glycones. Apigenin and luteolin are inactive on MMP-1, -3, and -8, which can be interpreted as a better selectivity for both -9 and -13 peptidases. The more active compounds are apigenin-7-O-rutinoside on MMP-1 and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside on MMP-3. The lowest IC50 values were also found for apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide. The glycoside moiety might allow for a better anchoring to the active site of MMP-1, -3, -8, -9, and -13. Overall, the in silico data are substantially in agreement with the in vitro ones (fluorimetric assay).

  9. Real-time terahertz imaging of nonmetallic objects for security screening and anti-counterfeiting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnken, Barry N.; Karunasiri, Gamani

    2008-10-01

    We report the use of a 160×120 pixel microbolometer camera, under illumination by a milliwatt-scale 3.6 THz quantum cascade laser, for real-time imaging of materials which are exclusively nonmetallic in character. By minimizing diffraction effects suffered by the camera system and operating the laser at bias currents approaching saturation values, an imaging scheme was developed in which overlapping samples of nonmetallic materials can be imaged with high fidelity and long persistence times. Furthermore, an examination of various security features embedded within domestic and foreign currency notes suggests that this imaging scheme could serve a future role in detection of assorted counterfeiting practices.

  10. Non-target time trend screening: a data reduction strategy for detecting emerging contaminants in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Plassmann, Merle M; Tengstrand, Erik; Åberg, K Magnus; Benskin, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Non-targeted mass spectrometry-based approaches for detecting novel xenobiotics in biological samples are hampered by the occurrence of naturally fluctuating endogenous substances, which are difficult to distinguish from environmental contaminants. Here, we investigate a data reduction strategy for datasets derived from a biological time series. The objective is to flag reoccurring peaks in the time series based on increasing peak intensities, thereby reducing peak lists to only those which may be associated with emerging bioaccumulative contaminants. As a result, compounds with increasing concentrations are flagged while compounds displaying random, decreasing, or steady-state time trends are removed. As an initial proof of concept, we created artificial time trends by fortifying human whole blood samples with isotopically labelled standards. Different scenarios were investigated: eight model compounds had a continuously increasing trend in the last two to nine time points, and four model compounds had a trend that reached steady state after an initial increase. Each time series was investigated at three fortification levels and one unfortified series. Following extraction, analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry, and data processing, a total of 21,700 aligned peaks were obtained. Peaks displaying an increasing trend were filtered from randomly fluctuating peaks using time trend ratios and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The first approach was successful in flagging model compounds spiked at only two to three time points, while the latter approach resulted in all model compounds ranking in the top 11 % of the peak lists. Compared to initial peak lists, a combination of both approaches reduced the size of datasets by 80-85 %. Overall, non-target time trend screening represents a promising data reduction strategy for identifying emerging bioaccumulative contaminants in biological samples. Graphical abstract

  11. Real-Time Monitoring and Evaluation of a Visual-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program Using a Decision Support Job Aid.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Curtis W; Rose, Donny; Mink, Jonah; Levitz, David

    2016-05-16

    In many developing nations, cervical cancer screening is done by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of such screening programs is challenging. An enhanced visual assessment (EVA) system was developed to augment VIA procedures in low-resource settings. The EVA System consists of a mobile colposcope built around a smartphone, and an online image portal for storing and annotating images. A smartphone app is used to control the mobile colposcope, and upload pictures to the image portal. In this paper, a new app feature that documents clinical decisions using an integrated job aid was deployed in a cervical cancer screening camp in Kenya. Six organizations conducting VIA used the EVA System to screen 824 patients over the course of a week, and providers recorded their diagnoses and treatments in the application. Real-time aggregated statistics were broadcast on a public website. Screening organizations were able to assess the number of patients screened, alongside treatment rates, and the patients who tested positive and required treatment in real time, which allowed them to make adjustments as needed. The real-time M&E enabled by "smart" diagnostic medical devices holds promise for broader use in screening programs in low-resource settings.

  12. Real-Time Monitoring and Evaluation of a Visual-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program Using a Decision Support Job Aid

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Curtis W.; Rose, Donny; Mink, Jonah; Levitz, David

    2016-01-01

    In many developing nations, cervical cancer screening is done by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of such screening programs is challenging. An enhanced visual assessment (EVA) system was developed to augment VIA procedures in low-resource settings. The EVA System consists of a mobile colposcope built around a smartphone, and an online image portal for storing and annotating images. A smartphone app is used to control the mobile colposcope, and upload pictures to the image portal. In this paper, a new app feature that documents clinical decisions using an integrated job aid was deployed in a cervical cancer screening camp in Kenya. Six organizations conducting VIA used the EVA System to screen 824 patients over the course of a week, and providers recorded their diagnoses and treatments in the application. Real-time aggregated statistics were broadcast on a public website. Screening organizations were able to assess the number of patients screened, alongside treatment rates, and the patients who tested positive and required treatment in real time, which allowed them to make adjustments as needed. The real-time M&E enabled by “smart” diagnostic medical devices holds promise for broader use in screening programs in low-resource settings. PMID:27196932

  13. American Time Use Survey: Sleep Time and Its Relationship to Waking Activities

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Fomberstein, Kenneth M.; Razavi, Farid M.; Banks, Siobhan; William, Jeffrey H.; Rosa, Roger R.; Dinges, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To gain some insight into how various behavioral (lifestyle) factors influence sleep duration, by investigation of the relationship of sleep time to waking activities using the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). Design: Cross-sectional data from ATUS, an annual telephone survey of a population sample of US citizens who are interviewed regarding how they spent their time during a 24-hour period between 04:00 on the previous day and 04:00 on the interview day. Participants: Data were pooled from the 2003, 2004, and 2005 ATUS databases involving N=47,731 respondents older than 14 years of age. Interventions: N/A Results: Adjusted multiple linear regression models showed that the largest reciprocal relationship to sleep was found for work time, followed by travel time, which included commute time. Only shorter than average sleepers (<7.5 h) spent more time socializing, relaxing, and engaging in leisure activities, while both short (<5.5 h) and long sleepers (≥8.5 h) watched more TV than the average sleeper. The extent to which sleep time was exchanged for waking activities was also shown to depend on age and gender. Sleep time was minimal while work time was maximal in the age group 45–54 yr, and sleep time increased both with lower and higher age. Conclusions: Work time, travel time, and time for socializing, relaxing, and leisure are the primary activities reciprocally related to sleep time among Americans. These activities may be confounding the frequently observed association between short and long sleep on one hand and morbidity and mortality on the other hand and should be controlled for in future studies. Citation: Basner M; Fomberstein KM; Razavi FM; Banks S; William JH; Rosa RR; Dinges DF. American time use survey: sleep time and its relationship to waking activities. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1085-1095. PMID:17910380

  14. [Enterobacter agglomerans B1 producing beta-galactosidase with transglycosylation activity: screening, identification, fermentation conditions, and galacto-oligosaccharides synthesis].

    PubMed

    Lu, Lili; Xiao, Min; Xu, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are promising non-digestible oligosaccharides recognized as prebiotics. Commercial GOS containing galactose as subunit, are synthesized from lactose using the galactosyl-transferase activity of beta-galactosidase. A strain producing beta-galactosidase with transglycosylation activity was screened from the soil. Phenotypic analysis including morphology and physiology characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were carried out. Based on taxonomy results, the strain was identified as Enterobacter agglomerans B1. Medium and fermentation conditions were optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiments. The enzyme reached 9.7 U/mL in the medium (pH 7.5) containing 1% lactose, 1% yeast extract, and 0.5% peptone when cultured at 25 degrees C for 26 h. Effects of pH, temperature, lactose concentration, and reaction time on transgalactosylation by whole cells were studied. Yield of GOS reached 40.7% in 30% lactose (pH 7.5) at 50 degrees C for 12 h, as analyzed by HPLC and TLC. The results of an MS analysis showed that GOS were composed of di, tri-, and tetrasaccharides.

  15. A Four-Point Screening Method for Assessing Molecular Mechanism of Action (MMOA) Identifies Tideglusib as a Time-Dependent Inhibitor of Trypanosoma brucei GSK3β

    PubMed Central

    Swinney, Zachary T.; Haubrich, Brad A.; Xia, Shuangluo; Ramesha, Chakk; Gomez, Stephen R.; Guyett, Paul; Mensa-Wilmot, Kojo; Swinney, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background New therapeutics are needed for neglected tropical diseases including Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), a progressive and fatal disease caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense. There is a need for simple, efficient, cost effective methods to identify new molecules with unique molecular mechanisms of action (MMOAs). The mechanistic features of a binding mode, such as competition with endogenous substrates and time-dependence can affect the observed inhibitory IC50, and differentiate molecules and their therapeutic usefulness. Simple screening methods to determine time-dependence and competition can be used to differentiate compounds with different MMOAs in order to identify new therapeutic opportunities. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work we report a four point screening methodology to evaluate the time-dependence and competition for inhibition of GSK3β protein kinase isolated from T. brucei. Using this method, we identified tideglusib as a time-dependent inhibitor whose mechanism of action is time-dependent, ATP competitive upon initial binding, which transitions to ATP non-competitive with time. The enzyme activity was not recovered following 100-fold dilution of the buffer consistent with an irreversible mechanism of action. This is in contrast to the T. brucei GSK3β inhibitor GW8510, whose inhibition was competitive with ATP, not time-dependent at all measured time points and reversible in dilution experiments. The activity of tideglusib against T. brucei parasites was confirmed by inhibition of parasite proliferation (GI50 of 2.3 μM). Conclusions/Significance Altogether this work demonstrates a straightforward method for determining molecular mechanisms of action and its application for mechanistic differentiation of two potent TbGSK3β inhibitors. The four point MMOA method identified tideglusib as a mechanistically differentiated TbGSK3β inhibitor. Tideglusib was shown to inhibit parasite

  16. Screening for hemostatic activities of popular Chinese medicinal herbs in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ohkura, Naoki; Yokouchi, Haruna; Mimura, Mariyo; Nakamura, Riki; Atsumi, Gen-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to identify new hemostyptics by assessing the coagulation enhancing activity of 114 Chinese herbal extracts in vitro. Methods: Herbs were boiled in water for 30 min, filtered and then lyophilized filtrates (10 mg/mL) were dissolved in water. Coagulation was assayed as prothrombin time (PT). Plasma diluted in saline was incubated with each extract for 5 min and then PT reagent was added, followed by CaCl2 solution and the time taken to form clots was measured. Extracts that decreased coagulation time were regarded as containing active compounds. The abilities of extracts to activate Factor XII were assessed and the activated form of factor XII (XIIa) was resolved by SDS-PAGE and visualized by silver staining. Results: Coagulation time was obviously shortened by extracts of Alpinia Rhizome, Areca, Artemisia Leaf, Cassia Bark, Danshen Root, Ephedra Herb, Epimedium Herb, Forsythia Fruit, Great Burdock Achene, Moutan Bark, Perilla Herb, Red Paeony Root, Schizonepeta Spike, Senticosus Rhizome, Sweet Annie, Uncaria Thorn and Zanthoxylum Peel. Factor XII was obviously activated by extracts of Artemisia Leaf and Great Burdock Achene, and slightly by Perilla herb. Conclusion: Some popular Chinese medicinal herbs have potential as hemostatic agents and could thus be develope as new strategies for the treatment and prevention of bleeding. PMID:26401379

  17. What's on Your Radar Screen? Distance-Rate-Time Problems from NASA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Gregory W.; Landesman, Miriam F.; Calasanz-Kaiser, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    This article features NASA's FlyBy Math, a series of six standards-based distance-rate-time investigations in air traffic control. Sixth-grade students--acting as pilots, air traffic controllers, and NASA scientists--conduct an experiment and then use multiple mathematical representations to analyze and solve a problem involving two planes flying…

  18. Screening of multiple hormonal activities in water and sediment from the river Nile, Egypt, using in vitro bioassay and gonadal histology.

    PubMed

    Osman, Alaa G M; AbouelFadl, Khaled Y; Krüger, Angela; Kloas, Werner

    2015-06-01

    In Egypt, until yet no records are available regarding possible multiple hormonal activities in the aquatic systems and especially in the river Nile. In this paper, in vitro yeast estrogen screen (YES) and yeast androgen screen (YAS) were used to assess (for the first time) the multiple hormonal activities in surface waters and sediments of the river Nile. This study aimed to determine whether river Nile water can cause changes in gonadal histology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus). All water samples exhibited extremely low levels of estrogenicity. Estrogenicity was nearly not detected in any of the sediment samples. Unlike the estrogenicity, significant androgenic activities were recorded in the water and sediment samples along the course of the river Nile. The present study reports for the first time quantification anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities with high levels in both water and sediment of the river Nile. The greatest anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were observed in samples from downstream river Nile. These results indicated that the anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities along the Nile course were great and the pollution of the sites at downstream was more serious than the upstream sites due to industrial and anthropogenic activities at these sites. Good correlations were observed among some hormonal activities, suggesting coexistence of these contaminants in the environmental matrices. There were no signs of sexual disruption in any of the gonads analyzed from either male or female Nile tilapia, demonstrating that no hormonal activity present along the Nile course was sufficient to induce adverse effects on reproductive development. Further investigation is necessary to identify the compounds responsible for the hormonal activities in the river Nile and to examine effects of very low levels of hormonally active compounds on gonadal histology, as well as in the development of more sensitive biomarkers.

  19. Application of time-of-flight mass spectrometry for screening of crude glycerins for toxic phorbol ester contaminants.

    PubMed

    Herath, Kithsiri; Girard, Lauren; Reimschuessel, Renate; Jayasuriya, Hiranthi

    2017-03-01

    Since 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received numerous complaints of pet illnesses that may be related to the consumption of jerky pet treats. Many of those treats include glycerin as an ingredient. Glycerin can be made directly from oils such as palm seed oil, but can also be derived from the seed oil of toxic Jatropha plant during biodiesel production. If crude glycerin from biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas is used in the manufacture of animal feed, toxic tigliane diterpene phorbol esters (PEs), namely Jatropha factors (JFs), may be present and could lead to animal illnesses. Considering the numerous uses of glycerin in consumer products there is a need for a rapid method to screen crude glycerin for JF toxins and other PE contaminants. We describe the development of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight (UHPLC/Q-TOF) method for screening crude glycerin for PEs. An exact mass database, developed in-house, of previously identified PEs from Jatropha curcas as well as putative compounds was used to identify possible contaminants.

  20. T & I--Graphic Arts, Silk Screen Printing. Kit No. 60. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, George

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on silk screen printing are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (graphic arts). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  1. Discovery of small molecule inhibitors of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity by high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Chormova, Dimitra; Franková, Lenka; Defries, Andrew; Cutler, Sean R; Fry, Stephen C

    2015-09-01

    Small molecules (xenobiotics) that inhibit cell-wall-localised enzymes are valuable for elucidating the enzymes' biological roles. We applied a high-throughput fluorescent dot-blot screen to search for inhibitors of Petroselinum xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity in vitro. Of 4216 xenobiotics tested, with cellulose-bound xyloglucan as donor-substrate, 18 inhibited XET activity and 18 promoted it (especially anthraquinones and flavonoids). No compounds promoted XET in quantitative assays with (cellulose-free) soluble xyloglucan as substrate, suggesting that promotion was dependent on enzyme-cellulose interactions. With cellulose-free xyloglucan as substrate, we found 22 XET-inhibitors - especially compounds that generate singlet oxygen ((1)O2) e.g., riboflavin (IC50 29 μM), retinoic acid, eosin (IC50 27 μM) and erythrosin (IC50 36 μM). The riboflavin effect was light-dependent, supporting (1)O2 involvement. Other inhibitors included tannins, sulphydryl reagents and triphenylmethanes. Some inhibitors (vulpinic acid and brilliant blue G) were relatively specific to XET, affecting only two or three, respectively, of nine other wall-enzyme activities tested; others [e.g. (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and riboflavin] were non-specific. In vivo, out of eight XET-inhibitors bioassayed, erythrosin (1 μM) inhibited cell expansion in Rosa and Zea cell-suspension cultures, and 40 μM mycophenolic acid and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibited Zea culture growth. Our work showcases a general high-throughput strategy for discovering wall-enzyme inhibitors, some being plant growth inhibitors potentially valuable as physiological tools or herbicide leads.

  2. Discovery of small molecule inhibitors of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity by high-throughput screening

    PubMed Central

    Chormova, Dimitra; Franková, Lenka; Defries, Andrew; Cutler, Sean R.; Fry, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Small molecules (xenobiotics) that inhibit cell-wall-localised enzymes are valuable for elucidating the enzymes’ biological roles. We applied a high-throughput fluorescent dot-blot screen to search for inhibitors of Petroselinum xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity in vitro. Of 4216 xenobiotics tested, with cellulose-bound xyloglucan as donor-substrate, 18 inhibited XET activity and 18 promoted it (especially anthraquinones and flavonoids). No compounds promoted XET in quantitative assays with (cellulose-free) soluble xyloglucan as substrate, suggesting that promotion was dependent on enzyme–cellulose interactions. With cellulose-free xyloglucan as substrate, we found 22 XET-inhibitors – especially compounds that generate singlet oxygen (1O2) e.g., riboflavin (IC50 29 μM), retinoic acid, eosin (IC50 27 μM) and erythrosin (IC50 36 μM). The riboflavin effect was light-dependent, supporting 1O2 involvement. Other inhibitors included tannins, sulphydryl reagents and triphenylmethanes. Some inhibitors (vulpinic acid and brilliant blue G) were relatively specific to XET, affecting only two or three, respectively, of nine other wall-enzyme activities tested; others [e.g. (−)-epigallocatechin gallate and riboflavin] were non-specific. In vivo, out of eight XET-inhibitors bioassayed, erythrosin (1 μM) inhibited cell expansion in Rosa and Zea cell-suspension cultures, and 40 μM mycophenolic acid and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibited Zea culture growth. Our work showcases a general high-throughput strategy for discovering wall-enzyme inhibitors, some being plant growth inhibitors potentially valuable as physiological tools or herbicide leads. PMID:26093490

  3. Identification of protein kinase C activation as a novel mechanism for RGS2 protein upregulation through phenotypic screening of natural product extracts.

    PubMed

    Raveh, Avi; Schultz, Pamela J; Aschermann, Lauren; Carpenter, Colleen; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Cao, Shugeng; Clardy, Jon; Neubig, Richard R; Sherman, David H; Sjögren, Benita

    2014-10-01

    Biochemical high-throughput screening is widely used in drug discovery, using a variety of small molecule libraries. However, broader screening strategies may be more beneficial to identify novel biologic mechanisms. In the current study we used a β-galactosidase complementation method to screen a selection of microbial-derived pre-fractionated natural product extracts for those that increase regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) protein levels. RGS2 is a member of a large family of proteins that all regulate signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by accelerating GTPase activity on active Gα as well as through other mechanisms. RGS2(-/-) mice are hypertensive, show increased anxiety, and are prone to heart failure. RGS2 has a very short protein half-life due to rapid proteasomal degradation, and we propose that enhancement of RGS2 protein levels could be a beneficial therapeutic strategy. Bioassay-guided fractionation of one of the hit strains yielded a pure compound, Indolactam V, a known protein kinase C (PKC) activator, which selectively increased RGS2 protein levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Similar results were obtained with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate as well as activation of the Gq-coupled muscarinic M3 receptor. The effect on RGS2 protein levels was blocked by the nonselective PKC inhibitor Gö6983 (3-[1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl]-4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione), the PKCβ-selective inhibitor Ruboxastaurin, as well as small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of PKCβ. Indolactam V-mediated increases in RGS2 protein levels also had functional effects on GPCR signaling. This study provides important proof-of-concept for our screening strategy and could define a negative feedback mechanism in Gq/Phospholipase C signaling through RGS2 protein upregulation.

  4. Population-based screening for anemia using first-time blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Johnson, Bryce; Wright, David J.; Cable, Ritchard G.; Carey, Patricia; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Simon, Toby L.; Murphy, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Anemia is an important public health concern. Data from population-based surveys such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are the gold standard, but are obtained infrequently and include only small samples from certain minority groups. Objectives We assessed whether readily available databases of blood donor hemoglobin values could be used as a surrogate for population hemoglobin values from NHANES. Design Blood donor venous and fingerstick hemoglobin values were compared to 10,254 NHANES 2005-2008 venous hemoglobin values using demographically stratified analyses and ANOVA. Fingerstick hemoglobins or hematocrits were converted to venous hemoglobin estimates using regression analysis. Results Venous hemoglobin values from 1,609 first time donors correlated extremely well with NHANES data across different age, gender and demographic groups. Cigarette smoking increased hemoglobin by 0.26 to 0.59 g/dL depending on intensity. Converted fingerstick hemoglobin from 36,793 first time donors agreed well with NHANES hemoglobin (weighted mean hemoglobin of 15.53 g/dL for donors and 15.73 g/dL for NHANES) with similar variation in mean hemoglobin by age. However, compared to NHANES, the larger donor dataset showed reduced differences in mean hemoglobin between Blacks and other races/ethnicities. Conclusions Overall, first-time donor fingerstick hemoglobins approximate U.S. population data and represent a readily available public health resource for ongoing anemia surveillance. PMID:22460662

  5. Activated partial thromboplastin time of owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) plasma.

    PubMed

    Mrema, J E; Johnson, G S; Kelley, S T; Green, T J

    1984-06-01

    Owl monkey plasma samples produced short, reproducible activated partial thromboplastin times, similar to those obtained with samples from many other mammalian species. This was an apparent contradiction to an earlier report of long irreproducible activated partial thromboplastin times from owl monkey samples. The discrepant data could not be explained by differences in anticoagulants (citrate or oxalate), assay reagents (partial thromboplastin with either diatomaceous earth or ellagic acid), or activation incubation times (2, 5, or 10 minutes); nor could they be explained by differences in the monkeys' sex, age or previous experimental exposure to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  6. Establishment of a transgenic yeast screening system for estrogenicity and identification of the anti-estrogenic activity of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Baowei; Yeung, Eric K C; Chan, Chi Bun; Cheng, Christopher H K

    2008-12-15

    Endocrine disruptors refer to chemical compounds in the environment which interfere with the endocrine systems of organisms. Among them, environmental estrogens pose serious problems to aquatic organisms, in particular fish. It is therefore important and necessary to have a fast and low-cost system to screen the large number of different chemical compounds in the aquatic environment for their potential endocrine disrupting actions. In this study, a screening platform was developed to detect xenoestrogens in the aquatic environment using the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and applied for compound screening. The aim was to demonstrate any significant potential differences between the fish screening system and the human screening system. To this end, a yeast expression vector harboring a fish estrogen receptor alpha and a reporter vector containing the estrogen responsive element fused with the Escherichia coli LacZ gene were constructed. After transformation with these two vectors, the transformed yeast clones were confirmed by Western blotting and selected on the basis of the beta-galactosidase activity. In this transgenic yeast system, the natural estrogen (estradiol) and other known xenoestrogens such as diethylstilbestrol, bisphenol A, genistein and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane exhibited dose-dependent activities. Using this system, more than 40 putative endocrine disruptors including phytoestrogens, pesticides, herbicides, industrial dyes and other industrial chemicals were screened. Ten of them were demonstrated to exhibit estrogenic actions. Industrial dyes such as malachite green (MG) that disrupt thyroid hormone synthesis are extensively used and are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Using this system, MG did not show any estrogenic action, but was demonstrated to exhibit anti-estrogenic activity.

  7. The Elasticity of Time: Associations between Physical Activity and Use of Time in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Tim; Ferrar, Katia E.; Gomersall, Sjaan R.; Maher, Carol; Walters, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The way an individual uses one's time can greatly affect his or her health. The purpose of this article was to examine the cross-sectional cross-elasticity relationships for use of time domains in a sample of Australian adolescents. This study analyzed 24-hour recall time use data collected using the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and…

  8. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity.

  9. Fluorometric method for inorganic pyrophosphatase activity detection and inhibitor screening based on click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kefeng; Chen, Zhonghui; Zhou, Ling; Zheng, Ou; Wu, Xiaoping; Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2015-01-06

    A fluorometric method for pyrophosphatase (PPase) activity detection was developed based on click chemistry. Cu(II) can coordinate with pyrophosphate (PPi), the addition of pyrophosphatase (PPase) into the above system can destroy the coordinate compound because PPase catalyzes the hydrolysis of PPi into inorganic phosphate and produces free Cu(II), and free Cu(II) can be reduced by sodium ascorbate (SA) to form Cu(I), which in turn initiates the ligating reaction between nonfluorescent 3-azidocoumarins and terminal alkynes to produce a highly fluorescent triazole complex, based on which, a simple and sensitive turn on fluorometric method for PPase can be developed. The fluorescence intensity of the system has a linear relationship with the logarithm of the PPase concentration in the range of 0.5 and 10 mU with a detection limit down to 0.2 mU (S/N = 3). This method is cost-effective and convenient without any labels or complicated operations. The proposed system was applied to screen the potential PPase inhibitor with high efficiency. The proposed method can be applied to diagnosis of PPase-related diseases.

  10. Label-free, turn-on fluorescent sensor for trypsin activity assay and inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lufeng; Qin, Haiyan; Cui, Wanwan; Zhou, Yang; Du, Jianxiu

    2016-12-01

    The development of new detection methods for proteases activity assay is important in clinical diagnostics and drug development. In this work, a simple, label-free, and turn-on fluorescent sensor was fabricated for trypsin, a protease produced in the pancreas. Cytochrome c, a natural substance of trypsin, could be selectively cleaved by trypsin into heme-peptide fragment. The produced heme-peptide fragment exhibited an intensive catalytic role on the H2O2-mediated the oxidation of thiamine to form strong fluorescent thiochrome. The fluorescence intensity was closely dependent on the amount of trypsin presented. The procedure allowed the measurement of trypsin over the range of 0.5-20.0μg/mL with a detection limit of 0.125μg/mL. The sensor showed better precision with a relative standard deviation of 1.6% for the measurement of 1.0μg/mL trypsin solution (n=11). This sensing system was applied to screen the inhibitor of trypsin, the IC50 values were calculated to be 12.71ng/mL for the trypsin inhibitor from soybean and 2.0μg/mL for benzamidine hydrochloride, respectively, demonstrating its potential application in drug development and related diseases treatment.

  11. Virtual Screening of compounds from Tabernaemontana divaricata for potential anti-bacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Rashmi Rekha; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Bezbaruah, Rajib Lochan

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking analysis for Tabernaemontana divaricata derived 66 Law Molecular Weight Compounds (LMW) was conducted and to identified and predicted novel molecules as a inhibitor of Streptococcus pneumonia. The investigation has revealed several compounds with optimum binding towards Penicillin-binding proteins, Sialidases, Aspartate betasemialdehide dehydrogenase cell membrane protein of Streptococcus pneumonia. Docking results were computed in term of binding energy, ligand efficiency and number of hydrogen bonding. Apparicine (-5.14), 5-Hydroxyvoaphylline (-4.78), Voacangine (-4.7), 19-Hydroxycoronaridine (-4.44) and Coronaridine (-4.72) are identified as most suitable to bind with N-acetylglucosamine-1- phosphate uridyltransferase receptor. Ervaticine (-6.33), Ibogamine (-6.15), Methylvoaphylline (-5.74) and Coronaridine hydroxyindolenine (-5.32) has showed novel binding against the penicillin-binding proteins. Ervaticine (-6.42), 5-oxo-11-hydroxy voaphylline (-6.18), Conolobine B (-6.02) has found optimum binding against the active site of NanB sialidase of Streptococcus pneumonia. The compounds 3S-Cyanocoronaridine (-6.71), 19-Epivoacristine (-5.48) and Ervaticine(-5.45) interacting with aspartate beta-semialdehide and found suitable with least docking score. PMID:24748755

  12. Screening of immunomodulatory and adhesive Lactobacillus with antagonistic activities against Salmonella from fermented vegetables.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junchang; Liu, Pilong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by their in vitro adhesive and immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics. In this study, 16 randomly selected LAB strains from fermented vegetables (sauerkraut, bean and cabbage) were first screened for their tolerance to acid, bile salts, pepsin and pancreatin, bacterial inhibitory activities and abilities to adherence to Caco-2 cells. Then, 4 strains with the highest adhesion abilities were selected for further studies of their immunomodulatory properties and inhibitory effects against Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro. The results showed that these 16 LAB strains effectively survived in simulated gastrointestinal condition and inhibited growth of six tested pathogens. Lactobacillus rhamnosus P1, Lactobacillus plantarum P2, Lactobacillus rhamnosus P3 and Lactobacillus casei P4 had the highest abilities to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, L. plantarum P2 strain showed higher abilities to induce expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-12 by splenic monocytes and strongly inhibited the adhesion and invasion of S. enteritidis ATCC13076 to Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that Lactobacillus strains P2 could be used as a probiotic candidate in food against Salmonella infection.

  13. Genetic screening

    PubMed Central

    Andermann, Anne; Blancquaert, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide a primer for primary care professionals who are increasingly called upon to discuss the growing number of genetic screening services available and to help patients make informed decisions about whether to participate in genetic screening, how to interpret results, and which interventions are most appropriate. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE As part of a larger research program, a wide literature relating to genetic screening was reviewed. PubMed and Internet searches were conducted using broad search terms. Effort was also made to identify the gray literature. MAIN MESSAGE Genetic screening is a type of public health program that is systematically offered to a specified population of asymptomatic individuals with the aim of providing those identified as high risk with prevention, early treatment, or reproductive options. Ensuring an added benefit from screening, as compared with standard clinical care, and preventing unintended harms, such as undue anxiety or stigmatization, depends on the design and implementation of screening programs, including the recruitment methods, education and counseling provided, timing of screening, predictive value of tests, interventions available, and presence of oversight mechanisms and safeguards. There is therefore growing apprehension that economic interests might lead to a market-driven approach to introducing and expanding screening before program effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility have been demonstrated. As with any medical intervention, there is a moral imperative for genetic screening to do more good than harm, not only from the perspective of individuals and families, but also for the target population and society as a whole. CONCLUSION Primary care professionals have an important role to play in helping their patients navigate the rapidly changing terrain of genetic screening services by informing them about the benefits and risks of new genetic and genomic technologies and empowering them to

  14. Functional Metagenomics: Construction and High-Throughput Screening of Fosmid Libraries for Discovery of Novel Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ufarté, Lisa; Bozonnet, Sophie; Laville, Elisabeth; Cecchini, Davide A; Pizzut-Serin, Sandra; Jacquiod, Samuel; Demanèche, Sandrine; Simonet, Pascal; Franqueville, Laure; Veronese, Gabrielle Potocki

    2016-01-01

    Activity-based metagenomics is one of the most efficient approaches to boost the discovery of novel biocatalysts from the huge reservoir of uncultivated bacteria. In this chapter, we describe a highly generic procedure of metagenomic library construction and high-throughput screening for carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applicable to any bacterial ecosystem, it enables the swift identification of functional enzymes that are highly efficient, alone or acting in synergy, to break down polysaccharides and oligosaccharides.

  15. Screening of gluten avenins in foods by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Camafeita, E; Méndez, E

    1998-10-01

    The first procedure capable of analysing gluten avenins in gluten-free food samples aimed at the diet control of coeliac patients is described. The method is based on the direct observation of the characteristic avenin mass pattern, around 20-30 kDa, as revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS). The mass range where avenin signals appear is free from mass peaks arising from wheat gliadin, barley hordein and rye secalin protein components, which are also toxic to coeliac patients. Therefore, avenins can easily be screened in complex formula food samples elaborated with mixtures of wheat, barley, rye and oats. In addition, a procedure to quantify avenins in food samples is described on the basis of avenin mass area measurement with a detection limit of 0.4 mg of avenins per 100 g of food.

  16. Separating Non-Linear Deformation And Atmospheric Phase Screen (APS) For INSAR Time Series Analysis Using Least-Square Collocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Hanssen, R. F.; Samiei-Esfahany, S.; Hooper, A.; Van Leijen, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method for separating ground defor- mation from atmospheric phase screen (APS) based on PSInSAR. By stochastic modeling of ground deformation and APS via their variance-covariance functions we can not only estimate the signals with the best accuracy but also assess the estimation accuracy using least-squares collocation[5]. We evaluate the APS estimated by our method and the APS obtained from a commonly used window-based filtering method [6] by comparing them to repeat-pass interferograms over ground surfaces outside the subsiding region of Mexico City. The comparison shows that our method results in a better estimation of APS than the filtering method which ignores the temporal variability of APS variance. Our method is desired when there are temporal gaps in a SAR time series. In such a case, the filtering method needs a large temporal window to suppress APS, which may lead to leakage from ground deformation to APS.

  17. Development of a qualitative, multiplex real-time PCR kit for screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    PubMed

    Dörries, Hans-Henno; Remus, Ivonne; Grönewald, Astrid; Grönewald, Cordt; Berghof-Jäger, Kornelia

    2010-03-01

    The number of commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and therefore the diversity of possible target sequences for molecular detection techniques are constantly increasing. As a result, GMO laboratories and the food production industry currently are forced to apply many different methods to reliably test raw material and complex processed food products. Screening methods have become more and more relevant to minimize the analytical effort and to make a preselection for further analysis (e.g., specific identification or quantification of the GMO). A multiplex real-time PCR kit was developed to detect the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus, the terminator of the nopaline synthase gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the 35S promoter from the figwort mosaic virus, and the bar gene of the soil bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus as the most widely used sequences in GMOs. The kit contains a second assay for the detection of plant-derived DNA to control the quality of the often processed and refined sample material. Additionally, the plant-specific assay comprises a homologous internal amplification control for inhibition control. The determined limits of detection for the five assays were 10 target copies/reaction. No amplification products were observed with DNAs of 26 bacterial species, 25 yeasts, 13 molds, and 41 not genetically modified plants. The specificity of the assays was further demonstrated to be 100% by the specific amplification of DNA derived from reference material from 22 genetically modified crops. The applicability of the kit in routine laboratory use was verified by testing of 50 spiked and unspiked food products. The herein described kit represents a simple and sensitive GMO screening method for the reliable detection of multiple GMO-specific target sequences in a multiplex real-time PCR reaction.

  18. Dilute Russell's viper venom and activated partial thromboplastin time in lupus anticoagulant diagnosis: is mixing essential?

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Vani

    2016-06-01

    Dilute Russell's viper venom (DRVV) testing and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) have been effectively used in combination for lupus anticoagulant testing. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of mixing in activated partial thromboplastin and dilute Russell's viper venom testing for evaluation of lupus anticoagulants. Citrated blood from patients who were not on oral anticoagulant therapy was studied. Mixing study with 1 : 1 normal plasma for elevated APTT and also few samples with elevated screen time was carried out. Elevated APTT was seen in only 48.1% of patients with lupus anticoagulant. Correction of APTT was seen in 27.8% of lupus anticoagulant-positive patients. DRVV test on mixing resulted in 83.8% false-negative values. Integrated DRVV test could be a standalone test for testing lupus anticoagulant. Mixing study may be restricted for patients on oral anticoagulants or patients with strong lupus anticoagulant.

  19. Simulated Screens of DNA Encoded Libraries: The Potential Influence of Chemical Synthesis Fidelity on Interpretation of Structure-Activity Relationships.

    PubMed

    Satz, Alexander L

    2016-07-11

    Simulated screening of DNA encoded libraries indicates that the presence of truncated byproducts complicates the relationship between library member enrichment and equilibrium association constant (these truncates result from incomplete chemical reactions during library synthesis). Further, simulations indicate that some patterns observed in reported experimental data may result from the presence of truncated byproducts in the library mixture and not structure-activity relationships. Potential experimental methods of minimizing the presence of truncates are assessed via simulation; the relationship between enrichment and equilibrium association constant for libraries of differing purities is investigated. Data aggregation techniques are demonstrated that allow for more accurate analysis of screening results, in particular when the screened library contains significant quantities of truncates.

  20. Screening for alternative antibiotics: an investigation into the antimicrobial activities of medicinal food plants of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Mahomoodally, M F; Gurib-Fakim, A; Subratty, A H

    2010-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of 2 endemic medicinal plants; Faujasiopsis flexuosa (Asteraceae) (FF) and Pittosporum senacia (Pittosporaceae) (PS) and 2 exotic medicinal plants, Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) (OT) that forms part of local pharmacopoeia of Mauritius and correlate any observed activity with its phytochemical profile. Aqueous and organic fractions of the leaves, fruits, and seeds of these plants were subjected to antimicrobial testing by the disc diffusion method against 8 clinical isolates of bacteria and 2 strains of fungus. It was found that MC, OT, and FF possessed antimicrobial properties against the test organisms. The MIC for MC ranged from 0.5 to 9 mg/mL and that of FF from 2 to 10 mg/mL and the lowest MIC value (0.5 mg/mL) was recorded for the unripe fruits of MC against E. coli. On the other hand, higher concentration of the unripe MC fruit extract of 9 mg/mL was needed to be effective against a resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The antimicrobial effect against MRSA was lost upon ripening of the fruits. The methanolic extract of both MC and FF showed highest MIC values compared to the corresponding aqueous extract, which indicates the low efficacy and the need of higher doses of the plant extract. Phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of at least tannins, phenols, flavonoids, and alkaloids, which are known antimicrobial phyto-compounds. In conclusion, the observed antimicrobial properties would tend to further validate the medicinal properties of these commonly used endemic medicinal and food plants of Mauritius.

  1. Chronic kidney disease in Latin America: time to improve screening and detection.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Ana Maria; González Bedat, Maria Carlota

    2008-03-01

    Latin America is a conglomerate of adjacent countries that share a Latin extraction and language (Spanish or Portuguese) and exhibit extreme variations in socioeconomic status. End-stage renal disease prevalence and incidence rates have been growing steadily, probably as a result of the increase in life expectancy, aging of the population, a growing epidemic of type 2 diabetes, and a fast epidemiologic transition across the region. Chronic noncommunicable diseases impose an enormous cost, barely supported at present and unlikely afforded by Latin America in the future. National health surveys in Chile, Mexico, and Argentina showed a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 21% of the Chilean population had a creatinine clearance <80 ml/min. Among the surveyed people, 8.6% of Argentines, 14.2% of Chileans, and 9.2% of Mexicans had proteinuria. There are ongoing national chronic kidney disease detection programs in Brazil, Cuba, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela; Argentina, Colombia, Bolivia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay are still developing them. The prevalence of cardiovascular and renal risk factors is high in Latin America. Data about chronic kidney disease are scarce, but public health awareness is high, evidenced by ongoing or developing chronic kidney disease detection programs. High-risk patients (e.g., those with hypertension or diabetes, elderly) must be studied, using simple determinations such as creatinine and proteinuria. For these programs to succeed, lifestyle changes must be encouraged, and public awareness must be increased through teaching and media-oriented activities.

  2. Circadian Activity Rhythms, Time Urgency, and Achievement Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Barbara L.

    Many physiological and psychological processes fluctuate throughout the day in fairly stable, rhythmic patterns. The relationship between individual differences in circadian activity rhythms and a sense of time urgency were explored as well as a number of achievement-related variables. Undergraduates (N=308), whose circadian activity rhythms were…

  3. Leisure-time physical activity in relation to occupational physical activity among women

    PubMed Central

    Ekenga, Christine C.; Parks, Christine G.; Wilson, Lauren E.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity among US women in the Sister Study. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,334 women who had been employed in their current job for at least 1 year at baseline (2004–2009). Occupational physical activity was self-reported and leisure-time physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Log multinomial regression was used to evaluate associations between occupational (sitting, standing, manually active) and leisure-time (insufficient, moderate, high) activity. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, geographic region, and body mass index. Results Only 54% of women met or exceeded minimum recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity (moderate 32% and high 22%). Women who reported sitting (PR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74–0.92) or standing (PR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.94) most of the time at work were less likely to meet the requirements for high leisure-time physical activity than manually active workers. Associations were strongest among women living in the Northeast and the South. Conclusion In this nationwide study, low occupational activity was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity. Women who are not active in the workplace may benefit from strategies to promote leisure-time physical activity. PMID:25773471

  4. Real-time detection of undersea mines: a complete screening and acoustic fusion processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacramone, Anthony; Desai, Mukund N.

    1999-08-01

    A complete mine detection/classification (D/C) system has been specified and implemented, which runs in real-time, and has been exercised on the latest available dual-frequency side-scan sonar acoustic image sets. The compete DC system is comprised of a collection of algorithms that has been developed and evolved at Draper Laboratory over the past decade. The detection process consists of image normalization, enhancement, segmentation, and feature extraction algorithms. The enhancement algorithm is a variant of a Markov Random Field based anomaly screener developed in FY-94. The feature that were extracted were those derived in FY-93. A distance constrained matching algorithm, which was developed in FY-95, is used to generate a list of high and low frequency fused tokens. The classification process involves the evaluation of a hierarchy of three multi-layer perceptron neural networks: HF, LF, and HF/LF fused. Research performed in FY-95 also concentrated on the development of several