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Sample records for activity sedentary behaviour

  1. Sedentary behaviour in youth.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the amount of time children spend in sedentary behaviour and to determine if there are specific factors that associate with sedentary behaviour in children. The following search terms were used to identify relevant articles: sedentary behaviour, inactivity, television, computer, video games, small screen, sitting, prevalence, patterns, correlates, factors and determinants. The databases used to conduct the search included PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and Academic Search Premier. The studies reviewed were limited to those that sampled children (2-18 years), were written in English and used a measure of sedentary behaviour as the dependent variable. Several studies reported the time spent watching television or the proportion of children at or above a threshold for television viewing (eg, ≥3 h/day). Among the accelerometer studies included, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is the largest and reported ∼6.1, 7.5 and 8.0 h/day mean sedentary time in children 6-11, 12-15 and 16-19 years old, respectively. Taken together, the existing literature across the world indicates a slightly higher level of sedentary behaviour in older children. Higher levels of sedentary behaviour were also reported in non-white children, children from lower socioeconomic status background and children from households with more access to televisions/computers. Lower levels of sedentary behaviour were reported in children whose parents have rules/limitations on screen time.

  2. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour: applying lessons to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Hill, K; Gardiner, P A; Cavalheri, V; Jenkins, S C; Healy, G N

    2015-05-01

    In health and disease, the benefits of regular participation in moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity are well documented. However, individuals with chronic conditions, such as those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), typically do very little activity at a moderate or vigorous intensity. Much of their day is instead spent in sedentary behaviour, such as sitting or reclining, which requires very little energy expenditure. This high level of time spent in sedentary behaviour can have serious health consequences, including increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. There is emerging evidence to suggest that participation in light intensity physical activities (e.g. standing or slow walking) may have benefits for cardio-metabolic health. Given the low aerobic capacity of individuals with moderate to severe COPD, increasing light intensity activity (through reducing sedentary time) may be a feasible additional strategy to improve health in this population, alongside traditional recommendations to increase the time spent in moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity. This review provides an overview of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, with a particular emphasis on these behaviours for people with COPD. It provides suggestions for the measurement of these behaviours within the clinical setting, as well as for interventions that may be effective at increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour in this population.

  3. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and energy balance in the preschool child: opportunities for early obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Reilly, John J

    2008-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity in preschool children has increased dramatically in recent years. The preschool years (age 3-6 years) have been regarded as critical for the programming of energy balance, via the concept of early 'adiposity rebound'. Children who undergo early adiposity rebound are at increased risk of later obesity. Recent evidence suggests that associations between timing of adiposity rebound and later obesity may not reflect programming, but might denote that 'obesogenic' growth trajectories are often established by the preschool period. Studies of objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in preschool children show that levels of physical activity are typically low and sedentary behaviour high. The review of evidence presented here is supportive of the hypothesis that physical activity is protective against obesity in the preschool period, and that sedentary behaviour, particularly television viewing, is obesogenic. Definitive evidence on dose-response relationships between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity remain unclear. Dose-response evidence could be obtained fairly readily by intervention and longitudinal observational studies that use accelerometry in preschool children. The generalisability of much of the evidence base is limited and there is a need for research on the influence of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the preschool years in the aetiology of obesity in the developing world.

  4. Associations between sedentary behaviour and physical activity in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pearson, N; Braithwaite, R E; Biddle, S J H; van Sluijs, E M F; Atkin, A J

    2014-08-01

    Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with metabolic and mental health during childhood and adolescence. Understanding the inter-relationships between these behaviours will help to inform intervention design. This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized evidence from observational studies describing the association between sedentary behaviour and physical activity in young people (<18 years). English-language publications up to August 2013 were located through electronic and manual searches. Included studies presented statistical associations between at least one measure of sedentary behaviour and one measure of physical activity. One hundred sixty-three papers were included in the meta-analysis, from which data on 254 independent samples was extracted. In the summary meta-analytic model (k = 230), a small, but significant, negative association between sedentary behaviour and physical activity was observed (r = -0.108, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.128, -0.087). In moderator analyses, studies that recruited smaller samples (n < 100, r = -0.193, 95% CI = -0.276, -0.109) employed objective methods of measurement (objectively measured physical activity; r = -0.233, 95% CI = -0.330, -0.137) or were assessed to be of higher methodological quality (r = -0.176, 95% CI = -0.215, -0.138) reported stronger associations, although effect sizes remained small. The association between sedentary behaviour and physical activity in young people is negative, but small, suggesting that these behaviours do not directly displace one another.

  5. Health-enhancing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Gorely, Trish; Stensel, David J

    2004-08-01

    We provide a wide-ranging review of health-related physical activity in children and adolescents using a behavioural epidemiology framework. In contrast to many other reviews, we highlight issues associated with true sedentary behaviours alongside physically active behaviours. Specifically, we review the evidence concerning the links between physical activity and cardiovascular disease, overweight and obesity, psychosocial measures, type II diabetes, and skeletal health. Although the evidence is unconvincing at times, several factors lead to the conclusion that promoting physical activity in youth is desirable. A review of the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours shows that many young people are active, but this declines with age. A substantial number are not adequately active for health benefits and current trends in juvenile obesity are a cause for concern. Prevalence data on sedentary behaviours are less extensive but suggest that total media use by young people has not changed greatly in recent years. Most children and adolescents do not exceed recommended daily hours of TV viewing. Physical activity is unrelated to TV viewing. We also identified the key determinants of physical activity in this age group, highlighting demographic, biological, psychological, behavioural, social and environmental determinants. Interventions were considered for school, family and community environments. Finally, policy recommendations are offered for the education, governmental, sport and recreation, health, and mass media sectors.

  6. An Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Patterns of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Peter C.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We used ecological momentary assessment to understand the physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns of university students. Study design: Cross sectional, opportunistic sample from a university in the English midlands. Methods: Ecological momentary assessment diaries were completed every 15 minutes across two days. The sample…

  7. Comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviours between young haemophilia A patients and healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    González, L M; Peiró-Velert, C; Devís-Devís, J; Valencia-Peris, A; Pérez-Gimeno, E; Pérez-Alenda, S; Querol, F

    2011-07-01

    In recent studies, adolescent haemophilia A patients and healthy adolescents have been encouraged to participate in physical activity (PA) based on its many established health benefits. However, none of the studies to date has used objective measures of PA and sedentary behaviour. The aims of the current study included: (i) to determine the amount and intensity of habitual PA among haemophilia A and healthy adolescents, and in haemophilia A patients with and without bleeding episodes in the previous year, and (ii) to identify the type and determine the time spent in sedentary activities in which both groups participate to obtain a broadened view of their daily activities. A total of 41 adolescent haemophiliacs and 25 healthy adolescents, between the ages of 8 and 18 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure PA and the Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire to assess sedentary behaviours among members of both groups. Adolescent haemophilia A patients showed a higher daily mean time engaged in light, moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PAs relative to their healthy counterparts (P < 0.001). Patients who had experienced bleeding episodes during the previous year also spent more time participating in vigorous PAs than healthy adolescents (P = 0.002). With regard to sedentary behaviours, healthy adolescents spent more time listening to music than haemophilia A adolescents (P = 0.003), whereas haemophilia A adolescents spent more time watching TV (P < 0.001) and playing videogames (P = 0.003) than healthy counterparts. Findings suggest that increased participation in moderate intensity PAs and reduced sedentary behaviours should be recommended among adolescents with haemophilia A.

  8. The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a mixed‐studies systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, A. J.; Corder, K.; Suhrcke, M.; van Sluijs, E. M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is increasing academic and policy interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by ensuring that the school environment supports healthy behaviours. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on school‐based policy, physical and social‐environmental influences on adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that (1) involved healthy adolescents (11–18 years old), (2) investigated school‐environmental influences and (3) reported a physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour outcome or theme. Findings were synthesized using a non‐quantitative synthesis and thematic analysis. Ninety‐three papers of mixed methodological quality were included. A range of school‐based policy (e.g. break time length), physical (e.g. facilities) and social‐environmental (e.g. teacher behaviours) factors were associated with adolescent physical activity, with limited research on sedentary behaviour. The mixed‐studies synthesis revealed the importance of specific activity settings (type and location) and intramural sport opportunities for all students. Important physical education‐related factors were a mastery‐oriented motivational climate and autonomy supportive teaching behaviours. Qualitative evidence highlighted the influence of the wider school climate and shed light on complexities of the associations observed in the quantitative literature. This review identifies future research needs and discusses potential intervention approaches to be considered. PMID:26680609

  9. The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a mixed-studies systematic review.

    PubMed

    Morton, K L; Atkin, A J; Corder, K; Suhrcke, M; van Sluijs, E M F

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing academic and policy interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by ensuring that the school environment supports healthy behaviours. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on school-based policy, physical and social-environmental influences on adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that (1) involved healthy adolescents (11-18 years old), (2) investigated school-environmental influences and (3) reported a physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour outcome or theme. Findings were synthesized using a non-quantitative synthesis and thematic analysis. Ninety-three papers of mixed methodological quality were included. A range of school-based policy (e.g. break time length), physical (e.g. facilities) and social-environmental (e.g. teacher behaviours) factors were associated with adolescent physical activity, with limited research on sedentary behaviour. The mixed-studies synthesis revealed the importance of specific activity settings (type and location) and intramural sport opportunities for all students. Important physical education-related factors were a mastery-oriented motivational climate and autonomy supportive teaching behaviours. Qualitative evidence highlighted the influence of the wider school climate and shed light on complexities of the associations observed in the quantitative literature. This review identifies future research needs and discusses potential intervention approaches to be considered.

  10. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures.

    PubMed

    Katapally, Tarun R; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-09-07

    Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon's built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10-14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  11. Beyond emotional benefits: physical activity and sedentary behaviour affect psychosocial resources through emotions.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Candice L; Catalino, Lahnna I; Mata, Jutta; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is known to improve emotional experiences, and positive emotions have been shown to lead to important life outcomes, including the development of psychosocial resources. In contrast, time spent sedentary may negatively impact emotional experiences and, consequently, erode psychosocial resources. Two studies tested whether activity independently influenced emotions and psychosocial resources, and whether activity indirectly influenced psychosocial resources through emotional experiences. Using cross-sectional (Study 1a) and longitudinal (Study 1b) methods, we found that time spent physically active independently predicted emotions and psychosocial resources. Mediation analyses suggested that emotions may account for the relation between activity and psychosocial resources. The improved emotional experiences associated with physical activity may help individuals build psychosocial resources known to improve mental health. Study 1a provided first indicators to suggest that, in contrast, sedentary behaviour may reduce positive emotions, which could in turn lead to decrements in psychosocial resources.

  12. Patterns of Sedentary Behaviours in Irish Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Aine; Heary, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in excessive sedentary behaviour represents a health risk for adolescents. The current study aimed to investigate patterns of sedentary behaviour amongst Irish female adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years old. 314 adolescents completed a questionnaire on their sedentary behaviour habits, health behaviours (physical activity, smoking,…

  13. Objectively measured habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour in obese and non-obese Malaysian children.

    PubMed

    Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah; Hamzaid, Hana; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Reilly, John J

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined objectively measured physical activity in Malaysian children and compared the differences in physical levels between obese and healthy weight children. Eighty-six obese children were matched for age and sex with 86 healthy weight children with median age 9.5 years. Habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured over 5 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in the obese group (90% vs. 86% of daytime; p = 0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly higher in the healthy weight group (1.2 vs. 0.7% of daytime, p < 0.001). In both healthy weight and obese children, physical activity levels were exceptionally low, although moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly lower in the obese group than the healthy weight group. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Malaysian children will need a substantial focus on the promotion of reductions in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity.

  14. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2013-08-17

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8-14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children's sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the home

  15. The accuracy of the 24-h activity recall method for assessing sedentary behaviour: the physical activity measurement survey (PAMS) project.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngwon; Welk, Gregory J

    2017-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour (SB) has emerged as a modifiable risk factor, but little is known about measurement errors of SB. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 24-h Physical Activity Recall (24PAR) relative to SenseWear Armband (SWA) for assessing SB. Each participant (n = 1485) undertook a series of data collection procedures on two randomly selected days: wearing a SWA for full 24-h, and then completing the telephone-administered 24PAR the following day to recall the past 24-h activities. Estimates of total sedentary time (TST) were computed without the inclusion of reported or recorded sleep time. Equivalence testing was used to compare estimates of TST. Analyses from equivalence testing showed no significant equivalence of 24PAR for TST (90% CI: 443.0 and 457.6 min · day(-1)) relative to SWA (equivalence zone: 580.7 and 709.8 min · day(-1)). Bland-Altman plots indicated individuals that were extremely or minimally sedentary provided relatively comparable sedentary time between 24PAR and SWA. Overweight/obese and/or older individuals were more likely to under-estimate sedentary time than normal weight and/or younger individuals. Measurement errors of 24PAR varied by the level of sedentary time and demographic indicators. This evidence informs future work to develop measurement error models to correct for errors of self-reports.

  16. Dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Australian secondary students in 2005.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Dixon, Helen; White, Victoria; Beckmann, Kerri

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a current assessment of Australian secondary students' self-reported dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. This study also examined the relationship between television viewing and students' dietary behaviour. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 18 486 secondary students in 2005 from all Australian states except Western Australia. Participants reported their usual daily consumption (number of serves) of vegetables and fruit; their weekly consumption of unhealthy/non-core foods including fast food meals, snack foods and high-energy drinks; their engagement in moderate-vigorous physical activity over the previous week; and hours spent using electronic media for entertainment and doing homework on school days. The study found that 20% of students were meeting the daily requirement of four serves of vegetables, whereas 39% were eating the recommended three daily serves of fruit. Consumption of unhealthy/non-core foods was high, with 46% of students having fast food meals at least twice a week, 51% eating snack foods four or more times per week and 44% having high-energy drinks four or more times per week. Fourteen per cent of students engaged in recommended levels of physical activity and 29% engaged in recommended levels of sedentary behaviour. Age and gender differences occurred for most measures, and there were some socio-economic status differences. Heavier television use was associated with lower consumption of fruit and higher consumption of unhealthy/non-core foods. On the basis of the results of this study, it appears that a significant proportion of Australian secondary students fall short of current, national dietary and physical activity recommendations for teenagers. Continual monitoring of these behaviours is essential to help inform research and policy and identify where future efforts should be directed.

  17. Interrelationships of adolescent physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and social and psychological health

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Ronald J.; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Methods Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Results Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and quality of life were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Conclusions Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences. PMID:19639256

  18. Sedentary Behaviour Profiling of Office Workers: A Sensitivity Analysis of Sedentary Cut-Points.

    PubMed

    Boerema, Simone T; Essink, Gerard B; Tönis, Thijs M; van Velsen, Lex; Hermens, Hermie J

    2015-12-25

    Measuring sedentary behaviour and physical activity with wearable sensors provides detailed information on activity patterns and can serve health interventions. At the basis of activity analysis stands the ability to distinguish sedentary from active time. As there is no consensus regarding the optimal cut-point for classifying sedentary behaviour, we studied the consequences of using different cut-points for this type of analysis. We conducted a battery of sitting and walking activities with 14 office workers, wearing the Promove 3D activity sensor to determine the optimal cut-point (in counts per minute (m·s(-2))) for classifying sedentary behaviour. Then, 27 office workers wore the sensor for five days. We evaluated the sensitivity of five sedentary pattern measures for various sedentary cut-points and found an optimal cut-point for sedentary behaviour of 1660 × 10(-3) m·s(-2). Total sedentary time was not sensitive to cut-point changes within ±10% of this optimal cut-point; other sedentary pattern measures were not sensitive to changes within the ±20% interval. The results from studies analyzing sedentary patterns, using different cut-points, can be compared within these boundaries. Furthermore, commercial, hip-worn activity trackers can implement feedback and interventions on sedentary behaviour patterns, using these cut-points.

  19. The role of pre-pregnancy physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Chey, Tien; Bauman, Adrian E; Brown, Wendy J

    2011-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) complicates approximately 3-11% of pregnancies and increases the risk on prenatal morbidity and later development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are thought to play a role in the development of GDM, independent of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and the development of GDM using a population-based prospective cohort study. Data from the youngest (1973-1978) cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (n=2913) were used to determine the influences of self-reported physical activity, and sedentary behaviour in 2000 and 2003 on the development of GDM over subsequent three year periods, with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. In this cohort of Australian women, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 2000 and 2003 were not associated with the development of GDM in the subsequent three years. In adjusted models, odds ratios for the development of GDM were 1.92 (95% CI 1.25-2.96) for overweight women (BMI 25-30 kg/m2) and 3.11 (1.92-5.03) for obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) compared with normal weight women. Those with lower education and women born in an Asian country also had higher risk of developing GDM than more highly educated and Australian born women, respectively. In conclusion, pre-pregnancy physical activity and sedentary behaviour appear to be less important in the development of GDM in this cohort than overweight and obesity.

  20. Impact of social norms and social support on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Draper, C E; Grobler, L; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood is rapidly increasing, and it is essential that risk factors for NCDs be addressed in adolescence, both for the health of individuals during adolescence and for their health in later life. These risk factors include diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. No literature has been published that comprehensively summarizes the impact of social norms and social support on these behaviours among adolescents. Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to determine the extent of recent (since 2000) literature available on this topic. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search PubMed and EMBASE for eligible reviews. Review papers (narrative reviews, systematic and non-systematic reviews) published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to February 2013 were included in the overview. Two of the authors screened the titles and abstracts of the search results independently. Thirty reviews were included in the scoping review. This scoping review has shown sufficient evidence for parental influences, and especially the positive impact of an authoritative parenting style, on healthy behaviours of adolescents, although the evidence is somewhat more compelling for diet than for physical activity and sedentary behaviour. More research is needed to investigate parental and family influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. And the effect of peer influences on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents requires further investigation. The evidence presented affirms the consideration of social norms and social support in the development of interventions to address these behaviours in adolescents. The evidence regarding parenting style provides some concrete guidance for such interventions.

  1. Associations between Children's Physical Activities, Sedentary Behaviours and Family Structure: A Sequential Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, T.; Dagkas, S.; Bridge, M.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method paper explored the effect of family structure on children's physical activities and sedentary pursuits. It furthers the limited understanding of how family structure impacts on children's time in, and reasons behind engaging in, certain physical activities. Children from three inner city comprehensive schools in the Midlands,…

  2. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dinh, Thy; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; LeBlanc, Claire; Okely, Anthony D; Olds, Timothy; Pate, Russell R; Phillips, Andrea; Poitras, Veronica J; Rodenburg, Sophie; Sampson, Margaret; Saunders, Travis J; Stone, James A; Stratton, Gareth; Weiss, Shelly K; Zehr, Lori

    2016-06-01

    Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and systematic reviews of evidence informing the guidelines were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, integrated behaviours) examining the relationships between and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by expert consensus. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using Canadian Health Measures Survey data to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and health indicators. A stakeholder survey was employed (n = 590) and 28 focus groups/stakeholder interviews (n = 104) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines. Following an introductory preamble, the guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations for a healthy day (24 h), comprising a combination of sleep, sedentary behaviours, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Proactive dissemination, promotion, implementation, and evaluation plans have been prepared in an effort to optimize uptake and activation of the new guidelines. Future research should consider the integrated relationships among movement behaviours, and similar integrated guidelines for other age groups should be developed.

  3. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gray, Casey; Gibbons, Rebecca; Larouche, Richard; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Brussoni, Mariana; Chabot, Guylaine; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-06-08

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3-12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness.

  4. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours, and Cardiovascular Health: When Will Cardiorespiratory Fitness Become a Vital Sign?

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Although it is generally agreed upon that a physically active lifestyle and regular exercise are good for heart health, it is much less appreciated by the public that the prolonged hours of sedentary time resulting from sitting at work or screen time are also risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes and other cardiometabolic diseases. In this short narrative review, evidence is discussed and prudent recommendations are made in the context of the sedentary, affluent lifestyle that characterizes a large proportion of our population. It has become overwhelmingly clear that a sedentary lifestyle is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. In addition, vigorous physical activity and exercise is also associated with metabolic and cardiovascular adaptations that are compatible with cardiovascular health. In that regard, cardiorespiratory fitness, a reliable metric to assess the ability of the cardiovascular system to sustain prolonged physical work, has been shown to be the most powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity, way beyond classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as smoking, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. On the basis of the evidence available, it is proposed that both dimensions of overall physical activity level (reducing sedentary time and performing regular physical activity or endurance type exercise) should be targeted to reduce CVD risk. Finally, because of the robust evidence that poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for CVD and related mortality, it is proposed that this simple physiological metric should be incorporated as a vital sign in CVD risk factor evaluation and management.

  5. Knowledge and awareness of Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines: a synthesis of existing evidence.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Allana G; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to consolidate and synthesize existing evidence regarding current knowledge and awareness of the Canadian Physical Activity (PA) and Sedentary Behaviour (SB) Guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed publications pertaining to the guidelines. Content experts, key organizations (i.e., ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute), journal Web sites, and service organizations (i.e., the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) and the Public Health Agency of Canada) were consulted for additional evidence. Scientific publications (n = 6) and research from ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute reported that awareness of the guidelines is low, especially with respect to the SB guidelines. Less than 10% of survey respondents from the Canadian population were aware of the PA guidelines, and less than 5% were aware of the SB guidelines. Information on the guidelines was available on 51% of public health unit and CSEP partner Web sites. Online metrics (e.g., downloads, site accessions) from CSEP, the Public Health Agency of Canada, and journal Web sites showed that online accession of the guidelines was high (e.g., all "highly accessed" on journal Web sites). This review showed that awareness of the Canadian PA and SB Guidelines is low among the general population but higher among the scientific and stakeholder communities. Governmental, nongovernmental, and stakeholder organizations should collaborate in creating sustained, long-term, and well-resourced communication plans to reach the Canadian population to raise awareness of PA and SB guidelines and should implement programs to facilitate their uptake.

  6. Methods of Measurement in epidemiology: Sedentary Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, Andrew J; Gorely, Trish; Clemes, Stacy A; Yates, Thomas; Edwardson, Charlotte; Brage, Soren; Salmon, Jo; Marshall, Simon J; Biddle, Stuart JH

    2012-01-01

    Background Research examining sedentary behaviour as a potentially independent risk factor for chronic disease morbidity and mortality has expanded rapidly in recent years. Methods We present a narrative overview of the sedentary behaviour measurement literature. Subjective and objective methods of measuring sedentary behaviour suitable for use in population-based research with children and adults are examined. The validity and reliability of each method is considered, gaps in the literature specific to each method identified and potential future directions discussed. Results To date, subjective approaches to sedentary behaviour measurement, e.g. questionnaires, have focused predominantly on TV viewing or other screen-based behaviours. Typically, such measures demonstrate moderate reliability but slight to moderate validity. Accelerometry is increasingly being used for sedentary behaviour assessments; this approach overcomes some of the limitations of subjective methods, but detection of specific postures and postural changes by this method is somewhat limited. Instruments developed specifically for the assessment of body posture have demonstrated good reliability and validity in the limited research conducted to date. Miniaturization of monitoring devices, interoperability between measurement and communication technologies and advanced analytical approaches are potential avenues for future developments in this field. Conclusions High-quality measurement is essential in all elements of sedentary behaviour epidemiology, from determining associations with health outcomes to the development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions. Sedentary behaviour measurement remains relatively under-developed, although new instruments, both objective and subjective, show considerable promise and warrant further testing. PMID:23045206

  7. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new electronic measurement device, a wearable digital camera called SenseCam, in travel research. Methods Participants (n = 20) were required to wear the SenseCam device for one full day of travel. The device automatically records approximately 3,600 time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images per day, without any action required by the wearer. Participants also completed a self-report travel diary over the same period for comparison, and were interviewed afterwards to assess user burden and experience. Results There were a total of 105 confirmed journeys in this pilot. The new SenseCam device recorded more journeys than the travel diary (99 vs. 94). Although the two measures demonstrated an acceptable correlation for journey duration (r = 0.92, p < 0.001) self-reported journey duration was over-reported (mean difference 154 s per journey; 95% CI = 89 to 218 s; 95% limits of agreement = 154 ± 598 s (-444 to 752 s)). The device also provided visual data that was used for directed interviews about sources of error. Conclusions Direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images shows considerable potential in the field of travel research. Journey duration derived from direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images appears to suggest over-reporting of self-reported journey duration. PMID:21599935

  8. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with higher levels of objectively measured sedentary behaviour and lower levels of physical activity than matched healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Moore, Sarah; Ploetz, Thomas; Anstee, Quentin M; Taylor, Roy; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Physical activity is a key determinant of metabolic control and is recommended for people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), usually alongside weight loss and dietary change. To date, no studies have reported the relationship between objectively measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity, liver fat and metabolic control in people with NAFLD, limiting the potential to target sedentary behaviour in clinical practice. This study determined the level of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in people with NAFLD, and investigated links between physical activity, liver fat and glucose control. Methods Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed in 37 adults with NAFLD using a validated multisensor array over 7 days. Liver fat and glucose control were assessed, respectively, by 1H-MRS and fasting blood samples. Patterns of sedentary behaviour were assessed by power law analyses of the lengths of sedentary bouts fitted from raw sedentary data. An age and sex-matched healthy control group wore the activity monitor for the same time period. Results People with NAFLD spent approximately half an hour extra a day being sedentary (1318±68 vs1289±60 mins/day; p<0.05) and walked 18% fewer steps (8483±2926 vs 10377±3529 steps/day; p<0.01). As a consequence, active energy expenditure was reduced by 40% (432±258 vs 732±345 kcal/day; p<0.01) and total energy expenditure was lower in NAFLD (2690±440 vs 2901±511 kcal/day; p<0.01). Power law analyses of the lengths of sedentary bouts demonstrated that patients with NAFLD also have a lower number of transitions from being sedentary to active compared with controls (13±0.03 vs15±0.03%; p<0.05). Conclusions People with NAFLD spend more time sedentary and undertake less physical activity on a daily basis than healthy controls. High levels of sedentary behaviour and low levels of physical activity represent a therapeutic target that may prevent

  9. Associations of season and region on objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hagströmer, Maria; Rizzo, Nico S; Sjöström, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and regional variation may influence physical activity (PA) patterns. These associations are in need of further investigation. The objective of the current study was to examine the association of season and region on objectively measured PA. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study with 1172 participants living in Sweden. Data on PA were collected throughout a calendar year using accelerometry. Regions were categorised as south (Götaland), central (Svealand) and north (Norrland). Outcome variables included accelerometer-measured mean counts per minute, sedentary time and time in low intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (MVPA) or greater. ANCOVA was used to determine the associations of season and region with PA, adjusting for sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and education. The results showed that during the Spring season more time was spent in MVPA than during the Autumn. For participants living in the south of Sweden, a significant trend for season was found for MVPA, with Spring having the highest MVPA (P = 0.025). Season had a borderline significant association with MVPA or higher intensity activities (P = 0.051). No significant effects of region or season on total PA, low-intensity PA and sedentary periods of time were observed. The results indicate that studies conducted in a population living in high latitudes, may not be significantly affected by seasonality or region when assessing PA.

  10. Measurement and Intervention on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviours in Bariatric Surgery Patients: Emphasis on Mobile Technology.

    PubMed

    Bond, Dale S; Thomas, J Graham

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours (SB-i.e. activities involving low-energy expenditure and a sitting/reclining posture) may each have significant implications for weight loss and other bariatric surgery outcomes. While early studies suggested that patients typically comply with clinical recommendations to adopt habitual PA, these data were based on retrospective questionnaires. Conversely, recent studies incorporating mobile health (mHealth) technologies (e.g. objective monitors), which assess PA and SB in real time and in the natural environment, show that most patients are inactive and highly sedentary pre-operatively and only make modest changes in these behaviours postoperatively. In addition to using mHealth technologies for obtaining accurate and detailed information on PA and SB, they are increasingly being employed to intervene on patients' PA and SB and/or evaluate intervention outcomes. Researchers and clinicians are encouraged to consider the benefits of using mHealth technology when studying and treating PA and SB in bariatric surgery patients.

  11. Children’s sedentary behaviour: descriptive epidemiology and associations with objectively-measured sedentary time

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the patterning and socio-demographic distribution of multiple sedentary behaviours in children. The aims of this study were to: 1) describe the leisure-time sedentary behaviour of 9–10 year old British children, and 2) establish associations with objectively-measured sedentary time. Methods Cross-sectional analysis in the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) (N=1513, 44.3% boys). Twelve leisure-time sedentary behaviours were assessed by questionnaire. Objectively-measured leisure-time sedentary time (Actigraph GT1M, <100 counts/minute) was assessed over 7 days. Differences by sex and socioeconomic status (SES) in self-reported sedentary behaviours were tested using Kruskal-Wallis tests. The association between objectively-measured sedentary time and the separate sedentary behaviours (continuous (minutes) and categorised into 'none’ 'low’ or 'high’ participation) was assessed using multi-level linear regression. Results Sex differences were observed for time spent in most sedentary behaviours (all p ≤ 0.02), except computer use. Girls spent more time in combined non-screen sedentary behaviour (median, interquartile range: girls: 770.0 minutes, 390.0-1230.0; boys: 725.0, 365.0 - 1182.5; p = 0.003), whereas boys spent more time in screen-based behaviours (girls: 540.0, 273.0 - 1050.0; boys: 885.0, 502.5 - 1665.0; p < 0.001). Time spent in five non-screen behaviours differed by SES, with higher values in those of higher SES (all p ≤ 0.001). Regression analyses with continuous exposures indicated that reading (β = 0.1, p < 0.001) and watching television (β = 0.04, p < 0.01) were positively associated with objectively-measured sedentary time, whilst playing board games (β = -0.12, p < 0.05) was negatively associated. Analysed in categorical form, sitting and talking (vs. none: 'low’ β = 26.1,ns

  12. Intention to be Physically Active is Influenced by Physical Activity and Fitness, Sedentary Behaviours, and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), sedentary lifestyle and life satisfaction with the intention to be physically active after secondary school graduation, in teenagers of both genders. A total of 1986 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. PA, sedentary lifestyle, life satisfaction and intention to be physically active were assessed through validated questionnaires, and PF was evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. In both genders, adolescents who had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of showing low intention to be physically active had low level of PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness in the lower body, and they were more sedentary in front of the computer. The girls that spent a lot of time watching TV and the boys with low life satisfaction also showed higher OR of having low intention to be physically active.

  13. It's not just the television: survey analysis of sedentary behaviour in New Zealand young people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviour has been linked with adverse health outcomes in young people; however, the nature and context of being sedentary is poorly understood. Accurate quantification and description of sedentary behaviour using population-level data is required. The aim of this research was to describe sedentary behaviour among New Zealand (NZ) youth and examine whether sedentary behaviour differs by Body Mass Index (BMI) status in this population. Methods A national representative cross-sectional survey of young people aged 5-24 years (n = 2,503) was conducted in 2008-2009. Data from this survey, which included subjectively (recall diary; n = 1,309) and objectively (accelerometry; n = 960) measured sedentary behaviour for participants aged 10-18 years were analysed using survey weighted methods. Results Participants self-reported spending on average 521 minutes per day (standard error [SE] 5.29) in total sedentary behaviour, 181 minutes per day (SE 3.91) in screen-based sedentary activities (e.g., television and video games), and 340 minutes per day (SE 5.22) in other non-screen sedentary behaviours (e.g., school, passive transport and self-care). Accelerometer-measured total sedentary behaviour was on average 420 minutes per day (SE 4.26), or 53% (SE 0.42%) of monitored time. There were no statistically significant differences in time spent in sedentary behaviour among overweight, obese and healthy/underweight young people. Conclusions Both subjective and objective methods indicate that NZ youth spend much of their waking time being sedentary. No relationships were found between sedentary behaviour and BMI status. These findings extend previous research by describing engagement in specific sedentary activities, as well as quantifying the behaviour using an objective method. Differences in what aspects of sedentary behaviour the two methods are capturing are discussed. This research highlights the potential for future interventions to target specific

  14. Lifelong sedentary behaviour and femur structure.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, H; Gonçalves, D; Figueiredo, P; Mota, M P; Duarte, J A

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the lifelong differences of femur structure in sedentary and physically active animal models. Thirty male C57BL/6 mice, 2 months old, were either: i) housed in cages with running wheel (AA; n=10), ii) housed in cages without running wheel (AS; n=10), iii) or sacrificed without intervention (Y; n=10). AA and AS animals were sacrificed after 23 months of housing. Right femur structure was analyzed in all animals by histomorphometry. Significant differences in several microarchitectural parameters of cancellous and cortical bone were identified between Y mice and both groups of aged mice, as well as between AA and AS groups. Lifelong physically active mice had significantly higher cancellous bone surface (Cn.BS) and trabecular number (Tb.N) and decreased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) at both epiphyses when compared to AS animals. No differences were observed between Y and AA groups regarding osteocyte number (N.Ot) despite its significant reduction in AS animals, suggesting that age alone was not a cause for decreases in N.Ot. Our results suggest that the reduced bone quality observed in the elderly is not only a consequence of age but also of lack of physical activity since sedentary behaviour significantly aggravated the degenerative age-related bone differences.

  15. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours

  16. Objective measurement of sedentary behaviour using accelerometers

    PubMed Central

    Byrom, B; Stratton, G; Mc Carthy, M; Muehlhausen, W

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sedentary behaviour (SB) is an important risk factor for a number of chronic diseases. Although gaps remain in our knowledge of the elements of SB most associated with reduced health outcomes, measuring SB is important, especially in less active patient populations where treatment-related changes may be seen first in changes in SB. Methods: We review current published work in the measurement of SB to make recommendations for SB measurement in clinical studies. Results: To help move our understanding of the area forward, we propose a set of derived measures of SB that can be easily understood and interpreted. Conclusion: Although there is more work required to determine and validate the most clinically relevant and sensitive measures of SB, there is enough understanding of how to measure SB to enable its inclusion in study protocols. PMID:27478922

  17. Effect of a school-based peer education intervention on physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Chinese adolescents: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Smita; Yan, Lijing; Pan, Yongping; Gao, Aiyu; Shi, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yangfeng; Dibley, Michael John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect on physical activity and sedentary behaviour of a pilot school-based peer education programme in urban Beijing, China. Design 4 junior high schools were matched by school size and randomised to intervention (n=346) and control group (n=336). Intervention Trained peer leaders from grade 7 by research staff delivered weekly 40-min lessons to their classmates over four consecutive weeks. Students in control schools received no intervention. Outcome measures A validated 7-day youth physical activity questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and sedentary behaviours at baseline (September 2010), 3 months (December 2010) and 7 months (May 2011). Generalised linear mixed models were applied to evaluate the effect. Results There was a significant decrease in time in sedentary behaviour on weekdays, 20 min/day at 7 months (p=0.020) reported by students in the intervention schools compared with control schools. This reduction was mainly due to a reduction of 14 min/day in computer usage on weekdays (p=0.0009). There were no significant differences in time on other sedentary behaviours, including television and DVD, video game, extracurricular reading, writing, drawing and listening to music, passive commuting and sitting to talk. There was also no significant difference in time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between intervention and control group. Conclusions Peer education appears to be a promising intervention in reducing sedentary behaviours in adolescents in China. These results need confirmation in a larger study. Clinical trial registration number ACTRN12612000417886 at http://ANZCTR.org.au PMID:22586284

  18. Combinations of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep: relationships with health indicators in school-aged children and youth.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Travis John; Gray, Casey Ellen; Poitras, Veronica Joan; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Olds, Timothy; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine how combinations of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and sleep were associated with important health indicators in children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) were searched for relevant studies examining the relationship between time spent engaging in different combinations of PA, SB, and sleep with the following health indicators: adiposity, cardiometabolic biomarkers, physical fitness, emotional regulation/psychological distress, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, cognition, quality of life/well-being, injuries, bone density, motor skill development, and self-esteem. PA had to be objectively measured, while sleep and SB could be objectively or subjectively measured. The quality of research evidence and risk of bias for each health indicator and for each individual study was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. A total of 13 cross-sectional studies and a single prospective cohort study reporting data from 36 560 individual participants met the inclusion criteria. Children and youth with a combination of high PA/high sleep/low SB had more desirable measures of adiposity and cardiometabolic health compared with those with a combination of low PA/low sleep/high SB. Health benefits were also observed for those with a combination of high PA/high sleep (cardiometabolic health and adiposity) or high PA/low SB (cardiometabolic health, adiposity and fitness), compared with low PA/low sleep or low PA/high SB. Of the 3 movement behaviours, PA (especially moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA) was most consistently associated with desirable health indicators. Given the lack of randomized trials, the overall quality of the available evidence was low.

  19. Indoor Tracking to Understand Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour: Exploratory Study in UK Office Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Spinney, Richard; Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Fisher, Abigail; Konstantatou, Marina; Sawyer, Alexia; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Alexi

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of the patterns of physical activity, standing and sitting by office workers. However, insight into these behaviours is of growing interest, notably in regard to public health priorities to reduce non-communicable disease risk factors associated with high levels of sitting time and low levels of physical activity. With the advent and increasing availability of indoor tracking systems it is now becoming possible to build detailed pictures of the usage of indoor spaces. This paper reports initial results of indoor tracking used in conjunction with the ActivPAL activity monitoring device. In this paper we give an overview of the usage of the tracking system and its installation and illustrate some of the resultant data. We also provide preliminary results that investigate the relationship between location, light physical activity and sitting in a small sample of office workers (n=33) from two separate office environments in order to demonstrate the relevance and explanatory power of the technique. PMID:25993515

  20. Adherence to Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines among children 2 to 13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pujadas Botey, Anna; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Carson, Valerie; Vinturache, Angela; Tough, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Active living is relevant for healthy child development and disease prevention. In 2011-2012 new Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines were developed for children under four and 5-17 years of age. This cross-sectional study assessed children's adherence to the national guidelines, using a large sample of Alberta children ages 2-4 and 5-13 years in 2013. The proportions of children achieving the average daily duration of physical activity and screen time recommended were determined, and child and parental predictors of non-achievement were identified. Participants were 631 parent and child dyads. Data were collected by parental reports of physical activity and screen time during weekdays, and analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques (p < 0.05). Logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with children's non-achievement of physical activity and screen time recommendations while adjusting for covariates. Sixty-two percent of children aged 2-4 and 26% of children aged 5-13 did not meet physical activity time recommendations, and 64% of children aged 2-4 and 23% of children aged 5-13 exceeded the maximum screen time recommendation. Several associations between parental age and education with non-achievement were observed but associations were not consistent across age groups or behaviours. Among preschoolers, those with middle-age parents were more likely to not achieve physical activity recommendations. Evidence of high non-achievement of the recommendations among children 2-4 years highlights the need for increased programming targeting preschool children. Further research is required to identify modifiable risk factors that may inform future health promotion efforts.

  1. Patterns of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in people following curative intent treatment for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cavalheri, Vinicius; Jenkins, Sue; Cecins, Nola; Phillips, Martin; Sanders, Lucas H; Hill, Kylie

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to compare patterns of sedentary behaviour (SB) and physical activity (PA) in people following curative intent treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with healthy controls. Participants 6-10 weeks following lobectomy for NSCLC and healthy controls wore two activity monitors for 7 days. Waking hours were divided into time spent in SB (<1.5 metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs)), light intensity PA (LIPA ≥ 1.5 to <3.0METs) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (≥3.0METs). Daily steps were also recorded. Data were available in 20 participants with NSCLC (13 females; 68 ± 10 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 females; 69 ± 5 years). The NSCLC group accumulated a greater percentage of time in SB in uninterrupted bouts ≥30 minutes (49% vs. 42%; p = 0.048). Further, the NSCLC group spent a lower percentage of waking hours in LIPA (21 ± 9% vs. 26 ± 8%; p = 0.04) and accumulated a lower percentage of time in this domain in uninterrupted bouts ≥10 minutes (13% vs. 19%; p = 0.025). The NSCLC group also had a lower daily step count (8863 ± 3737 vs. 11,856 ± 3024 steps/day; p = 0.009). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA was similar in both groups (p = 0.92). People following curative intent treatment for NSCLC spend more time in prolonged bouts of SB at the expense of LIPA.

  2. Is a single question of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) valid for measuring sedentary behaviour in the Chilean population?

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Farias, Nicolas; Leppe Zamora, Jaime

    2016-09-08

    A study was conducted to assess the validity of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) for measuring sedentary behaviour (SB) in the Chilean adult population. About 217 adults (93/124 male/female, 43.8 ± 15.75 years) who were randomly selected during National Health Survey 2009-2010 completed the protocol. The participants wore an ActiGraph GT3X (AG) for 7 consecutive days and then completed the GPAQ (single-item question for measuring time spent sitting in a usual day). Validity was examined using Spearman's correlation, mean bias and limits of agreement (LoA), with AG (vertical axis <100 counts · min(-1)) as the reference standard for estimates of SB in bouts of 1 (AG1), 5 (AG5) and 10 (AG10) min. Agreement between the GPAQ and AG for classifying data into quartiles and tertiles was assessed with kappa method. The GPAQ showed fair correlation with AG1, AG5 and AG10 (range = 0.23-0.26), with large mean biases (range = -293.9, -76.12 min · day(-1)). Agreement between the GPAQ and AG1, AG5 and AG10 was poor for categorising time spent in SB into tertiles and quartiles. The single question from the GPAQ has shown fair validity for measuring SB and poor ability for correctly classifying individuals into tertiles or quartiles of SB in a Chilean population.

  3. Definitions, measurement and prevalence of sedentary behaviour in adults with intellectual disabilities - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Melville, Craig A; Oppewal, Alyt; Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte; Freiberger, Ellen; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Einarsson, Ingi; Izquierdo-Gómez, Rocio H; Sansano-Nadal, Oriol; Rintala, Pauli; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Giné-Garriga, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Supporting positive change in lifestyle behaviours is a priority in tackling the health inequalities experienced by adults with intellectual disabilities. In this systematic review, we examine the evidence on the definition, measurement and epidemiology of sedentary behaviour of adults with intellectual disabilities. A systematic literature search of PUBMED, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Google Scholar was performed to identify studies published from 1990 up to October 2015. Nineteen papers met the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. Many researchers do not distinguish between insufficient physical activity and sedentary behaviour. None of the studies reported the reliability and validity of the methods used to measure sedentary behaviour. Sedentary time, assessed objectively, ranged from 522 to 643min/day: higher than in adults without intellectual disabilities. This first-ever review of sedentary behaviour and intellectual disabilities found that at present the evidence base is weak. Studies calibrating accelerometer data with criterion measures for sedentary behaviour are needed to determine specific cut-off points to measure sedentary behaviour in adults with intellectual disabilities. Researchers should also examine the reliability and validity of using proxy-report questionnaires to measure sedentary behaviour in this group. A better understanding of sedentary behaviour will inform the design of novel interventions to change lifestyle behaviours of adults with intellectual disabilities.

  4. 24 h Accelerometry: impact of sleep-screening methods on estimates of sedentary behaviour and physical activity while awake.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Jones, Kim; Williams, Sheila; Galland, Barbara; Kennedy, Gavin; Taylor, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Although accelerometers can assess sleep and activity over 24 h, sleep data must be removed before physical activity and sedentary time can be examined appropriately. We compared the effect of 6 different sleep-scoring rules on physical activity and sedentary time. Activity and sleep were obtained by accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X) over 7 days in 291 children (51.3% overweight or obese) aged 4-8.9 years. Three methods removed sleep using individualised time filters and two methods applied standard time filters to remove sleep each day (9 pm-6 am, 12 am-6 am). The final method did not remove sleep but simply defined non-wear as at least 60 min of consecutive zeros over the 24-h period. Different methods of removing sleep from 24-h data markedly affect estimates of sedentary time, yielding values ranging from 556 to 1145 min/day. Estimates of non-wear time (33-193 min), wear time (736-1337 min) and counts per minute (384-658) also showed considerable variation. By contrast, estimates of moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) were similar, varying by less than 1 min/day. Different scoring methods to remove sleep from 24-h accelerometry data do not affect measures of MVPA, whereas estimates of counts per minute and sedentary time depend considerably on which technique is used.

  5. Comparison of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire and the Short-Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire: An Analysis of Health Survey for England Data

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Shaun; Bridges, Sally; Ng Fat, Linda; Mindell, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ), used within the Health Survey for England (HSE) at 5-yearly intervals, is not included annually due to funding and interview-length constraints. Policy-makers and data-users are keen to consider shorter instruments such as the Short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for the annual survey. Both questionnaires were administered in HSE 2012, enabling comparative assessment in a random sample of 1252 adults. Methods Relative agreement using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK) statistics was estimated for: sufficient aerobic activity (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] ≥150minutes/week); inactivity (MVPA<30minutes/week); and excessive sitting (≥540minutes/weekday). Cross-sectional associations with health outcomes were compared across tertiles of MVPA and tertiles of sitting time using logistic regression with tests for linear trend. Results Compared with PASBAQ data, IPAQ-assessed estimates of sufficient aerobic activity and inactivity were higher and lower, respectively; estimates of excessive sitting were higher. Demographic patterns in prevalence were similar. Agreement using PABAK statistics was fair-to-moderate for sufficient aerobic activity (0.32–0.49), moderate-to-substantial for inactivity (0.42–0.74), and moderate-to-substantial for excessive sitting (0.49–0.75). As with the PASBAQ, IPAQ-assessed MVPA and sitting each showed graded associations with mental well-being (women: P for trend = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively) and obesity (women: P for trend = 0.007 and 0.014, respectively). Conclusions Capturing habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour through brief questionnaires is complex. Differences in prevalence estimates can reflect differences in questionnaire structure and content rather than differences in reported behaviour. Treating all IPAQ-assessed walking as moderate-intensity contributed to the

  6. Acute effects of advertisements on children's choices, preferences, and ratings of liking for physical activities and sedentary behaviours: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Atlantis, Evan; Salmon, Jo; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-11-01

    The acute decision prompting effects of social marketing via television (TV) advertisements promoting physical activity to children are unknown. This pilot study aimed to determine the acute effects of an Australian government-sponsored TV advertisement (called 'Get Moving'), promoting more physical activity and less sedentary behaviour, on children's choices, preferences, and ratings of liking for physical activities and sedentary behaviours. Thirty-one children aged 10-12 years were recruited from a single public school, and randomised to one of two treatment groups or two control groups (Solomon four-group design). Treatment participants watched an episode of The Simpsons embedded every 10min with three 30s Get Moving advertisements plus standard advertisements. Control participants watched the same episode plus standard advertisements, but without the Get Moving advertisements. The following dependent variables were assessed immediately before and/or after exposure: activity preference (participants selected either verbally or by pointing to one of eight picture cards depicting four physical activities and four sedentary behaviours); ratings of liking (participants rated how much they liked or disliked each of these activities/behaviours either verbally or by pointing to one of nine values with an adjacent smile or frown on a Likert-type scale); and time spent in physical activities was assessed by direct observation during a 10min free-time session. No significant effects or trends were seen for any of the dependent variables. Further research is needed to determine whether different content and/or higher doses of exposure to physical activity promoting advertisements are needed to influence children's activity choices.

  7. Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…

  8. OBJECTIVELY MEASURED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SEDENTARY BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS IN CHILEAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Farias, Nicolas; Martino-Fuentealba, Pía; Espinoza-Silva, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: los perjuicios de la inactividad física y de la conducta sedentaria (CS) en la salud de los niños han sido ampliamente respaldados por la evidencia. Sin embargo, existe limitada evidencia de cómo estos comportamientos se manifiestan en los preescolares. Por este motivo, este estudio tuvo como propósito evaluar los patrones de actividad física (AF) y CS de forma objetiva en preescolares chilenos. Método: 25 niños (4,8 } 0,50 años, 48% hombres) completaron la monitorización ambulatoria con el acelerómetro e inclinómetro ActivPALTM micro. Se midieron tiempos caminando, de pie y sentado/acostado, además de pasos acumulados por día, para ser comparados según día de la semana y período del día. Resultados: el tiempo promedio caminando fue de 147,2 } 52,23 minutos/día. El tiempo en CS fue de 468,3 } 92,22 minutos/día, con diferencias estadísticas entre días entre semana y fin de semana (484,8 vs. 426,8 min/día, p = 0,03). El 50% de los pasos fueron sumados en acumulaciones menores a 100 pasos/minuto, mientras un 50% del tiempo en CS fue acumulado en intervalos de duración de 35 segundos o menos. Discusión: los preescolares presentan patrones intermitentes de AF y CS. En los días entre semana se sientan más que durante el fin de semana, por lo cual se presenta una posibilidad de modificar este comportamiento durante el período de clases. Este reporte de patrones de AF y CS en preescolares presenta información valiosa para el diseño e implementación de estrategias para mejorar los niveles de AF y disminuir el tiempo en CS en preescolares.

  9. Sedentary behaviour and obesity development in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rey-López, Juan Pablo; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Biosca, Mireia; Moreno, Luis A

    2008-03-01

    Sedentary lifestyle patterns in children and adolescents, i.e. playing digital games, using computers and especially watching television, have been associated with obesity. However, not all sedentary behaviour has shown the same relevance to, and relationship with, obesity. Therefore, we conducted a review including published studies found in PubMed and other medical journals, dated between January 1990 and April 2007. The ages of the children and adolescents who were the object of the study ranged between 2 and 18 years. For the purpose of this paper, we selected cross-sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies. Sufficient evidence exists to recommend setting a limit to the time spent watching TV, especially for younger children. However, video games and computers do not represent such a high risk compared to watching TV, when they do not replace physical activity too much. In fact, there is no evidence to suggest that sedentary behaviour displaces physical activity levels. Mechanisms that explain the link between sedentariness and obesity are also discussed. Finally, future studies should take into account important mediators such as socioeconomic status and family structure.

  10. Canadian sedentary behaviour guidelines for children and youth.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Hicks, Audrey; Murumets, Kelly; Colley, Rachel C; Duggan, Mary

    2011-02-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), in partnership with the Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group (HALO) at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, and in collaboration with ParticipACTION, and others, has developed the Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Children (aged 5-11 years) and Youth (aged 12-17 years). The guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations for sedentary behaviour. The entire development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument, which is the international standard for clinical practice guideline development. Thus, the guidelines have gone through a rigorous and transparent developmental process and the recommendations are based on evidence from a systematic review and interpretation of the research evidence. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive online consultation process with 230 domestic and international stakeholders and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for health benefits, children (aged 5-11 years) and youth (aged 12-17 years) should minimize the time that they spend being sedentary each day. This may be achieved by (i) limiting recreational screen time to no more than 2 h per day - lower levels are associated with additional health benefits; and (ii) limiting sedentary (motorized) transport, extended sitting time, and time spent indoors throughout the day. These are the first evidence-based Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth and provide important and timely recommendations for the advancement of public health based on a systematic synthesis, interpretation, and application of the current scientific evidence.

  11. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and socioeconomic status among Finnish girls and boys aged 6-8 years.

    PubMed

    Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Haapala, Eero A; Lindi, Virpi; Väistö, Juuso; Lintu, Niina; Karjalainen, Panu; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-05-01

    We studied differences in physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and the types of PA and SB between Finnish girls and boys and children from different socioeconomic backgrounds (SES). We assessed PA, SB, parental education, and household income using detailed questionnaires in a representative population sample of 486 children (238 girls, 248 boys) aged 6-8 years. Girls spent on average 1.7 h/day and boys 2.0 h/day in total PA (p = 0.002). Altogether 66% of girls and 54% of boys had less than 2 h of total PA per day (p = 0.012). Girls had lower levels of unsupervised PA (45 vs. 54 min/day, p = 0.001), supervised PA (1.5 vs. 1.9 h/week, p = 0.009), and PA during school recess (1.8 vs. 1.9 h/week, p = 0.032) than boys. Girls had higher levels of total SB (3.8 vs. 3.4 h/day, p = 0.015) but lower levels of screen-based SB (1.5 vs. 1.9 h/day, p < 0.001) than boys. Lower parental education and household income were associated with lower levels of supervised PA in girls (p = 0.011 and p = 0.008, respectively) and in boys (p = 0.006 and p = 0.003, respectively). Lower parental education and household income were also related to higher levels of screen-based SB in boys (p = 0.005 and p < 0.001, respectively) but not in girls. Girls have lower levels of total, unsupervised, and supervised PA, PA during recess, and screen-based SB but higher levels of total SB than boys. Lower parental education and household income are associated with lower levels of supervised PA in both genders and higher levels of screen-based SB in boys.

  12. A prospective examination of the impact of high levels of exercise training on sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Ann M; Miller, Nora E; Cho, Young Ik; Welch, Whitney A; Strath, Scott J

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine changes in sedentary behaviour in response to extensive aerobic exercise training. Participants included adults who self-selected to run a marathon. Sedentary behaviour, total activity counts and physical activity (PA) intensity were assessed (Actigraph GT3X) for seven consecutive days during seven assessment periods (-3, -2, and -1 month prior to the marathon, within 2 weeks of the marathon, and +1, +2, and +3 months after the marathon). Models were fitted with multiple imputation data using the STATA mi module. Random intercept generalized least squares (GLS) regression models were used to determine change in sedentary behaviour with seven waves of repeated measures.

  13. Sedentary behaviour in people with multiple sclerosis: Is it time to stand up against MS?

    PubMed

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet Jcs; Pilutti, Lara A; Duda, Joan L; Motl, Robert W

    2016-09-01

    Historically, people with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been considered sedentary, although the actual scientific study of sedentary behaviour in MS did not originate until 2011. Sedentary behaviour, which is conceptually distinct from physical inactivity, is defined as any waking activity characterised by an energy expenditure ⩽ 1.5 metabolic equivalents and in a sitting or reclining posture. In the general population, the volume of sitting time is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality, independent of physical activity, and has been suggested to carry a greater risk of mortality than smoking behaviour. There are many symptoms of MS (e.g. mobility disability and fatigue) that could increase the prevalence of sedentary behaviour, and sedentary behaviour may have considerable implications for the development of comorbid conditions prevalent in MS. This review provides a summary of the rates, correlates, consequences and interventions attempting to reduce sedentary behaviour in MS. We provide a research agenda that guides future research on sedentary behaviour in MS. This paper provides a clarion call that it is time to 'stand up against MS'.

  14. Mothers’ perceptions of the UK physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines for the early years (Start Active, Stay Active): a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Georgina F; Jago, Russell; Turner, Katrina M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Higher levels of physical activity (PA) during early childhood have been associated with improved health outcomes, whereas sedentary behaviour (SB) has been associated with poorer health outcomes in children. In 2011, the UK produced guidelines for PA and SB in children under 5 years. Mothers have been identified as key influences in young children's PA and SB. The aim of this study was to use in-depth interviews with mothers of preschool children to examine attitudes to the guidance. Design Qualitative study using one-to-one, semistructured interviews; Data were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Setting Mothers were recruited from preschools, nurseries, and mother and toddler groups located in four areas of varying socioeconomic status within Bristol, UK. Participants 24 mothers who were considered the main or joint carer for a preschool child who was at least 2 years of age but had not yet started formal schooling. Results Mothers are not aware of the UK PA and SB guidelines for the early years. They believe that their child achieves the guideline targets for PA and SB and therefore, they do not believe these quidelines are relevant to them. Mothers feel that an increase in PA and reduction in SB (especially screen-viewing) would cause stress for mothers. Mothers found defining and quantifying PA and SB in their preschool child problematic. Conclusions As mothers do not identify with the need to increase PA or reduce SB in their child, awareness of the guidelines alone is unlikely to initiate behaviour change. Information on how mothers can make a more accurate assessment of their preschool child's PA and SB levels, and information about the benefits of increased PA and reduced SB should be provided alongside the guideline targets. Clear messages need to be developed that reframe the guidelines into pragmatic and usable targets. PMID:26351186

  15. Modeling the effect of sedentary behaviour on the prevention of population obesity using the system dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a medical condition where an individual has an excessive amount of body fat. There are many factors contributing to obesity and one of them is the sedentary behaviour. Rapid development in industrialization and urbanization has brought changes to Malaysia's socioeconomic, especially the lifestyles of Malaysians. With this lifestyle transition, one of the impact is on weight and obesity. How does sedentary behaviour have an impact on the growth of Malaysian population's weight and obesity? What is the most effective sedentary behaviour preventing strategy to obesity? Is it through reduction in duration or frequency of sedentary behaviour? Thus, the aim of this paper is to design an intervention to analyse the effect of decreasing duration and frequency of sedentary behaviour on the population reversion trends of average weight (AW), average body mass index (ABMI), and prevalence of overweight and obesity (POVB). This study combines the different strands of sub-models comprised of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism, and then synthesis these knowledge into a system dynamics of weight behaviour model, namely SIMULObese. Findings from this study revealed that Malaysian's adults spend a lot of time engaged in sedentary behaviour and this resulted in weight gain and obesity. Comparing between frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour, this study reported that reduced in duration or time spend in sedentary behaviour is a better preventing strategy to obesity compared to duration. As a summary, this study highlighted the importance of decreasing the frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  16. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of sedentary behaviours in adults: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adults spend the majority of their time being sedentary, and evidence suggests that those who spend more of their day engaged in sedentary activities (TV viewing, sitting, screen-based activities) are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality, regardless of whether they exercise regularly. In order to develop effective interventions to reduce sedentary time, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable factors of these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence in order to identify individual, social, environmental and policy correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours (TV time, sitting time, screen time) and total sedentary time among adults. Methods/design Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all studies that report on individual, social and/or environmental correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours and total sedentary time in adults. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on modifiable individual (e.g. health behaviours and status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status), social (e.g. crime, safety, social support, climate and capital), environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, transportation environment) and policy correlates and determinants (based on study design) of sedentary behaviours in an adult population (mean age ≥18 years) will be included. Study quality and risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all correlates, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity. Discussion This review will provide a comprehensive examination of evidence in the field and will serve to highlight gaps for future research on the determinants of sedentary

  17. Physical Environmental Correlates of Domain-Specific Sedentary Behaviours across Five European Regions (the SPOTLIGHT Project)

    PubMed Central

    De Cocker, Katrien; Roda, Célina; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Glonti, Ketevan; Bardos, Helga; Rutter, Harry; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background The relation between neighbourhood environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviours among adults remains unclear. This study firstly aims to examine the association of perceived and objectively measured neighbourhood safety, aesthetics, destinations and functionality with transport-related, work-related and leisure-time sedentary behaviour. Secondly, the study aims to assess whether these associations are moderated by age, gender or educational level. Methods In 60 randomly sampled neighbourhoods from 5 urban regions in Europe (Ghent and suburbs, Paris and inner suburbs, Budapest and suburbs, the Randstad, and Greater London), a virtual audit with Google Street View was performed to assess environmental characteristics. A total of 5,205 adult inhabitants of these neighbourhoods reported socio-demographic characteristics, sedentary behaviours, and neighbourhood perceptions in an online survey. Generalized linear mixed models were conducted to examine associations between physical environmental neighbourhood factors and sedentary behaviours. Interaction terms were added to test the moderating role of individual-level socio-demographic variables. Results Lower levels of leisure-time sedentary behaviour (i.e. all leisure activities except television viewing and computer use) were observed among adults who perceived greater numbers of destinations such as supermarkets, recreational facilities, or restaurants in their neighbourhood, and among adults who lived in a neighbourhood with more objectively measured aesthetic features, such as trees, water areas or public parks. Lower levels of work-related sedentary behaviour were observed among adults who perceived less aesthetic features in their neighbourhood, and among adults who lived in a neighbourhood with less objectively measured destinations. Both age, gender and educational level moderated the associations between neighbourhood environmental factors and sedentary behaviours. Conclusion

  18. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO), personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement). 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV) watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI) as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01) indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2 hours is associated with

  19. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; LeBlanc, Allana G; Kho, Michelle E; Saunders, Travis J; Larouche, Richard; Colley, Rachel C; Goldfield, Gary; Connor Gorber, Sarah

    2011-09-21

    Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO), personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement). 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV) watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI) as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01) indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2 hours is associated with

  20. Sedentary behaviour as a new behavioural target in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Henson, Joseph; Dunstan, David W; Davies, Melanie J; Yates, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Our modern day society encompasses an ecological niche in which sedentary behaviour, labour-saving devices and energy dense foods have become the new reference of living. We now spend more time sedentary, defined as sitting, than in all other activities combined. It has recently been confirmed that the consequences of our modern chair dependency are substantial and a direct contributing factor to the ever increasing epidemic of chronic diseases witnessed within industrialized environments. Epidemiological evidence--from both cross-sectional and prospective observational studies--has indicated that the time spent in sedentary behaviour is a distinct risk factor for several health outcomes, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, depression and some types of cancer. Importantly, these detrimental associations remain even after accounting for time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, with the strongest and most persistent associations seen between sedentary time and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Importantly, experimental studies have started to confirm the observational associations, with mounting evidence showing that breaking prolonged sitting time with light ambulation is an effective strategy for improving postprandial glucose regulation. Indeed, there is even emerging evidence showing that simply substituting sitting for standing regularly throughout the day may be of sufficient stimulus to improve glucose regulation. We highlight some of the key definitions, issues and evidence underpinning the link between sedentary behaviour and chronic disease in order to better inform clinicians and patients about the importance of incorporating reduced sitting time into type 2 diabetes mellitus management and prevention pathways.

  1. The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    Sedentary screen time may be an important determinant of childhood obesity. A number of potential mechanisms to explain the link between screen time and increased bodyweight have been proposed; however, the relationship appears to be best explained by the effects on dietary intake, which is attributed to either food advertising or effects independent of food advertising. Technological advances have allowed for greater accessibility and exposure to advertisement-free screen-based media. This review was conducted to systematically synthesise the evidence from laboratory based studies which have investigated the non-advertising effects of screen time (TV viewing, sedentary video games, and computer use) on dietary intake in children, adolescents, and young adults. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Embase were searched from inception through 5 July 2013. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Risk of study bias was judged to range from low to high. Screen time in the absence of food advertising was consistently found to be associated with increased dietary intake compared with non-screen behaviours. Suggested explanations for this relationship included: distraction, interruption of physiologic food regulation, screen time as a conditioned cue to eat, disruption of memory formation, and the effects of the stress-induced reward system. Due to the limited number of high-quality studies available for this review, our findings are preliminary. More work is required to better establish the link between dietary intake and advertisement-free screen time and assess whether differences exist between the different screen-based activities.

  2. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed.

  3. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart JH

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘quite promising’, or ‘non-promising’ according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  4. Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

  5. Correlates of sedentary behaviour in youths with Down syndrome: the UP&DOWN study.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo-Gomez, Rocío; Veiga, Óscar L; Villagra, Ariel; Diaz-Cueto, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential correlates of sedentary time and television (TV) viewing time in youth with Down syndrome (DS). A total of 98 adolescents with DS (63 males) aged 11-20 years old participated in this study. Total sedentary time was measured using accelerometers, while total TV viewing time and potential correlates were measured using proxy-report questionnaire. Analyses of covariance and a stepwise multiple linear regression were performed to examine correlates of total sedentary time and total TV viewing time. Different potential correlates were associated with total sedentary time (mother age, mother TV viewing time, perceived benefits of physical activity, birth order and having nearby shops in the neighbourhood) and total TV viewing time (father TV viewing time, TV viewing time with parents, family dietary habits during watching TV and weekend days time indoor). The identification of correlates associated with sedentary behaviour, principally those considered modifiable such as social and environmental factors, may contribute to development strategies to decrease sedentary behaviour in adolescents with DS and consequently promote a healthier lifestyle.

  6. Sedentary behaviour and health: mapping environmental and social contexts to underpin chronic disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Owen, Neville; Salmon, Jo; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Turrell, Gavin; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-02-01

    The time that children and adults spend sedentary-put simply, doing too much sitting as distinct from doing too little physical activity-has recently been proposed as a population-wide, ubiquitous influence on health outcomes. It has been argued that sedentary time is likely to be additional to the risks associated with insufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. New evidence identifies relationships of too much sitting with overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, some cancers and other adverse health outcomes. There is a need for a broader base of evidence on the likely health benefits of changing the relevant sedentary behaviours, particularly gathering evidence on underlying mechanisms and dose-response relationships. However, as remains the case for physical activity, there is a research agenda to be pursued in order to identify the potentially modifiable environmental and social determinants of sedentary behaviour. Such evidence is required so as to understand what might need to be changed in order to influence sedentary behaviours and to work towards population-wide impacts on prolonged sitting time. In this context, the research agenda needs to focus particularly on what can inform broad, evidence-based environmental and policy initiatives. We consider what has been learned from research on relationships of environmental and social attributes and physical activity; provide an overview of recent-emerging evidence on relationships of environmental attributes with sedentary behaviour; argue for the importance of conducting international comparative studies and addressing life-stage issues and socioeconomic inequalities and we propose a conceptual model within which this research agenda may be addressed.

  7. Associations between Screen-Based Sedentary Behaviour and Anxiety Symptoms in Mothers with Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Teychenne, Megan; Hinkley, Trina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Anxiety is a serious illness and women (including mothers with young children) are at particular risk. Although physical activity (PA) may reduce anxiety risk, little research has investigated the link between sedentary behaviour and anxiety risk. The aim of this study was to examine the association between screen-based sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms, independent of PA, amongst mothers with young children. Methods During 2013–2014, 528 mothers with children aged 2–5 years completed self-report measures of recreational screen-based sedentary behaviour (TV/DVD/video viewing, computer/e-games/hand held device use) and anxiety symptoms (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS-A). Linear regression analyses examined the cross-sectional association between screen-based sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms. Results In models that adjusted for key demographic and behavioural covariates (including moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA, MVPA), computer/device use (B = 0.212; 95% CI = 0.048, 0.377) and total screen time (B = 0.109; 95% CI = 0.014, 0.205) were positively associated with heightened anxiety symptoms. TV viewing was not associated with anxiety symptoms in either model. Conclusions Higher levels of recreational computer or handheld device use and overall screen time may be linked to higher risk of anxiety symptoms in mothers with young children, independent of MVPA. Further longitudinal and intervention research is required to determine temporal associations. PMID:27191953

  8. Sedentary behaviour in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Tanja; Beyer, Nina; Aadahl, Mette; Hetland, Merete L.; Løppenthin, Katrine; Midtgaard, Julie; Esbensen, Bente A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite increasing interest in investigating sedentary behaviour (SB) in the general population and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is little documentation of the subjective experiences of SB in patients with RA. This study aimed to examine how patients with RA describe their daily SB. Methods Fifteen patients with RA (10 women and 5 men) from 23 to 73 years of age and with a disease duration ranging from 4 to 27 years were interviewed following a semi-structured interview guide. Data were analysed using the content analysis method described by Graneheim. Results SB appeared in three categories covering: 1) A constant battle between good and bad days; SB could be a consequence of RA in terms of days with pronounced pain and fatigue resulting in many hours of SB. 2) Adaptation to everyday life; living with the unpredictability of RA included constant modification of physical activity level causing increase in SB, especially during periods of disease flare. Prioritizing and planning of SB also functioned as part of self-management strategies. 3) It has nothing to do with my arthritis; for some patients, SB was not related to RA, but simply reflected a way of living independent of the disease. Conclusions SB is perceived, motivated, and performed differently in patients with RA. An individually tailored approach may be essential in understanding and encouraging patients’ motivation towards sustainable change in SB and activity patterns. PMID:26462971

  9. Social correlates of leisure-time sedentary behaviours in Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Huffman, S; Szafron, M

    2017-03-01

    Research on the correlates of sedentary behaviour among adults is needed to design health interventions to modify this behaviour. This study explored the associations of social correlates with leisure-time sedentary behaviour of Canadian adults, and whether these associations differ between different types of sedentary behaviour. A sample of 12,021 Canadian adults was drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey, and analyzed using binary logistic regression to model the relationships that marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support have with overall time spent sitting, using a computer, playing video games, watching television, and reading during leisure time. Covariates included gender, age, education, income, employment status, perceived health, physical activity level, body mass index (BMI), and province or territory of residence. Extensive computer time was primarily negatively related to being in a common law relationship, and primarily positively related to being single/never married. Being single/never married was positively associated with extensive sitting time in men only. Having children under 12 in the household was protective against extensive video game and reading times. Increasing social support was negatively associated with extensive computer time in men and women, while among men increasing social support was positively associated with extensive sitting time. Computer, video game, television, and reading time have unique correlates among Canadian adults. Marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support should be considered in future analyses of sedentary activities in adults.

  10. Prevalence of Sedentary Behaviour in Young People in Romania and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soos, Istvan; Biddle, Stuart; Boros-Balint, Iuliana; Sandor, Iosif; Szabo, Peter; Hamar, Pal; Simonek, Jaromir

    2012-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour is becoming a popular area of health research, but most studies report data on samples from Australia, the UK and USA, and on a narrow range of behaviours. The present study reports on the prevalence of multiple sedentary behaviours in a sample of secondary school students (n = 635; mean age 16.0 years) from Romania and…

  11. Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviours of School-Aged Children: Principals' and Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six…

  12. Sedentary behaviour across the primary-secondary school transition: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Natalie; Haycraft, Emma; P Johnston, Julie; Atkin, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    The transition from primary/middle school to secondary/high school is likely to be a key period in children's development, characterised by significant changes in their social and physical environment. However, little is known about the changes in sedentary behaviour that accompany this transition. This review aimed to identify, critically appraise and summarise the evidence on changes in sedentary behaviour across the primary - secondary school transition. Published English language studies were located from computerised and manual searches in 2015. Inclusion criteria specified a longitudinal design, baseline assessment when children were in primary/middle school with at least one follow-up during secondary/high school and a measure of sedentary behaviour at both (or all) points of assessment. Based on data from 11 articles (19 independent samples), tracking coefficients were typically in the range of 0.3 to 0.5 and relatively consistent across the different sedentary behaviours examined and durations of follow-up. Both screen-based sedentary behaviour and overall sedentary time increased during the school transition. Overall there was an increase of approximately 10-20min per day per year in accelerometer-assessed sedentary time. Consistent with the broader age-related changes in behaviour observed during this period, sedentary behaviour increases during the transition from primary/middle to secondary/high school. Investigating features of the social and physical environment that might exacerbate or attenuate this trend would be a valuable next step.

  13. Are associations between the perceived home and neighbourhood environment and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour moderated by urban/rural location?

    PubMed

    Salmon, Jo; Veitch, Jenny; Abbott, Gavin; ChinAPaw, Mai; Brug, Johannes J; teVelde, Saskia J; Cleland, Verity; Hume, Clare; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    Associations between parental perceived home and neighbourhood environments and children's physical activity (PA), and sedentary time (ST) and screen time and moderating effects according to urban/rural location were examined. Data were collected (2007-2008) from a cohort of women (aged 18-45 years) and their children (5-12 years) participating in the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study. A total of 613 children (47% boys; mean age 9.4±2.2 years) and their mothers were included in the study. Urban children had higher screen time than rural children. Mothers in rural areas reported greater access to physical activity equipment in the home, higher levels of descriptive norms for physical activity, greater knowledge of the neighbourhood, a stronger social network, and higher personal safety than urban mothers. There were five significant interactions between the home and neighbourhood environment and PA/ST according to urban/rural location. Among urban children, the importance of doing PA together as a family was positively associated with ST. Interventions targeting PA and ST may need to target different factors according to urban/rural location.

  14. Temporal trends and recent correlates in sedentary behaviours in Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviours (television, video and computer) are related to health outcomes independent of physical activity. Few studies have examined trends and correlates of sedentary behaviours among youth in developing nations. The current study is to examine temporal trends in sedentary behaviours and recent correlates of screen use in Chinese children during a period of economic transition. Methods Secondary analysis of China Health and Nutrition Surveys. Cross-sectional data on sedentary behaviours including screen use among children aged 6-18 years from four surveys in 1997 (n = 2,469), 2000 (n = 1,838), 2004 (n = 1,382) and 2006 (n = 1,128). Temporal trends in screen use by socio-demographic characteristics were examined. The correlates of spending more than 2 hours per day on screen time in the most recent survey data (2006, n = 986) were analysed using survey logistic regression analysis. Results Daily screen time significantly increased in each subgroup by age, sex and urban/rural residence, with the largest increase for urban boys aged 13-18 years from 0.5 hours to 1.7 hours, and for rural boys aged 6-12 years from 0.7 hours to 1.7 hours (p < 0.0001). Daily time in both homework and extracurricular cultural activity increased significantly from 2000 to 2004 but was stable from 2004 to 2006. Boys (OR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.09 -1.82), having a TV in the bedroom (OR: 1.86, 95%CI: 1.15 - 3.01), having access to internet at home (OR: 1.93, 95%CI: 1.12 - 3.31) or at internet cafés (OR: 2.01, 95%CI: 1.21 - 3.34), or often watching TV with parents (OR: 2.27, 95%CI: 1.37 - 3.74) were all associated with being more likely to be high screen users (≥ 2 hours/day). While children aged 13-18 years (OR: 0.67, 95%CI: 0.46-0.97) were less likely to be high screen users. Children whose parents often have rules on their TV viewing (OR: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.37 - 1.10) were slightly but not significantly less likely to be high screen users. Conclusion This study confirms

  15. Relationship between a range of sedentary behaviours and blood pressure during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, B; Baur, L A; Hardy, L L; Kifley, A; Rose, K A; Wong, T Y; Mitchell, P

    2012-06-01

    Very few studies have explored links between physical activity, sedentary behaviours and blood pressure (BP) in early adolescence. We aimed to assess the association between a range of sedentary activities (screen time, television (TV) viewing, computer usage, video game usage and time spent in homework or reading) and BP in schoolchildren. Eligible year-7 students (2353/3144, mean age 12.7 years) from a random cluster sample of 21 Sydney schools were examined during 2003-2005. Parents and children completed detailed questionnaires of activity. BP was measured using a standard protocol and high BP was defined using published guidelines. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index (BMI) calculated. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, parental education, height, BMI and time spent in physical activity, each hour per day spent in screen time, watching TV and playing video games was associated with a significant increase in diastolic BP of 0.44 (P=0.0001), 0.99 (P<0.0001) and 0.64 mm Hg (P=0.04), respectively. In contrast, each hour per day spent reading was associated with a decrease of 0.91 (P=0.01) and 0.69 mm Hg (P=0.02) in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Our results indicate that addressing different types of sedentary activities could be a potentially important strategy to reduce the prevalence of elevated BP in children.

  16. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  17. Objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Ortega, Francisco B; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aparicio, Virginia A; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Femia, Pedro; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise levels of objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Local Association of Fibromyalgia (Granada, Spain). Participants The study comprised 94 women with diagnosed fibromyalgia who did not have other severe somatic or psychiatric disorders, or other diseases that prevent physical loading, able to ambulate and to communicate and capable and willing to provide informed consent. Primary outcome measures Sedentary time and physical activity were measured by accelerometry and expressed as time spent in sedentary behaviours, average physical activity intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent in moderate intensity and in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Results The proportion of women meeting the physical activity recommendations of 30 min/day of MVPA on 5 or more days a week was 60.6%. Women spent, on average, 71% of their waking time (approximately 10 h/day) in sedentary behaviours. Both sedentary behaviour and physical activity levels were similar across age groups, waist circumference and percentage body fat categories, years since clinical diagnosis, marital status, educational level and occupational status, regardless of the severity of the disease (all p>0.1). Time spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and MVPA was, however, lower in those with greater body mass index (BMI) (−6.6 min and −7 min, respectively, per BMI category increase, <25, 25–30, >30 kg/m2; p values for trend were 0.056 and 0.051, respectively). Women spent, on average, 10 min less on MVPA (p<0.001) and 22 min less on sedentary behaviours during weekends compared with weekdays (p=0.051). Conclusions These data provide an objective measure of the amount of time spent on sedentary activities and on physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. PMID:23794573

  18. Sedentary behaviours and its association with bone mass in adolescents: the HELENA cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to examine whether time spent on different sedentary behaviours is associated with bone mineral content (BMC) in adolescents, after controlling for relevant confounders such as lean mass and objectively measured physical activity (PA), and if so, whether extra-curricular participation in osteogenic sports could have a role in this association. Methods Participants were 359 Spanish adolescents (12.5-17.5 yr, 178 boys,) from the HELENA-CSS (2006–07). Relationships of sedentary behaviours with bone variables were analysed by linear regression. The prevalence of low BMC (at least 1SD below the mean) and time spent on sedentary behaviours according to extracurricular sport participation was analysed by Chi-square tests. Results In boys, the use of internet for non-study was negatively associated with whole body BMC after adjustment for lean mass and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). In girls, the time spent studying was negatively associated with femoral neck BMC. Additional adjustment for lean mass slightly reduced the negative association between time spent studying and femoral neck BMC. The additional adjustment for MVPA did not change the results at this site. The percentage of girls having low femoral neck BMC was significantly smaller in those participating in osteogenic sports (≥ 3 h/week) than in the rest, independently of the cut-off selected for the time spent studying. Conclusions The use of internet for non-study (in boys) and the time spent studying (in girls) are negatively associated with whole body and femoral neck BMC, respectively. In addition, at least 3 h/week of extra-curricular osteogenic sports may help to counteract the negative association of time spent studying on bone health in girls. PMID:23148760

  19. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Barnett, Lisa M.; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A.; Papadopoulos, Nicole V.; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children’s physical activity (34–166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126–558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428–750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors. PMID

  20. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel A; Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J; Barnett, Lisa M; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A; Papadopoulos, Nicole V; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna; Hinkley, Trina

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children's physical activity (34-166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126-558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428-750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors.

  1. Understanding children's sedentary behaviour: a qualitative study of the family home environment.

    PubMed

    Granich, Joanna; Rosenberg, Michael; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Electronic media (EM) (television, electronic games and computer) use has been associated with overweight and obesity among children. Little is known about the time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) among children within the family context. The aim of this study was to explore how the family home environment may influence children's electronic-based SB. Focus groups and family interviews were conducted with 11- to 12-year old children (n = 54) and their parents (n = 38) using a semi-structured discussion guide. Transcripts were analysed using a thematic content approach. A brief self-completed questionnaire was also used to measure leisure behaviour and electronic devices at home. Children incorporated both sedentary and physical activities into their weekly routine. Factors influencing children's EM use included parent and sibling modelling and reinforcement, personal cognitions, the physical home environment and household EM use rules and restrictions. Participants were not concerned about the excessive time children spent with EM. This under-recognition emerged as a personal influencing factor and was viewed as a major barrier to modifying children's electronic-based SB. Efforts to reduce SB in children should focus on the influencing factors that reciprocally interact within the family home. An emphasis on increasing awareness about the risks associated with spending excessive time in screen-based activities should be a priority when developing intervention strategies aimed at modifying the time children spend in SB.

  2. A qualitative examination of the perceptions of parents on the Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the early years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimizing sedentary behavior, in particular screen-based sedentary behavior, during the early years is important for healthy growth and development. Consequently, new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0–4 years) were recently released. Researchers are unclear what messages should supplement the guidelines when disseminating them to parents and when using the guidelines in behaviour-change interventions to increase adoption. The objective of this study was to qualitatively examine parents’ perceptions of the new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years. Methods Parents with a child ≤4 years who attended a child care centre were purposefully recruited from child care centres. A total of 7 semi-structured focus groups with 2 to 5 parents were conducted from August to November, 2013 by a trained and experienced moderator. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions pertaining to the Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines information sheet. Initial themes were identified followed by further review and analysis. Results For the most part parents thought the guidelines were clear and did not disagree with the recommendations per se. However, some confusion arose around the value of some sedentary activities, such as reading and coloring, for social and cognitive development. Many parents described feeling guilty after reading the guidelines and perceived several barriers in meeting the daily recommendations. Common barriers included the need to balance multiple demands of family life, the prevalence and accessibility of screen technology, and the weather and built environment where families live. Parents expressed the importance of communicating the guidelines early enough for good habits to be established and the need for realistic strategies and ideas to help them meet the recommendations. Conclusions Overall the findings indicate that gain-framed messages around the role of screen-based and non

  3. Exercise prescription for the older population: The interactions between physical activity, sedentary time, and adequate nutrition in maintaining musculoskeletal health.

    PubMed

    Shad, Brandon J; Wallis, Gareth; van Loon, Luc J C; Thompson, Janice L

    2016-11-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) promotes musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, the majority of older individuals do not meet current PA guidelines and are also highly sedentary. Emerging evidence indicates that large amounts of sedentary time accelerate the loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e., sarcopenia) and physical function with advancing age. However, current PA recommendations for sedentary time are non-specific (i.e., keep sedentary time to a minimum). Research indicates that physical inactivity and large amounts of sedentary time accelerate sarcopenic muscle loss by inducing skeletal muscle 'anabolic resistance'. These findings suggest a critical interaction between engaging in 'sufficient' levels of PA, minimising sedentary time, and consuming 'adequate' nutrition to promote optimal musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, current PA recommendations do not take into account the important role that nutrition plays in ensuring older adults can maximise the benefits from the PA in which they engage. The aim of this narrative review is: (1) to briefly summarise the evidence used to inform current public health recommendations for PA and sedentary time in older adults; and (2) to discuss the presence of 'anabolic resistance' in older adults, highlighting the importance of regular PA and minimising sedentary behaviour. It is imperative that the synergy between PA, minimising sedentary behaviour and adequate nutrition is integrated into future PA guidelines to promote optimal musculoskeletal health and metabolic responses in the growing ageing population.

  4. Associations between socioeconomic position and correlates of sedentary behaviour among youth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, M K; Altenburg, T M; Lakerveld, J; Andersen, L F; Stronks, K; Chinapaw, M J; Lien, N

    2015-11-01

    Existing research evidence indicates that children and adolescents of parents with a low socioeconomic position spend more time on sedentary behaviour than their counterparts. However, the mechanisms driving these differences remain poorly understood. The main aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence regarding the association between socioeconomic position and correlates of sedentary behaviour among youth (0-18 years) from developed countries. The literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. A total of 37 studies were included. All but three studies examined screen-based sedentary behaviours only. Methodological quality ranged from low to moderate. Education was the most commonly used indicator of socioeconomic position, followed by income. Socioeconomic position was inversely related to the presence of a TV in the child's bedroom, parental modelling for TV viewing, parental co-viewing and eating meals in front of the TV. We found no/indeterminate evidence for an association between socioeconomic position and rules and regulations about screen time. The findings suggest possible factors that could be targeted in future intervention studies to decrease screen-based sedentary behaviour in lower socioeconomic groups in particular.

  5. Understanding Children's Sedentary Behaviour: A Qualitative Study of the Family Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granich, Joanna; Rosenberg, Michael; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Electronic media (EM) (television, electronic games and computer) use has been associated with overweight and obesity among children. Little is known about the time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) among children within the family context. The aim of this study was to explore how the family home environment may influence children's…

  6. Sitting ducks face chronic disease: an analysis of newspaper coverage of sedentary behaviour as a health issue in Australia 2000?2012.

    PubMed

    Chau, Josephine Y; Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Zhong, Amy; Pedisic, Zeljko; Daley, Michelle; McGill, Bronwyn; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-01-12

    Issue addressed: This study examines how sedentary behaviour (too much sitting) was covered as a health issue by Australian newspapers and how physical activity was framed within this newspaper coverage.Methods: Articles featuring sedentary behaviour published in Australian newspapers between 2000 and 2012 were analysed for content and framing. Main outcome measures were volume, number and content of newspaper articles; framing and types of sedentary behaviour; responsibility for the problem of and solutions to high levels of sedentary behaviour; and physical activity mentions and how it was framed within sedentary behaviour coverage.Results: Out of 48 articles, prolonged sitting was framed as bad for health (52%) and specifically as health compromising for office workers (25%). Adults who sat a lot were framed as 'easy targets' for ill health (21% of headlines led with 'sitting ducks' or 'sitting targets'). Prolonged sitting was framed as an issue of individual responsibility (>90%) with less mention of environmental and sociocultural contributors. Thirty-six of 48 articles mentioned physical activity; 39% stated that being physically active does not matter if a person sits for prolonged periods of time or that the benefits of physical activity are undone by too much sitting.Conclusions: News coverage should reflect the full socio-ecological model of sedentary behaviour and continually reinforce the independent and well-established benefits of health-enhancing physical activity alongside the need to limit prolonged sitting.So what?: It is important that the entire 'move more, sit less, every day!' message is communicated by news media.

  7. Association of Active and Sedentary Behaviors with Postmenopausal Estrogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dallal, Cher M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Matthews, Charles E.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Falk, Roni T.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity may reduce endogenous estrogens but few studies have assessed effects on estrogen metabolism and none have evaluated sedentary behavior in relation to estrogen metabolism. We assessed relationships between accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behavior and 15 urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among postmenopausal controls from a population-based breast cancer case-control study conducted in Poland (2000-2003). Methods Postmenopausal women (N=542) were ages 40 to 72 years and not currently using hormone therapy. Accelerometers, worn for seven days, were used to derive measures of average activity (counts/day) and sedentary behavior (<100 counts/min/day). EM were measured in 12-hour urine samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. EM were analyzed individually, in metabolic pathways (C-2, -4, or -16), and as ratios relative to parent estrogens. Geometric means of EM by tertiles of accelerometer-measures, adjusted for age and body mass, were computed using linear models. Results High activity was associated with lower levels of estrone and estradiol (p-trend=0.01) while increased sedentary time was positively associated with these parent estrogens (p-trend=0.04). Inverse associations were observed between high activity and 2-methoxyestradiol, 4-methoxyestradiol, 17-epiestriol and 16-epiestriol (p-trend=0.03). Sedentary time was positively associated with methylated catechols in the 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathways (p-trend≤0.04). Women in the highest tertile of activity had increased hydroxylation at the C-2, -4, and -16 sites relative to parent estrogens (p-trend≤0.02) while increased sedentary time was associated with a lower 16-pathway:parent estrogen ratio (p-trend=0.01). Conclusions Higher activity was associated with lower urinary estrogens, possibly through increased estrogen hydroxylation and subsequent metabolism, while sedentary behavior may reduce metabolism. PMID:26460631

  8. Parent-Child Associations in Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour on Weekdays and Weekends in Random Samples of Families in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Sigmundová, Dagmar; Sigmund, Erik; Vokáčová, Jana; Kopčáková, Jaroslava

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether more physically active parents bring up more physically active children and whether parents’ level of physical activity helps children achieve step count recommendations on weekdays and weekends. The participants (388 parents aged 35–45 and their 485 children aged 9–12) were randomly recruited from 21 Czech government-funded primary schools. The participants recorded pedometer step counts for seven days (≥10 h a day) during April–May and September–October of 2013. Logistic regression (Enter method) was used to examine the achievement of the international recommendations of 11,000 steps/day for girls and 13,000 steps/day for boys. The children of fathers and mothers who met the weekend recommendation of 10,000 steps were 5.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.65; 18.19; p < 0.01) and 3.60 times, respectively (95% confidence interval: 1.21; 10.74; p < 0.05) more likely to achieve the international weekend recommendation than the children of less active parents. The children of mothers who reached the weekday pedometer-based step count recommendation were 4.94 times (95% confidence interval: 1.45; 16.82; p < 0.05) more likely to fulfil the step count recommendation on weekdays than the children of less active mothers. PMID:25026084

  9. Parent-child associations in pedometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behaviour on weekdays and weekends in random samples of families in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sigmundová, Dagmar; Sigmund, Erik; Vokáčová, Jana; Kopková, Jaroslava

    2014-07-14

    This study investigates whether more physically active parents bring up more physically active children and whether parents' level of physical activity helps children achieve step count recommendations on weekdays and weekends. The participants (388 parents aged 35-45 and their 485 children aged 9-12) were randomly recruited from 21 Czech government-funded primary schools. The participants recorded pedometer step counts for seven days (≥10 h a day) during April-May and September-October of 2013. Logistic regression (Enter method) was used to examine the achievement of the international recommendations of 11,000 steps/day for girls and 13,000 steps/day for boys. The children of fathers and mothers who met the weekend recommendation of 10,000 steps were 5.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.65; 18.19; p < 0.01) and 3.60 times, respectively (95% confidence interval: 1.21; 10.74; p < 0.05) more likely to achieve the international weekend recommendation than the children of less active parents. The children of mothers who reached the weekday pedometer-based step count recommendation were 4.94 times (95% confidence interval: 1.45; 16.82; p < 0.05) more likely to fulfil the step count recommendation on weekdays than the children of less active mothers.

  10. Associations between sedentary behaviour and metabolic parameters in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Knapen, Jan; Carraro, Attilio; De Hert, Marc

    2012-12-30

    This study examined the association between sedentary behaviour and metabolic parameters among patients with schizophrenia. A total of 76 patients and 38 healthy age-, gender- and BMI-matched volunteers were included. Participants were asked for their overall sitting and physical activity behaviour using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Patients were additionally screened for psychiatric symptoms and extrapyramidal side-effects of antipsychotic medication. On average, patients with schizophrenia spent 8.5h per day sitting (versus 6.21h in healthy controls). Patients sitting more than 10.4h per day had a higher BMI, waist circumference and fasting glucose concentrations and experienced more negative and cognitive symptoms than those sitting less than 5.8h per day. Overall sitting time was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of metabolic syndrome. A stepwise backward-elimination multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that sitting time is a significant predictor for BMI. Current results suggest patients with schizophrenia may benefit from reducing total sitting time.

  11. The relation between sleep duration and sedentary behaviours in European adults.

    PubMed

    Lakerveld, J; Mackenbach, J D; Horvath, E; Rutters, F; Compernolle, S; Bárdos, H; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Charreire, H; Rutter, H; Oppert, J-M; McKee, M; Brug, J

    2016-01-01

    Too much sitting, and both short and long sleep duration are associated with obesity, but little is known on the nature of the relations between these behaviours. We therefore examined the associations between sleep duration and time spent sitting in adults across five urban regions in Europe. We used cross-sectional survey data from 6,037 adults (mean age 51.9 years (SD 16.4), 44.0% men) to assess the association between self-reported short (<6 h per night), normal (6-8 h per night) and long (>8 h per night) sleep duration with self-report total time spent sitting, time spent sitting at work, during transport, during leisure and while watching screens. The multivariable multilevel linear regression models were tested for moderation by urban region, age, gender, education and weight status. Because short sleepers have more awake time to be sedentary, we also used the percentage of awake time spent sedentary as an outcome. Short sleepers had 26.5 min day(-1) more sedentary screen time, compared with normal sleepers (CI 5.2; 47.8). No statistically significant associations were found with total or other domains of sedentary behaviour, and there was no evidence for effect modification. Long sleepers spent 3.2% higher proportion of their awake time sedentary compared with normal sleepers. Shorter sleep was associated with increased screen time in a sample of European adults, irrespective of urban region, gender, age, educational level and weight status. Experimental studies are needed to assess the prospective relation between sedentary (screen) time and sleep duration.

  12. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior and Substance Use among Adolescents in Slovenian Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    LESJAK, Vesna; STANOJEVIĆ-JERKOVIĆ, Olivera

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of the relationship between leisure time physical activity, sedentary behaviour and substance use among adolescents report contradictory results. The aim of our study was to examine the association between self-reported leisure time physical activity, sedentary behaviour and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use among adolescents in Slovenia. Methods Subjects consisted of 822 school children aged from 14 to 16 years, living in urban area of Ljubljana and Maribor. The data was collected using the EURO URHIS 2 survey. Logistic regressions were conducted to assess the correlation between the independent variables of physical activity; time spent watching television and using the computer, and each of the five substance use dependent variables. Results Frequency of daily smoking was significantly associated with leisure time physical activity, while alcohol and cannabis use were not. Watching TV ≥ 2 hours per day was associated with heavy episodic drinking in the past month, no associations were found for smoking and cannabis use. Using the computer ≥ 2 hours per day was positively associated with daily smoking, drinking alcohol in the past month, heavy episodic drinking in the past month and ever being intoxicated, while cannabis use was not. Conclusions These findings suggest that leisure time physical activity is associated with daily cigarette smoking, and leisure time sedentary behaviour is associated with alcohol and tobacco use among adolescents. The results of our study show the need for the formation of suitable preventive measures concerning reduced sitting time as well as leisure time physical activity targeted to adolescents. PMID:27646724

  13. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barwais, Faisal A.; Cuddihy, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™) was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001) was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day) and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day). Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day), p < 0.001), moderate- (33% (1 h/day) p < 0.001), vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day), p < 0.001), and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day), p < 0.001). Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. PMID:25568971

  14. Media device ownership and media use: Associations with sedentary time, physical activity and fitness in English youth.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Alibrahim, Mohammed; Bellamy, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ownership and use of electronic media were associated with sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) in youth. We also aimed to determine if associations were independent of physical activity (PA). Fitness was measured using the 20 m shuttle-run. PA, sedentary time, ownership of media devices and media use were self-reported. Participants (n = 678, age 10-15 years) reported daily sedentary time of 620 (± 210) min. Forty-one percent of participants had low PA and 50.4% had low fitness. Higher weekend sedentary time was associated with low fitness in girls (p = 0.005) and boys (p < 0.001) and remained significant when adjusted for PA in the latter (p = 0.006). Using social media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and low fitness in girls. High sedentary time was more likely (OR = 5.3, 95%CI: 2.0-14.4) in boys who owned game consoles. Low fitness was more likely in boys who owned digital/satellite TV receivers (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.8-3.2). Schoolchildren spent > 10 h or ~ 85% of each waking day sedentary. Use of social media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and with low fitness in girls. Reducing social media use in youth offers one potential target for intervention. Behaviours associated with sedentary time differed from predictors of low fitness. The complex and often sex-specific interactions identified between sedentary time, PA and fitness suggest the need for carefully targeted interventions to reduce sedentary time and improve fitness in English youth.

  15. Sedentary and Physical Activity Habits of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkoff, Brooke E.; Petosa, Rick L.; Balk, Elizabeth K.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Bonny, Andrea E.; Hoffman, Robert P.; Devor, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The independent association between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) is such that, regardless of accumulated PA, high amounts of SB are detrimental to health, even in adolescents. Purpose: Our aim was to profile activity patterns in free-living environments and to measure levels of SB and light (LT) and moderate (MOD)…

  16. Physical and Sedentary Activity in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Carol A.; Williams, Marie T.; Olds, Tim; Lane, Alison E.

    2007-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity (PA) provides health, psychological, and physiological benefits for people with and without a physical disability. This study investigated the physical and sedentary activity patterns of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional, descriptive, postal survey was used, consisting of the…

  17. Composition of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour participation across the school-day, influence of gender and weight status: cross-sectional analyses among disadvantaged Victorian school children

    PubMed Central

    Strugnell, Claudia; Turner, Kyle; Malakellis, Mary; Hayward, Josh; Foster, Charlie; Millar, Lynne; Allender, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background The after-school period has been described as the ‘critical window’ for physical activity (PA) participation. However, little is known about the importance of this window compared with the before and during-school period among socioeconomically disadvantaged children, and influence of gender and weight status. Methods 39 out of 156 (RR=25%) invited primary schools across 26 local government areas in Victoria, Australia, consented to participate with 856 children (RR=36%) participating in the wider study. The analysis sample included 298 Grade 4 and Grade 6 children (mean age: 11.2±1.1; 44% male) whom met minimum accelerometry wear-time criteria and had complete height, weight and health-behaviours questionnaire data. Accelerometry measured duration in daily light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) was calculated for before-school=8–8:59, during-school=9:00–15:29 and after-school=15:30–18:00. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted. Results During-school represented the greatest accumulation of LPA and MVPA compared with the before and after-school periods. Boys engaged in 102 min/day of LPA (95% CI 98.5 to 104.9) and 62 min/day of MVPA (95% CI 58.9 to 64.7) during-school; girls engaged in 103 min/day of LPA (95% CI 99.7 to 106.5) and 45 min/day of MVPA (95% CI 42.9 to 47.4). Linear regression models indicated that girls with overweight or obesity engaged in significantly less LPA, MVPA and more time in ST during-school. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of in-school PA compared with after-school PA among socioeconomically disadvantage children whom may have fewer resources to participate in after-school PA. PMID:27601489

  18. Relationship between young peoples' sedentary behaviour and biomedical health indicators: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Chinapaw, M J M; Proper, K I; Brug, J; van Mechelen, W; Singh, A S

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to describe the prospective relationship between childhood sedentary behaviour and health indicators. We identified prospective studies from searches in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo and Cochrane, from January 1989 through April 2010. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts for eligibility, rated the methodological quality of the studies, and extracted data. We identified 31 papers, examining 27 different cohorts. The quality score of the studies ranged from 38 to 88%. Nine studies were scored as high quality. According to the best evidence synthesis we found insufficient evidence for a longitudinal positive relationship between 'sedentary time'- mainly TV viewing - and body mass index (BMI) and more specific indicators of fat mass. One high quality and two low quality studies found a significant inverse relationship between sedentary time - mainly TV viewing - and aerobic fitness, leading to moderate evidence for this inverse relationship. There was insufficient evidence for a longitudinal relationship between sedentary time and blood pressure, blood lipids or bone mass. Our systematic review suggests that there is moderate evidence for a longitudinal inverse relationship between screen time and aerobic fitness during childhood. Thus there is evidence to limit screen time in young people in order to prevent low levels of fitness. The possible detrimental health effects of prolonged or excessive sitting on other health indicators needs further study.

  19. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-12-23

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours.

  20. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  1. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-01-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth. PMID:26098509

  2. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  3. School environment, sedentary behavior and physical activity in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Sara Crosatti; Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Stabelini, Antonio; Elias, Rui Gonçalves Marques; de Oliveira, Arli Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. Methods: 370 preschoolers, aged 4–6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated through binary logistic regression. Results: At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6–90.9%), followed by light (4.6–7.6%), moderate (1.3–3.0%) and vigorous (0.5–2.3%) physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.05–0.83) and the playground (OR 0.08, 95%CI 0.00–0.80) protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.00–0.93) in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77), the playground (OR 2.82, 95%CI 1.14–6.96) and the recess (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77) are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. Conclusions: The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children. PMID:26975560

  4. Longitudinal changes in objectively measured sedentary behaviour and their relationship with adiposity in children and adolescents: systematic review and evidence appraisal.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, C; Reilly, J J; Huang, W Y

    2014-10-01

    This review aimed to determine longitudinal changes in objectively measured overall sedentary behaviour, and to examine their associations with adiposity in children and adolescents. A search for longitudinal studies was performed using several electronic databases. Of 161 potentially eligible papers, 10 for change in sedentary behaviour and 3 for longitudinal associations with change in adiposity were included. Weighted mean increase in daily sedentary behaviour per year was 5.7% for boys and 5.8% for girls. Only one paper included preschool children, and it showed a decrease in sedentary behaviour. Nine studies were from Western countries. Null associations were reported between sedentary behaviour and adiposity in two studies, the other found that increases in sedentary behaviour were associated with increases in adiposity, but only in those with body mass index above the 50th percentile. There was consistent evidence that sedentary behaviour increases with age in school-age children and adolescents, by approximately 30 min extra daily sedentary behaviour per year. There was little evidence on the influence of changes in sedentary behaviour on changes in adiposity. There is a need for more longitudinal research, for more evidence from outside the Western world, and for more studies that examine 'dose-response' associations between changes in sedentary behaviour and changes in adiposity.

  5. A qualitative review of existing national and international occupational safety and health policies relating to occupational sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Pieter; Gilson, Nicholas; Healy, Genevieve N; Dunstan, David W; Straker, Leon M

    2017-04-01

    Prolonged sedentary time is now recognised as an emergent ergonomics issue. We aimed to review current occupational safety and health policies relevant to occupational sedentary behaviour. An electronic search for documents was conducted on websites of ergonomics and occupational safety and health organisations from 10 countries and six international/pan-European agencies. Additionally, 43 informants (nine countries) were contacted and an international conference workshop held. 119 documents (e.g. legislation, guidelines, codes of practice) were identified. Using a qualitative synthesis, it was observed that many jurisdictions had legal frameworks establishing a duty of care for employers, designers/manufacturers/suppliers and employees. While no occupational authority policies focusing specifically on sedentary behaviour were found, relevant aspects of existing policies were identified. We highlight implications for ergonomics research and practice and recommend the development of policy to specifically address occupational sedentary behaviour and support workplace initiatives to assess and control the risks of this emergent hazard.

  6. Weekday and weekend patterns of physical activity and sedentary time among Liverpool and Madrid youth.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Rico, Elena; Hilland, Toni A; Foweather, Lawrence; Fernández-Garcia, Emilia; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among English and Spanish youth are high and vary within different regions of each country. Little though is known about these during specific periods of the day. The purpose of this study was to describe physical activity (PA) and sedentary time during segments of the day and week, and compare these critical contexts between youth in the Liverpool and Madrid areas of England and Spain, respectively. PA was objectively assessed in 235 Liverpool- and 241 Madrid youth (aged 10-14 years) who wore accelerometers for seven consecutive days. Minutes of sedentary time, moderate PA, vigorous PA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were calculated for weekdays, weekend days, school time, non-school time and after-school. Between-country differences were analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Madrid youth spent significantly more time in sedentary activities than their Liverpool counterparts. Madrid youth engaged in more minutes of moderate intensity physical activity (MPA) than Liverpool youth during weekdays, school time and non-school time (P<0.01). Liverpool children recorded more time in vigorous physical activity (VPA) than Madrid peers during week days and weekend days (P<0.01) and during school time and after-school periods (P<0.01). The MVPA was significantly higher among Madrid youth during non-school time (P<0.01). Around 25% of all youth achieved recommended levels of MVPA. Low levels of MVPA and systematic differences in sedentary time, MPA and VPA exist between Liverpool and Madrid youth. Interventions targeted at the least-active children during weekends, after-school and non-school periods within the cultural contexts common to each city are required.

  7. [Food consumption in children and youth: effect of sedentary activities].

    PubMed

    Thivel, D; Chaput, J P

    2013-08-01

    Sedentary behavior has progressed with modern society, generating very low levels of energy expenditure and subsequent body weight disorders (obesity). There is also evidence that the absence of physical activity associated with short sleep time and watching television or playing video games leads to poor eating habits and favors high-energy intake. These findings have generally been reported in adults, with a few studies including data on children and adolescents. This brief review summarizes the current literature regarding the impact of such activities on food consumption and eating behavior in children and adolescents. There appears to be an uncoupling effect dissociating these activities from the sensation of hunger and thus energy intake. Children and adolescents seem to increase their energy intake during and after such activities without any alteration of their subjective appetite. In addition to considering the impact of sedentary behavior and physical activity level, future public health recommendations should also focus on associated nutritional adaptations (energy balance).

  8. Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Physical Capability in Early Old Age: British Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Andrew J. M.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Kuh, Diana; Brage, Soren; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the associations of time spent sedentary, in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with physical capability measures at age 60-64 years. Methods Time spent sedentary and in MVPA and, PAEE were assessed using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing among 1727 participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in England, Scotland and Wales as part of a detailed clinical assessment undertaken in 2006-2010. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between standardised measures of each of these behavioural variables with grip strength, chair rise and timed up-&-go (TUG) speed and standing balance time. Results Greater time spent in MVPA was associated with higher levels of physical capability; adjusted mean differences in each capability measure per 1standard deviation increase in MVPA time were: grip strength (0.477 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.015 to 0.939), chair rise speed (0.429 stands/min, 95% CI: 0.093 to 0.764), standing balance time (0.028 s, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.053) and TUG speed (0.019 m/s, 95% CI: 0.011 to 0.026). In contrast, time spent sedentary was associated with lower grip strength (-0.540 kg, 95% CI: -1.013 to -0.066) and TUG speed (-0.011 m/s, 95% CI: -0.019 to -0.004). Associations for PAEE were similar to those for MVPA. Conclusion Higher levels of MVPA and overall physical activity (PAEE) are associated with greater levels of physical capability whereas time spent sedentary is associated with lower levels of capability. Future intervention studies in older adults should focus on both the promotion of physical activity and reduction in time spent sedentary. PMID:25961736

  9. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  10. Heterogeneity of muscle activity during sedentary behavior.

    PubMed

    Pesola, Arto J; Laukkanen, Arto; Tikkanen, Olli; Finni, Taija

    2016-11-01

    Replacing sitting by standing has been hypothesized to reduce the health risks of sitting, based on the assumption that muscles are passive during sitting and active during standing. Interventions have been more effective in overweight (OW) than in normal weight (NW) individuals, but subjects' muscle activities have not been quantified. This study compared quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity between 57 NW (body mass index (BMI) 22.5 ± 1.5 kg/m(2), female n = 36) and 27 OW (BMI 28.4 ± 2.9 kg/m(2), female n = 8) subjects during non-fatiguing standing (15 s, EMGstanding) and sitting (30 min). EMG amplitude was normalized to EMG measured during maximal isometric knee extension and flexion (% EMGMVC), and sitting muscle inactivity and bursts were determined using 4 thresholds (60% or 90% EMGstanding and 1% or 2% EMGMVC). Comparisons were adjusted for sex, age, knee extension strength, and the individual threshold. Standing EMG amplitude was 36% higher in OW (1.9% ± 1.5% EMGMVC) than in NW (1.4% ± 1.4% EMGMVC, P < 0.05) subjects. During sitting, muscles were inactive 89.8% ± 12.7% of the measurement time with 12.7 ± 14.2 bursts/min across all thresholds. On average, 6% more activity was recorded in NW than in OW individuals for 3 of the 4 thresholds (P < 0.05 for 60% or 90% EMGstanding and 1% EMGMVC). In conclusion, the OW group had higher muscle activity amplitude during standing but more muscle inactivity during sitting for 3/4 of the thresholds tested. Interventions should test whether the observed heterogeneity in muscle activity affects the potential to gain cardiometabolic benefits from replacing sitting with standing.

  11. Comparing physical activity and sedentary time among overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers enrolled in early learning programs: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Patricia; Maltby, Alana M; Burke, Shauna M; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2016-09-01

    Establishing appropriate physical activity and sedentary behaviours during early childhood is important to ensure children accrue the many associated health benefits. While physical activity levels have been reported as low within early learning programs, little research has explored the physical activity and sedentary time of Canadian preschoolers classified as overweight within these facilities. The purpose of this study was to compare objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time among preschoolers classified as overweight and nonoverweight in early learning programs. Direct assessment of physical activity and sedentary time of 216 preschool-aged children was collected via Actical accelerometers during early learning hours, while body mass index percentile was calculated based on preschoolers' objectively measured height and weight. Results of three 3-way ANOVAs suggest that rates of moderate to vigorous physical activity, total physical activity, and sedentary time (p > 0.05) did not significantly differ based on weight status, sex, and type of early learning facility. This study is one of few that has examined differences in overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers' sedentary time, and adds to the limited research exploring physical activity levels among overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers during early learning hours. Given the high rates of sedentary time reported, programming within early learning facilities is necessary to support preschoolers, regardless of weight status, to achieve increased physical activity levels and decreased sedentary time.

  12. Lifelong physical activity patterns of sedentary Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Sandra L; Berg, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    Increasing physical activity, especially for high-risk groups, is a national priority; yet little is known about the lifelong patterns of physical activity of older Mexican American women. This article describes Mexican American women's current sedentary status by reviewing their physical activity history. Interventions aimed at promoting health in older adults require an understanding of the impact of prior experiences on current health behaviors. Thus, in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 71 Mexican American women (aged 50 years or older) recruited from local churches and senior centers. Household, occupational, and leisure activities from age 15 years to present time were reviewed. A lifelong pattern of low occupational and leisure activity and low to moderate household activity were found, with sedentary occupations and no leisure activities predominating. Most believed that current household, occupational and leisure activities provide enough physical activity, thus influencing participation in exercise programs or activities. Attempts to increase physical activity for this group need to begin by teaching them age-appropriate and culturally acceptable physical activities.

  13. Inter-participant variability in daily physical activity and sedentary time among male youth sport footballers: independent associations with indicators of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A M; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Participation in youth sport is assumed to promote and contribute towards more physically active lifestyles among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine inter-participant variability in objectively measured habitual physical activity (PA) behaviours and sedentary time among youth sport participants and their implications for health. One-hundred-and-eighteen male youth sport footballers (Mean ± s = 11.72 ± 1.60) wore a GT3X accelerometer for 7 days. Average daily PA [min · day(-1), in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and combined moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)] and sedentary time were calculated. Participants' body mass index adjusted for age and sex (BMI-standard deviation score), per cent body fat (BF%), waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Results revealed that variability in daily PA behaviours and sedentary time (min · day(-1)) was associated with BMI-standard deviation score [VPA (-), MVPA (-)], BF% [sedentary time (+), VPA (-), MVPA (-)], waist circumference [sedentary time (+), LPA (-)] and cardiorespiratory fitness [sedentary time (-), MPA (+), VPA (+), MVPA (+)]. Whilst sedentary time and MVPA were not related to health outcomes independent of one another, associations with markers of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness were stronger for sedentary time. Sedentary time was also significantly positively related to waist circumference independent of VPA. Results demonstrate inter-participant variability in habitual PA and sedentary time among youth sport participants which holds implications for their health. Thus, promoting PA and, in particular, reducing sedentary time may contribute towards the prevention of adverse health consequences associated with a physically inactive lifestyle for children and adolescents active in the youth sport context.

  14. Primary prevention of overweight in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions aiming to decrease sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    van Grieken, Amy; Ezendam, Nicole P M; Paulis, Winifred D; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Raat, Hein

    2012-05-28

    The objectives of this meta-analysis were to provide an overview of the evidence regarding the effects of interventions, implemented in the school- and general population setting, aiming to prevent excessive sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents on (1) the amount of sedentary behaviour and (2) BMI. Differences in effects on sedentary behaviour and BMI between single health behaviour interventions (sedentary behaviour only) and multiple health behaviour interventions were explored. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Thirty-four (R)CT studies evaluating 33 general population interventions, published between 1990 and April 2011, aiming to decrease sedentary behaviour in normal weight children or adolescents (0-18 years) were included. Intervention duration ranged from 7 days to 4 years. Mean change in sedentary behaviour and BMI from baseline to post-intervention was calculated using a random effects model. Results showed significant decreases for the amount of sedentary behaviour and BMI. For sedentary behaviour the post-intervention mean difference was -17.95 min/day (95%CI:-26.61;-9.28); the change-from-baseline mean difference was -20.44 min/day (95%CI:-30.69;-10.20). For BMI the post-intervention mean difference was -0.25 kg/m² (95%CI:-0.40;-0.09); the change-from-baseline mean difference was -0.14 kg/m² (95%CI:-0.23;-0.05). No differences were found between single and multiple health behaviour interventions. Interventions in the school- and general population setting aiming to reduce only sedentary behaviour and interventions targeting multiple health behaviours can result in significant decreases in sedentary behaviour. Studies need to increase follow-up time to estimate the sustainability of the intervention effects found.

  15. Correlates of sedentary behaviour in 8- to 10-year-old children at elevated risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Herman, Katya M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Tremblay, Angelo; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe correlates of sedentary behaviour (SED) in children at elevated risk of obesity because of parental obesity. Participants were 534 children aged 8-10 years with ≥ 1 obese parent. SED and physical activity (PA) were measured by accelerometer, screen time by self-report, and height, weight, waist circumference, and cardiovascular fitness objectively measured. Data describing the child, parents, friends, and home and neighbourhood environments were from child self-report. Higher total SED time was significantly positively associated with child's age, mother's age, Tanner stage, weight status or waist circumference, less self-reported PA, choosing screen time over PA/sport, mother saying PA/sport good for them, and fewer weekly physical education (PE) classes. Exceeding 2 h/day screen time was significantly associated with child's age, male sex, weight status or waist circumference, choosing screen time over PA/sport, and dinnertime TV viewing. Children regularly watching TV with dinner had 2.3 times greater odds (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52, 3.58) of exceeding screen time guidelines compared with children rarely watching TV with dinner; children reporting ≤ 2 PE classes/week had 2.4 times greater odds (95% CI 1.41, 4.10) of being in the highest SED tertile compared with children reporting >2 PE classes/week. Hence, the most sedentary children are older, more biologically mature, less active, more overweight/obese, have fewer PE classes, and are more likely to choose screen time over PA and watch TV with dinner compared with less sedentary children. PE opportunities and mealtime TV viewing are potentially modifiable targets for reducing total SED and screen time in children.

  16. Role of dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and overweight on the longitudinal development of childhood constipation: the Generation R study.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; de Vries, Jeanne H; Escher, Johanna C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Moll, Henriette A

    2013-10-01

    The influence of childhood nutrition on the development of constipation beyond the period of weaning and breastfeeding is relatively understudied. In addition, eating patterns in childhood can be highly correlated with overweight and sedentary behaviour, which may also have an influence on constipation. The aim of this study was to assess whether common dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and childhood overweight are associated with constipation in childhood. The study was embedded in a population-based prospective birth cohort. Information on dietary intake was obtained by a food frequency questionnaire at the child's age of 14 months (n = 2420). The adherence scores on a 'Health conscious' and 'Western-like' diet were extracted from principal component analysis. At the age of 24, 36 and 48 months, information on constipation and sedentary behaviour, and weight and height was obtained by parental-derived questionnaires and from the child health centres, respectively. Adherence to a 'Western-like' dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of constipation up to 48 months [adjusted odds ratio (aOR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39; 1.02-1.87], which was not mediated by overweight or sedentary behaviour. Adherence to a 'Health Conscious' dietary pattern was only associated at short term, with a lower prevalence of constipation at 24 months (aOR; 95%CI: 0.65; 0.44-0.96). No association was found between overweight, sedentary behaviour and constipation. Our results suggest that specific dietary patterns in early childhood could be associated with higher or lower risks for constipation, but these effects are time-dependent. Overweight and sedentary behaviour seem to not have a major role on constipation in childhood.

  17. Seasonal Variation in Children’s Physical Activity and Sedentary Time

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, Andrew J; Sharp, Stephen J; Harrison, Flo; Brage, Søren; van Sluijs, Esther MF

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Understanding seasonal variation in physical activity is important for informing public health surveillance and intervention design. The aim of the current study was to describe seasonal variation in children’s objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time. Methods Data are from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Participants were invited to wear an accelerometer for seven days on five occasions between November 2008 and January 2010. Outcome variables were sedentary time (<100 counts per minute; min/day) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; >2241 counts per min; min/day). Season was characterised using a categorical variable (spring, summer, autumn, winter) and a continuous function of day of year. Cross-classified linear regression models were used to estimate the association of each of these constructs with the outcome variables. Modification of the seasonal variation by sex, weight status, urban/rural location, parental income and day of the week (week/weekend) was examined using interaction terms in regression models. Results At least 1 wave of valid accelerometer data was obtained from 704 participants (47% male; baseline age 7.6(0.3) years). MVPA was lower in autumn and winter relative to spring, with the magnitude of this difference varying by week/weekend day, sex, weight status, urban/rural location and family income (p for interaction <0.05 in all cases). Total sedentary time was greater in autumn and winter compared to spring; the seasonal effect was stronger at the weekend than during the week (p for interaction <0.01). Conclusion Lower levels of MVPA and elevated sedentary time support the implementation of intervention programmes during autumn and winter. Evidence of greater seasonal variation in weekend behaviour and amongst certain socio-demographic subgroups highlights targets for tailored intervention programmes. PMID:26429733

  18. Bidirectional association between sedentary behaviour and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Lennart

    2016-11-01

    This study examined longitudinal and bidirectional association between sedentary behaviour (SB) and depressive symptoms (DS) in adolescent girls. Participants (n = 253) completed measures of SB and DS at three time points spanning a four-year interval. DS were obtained using the modified Centre for Epidemiological Depression Scale (CES-D). Weekday and weekend SB was assessed using a questionnaire. In the latent growth model, both SB and DS increased and the change in SB was positively associated with change in DS (β = 0.24). Higher levels of SB at baseline were associated with larger increases in DS over time (β = 0.23), and higher baseline levels of DS were associated with smaller increases in SB over time (β = -0.17). These findings suggest persistent longitudinal and bidirectional associations between SB and DS and encourage the design of interventions that limit sedentary time as a possible means of reducing adolescent depression.

  19. Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Colley, Rachel Christine; Saunders, Travis John; Healy, Genevieve Nissa; Owen, Neville

    2010-12-01

    Sedentary behaviour is associated with deleterious health outcomes, which differ from those that can be attributed to a lack of moderate to vigorous physical activity. This has led to the field of "sedentary physiology", which may be considered as separate and distinct from exercise physiology. This paper gives an overview of this emerging area of research and highlights the ways that it differs from traditional exercise physiology. Definitions of key terms associated with the field of sedentary physiology and a review of the self-report and objective methods for assessing sedentary behaviour are provided. Proposed mechanisms of sedentary physiology are examined, and how they differ from those linking physical activity and health are highlighted. Evidence relating to associations of sedentary behaviours with major health outcomes and the population prevalence and correlates of sedentary behaviours are reviewed. Recommendations for future research are proposed.

  20. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth: an update.

    PubMed

    Carson, Valerie; Hunter, Stephen; Kuzik, Nicholas; Gray, Casey E; Poitras, Veronica J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Saunders, Travis J; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Okely, Anthony D; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Lee, Helena; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review is an update examining the relationships between objectively and subjectively measured sedentary behaviour and health indicators in children and youth aged 5-17 years. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Medline were searched in December 2014, and date limits were imposed (≥February 2010). Included studies were peer-reviewed and met the a priori-determined population (apparently healthy children and youth, mean age: 5-17 years), intervention (durations, patterns, and types of sedentary behaviours), comparator (various durations, patterns, and types of sedentary behaviours), and outcome (critical: body composition, metabolic syndrome/cardiovascular disease risk factors, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, academic achievement; important: fitness, self-esteem) study criteria. Quality of evidence by outcome was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. Due to heterogeneity, a narrative analysis was conducted. A total of 235 studies (194 unique samples) were included representing 1 657 064 unique participants from 71 different countries. Higher durations/frequencies of screen time and television (TV) viewing were associated with unfavourable body composition. Higher duration/frequency of TV viewing was also associated with higher clustered cardiometabolic risk scores. Higher durations of TV viewing and video game use were associated with unfavourable behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour. Higher durations of reading and doing homework were associated with higher academic achievement. Higher duration of screen time was associated with lower fitness. Higher durations of screen time and computer use were associated with lower self-esteem. Evidence ranged from "very low" to "moderate" quality. Higher quality studies using reliable and valid sedentary behaviour measures should confirm this largely observational evidence.

  1. Influence of sedentary versus physically active conditions on regulation of plasma renin activity and vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Patrick J

    2008-09-01

    Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Sedentary animals compared to physically active controls exhibit enhanced sympathoexcitatory responses, including arterial baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitation. Hypotension-induced sympathoexcitation is also associated with the release of vasoactive hormones. We hypothesized that sedentary conditions may enhance release of the vasoactive hormones AVP and ANG II. To test this hypothesis, the humoral response to hypotension was examined in conscious rats after 9-12 wk of sedentary conditions or "normally active" conditions. Normally active conditions were produced by allowing rats access to running wheels in their home cages. Running distance peaked after 4 wk (4.5 +/- 0.7 km/day), and the total distance run after 9 wk was 174 +/- 23 km (n = 25). Similar levels of hypotension were induced in conscious sedentary or physically active animals with the arterial vasodilator, diazoxide (25 mg/kg iv). Control experiments used a saline injection of equivalent volume. Plasma samples were collected and assayed for plasma AVP concentration and plasma renin activity (PRA). Sedentary conditions significantly enhanced resting and hypotension-induced PRA relative to normal physical activity. In contrast, resting and hypotension-induced AVP levels were not statistically different between groups. These data suggest that baroreflex-mediated activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but not AVP secretion, is enhanced by sedentary conditions. We speculate that augmented activation of the renin-angiotensin system may be related to enhanced sympathetic outflow observed in sedentary animals and may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the sedentary population.

  2. An evidence-update on the prospective relationship between childhood sedentary behaviour and biomedical health indicators: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Ekris, E; Altenburg, T M; Singh, A S; Proper, K I; Heymans, M W; Chinapaw, M J M

    2016-09-01

    Evidence for adverse health effects of excessive sedentary behaviour in children is predominantly based on cross-sectional studies, measuring TV viewing as proxy for sedentary behaviour. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarizes the evidence on the prospective relationship between childhood sedentary behaviour and biomedical health indicators, overall and stratified by type of sedentary behaviour (TV viewing, computer use/games, screen time and objective sedentary time). PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane were systematically searched till January 2015. Methodological quality of all included studies was scored, and a best evidence synthesis was applied. We included 109 studies of which 19 were of high quality. We found moderate-to-strong evidence for a relationship of overall sedentary time with some anthropometrics (overweight/obesity, weight-for-height), one cardiometabolic biomarker (HDL-cholesterol) and some fitness indicators (fitness, being unfit). For other health indicators, we found no convincing evidence because of inconsistent or non-significant findings. The evidence varied by type of sedentary behaviour. The meta-analysis indicated that each additional baseline hour of TV viewing (β = 0.01, 95%CI = [-0.002; 0.02]) or computer use (β = 0.00, 95%CI = [-0.004; 0.01]) per day was not significantly related with BMI at follow-up. We conclude that the evidence for a prospective relationship between childhood sedentary behaviour and biomedical health is in general unconvincing.

  3. Evaluating the uptake of Canada's new physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines on service organizations' websites.

    PubMed

    Gainforth, Heather L; Berry, Tanya; Faulkner, Guy; Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2013-06-01

    New evidence-based physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines for Canadians were launched in 2011. As a consequence, service organizations that promote physical activity directly to the public needed to change their promotion materials to reflect the new guidelines. Little is known about the rate at which service organizations adopt and integrate new evidence-based guidelines and determinants of guideline adoption. In this natural observational study, we evaluated the rate of online adoption of the new guidelines among key service organizations that promote physical activity and examined participation in a booster webinar as a supplemental dissemination strategy. One hundred fifty nine service organization websites were coded by one of six raters prior to the release of the new guidelines as well as at 3, 6, and 9 months after the release. Online adoption of the guidelines increased during the coding period with 51 % of organizations posting the guidelines or related information on their websites. Organizations' engagement in a webinar was associated with their adoption of the guidelines. The release of new Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines led to increased guideline adoption on service organizations' websites. However, adoption was not universal. In order for the uptake of the new guidelines to be successful, further efforts need to be taken to ensure that service organizations present physical activity guidelines on their websites. Comprehensive, active dissemination strategies tailored to address organizational barriers are needed to ensure online guideline adoption.

  4. Seasonal variation in physical activity and sedentary time in different European regions. The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Williams, Craig A; Hagströmer, Maria; Manios, Yannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Béghin, Laurent; Polito, Angela; De Henauw, Stefaan; Valtueña, Jara; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Denes; Alexy, Ute; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This report aims (1) to examine the association between seasonality and physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in European adolescents and (2) to investigate whether this association was influenced by geographical location (Central-North versus South of Europe), which implies more or less extreme weather and daylight hours. Valid data on PA, sedentary time and seasonality were obtained in 2173 adolescents (1175 females; 12.5-17.5 years) included in this study. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometers. ANCOVA was conducted to analyse the differences in PA and sedentary time across seasons. Results showed that girls had lower levels of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and average PA, and spent more time in sedentary activities in winter compared with spring (all P < 0.05). Stratified analyses showed differences in PA and sedentary time between winter and spring in European girls from Central-North of Europe (P < 0.05 for sedentary time). There were no differences between PA and sedentary time across seasonality in boys. In conclusion, winter is related with less time spent in MVPA, lower average PA and higher time spent in sedentary activities in European adolescent girls, compared with spring. These differences seem to mainly occur in Central-North Europe.

  5. Weight Status in US Youth: The Role of Activity, Diet, and Sedentary Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peart, Tasha; Velasco Mondragon, H. Eduardo; Rohm-Young, Deborah; Bronner, Yvonne; Hossain, Mian B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess associations of physical activity, diet, and sedentary behaviors with overweight and obesity. Methods: Analyses of the NHANES 2003-06 were conducted among 2368 US adolescents, ages 12-19. Self-reported diet and sedentary behavior measures were used; physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Results:…

  6. Objectively Measured Total and Occupational Sedentary Time in Three Work Settings

    PubMed Central

    van Dommelen, Paula; Coffeng, Jennifer K.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Boot, Cécile R. L.; Hendriksen, Ingrid J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviour increases the risk for morbidity. Our primary aim is to determine the proportion and factors associated with objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings. Secondary aim is to study the proportion of physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts. Methods Data were obtained using ActiGraph accelerometers from employees of: 1) a financial service provider (n = 49 men, 31 women), 2) two research institutes (n = 30 men, 57 women), and 3) a construction company (n = 38 men). Total (over the whole day) and occupational sedentary time, physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts (lasting ≥30 minutes) were calculated by work setting. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine general, health and work-related factors associated with sedentary time. Results The employees of the financial service provider and the research institutes spent 76–80% of their occupational time in sedentary behaviour, 18–20% in light intensity physical activity and 3–5% in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Occupational time in prolonged sedentary bouts was 27–30%. Total time was less sedentary (64–70%), and had more light intensity physical activity (26–33%). The employees of the construction company spent 44% of their occupational time in sedentary behaviour, 49% in light, and 7% in moderate intensity physical activity, and spent 7% in sedentary bouts. Total time spent in sedentary behavior was 56%, 40% in light, and 4% in moderate intensity physical behaviour, and 12% in sedentary bouts. For women, low to intermediate education was the only factor that was negatively associated with occupational sedentary time. Conclusions Sedentary behaviour is high among white-collar employees, especially in highly educated women. A relatively small proportion of sedentary time was accrued in sedentary bouts. It is recommended that worksite health promotion efforts should focus on reducing sedentary

  7. Sedentary lifestyle in active children admitted to a summer sport school.

    PubMed

    Fainardi, Valentina; Scarabello, Chiara; Brunella, Iovane; Errico, Maria Katrin; Mele, Alessandra; Gelmetti, Chiara; Sponzilli, Ivonne; Chiari, Giovanni; Volta, Elio; Vitale, Marco; Vanelli, Maurizio

    2009-08-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the sedentary patterns of school-aged active children admitted to a summer sport school. One hundred-twelve children aged 9-11 years were interviewed through a questionnaire about sedentary behaviours and nutrition habits. Seventy-one per cent of children reported they watch TV seven days a week, girls less than boys (84 +/- 45 minutes vs. 110 +/- 75 minutes) (t = 2.056; p = 0.042). The habit of TV viewing during meals was widespread (38% breakfast, 31% lunch, 62% dinner, 18% every meal). The prevalence of overweight or obesity (58.5%) was significantly higher among boys watching TV at dinner compared to the boys viewing TV only in the afternoon (35%) (chi2 = 4.976; p = 0.026). Fifty-seven per cent of children (65% boys) were accustomed to nibble snacks during TV viewing, and this habit was widespread in overweight or obese boys (chi2 = 4.546; p = 0.033). The dietary patterns of children watching TV include more snack foods and fewer fruits than the dietary patterns of the same children exercising (chi2 = 4.199 p = 0.040). Also in active children the habit to watch television is widespread and, in spite of the tendency to physical activity, 46% of them were overweight or obese; in fact the time spent looking at a TV may be associated to overweight/obesity and this relationship could be explained by the amount of high-density foods consumption during inactivity. Playing video games, read a book and listening to music are sedentary lifestyle patterns but these seem not to represent a risk factor for an increased BMI.

  8. Active versus sedentary lifestyle from childhood to adult and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A pattern of sedentary lifestyle beginning in childhood is associated with obesity and related disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with increased susceptibility to air pollutants and initiating regular exercise early in life should impact positively on respiratory symptoms of air pollutant exposure.An animal model of childhood-to-adult sedentary {SEO) vs. active {ACT) lifestyle was achieved by providing female Long-Evans rats with running wheels beginning at22d of age and then exposing to ozone {03) as adults. ACT rats ran 7.2 km/d over 74 days, had lower body fat, and improved glucose tolerance (GT) compared to SEO rats. Adult rats were exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 ppm 03 for 5 hr/d for 2 d. 03-induced impairment in GT was significantly improved in ACT animals.Bronchoalveolar lavage {BALF) protein markers of lung damage and neutrophilic inflammation were similarly affected in SEO and ACT animals. BALF eosinophils of SEO rats were markedly higher after exposure to 0.5 and 1.0 ppm 03 compared to ACT rats. Overall,this animal model suggests that regular exercise initiated early in life may afford protection in adulthood to the metabolic and pulmonary effects of 03. The attenuated 03-induced elevation in BALF eosinophils of ACT rats may suggest a protective mechanism of childhood exercise on asthma-related symptoms of air pollution. This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and does not reflect US EPA policy This abstract will be presen

  9. Friendship networks and physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth: a systematized review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today’s youth. Friend’s health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks and both physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. Method After a search of seven scientific databases and reference scans, a total of thirteen articles were eligible for inclusion. All assessed the association between friendship networks and physical activity, while three also assessed sedentary behavior. Results Overall, higher levels of physical activity among friends are associated with higher levels of physical activity of the individual. Longitudinal studies reveal that an individual’s level of physical activity changes to reflect his/her friends’ higher level of physical activity. Boys tend to be influenced by their friendship network to a greater extent than girls. There is mixed evidence surrounding a friend’s sedentary behavior and individual sedentary behavior. Conclusion Friends’ physical activity level appears to have a significant influence on individual’s physical activity level. Evidence surrounding sedentary behavior is limited and mixed. Results from this review could inform effective public health interventions that harness the influence of friends to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents. PMID:24289113

  10. Sedentary behavior and physical activity in youth with recent onset of type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the rise of type 2 diabetes in youth, it is critical to investigate factors such as physical activity (PA) and time spent sedentary that may be contributing to this public health problem. This article describes PA and sedentary time in a large cohort of youth with type 2 diabetes and compares t...

  11. Validation of activPAL defined sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time in 4- to 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Xanne; Cliff, Dylan P; Reilly, John J; Hinkley, Trina; Jones, Rachel A; Batterham, Marijka; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Okely, Anthony D

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the classification accuracy of the activPAL, including total time spent sedentary and total number of breaks in sedentary behavior (SB) in 4- to 6-year-old children. Forty children aged 4-6 years (5.3 ± 1.0 years) completed a ~150-min laboratory protocol involving sedentary, light, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activities. Posture was coded as sit/lie, stand, walk, or other using direct observation. Posture was classified using the activPAL software. Classification accuracy was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC). Time spent in each posture and total number of breaks in SB were compared using paired sample t-tests. The activPAL showed good classification accuracy for sitting (ROC-AUC = 0.84) and fair classification accuracy for standing and walking (0.76 and 0.73, respectively). Time spent in sit/lie and stand was overestimated by 5.9% (95% CI = 0.6-11.1%) and 14.8% (11.6-17.9%), respectively; walking was underestimated by 10.0% (-12.9-7.0%). Total number of breaks in SB were significantly overestimated (55 ± 27 over the course of the protocol; p < .01). The activPAL performed well when classifying postures in young children. However, the activPAL has difficulty classifying other postures, such as kneeling. In addition, when predicting time spent in different postures and total number of breaks in SB the activPAL appeared not to be accurate.

  12. Sedentary behavior and physical activity are independently related to functional fitness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Baptista, Fátima; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Mota, Jorge; Sardinha, Luís B

    2012-12-01

    The last decades of life have been traditionally viewed as a time of inevitable disease and frailty. Sedentary living and physical activity may influence capacity to perform activities that are needed to maintain physical independence in daily living. A total of 117 males and 195 females, aged 65-103years, were assessed for physical activity and sedentary time with accelerometers and for functional fitness with the Senior Fitness Test battery. Based on the individual scores for each fitness item, a Z-score was created. Associations between functional fitness with sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were analyzed. A negative association was found between the composite Z-score for functional fitness and the sedentary time, even adjusting for MVPA and other confounders. On the other hand, MVPA was positively associated with the composite Z-score for functional fitness, independently of the sedentary time. In conclusion elderly who spend more time in physical activity or less time in sedentary behaviors exhibit improved functional fitness and other confounders. The results reinforce the importance of promoting both the reduction of sedentary behaviors and the increase of MVPA in this age group, as it may interfere at older ages in order to preserve functional fitness and performance of daily functioning tasks.

  13. Associations between sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity, and health indicators among Canadian children and youth using compositional analyses.

    PubMed

    Carson, Valerie; Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Chastin, Sebastien F M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between movement behaviours (sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity) and health indicators in a representative sample of children and youth using compositional analyses. Cross-sectional findings are based on 4169 children and youth (aged 6-17 years) from cycles 1 to 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Sedentary time (SB), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) were accelerometer-derived. Sleep duration was subjectively measured. Body mass index z scores, waist circumference, blood pressure, behavioural strengths and difficulties, and aerobic fitness were measured in the full sample. Triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and insulin were measured in a fasting subsample. The composition of movement behaviours was entered into linear regression models via an isometric log ratio transformation and was found to be associated with all health indicators (p < 0.01). Relative to other movement behaviours, time spent in SB or LPA was positively associated (p < 0.04) and time spent in MVPA or sleep was negatively associated (p < 0.02) with obesity risk markers. Similarly, LPA was positively associated (p < 0.005) and sleep was negatively associated (p < 0.03) with unfavourable behavioural strengths and difficulties scores and systolic blood pressure. Relative to other movement behaviours, time spent in SB was negatively associated (p < 0.001) and time spent in MVPA (p < 0.001) was positively associated with aerobic fitness. Likewise, MVPA was also negatively associated with several cardiometabolic risk markers (p < 0.008). Compositional data analyses provide novel insights into collective health implications of 24-h movement behaviours and can facilitate interesting avenues for future investigations.

  14. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13–15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007–2013

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13–15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN. PMID:26891312

  15. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13-15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN.

  16. Promoting Physical Activity among Sedentary Women Using Pedometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Cara L.; Corbin, Charles B.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Sedentary women (n=92) classified as low (L), medium (M), and high (H) in baseline step counts and assigned to 10,000-step goal (TSG) and personal step goal (PSG) groups (within levels) were compared on goal attainment and step counts. A significant interaction for goal attainment, F(2, 86)=4.51, p=.014, indicated that the L group was…

  17. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in European adolescents: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Martínez-Gómez, David; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno, Luis A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Mauro, Beatrice; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Marcos, Ascensión; Beghin, Laurent; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-07-15

    The authors' aim in this cross-sectional study was to characterize levels of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents from 9 European countries. The study comprised 2,200 European adolescents (1,184 girls) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and was expressed as average intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent engaging in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Time spent in sedentary behaviors was also objectively measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by means of the 20-m shuttle run test. Level of maternal education was reported by the adolescents. A higher proportion of boys (56.8% of boys vs. 27.5% of girls) met the physical activity recommendations of at least 60 minutes/day of MVPA. Adolescents spent most of the registered time in sedentary behaviors (9 hours/day, or 71% of the registered time). Both average intensity and MVPA were higher in adolescents with high cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary time was lower in the high-fitness group. There were no physical activity or sedentary time differences between maternal education categories. These data provide an objective measure of physical activity and amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in a relatively large number of European adolescents.

  18. Sedentary behaviors and light-intensity activities in relation to colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Keum, NaNa; Cao, Yin; Oh, Hannah; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Orav, John; Wu, Kana; Fuchs, Charles S; Cho, Eunyoung; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-05-01

    A recent meta-analysis found that sedentary behaviors are associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Yet, the finding on TV viewing time, the most widely used surrogate of sedentary behaviors, was based on only two studies. Furthermore, light-intensity activities (e.g., standing and slow walking), non-sedentary by posture but close to sedentary behaviors by Metabolic Equivalent Task values, have not been investigated in relation to CRC risk. Thus, we prospectively analyzed the relationships based on 69,715 women from Nurses' Health Study (1992-2010) and 36,806 men from Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1988 - 2010). Throughout follow-up, time spent on sedentary behaviors including sitting watching TV and on light-intensity activities were assessed repeatedly; incidence of CRC was ascertained. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models from each cohort. A total of 1,119 and 913 incident cases were documented from women and men, respectively. The multivariable HR comparing ≥ 21 versus < 7 hr/week of sitting watching TV was 1.21 (95% CI = 1.02 to 1.43, ptrend =.01) in women and 1.06 (95% CI = 0.84 to 1.34, ptrend =.93) in men. In women, those highly sedentary and physically less active had an approximately 41% elevated risk of CRC (95% CI = 1.03 to 1.92) compared with those less sedentary and physically more active. The other sedentary behaviors and light-intensity activities were not related to CRC risk in women or men. In conclusion, we found that prolonged sitting time watching TV was associated with an increased CRC risk in women but not in men.

  19. [Physical and sedentary activity as modulating factors of the nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Mascaraque Camino, María; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-07-18

    Sedentary behavior and physical exercise seem to influence the nutritional status of the population independently. In this sense, sedentary behavior is associated inversely with healthy eating patterns and directly with BMI, body fat, risk of chronic diseases and psychological problems. By contrast, regular exercise is associated with a healthier diet and health benefits as the prevention or reduction of excess weight and disease prevention. However, it seems difficult to completely compensate, sedentary behavior and risk factors for health, with physical activity. To improve the nutritional status and health of the population would be advisable to increase non-sedentary behaviors and decrease the time spent in front of the screen. Also, it is encouraged to exercise regularly.

  20. Objectively Quantified Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Predicting Visceral Adiposity and Liver Fat

    PubMed Central

    Pavey, Toby G.; Caterson, Ian D.; George, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and self-reported physical activity levels. However, subjective measurements can be inaccurate and prone to reporter bias. We investigated whether objectively quantified physical activity levels predicted liver fat and VAT in overweight/obese adults. Methods. Habitual physical activity was measured by triaxial accelerometry for four days (n = 82). Time spent in sedentary behavior (MET < 1.6) and light (MET 1.6 < 3), moderate (MET 3 < 6), and vigorous (MET 6 < 9) physical activity was quantified. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to quantify visceral and liver fat. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed. Results. There were no associations between physical activity or sedentary behavior and liver lipid. Sedentary behavior and moderate and vigorous physical activity accounted for just 3% of variance for VAT (p = 0.14) and 0.003% for liver fat (p = 0.96). Higher levels of VAT were associated with time spent in moderate activity (r = 0.294, p = 0.007), but there was no association with sedentary behavior. Known risk factors for obesity-related NAFLD accounted for 62% and 40% of variance in VAT and liver fat, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Objectively measured levels of habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior did not influence VAT or liver fat. PMID:27777796

  1. Weekly Trends in Preschoolers’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Childcare

    PubMed Central

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine how the physical activity levels and sedentary time of preschoolers attending center-based childcare varied across the week. Sex differences were also explored. Participants (n = 101) wore Actical™ accelerometers (15 s epoch) for five consecutive days during childcare hours only. A multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate levels of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity across the five weekdays. Total physical activity (TPA) was analyzed separately in a univariate repeated measures ANOVA. Sex was entered as an additional between-subjects factor. Levels of sedentary time, LPA, and TPA across the week were found to be statistically significant, and can best be described by quadratic effects. Participants’ activity levels and sedentary time typically peaked mid-week. Levels of physical activity and sedentary time were not found to significantly differ based on sex. Childcare centers may benefit from the introduction and/or modification of active play-based programming and curricula, particularly at the start and end of the week where preschoolers’ activity levels tend to be lower. Additional investigations are required to confirm these findings. PMID:25809506

  2. Relationship between Sedentariness and Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Youth: A Multivariate Multilevel Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Hedeker, Donald; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Souza, Michele; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to jointly analyse moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentariness, and their correlates, in children within their school contexts, using a multivariate multilevel approach. The sample comprises 499 Portuguese children (284 girls) from 23 schools. MVPA and sedentary time were estimated by accelerometer. A set of predictor variables from both child and school levels was tested. Overall, schools explained a small amount of the total variance in both MVPA (5.6%) and sedentariness (3.2%), and a correlation coefficient of −0.45 (p < 0.05) was found between MVPA and sedentariness at the child level. Number of siblings and socioeconomic status (SES) were significantly associated with both sedentariness (SES: β = 2.372 ± 1.183; siblings: β = −8.127 ± 2.759) and MPVA (SES: β = −1.535 ± 0.421; siblings: β = 2.822 ± 0.977), but with opposite signs. Body Mass Index (BMI) (β = −4.804 ± 1.898) and sex (male) (β = 21.561 ± 3.496) were only associated with MVPA. None of the school correlates were statistically significant in their joint effects to simultaneously explain sedentariness and MVPA. These results suggest that although MVPA and sedentariness may be different constructs, they are correlated and this should be taken into account when designing strategies to reduce children’s sedentariness and increase their MVPA. In addition, the small effect of the school context on this relationship highlights the important roles of child and family characteristics. PMID:28165401

  3. Relationship between Sedentariness and Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Youth: A Multivariate Multilevel Study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Hedeker, Donald; Dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Souza, Michele; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2017-02-04

    This study aimed to jointly analyse moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentariness, and their correlates, in children within their school contexts, using a multivariate multilevel approach. The sample comprises 499 Portuguese children (284 girls) from 23 schools. MVPA and sedentary time were estimated by accelerometer. A set of predictor variables from both child and school levels was tested. Overall, schools explained a small amount of the total variance in both MVPA (5.6%) and sedentariness (3.2%), and a correlation coefficient of -0.45 (p < 0.05) was found between MVPA and sedentariness at the child level. Number of siblings and socioeconomic status (SES) were significantly associated with both sedentariness (SES: β = 2.372 ± 1.183; siblings: β = -8.127 ± 2.759) and MPVA (SES: β = -1.535 ± 0.421; siblings: β = 2.822 ± 0.977), but with opposite signs. Body Mass Index (BMI) (β = -4.804 ± 1.898) and sex (male) (β = 21.561 ± 3.496) were only associated with MVPA. None of the school correlates were statistically significant in their joint effects to simultaneously explain sedentariness and MVPA. These results suggest that although MVPA and sedentariness may be different constructs, they are correlated and this should be taken into account when designing strategies to reduce children's sedentariness and increase their MVPA. In addition, the small effect of the school context on this relationship highlights the important roles of child and family characteristics.

  4. Physical activities and sedentary pursuits in African American and Caucasian girls.

    PubMed

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R; Felton, Gwen M; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S; Dishman, Rod K; Trost, Stewart G

    2004-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure participation in physical activities and sedentary pursuits. The most frequently reported physical activities were walking, basketball, jogging or running, bicycling, and social dancing. Differences between groups were found in 11 physical activities and 3 sedentary pursuits. Participation rates were higher in African American girls (p < or = .001) for social dancing, basketball, watching television, and church attendance but lower in calisthenics, ballet and other dance, jogging or running, rollerblading, soccer, softball or baseball, using an exercise machine, swimming, and homework. Cultural differences of groups should be considered when planning interventions to promote physical activity.

  5. Breaking-up sedentary time is associated with impairment in activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Luis B; Ekelund, Ulf; dos Santos, Leandro; Cyrino, Edilson S; Silva, Analiza M; Santos, Diana A

    2015-12-01

    Identifying modifiable behaviors associated with prevention of activities of daily living (ADL) impairments is vital to implement preventive strategies for independent living in elderly. We aimed to examine the associations between objectively measured breaks in sedentary time with ADL impairments and physical independence. Cross-sectional assessments were carried out in 371 participants (131 male) aged 65-103 years from the Portuguese surveillance system of physical activity. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) were assessed with accelerometry, and ADL impairments and physical independence with the self-reported 12-item composite physical function scale. Using ROC analyses a cut-off of 7 hourly breaks in sedentary time was identified which maximized the sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing physical dependence. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that, independently of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), participants performing ≤ 7 hourly breaks in sedentary time had 2 to 7 fold increased odds for impairment in 10 of the 12 ADL. When stratifying ADL into basic, instrumental and advanced ADL we verified that less than 7 hourly breaks in sedentary time was associated with a 2 to 5 fold increased odds for impairments and physical dependence, independent of MVPA. No associations were observed between meeting PA guidelines and basic, instrumental, and advanced ADL impairment although time in MVPA was lower in participants showing impairments. In conclusion, the frequency of breaks in sedentary time in older ages is independently associated with lower risk for ADL impairments and physical dependence. Our findings support interventions to encourage older adults to increase overall PA by interrupting sedentary time.

  6. Physical activity but not sedentary activity is reduced in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wan-Fai; Miller, Ariana; Bowman, Simon J; Price, Elizabeth J; Kitas, George D; Pease, Colin; Emery, Paul; Lanyon, Peter; Hunter, John; Gupta, Monica; Giles, Ian; Isenberg, David; McLaren, John; Regan, Marian; Cooper, Annie; Young-Min, Steven A; McHugh, Neil; Vadivelu, Saravanan; Moots, Robert J; Coady, David; MacKay, Kirsten; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Bombardieri, Michele; Pitzalis, Costantino; Griffiths, Bridget; Mitchell, Sheryl; Miyamoto, Samira Tatiyama; Trenell, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the levels of physical activity in individuals with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) and its relationship to the clinical features of PSS. To this cross-sectional study, self-reported levels of physical activity from 273 PSS patients were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) and were compared with healthy controls matched for age, sex and body mass index. Fatigue and other clinical aspects of PSS including disease status, dryness, daytime sleepiness, dysautonomia, anxiety and depression were assessed using validated tools. Individuals with PSS had significantly reduced levels of physical activity [median (interquartile range, IQR) 1572 (594-3158) versus 3708 (1732-8255) metabolic equivalent of task (MET) × min/week, p < 0.001], but similar levels of sedentary activity [median (IQR) min 300 (135-375) versus 343 (223-433) (MET) × min/week, p = 0.532] compared to healthy individuals. Differences in physical activity between PSS and controls increased at moderate [median (IQR) 0 (0-480) versus 1560 (570-3900) MET × min/week, p < 0.001] and vigorous intensities [median (IQR) 0 (0-480) versus 480 (0-1920) MET × min/week, p < 0.001]. Correlation analysis revealed a significant association between physical activity and fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, depressive symptoms and quality of life. Sedentary activity did not correlate with fatigue. Stepwise linear regression analysis identified symptoms of depression and daytime sleepiness as independent predictors of levels of physical activity. Physical activity is reduced in people with PSS and is associated with symptoms of depression and daytime sleepiness. Sedentary activity is not increased in PSS. Clinical care teams should explore the clinical utility of targeting low levels of physical activity in PSS.

  7. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Dietary Behaviors among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Shannon; Demissie, Zewditu; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. Purpose. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS). Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Results. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA) and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA) were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV) and computer/video game (C/VG) screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth. PMID:26101666

  8. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Breast Cancer Survivors: New Insight into Activity Patterns and Potential Intervention Targets

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Siobhan M.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Steeves, Jeremy; McClain, James; Alfano, Catherine M.; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background Inactivity and sedentary behavior are related to poorer health outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, few studies examining these behaviors in survivors have used objective measures, considered activities other than moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity (MVPA) and/or sedentary behavior (i.e. low intensity activities) or compared survivors to healthy controls. The purpose of the present study is to compare accelerometer-measured activity of various intensities (total, light, lifestyle, MVPA) and sedentary behavior between breast cancer survivors and non-cancer controls. Methods An imputation-based approach of independent sample t-tests adjusting for multiple comparisons was used to compare estimates of participation in each activity and sedentary behavior between survivors [n=398; M(SD)age=56.95 (9.11)] and block-matched non-cancer controls [n=1120; M(SD)age=54.88 (16.11)]. Potential moderating effects of body mass index (BMI), age, and education were also examined. Results Breast cancer survivors registered less daily total (282.8 v. 346.9) light (199.1 v. 259.3) and lifestyle (62.0 v. 71.7) activity minutes and more MVPA (21.6 v. 15.9) and sedentary behavior (555.7 v. 500.6) minutes than controls (p<0.001 for all). These relationships were largely consistent across BMI, age and education. On average, survivors spent an estimated 66.4% of their waking time sedentary and 31.1% in light/lifestyle activity and 2.6% in MVPA. Conclusions Breast cancer survivors are more sedentary and participate in less low intensity activity than controls. Although survivors registered more MVPA, these levels were insufficient. Future research should explore these differences and potential benefits of targeting low intensity activities and reducing sedentary time in this population. PMID:26026737

  9. Perceived and Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among South Asian Women in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Whitney Babakus; Duda, Joan L.; Thompson, Janice L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Limited self-report data suggest that South Asian (SA) women fail to meet physical activity (PA) recommendations. Recent research using objective measures reveals SA women living in the UK have higher PA levels than previously reported, and a pattern of under-reporting PA and sedentary time (ST). There is limited research on SA women’s understanding and experiences of PA/ST, and the cultural contexts and conditions within which they occur. Therefore the aims of this mixed-methods study were to compare perceived PA and ST to objectively measured data and explore PA- and ST-specific contexts, experiences, and sources of PA and ST amongst SA women in the UK. Methods: 24 women were purposively sampled to participate in a semi-structured interview from a larger study of 140 women who wore an accelerometer for 7 days. Demographic and anthropometric data were also collected. Results: Notable qualitative themes on contextualisation were of adequate PA as “keeping busy” or “being healthy”, and of ST as “lazy” or “resting in old age”. Few participants reported being sedentary, and most believed they were sufficiently physically active. Objectively measured PA/ST indicated that 66% women were less active than perceived (with regard to duration and intensity), with none able to estimate duration of ST. Discussion: Findings suggest that overall, SA women have contextualisations of PA/ST that may not coincide with those of researchers, health professionals and policy makers, and lack awareness of the intensity of PA in which they engage and the health risks of high levels of ST. These findings highlight the need for objective measures of PA and ST in this population combined with in-depth qualitative assessments to provide more accurate assessments of these behaviours. This information can subsequently be used to develop health promotion messages and interventions focusing on increasing duration and/or intensity levels of daily activities (e

  10. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  11. Impact of Policy Environment Characteristics on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Children Attending Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Beighle, Aaron; Moore, Justin B.; Webster, Collin; Ajja, Rahma; Weaver, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    State and national organizations recently developed policies focused on increasing physical activity (PA) in afterschool programs (ASPs). These policies emphasize "activity friendly" environment characteristics that, when present, should lead to higher levels of PA and reduce the amount of time children spend sedentary during an ASP.…

  12. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  13. Schoolyard Characteristics, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior: Combining GPS and Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kann, Dave H. H.; de Vries, Sanne I.; Schipperijn, Jasper; de Vries, Nanne K.; Jansen, Maria W. J.; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is decreasing among children, while sedentary behavior (SB) is increasing. Schoolyards seem suitable settings to influence children's PA behavior. This study investigated the associations between schoolyard characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB of children aged 8-11 years at…

  14. Recent advances in the link between physical activity, sedentary behavior, physical fitness, and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Namasivayam, Vikneswaran; Lim, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Recent studies have characterized physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and cardiorespiratory fitness as distinct, interrelated constructs that influence the risk of CRC and related outcomes. PA levels required to confer protection against CRC may be higher than previously thought. Sedentary behavior, defined as time spent sitting, increases CRC risk independent of PA and may require novel interventions distinct from those targeting PA. Finally, cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with CRC risk and mortality and may provide a potential tool for risk stratification and intervention. PMID:28344777

  15. Measurement of Ad Libitum Food Intake, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Time in Response to Overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianying; Votruba, Susanne; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Bonfiglio, Susan; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Given the wide availability of highly palatable foods, overeating is common. Energy intake and metabolic responses to overfeeding may provide insights into weight gain prevention. We hypothesized a down-regulation in subsequent food intake and sedentary time, and up-regulation in non-exercise activity and core temperature in response to overfeeding in order to maintain body weight constant. In a monitored inpatient clinical research unit using a cross over study design, we investigated ad libitum energy intake (EI, using automated vending machines), core body temperature, and physical activity (using accelerometry) following a short term (3-day) weight maintaining (WM) vs overfeeding (OF) diet in healthy volunteers (n = 21, BMI, mean ± SD, 33.2±8.6 kg/m2, 73.6% male). During the ad libitum periods following the WM vs. OF diets, there was no significant difference in mean 3-d EI (4061±1084 vs. 3926±1284 kcal/day, p = 0.41), and there were also no differences either in core body temperature (37.0±0.2°C vs. 37.1±0.2°C, p = 0.75) or sedentary time (70.9±12.9 vs. 72.0±7.4%, p = 0.88). However, during OF (but not WM), sedentary time was positively associated with weight gain (r = 0.49, p = 0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and initial weight). In conclusion, short term overfeeding did not result in a decrease in subsequent ad libitum food intake or overall change in sedentary time although in secondary analysis sedentary time was associated with weight gain during OF. Beyond possible changes in sedentary time, there is minimal attempt to restore energy balance during or following short term overfeeding. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342732 PMID:22629311

  16. Serum metabolites related to cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity energy expenditure, sedentary time and vigorous activity.

    PubMed

    Wientzek, Angelika; Floegel, Anna; Knüppel, Sven; Vigl, Matthaeus; Drogan, Dagmar; Adamski, Jerzy; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and serum metabolites measured by targeted metabolomics in a population- based study. A total of 100 subjects provided 2 fasting blood samples and engaged in a CRF and PA measurement at 2 visits 4 months apart. CRF was estimated from a step test, whereas physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), time spent sedentary and time spend in vigorous activity were measured by a combined heart rate and movement sensor for a total of 8 days. Serum metabolite concentrations were determined by flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-MS/MS). Linear mixed models were applied with multivariable adjustment and p-values were corrected for multiple testing. Furthermore, we explored the associations between CRF, PA and two metabolite factors that have previously been linked to risk of Type 2 diabetes. CRF was associated with two phosphatidylcholine clusters independently of all other exposures. Lysophosphatidylcholine C14:0 and methionine were significantly negatively associated with PAEE and sedentary time. CRF was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. Vigorous activity was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes risk factor in the mutually adjusted model. Our results suggest that CRF and PA are associated with serum metabolites, especially CRF with phosphatidylcholines and with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. PAEE and sedentary time were associated with methionine. The identified metabolites could be potential mediators of the protective effects of CRF and PA on chronic disease risk.

  17. Context-Specific Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With Cognition in Children

    PubMed Central

    Aggio, Daniel; Smith, Lee; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated how overall and specific domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at the age of 7 years were associated with cognition at the age of 11 years in 8,462 children from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data were collected from 2001 to 2013. Participation in domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at 7 years of age were reported. Activity levels were also measured objectively. Cognition was assessed using the British Ability Scales. General linear models were used to assess longitudinal associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior, measured both objectively and via self-report, with cognition. Analyses were adjusted for prespecified covariates. Sports/physical activity club attendance (B = 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.1), doing homework (B = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.0, 0.9), and objectively measured sedentary time (B = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.1, 1.4) at age 7 years were positively associated with cognition at age 11 years in final the models. Television viewing was negatively associated with cognition (B = −1.7, 95% CI: −2.4, −1.0), although the association was attenuated to the null after adjustments for baseline cognition. Objectively measured light physical activity was inversely associated with cognition (B = −0.7, 95% CI: −1.3, −0.1). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was also inversely associated with cognition in girls only (B = −1.1, 95% CI: −2.0, −0.3). Associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with cognition appear to be context-specific in young people. PMID:27226249

  18. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical and Sedentary Activities of Early Adolescent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Westling, Erika; Crowley, Ryann; Light, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines physical and sedentary activities of early adolescent boys and girls using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), a method that can link mood and behaviors in specific social situations. Twenty-seven assessments were collected across 7 days from 82 participating adolescents, three times in seventh grade and one time in eighth…

  19. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB. Methods:…

  20. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Method: Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5 to 18 years old enrolled in 58…

  1. Comparison of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors between Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Without

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Stephanie M.; Jakicic, John M.; Barone Gibbs, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were…

  2. Mediated Effects of Perceived Competence on Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Yang; Chen, Senlin; Vazou, Spyridoula; Welk, Gregory J.; Schaben, Jodee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates whether physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are influenced by a common mediating relationship. Method: A total of 1,552 participants in 3rd to 12th grade completed an online survey that included assessments of PA at school (PAS), PA at home (PAH), and SB as well as a battery of psychosocial variables…

  3. Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior of Youth with Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Li, Dongmei; Heinrich, Katie M.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in childhood are important indicators of present and future health and are associated with school-related outcomes such as academic achievement, behavior, peer relationships, and self-esteem. Using logistic regression models that controlled for gender, age, ethnicity/race, and socioeconomic…

  4. Physical activity and sedentary activity patterns among children and adolescents: a latent class analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, Carrie; Lytle, Leslie; Erickson, Darin; Sirard, John; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Story, Marry

    2010-01-01

    Background While much is known about the overall levels of physical activity and sedentary activity among youth, few studies have attempted to define clusters of such behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of youth based on their participation in a variety of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods Latent class analysis was used to characterize segments of youth based on patterns of self-reported and accelerometer-measured participation in 12 behaviors. Children and adolescents (N=720) from 6th–11th grade were included in the analysis. Differences in class membership were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Results Three distinct classes emerged for boys and girls. Among boys, the three classes were characterized as: (1) “Active” (42.1%), (2) “Sedentary” (24.9%), and (3) “Low Media/Moderate Activity” (33.0%). For girls, classes were: (1) “Active” (18.7%), (2) “Sedentary” (47.6%), and (3) “Low Media/Functional Activity” (33.7%). Significant differences were found between the classes for a number of demographic indicators including the proportion in each class who were classified as overweight or obese. Conclusions The behavioral profiles of the classes identified in this study can be used to suggest possible audience segments for intervention and to tailor strategies appropriately. PMID:21597117

  5. Validation of the Actigraph GT3X and ActivPAL Accelerometers for the Assessment of Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngdeok; Barry, Vaughn W.; Kang, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined (a) the validity of two accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X [ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL, USA] and activPAL [PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland]) for the assessment of sedentary behavior; and (b) the variations in assessment accuracy by setting minimum sedentary bout durations against a proxy for direct observation using an…

  6. Interaction of sedentary behaviour, sports participation and fitness with weight status in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-01-01

    Even though the effect of single components contributing to weight gain in children have been addressed only limited research is available on the combined association of sports participation, physical fitness and time spent watching TV with body weight in children. Baseline data from 1594 children (809 male; 785 female), 7.1 ± 0.6 years of age participating in a large school-based intervention in southern Germany was used. Height and weight was measured and body mass index (BMI) percentiles (BMIPCT) were determined accordingly. Sports participation and time spent watching TV was assessed via parent questionnaire while fitness was determined via a composite fitness test. Combined and single associations of sports participation, TV time and fitness with BMIPCT and weight status were assessed via ANCOVA as well as logistic regression analysis, controlling for age and sex. A significant interaction of TV time, sports participation and fitness on BMIPCT occurred, despite low correlations among the three components. Further, there was a combined association of sports participation and TV time on BMIPCT. TV time and fitness were also independently associated with BMIPCT. Similarly, only increased TV time and lower fitness were associated with a higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity. These results underline the complex interaction of TV time, sports participation and fitness with BMIPCT. In children, TV time and fitness have a stronger influence on BMIPCT compared to sports participation. Sports participation, however, may not reflect overall activity levels of children appropriately. More research is necessary to examine the complex interaction of various behaviours and fitness with BMIPCT.

  7. Maternal physical and sedentary activities in relation to reproductive outcomes following IVF.

    PubMed

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Paige L; Keller, Myra G; Souter, Irene; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity could benefit reproductive function through its ability to regulate energy balance and improve insulin sensitivity, but its association with IVF outcomes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pre-treatment physical and sedentary activity is associated with outcomes of IVF. The Environment and Reproductive Health Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that enrols subfertile couples at Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center. Time spent in physical and sedentary activities in the year before IVF treatment is self-reported using a validated questionnaire. This analysis included 273 women who underwent 427 IVF cycles. Women engaged in a median of 2.8 h per week of moderate-to-vigorous activities. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activities and total metabolic equivalent task hours before IVF were not associated with probability of implantation, clinical pregnancy or live birth. Of the specific physical activities, only greater time spent in aerobics, rowing, and on the ski or stair machine was associated with higher probability of live birth. Time spent in total and specific sedentary activities were not associated with clinical outcomes of IVF. Physical activity is unlikely to have a deleterious effect on IVF success and certain forms of vigorous activity may be beneficial.

  8. Prevalence of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Among Stroke Survivors in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Eboneé N.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of stroke is greatest among adults who have experienced a previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or myocardial infarction. Physical activity may reduce the secondary risk of stroke through mediating effects on blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and circulating lipid concentrations; however, little is known about the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States. Methods Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we describe self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior among adults with a self-reported history of stroke. We also contrast physical activity among stroke survivors with that of adults without stroke (unexposed) to illustrate expected behavior in the absence of disease. Results Fewer participants with stroke met weekly physical activity guidelines as outlined in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans when compared with unexposed participants (17.9% vs 25.0%) according to self-reported data. In addition, participants with stroke reported less moderate (46.1% vs 54.7%) and vigorous (9.1% vs 19.6%) leisure activity compared with unexposed participants. As measured by accelerometer, time since diagnosis was inversely associated with physical activity engagement, and participants with stroke recorded more daily hours of sedentary behavior compared with unexposed participants (10.1 hours vs 8.9 hours). Conclusion Findings from this study provide a basis for future work seeking to measure the impact of physical activity on the secondary prevention of stroke by characterizing the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States. PMID:24985392

  9. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Michaliszyn, Sara Fleet; Faulkner, Melissa Spezia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the associations between levels of physical activity measured by accelerometry and changes in fitness, body composition, lipids, and glucose control (i.e., glycosolated hemoglobin [A1C]) in a sample of 16 adolescents with type 1 diabetes participating in a personalized exercise program. More sedentary activity was associated with lower fitness and fat free mass and increased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and triglycerides (p < .05). Greater amounts of moderate to vigorous activity were associated with higher fitness and fat free mass, and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-c, triglycerides, and A1C (p < .05). Findings support the beneficial effects of increased moderate activity and decreased sedentary behavior to reduce cardiovascular risks and improve glucose control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:20672318

  10. 24 Hours of Sleep, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Activity with Nine Wearable Devices

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Mary E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Haskell, William L.; McConnell, Michael V.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Getting enough sleep, exercising and limiting sedentary activities can greatly contribute to disease prevention and overall health and longevity. Measuring the full 24-hour activity cycle - sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) - may now be feasible using small wearable devices. PURPOSE This study compares nine devices for accuracy in 24-hour activity measurement. METHODS Adults (N=40, 47% male) wore nine devices for 24-hours: Actigraph GT3X+, activPAL, Fitbit One, GENEactiv, Jawbone Up, LUMOback, Nike Fuelband, Omron pedometer, and Z-Machine. Comparisons (to standards) were made for total sleep time (Z-machine), time spent in SED (activPAL), LPA (GT3x+), MVPA (GT3x+), and steps (Omron). Analysis included mean absolute percent error, equivalence testing, and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS Error rates ranged from 8.1–16.9% for sleep; 9.5–65.8% for SED; 19.7–28.0% for LPA; 51.8–92% for MVPA; and 14.1–29.9% for steps. Equivalence testing indicated only two comparisons were significantly equivalent to standards: the LUMOback for sedentary behavior and the GT3X+ for sleep. Bland-Altman plots indicated GT3X+ had the closest measurement for sleep, LUMOback for sedentary behavior, GENEactiv for LPA, Fitbit for MVPA and GT3X+ for steps. CONCLUSIONS Currently, no device accurately captures activity data across the entire 24-hour day, but the future of activity measurement should aim for accurate 24-hour measurement as a goal. Researchers should continue to select measurement devices based on their primary outcomes of interest. PMID:26484953

  11. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and

  12. Investigating children's physical activity and sedentary behavior using ecological momentary assessment with mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Liao, Yue; Intille, Stephen S; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Maryann

    2011-06-01

    The risk of obesity during childhood can be significantly reduced through increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behavior. Recent technological advances have created opportunities for the real-time measurement of these behaviors. Mobile phones are ubiquitous and easy to use, and thus have the capacity to collect data from large numbers of people. The present study tested the feasibility, acceptability, and validity of an electronic ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol using electronic surveys administered on the display screen of mobile phones to assess children's physical activity and sedentary behaviors. A total of 121 children (ages 9-13, 51% male, 38% at risk for overweight/overweight) participated in EMA monitoring from Friday afternoon to Monday evening during children's nonschool time, with 3-7 surveys/day. Items assessed current activity (e.g., watching TV/movies, playing video games, active play/sports/exercising). Children simultaneously wore an Actigraph GT2M accelerometer. EMA survey responses were time-matched to total step counts and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) occurring in the 30 min before each EMA survey prompt. No significant differences between answered and unanswered EMA surveys were found for total steps or MVPA. Step counts and the likelihood of 5+ min of MVPA were significantly higher during EMA-reported physical activity (active play/sports/exercising) vs. sedentary behaviors (reading/computer/homework, watching TV/movies, playing video games, riding in a car) (P < 0.001). Findings generally support the acceptability and validity of a 4-day EMA protocol using mobile phones to measure physical activity and sedentary behavior in children during leisure time.

  13. Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries among Sedentary and Physically Active Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hootman, Jennifer M.; Macera, Carol A.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Martin, Malissa; Blair, Steven N.

    2002-01-01

    Examined types and frequencies of musculoskeletal injuries among adults with above average activity levels enrolled in the Dallas Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Participant surveys and examinations indicated that one-quarter of all respondents reported musculoskeletal injuries (most of which were activity- related). Sport participants had the…

  14. What Is the Effect on Obesity Indicators from Replacing Prolonged Sedentary Time with Brief Sedentary Bouts, Standing and Different Types of Physical Activity during Working Days? A Cross-Sectional Accelerometer-Based Study among Blue-Collar Workers

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Aadahl, Mette; Korshøj, Mette; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to investigate if (a) substituting total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing or various types of physical activity and (b) substituting long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts; is associated with obesity indicators using a cross sectional isotemporal substitution approach among blue-collar workers. Methods A total of 692 workers from transportation, manufacturing and cleaning sectors wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer on the thigh for 1–4 working days. The sedentary (sit and lie), standing, walking, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time on working days was computed using validated Acti4 software. The total sedentary time and uninterrupted sedentary time spent in brief (≤5 mins), moderate (>5 and ≤30 mins), and long (>30mins) bouts, were determined for the whole day and during work and non-work time separately. The obesity indicators, BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm) and fat percentage were objectively measured. Isotemporal substitution modelling was utilized to determine the linear association with obesity indicators of replacing 30 min of total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing, walking or MVPA and separately replacing 30 min of long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts. Results Workers [mean (standard deviation, SD); age = 45.1 (9.9) years, BMI = 27.5 (4.9) kg/m2, %BF = 29.6 (9.5), waist circumference = 94.4 (13.0) cm] sat for 2.4 hours (~32% of the measured time, SD = 1.8 hours) across the day during work period and 5.5 hours (~62% of the measured time, SD = 1.5 hours) during non-work period. Most of the sedentary time was accrued in moderate bouts [work = 1.40 (SD = 1.09) hours] during work and in long bouts during non-work [2.7 (SD = 1.4) hours], while least in long sedentary bouts during work [work = 0.5 (SD = 0.9)] and in brief sedentary bouts [0.5 hours (SD = 0.3)] during non-work. Significant associations with all obesity indicators were

  15. Advertisements for children’s entertainment products in a popular parenting magazine: sedentary or active?

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey H.; Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Cadorett, Valerie; Basch, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements of children’s entertainment products in a popular magazine, Parents, and to determine if they illustrated behavior that was physically active or sedentary. Methods: The sample was comprised of Parents magazines (January 2010 to December 2015). Coding involved determining if the advertisement was promoting sedentary or active behavior. Results: Nearly all of the 169 advertisements in the sample (n = 166; 97.6%) were for products that depicted sedentary behavior. The most common types of entertainment products advertised were DVDs (n = 72), plastic stacking products (n = 18), books (n=14), and electronic devices (n = 13). The most popular theme that appeared in the advertisements was the entertainment product would enhance intelligence (n = 85; 50.3%, 95% CI: 0.43-0.58). The overwhelming majority (n = 136; 80.5%. 95% CI: 0.76-0.87) of the advertisements involved the presence of a character. Conclusion: This type of advertising does not contribute to the nation’s goals of increasing physical activity among youth. PMID:28058242

  16. Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior of Youth With Learning Disabilities and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cook, Bryan G; Li, Dongmei; Heinrich, Katie M

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in childhood are important indicators of present and future health and are associated with school-related outcomes such as academic achievement, behavior, peer relationships, and self-esteem. Using logistic regression models that controlled for gender, age, ethnicity/race, and socioeconomic status, we investigated the likelihood that youth with learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are obese, physically active, and sedentary using a nationally representative sample of 45,897 youth in the United States from 10 to 17 years of age. Results indicated that youth with comorbid LD/ADHD were significantly more likely than peers without LD or ADHD to be obese; that youth with LD only, ADHD only, and comorbid LD/ADHD were significantly less likely to meet recommended levels of physical activity; and that youth with LD only were significantly more likely to exceed recommended levels of sedentary behavior. Medication status mediated outcomes for youth with ADHD. We offer school-based recommendations for improving health-related outcomes for students with LD and ADHD.

  17. Obesity, physical activity and sedentary behavior amongst British and Saudi youth: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Al-Nuaim, Anwar; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Duncan, Michael J; Nevill, Alan

    2012-04-01

    This study explores differences in weight status, obesity and patterns of physical activity (PA) in relation to gender and age of youth from two culturally, environmentally and geographically diverse countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Saudi Arabia (SA). A total of 2,290 males and females (15-17 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants completed a validated self-report questionnaire that contained 47 items relating to patterns of PA, sedentary activity and eating habits. The questionnaire allows the calculation of total energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent (MET-min) values per week. Significant differences in percentage of overweight/obese and levels of PA were evident between the youth from the two countries, with males being generally more physically active than females. Additionally, there were significant associations between Body Mass Index (BMI), PA and sedentary behaviors; the youth with higher BMI reported lower levels of PA and higher amounts of sedentary time. These findings highlight the diverse nature of lifestyle of youth living in different geographical areas of the world and the need for further research to explore the socio-cultural factors that impact on the prevalence of obesity and patterns of PA of youth in different populations.

  18. Advertisements for children's entertainment products in a popular parenting magazine: sedentary or active?

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Cadorett, Valerie; Basch, Charles E

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements of children's entertainment products in a popular magazine, Parents, and to determine if they illustrated behavior that was physically active or sedentary. Methods: The sample was comprised of Parents magazines (January 2010 to December 2015). Coding involved determining if the advertisement was promoting sedentary or active behavior. Results: Nearly all of the 169 advertisements in the sample (n = 166; 97.6%) were for products that depicted sedentary behavior. The most common types of entertainment products advertised were DVDs (n = 72), plastic stacking products (n = 18), books (n=14), and electronic devices (n = 13). The most popular theme that appeared in the advertisements was the entertainment product would enhance intelligence (n = 85; 50.3%, 95% CI: 0.43-0.58). The overwhelming majority (n = 136; 80.5%. 95% CI: 0.76-0.87) of the advertisements involved the presence of a character. Conclusion: This type of advertising does not contribute to the nation's goals of increasing physical activity among youth.

  19. Differences in gut microbiota profile between women with active lifestyle and sedentary women

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Santiago, Jennifer; González-Soltero, Rocío; Pérez, Margarita; Montalvo-Lominchar, Maria Gregoria; Maté-Muñoz, Jose Luis; Domínguez, Raúl; Moreno, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is a tool to prevent and treat some of the chronic diseases affecting the world’s population. A mechanism through which exercise could exert beneficial effects in the body is by provoking alterations to the gut microbiota, an environmental factor that in recent years has been associated with numerous chronic diseases. Here we show that physical exercise performed by women to at least the degree recommended by the World Health Organization can modify the composition of gut microbiota. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16s rRNA gene, eleven genera were found to be significantly different between active and sedentary women. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed higher abundance of health-promoting bacterial species in active women, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis and Akkermansia muciniphila. Moreover, body fat percentage, muscular mass and physical activity significantly correlated with several bacterial populations. In summary, we provide the first demonstration of interdependence between some bacterial genera and sedentary behavior parameters, and show that not only does the dose and type of exercise influence the composition of gut microbiota, but also the breaking of sedentary behavior. PMID:28187199

  20. Differences in gut microbiota profile between women with active lifestyle and sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Bressa, Carlo; Bailén-Andrino, María; Pérez-Santiago, Jennifer; González-Soltero, Rocío; Pérez, Margarita; Montalvo-Lominchar, Maria Gregoria; Maté-Muñoz, Jose Luis; Domínguez, Raúl; Moreno, Diego; Larrosa, Mar

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is a tool to prevent and treat some of the chronic diseases affecting the world's population. A mechanism through which exercise could exert beneficial effects in the body is by provoking alterations to the gut microbiota, an environmental factor that in recent years has been associated with numerous chronic diseases. Here we show that physical exercise performed by women to at least the degree recommended by the World Health Organization can modify the composition of gut microbiota. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16s rRNA gene, eleven genera were found to be significantly different between active and sedentary women. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed higher abundance of health-promoting bacterial species in active women, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis and Akkermansia muciniphila. Moreover, body fat percentage, muscular mass and physical activity significantly correlated with several bacterial populations. In summary, we provide the first demonstration of interdependence between some bacterial genera and sedentary behavior parameters, and show that not only does the dose and type of exercise influence the composition of gut microbiota, but also the breaking of sedentary behavior.

  1. Feasibility of using a compact elliptical device to increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities

    PubMed Central

    Rovniak, Liza S.; Denlinger, LeAnn; Duveneck, Ellen; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Kong, Lan; Freivalds, Andris; Ray, Chester A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a compact elliptical device to increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities. A secondary aim was to evaluate if two accelerometers attached to the elliptical device could provide reliable and valid assessments of participants’ frequency and duration of elliptical device use. Design Physically inactive adults (n = 32, age range = 25–65) were recruited through local advertisements and selected using stratified random sampling based on sex, body mass index (BMI), and age. Methods Indirect calorimetry was used to assess participants’ energy expenditure while seated and while using the elliptical device at a self-selected intensity level. Participants also self-reported their interest in using the elliptical device during sedentary activities. Two Actigraph GT3X accelerometers were attached to the elliptical device to record time-use patterns. Results Participants expended a median of 179.1 kilocalories per hour while using the elliptical device (range = 108.2–269.0), or a median of 87.9 more kilocalories (range = 19.7–178.6) than they would expend per hour of sedentary sitting. Participants reported high interest in using the elliptical device during TV watching and computer work, but relatively low interest in using the device during office meetings. Women reported greater interest in using the elliptical device than men. The two accelerometers recorded identical time-use patterns on the elliptical device and demonstrated concurrent validity with time-stamped computer records. Conclusions Compact elliptical devices could increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities, and may provide proximal environmental cues for increasing energy expenditure across multiple life domains. PMID:24035273

  2. Shift workers have similar leisure-time physical activity levels as day workers but are more sedentary at work.

    PubMed

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Gupta, Nidhi; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Physical inactivity has been hypothesized as an underlying factor for the association between shift work and adverse health outcomes. We compared leisure-time and occupational physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Methods We identified 612 day workers, 139 night shift workers and 61 non-night shift workers aged 18-65 years (54% men) in two Danish studies: the New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD) and the Danish Physical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) between 2011-2013. Sedentary behavior, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Physical activity was expressed as percentage of leisure and work time spent in each activity. Linear regression analyses were used to test differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Results No differences in leisure-time sedentary behavior and physical activity were observed between day and shift workers (P>0.05). Non-night shift workers spent 7.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.3-12.1) more time in occupational sedentary behavior than day workers and 5.9% (95% CI -10.1- -1.7) and 1.9% (95% CI -3.7- -0.2) less time in occupational light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. Compared to day workers, night shift workers spent 4.3% (95% CI 2.4-6.1) more time at work in uninterrupted sedentary periods of ≥30 minutes. Conclusions Shift workers had similar leisure-time physical activity patterns as day workers, but were more sedentary at work. Future research should elucidate whether occupational physical inactivity and sedentary behavior contributes to shift work-related adverse health effects.

  3. Retention of sedentary obese visceral white adipose tissue phenotype with intermittent physical activity despite reduced adiposity.

    PubMed

    Wainright, Katherine S; Fleming, Nicholas J; Rowles, Joe L; Welly, Rebecca J; Zidon, Terese M; Park, Young-Min; Gaines, T'Keaya L; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Padilla, Jaume

    2015-09-01

    Regular physical activity is effective in reducing visceral white adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and oxidative stress, and these changes are commonly associated with reduced adiposity. However, the impact of multiple periods of physical activity, intercalated by periods of inactivity, i.e., intermittent physical activity, on markers of AT inflammation and oxidative stress is unknown. In the present study, 5-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into three groups (n = 10/group): sedentary, regular physical activity, and intermittent physical activity, for 24 wk. All animals were singly housed and fed a diet containing 45% kcal from fat. Regularly active mice had access to voluntary running wheels throughout the study period, whereas intermittently active mice had access to running wheels for 3-wk intervals (i.e., 3 wk on/3 wk off) throughout the study. At death, regular and intermittent physical activity was associated with similar reductions in visceral AT mass (approximately -24%, P < 0.05) relative to sedentary. However, regularly, but not intermittently, active mice exhibited decreased expression of visceral AT genes related to inflammation (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD68, CD11c, F4/80, CD11b/CD18), oxidative stress (e.g., p47 phagocyte oxidase), and endoplasmic reticulum stress (e.g., CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein; all P < 0.05). Furthermore, regular, but not intermittent, physical activity was associated with a trend toward improvement in glucose tolerance (P = 0.059). Collectively, these findings suggest that intermittent physical activity over a prolonged period of time may lead to a reduction in adiposity but with retention of a sedentary obese white AT and metabolic phenotype.

  4. Estimating Activity and Sedentary Behavior From an Accelerometer on the Hip or Wrist

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Mary E.; Haskell, William L.; Albinali, Fahd; Mota, Selene; Nawyn, Jason; Intille, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Previously the National Health and Examination Survey measured physical activity with an accelerometer worn on the hip for seven days, but recently changed the location of the monitor to the wrist. PURPOSE This study compared estimates of physical activity intensity and type with an accelerometer on the hip versus the wrist. METHODS Healthy adults (n=37) wore triaxial accelerometers (Wockets) on the hip and dominant wrist along with a portable metabolic unit to measure energy expenditure during 20 activities. Motion summary counts were created, then receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine sedentary and activity intensity thresholds. Ambulatory activities were separated from other activities using the coefficient of variation (CV) of the counts. Mixed model predictions were used to estimate activity intensity. RESULTS The ROC for determining sedentary behavior had greater sensitivity and specificity (71% and 96%) at the hip than the wrist (53% and 76%), as did the ROC for moderate to vigorous physical activity on the hip (70% and 83%) versus the wrist (30% and 69%). The ROC for the CV associated with ambulation had a larger AUC at the hip compared to the wrist (0.83 and 0.74). The prediction model for activity energy expenditure (AEE) resulted in an average difference of 0.55 (+/− 0.55) METs on the hip and 0.82 (+/− 0.93) METs on the wrist. CONCLUSIONS Methods frequently used for estimating AEE and identifying activity intensity thresholds from an accelerometer on the hip generally do better than similar data from an accelerometer on the wrist. Accurately identifying sedentary behavior from a lack of wrist motion presents significant challenges. PMID:23247702

  5. Mobility disability and the pattern of accelerometer-derived sedentary and physical activity behaviors in people with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ezeugwu, Victor; Klaren, Rachel E.; A. Hubbard, Elizabeth; Manns, Patricia (Trish); Motl, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low physical activity and high sedentary behavior levels are major concerns in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and these differ depending on the level of mobility disability. However, the manner in which daily activity is accumulated is currently unknown in this population. Methods A secondary analysis was performed on a combined data set of persons with MS from two previous investigations of physical activity and symptomatic or quality of life outcomes in the United States over a two year period (2007–2009). Mobility disability status was determined using the Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) while activity behavior was objectively monitored using an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days. Results Persons with MS who have mobility disability were involved in sedentary behavior, light and moderate intensity activity for 65%, 34% and 1% of the day, respectively compared to 60%, 37%, and 3%, respectively in those without mobility disability (p < 0.05). Breaks in sedentary time did not differ by mobility disability status. Compared to those without mobility disability, the average number of sedentary bouts longer than 30 min was greater in those with mobility disability (p = 0.016). Conclusion Persons with MS with mobility disability are less active, engage in more sedentary behavior and accumulate prolonged sedentary bouts. PMID:26844077

  6. Sedentary behavior, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Meghan K.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Emerging work is starting to investigate the cumulative effects of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on health. The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative and independent associations of MVPA, sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Methods: Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 1868 adults 20+ years); analyzed in 2016. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were subjectively assessed with cardiorespiratory fitness determined from a submaximal treadmill-based test; participants were classified as above or below the median values for each of these three parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each participant to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, with participants grouped into LTL tertiles. Results: Participants who engaged in higher MVPA, sat less and had higher cardiorespiratory fitness had an increased odds (ranging from 85% to 105%) of being in LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1). In an extended adjusted multinomial logistic regression model, only MVPA was positively associated with LTL (odds ration [OR] = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.99-1.90; P = 0.05). Conclusion: All three behavior characteristics, but particularly MVPA, may be important in preserving LTLs. PMID:28058238

  7. Sedentary behavior, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    Background: Emerging work is starting to investigate the cumulative effects of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on health. The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative and independent associations of MVPA, sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Methods: Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 1868 adults 20+ years); analyzed in 2016. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were subjectively assessed with cardiorespiratory fitness determined from a submaximal treadmill-based test; participants were classified as above or below the median values for each of these three parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each participant to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, with participants grouped into LTL tertiles. Results: Participants who engaged in higher MVPA, sat less and had higher cardiorespiratory fitness had an increased odds (ranging from 85% to 105%) of being in LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1). In an extended adjusted multinomial logistic regression model, only MVPA was positively associated with LTL (odds ration [OR] = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.99-1.90; P = 0.05). Conclusion: All three behavior characteristics, but particularly MVPA, may be important in preserving LTLs.

  8. Devices for Self-Monitoring Sedentary Time or Physical Activity: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Loveday, Adam; Pearson, Natalie; Edwardson, Charlotte; Yates, Thomas; Biddle, Stuart JH; Esliger, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well documented that meeting the guideline levels (150 minutes per week) of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) is protective against chronic disease. Conversely, emerging evidence indicates the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting. Therefore, there is a need to change both behaviors. Self-monitoring of behavior is one of the most robust behavior-change techniques available. The growing number of technologies in the consumer electronics sector provides a unique opportunity for individuals to self-monitor their behavior. Objective The aim of this study is to review the characteristics and measurement properties of currently available self-monitoring devices for sedentary time and/or PA. Methods To identify technologies, four scientific databases were systematically searched using key terms related to behavior, measurement, and population. Articles published through October 2015 were identified. To identify technologies from the consumer electronic sector, systematic searches of three Internet search engines were also performed through to October 1, 2015. Results The initial database searches identified 46 devices and the Internet search engines identified 100 devices yielding a total of 146 technologies. Of these, 64 were further removed because they were currently unavailable for purchase or there was no evidence that they were designed for, had been used in, or could readily be modified for self-monitoring purposes. The remaining 82 technologies were included in this review (73 devices self-monitored PA, 9 devices self-monitored sedentary time). Of the 82 devices included, this review identified no published articles in which these devices were used for the purpose of self-monitoring PA and/or sedentary behavior; however, a number of technologies were found via Internet searches that matched the criteria for self-monitoring and provided immediate feedback on PA (ActiGraph Link, Microsoft Band, and Garmin Vivofit) and sedentary time

  9. Effect of a school-based active play intervention on sedentary time and physical activity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, M V; Fairclough, S J; Ridgers, N D; Knowles, Z R; Foweather, L; Stratton, G

    2013-12-01

    Early childhood is a critical time for promoting physical activity. Few studies have investigated the effect of interventions in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a school-based active play intervention on preschool children's sedentary time and physical activity. Preschool children were recruited from randomly selected preschools. Schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or comparison group. One teacher per intervention school received training from active play professionals in the delivery of a 6-week active play programme. Comparison schools continued their usual practice. Children wore a uni-axial accelerometer for 7 days at baseline, immediately after and at 6-month post-intervention. No significant intervention effects were observed for sedentary time or physical activity. However, sex and hours spent at school were significant predictors of physical activity. Children who spent fewer hours (half-day children) at school were significantly more active than their full-day counterparts. Physical activity during the intervention classes was high even though neither daily physical activity nor sedentary time changed. Notably children who spent more time at preschool were less active suggesting that preschool was not as conducive to physical activity engagement as other environments.

  10. Technologies That Assess the Location of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sherar, Lauren B; Sanders, James P; Sanderson, Paul W; Esliger, Dale W

    2015-01-01

    Background The location in which physical activity and sedentary behavior are performed can provide valuable behavioral information, both in isolation and synergistically with other areas of physical activity and sedentary behavior research. Global positioning systems (GPS) have been used in physical activity research to identify outdoor location; however, while GPS can receive signals in certain indoor environments, it is not able to provide room- or subroom-level location. On average, adults spend a high proportion of their time indoors. A measure of indoor location would, therefore, provide valuable behavioral information. Objective This systematic review sought to identify and critique technology which has been or could be used to assess the location of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods To identify published research papers, four electronic databases were searched using key terms built around behavior, technology, and location. To be eligible for inclusion, papers were required to be published in English and describe a wearable or portable technology or device capable of measuring location. Searches were performed up to February 4, 2015. This was supplemented by backward and forward reference searching. In an attempt to include novel devices which may not yet have made their way into the published research, searches were also performed using three Internet search engines. Specialized software was used to download search results and thus mitigate the potential pitfalls of changing search algorithms. Results A total of 188 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Global positioning systems were the most widely used location technology in the published research, followed by wearable cameras, and radio-frequency identification. Internet search engines identified 81 global positioning systems, 35 real-time locating systems, and 21 wearable cameras. Real-time locating systems determine the indoor location of a wearable tag via the known location of

  11. Outcomes of a multicomponent physical activity program for sedentary, community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Toto, Pamela E; Raina, Ketki D; Holm, Margo B; Schlenk, Elizabeth A; Rubinstein, Elaine N; Rogers, Joan C

    2012-07-01

    This single-group repeated-measures pilot study evaluated the effects of a 10-wk, multicomponent, best-practice exercise program on physical activity, performance of activities of daily living (ADLs), physical performance, and depression in community-dwelling older adults from low-income households (N = 15). Comparison of pretest and posttest scores using a one-tailed paired-samples t test showed improvement (p < .05) for 2 of 3 ADL domains on the Activity Measure-Post Acute Care and for 6 physical-performance measures of the Senior Fitness Test. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant main effects for 3 of 8 physical activity measures using the Yale Physical Activity Scale. Retention rate was 78.9%, and the adherence rate for group sessions was 89.7%. Results suggest that participation in a multicomponent, best-practice physical activity program may positively affect sedentary, community-dwelling older adults' physical activity, ADL performance, and physical performance.

  12. The Impact of Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program on Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Fruit, Vegetable and Junk Food Consumption among Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Waitlist Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Straker, Leon M.; Howie, Erin K.; Smith, Kyla L.; Fenner, Ashley A.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Olds, Tim S.; Abbott, Rebecca A.; Smith, Anne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the effects of participation in Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP), a community-based, family-centered behavioural intervention, on the physical activity, sedentary time, and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents. Methods In this waitlist controlled clinical trial in Western Australia, adolescents (n = 69, 71% female, mean age 14.1 (SD 1.6) years) and parents completed an 8-week intervention followed by 12 months of telephone and text message support. Assessments were completed at baseline, before beginning the intervention, immediately following the intervention, and at 3-, 6-, and 12- months follow-up. The primary outcomes were physical activity and sedentary time assessed by accelerometers and servings of fruit, vegetables and junk food assessed by 3-day food records. Results During the intensive 8-week intervention sedentary time decreased by −5.1 min/day/month (95% CI: −11.0, 0.8) which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .014). Moderate physical activity increased by 1.8 min/day/month (95% CI: −0.04, 3.6) during the intervention period, which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .041). Fruit consumption increased during the intervention period (monthly incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.56) and junk food consumption decreased (monthly IRR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.94) and these changes were different to those seen during the waitlist period (p = .004 and p = .020 respectively). Conclusions Participating in CAFAP appeared to have a positive influence on the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents and many of these changes were maintained for one year following the intensive intervention. Trial Registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001187932 PMID:25375109

  13. The Effect of Active versus Passive Recovery Periods during High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Local Tissue Oxygenation in 18 – 30 Year Old Sedentary Men

    PubMed Central

    Kerhervé, Hugo A.; Askew, Christopher D.; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods. Methods Twelve sedentary males (mean ± SD; age 23 ± 3 yr) completed three conditions on a cycle ergometer: 1) HIIT with passive recovery periods between four bouts (HIITPASS) 2) HIIT with active recovery periods between four bouts (HIITACT) 3) HIITACT with four HIIT bouts replaced with passive periods (REC). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius (GN) muscles and the pre-frontal cortex (FH), oxygen consumption (VO2), power output and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during the three conditions. Results There was a significant increase in HHb at VL during bouts 2 (p = 0.017), 3 (p = 0.035) and 4 (p = 0.035) in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS. Mean power output was significantly lower in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS (p < 0.001). There was a significant main effect for site in both HIITPASS (p = 0.029) and HIITACT (p = 0.005). There were no significant differences in VO2 and HR between HIITPASS and HIITACT. Conclusions The increase in HHb at VL and the lower mean power output during HIITACT could indicate that a higher level of deoxygenation contributes to decreased mechanical power in sedentary participants. The significant differences in HHb between sites indicates the specificity of oxygen utilisation. PMID:27677081

  14. Associations between physical activity and sedentary time on components of metabolic syndrome among adults with HIV.

    PubMed

    Jaggers, Jason R; Prasad, Vivek K; Dudgeon, Wesley D; Blair, Steven N; Sui, Xuemei; Burgess, Stephanie; Hand, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Recent data show that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which could possibly be explained by an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) due to the known toxicities associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between physical activity (PA) and components of MetSyn in a sample of PLWHA taking ART. A total of 31 males and 32 females living with HIV and currently taking ART were enrolled in a home-based PA intervention aimed to reduce risk factors for CVD. Clinical assessments included measures of resting blood pressure (BP), waist circumference, height, weight, PA levels via accelerometer, and a fasted blood draw. Components of MetSyn were divided into three clusters (1 = 0-1; 2 = 2; 3 = 3 or more). A one-way analysis of variance was used to determine differences between clusters. Multiple linear regressions were used to identify significant associations between moderate intensity PA (MPA) and sedentary time among components of MetSyn. MPA was significantly lower across MetSyn clusters (p < 0.001), whereas sedentary time was significantly higher (p = 0.01). A multiple linear regression showed MPA to be a significant predictor of waist circumference after controlling for age, race, gender, and sedentary time. Routine PA can be beneficial in helping PLWHA reduce waist circumference ultimately leading to metabolic improvements. This in turn would help PLWHA self-manage known components of MetSyn, thus reducing their risk of CVD and mortality.

  15. Associations Between Physical Activity and Sedentary Time on Components of Metabolic Syndrome Among Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Jaggers, Jason R.; Prasad, Vivek K.; Dudgeon, Wesley; Blair, Steven N.; Sui, Xuemei; Burgess, Stephanie; Hand, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent data show that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which could possibly be explained by an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) due to the known toxicities associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among physical activity (PA) and components of MetSyn in a sample of PLWHA taking ART. A total of 31 males and 32 females living with HIV and currently taking ART were enrolled in a home-based PA intervention aimed to reduce risk factors for CVD. Clinical assessments included measures of resting blood pressure (BP), waist circumference, height, weight, PA levels via accelerometer, and a fasted blood draw. Components of MetSyn were divided into three clusters (1=0–1; 2 = 2; 3 = 3 or more). A one-way ANOVA was used to determine differences between clusters. Multiple linear regressions were used to identify significant associations between moderate intensity PA (MPA) and sedentary time among components of MetSyn. MPA was significantly lower across MetSyn clusters (p < 0.001), whereas sedentary time was significantly higher (p = 0.01). A multiple linear regression showed MPA to be a significant predictor of waist circumference after controlling for age, race, gender and sedentary time. Routine PA can be beneficial in helping PLWHA reduce waist circumference ultimately leading to metabolic improvements. This in turn would help PLWHA self-manage known components of MetSyn, thus reducing their risk of CVD and mortality. PMID:24861098

  16. Variations of physical activity and sedentary behavior between before and after cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Fassier, Philippine; Zelek, Laurent; Partula, Valentin; Srour, Bernard; Bachmann, Patrick; Touillaud, Marina; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Galan, Pilar; Cohen, Patrice; Hoarau, Hélène; Latino-Martel, Paule; Menai, Mehdi; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Hercberg, Serge; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity (PA) but also reduced sedentary behavior may be associated with better prognosis and lower risk of recurrence in cancer patients. Our aim was to quantify the variations in PA and time spent sedentary between before and after diagnosis, relying on prospective data in French adults. We also investigated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with these variations. Subjects (n = 942) were incident cancer cases diagnosed in the NutriNet-Santé cohort between 2009 and 2015. PA and sedentary behavior were prospectively collected with the 7-day short version of the IPAQ questionnaire every year since subjects’ inclusion (i.e., an average of 2 year before diagnosis). All PA and sitting time points before and after diagnosis was compared by mixed model. Factors associated with decrease in PA and increase in sitting time were investigated using logistic regressions. Overall and vigorous PA decreased after diagnosis (P = 0.006, −32.8 ± 36.8 MET-hour/week on average, in those who decreased their overall PA and P = 0.005, −21.1 ± 36.8 MET-hour/week for vigorous PA, respectively), especially in prostate (−39.5 ± 36.3 MET-hour/week) and skin (−35.9 ± 38 MET-hour/week) cancers, in men (−40.8 ± 46.3MET-hour/week), and in those professionally inactive (−34.2 ± 37.1 MET-hour/week) (all P < 0.05). Patients with higher PA level before diagnosis were more likely to decrease their PA (odds ratio [OR]: 4.67 [3.21–6.81], P < 0.0001). Overweight patients more likely to decrease moderate PA (OR: 1.45 [1.11–1.89], P = 0.006) and walking (OR: 1.30 [1.10–1.70], P = 0.04). Sitting time increased (P = 0.02, +2.44 ± 2.43 hour/day on average, in those who increased their sitting time), especially in women (+2.48 ± 2.48 hour/day), older patients (+2.48 ± 2.57 hour/day), and those professionally inactive (2.41 ± 2.40 hour/day) (all P < 0

  17. Maintaining High Ambulatory Activity Levels of Sedentary Adults with a Reinforcement Thinning Schedule

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Leonardo F.; Barry, Danielle; Litt, Mark D.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality. Reinforcement interventions appear useful for increasing activity and preventing adverse consequences of sedentary lifestyles. This study evaluated a reinforcement thinning schedule for maintaining high activity levels. Sedentary adults (n=77) were given pedometers and encouraged to walk ≥10,000 steps/day. Initially, all participants earned rewards for each day they walked ≥10,000 steps. Subsequently, 61 participants were randomized to a monitoring only condition or a monitoring plus reinforcement thinning condition, in which frequencies of monitoring and reinforcing walking decreased over 12 weeks. The mean ± SD percentage of participants in the monitoring plusreinforcement thinning condition who met walking goals was 83% ± 24% versus. 55% ± 31% for participants in the monitoring only condition, p < .001. Thus, this monitoring plusreinforcement thinning schedule maintained high rates of walking when it was in effect; however, groups did not differ at a 24-week follow-up. Monitoring plus reinforcement thinning schedules, nevertheless, hold potential to extend benefits of reinforcement interventions at low costs. PMID:25041789

  18. Maintaining high activity levels in sedentary adults with a reinforcement-thinning schedule.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leonardo F; Barry, Danielle; Litt, Mark D; Petry, Nancy M

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality. Reinforcement interventions appear to be useful for increasing activity and preventing adverse consequences of sedentary lifestyles. This study evaluated a reinforcement-thinning schedule for maintaining high activity levels. Sedentary adults (N = 77) were given pedometers and encouraged to walk ≥10,000 steps per day. Initially, all participants earned rewards for each day they walked ≥10,000 steps. Subsequently, 61 participants were randomized to a monitoring-only condition or a monitoring-plus-reinforcement-thinning condition, in which frequencies of monitoring and reinforcing walking decreased over 12 weeks. The mean (± SD) percentage of participants in the monitoring-plus-reinforcement-thinning condition who met walking goals was 83% ± 24% and was 55% ± 31% for participants in the monitoring-only condition, p < .001. Thus, monitoring plus reinforcement thinning maintained high rates of walking when it was in effect; however, groups did not differ at a 24-week follow-up. Monitoring plus reinforcement thinning, nevertheless, hold potential to extend benefits of reinforcement interventions at low costs.

  19. Study protocol for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-Sitting and ExacerbAtions Trial (COPD-SEAT): a randomised controlled feasibility trial of a home-based self-monitoring sedentary behaviour intervention

    PubMed Central

    Orme, Mark; Weedon, Amie; Esliger, Dale; Saukko, Paula; Morgan, Mike; Steiner, Michael; Downey, John; Singh, Sally; Sherar, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) marks a critical life event, which can lower patient quality of life and ability to perform daily activities. Patients with COPD tend to lead inactive and highly sedentary lifestyles, which may contribute to reductions in functional capacity. Targeting sedentary behaviour (SB) may be more attainable than exercise (at a moderate-to-vigorous intensity) for behaviour change in patients following an exacerbation. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a 2-week at-home intervention providing education and self-monitoring to reduce prolonged periods of SB in patients with COPD discharged following an acute exacerbation. Methods and analysis Patients will be randomised into 1 of 3 conditions: usual care (control), education or education+feedback. The education group will receive information and suggestions about reducing long periods of sitting. The education+feedback group will receive real-time feedback on their sitting time, stand-ups and step count at home through an inclinometer linked to a smart device app. The inclinometer will also provide vibration prompts to encourage movement when the wearer has been sedentary for too long. Data will be collected during hospital admission and 2 weeks after discharge. Qualitative interviews will be conducted with patients in the intervention groups to explore patient experiences. Interviews with healthcare staff will also be conducted. All data will be collected January to August 2016. The primary outcomes are feasibility and acceptability, which will be assessed by qualitative interviews, uptake and drop-out rates, reasons for refusing the intervention, compliance, app usage and response to vibration prompts. Ethics and dissemination The research ethics committee East Midlands Leicester-Central has provided ethical approval for the conduct of this study. The results of the study will be disseminated through appropriate

  20. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J.; Gao, Yue X.; Xu, Guang F.; Huang, Jian P.; Xu, Qiong Q.; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. Methods The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Results Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15–40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15–30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Conclusions Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also

  1. Metabolic Profiling of Total Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Community-Dwelling Men

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Sei; Iida, Miho; Kurihara, Ayako; Takeuchi, Ayano; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Okamura, Tomonori; Akiyama, Miki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Oguma, Yuko; Suzuki, Asako; Suzuki, Chizuru; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Takebayashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is known to be preventive against various non-communicable diseases. We investigated the relationship between daily physical activity level and plasma metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach in a population-based study. Methods A total of 1,193 participants (male, aged 35 to 74 years) with fasting blood samples were selected from the baseline survey of a cohort study. Information on daily total physical activity, classified into four levels by quartile of metabolic equivalent scores, and sedentary behavior, defined as hours of sitting per day, was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Plasma metabolite concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry method. We performed linear regression analysis models with multivariable adjustment and corrected p-values for multiple testing in the original population (n = 808). The robustness of the results was confirmed by replication analysis in a separate population (n = 385) created by random allocation. Results Higher levels of total physical activity were associated with various metabolite concentrations, including lower concentrations of amino acids and their derivatives, and higher concentrations of pipecolate (FDR p <0.05 in original population). The findings persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and energy intake. Isoleucine, leucine, valine, 4-methyl-2-oxoisopentanoate, 2-oxoisopentanoate, alanine, and proline concentrations were lower with a shorter sitting time. Conclusions Physical activity is related to various plasma metabolites, including known biomarkers for future insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. These metabolites might potentially play a key role in the protective effects of higher physical activity and/or less sedentary behavior on non-communicable diseases. PMID:27741291

  2. Urban versus rural lifestyle in adolescents: associations between environment, physical activity levels and sedentary behavior

    PubMed Central

    Regis, Manuela Ferreira; de Oliveira, Luciano Machado Ferreira Tenório; dos Santos, Ana Raquel Mendes; Leonidio, Ameliane da Conceição Reubens; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; de Freitas, Clara Maria Silvestre Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescents living in urban and rural areas. Methods An epidemiological, cross-section study with quantitative design, carried out at the regional level. The sample comprised 6,234 students aged 14 to 19 years, selected using random cluster sampling. The χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used in the analysis. Results A total of 74.5% of adolescents lived in urban areas. After adjustment, rural residents spent less time watching television (odds ratio – OR: 0.45; 95% confidence interval – 95%CI: 0.39-0.52), using a computer and/or playing video games (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.22-0.42), or sitting down (OR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.54-0.80); chose passive leisure less often (OR: 0.83; 95%IC: 0.72-0.95) and were less likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 0.88; 95%IC: 0.78-0.99) when compared to urban residents, regardless of sex or age. The fact that adolescents living in rural areas who did not work were more likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 2.59; 95%CI: 2.07-3.24) emphasized the significant role of occupation in physical activity levels in this group. Conclusion Adolescents living in rural areas were less exposed to the sedentary behaviors, chose more active leisure, and had higher levels of physical activity. Place of residence and occupation may play a major role in youth lifestyle. PMID:28076591

  3. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = − 0.01; 95% CI: − 0.01 to − 0.004; P < 0.001), but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.0003; 95% CI: − 0.001–0.0001; P = 0.37), was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.02; 95% CI: − 0.03 to − 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA. PMID:26844174

  4. Examination of perceived neighborhood characteristics and transportation on changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior: The Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R; Murray, David M; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Cohen, Deborah A

    2010-09-01

    We examined the association between perceived neighborhood characteristics and transport and 2-year changes in accelerometer-determined nonschool MET-weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA) and sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. Reporting that children do not play outdoors in their neighborhood, that their neighborhood was well lit, and that there were trails in their neighborhood were each associated with significant decreases in nonschool MW-MVPA. None of the neighborhood or transportation measures was associated with changes in nonschool sedentary behavior. Further work is needed to understand the determinants of the decline in physical activity and the increase in sedentary behavior among adolescent girls.

  5. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary-time are associated with arterial stiffness in Brazilian young adults

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Vianna, Carolina Ávila; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando C.; Ekelund, Ulf; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with pulse wave velocity (PWV) in Brazilian young adults. Methods Cross-sectional analysis with participants of the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort who were followed-up from birth to 30 years of age. Overall physical activity (PA) assessed as the average acceleration (mg), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA – min/day) and sedentary time (min/day) were calculated from acceleration data. Carotid-femoral PWV (m/s) was assessed using a portable ultrasound. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were analyzed as possible mediators. Multiple linear regression and g-computation formula were used in the analyses. Results Complete data were available for 1241 individuals. PWV was significantly lower in the two highest quartiles of overall PA (0.26 m/s) compared with the lowest quartile. Participants in the highest quartile of sedentary time had 0.39 m/s higher PWV (95%CI: 0.20; 0.57) than those in the lowest quartile. Individuals achieving ≥30 min/day in MVPA had lower PWV (β = −0.35; 95%CI: −0.56; −0.14). Mutually adjusted analyses between MVPA and sedentary time and PWV changed the coefficients, although results from sedentary time remained more consistent. WC captured 44% of the association between MVPA and PWV. DBP explained 46% of the association between acceleration and PWV. Conclusions Physical activity was inversely related to PWV in young adults, whereas sedentary time was positively associated. Such associations were only partially mediated by WC and DBP. PMID:26386211

  6. Objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration: independent and combined associations with adiposity in canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, J-P; Leduc, G; Boyer, C; Bélanger, P; LeBlanc, A G; Borghese, M M; Tremblay, M S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine independent and combined associations among objectively measured movement/non-movement behaviors (moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), total sedentary time and sleep duration) and adiposity indicators in a sample of Canadian children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 507 children aged 9–11 years from Ottawa, Canada. Movement/non-movement behaviors were assessed using an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer over 7 days (24-h protocol). Outcomes included percentage body fat (bioelectrical impedance) and waist-to-height ratio. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, maturity offset, fast food consumption, annual household income and highest level of parental education, MVPA was inversely and sedentary time positively associated with adiposity indicators, whereas sleep duration was not. However, only MVPA remained significantly associated with adiposity indicators after additional adjustment for the other movement/non-movement behaviors. Combined associations using tertiles of the three movement/non-movement behaviors showed that higher levels of MVPA were associated with lower adiposity indicators, irrespective of total sedentary time and sleep duration. Conclusions: Higher levels of MVPA were associated with lower adiposity in this sample of children regardless of sedentary time and sleep duration. Although correlational in nature, these findings suggest that future efforts of obesity reduction should focus more on increasing MVPA than on reducing sedentary time or increasing sleep duration to maximize the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:24911633

  7. Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, Diana; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Barrera, Natalibeth; Vaamonde-Lemos, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. The present study was undertaken to assess possible semen and hormone differences among physically active (PA) subjects and sedentary subjects (SE). The analyzed qualitative sperm parameters were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology; where needed, additional testing was performed. The measured hormones were: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and the ratio between T and C (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption was also assessed to check for differences in fitness level. Statistically significant differences were found for several semen parameters such as total progressive motility (PA: 60.94 ± 5.03; SE: 56.07 ± 4.55) and morphology (PA: 15.54 ± 1.38, SE: 14.40 ± 1.15). The seminological values observed were supported by differences in hormones, with FSH, LH, and T being higher in PA than in SE (5.68 ± 2.51 vs. 3.14 ± 1.84; 5.95 ± 1.11 vs. 5.08 ± 0.98; 7.68 ± 0.77 vs. 6.49 ± 0.80, respectively). Likewise, the T/C ratio, index of anabolic versus catabolic status, was also higher in PA (0.46 ± 0.11 vs. 0.32 ± 0.07), which further supports the possibility of an improved hormonal environment. The present study shows that there are differences in semen and hormone values of physically active subjects and sedentary subjects. Physically active subjects seem to have a more anabolic hormonal environment and a healthier semen production.

  8. Longitudinal social cognitive influences on physical activity and sedentary time in Hispanic breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; Song, Jaejoon; Ortiz, Alexis; Tirado-Gomez, Maribel; Palacios, Cristina; Hughes, Daniel C.; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of two home-based exercise interventions (one culturally-adapted and one standard) on changes in Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) variables, physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST), and to determine the association between changes in SCT variables and changes in PA and ST in Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Method Project VIVA! was a 16-week randomized controlled pilot study to test the effectiveness and feasibility of a culturally-adapted exercise intervention for Mexican American and Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors in Houston, Texas and San Juan, Puerto Rico, respectively. Women (N=89) completed questionnaires on SCT variables, PA and ST and were then randomized to a 16-week culturally-adapted exercise program, a non-culturally adapted standard exercise intervention or a wait-list control group. Multiple regression models were used to determine associations between changes in SCT variables and changes in PA and ST. Results Participants were in their late 50s (58.5 ± 9.2 years) and obese (31.0 ± 6.5 kg/m2). Women reported doing roughly 34.5 minutes/day of PA and spending over 11 hours/day in sedentary activities. Across groups, women reported significant increases in exercise self-efficacy and moderate-intensity, vigorous-intensity, and total physical activity from baseline to follow-up (p<.05). Increased social support from family was associated with increases in vigorous-intensity PA. Increases in social modeling were associated with increases in moderate-intensity and total PA and decreases in ST from baseline to follow-up (p<.05). Conclusions Hispanic cancer survivors benefit from PA interventions that focus on increasing social support from family and friends and social modeling. PMID:26602701

  9. Sleep Duration, Sedentary Behaviors, and Physical Activity across Weight Status in Hispanic Toddlers’ Participants of the WIC Program

    PubMed Central

    Molina, José; Amaro, Kiara; Pérez, Cynthia M; Palacios, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep duration in toddlers’ participants of the WIC program in Puerto Rico and assess its association with excessive weight. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data gathered in the follow-up visit (12 months later) of a longitudinal study among toddlers 12–36 months old participants of the WIC program. In this follow-up visit, a Sleep, Sedentary Behaviors and Physical Activity Questionnaire was included. Results From the 213 eligible participants for the follow-up visit, 76 completed the follow-up visit. Most were girls (52.6%), with median age 21 months and most were categorized as healthy weight (76.3%). In general, toddlers spent a total median of 142 min/d in sedentary behaviors, 300 min/d in physical activities and 690 min/d sleeping. There was a higher duration of physical activities among overweight/obese compared to healthy weights (p<0.05) but similar duration of sedentary behaviors and sleep by weight status (p>0.05). There was a greater proportion of overweight/obese toddlers meeting the screen time recommendation (88.9%) compared to healthy weight toddlers (62.1%; p<0.05). Also, there was a significant positive age-adjusted correlation between time spent in unstructured physical activity (R=0.23, p<0.05) with weight-for-length z-score. Infant weight status was not significantly correlated to parent’s perception or knowledge of physical activity or sleep in toddlers (p>0.05). Conclusion Most toddlers studied met the recommendations for duration of sleep, sedentary behaviors, and physical activity. Overweight/obese toddlers engage in more physical activities than those with a healthy weight status. These findings could be due to educational interventions by the WIC program to promote physical activities, as these toddlers are active WIC participants. PMID:28018993

  10. Typologies of neighbourhood environments and children's physical activity, sedentary time and television viewing.

    PubMed

    Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2017-01-01

    This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between clusters of neighbourhood attributes (typologies) and non-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time (objectively measured) and proxy-reported television viewing among children aged 5-6 and 10-12 years. Four distinct clusters were identified from seven objectively-measured neighbourhood attributes (land use mix, traffic exposure, playgrounds, sports venues, intersections and cul-de-sacs within 800m, crime/postcode). Some cross-sectional associations with behavior were found. Longitudinally, the cluster characterised by mixed land use and many playgrounds and sport venues was associated with less television viewing on weekends three years later. Considering the aggregate effects of urban form elements may help understand how combinations of neighbourhood attributes influence behavior.

  11. Marathon runners presented lower serum cholesteryl ester transfer activity than sedentary subjects.

    PubMed

    Serrat-Serrat, J; Ordóñez-Llanos, J; Serra-Grima, R; Gómez-Gerique, J A; Pellicer-Thoma, E; Payés-Romero, A; González-Sastre, F

    1993-06-01

    Acute exercise promotes raised HDL cholesterol concentrations by lipolysis stimulation, but this effect is insufficient to explain the more permanent HDL increases seen during regular exercise. During training periods in a group of marathon runners, we measured lipid transfer protein I (LTP-I)-mediated cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) and its relationship to their HDL concentrations. Runners of both sexes showed significantly lower CETA values than those of sedentary controls. Male runners also had significantly lower serum concentrations of triglyceride, VLDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, and significantly higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I than male controls. Results indicate that regular practice of aerobic exercise promotes modifications of lipoprotein metabolism related not only to lipolysis, but also to lower CETA. Such modifications are associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis.

  12. Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheval, Boris; Sarrazin, Philippe; Pelletier, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is crucial, given its extensive health benefits. Some scholars have assumed that a proneness to react differently to environmental cues promoting sedentary versus active behaviors could be responsible for inter-individual differences in NEAT. In line with this reflection and grounded on the Reflective-Impulsive Model, we test the assumption that impulsive processes related to sedentary and physical activity behaviors can prospectively predict NEAT, operationalized as spontaneous effort exerted to maintain low intensity muscle contractions within the release phases of an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. Participants (n = 91) completed a questionnaire assessing their intentions to adopt physical activity behaviors and a manikin task to assess impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity behaviors (IAPA) and sedentary behaviors (IASB). Participants were then instructed to perform a maximal handgrip strength task and an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. As hypothesized, multilevel regression analyses revealed that spontaneous effort was (a) positively predicted by IAPA, (b) negatively predicted by IASB, and (c) was not predicted by physical activity intentions, after controlling for some confounding variables such as age, sex, usual PA level and average force provided during the maximal-contraction phases of the task. These effects remained constant throughout all the phases of the task. This study demonstrated that impulsive processes may play a unique role in predicting spontaneous physical activity behaviors. Theoretically, this finding reinforces the utility of a motivational approach based on dual-process models to explain inter-individual differences in NEAT. Implications for health behavior theories and behavior change interventions are outlined.

  13. Environmental, policy, and cultural factors related to physical activity in sedentary American Indian women.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Janice L; Allen, Peg; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Yazzie, Dedra A; Curtis, Michelle; Davis, Sally M

    2002-01-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted to explore sociocultural, environmental, and policy-related determinants of physical activity among sedentary American Indian women. Thirty women aged 20 to 50 years (mean = 37.4 +/- 10.6 years) participated. Three sessions were conducted with women aged 20 to 34 years and three with women aged 35 to 50 to evaluate response differences by age. Because no obvious age differences were observed, data were pooled. Barriers to physical activity included inadequate support for household and child care responsibilities and difficulties balancing home-related and societal expectations with physical activity. In addition, women reported little support from their communities and work sites to be physically active. Environmental barriers included lack of safe outdoor areas and accessible walking trails. Weather and stray dogs were also commonly mentioned. Sociocultural barriers included giving family obligations priority above all other things, being expected to eat large portions of high-fat foods, and failing to follow a traditionally active lifestyle. Enablers of physical activity included support from family and coworkers and participation in traditional community events. Suggested intervention approaches included accessible and affordable programs and facilities, community emphasis on physical activity, and programs that incorporated the needs of larger women and of families. Participants emphasized a preference for programs that were compatible with the role expectations of their families and communities, and they expressed the desire for acceptance and encouragement to be physically active from the family, the community, the worksite, and their tribal leaders.

  14. Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Young Children in Full-Day Kindergarten: Comparing Traditional and Balanced Day Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare physical activity and sedentary time among young children whose schools adhere to traditional (i.e. three outdoor playtimes = 70 minutes) versus balanced day (i.e. two outdoor playtimes = ~55 minutes) schedules in Ontario full-day kindergarten classrooms. Design: The project was part of a larger, 2-year cross-sectional study.…

  15. A National Survey of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Chinese City Children and Youth Using Accelerometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to objectively assess levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) of Chinese city children and youth aged 9 to 17 years old using accelerometers and to examine their differences by gender, age, grade, and weight status. Method: The PA and SB of 2,163 students in 4th grade through 11th grade…

  16. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated with Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…

  17. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Fitness among Adolescents: Varying Definitions Yield Differing Results in Fitness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Matthew S.

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to assess the relationships among leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and measures of health-related and performance-related physical fitness, and (2) to determine the primary predictors of performance-related physical fitness from the variables investigated. This study updates the literature with…

  18. Longitudinal effects of parental child and neighborhood factors on moderate vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in Latino children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moderate-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) confers beneficial effects on child musculoskeletal health, cardiovascular fitness, and psychosocial well-being; in contrast, sedentary time (%SED) is emerging as a risk factor for health. This study aimed to identify parental, child and neighborhood facto...

  19. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies.

  20. The associations of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Syväoja, Heidi J; Tammelin, Tuija H; Ahonen, Timo; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kantomaa, Marko T

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls), who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the "WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children" study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose that physical

  1. The Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Cognitive Functions in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Syväoja, Heidi J.; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Ahonen, Timo; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kantomaa, Marko T.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls), who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the “WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children” study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose that physical

  2. The activity intensities reached when playing active tennis gaming relative to sedentary gaming, tennis game-play, and current activity recommendations in young adults.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Arkinstall, Hayley; Dalbo, Vincent J; Humphries, Brendan J; Jennings, Cameron T; Kingsley, Michael I C

    2013-09-01

    Although active gaming is popular and can increase energy expenditure in young adults, its efficacy as a prescriptive exercise tool is not well understood. This study aimed to: (a) compare the activity intensities experienced by young adults while playing active tennis gaming with conventional sedentary gaming, tennis game-play, and current activity recommendations for health; and (b) identify changes in activity intensities across playing time. After habitualization, 10 active young adults (age: 20.2 ± 0.4 years; stature: 1.74 ± 0.03 m; body mass: 67.7 ± 3.3 kg) completed 3 experimental trials (sedentary gaming, active tennis gaming, and tennis game-play) on separate days in a randomized order. Heart rate (HR) and metabolic equivalents (METs) were averaged across 5 minutes and 10 minutes intervals, and the entire 20 minutes bout within each condition. Active gaming produced greater intensities across 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 minutes time intervals compared with sedentary gaming (p < 0.01). Tennis game-play elicited greater HR (67 ± 5% HR(max)) and METs (5.0 ± 0.2) responses than both sedentary (40 ± 2% HR(max), 1.1 ± 0.1 METs) and active gaming (45 ± 2% HR(max), 1.4 ± 0.1 METs) (p < 0.001). Only tennis game-play produced activity intensities meeting current recommendations for health benefit. Lower HR intensities were reached across 0-5 minutes than during later time intervals during active gaming (6%) and tennis game-play (9%) (p < 0.01). Activity intensities elicited by active gaming were greater than sedentary gaming but less than tennis game-play and insufficient to contribute toward promoting and maintaining good health in young adults. These data suggest that active tennis gaming should not be recommended by exercise professionals as a substitute for actual sports participation in young adults.

  3. Measuring and validating physical activity and sedentary behavior comparing a parental questionnaire to accelerometer data and diaries.

    PubMed

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Mäder, Urs; Ruch, Nicole; Kriemler, Susi; Grize, Leticia; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2012-05-01

    Accurately measuring children's physical activity and their sedentary behavior is challenging. The present study compared 189 parental responses to a questionnaire surveying physical activity and sedentary behavior of children aged 6-14 years, to accelerometer outputs and time activity diaries for the same group. Responses were analyzed taking age, sex and maternal education into account. Correlation coefficients between questionnaire reports and accelerometer-based physical activity across all age groups were acceptable (up to r = .55). Yet, adjustment for age markedly attenuated these associations, suggesting concomitant influences of biological and behavioral processes linked to age. The comparisons of general time indications in the questionnaire with 24h-diary records suggested that parents tended to under- and over-report single activities, possibly due to social desirability. We conclude that physical activity questionnaires need to be designed for specific age groups and be administered in combination with objective measurements.

  4. The Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (zero to four years of age) and screen time among children from Kingston, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Valerie; Tremblay, Mark S; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian W; Janssen, Ian

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the proportion of children meeting the new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (zero to four years of age) and to describe parental attitudes toward and barriers to reducing screen time. METHODS: Participants included 657 children zero to four years of age from the Kingston, Ontario, area. From May to September 2011, parents completed a questionnaire regarding their child’s screen time and their attitudes toward and barriers to reducing their child’s screen time. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 32% of children younger than two years of age engaged in no screen time and approximately 46% of children two to four years of age engaged in <1 h per day; thereby, meeting the recommendations of the new guidelines. Most parents believed that their child did not engage in excessive screen time. Physicians and other health professionals should inform parents of these new guidelines and provide strategies to help their children meet targets. PMID:24381488

  5. Identifying the number and location of body worn sensors to accurately classify walking, transferring and sedentary activities.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Omar; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Park, Edward J

    2016-08-01

    In order to perform fall risk assessments using wearable inertial sensors in older adults in their natural settings where falls are likely to occur, a first step is to automatically segment and classify sensor signals of human movements into the known `activities of interest'. Sensor data from such activities can later be used through quantitative and qualitative analysis for differentiating fallers from non-fallers. In this study, ten young adults participated in experimental trials involving several variations of walking, transferring and sedentary activities. Data from tri-axial accelerometers and gyroscopes were used to classify the aforementioned three categories using a multiclass support vector machine algorithm. Our results showed 100% accuracy in distinguishing walking, transferring and sedentary activities using data from a three-sensor combination of sternum and both ankles.

  6. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Metabolically Healthy versus Unhealthy Obese and Non-Obese Individuals – The Maastricht Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Berg, Julianne D.; van der Kallen, Carla J. H.; Schram, Miranda T.; Savelberg, Hans H. C. M.; Schaper, Nicolaas C.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Henry, Ronald M. A.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Koster, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Background Both obesity and the metabolic syndrome are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Although both frequently occur together in the same individual, obesity and the metabolic syndrome can also develop independently from each other. The (patho)physiology of “metabolically healthy obese” (i.e. obese without metabolic syndrome) and “metabolically unhealthy non-obese” phenotypes (i.e. non-obese with metabolic syndrome) is not fully understood, but physical activity and sedentary behavior may play a role. Objective To examine objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior across four groups: I) “metabolically healthy obese” (MHO); II) “metabolically unhealthy obese” (MUO); III)”metabolically healthy non-obese” (MHNO); and IV) “metabolically unhealthy non-obese” (MUNO). Methods Data were available from 2,449 men and women aged 40–75 years who participated in The Maastricht Study from 2010 to 2013. Participants were classified into the four groups according to obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2) and metabolic syndrome (ATPIII definition). Daily activity was measured for 7 days with the activPAL physical activity monitor and classified as time spent sitting, standing, and stepping. Results In our study population, 562 individuals were obese. 19.4% of the obese individuals and 72.7% of the non-obese individuals was metabolically healthy. After adjustments for age, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, waking time, T2DM, history of CVD and mobility limitation, MHO (n = 107) spent, per day, more time stepping (118.2 versus 105.2 min; p<0.01) and less time sedentary (563.5 versus 593.0 min., p = 0.02) than MUO (n = 440). In parallel, MHNO (n = 1384) spent more time stepping (125.0 versus 115.4 min; p<0.01) and less time sedentary (553.3 versus 576.6 min., p<0.01) than MUNO (n = 518). Conclusion Overall, the metabolically healthy groups were less sedentary and more physically active than the

  7. Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Bone Strength From Childhood to Early Adulthood: A Mixed Longitudinal HR-pQCT study.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Leigh; Macdonald, Heather M; Nettlefold, Lindsay; McKay, Heather A

    2017-03-22

    Bone strength is influenced by bone geometry, density, and bone microarchitecture, which adapt to increased mechanical loads during growth. Physical activity (PA) is essential for optimal bone strength accrual; however, less is known about how sedentary time influences bone strength and its determinants. Thus, our aim was to investigate the prospective associations between PA, sedentary time, and bone strength and its determinants during adolescence. We used HR-pQCT at distal tibia (8% site) and radius (7% site) in 173 girls and 136 boys (aged 9 to 20 years at baseline). We conducted a maximum of four annual measurements at the tibia (n = 785 observations) and radius (n = 582 observations). We assessed moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time with accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M). We aligned participants on maturity (years from age at peak height velocity) and fit a mixed-effects model adjusting for maturity, sex, ethnicity, leg muscle power, lean mass, limb length, dietary calcium, and MVPA in sedentary time models. MVPA was a positive independent predictor of bone strength (failure load [F.Load]) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV) at the tibia and radius, total area (Tt.Ar) and cortical porosity (Ct.Po) at the tibia, and negative predictor of load-to-strength ratio at the radius. Sedentary time was a negative independent predictor of Tt.Ar at both sites and Ct.Po at the tibia and a positive predictor of cortical thickness (Ct.Th), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and cortical bone mineral density (Ct.BMD) at the tibia. Bone parameters demonstrated maturity-specific associations with MVPA and sedentary time, whereby associations were strongest during early and mid-puberty. Our findings support the importance of PA for bone strength accrual and its determinants across adolescent growth and provide new evidence of a detrimental association of sedentary time with bone geometry but positive associations with microarchitecture. This study highlights maturity

  8. Associations of Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Screen Time With Cardiovascular Fitness in United States Adolescents: Results from the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS).

    PubMed

    Porter, Anna K; Matthews, Krystin J; Salvo, Deborah; Kohl, Harold W

    2017-03-14

    Background Most US adolescents do not meet guidelines of at least 60 daily minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. Additionally, sedentary behaviors among this age group are of increasing concern. This study examined the association of movement behaviors with cardiovascular fitness among US adolescents. Methods Data from the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey were used to assess the association of movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time, screen time) with cardiovascular fitness among adolescent males and females. Multiple logistic regressions were used to test the independent and interactive effects of movement behaviors on cardiovascular fitness. Results Among females, physical activity was directly associated with cardiovascular fitness; no significant association was observed between sedentary behaviors and CVF. Among males, sedentary time moderated the relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular fitness, such that a significant, direct association was only observed among those with high sedentary time (OR: 5.01, 95% CI: 1.60, 15.70). Conclusions Results from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that among female US adolescents, physical activity, but not sedentary behavior, is associated with cardiovascular fitness. Among males, the interaction between physical activity and sedentary time seems to be important for cardiovascular fitness. Longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  9. Sedentary Behaviors by Type of Day and Physical Activity in Spanish Adolescents: A Socio-Ecological Approach.

    PubMed

    Abarca-Sos, Alberto; Bois, Julien E; Aibar, Alberto; Antonio Julián, José; Generelo, Eduardo; Zaragoza, Javier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between TV and computer use, study time, and physical activity, with regard to gender, school, and weekday/weekend. Adolescents (N = 1,609; M age = 14.5 yr., SD = 1.3) reported on physical activity, sedentary behavior, their parents' employment, and environmental factors. The relationship between PA and screen media behaviors was negative on weekdays, while no relationship was found at weekends. Only 30.7% of adolescents met the screen media guidelines on weekdays and 14.6% at weekends. Girls spent more time on study, only showing a positive relationship with physical activity on weekdays. Each type of sedentary behavior has different correlates for weekdays and weekends.

  10. Acute and chronic caffeine administration increases physical activity in sedentary adults.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Patrick; Panek, Leah M; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-06-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used stimulant thought to have ergogenic properties. Most studies on the ergogenic effects of caffeine have been conducted in athletes. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that caffeine reduces ratings of perceived exertion and increases liking of physical activity in sedentary adults. Participants completed treadmill walking at 60% to 70% of their maximal heart rate at baseline and for 6 subsequent visits, during which half of the participants were given caffeine (3 mg/kg) and half given placebo in a sports drink vehicle. To investigate the potential synergistic effects of acute and chronic caffeine on self-determined exercise duration, participants were rerandomized to either the same or different condition for the last visit, creating 4 chronic/acute treatment groups (placebo/placebo, placebo/caffeine, caffeine/placebo, caffeine/caffeine). Participants rated how much they liked the activity and perceived exertion at each visit. There was a main effect of time on liking of physical activity, with liking increasing over time and an interaction of sex and caffeine treatment on liking, with liking of activity increasing in female participants treated with caffeine, but not with placebo. There was no effect of caffeine on ratings of perceived exertion. Individuals who received caffeine on the final test day exercised for significantly longer than those who received placebo. These data suggest that repeated exposure to physical activity significantly increases liking of exercise and reduces ratings of perceived exertion and that caffeine does little to further modify these effects.

  11. Roles of sedentary aging and lifelong physical activity in exchange of glutathione across exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Mortensen, Stefan P; Cabo, Helena; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari-Carmen; Viña, Jose; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules with regulatory functions, and in young and adult organisms, the formation of ROS is increased during skeletal muscle contractions. However, ROS can be deleterious to cells when not sufficiently counterbalanced by the antioxidant system. Aging is associated with accumulation of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Given the pro-oxidant effect of skeletal muscle contractions, this effect of age could be a result of excessive ROS formation. We evaluated the effect of acute exercise on changes in blood redox state across the leg of young (23 ± 1 years) and older (66 ± 2 years) sedentary humans by measuring the whole blood concentration of the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms of the antioxidant glutathione. To assess the role of physical activity, lifelong physically active older subjects (62 ± 2 years) were included. Exercise increased the venous concentration of GSSG in an intensity-dependent manner in young sedentary subjects, suggesting an exercise-induced increase in ROS formation. In contrast, venous GSSG levels remained unaltered during exercise in the older sedentary and active groups despite a higher skeletal muscle expression of the superoxide-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase. Arterial concentration of GSH and expression of antioxidant enzymes in skeletal muscle of older active subjects were increased. The potential impairment in exercise-induced ROS formation may be an important mechanism underlying skeletal muscle and vascular dysfunction with sedentary aging. Lifelong physical activity upregulates antioxidant systems, which may be one of the mechanisms underlying the lack of exercise-induced increase in GSSG.

  12. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but not sedentary time, predicts changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in 10-y-old children: the Active Smarter Kids Study.

    PubMed

    Skrede, Turid; Stavnsbo, Mette; Aadland, Eivind; Aadland, Katrine N; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Resaland, Geir K; Ekelund, Ulf

    2017-04-05

    Background: Cross-sectional data have suggested an inverse relation between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk factors that is independent of sedentary time. However, little is known about which subcomponent of physical activity may predict cardiometabolic risk factors in youths.Objective: We examined the independent prospective associations between objectively measured sedentary time and subcomponents of physical activity with individual and clustered cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy children aged 10 y.Design: We included 700 children (49.1% males; 50.9% females) in which sedentary time and physical activity were measured with the use of accelerometry. Systolic blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), and fasting blood sample (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fasting insulin) were measured with the use of standard clinical methods and analyzed individually and as a clustered cardiometabolic risk score standardized by age and sex (z score). Exposure and outcome variables were measured at baseline and at follow-up 7 mo later.Results: Sedentary time was not associated with any of the individual cardiometabolic risk factors or clustered cardiometabolic risk in prospective analyses. Moderate physical activity at baseline predicted higher concentrations of triglycerides (P = 0.021) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (P = 0.027) at follow-up independent of sex, socioeconomic status, Tanner stage, monitor wear time, or WC. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (P = 0.043) and vigorous physical activity (P = 0.028) predicted clustered cardiometabolic risk at follow-up, but these associations were attenuated after adjusting for WC.Conclusions: Physical activity, but not sedentary time, is prospectively associated with cardiometabolic risk in healthy children. Public health strategies aimed at improving children's cardiometabolic profile should strive for increasing physical activity of at

  13. Lack of Association Between ACE Indel Polymorphism and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Physically Active and Sedentary Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Verlengia, Rozangela; Rebelo, Ana C.; Crisp, Alex H.; Kunz, Vandeni C.; dos Santos Carneiro Cordeiro, Marco A.; Hirata, Mario H.; Crespo Hirata, Rosario D.; Silva, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polymorphisms at the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE), such as the indel [rs1799752] variant in intron 16, have been shown to be associated with aerobic performance of athletes and non-athletes. However, the relationship between ACE indel polymorphism and cardiorespiratory fitness has not been always demonstrated. Objectives: The relationship between ACE indel polymorphism and cardiorespiratory fitness was investigated in a sample of young Caucasian Brazilian women. Patients and Methods: This study investigated 117 healthy women (aged 18 to 30 years) who were grouped as physically active (n = 59) or sedentary (n = 58). All subjects performed an incremental exercise test (ramp protocol) on a cycle-ergometer with 20-25 W/min increments. Blood samples were obtained for DNA extraction and to analyze metabolic and hormonal profiles. ACE indel polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fragment size analysis. Results: The physically active group had higher values of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), ventilation (VE) and power output than the sedentary group (P < 0.05) at the peak of the exercise test. However, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) did not differ between groups. There was no relationship between ACE indel polymorphism and cardiorespiratory variables during the test in both the physically active and sedentary groups, even when the dominant (DD vs. D1 + 2) and recessive (2 vs. DI + DD) models of inheritance were tested. Conclusions: These results do not support the concept that the genetic variation at the ACE locus contributes to the cardiorespiratory responses at the peak of exercise test in physically active or sedentary healthy women. This indicates that other factors might mediate these responses, including the physical training level of the women. PMID:25520764

  14. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    PubMed Central

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Methods Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5–18 yr. enrolled in 58 dance classes at 21 dance studios in Southern California. MVPA and SB were assessed with accelerometry, with data aggregated to 15-sec epochs. Percent and minutes of MVPA and SB during dance class segments and percent of class time and minutes spent in each segment were calculated using Freedson age-specific cut points. Differences in MVPA (>3 METS) and SB (<100 counts/min) were examined using mixed effects linear regression. Results The length of each class segment was fairly consistent across dance types, with the exception that in ballet, more time was spent in technique as compared to private jazz/hip-hop classes, and Latin-flamenco and less time was spent in routine/practice as compared to Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico. Segment type accounted for 17% of the variance in the proportion of the segment spent in MVPA. The proportion of the segment in MVPA was higher for routine/practice (44.2%) than technique (34.7%). The proportion of the segment in SB was lowest for routine/practice (22.8%). Conclusion The structure of dance lessons can impact youth’s physical activity. Working with instructors to increase time in routine/practice during dance classes could contribute to physical activity promotion in youth. PMID:25775088

  15. International Study of Objectively-measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Body Mass Index and Obesity: IPEN Adult Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Hinckson, Erica; Reis, Rodrigo S; Davey, Rachel; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Mitas, Josef; Troelsen, Jens; MacFarlane, Duncan; Salvo, Deborah; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Owen, Neville; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) has been consistently implicated in the etiology of obesity, while recent evidence on the importance of sedentary time remains inconsistent. Understanding of dose-response associations of PA and sedentary time with overweight and obesity in adults can be improved with large-scale studies using objective measures of PA and sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, direction and shape of dose-response associations of accelerometer-based PA and sedentary time with BMI and weight status in 10 countries, and the moderating effects of study site and gender. Methods Data from the International Physical activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) Adult study were used. IPEN Adult is an observational multi-country cross-sectional study, and 12 sites in 10 countries are included. Participants wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and reported height and weight. In total, 5712 adults (18–65 years) were included in the analyses. Generalized additive mixed models, conducted in R, were used to estimate the strength and shape of the associations. Results A curvilinear relationship of accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous PA and total counts/minute with BMI and the probability of being overweight/obese was identified. The associations were negative, but weakened at higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (>50 min/day) and higher counts/minute. No associations between sedentary time and weight outcomes were found. Complex site- and gender-specific findings were revealed for BMI, but not for weight status. Conclusions Based on these results, the current Institute of Medicine recommendation of 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA to prevent weight gain in normal-weight adults was supported. No relationship between sedentary time and the weight outcomes was present, calling for further examination. If moderator findings are confirmed, the relationship

  16. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and likelihood of breast cancer among Black and White women: a report from the Southern Community Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Lipworth, Loren; Buchowski, Maciej S; Signorello, Lisa B; Blot, William J

    2013-06-01

    Increased physical activity has been shown to be protective for breast cancer although few studies have examined this association in Black women. In addition, limited evidence to date indicates that sedentary behavior may be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. We examined sedentary behavior and physical activity in relation to subsequent incident breast cancer in a nested case-control study within 546 cases (374 among Black women) and 2,184 matched controls enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were assessed via self-report at study baseline (2002-2009) using a validated physical activity questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate mutually adjusted ORs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for quartiles of sedentary and physical activity measures in relation to breast cancer risk. Being in the highest versus lowest quartile of total sedentary behavior (≥ 12 vs. <5.5 h/d) was associated with increased odds of breast cancer among White women [OR, 1.94 (95% CI, 1.01-3.70); P trend = 0.1] but not Black women [OR, 1.23 (95% CI, 0.82-1.83); P trend = 0.6] after adjustment for physical activity. After adjustment for sedentary activity, greater physical activity was associated with reduced odds for breast cancer among White women (P trend = 0.03) only. In conclusion, independent of one another, sedentary behavior and physical activity are risk factors for breast cancer among White women. Differences in these associations between Black and White women require further investigation. Reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity are potentially independent targets for breast cancer prevention interventions.

  17. Muscle activation and energy expenditure of sedentary behavior alternatives in young and old adults.

    PubMed

    Lerma, Nicholas L; Keenan, Kevin G; Strath, Scott J; Forseth, Bethany M; Cho, Chi C; Swartz, Ann M

    2016-09-21

    The physiological mechanisms that underlie the metabolic benefits of breaking up sedentary behavior (SB) have yet to be determined. The purpose of this study is to compare energy expenditure (EE) and muscle activation (MA) responses to sitting and four SB alternatives in younger and older adults. Twenty-two adults, grouped by age (21-35 and 62-76 years), completed five randomly ordered 20 min tasks: (1) continuous sitting (Sit), (2) sitting on a stability ball (Ball), (3) continuous standing (Stand), (4) sitting interrupted by walking (S/W), and (5) sitting interrupted by standing (S/S). Muscle activation of two upper (trapezius and erector spinae) and two lower (rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius) body muscles and total body EE were measured continuously. A linear mixed model using gender and age as a covariate with Bonferroni adjustment were used to determine significant differences between tasks. Collectively, S/W produced significantly higher MA and EE compared with Sit (p  <  0.001). Stand and Ball provided significantly greater EE, but not MA, compared to Sit (p  <  0.05), while S/S did not significantly change EE or MA compared to Sit. There were no net EE differences when comparing age groups across the tasks. Upper body MA was not consistent in both age groups across tasks. Specifically, during S/W the upper body MA of older adults (9.7  ±  1.5% MVC) was double that of young adults (4.8  ±  0.7% MVC, p  =  0.006). Lower body MA responded similarly to all tasks in both age groups. Disrupting sitting with walking produced the largest increase in EE and MA compared to other SB alternatives in both age groups. These results are important considering the wide use of SB alternatives by researchers and public health practitioners.

  18. Pain rather than self-reported sedentary time explains variation in perceived health and activity limitation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross sectional study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Åsenlöf, Pernilla; Bergman, Patrick; Nordgren, Birgitta; Opava, Christina H

    2017-01-25

    To investigate (1) the amount of self-reported time spent sedentary among a large cohort of persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and (2) the contribution of sedentary time to explain perceived health and activity limitation in RA beyond that of previously known correlates. This cross-sectional study used data from a postal questionnaire and the Swedish Rheumatology Quality registers (SRQ). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess sedentary time (sitting) and moderate, vigorous and walking activity (MVPA). Sociodemographics, pain, fatigue, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety/depression, disease duration, MVPA and sedentary time were included in multiple regression models with perceived health (Visual Analogue Scale 0-100) and activity limitation (Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire) as dependent variables.

  19. SenseWearMini and Actigraph GT3X Accelerometer Classification of Observed Sedentary and Light-Intensity Physical Activities in a Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Feehan, Lynne M; Goldsmith, Charles H; Leung, April Y F; Li, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of SenseWear Mini (SWm) and Actigraph GT3X (AG3) accelerometers to differentiate between healthy adults' observed sedentary and light activities in a laboratory setting. Methods: The 22 participants (15 women, 7 men), ages 19 to 72 years, wore SWm and AG3 monitors and performed five sedentary and four light activities for 5 minutes each while observed in a laboratory setting. Performance was examined through comparisons of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios. Correct identification of both types of activities was examined using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: Both monitors demonstrated excellent ability to identify sedentary activities (sensitivity>0.89). The SWm monitor was better at identifying light activities (specificity 0.61-0.71) than the AG3 monitor (specificity 0.27-0.47) and thus also showed a greater ability to correctly identify both sedentary and light activities (SWm AUC 0.84; AG3 AUC 0.62-0.73). Conclusions: SWm may be a more suitable monitor for detecting time spent in sedentary and light-intensity activities. This finding has clinical and research relevance for evaluation of time spent in lower intensity physical activities by sedentary adults.

  20. Combined Effects of Sedentary Behavior and Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity on Cardiovascular Health in Older, Community-Dwelling Latinos.

    PubMed

    Halloway, Shannon; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E; Semanik, Pamela A; Marquez, David X

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the combined effects of sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on cardiovascular health in older Latinos. In a cross-sectional sample of 147 older, community-dwelling Latinos, time spent in sedentary behavior and MVPA were obtained using accelerometers. Analyses examined the effects of a measure of physical activity that combined levels of sedentary behavior (± 10 daily hours) and MVPA (< 30, 30-150, or > 150 weekly minutes) on cardiovascular health outcomes (blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness). Results suggest that cardiovascular health benefits of MVPA on BMI (p = .005), waist circumference (p = .002), and cardiorespiratory fitness (p = .012) may depend on a participant's level of sedentary behavior. For all three, health benefits of 30-150 weekly minutes of MVPA were found only for those without excessive sedentary behavior (≥ 10 hr). Sedentary behavior may negatively impact cardiovascular health despite moderate participation in MVPA. Health guidelines should suggest reducing sedentary behavior while increasing MVPA.

  1. An Interactive Computer Session to Initiate Physical Activity in Sedentary Cardiac Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ray, Renae L; Dzewaltowski, David A; Glasgow, Russell E; Lee, Rebecca E; Thomas, Deborah SK; Xu, Stanley; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) improves many facets of health. Despite this, the majority of American adults are insufficiently active. Adults who visit a physician complaining of chest pain and related cardiovascular symptoms are often referred for further testing. However, when this testing does not reveal an underlying disease or pathology, patients typically receive no additional standard care services. A PA intervention delivered within the clinic setting may be an effective strategy for improving the health of this population at a time when they may be motivated to take preventive action. Objective Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of a tailored, computer-based, interactive personal action planning session to initiate PA among a group of sedentary cardiac patients following exercise treadmill testing (ETT). Methods This study was part of a larger 2x2 randomized controlled trial to determine the impact of environmental and social-cognitive intervention approaches on the initiation and maintenance of weekly PA for patients post ETT. Participants who were referred to an ETT center but had a negative-test (ie, stress tests results indicated no apparent cardiac issues) were randomized to one of four treatment arms: (1) increased environmental accessibility to PA resources via the provision of a free voucher to a fitness facility in close proximity to their home or workplace (ENV), (2) a tailored social cognitive intervention (SC) using a “5 As”-based (ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange) personal action planning tool, (3) combined intervention of both ENV and SC approaches (COMBO), or (4) a matched contact nutrition control (CON). Each intervention was delivered using a computer-based interactive session. A general linear model for repeated measures was conducted with change in PA behavior from baseline to 1-month post interactive computer session as the primary outcome. Results Sedentary participants (n=452; 34.7% participation rate) without

  2. Effects of doxorubicin administration on bone strength and quality in sedentary and physically active Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, H; Carvalho, A; Esteves, J; Esteves, V I; Moreira-Gonçalves, D; Duarte, J A

    2016-12-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is used in pediatric cancer treatment. This study assessed the effects of 7 weeks of DOX and 10-week recovery on bone quality and biomechanical properties in sedentary and exercised Wistar rats. DOX decreases femur diaphysis radial growth and biomechanical properties. Some of these DOX effects were aggravated by exercise.

  3. Active versus sedentary lifestyle from childhood to adult and susceptibility to ozone: An animal model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pattern of sedentary lifestyle beginning in childhood is associated with obesity and related disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with increased susceptibility to air pollutants and initiating regular exercise early in life should impact positively on respir...

  4. Active vs. sedentary lifestyle from weaning to adulthood and susceptibility to ozone in rats.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Ledbetter, A; Snow, S J; Schladweiler, M C; Johnstone, A F M; Kodavanti, U P

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of a sedentary (SED) life style combined with calorically rich diets has spurred the rise in childhood obesity, which, in turn, translates to adverse health effects in adulthood. Obesity and lack of active (ACT) lifestyle may increase susceptibility to air pollutants. We housed 22-day-old female Long-Evans rats in a cage without (SED) or with a running wheel (ACT). After 10 wk the rats ran 310 ± 16.3 km. Responses of SED and ACT rats to whole-body O3 (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 ppm; 5 h/day for 2 days) was assessed. Glucose tolerance testing (GTT) was performed following the first day of O3 ACT rats had less body fat and an improved glucose GTT. Ventilatory function (plethysmography) of SED and ACT groups was similarly impaired by O3 Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected after the second O3 exposure. SED and ACT rats were hyperglycemic following 1.0 ppm O3 GTT was impaired by O3 in both groups; however, ACT rats exhibited improved recovery to 0.25 and 1.0 ppm O3 BALF cell neutrophils and total cells were similarly increased in ACT and SED groups exposed to 1.0 ppm O3 O3-induced increase in eosinophils was exacerbated in SED rats. Chronic exercise from postweaning to adulthood improved some of the metabolic and pulmonary responses to O3 (GTT and eosinophils) but several other parameters were unaffected. The reduction in O3-induced rise in BALF eosinophils in ACT rats suggests a possible link between a SED lifestyle and incidence of asthma-related symptoms from O3.

  5. Objective Estimates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Wei; Tate, Deborah F.; Bond, Dale S.; Wing, Rena R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. This study examines factors associated with physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) in young adults (18–35 years) and compares objective and subjective assessment measures of PA and SB. Methods. 595 young adults (27.7 ± 4.4 years; 25.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) enrolled in the Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention (SNAP) trial. Hours/day spent in SB (<1.5 METs) and minutes/week spent in bout-related moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA; ≥3 METs and ≥10 min) were assessed using self-report and objective measures. Demographic factors associated with SB and MVPA were also explored (i.e., age, gender, BMI, ethnicity, work and relationship status, and number of children). Results. Objective MVPA (263 ± 246 min/wk) was greater than self-report estimates (208 ± 198 min/wk; p < 0.001) and differed by 156 ± 198 min/wk at the individual level (i.e., the absolute difference). Females, overweight participants, African Americans, and those with children participated in the least amount of MVPA. Objective estimates of SB (9.1 ± 1.8 hr/day; 64.5% of wear time) were lower than subjective estimates (10.1 ± 3.5 hr/day; p < 0.001), differing by 2.6 ± 2.5 hr/day for each participant. Conclusion. Young adults interested in weight gain prevention engage in both high levels of MVPA and SB, with participants self-reporting fewer MVPA minutes and more SB compared to objective estimates. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01183689). PMID:28116151

  6. Participatory Workplace Interventions Can Reduce Sedentary Time for Office Workers—A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Sharon; Straker, Leon; Gilson, Nicholas D.; Smith, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational sedentary behaviour is an important contributor to overall sedentary risk. There is limited evidence for effective workplace interventions to reduce occupational sedentary time and increase light activity during work hours. The purpose of the study was to determine if participatory workplace interventions could reduce total sedentary time, sustained sedentary time (bouts >30 minutes), increase the frequency of breaks in sedentary time and promote light intensity activity and moderate/vigorous activity (MVPA) during work hours. Methods A randomised controlled trial (ANZCTR number: ACTN12612000743864) was conducted using clerical, call centre and data processing workers (n = 62, aged 25–59 years) in 3 large government organisations in Perth, Australia. Three groups developed interventions with a participatory approach: ‘Active office’ (n = 19), ‘Active Workstation’ and promotion of incidental office activity; ‘Traditional physical activity’ (n = 14), pedometer challenge to increase activity between productive work time and ‘Office ergonomics’ (n = 29), computer workstation design and breaking up computer tasks. Accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X, 7 days) determined sedentary time, sustained sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time, light intensity activity and MVPA on work days and during work hours were measured before and following a 12 week intervention period. Results For all participants there was a significant reduction in sedentary time on work days (−1.6%, p = 0.006) and during work hours (−1.7%, p = 0.014) and a significant increase in number of breaks/sedentary hour on work days (0.64, p = 0.005) and during work hours (0.72, p = 0.015); there was a concurrent significant increase in light activity during work hours (1.5%, p = 0.012) and MVPA on work days (0.6%, p = 0.012). Conclusions This study explored novel ways to modify work practices to reduce occupational sedentary

  7. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that

  8. Methods to estimate aspects of physical activity and sedentary behavior from high-frequency wrist accelerometer measurements

    PubMed Central

    He, Shai; Hickey, Amanda; Sasaki, Jeffer; Freedson, Patty

    2015-01-01

    This investigation developed models to estimate aspects of physical activity and sedentary behavior from three-axis high-frequency wrist-worn accelerometer data. The models were developed and tested on 20 participants (n = 10 males, n = 10 females, mean age = 24.1, mean body mass index = 23.9), who wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer on their dominant wrist and an ActiGraph GT3X on the hip while performing a variety of scripted activities. Energy expenditure was concurrently measured by a portable indirect calorimetry system. Those calibration data were then used to develop and assess both machine-learning and simpler models with fewer unknown parameters (linear regression and decision trees) to estimate metabolic equivalent scores (METs) and to classify activity intensity, sedentary time, and locomotion time. The wrist models, applied to 15-s windows, estimated METs [random forest: root mean squared error (rSME) = 1.21 METs, hip: rMSE = 1.67 METs] and activity intensity (random forest: 75% correct, hip: 60% correct) better than a previously developed model that used counts per minute measured at the hip. In a separate set of comparisons, the simpler decision trees classified activity intensity (random forest: 75% correct, tree: 74% correct), sedentary time (random forest: 96% correct, decision tree: 97% correct), and locomotion time (random forest: 99% correct, decision tree: 96% correct) nearly as well or better than the machine-learning approaches. Preliminary investigation of the models' performance on two free-living people suggests that they may work well outside of controlled conditions. PMID:26112238

  9. Behavioural activation: history, evidence and promise.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Santos, Maria M; Nagy, Gabriela A

    2012-05-01

    Behavioural activation holds promise to reduce the global burden of depression as a treatment approach that is effective, easy to teach, scalable and acceptable to providers and patients across settings and cultures. This editorial reviews the history of behavioural activation, what it is, current evidence for its use and future directions.

  10. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua J; Golden, Sherita H; Chen, Haiying; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Jacobs, David; Burke, Gregory L; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Ouyang, Pamela; Bertoni, Alain G

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and incident diabetes has been assessed in whites but is less well investigated in multiethnic populations. Objective To assess the association between PA, sedentary behavior, and incident diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Research design and methods Incident diabetes was assessed among adults without prevalent baseline diabetes (2000–2002) at 5 in-person examinations between 2002 and 2012. Baseline PA (moderate, vigorous, and exercise-specific; metabolic equivalents of task-hours/week) and sedentary behaviors (television watching, reading; hours/day) were assessed by questionnaire. HRs were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Among 5829 adults (mean age 61.8 years, 54% female, 42% white, 12% Chinese-American, 26% African-American, 21% Hispanic-American), there were 655 incident diabetes cases (median follow-up 11.1 years). After adjustment, diabetes risk was lower in those with brisk or striding compared with none or casual walking pace (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.84), higher levels of exercise PA (HR for highest vs lowest quartile 0.79; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.98), and any compared with no vigorous PA (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95). Race/ethnicity influenced the association of walking pace, exercise PA, and any vigorous PA on diabetes risk, which was only significant among whites. Total leisure sedentary behaviors (HR for highest vs lowest quartile 1.65; 95% CI 1.26 to 2.14) and television watching (HR for highest vs lowest quartile 2.68; 95% CI 1.38 to 5.21) were significantly associated with diabetes risk in multiethnic analyses and were influenced by race/ethnicity. Conclusions These results confirm the importance of PA and sedentary behavior on diabetes risk in a multiethnic population and demonstrate potential variations across race/ethnic groups. PMID:27403323

  11. Rationale and study design for a randomised controlled trial to reduce sedentary time in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: project stand (Sedentary Time ANd diabetes)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a major public health problem. There is an urgent need for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent the development of T2DM. Sedentary behaviour (sitting time) has recently been identified as a risk factor for diabetes, often independent of the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Project STAND (Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes) is a study which aims to reduce sedentary behaviour in younger adults at high risk of T2DM. Methods/Design A reduction in sedentary time is targeted using theory driven group structured education. The STAND programme is subject to piloting and process evaluation in line with the MRC framework for complex interventions. Participants are encouraged to self-monitor and self-regulate their behaviour. The intervention is being assessed in a randomised controlled trial with 12 month follow up. Inclusion criteria are a) aged 18-40 years with a BMI in the obese range; b) 18-40 years with a BMI in the overweight range plus an additional risk factor for T2DM. Participants are randomised to the intervention (n = 89) or control (n = 89) arm. The primary outcome is a reduction in sedentary behaviour at 12 months as measured by an accelerometer (count < 100/min). Secondary outcomes include physical activity, sitting/lying time using the ActivPAL posture monitor, fasting and 2 h oral glucose tolerance test, lipids, inflammatory biomarkers, body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, illness perceptions, and efficacy beliefs for behaviour change. Conclusions This is the first UK trial to address sedentary behaviour change in a population of younger adults at risk of T2DM. The results will provide a platform for the development of a range of future multidisciplinary interventions in this rapidly expanding high-risk population. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN08434554, MRC project 91409. PMID:22151909

  12. Parent-Targeted Mobile Phone Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Sedentary Children: Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Marker, Arwen M; Allen, H Raymond; Machtmes, Ryan; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Schuna Jr, John M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are associated with adverse health consequences. Objective The intent of the study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week physical activity promotion program targeting children, which was delivered to parents through mobile phones. Methods Potential participants were recruited through advertisements placed in the newspaper, local hospitals and schools, and an email listserv. Sedentary children aged 6-10 years were randomly assigned to a minimal (MIG) or intensive (IIG) intervention group. Parents in the MIG were given a goal to increase (within 1 month) and maintain their child’s activity at 6000 pedometer steps/day above their baseline levels and to monitor their child’s steps daily. Parents in the IIG were given the same steps/day and monitoring goals, in addition to text messages and articles containing additional behavioral strategies (based on the Social Cognitive Theory) designed to promote their child’s physical activity. The intervention components were delivered via mobile phone. Anthropometrics, body composition, and questionnaires were administered in a clinic. Children wore a New Lifestyles pedometer (NL-1000) each day throughout the intervention and parents were to monitor their child’s step counts daily. Results Out of 59 children who screened for the study, a total of 27 children (mean age 8.7, SD 1.4 years; 56%, 15/27 female; 59%, 16/27 African American) were enrolled and completed the study. Overall, 97.90% (2220/2268; 98.20%, 1072/1092 for MIG; 97.60%, 1148/1176 for IIG) of expected step data were successfully entered by the parent or study coordinator. Parents in the MIG and IIG were sent approximately 7 and 13 text messages per week, respectively, averaged over the course of the study. IIG parents accessed an average of 6.1 (SD 4.4) articles over the course of the intervention and accessed a fewer number of articles in the last month compared to the first

  13. Reliability of accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior in school-aged children: a 12-country study

    PubMed Central

    Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Tudor-Locke, C; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Focused on the accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary time metrics in 9–11-year-old children, we sought to determine the following: (i) number of days that are necessary to achieve reliable estimates (G⩾0.8); (ii) proportion of variance attributed to different facets (participants and days) of reliability estimates; and (iii) actual reliability of data as collected in The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: The analytical sample consisted of 6025 children (55% girls) from sites in 12 countries. Physical activity and sedentary time metrics measures were assessed for up to 7 consecutive days for 24 h per day with a waist-worn ActiGraph GT3X+. Generalizability theory using R software was used to investigate the objectives i and ii. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed using SAS PROC GLM to inform objective iii. Results: The estimated minimum number of days required to achieve a reliability estimate of G⩾0.8 ranged from 5 to 9 for boys and 3 to 11 for girls for light physical activity (LPA); 5 to 9 and 3 to 10, for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); 5 to 10 and 4 to 10 for total activity counts; and 7 to 11 and 6 to 11 for sedentary time, respectively. For all variables investigated, the ‘participant' facet accounted for 30–50% of the variability, whereas the ‘days' facet accounted for ⩽5%, and the interaction (P × D) accounted for 50–70% of the variability. The actual reliability for boys in ISCOLE ranged from ICCs of 0.78 to 0.86, 0.73 to 0.85 and 0.72 to 0.86 for LPA, MVPA and total activity counts, respectively, and 0.67 to 0.79 for sedentary time. The corresponding values for girls were 0.80–0.88, 0.70–0.89, 0.74–0.86 and 0.64–0.80. Conclusions: It was rare that only 4 days from all participants would be enough to achieve desirable reliability estimates. However, asking participants to wear the device for 7 days and requiring

  14. Objective assessment of sedentary time and physical activity throughout the week in adolescents with Down syndrome. The UP&DOWN study.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo-Gomez, Rocío; Martínez-Gómez, David; Acha, Aitor; Veiga, Oscar L; Villagra, Ariel; Diaz-Cueto, Mario

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the patterns of sedentary time and physical activity (PA) throughout the week in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). The study comprised 109 adolescents with DS (68 males and 41 females) aged 11-20 years, participating in the UP&DOWN study, but only a total of 100 adolescents provided valid data. Sedentary time and total, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were measured by accelerometers. There were no significant differences in the time spent in sedentary time and PA levels between weekdays vs. weekend days, as well as between school time vs. after school-time periods (all p>0.05). Adolescent males engaged in more total PA, moderate PA, vigorous PA and MVPA than females on weekend days (all p<0.05). Differences between age groups showed that sedentary time increases and PA decreases with advancing age in all analyses, so that the oldest groups were more sedentary and less active (all p<0.05). Only 43% of adolescents with DS met the PA recommendations of ≥60min/day of MVPA. Our findings show valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to decrease sedentary time and increase PA levels in adolescents with DS.

  15. Associations between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10-14-year-old children: The HAPPY study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Daniel P; Charman, Sarah J; Ploetz, Thomas; Savory, Louise A; Kerr, Catherine J

    2016-11-28

    This study examines the association between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10-14-year-old children. This cross-sectional design study analysed accelerometry-determined sedentary behaviour and physical activity collected over 7 days from 111 (66 girls) UK schoolchildren. Objective outcome measures included waist circumference, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression was used for the main data analysis. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of having hypertriglyceridaemia (P = 0.03) and an increased clustered cardiometabolic risk score (P = 0.05) were significantly higher in children who engaged in more prolonged sedentary bouts per day. The number of breaks in sedentary time per day was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor, but longer mean duration of daily breaks in sedentary time were associated with a lower odds of having abdominal adiposity (P = 0.04) and elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01). These associations may be mediated by engagement in light activity. This study provides evidence that avoiding periods of prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time may be important for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in children.

  16. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Evidence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been diagnosed in adolescents and among the associated factors are low levels of physical activity, sedentary behavior over long periods and low cardiorespiratory fitness. However, specifically in adolescents, studies present conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, in order to map the association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness and MetS in adolescents. Methods A search was performed in the databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, LILACS and the Cochrane Library. For the meta-analysis, the odds ratio (OR) was calculated together with the respective confidence intervals (95% CI), in which the measures of effect were analyzed by dichotomous data (exposure variables) with MetS used as events. Results Eighteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Primary analysis demonstrated that low levels of physical activity (OR = 1.35 [1.03 to 1.79]; p = 0.03) and low cardiorespiratory fitness (OR = 4.05 [2.09 to 7.87]; p < 0.01) were significantly associated with the development of MetS, while for sedentary behavior, represented by screen time > 2 hours/day, a significant association was not identified (OR = 1.20 [0.91 to 1.59]; p = 0.20). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that the association between low physical activity and MetS was dependent on the use of the accelerometry technique (OR = 2.93 [1.56 to 5.47]; p < 0.01). Screen time > 2 hours/day was significantly associated with MetS only on weekends (OR = 2.05 [1.13 to 3.73]; p = 0.02). With respect to cardiorespiratory fitness, a significant association with MetS was found independent of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurement method. Conclusions Low levels of physical activity, low indices of cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary behavior, represented by screen time > 2 hours/day on weekends, were significantly associated with the development of MetS in

  17. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Black and White Adults in the Southern Community Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Charles E.; Cohen, Sarah S.; Fowke, Jay H.; Han, Xijing; Xiao, Qian; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.

    2014-01-01

    There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of physical activity with regard to mortality risk or the harms associated with sedentary behavior in black adults, so we examined the relationships between these health behaviors and cause-specific mortality in a prospective study that had a large proportion of black adults. Participants (40–79 years of age) enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study between 2002 and 2009 (n = 63,308) were prospectively followed over 6.4 years, and 3,613 and 1,394 deaths occurred in blacks and whites, respectively. Black adults who reported the highest overall physical activity level (≥32.3 metabolic equivalent-hours/day vs. <9.7 metabolic equivalent-hours/day) had lower risks of death from all causes (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.76. 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 0.85), cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.98), and cancer (HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62, 0.94). In whites, a higher physical activity level was associated with a lower risk of death from all causes (HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.90) and cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.99) but not cancer (HR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.34). Spending more time being sedentary (>12 hours/day vs. <5.76 hours/day) was associated with a 20%–25% increased risk of all-cause mortality in blacks and whites. Blacks who reported the most time spent being sedentary (≥10.5 hours/day) and lowest level of physical activity (<12.6 metabolic equivalent-hours/day) had a greater risk of death (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.71). Our study provides evidence that suggests that health promotion efforts to increase physical activity level and decrease sedentary time could help reduce mortality risk in black adults. PMID:25086052

  18. Comment on "Should we reframe how we think about physical activity and sedentary behavior measurement? Validity and reliability reconsidered".

    PubMed

    Terwee, Caroline B; Mokkink, L B; Hidding, L M; Altenburg, T M; van Poppel, M N; Chinapaw, M J M

    2016-06-10

    With great interest we read the article by Kelly et al. on the measurement of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) (Kelly P et al. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 13:(1) 32, 2016). We appreciate the invitation of the authors to provide feedback on their ideas and we take this opportunity to contribute to the discussion. Our main proposition is that this field can learn much from the field of quality of life research and the methodology developed for validating quality of life questionnaires.

  19. Behavior Change with Fitness Technology in Sedentary Adults: A Review of the Evidence for Increasing Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Alycia N.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is closely linked with health and well-being; however, many Americans do not engage in regular exercise. Older adults and those with low socioeconomic status are especially at risk for poor health, largely due to their sedentary lifestyles. Fitness technology, including trackers and smartphone applications (apps), has become increasingly popular for measuring and encouraging physical activity in recent years. However, many questions remain regarding the effectiveness of this technology for promoting behavior change. Behavior change techniques such as goal setting, feedback, rewards, and social factors are often included in fitness technology. However, it is not clear which components are most effective and which are actually being used by consumers. We discuss additional strategies not typically included in fitness technology devices or apps that are promising for engaging inactive, vulnerable populations. These include action planning, restructuring negative attitudes, enhancing environmental conditions, and identifying other barriers to regular physical activity. We consider which strategies are most conducive to motivating behavior change among sedentary adults. Overall, fitness technology has the potential to significantly impact public health, research, and policies. We suggest ways in which app developers and behavior change experts can collaborate to develop successful apps. Advances are still needed to help inactive individuals determine how, when, where, and with whom they can increase their physical activity. PMID:28123997

  20. Moderate activity and fitness, not sedentary time, are independently associated with cardio-metabolic risk in U.S. adults aged 18-49.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Jeroen H P M; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Koster, Annemarie

    2015-02-23

    This cross-sectional study is one of the first to examine and compare the independent associations of objectively measured sedentary time, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and fitness with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied 543 men and women (aged 18-49 years) from the NHANES 2003-2004 survey. Sedentary time and MVPA were measured by accelerometry. Fitness was assessed with a submaximal treadmill test. Cardio-metabolic risk factors included: waist circumference (WC), BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HDL- and non HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Sedentary time, MVPA and fitness were used as predictors for the cardio-metabolic outcomes in a multiple regression analysis. Standardized regression coefficients were computed. Results show that sedentary time was associated with HDL-cholesterol (β=-0.080, p=0.05) and TG (β=0.080, p=0.03). These results became non-significant after adjustment for MVPA and fitness. MVPA was associated with WC (β=-0.226), BMI (β=-0.239), TG (β=-0.108) and HDL-cholesterol (β=0.144) (all p<0.05). These results remained significant after adjustment for sedentary time and fitness. Fitness was associated with WC (β=-0.287), BMI (β=-0.266), systolic blood pressure (β=-0.159), TG (β=-0.092), and CRP (β=-0.130) (all p<0.05). After adjustment for sedentary time and MVPA these results remained significant. These differences in relative importance of sedentary time, MVPA and fitness on cardio-metabolic-risk are important in the design of prevention programs. In this population, the strength of the associations between MVPA and fitness with cardio-metabolic markers appeared to be similar; both MVPA and fitness showed independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors. In contrast, sedentary time showed no independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk after correction for fitness and MVPA.

  1. Determinants of Three-Year Change in Children’s Objectively Measured Sedentary Time

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Louise; Corder, Kirsten; Ekelund, Ulf; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviours (SB) are highly prevalent in young people and may be adversely associated with physical and mental health. Understanding of the modifiable determinants of SB is necessary to inform the design of behaviour change interventions but much of the existing research is cross-sectional and focussed upon screen-based behaviours. Purpose To examine the social, psychological and environmental determinants of change in children’s objectively measured sedentary time from age 11 to 14 years. Methods Data are from the second (2008) and third (2011) waves of assessment in the Sport, Physical Activity, and Eating Behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young People (SPEEDY) study, conducted in the county of Norfolk, United Kingdom. Longitudinal data on accelerometer assessed sedentary time were available for 316 (53.5% female, 11.2±0.3 years at baseline) and 264 children after-school and at the weekend respectively. Information on 14 candidate determinants, including school travel mode and electronic media ownership, was self-reported. Change in the proportion of registered time spent sedentary was used as the outcome variable in cross-classified linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and baseline sedentary time. Simple and multiple models were run and interactions with sex explored. Results Daily sedentary time increased by 30–40 minutes after-school and at the weekend from baseline to follow-up. Participants who travelled to school by cycle exhibited smaller increases in after-school sedentary time (beta; 95%CI for change in % time spent sedentary: -3.3;-6.7,-0.07). No significant determinants of change in weekend sedentary time were identified. Conclusions Time spent sedentary increased during the three-year duration of follow-up but few of the variables examined were significantly associated with changes in sedentary time. Children’s mode of school travel may influence changes in their sedentary time over this

  2. Association among functional-movement ability, fatigue, sedentary time, and fitness in 40 years and older active duty military personnel.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Armbruster, Carol; Evans, Ellen M; Sexauer, Lisa; Peterson, James; Wyatt, William

    2013-12-01

    Identifying potential modifiable determinants of functional movement ability and fatigue may inform efforts to maintain constant physical readiness, especially in active duty military over 40 years of age, who are largely sedentary throughout their work day. The primary aim of this study was to determine the associations among conventional fitness measures (body composition, flexibility, and strength), sedentary behavior (sitting time), functional movement ability, and fatigue in military personnel. Volunteer active duty personnel 40 years of age and older (n = 569 males; n = 121 females; mean ± SD for total sample = 44.5 ± 4.1 years) were assessed for adiposity (%Fat), strength, flexibility, self-reported sitting time, perceived fatigue using the fatigue severity scale, and functional movement ability using the functional movement screening criteria. Greater flexibility was associated with better functional movement screening scores (r = 0.34, p < 0.05), and waist circumference and %Fat were inversely related to function (r = -0.26 and -0.21, p < 0.05). Furthermore, less sitting time (p < 0.001) was associated with less fatigue. Our data suggest that exercise training, reductions in daily sitting time, and weight management may be viable intervention targets to enhance functional movement ability and reduce fatigue in 40+ year old active duty military personnel.

  3. The effect of experimentally induced sedentariness on mood and psychobiological responses to mental stress

    PubMed Central

    Endrighi, Romano; Steptoe, Andrew; Hamer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests a link between sedentary behaviours and depressive symptoms. Mechanisms underlying this relationship are not understood, but inflammatory processes may be involved. Autonomic and inflammatory responses to stress may be heightened in sedentary individuals contributing to risk, but no study has experimentally investigated this. Aims To examine the effect of sedentary time on mood and stress responses using an experimental design. Method Forty-three individuals were assigned to a free-living sedentary condition and to a control condition (usual activity) in a cross-over, randomised fashion and were tested in a psychophysiology laboratory after spending 2 weeks in each condition. Participants completed mood questionnaires (General Health Questionnaire and Profile of Mood States) and wore a motion sensor for 4 weeks. Results Sedentary time increased by an average of 32 min/day (P = 0.01) during the experimental condition compared with control. Being sedentary resulted in increases in negative mood independent of changes in moderate to vigorous physical activity (ΔGHQ = 6.23, ΔPOMS = 2.80). Mood disturbances were associated with greater stress-induced inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses (β = 0.37). Conclusions Two weeks of exposure to greater free-living sedentary time resulted in mood disturbances independent of reduction in physical activity. Stress-induced IL-6 responses were associated with changes in mood. PMID:26294364

  4. Differences in sedentary time and physical activity among mothers and children using a movement-to-music video program in the home environment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Pipsa P A; Husu, Pauliina; Raitanen, Jani; Luoto, Riitta M

    2016-01-01

    Measured objectively, less than a quarter of adults and under half of preschool children in Finland meet the physical activity recommendations. Moreover, higher sedentary time among parents (such as watching television) is associated with higher sedentary time of their children. The study introduces an intervention based on reducing sedentary behavior among mothers and their children. It utilizes a combination of music and exercise via a motivation-targeting movement-to-music video program in the home environment. Data were collected in summer 2014 from Finland's Pirkanmaa region. Each mother-child pair (n = 24, child age: 4-7 years) was assigned to the intervention and control group. Both groups used an accelerometer and completed physical activity diaries for two consecutive weeks (14 days) during waking hours. In addition, the intervention group was instructed to use the movement-to-music video program during the second week. Differences between groups were expected in analysis of sedentary time and physical activity between weeks 1 and 2. The parameters assessed were sedentary time (i.e., lying down or sitting), standing still, and time spent in physical activity. Less sedentary time was revealed in week 2 than in week 1 among both intervention group mothers (56.6 vs. 53.3 %) and for intervention group children (49.5 vs. 46.0 %). The opposite was true of control group mothers (52.1 vs. 52.4 %) and children (46.7 vs. 49.8 %). Within-group differences in mothers' sedentary time correlated moderately with the children's sedentary time (Spearman's r = 0.56). All groups exhibited slightly more standing in the second week than in week 1. Both sets of intervention participants also engaged in more light physical activity in week 2, with the opposite evident for the two control sets. In all groups, except the control children, the proportion of moderate to vigorous physical activity was higher in the second week than the first. The use of music and video

  5. Measurement and Intervention on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Bariatric Surgery Patients: Emphasis on Mobile Technology

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; Thomas, J. Graham

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB—i.e. activities involving low energy expenditure and a sitting/reclining posture) may each have significant implications for weight loss and other bariatric surgery outcomes. While early studies suggested that patients typically comply with clinical recommendations to adopt habitual PA, these data were based on retrospective questionnaires. Conversely, recent studies incorporating mobile health (mHealth) technologies (e.g., objective monitors), which assess PA and SB in real-time and in the natural environment, show that most patients are inactive and highly sedentary preoperatively, and only make modest changes in these behaviors postoperatively. In addition to using mHealth technologies for obtaining accurate and detailed information on PA and SB, they are increasingly being employed to intervene on patients’ PA and SB and/or evaluate intervention outcomes. Researchers and clinicians are encouraged to consider the benefits of using mHealth technology when studying and treating PA and SB in bariatric surgery patients. PMID:26331982

  6. Sedentary Behavior and Health Outcomes: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rodrigues Lopes, Maurício; Rey-López, Juan Pablo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2) To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found. Methodology/Principal Findings Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase); PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers. Conclusions This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted. PMID:25144686

  7. Association of Environment and Policy Characteristics on Children’s Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and Time Spent Sedentary in Afterschool Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ajja, Rahma; Clennin, Morgan N.; Weaver, R. Glenn; Moore, Justin B.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Pate, Russell R.; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Afterschool programs (ASPs) are an important setting in which to promote children’s physical activity. This study examines the association of environmental and policy characteristics on the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior of children attending ASPs. Methods A total of 1,302 children attending 20 ASPs across South Carolina wore accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+) for up to 4 non-consecutive days. Policy-level characteristics were evaluated using the Healthy Afterschool Program Index-Physical Activity (HAPI-PA) scale. Physical activity space was measured using a measuring wheel (indoor, ft2) and GIS (outdoor, acres). The structure (free-play or organized) of activity opportunities, was evaluated via direct observation. Time spent in MVPA and sedentary, both indoors and outdoors, was estimated using accelerometry. Results For every 5000ft2 of utilized indoor activity space an additional 2.4 and 3.3 minutes/day of sedentary behavior was observed among boys and girls, respectively. A higher ratio of free-play to organized play was associated with higher indoor sedentary behavior among boys and girls (3.9 minutes/day and 10.0 minutes/day, respectively). For every one acre of outdoor activity space used, an additional 2.7 minutes/day of MVPA was observed for boys. A higher free-play to organized play ratio was associated with higher outdoor MVPA for boys and girls (4.4 and 3.4 minutes/day increase, respectively). Policy characteristics were unrelated to MVPA levels and time spent sedentary. Conclusion Findings indicate that policies and the size of activity space had limited influence on MVPA and sedentary behavior, suggesting that programmatic structure may be a more effective option to improve MVPA levels of children attending ASPs. PMID:25251100

  8. Harnessing different motivational frames via mobile phones to promote daily physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in aging adults.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Hekler, Eric B; Grieco, Lauren A; Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N; Cirimele, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An "analytically" framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A "socially" framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An "affectively" framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data exploring sustained use

  9. Parent-child attitude congruence on type and intensity of physical activity: Testing multiple mediators of sedentary behavior in older children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined parent–child attitudes on value of specific types and intensities of physical activity, which may explain gender differences in child activity, and evaluated physical activity as a mechanism to reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors. A community sample of 681 parents and 433 ch...

  10. Examining Non-Linear Associations between Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and All-Cause Mortality Using Segmented Cox Regression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy adults are advised to perform at least 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity weekly, but this advice is based on studies using self-reports of questionable validity. This study examined the dose-response relationship of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors on all-cause mortality using segmented Cox regression to empirically determine the break-points of the dose-response relationship. Data from 7006 adult participants aged 18 or above in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included in the analysis and linked with death certificate data using a probabilistic matching approach in the National Death Index through December 31, 2011. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using ActiGraph model 7164 accelerometer over the right hip for 7 consecutive days. Each minute with accelerometer count <100; 1952–5724; and ≥5725 were classified as sedentary, moderate-intensity physical activity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity, respectively. Segmented Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of time spent in sedentary behaviors, moderate-intensity physical activity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and all-cause mortality, adjusted for demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and health conditions. Data were analyzed in 2016. During 47,119 person-year of follow-up, 608 deaths occurred. Each additional hour per day of sedentary behaviors was associated with a HR of 1.15 (95% CI 1.01, 1.31) among participants who spend at least 10.9 h per day on sedentary behaviors, and each additional minute per day spent on moderate-intensity physical activity was associated with a HR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91, 0.96) among participants with daily moderate-intensity physical activity ≤14.1 min. Associations of moderate physical activity and sedentary behaviors on all-cause mortality were independent of each other. To conclude, evidence from

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life Measures for Physically Active Elderly in Community Exercise Programs in Catalonia: Comparative Analysis with Sedentary People

    PubMed Central

    Fortuño-Godes, Jesús; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Cabedo-Sanromà, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females). PMID:24454357

  12. Health-related quality of life measures for physically active elderly in community exercise programs in catalonia: comparative analysis with sedentary people.

    PubMed

    Fortuño-Godes, Jesús; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Cabedo-Sanromà, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females).

  13. Association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and fitness with health related quality of life in healthy children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo-Cantarero, Alberto; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Torres-Costoso, Ana Isabel; Sánchez-López, Mairena

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is a subjective, multidimensional and changing over time construct. When HRQoL is decreased, a child is less likely to be able to develop normally and mature into a healthy adult. Physical inactivity is a priority public health problem. Evidence suggests how even moderate levels of physical activity or high fitness levels are associated with benefits for the health in children and adolescents. The aims of this systematic review are to examine the evidence about the relationship between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and fitness with HRQoL, and estimate the effects of interventions that have tested the effectiveness of the increase of the physical activity, the improvement of the physical fitness or the avoidance of sedentary behaviors in HRQoL in healthy subjects aged under 18 years old. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis protocol was conducted following the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) statement. To identify relevant studies, the following electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Web of Science, and PEDro. Reference lists of relevant studies will be examined for links to potential related articles. The methodological quality of the observational included studies will be scored using a quality assessment checklist. For the intervention studies, the risk of bias will be estimated using The Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. Reviewers will determine whether a meta-analysis is possible when data have been extracted. If it is, subgroup analyses will be carried out by age and socioeconomic status, and by the different dimensions of the HRQoL. If is not possible, a descriptive analysis will be conducted. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this systematic review and meta-analysis will be the first that synthesizes the existing results about the relationship between physical activity

  14. Acute exercise ameliorates differences in insulin resistance between physically active and sedentary overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Rachael K; Horowitz, Jeffrey F

    2014-07-01

    Although regular exercise is associated with reduced cardiometabolic disease risk among overweight adults, it remains unclear whether much of the health benefits of exercise are derived from the most recent session(s) of exercise or if they are the result of adaptations stemming from weeks, months, or even years of training. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of habitual and acute exercise on key markers of cardiometabolic disease risk in overweight adults. We compared insulin sensitivity index (ISI) using an oral glucose tolerance test, blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, and systemic inflammatory cytokines in 12 overweight to mildly obese adults (BMI: 27-34 kg/m(2)) who exercise regularly (EX; >2.5 h exercise per week) with a well-matched cohort of 12 nonexercisers (Non-EX). Baseline measurements in EX were performed exactly 3 days after exercise, whereas Non-EX remained sedentary. We repeated these measurements the day after a session of exercise in both groups. At baseline, ISI was significantly greater in EX versus Non-EX (3.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.3 ± 0.2; p = 0.02), but BP, blood lipids, and plasma concentration of the systemic inflammatory cytokines we measured were not different between groups. Acute exercise increased ISI the next morning in Non-EX (2.3 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.3; p = 0.03) but not EX. As a result, ISI was similar between groups the morning after exercise. In summary, exercising regularly was accompanied by a persistent improvement in insulin sensitivity that lasted at least 3 days after exercise in overweight adults, but just one session of exercise increased insulin sensitivity among sedentary overweight adults to levels equivalent to the regular exercisers.

  15. Acute exercise ameliorates differences in insulin resistance between physically active and sedentary overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Rachael K.; Horowitz, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    Although regular exercise is associated with reduced cardiometabolic disease risk among overweight adults, it remains unclear whether much of the health benefits of exercise are derived from the most recent session(s) of exercise or if they are the result of adaptations stemming from weeks, months, or even years of training. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of habitual and acute exercise on key markers of cardiometabolic disease risk in overweight adults. We compared insulin sensitivity index (ISI) using an oral glucose tolerance test, blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, and systemic inflammatory cytokines in 12 overweight to mildly obese adults (BMI: 27–34 kg/m2) who exercise regularly (EX; >2.5 h exercise per week) with a well-matched cohort of 12 nonexercisers (Non-EX). Baseline measurements in EX were performed exactly 3 days after exercise, whereas Non-EX remained sedentary. We repeated these measurements the day after a session of exercise in both groups. At baseline, ISI was significantly greater in EX versus Non-EX (3.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.3 ± 0.2; p = 0.02), but BP, blood lipids, and plasma concentration of the systemic inflammatory cytokines we measured were not different between groups. Acute exercise increased ISI the next morning in Non-EX (2.3 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.3; p = 0.03) but not EX. As a result, ISI was similar between groups the morning after exercise. In summary, exercising regularly was accompanied by a persistent improvement in insulin sensitivity that lasted at least 3 days after exercise in overweight adults, but just one session of exercise increased insulin sensitivity among sedentary overweight adults to levels equivalent to the regular exercisers. PMID:24773370

  16. Descriptive epidemiology of screen and non-screen sedentary time in adolescents: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Much attention has been paid to adolescents' screen time, however very few studies have examined non-screen sedentary time (NSST). This study aimed to (1) describe the magnitude and composition of screen sedentary time (SST) and NSST in Australian adolescents, (2) describe the socio-demographic correlates of SST and NSST, and (3) determine whether screen time is an adequate surrogate for total sedentary behaviour in this population. Methods 2200 9-16 year old Australians provided detailed use of time data for four days. Non-screen sedentary time (NSST) included time spent participating in activities expected to elicit <3 METs whilst seated or lying down (other than sleeping), excluding screen-based activities (television, playing videogames or using computers). Total sedentary time was the sum of screen time and NSST. Results Adolescents spent a mean (SD) of 345 (105) minutes/day in NSST, which constituted 60% of total sedentary time. School activities contributed 42% of NSST, socialising 19%, self-care (mainly eating) 16%, and passive transport 15%. Screen time and NSST showed opposite patterns in relation to key socio-demographic characteristics, including sex, age, weight status, household income, parental education and day type. Because screen time was negatively correlated with NSST (r = -0.58), and exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.53) with total sedentary time, screen time was only a moderately effective surrogate for total sedentary time. Conclusions To capture a complete picture of young people's sedentary time, studies should endeavour to measure both screen time and NSST. PMID:21194427

  17. Relationship Between Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Same, Robert V; Feldman, David I; Shah, Nishant; Martin, Seth S; Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Blaha, Michael J; Graham, Garth; Ahmed, Haitham M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of adults do not meet current guideline recommendations for moderate to vigorous physical activity. Recent research has linked a high amount of sedentary behavior with an increased risk of obesity, diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and death. This correlation with sedentary behavior even extends to individuals who meet recommended physical activity goals during the remainder of their day, which implies that sedentary behavior may represent a distinct cardiovascular risk factor that is independent of the overall amount of physical activity. During the past several years, there has been significant interest in identifying and understanding the mechanisms through which sedentary behavior affects cardiovascular health. In this review, we critically evaluate the literature pertaining to sedentary behavior and cardiovascular risk with an emphasis on studies published over the past year, and we suggest possible interventions that may help reduce sedentary behavior time.

  18. Association between Adolescents' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Change in BMI and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the association between physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) patterns during adolescents on the future increase in BMI and risk of diabetes during young adulthood. A total of 3,717 participants aged 11 to 21 at baseline who completed Waves I (1994–1995), II (1996), III (2001–2002), and IV (2008) surveys of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were analyzed. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns were assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire at Waves I, II, and III. A participant was classified as having diabetes at Wave IV according to WHO guidelines. The k-means cluster analysis was used to identify the number of PA and SB patterns assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. The k-means cluster analysis identified three clusters; 575 (15.5%), 2,140 (57.6%), and 1,002 (27.0%) participants belonged to the low PA high SB (LPAHSB), the LPALSB, and the HPALSB cluster respectively. Relative to the LPALSB cluster, the HPALSB cluster had lower increase in BMI from Wave III to Wave IV (P = 0.03), whereas the difference between LPAHSB cluster and LPALSB cluster was not significant (P = 0.09). The odds of developing diabetes at Wave IV was significant for the LPAHSB cluster (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.04, 2.75) but not significant for the HPALSB cluster (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.52, 1.47) relative to the LPALSB cluster. To conclude, PA but not SB during adolescence predicted change in BMI during young adulthood. SB but not PA during adolescence predicted type 2 diabetes during young adulthood. PMID:25340773

  19. Recovery from muscle weakness by exercise and FES: lessons from Masters, active or sedentary seniors and SCI patients.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut; Gava, Paolo; Hofer, Christian; Loefler, Stefan; Gargiulo, Paolo; Edmunds, Kyle; Árnadóttir, Íris Dröfn; Zampieri, Sandra; Ravara, Barbara; Gava, Francesco; Nori, Alessandra; Gobbo, Valerio; Masiero, Stefano; Marcante, Andrea; Baba, Alfonc; Piccione, Francesco; Schils, Sheila; Pond, Amber; Mosole, Simone

    2016-09-03

    Many factors contribute to the decline of skeletal muscle that occurs as we age. This is a reality that we may combat, but not prevent because it is written into our genome. The series of records from World Master Athletes reveals that skeletal muscle power begins to decline at the age of 30 years and continues, almost linearly, to zero at the age of 110 years. Here we discuss evidence that denervation contributes to the atrophy and slowness of aged muscle. We compared muscle from lifelong active seniors to that of sedentary elderly people and found that the sportsmen have more muscle bulk and slow fiber type groupings, providing evidence that physical activity maintains slow motoneurons which reinnervate muscle fibers. Further, accelerated muscle atrophy/degeneration occurs with irreversible Conus and Cauda Equina syndrome, a spinal cord injury in which the human leg muscles may be permanently disconnected from the nervous system with complete loss of muscle fibers within 5-8 years. We used histological morphometry and Muscle Color Computed Tomography to evaluate muscle from these peculiar persons and reveal that contraction produced by home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation (h-bFES) recovers muscle size and function which is reversed if h-bFES is discontinued. FES also reverses muscle atrophy in sedentary seniors and modulates mitochondria in horse muscles. All together these observations indicate that FES modifies muscle fibers by increasing contractions per day. Thus, FES should be considered in critical care units, rehabilitation centers and nursing facilities when patients are unable or reluctant to exercise.

  20. The Physiologic and Behavioral Implications of Playing Active and Sedentary Video Games in a Seated and Standing Position.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Gabriel J; Rebold, Michael; Peacock, Corey A; Williamson, Meagan L; Santo, Antonio S; Barkley, Jacob E

    Previous studies have assessed physiologic response while playing video games per manufacturer instructions with participants standing during active video game play and seated during sedentary game play. It is not known whether an assigned seated or standing position affects positional preference and oxygen consumption (VO2) while gaming. The purpose of the study was to assess VO2 and preference of playing active and sedentary video games in a seated and standing position. VO2 was assessed in 25 participants during four, 20-minute conditions; resting, PlayStation 2 Madden NFL Football 2011, Nintendo Wii-Sports Boxing and Nintendo Wii Madden NFL Football 2011. Each condition was divided into two positional conditions (10 minutes seated, 10 minutes standing) and each participant indicated their positional preference after each 20-minute condition. Standing VO2 (4.4 ± 0.2 ml • kg-1 • min-1 PS2, 4.6 ± 0.1 ml • kg-1 • min-1 Wii Madden, 6.8 ± 0.3 ml • kg-1 • min-1Wii Boxing) was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) greater than seated VO2 (4.0 ± 0.1 ml • kg-1 • min-1 PS2, 4.2 ± 0.1 ml • kg-1 • min-1 Wii Madden, 6.1 ± 0.3 ml • kg-1 • min-1Wii Boxing) for each gaming condition. Participants preferred (p ≤ 0.001) to sit for all gaming conditions except Wii Boxing. Playing video games while standing increases VO2 to a greater extent than playing the same games in a seated position. Standing was only preferred for the most physiologically challenging game, Wii Boxing. Gaming position should be considered when assessing the physiologic and behavioral outcomes of playing video games.

  1. Social desirability is associated with some physical activity, psychosocial variables and sedentary behavior but not self-reported physical activity among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Jago, Russell; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice C; Cullen, Karen W; Thompson, Debbe I

    2007-06-01

    This study examined whether controlling for social desirability improved the association between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among adolescent males and the extent that psychosocial variables predict physical activity after controlling for social desirability. Participants (n=447) were 10- to 14-year old Houston Boy Scouts. Participants completed self-reports of physical activity, sedentary behavior, preferences, self-efficacy and social desirability and wore an MTI accelerometer for 3 days. Correlations were conducted among variables. Regression models were performed to examine the relationships between objectively measured (accelerometer) and self-reported physical activity, objectively measured physical activity and psychosocial variables and self-reports of physical activity and psychosocial variables. All models controlled for social desirability. There were weak associations between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity measures that were slightly improved after controlling for social desirability. Psychosocial variables were strongly associated with self-reports of physical activity, but weakly associated with accelerometer physical activity. Social desirability was positively associated with physical activity preferences (r=0.169) and self-efficacy (r=0.118) and negatively associated (r=-0.158) with self-reported sedentary behavior. Differences in the strength of relationships between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and psychosocial variables were not a function of social desirability.

  2. Short-Term Influence of Revised Provincial Accreditation Standards on Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Weight Status in Alberta, Canada Child Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Valerie; Clark, Dawne; Ogden, Nancy; Harber, Vicki; Kuzik, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In December, 2013, revised Alberta child care accreditation standards were released by the Alberta Government in Canada that included a new standard for physical activity and sedentary behavior in accredited child care settings. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the new accreditation standard in increasing physical…

  3. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    PubMed Central

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally ‘active’ individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes. PMID

  4. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to lung cancer incidence and mortality in older women: The Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ange; Qin, FeiFei; Hedlin, Haley; Desai, Manisha; Chlebowski, Rowan; Gomez, Scarlett; Eaton, Charles B; Johnson, Karen C; Qi, Lihong; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Womack, Catherine; Wakelee, Heather A; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2016-11-15

    Physical activity has been associated with lower lung cancer incidence and mortality in several populations. We investigated these relationships in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) and Clinical Trial (WHI-CT) prospective cohort of postmenopausal women. The WHI study enrolled 161,808 women aged 50-79 years between 1993 and 1998 at 40 U.S. clinical centers; 129,401 were eligible for these analyses. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of baseline physical activity levels [metabolic equivalent (MET)-min/week: none <100 (reference), low 100 to <500, medium 500 to <1,200, high 1,200+] and sedentary behavior with total lung cancer incidence and mortality. Over 11.8 mean follow-up years, 2,148 incident lung cancer cases and 1,365 lung cancer deaths were identified. Compared with no activity, higher physical activity levels at study entry were associated with lower lung cancer incidence [p = 0.009; hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for each physical activity category: low, HR: 0.86 (0.76-0.96); medium, HR: 0.82 (0.73-0.93); and high, HR: 0.90 (0.79-1.03)], and mortality [p < 0.0001; low, HR: 0.80 (0.69-0.92); medium, HR: 0.68 (0.59-0.80); and high, HR: 0.78 (0.66-0.93)]. Body mass index (BMI) modified the association with lung cancer incidence (p = 0.01), with a stronger association in women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2) . Significant associations with sedentary behavior were not observed. In analyses by lung cancer subtype, higher total physical activity levels were associated with lower lung cancer mortality for both overall NSCLC and adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, physical activity may be protective for lung cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women, particularly in non-obese women.

  5. Implicit and Explicit Exercise and Sedentary Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya R.; Strachan, Shaelyn M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between implicit and explicit "exerciser" and "sedentary" self-identity when activated by stereotypes. Undergraduate participants (N = 141) wrote essays about university students who either liked to exercise or engage in sedentary activities. This was followed by an implicit identity task and an explicit measure of…

  6. Association between bone stiffness and nutritional biomarkers combined with weight-bearing exercise, physical activity, and sedentary time in preadolescent children. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Diana; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Gianfagna, Francesco; Konstabel, Kenn; Lissner, Lauren; Mårild, Staffan; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Siani, Alfonso; Sioen, Isabelle; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity (PA) and micronutrients such as calcium (Ca), vitamin D (25OHD), and phosphate (PO) are important determinants of skeletal development. This case-control study examined the association of these nutritional biomarkers and different PA behaviours, such as habitual PA, weight-bearing exercise (WBE) and sedentary time (SED) with bone stiffness (SI) in 1819 2-9-year-old children from the IDEFICS study (2007-2008). SI was measured on the calcaneus using quantitative ultrasound. Serum and urine Ca and PO and serum 25OHD were determined. Children's sports activities were reported by parents using a standardised questionnaire. A subsample of 1089 children had accelerometer-based PA data (counts per minute, cpm). Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and SED were estimated. Children with poor SI (below the 15th age-/sex-/height-specific percentile) were defined as cases (N=603). Randomly selected controls (N=1216) were matched by age, sex, and country. Odds ratios (OR) for poor SI were calculated by conditional logistic regression for all biomarkers and PA behaviour variables separately and combined (expressed as tertiles and dichotomised variables, respectively). ORs were adjusted for fat-free mass, dairy product consumption, and daylight duration. We observed increased ORs for no sports (OR=1.39, p<0.05), PA levels below 524 cpm (OR=1.85, p<0.05) and MVPA below 4.2% a day (OR=1.69, p<0.05) compared to WBE, high PA levels (<688 cpm) and high MVPA (6.7%), respectively. SED was not associated with SI. ORs were moderately elevated for low serum Ca and 25OHD. However, biomarkers were not statistically significantly associated with SI and did not modify the association between PA behaviours and SI. Although nutritional biomarkers appear to play a minor role compared to the osteogenic effect of PA and WBE, it is noteworthy that the highest risk for poor SI was observed for no sports or low MVPA combined with lower serum Ca (<2.5 mmol/l) or lower 25OHD (<43.0 nmol/l).

  7. The Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q): reliability and validity against doubly labeled water and 7-day activity diaries.

    PubMed

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Neilson, Heather K; Kopciuk, Karen A; Khandwala, Farah; Liu, Andrew; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Bryant, Heather E; Lau, David C W; Robson, Paula J

    2014-08-15

    We determined measurement properties of the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), which was designed to estimate past-month activity energy expenditure (AEE). STAR-Q validity and reliability were assessed in 102 adults in Alberta, Canada (2009-2011), who completed 14-day doubly labeled water (DLW) protocols, 7-day activity diaries on day 15, and the STAR-Q on day 14 and again at 3 and 6 months. Three-month reliability was substantial for total energy expenditure (TEE) and AEE (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively), while 6-month reliability was moderate. STAR-Q-derived TEE and AEE were moderately correlated with DLW estimates (Spearman's ρs of 0.53 and 0.40, respectively; P < 0.001), and on average, the STAR-Q overestimated TEE and AEE (median differences were 367 kcal/day and 293 kcal/day, respectively). Body mass index-, age-, sex-, and season-adjusted concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.36) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.32) for STAR-Q-derived versus DLW-derived TEE and AEE, respectively. Agreement between the diaries and STAR-Q (metabolic equivalent-hours/day) was strongest for occupational sedentary time (adjusted CCC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.85) and overall strenuous activity (adjusted CCC = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.76). The STAR-Q demonstrated substantial validity for estimating occupational sedentary time and strenuous activity and fair validity for ranking individuals by AEE.

  8. Physical activity and sedentary lifestyle in children as time-limited functions: usefulness of the principal component analysis method.

    PubMed

    Guinhouya, Comlavi B; Soubrier, Stephane; Vilhelm, Christian; Ravaux, Pierre; Lemdani, Mohamed; Durocher, Alain; Hubert, Hervé

    2007-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the hourly variation in and the interplay between physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) in order to highlight key time periods for physical activity interventions for children. Data for physical activity and SB obtained with ActiGraph in 56 boys and 47 girls aged from 8 to 11 years. These data were divided into sixty minute-time samples for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB, and analyzed using a principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation statistics. The PCA provides 10 factors which account for 80.4% of the inertia. Only two of these factors did not display competition between MVPA and SB. Contrary to some reports, a coefficient of correlation of -.68 (p < 10(-4)) was found between daily time spent at MVPA and SB. Some salient traits of children's behaviors were shown through PCA. The results suggested that efficacy of interventions targeting the morning hours (07:00 AM-11:59 AM) and the afternoon period (02:00 PM-05:59 PM) warrants attention.

  9. The Cost of Increasing Physical Activity and Maintaining Weight for Mid-Life Sedentary African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tricia; Schoeny, Michael; Fogg, Louis; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the marginal costs of increasing physical activity and maintaining weight for a lifestyle physical activity program targeting sedentary African American women. Methods Outcomes included change in minutes of total moderate to vigorous physical activity, leisure time moderate to vigorous physical activity and walking per week, and weight stability between baseline and maintenance at 48 weeks. Marginal cost effectiveness ratios (MCERs) were calculated for each outcome, and 95% confidence intervals were computed using a bootstrap method. The analysis was from the societal perspective and calculated in 2013 US dollars. Results For the 260 participants in the analysis, program costs were $165 ± 19, and participant costs were $164 ± 35, for a total cost of $329 ± 49. The MCER for change in walking was $1.50/min/wk (95% CI: 1.28, 1.87), $1.73/min/wk (95% CI: 1.41, 2.18) for change in moderate to vigorous physical activity, and $1.94/min/wk (95% CI: 1.58, 2.40) for leisure-time moderate to vigorous physical activity. The MCER for weight stability was $412 (95% CI: 399, 456). Discussion The Women's Lifestyle Physical Activity Program is a relatively low cost strategy for increasing physical activity. The marginal cost of increasing physical activity is lower than for weight stability. The participant costs related to time in the program were nearly half of the total costs, suggesting that practitioners and policy-makers should consider the participant cost when disseminating a lifestyle physical activity program into practice. PMID:26797232

  10. Risk compensation behaviours in construction workers' activities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yingbin; Wu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the construction workers have the tendency of engaging in risk compensation behaviours, and identify the demographic variables, which may influence the extent to which the construction workers may show risk compensation behaviours. Both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interviews) approaches were used in this study. A questionnaire survey was conducted with all the construction workers on three building construction sites of a leading construction company in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted to validate the findings of the quantitative research. The findings indicate that workers tend to show risk compensation behaviours in the construction environment. The workers with more working experience, higher education, or having never been injured at work before have a higher tendency to show risk compensation in their activities than the others. The implication is that contractors need to assess the potential influence of workers' risk compensation behaviours when evaluating the effect of risk control measures. It is recommended that supervisors pay more attention to the behavioural changes of those workers who have more experience, higher education, and have never been injured before after the implementation of new safety control measures on construction site.

  11. Physical activity and sedentary behavior across 12 months in cohort samples of couples without children, expecting their first child, and expecting their second child.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Benoit, Cecilia; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Warburton, Darren E R

    2014-06-01

    The onset of parenthood has been reported as a reason for steep declines in moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), but also increases in light activity rather than sedentary behavior. We examined the activity profiles of three cohorts of couples (couples without children, and first-time parents and second time parents) across 12 months. Participants were 314 adults (102 not expecting a child, 136 expecting first-child, 76 expecting second child) who completed baseline demographics and 7-day accelerometry, followed by assessments at 6 and 12 months. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that parents who were expecting their second child had lower MVPA; yet were less sedentary/had higher light intensity activity compared to other couples at baseline. First-time mothers' physical activity pattern changed to match the profiles of parents who were now parenting two children across the first 12 months of child-rearing. Findings support MVPA interventions targeting new mothers.

  12. Parent perceptions of neighborhood safety and children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, and obesity: evidence from a national longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy; Shier, Victoria

    2013-05-15

    We examined the relationship between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, body mass, and obesity status using 9 years of longitudinal data (1999-2007) on a cohort of approximately 19,000 US kindergartners from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Children's height and weight measurements and parent perceptions of neighborhood safety were available in kindergarten and in the first, third, fifth, and eighth grades. Dependent variables included age- and gender-specific body mass index percentile, obesity status, and parent- or child-reported weekly physical activity and television-watching. Pooled cross-sectional and within-child longitudinal regression models that controlled for child, family, and school characteristics were fitted. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal models indicated that children whose parents perceived their neighborhoods as unsafe watched more television and participated in less physical activity, although the magnitude of this association was much weaker in longitudinal models. However, there was no significant association between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's body mass index.

  13. BeWell24: development and process evaluation of a smartphone "app" to improve sleep, sedentary, and active behaviors in US Veterans with increased metabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Buman, Matthew P; Epstein, Dana R; Gutierrez, Monica; Herb, Christine; Hollingshead, Kevin; Huberty, Jennifer L; Hekler, Eric B; Vega-López, Sonia; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Hekler, Andrea C; Baldwin, Carol M

    2016-09-01

    Lifestyle behaviors across the 24-h spectrum (i.e., sleep, sedentary, and active behaviors) drive metabolic risk. We describe the development and process evaluation of BeWell24, a multicomponent smartphone application (or "app") that targets behavior change in these interdependent behaviors. A community-embedded iterative design framework was used to develop the app. An 8-week multiphase optimization strategy design study was used to test the initial efficacy of the sleep, sedentary, and exercise components of the app. Process evaluation outcomes included objectively measured app usage statistics (e.g., minutes of usage, self-monitoring patterns), user experience interviews, and satisfaction ratings. Participants (N = 26) logged approximately 60 % of their sleep, sedentary, and exercise behaviors, which took 3-4 min/day to complete. Usage of the sleep and sedentary components peaked at week 2 and remained high throughout the intervention. Exercise component use was low. User experiences were mixed, and overall satisfaction was modest.

  14. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…

  15. Health Contract with Sedentary Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David; Rhodes, Darson

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Health educators used health contracts with sedentary older adults for the purpose of increasing exercise or physical activity. Design and Methods: Two health educators helped 25 sedentary older adults complete health contracts, and then they conducted follow-up evaluations. The percentage of scheduled exercise sessions successfully…

  16. Replacing sedentary time with sleep, light, or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity: effects on self-regulation and executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Fanning, J; Porter, G; Awick, E A; Ehlers, D K; Roberts, S A; Cooke, G; Burzynska, A Z; Voss, M W; Kramer, A F; McAuley, E

    2017-04-01

    Recent attention has highlighted the importance of reducing sedentary time for maintaining health and quality of life. However, it is unclear how changing sedentary behavior may influence executive functions and self-regulatory strategy use, which are vital for the long-term maintenance of a health behavior regimen. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the estimated self-regulatory and executive functioning effects of substituting 30 min of sedentary behavior with 30 min of light activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), or sleep in a sample of older adults. This study reports baseline data collected from low-active healthy older adults (N = 247, mean age 65.4 ± 4.6 years) recruited to participate in a 6 month randomized controlled exercise trial examining the effects of various modes of exercise on brain health and function. Each participant completed assessments of physical activity self-regulatory strategy use (i.e., self-monitoring, goal-setting, social support, reinforcement, time management, and relapse prevention) and executive functioning. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers during waking hours for seven consecutive days at each time point. Isotemporal substitution analyses were conducted to examine the effect on self-regulation and executive functioning should an individual substitute sedentary time with light activity, MVPA, or sleep. The substitution of sedentary time with both sleep and MVPA influenced both self-regulatory strategy use and executive functioning. Sleep was associated with greater self-monitoring (B = .23, p = .02), goal-setting (B = .32, p < .01), and social support (B = .18, p = .01) behaviors. Substitution of sedentary time with MVPA was associated with higher accuracy on 2-item (B = .03, p = .01) and 3-item (B = .02, p = .04) spatial working memory tasks, and with faster reaction times on single (B = -23.12, p = .03) and mixed

  17. Differential effects of a body image exposure session on smoking urge between physically active and sedentary female smokers.

    PubMed

    Nair, Uma S; Collins, Bradley N; Napolitano, Melissa A

    2013-03-01

    Smoking is often used as a maladaptive weight control strategy among female smokers. Many of the perceived benefits accrued from smoking, including enhanced mood, reduced anxiety, and weight control, can also be achieved through physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a novel behavioral task (body-image exposure) that was designed to elicit body image and weight concerns on urge to smoke among 18-24 year old female smokers who vary in levels of physical activity. Using a cue-reactivity paradigm, 16 sedentary (SE) and 21 physically active (PA) female smokers (≥5 cigarettes/day for past 6 months) were exposed to a pilot tested body-image exposure session. Self-reported urge and latency to first puff were obtained before and after exposure session. Paired sample t tests showed significant increases in self-reported urge (p < .01) and quicker latency to first puff (p < .01) at posttest for the entire sample compared with pretest. Results of partial correlation (controlling for body mass index [BMI], nicotine dependence, withdrawal, and depressive symptoms) showed that increased time engaging in vigorous intensity physical activity was associated with lower self-reported urge to smoke at post (r = -0.44; p = .01) but not with latency to first puff (r = -.10; p = .62). These results suggest that among weight-concerned female smokers, physical activity may attenuate smoking urges in a context where weight concerns are increased. Future research should continue to explore effects of physical activity on reactivity to body image and smoking cues and variability in smoking cue-reactivity related to physical activity.

  18. Interactions between Neighborhood Social Environment and Walkability to Explain Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Time

    PubMed Central

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years) were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults’ PA and limit SB. PMID:27338426

  19. Interactions between Neighborhood Social Environment and Walkability to Explain Belgian Older Adults' Physical Activity and Sedentary Time.

    PubMed

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2016-06-07

    This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years) were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults' PA and limit SB.

  20. Effect of structured physical activity on respiratory outcomes in sedentary elderly adults with mobility limitations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of structured physical activity on respiratory outcomes in community dwelling elderly adults with mobility limitations. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized trial of physical activity vs health education, with respiratory variables prespecified as tertiary outcomes over...

  1. Environmental and personal correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in African American women: An ecological momentary assessment study.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; Jones, Kelly K; Finnegan, Lorna; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2017-04-01

    The authors of this study examined within-person associations of environmental factors (weather, built and social environmental barriers) and personal factors (daily hassles, affect) with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in African American women aged 25-64 years living in metropolitan Chicago (n = 97). In 2012-13, for seven days, women wore an accelerometer and were signaled five times per day to complete a survey covering environmental and personal factors on a study-provided smartphone. Day-level measures of each were derived, and mixed regression models were used to test associations. Poor weather was associated with a 27.3% reduction in daily MVPA. Associations between built and social environmental barriers and daily MVPA or SB were generally not statistically significant. Negative affect at the first daily signal was associated with a 38.6% decrease in subsequent daily MVPA and a 33.2-minute increase in subsequent daily SB. Each one-minute increase in MVPA during the day was associated with a 2.2% higher likelihood of positive affect at the end of the day. SB during the day was associated with lower subsequent positive affect. Real-time interventions that address overcoming poor weather and negative affect may help African American women increase MVPA and/or decrease SB.

  2. No time for the gym? Housework and other non-labor market time use patterns are associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among adults in full-time, sedentary jobs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-11-01

    Physical activity and inactivity have distinct cardio-metabolic consequences, suggesting that combinations of activities can impact health above and beyond the effects of a single activity. However, little work has examined patterns of non-labor market time activity in the US population, particularly among full-time employees in sedentary occupations, who are at increased risk of adverse health consequences associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Identification of these patterns, and how they are related to total physical activity levels, is important for developing effective, attainable physical activity recommendations among sedentary employees, who typically have less time available for exercise. This is especially the case for low-income employees who face the highest time and financial barriers to achieving physical activity goals. This study uses cluster analysis to examine patterns of non-labor market time use among full-time (≥40 h/week) employed adults in sedentary occupations (<3 MET-h) on working days in the American Time Use Study. We then examine whether these patterns are associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations and higher overall physical activity (MET-h). We find that non-labor market time use patterns include those characterized by screen activities, housework, caregiving, sedentary leisure, and exercise. For both genders, the screen pattern was the most common and increased from 2003 to 2012, while the exercise pattern was infrequent and consistent across time. Screen, sedentary leisure, and community patterns were associated with lower likelihoods of meeting physical activity recommendations, suggesting that interventions targeting screen time may miss opportunities to improve physical activity among similarly sedentary groups. Alternately, non-labor market time use patterns characterized by housework and caregiving represented feasible avenues for increasing overall physical activity levels, especially for

  3. Changes in EEG activity before and after exhaustive exercise in sedentary women in neutral and hot environments.

    PubMed

    Ftaiti, Foued; Kacem, Asma; Jaidane, Nadia; Tabka, Zouhair; Dogui, Mohamed

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effect of hyperthermia on brain electrical activity measured with encephalography during prolonged exhaustive exercise in a group of sedentary women (VO(2)max = 35 +/- 4 mL kg min(-1)). Two strenuous cycling exercises were performed either in neutral (N-Ex) or in heat (H-Ex) conditions. Tympanic temperature (Tty), heart rate (HR), body mass loss (BML), plasma volume decrease, and brain electrical activity [EEG: alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta(13-30 Hz)-band and alpha/beta index of fatigue: the ratio between EEG activity in the alpha band and beta-band] were recorded throughout the cycling sessions. The Tty increase 1.0 degrees C in the N-Ex and 1.8 degrees C in H-Ex. HR increased in both sessions but with significantly higher values during the H-Ex session when compared with the N-Ex session (p < 0.001) (from 85 +/- 4 beats min(-1) to 164 +/- 6 beats min(-1) and from 83 +/- 6 beats min(-1) to 181 +/- 8 beats min(-1), respectively in N-Ex and in H-Ex). This was associated with a significantly higher BML (p < 0.05) and a higher plasma volume decrease in the H-Ex session (p < 0.01). The alpha/beta index increased significantly during both trials particularly during the H-Ex session (p < 0.05). This was associated with a significant decrease of time to exhaustion (-34%). We suggest that exhausting work in the heat induced a change in gross brain activity (alpha/beta ratio) compared to a longer, less thermally demanding exposure. Fatigue in the heat could be attributed to central factors as well as thermal, cardiac and hydro-electrolytic impairment.

  4. Measuring physical activity and sedentary behaviors in women with young children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mackay, L M; Schofield, G M; Oliver, M

    2011-06-21

    Current evidence indicates that women with young children are less active than women without children. In this review the authors investigated the methods of measuring physical activity employed in studies of women with young children (aged 1-5 years) and the associated challenges in measurement. Articles from databases (MEDLINE, OVID, CINAHL, Google Scholar) and manual searches were limited to English peer-reviewed journals published from 1990 to 2010. Studies that included measurement of physical activity in samples of women with young children were selected. Measurement properties were extracted, and original reliability and validity articles were reviewed for physical activity measurement tools used by 15 samples. The evidence base was dominated by self-report measurement tools, many of which assessed leisure-time physical activity only. Use of motion sensors to assess physical activity in this population was limited. It is likely that much of the habitual physical activity performed by women with young children has not been captured by self-report measures. Further investigation should be undertaken using tools that capture adequately all health-enhancing physical activity among women with young children.

  5. Why are children sedentary: an examination using the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Allana

    2016-07-01

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour have been independently associated with a wide range of negative health indicators including obesity, poor cardio-metabolic health, and poor psychosocial health. The overarching objective of this research was to gain a better understanding as to why children are sedentary and where we need to focus public health messages and interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour. Specifically, I aimed to provide insight on current awareness of sedentary behaviour guidelines, determine important correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and screen time (ST) in Canadian children, and understand correlates of SED and ST in a global context. The primary dataset used for this project was the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Background work was completed to review current literature on knowledge and awareness of Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines (in all age groups) and to understand the representativeness of the ISCOLE dataset. In addition to the 2 background papers, this dissertation includes 3 manuscripts, all prepared for submission in scientific, peer-reviewed journals: Canadian physical activity and screen time guidelines: do children know?, Correlates of objectively measured sedentary time and self-reported screen time in Canadian children, and Correlates of total sedentary time and screen time in 9-11 year-old children around the world: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Overall, this work showed the majority of children around the world are accumulating large amounts of sedentary time, and exceeded current screen time guidelines. We found that the large majority of Canadian children are not aware of screen time guidelines; however, a greater proportion of children could identify physical activity guidelines. We also identified a number of correlates of SED and ST in Canadian children and in children around the

  6. Association of physiological and psychological health outcomes with physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Cox, Daniel; Rice, David J

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between change in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) over a 6-month period with physiological and psychological factors in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Participants included 26 middle-aged (mean age=56.1±10.8 years; 42% women), overweight/obese (mean body mass index (BMI) =37.22±8.78 kg/m2) adults who had been diagnosed with T2D within the past 5 years (mean HbA1c=7.81%). Participants underwent a physical examination, blood tests, and psychological questionnaires, including a self-report questionnaire that assessed the consumption of high glycemic and low glycemic load foods. Participants wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days to assess MVPA and SB. All measures were collected at baseline and at the 6-month follow-up. Spearman rank correlations and regression models were conducted to examine the relationship between activity variables, and the association of activity measures with health outcomes at the 6-month follow-up. Results Decreases in duration of SB bouts and increases in MVPA were associated with decreased levels of HbA1c (p<0.05). Over 50% of the variance in HbA1c levels could be attributed to changes in MVPA and SB. Conclusions MVPA and SB were independently associated with diabetes-related health outcomes. Results suggest that emphasis should be placed on increasing MVPA while decreasing SB, particularly duration of SB bouts. This suggests that even small changes in daily behavior may contribute to improvement in diabetes-related health outcomes.

  7. Impact of Booster Breaks and Computer Prompts on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Among Desk-Based Workers: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Shegog, Ross; Coan, Sharon P.; Dubin, Allison; Page, Timothy F.; Rempel, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The 15-minute work break provides an opportunity to promote health, yet few studies have examined this part of the workday. We studied physical activity and sedentary behavior among office workers and compared the results of the Booster Break program with those of a second intervention and a control group to determine whether the Booster Break program improved physical and behavioral health outcomes. Methods We conducted a 3-arm, cluster-randomized controlled trial at 4 worksites in Texas from 2010 through 2013 to compare a group-based, structured Booster Break program to an individual-based computer-prompt intervention and a usual-break control group; we analyzed physiologic, behavioral, and employee measures such as work social support, quality of life, and perceived stress. We also identified consistent and inconsistent attendees of the Booster Break sessions. Results We obtained data from 175 participants (mean age, 43 y; 67% racial/ethnic minority). Compared with the other groups, the consistent Booster Break attendees had greater weekly pedometer counts (P < .001), significant decreases in sedentary behavior and self-reported leisure-time physical activity (P < .001), and a significant increase in triglyceride concentrations (P = .02) (levels remained within the normal range). Usual-break participants significantly increased their body mass index, whereas Booster Break participants maintained body mass index status during the 6 months. Overall, Booster Break participants were 6.8 and 4.3 times more likely to have decreases in BMI and weekend sedentary time, respectively, than usual-break participants. Conclusion Findings varied among the 3 study groups; however, results indicate the potential for consistent attendees of the Booster Break intervention to achieve significant, positive changes related to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body mass index. PMID:27854422

  8. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors Modify the Association between Melanocortin 4 Receptor Gene Variant and Obesity in Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie-Yun; Song, Qi-Ying; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Effects of MC4R variants in previous Chinese population studies were inconsistent. Gene-environment interactions might influence the effect of MC4R variants on obesity, which was still unclear. We performed the study to clarify the association of variants near MC4R gene with obesity-related phenotypes and gene-environment interactions in Chinese children and adolescents. Two common variants (rs12970134 and rs17782313) near MC4R were genotyped in 2179 children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in Beijing of China. Associations between the variants and obesity-related phenotypes together with gene-environment interactions were analyzed. The A-alleles of rs12970134 were nominally associated with risk of overweight/obesity (Odds Ratios (OR) = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.03-1.44, P = 0.025) and BMI (β = 0.33 kg/m2, 95%CI: 0.02-0.63, P = 0.025), respectively. The rs12970134 was also associated with HDL-C (β = -0.03mmol/L per A-allele, 95%CI: -0.05, -0.01, P = 0.013) independent of BMI. In the further analysis, we found the significant interaction of rs12970134 and physical activity/sedentary behaviors on BMI (Pinteraction = 0.043). The rs12970134 was found to be associated with BMI only in children with physical activity<1h/d and sedentary behaviors ≥2h/d (BMI: β = 1.27 kg/m2, 95%CI: 0.10-2.45, P = 0.034). The association was not detected in their counterparts with physical activity≥1h/d or sedentary behaviors <2h/d. We identified the effect of MC4R rs12970134 on overweight/obesity and BMI, and we also found physical activity and sedentary behaviors modified the association between the rs12970134 and BMI in Chinese children and adolescents.

  9. A Framework For Using GPS Data In Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Marta M.; Schipperijn, Jasper; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are increasingly applied in activity studies, yet significant theoretical and methodological challenges remain. This paper presents a framework for integrating GPS data with other technologies to create dynamic representations of behaviors in context. Utilizing more accurate and sensitive measures to link behavior and environmental exposures allows for new research questions and methods to be developed. PMID:25390297

  10. Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Firefighters Compared with Police Officers and Sedentary Clerks

    PubMed Central

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauß, Markus; Littwitz, Henning; Garg, Pankaj; Dworrak, Birgit; Horlitz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between the physical work environment and physiological performance measures, physical activity levels and metabolic parameters among German civil servants. A main focus in this study was to examine the group differences rather than measuring the absolute values in an occupational group. Methods We prospectively examined 198 male German civil servants (97 firefighters [FFs], 55 police officers [POs] and 46 sedentary clerks [SCs]). For each parameter, the groups were compared using a linear regression adjusted for age. Results The 97 FFs showed a similar maximal aerobic power (VO2max l/min) of 3.17±0.44 l/min compared with the POs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 3.13±0.62 l/min (estimated difference, POs vs. FFs: 0.05, CI: -0.12-0.23, p=0.553). The maximal aerobic power of the FFs was slightly higher than that of the SCs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 2.85±0.52 l/min (-0.21, CI: -0.39-0.04, p=0.018 vs. FFs). The average physical activity (in metabolic equivalents [METS]/week) of the FFs was 3818.8±2843.5, whereas those of the POs and SCs were 2838.2±2871.9 (-808.2, CI: 1757.6-141.2, p=0.095) and 2212.2±2292.8 (vs. FFs: -1417.1, CI: -2302-531.88, p=0.002; vs. POs: -2974.4, CI: -1611.2-393.5, p=0.232), respectively. For the FFs, the average body fat percentage was 17.7%±6.2, whereas it was 21.4%±5.6 for the POs (vs. FFs: 2.75, CI: 0.92-4.59, p=0.004) and 20.8%±6.5 for the SCs (vs. FFs: 1.98, CI: -0.28-4.25, p=0.086; vs. POs: -0.77, CI: 3.15-1.61, p=0.523). The average waist circumference was 89.8 cm±10.0 for the FFs, 97.8 cm±12.4 (5.63, CI: 2.10-9.15, p=0.002) for the POs, and 97.3±11.7 (vs. FFs: -4.89, CI: 1.24-8.55, p=0.009; vs. POs: -0.73, CI: -5.21-3.74, p=0.747) for the SCs. Conclusions The FFs showed significantly higher physical activity levels compared with the SCs. The PO group had the highest cardiovascular risk of all of the groups because it included more participants with metabolic

  11. Independent and Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior on Blood Pressure in Adolescents: Gender Differences in Two Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa; Rey-López, Juan Pablo; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Beghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Molnar, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Manios, Yannis; Widhalm, Kurt; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Ortega, Francisco B.; Sjöström, Michael; Polito, Angela; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Marcos, Ascensión; Gottrand, Frederic; Moreno, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the independent and combined association of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) on both systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adolescents from two observational studies. Methods Participants from two cross-sectional studies, one conducted in Europe (n = 3,308; HELENA study) and the other in Brazil (n = 991; BRACAH study), were selected by complex sampling. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (outcomes), PA and SB, both independently and combined, and potential confounders were analyzed. Associations were examined by multilevel linear regression. Results Performing the recommended amount of PA (≥60 min/d) attenuated the effect of SB on DBP in BRACAH study girls and in boys from both studies. In contrast, PA did not attenuate the effects of SB on the SBP of girls in the HELENA study. The combination of less than recommended levels of PA with 2–4 h/d of sedentary behavior was found to be associated with increased SBP in boys from both studies. Conclusions Meeting current PA recommendations could mediate the association between SB and DBP in both sexes. In boys, the joint effect of low levels of PA and excessive sedentary activity increases SBP levels. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:23650506

  12. Cost and Consequences of Sedentary Living: New Battleground for an Old Enemy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Frank W.; Chakravarthy, Manu V.

    2002-01-01

    This report itemizes the costs and consequences of sedentary living, providing cost reasons to fight a war on sedentary lifestyles. It begins by explaining that 70 percent of U.S. adults are sedentary (undertaking no leisure time physical activity or less than 30 minutes of physical activity per day), and it notes how sedentary living increases…

  13. Sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Edwards, Meghan K.; Sng, Eveleen; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of accelerometer-assessed sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5536), with follow-up through 2011. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured over 7 days via accelerometry. Results: When expressing sedentary behavior as a 60 min/day increase, the hazard ratio across the models ranged from 1.07-1.40 (P < 0.05). There was evidence of an interaction effect between sedentary behavior and total physical activity on residual-specific mortality (Hazard ratiointeraction [HR] = 0.9989; 95% CI: 0.9982-0.9997; P = 0.008). Conclusion: Sedentary behavior was independently associated with residual-specific mortality. However, there was evidence to suggest that residual-specific mortality risk was a function of sedentary behavior and total physical activity. These findings highlight the need for future work to not only examine the association between sedentary behavior and health independent of total physical activity, but evaluate whether there is a joint effect of these two parameters on health. PMID:27766237

  14. Family-based interventions for reducing sedentary time in youth: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Marsh, S; Foley, L S; Wilks, D C; Maddison, R

    2014-02-01

    Family involvement in interventions to reduce sedentary time may help foster appropriate long-term screen-based habits in children. This review systematically synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials of interventions with a family component that targeted reduction of sedentary time, including TV viewing, video games and computer use, in children. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL and Embase were searched from inception through March 2012. Seventeen articles were considered eligible and included in the review. Studies were judged to be at low-to-moderate risk of bias. Despite inconsistent study results, level of parental involvement, rather than the setting itself, appeared an important determinant of intervention success. Studies including a parental component of medium-to-high intensity were consistently associated with statistically significant changes in sedentary behaviours. Participant age was also identified as a determinant of intervention outcomes; all three studies conducted in pre-school children demonstrated significant decreases in sedentary time. Finally, TV exposure appeared to be related to changes in energy intake rather than physical activity. Future studies should assess the effects of greater parental involvement and child age on success of sedentary behaviour interventions. More research is required to better understand the relationship between screen time and health behaviours, particularly energy intake.

  15. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior and Health Related Quality of Life in Prostate Cancer Survivors in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Siobhan M.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Chan, June M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Kenfield, Stacey A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Many prostate cancer survivors experience compromised health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as a result of prostate cancer. We examined relationships between types and intensities of activity and sedentary behavior and prostate cancer-related HRQOL, overall, and by demographic, disease, and treatment characteristics. Methods Associations between post-diagnosis activity and sedentary behavior and HRQOL domains (urinary incontinence, urinary irritation/obstruction, bowel, sexual and vitality/hormonal) were prospectively examined in men diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n=1917) using generalized linear models. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, higher duration of total, non-vigorous, and walking activity was associated with higher vitality/hormonal functioning scores (p-trends,< 0.0001). Effects were small (d= 0.16–0.20), but approached clinical significance for men in the highest versus lowest activity categories. Survivors who walked ≥90 minutes/week at a normal pace, or faster, reported higher hormone/vitality scores (p=0.001) than men walking <90 minutes at an easy pace. Weight lifting was associated with increased urinary incontinence (p-trend,0.02). Total activity was associated with higher hormone/vitality functioning in men who were ≥5 years post-treatment, had more advanced disease (Gleason score ≥7), and had ≥1 comorbid condition. No relationships were observed between vigorous activity or sedentary behavior and HRQOL. Conclusions Increased duration of non-vigorous activity and walking post-diagnosis was positively associated with better hormone/vitality functioning. Specifically, engaging in ≥5 hours of non-vigorous activity or ≥3 hours of walking per week may be beneficial. Implications for Cancer Survivors Encouraging men to engage in non-vigorous activity and walking may be helpful for managing prostate cancer-related HRQOL. PMID:25876555

  16. Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Manini, Todd M.; Carr, Lucas J.; King, Abby C.; Marshall, Simon; Robinson, Thomas N.; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on presentations and discussion from the working group on “Influences on Sedentary Behavior & Interventions” as part of the Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities Workshop. Methods Interventions were discussed in the context of targeting sedentary behavior (SB) as a concept distinct from physical activity (PA). It was recommended that interventions targeting SB should consider a life course perspective, a position predicated on the assumption that SB is age and life stage dependent. Additionally, targeting environments where individuals have high exposure to SB— such as workplace sitting— could benefit from new technology (e.g., computer-based prompting to stand or move), environmental changes (e.g., active workstations), policies targeting reduced sedentary time (e.g., allowing employees regular desk breaks), or by changing norms surrounding prolonged sitting (e.g., standing meetings). Results & Conclusions There are limited data about the minimal amount of SB change required to produce meaningful health benefits. In addition to developing relevant scientific and public health definitions of SB, it is important to further delineate the scope of health and quality of life outcomes associated with reduced SB across the life course, and clarify what behavioral alternatives to SB can be used to optimize health gains. SB interventions will benefit from having more clarity about the potential physiological and behavioral synergies with current PA recommendations, developing multi-level interventions aimed at reducing SB across all life phases and contexts, harnessing relevant and effective strategies to extend the reach of interventions to all sectors of society, as well as applying state-of-the-science adaptive designs and methods to accelerate advances in the science of sedentary behavior interventions. PMID:25222818

  17. Opinions Toward Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Interventions to Stimulate Active Living During Early Retirement: A Qualitative Study in Recently Retired Adults.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Mertens, Lieze; Cardon, Greet; De Cocker, Katrien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to obtain qualitative information about physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB)and their determinants, and about recently retired adults' needs regarding PA interventions. Four focus group interviews were organized. The most commonly reported PA types were walking, cycling, swimming and fitness. The most commonly reported SB were reading, TV viewing, and computer use. Car use was limited. Most adults agreed their habits had changed during retirement. The most striking PA determinant was the feeling of being a 'forgotten group' and therefore having too few tailored PA initiatives available. Furthermore, participants were not aware of the negative health effects of SB and not motivated to decrease their SB. Concerning new PA interventions, very diverse ideas were put forward, reflecting the diversity of the target group. It seems that a dynamic intervention in which participants can choose which PA type they want to increase is preferable for recently retired adults.

  18. Accelerometer measured daily physical activity and sedentary pursuits–comparison between two models of the Actigraph and the importance of data reduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Very few validation studies have been performed between different generations of the commonly used Actigraph accelerometers. We compared daily physical activity data generated from the old generation Actigraph model 7164 with the new generation Actigraph GT1M accelerometer in 15 young females for eight consecutive days. We also investigated if different wear time thresholds had any impact on the findings. Minutes per day of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), vigorous physical activity (VPA) and very vigorous physical activity (VVPA) were calculated. Moreover, minutes of sedentary pursuits per day were calculated. Findings There were significant (P < 0.05) differences between the Actigraph 7164 and the GT1M concerning MVPA (61 ± 21vs. 56 ± 23 min/day), VPA (12 ± 8 vs. 9 ± 3 min/day) and VVPA (3.2 ± 3.0 vs. 0.3 ± 1.1 min/day). The different wear time thresholds had little impact on minutes per day in different intensities. Median minutes of sedentary pursuits per day ranged from 159 to 438 minutes depending on which wear time threshold was used (i.e. 10, 30 or 60 minutes), whereas very small differences were observed between the two different models. Conclusions Data from the old generation Actigraph 7164 and the new generation Actigraph GT1M accelerometers differ, where the Actigraph GT1M generates lower minutes spent in free living physical activity. Median minutes of sedentary pursuits per day are highly dependent on which wear time threshold that is used, and not by accelerometer model. PMID:24176143

  19. Estimating Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in a Free-Living Context: A Pragmatic Comparison of Consumer-Based Activity Trackers and ActiGraph Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Norman; Burton, Nicola W; Pavey, Toby G; Gilson, Nicholas D; Brown, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    Background Activity trackers are increasingly popular with both consumers and researchers for monitoring activity and for promoting positive behavior change. However, there is a lack of research investigating the performance of these devices in free-living contexts, for which findings are likely to vary from studies conducted in well-controlled laboratory settings. Objective The aim was to compare Fitbit One and Jawbone UP estimates of steps, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior with data from the ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer in a free-living context. Methods Thirty-two participants were recruited using convenience sampling; 29 provided valid data for this study (female: 90%, 26/29; age: mean 39.6, SD 11.0 years). On two occasions for 7 days each, participants wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer on their right hip and either a hip-worn Fitbit One (n=14) or wrist-worn Jawbone UP (n=15) activity tracker. Daily estimates of steps and very active minutes were derived from the Fitbit One (n=135 days) and steps, active time, and longest idle time from the Jawbone UP (n=154 days). Daily estimates of steps, MVPA, and longest sedentary bout were derived from the corresponding days of ActiGraph data. Correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots with examination of systematic bias were used to assess convergent validity and agreement between the devices and the ActiGraph. Cohen’s kappa was used to assess the agreement between each device and the ActiGraph for classification of active versus inactive (≥10,000 steps per day and ≥30 min/day of MVPA) comparable with public health guidelines. Results Correlations with ActiGraph estimates of steps and MVPA ranged between .72 and .90 for Fitbit One and .56 and .75 for Jawbone UP. Compared with ActiGraph estimates, both devices overestimated daily steps by 8% (Fitbit One) and 14% (Jawbone UP). However, mean differences were larger for daily MVPA (Fitbit One: underestimated by 46%; Jawbone

  20. Cross-sectional and prospective associations between moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time with adiposity in children

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Adilson; Minderico, Cláudia; Martins, Sandra; Palmeira, António; Ekelund, Ulf; Sardinha, Luís B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) have both been suggested as potential risk factors for adiposity in children. However, there is paucity of data examining the temporal associations between these variables. Objective This study aimed to analyze the cross-sectional and prospective associations between PA, SED and body composition in children. Methods 510 children (age at baseline 10.1±0.8, age at follow up 11.8±0.9) from 6 Portuguese schools from the Oeiras Municipality participated in this study. PA and SED were measured by accelerometry and trunk fat mass (TFM) and body fat mass (BFM) were measured by Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated as BFM divided by height squared. Several regression models adjusted for age, sex, maturity status, follow-up duration, baseline levels of the outcome variable, and SED or MVPA were performed. Results Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) (min/d) was cross-sectionally inversely associated with adiposity indexes (FMI, TFM, BFM). Adiposity indexes were inversely associated with time in MVPA. In prospective analyses, MVPA was associated with a lower levels of FMI (β=−0.37, 95% CI: −0.49 to −0.26, p<0.001), TFM (β=−0.20, 95% CI: −0.29 to −0.10, p<0.001), and BFM (β=−0.37, 95% CI: −0.49 to −0.26, p<0.001). When the model was adjusted for age, sex, maturity status and for baseline levels of the outcome variables MVPA remained a significant predictor of lower adiposity indexes (FMI: β=−0.09, 95% CI: −0.16 to −0.01, p<0.05; TFM: β=−0.08, 95% CI: −0.15 to −0.01, p<0.05; BFM: β=−0.07, 95% CI: −0.15 to 0.00, p<0.05). Adiposity was not associated with MVPA when modeled as the exposure in prospective analyses. SED was not related with adiposity indexes, except for the relationship with FMI. Conclusions In cross-sectional and prospective analyses, MVPA is associated with lower adiposity independent of covariates and SED. Results suggest that

  1. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors Modify the Association between Melanocortin 4 Receptor Gene Variant and Obesity in Chinese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jie-Yun; Song, Qi-Ying; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Effects of MC4R variants in previous Chinese population studies were inconsistent. Gene-environment interactions might influence the effect of MC4R variants on obesity, which was still unclear. We performed the study to clarify the association of variants near MC4R gene with obesity-related phenotypes and gene-environment interactions in Chinese children and adolescents. Two common variants (rs12970134 and rs17782313) near MC4R were genotyped in 2179 children and adolescents aged 7–18 years in Beijing of China. Associations between the variants and obesity-related phenotypes together with gene-environment interactions were analyzed. The A-alleles of rs12970134 were nominally associated with risk of overweight/obesity (Odds Ratios (OR) = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.03–1.44, P = 0.025) and BMI (β = 0.33 kg/m2, 95%CI: 0.02–0.63, P = 0.025), respectively. The rs12970134 was also associated with HDL-C (β = -0.03mmol/L per A-allele, 95%CI: -0.05, -0.01, P = 0.013) independent of BMI. In the further analysis, we found the significant interaction of rs12970134 and physical activity/sedentary behaviors on BMI (Pinteraction = 0.043). The rs12970134 was found to be associated with BMI only in children with physical activity<1h/d and sedentary behaviors ≥2h/d (BMI: β = 1.27 kg/m2, 95%CI: 0.10–2.45, P = 0.034). The association was not detected in their counterparts with physical activity≥1h/d or sedentary behaviors <2h/d. We identified the effect of MC4R rs12970134 on overweight/obesity and BMI, and we also found physical activity and sedentary behaviors modified the association between the rs12970134 and BMI in Chinese children and adolescents. PMID:28081251

  2. Solcoseryl stimulates behavioural activity of rats.

    PubMed

    Braszko, J J; Winnicka, M M; Wiśniewski, K

    1996-01-01

    The influence of Solcoseryl (S), a protein-free extract of calves' blood given intraperitoneally (i.p.) on the behavioural measures of activity of the central nervous system of male Wistar rats was examined. The drug (1.0 ml/kg i.p.) given 60 min before testing the animals in electromagnetic motimeter significantly enhanced overall and vertical motility of rats. S at the doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg did not significantly influence the activity of rats in "open field". 1.0 ml/kg of S given 15, 45 and 60 min before thiopental (30 mg/kg i.p.) did not change the onset and time of sleep following the latter drug, except for the significant shortening of the time of sleep of animals injected with S 15 min before thiopental. S at the dose of 1.0 ml/kg did not change stereotypies produced by apomorphine (2.0 mg/kg i.p.) and amphetamine (6.5 mg/kg i.p.) but decreased intensity of haloperidol (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) catalepsy.

  3. Variations of physical activity and sedentary behavior between before and after cancer diagnosis: Results from the prospective population-based NutriNet-Santé cohort.

    PubMed

    Fassier, Philippine; Zelek, Laurent; Partula, Valentin; Srour, Bernard; Bachmann, Patrick; Touillaud, Marina; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Galan, Pilar; Cohen, Patrice; Hoarau, Hélène; Latino-Martel, Paule; Menai, Mehdi; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Hercberg, Serge; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) but also reduced sedentary behavior may be associated with better prognosis and lower risk of recurrence in cancer patients. Our aim was to quantify the variations in PA and time spent sedentary between before and after diagnosis, relying on prospective data in French adults. We also investigated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with these variations.Subjects (n = 942) were incident cancer cases diagnosed in the NutriNet-Santé cohort between 2009 and 2015. PA and sedentary behavior were prospectively collected with the 7-day short version of the IPAQ questionnaire every year since subjects' inclusion (i.e., an average of 2 year before diagnosis). All PA and sitting time points before and after diagnosis was compared by mixed model. Factors associated with decrease in PA and increase in sitting time were investigated using logistic regressions.Overall and vigorous PA decreased after diagnosis (P = 0.006, -32.8 ± 36.8 MET-hour/week on average, in those who decreased their overall PA and P = 0.005, -21.1 ± 36.8 MET-hour/week for vigorous PA, respectively), especially in prostate (-39.5 ± 36.3 MET-hour/week) and skin (-35.9 ± 38 MET-hour/week) cancers, in men (-40.8 ± 46.3MET-hour/week), and in those professionally inactive (-34.2 ± 37.1 MET-hour/week) (all P < 0.05). Patients with higher PA level before diagnosis were more likely to decrease their PA (odds ratio [OR]: 4.67 [3.21-6.81], P < 0.0001). Overweight patients more likely to decrease moderate PA (OR: 1.45 [1.11-1.89], P = 0.006) and walking (OR: 1.30 [1.10-1.70], P = 0.04). Sitting time increased (P = 0.02, +2.44 ± 2.43 hour/day on average, in those who increased their sitting time), especially in women (+2.48 ± 2.48 hour/day), older patients (+2.48 ± 2.57 hour/day), and those professionally inactive (2.41 ± 2.40 hour/day) (all P < 0.05). Patients less sedentary

  4. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  5. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal) Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Adama; Thiam, Mbeugué; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diongue, Ousmane; Mégné, Ndé; Diallo, Khady; Sembène, Pape Malick; Wade, Salimata

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA) levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI) and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA) in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24) in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day) in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23) of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day) children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004). Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children. PMID:27735876

  6. Effects of Three Motivationally Targeted Mobile Device Applications on Initial Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Change in Midlife and Older Adults: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hekler, Eric B.; Grieco, Lauren A.; Winter, Sandra J.; Sheats, Jylana L.; Buman, Matthew P.; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N.; Cirimele, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Background While there has been an explosion of mobile device applications (apps) promoting healthful behaviors, including physical activity and sedentary patterns, surprisingly few have been based explicitly on strategies drawn from behavioral theory and evidence. Objective This study provided an initial 8-week evaluation of three different customized physical activity-sedentary behavior apps drawn from conceptually distinct motivational frames in comparison with a commercially available control app. Study Design and Methods Ninety-five underactive adults ages 45 years and older with no prior smartphone experience were randomized to use an analytically framed app, a socially framed app, an affectively framed app, or a diet-tracker control app. Daily physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using the smartphone’s built-in accelerometer and daily self-report measures. Results Mixed-effects models indicated that, over the 8-week period, the social app users showed significantly greater overall increases in weekly accelerometry-derived moderate to vigorous physical activity relative to the other three arms (P values for between-arm differences = .04-.005; Social vs. Control app: d = 1.05, CI = 0.44,1.67; Social vs. Affect app: d = 0.89, CI = 0.27,1.51; Social vs. Analytic app: d = 0.89, CI = 0.27,1.51), while more variable responses were observed among users of the other two motivationally framed apps. Social app users also had significantly lower overall amounts of accelerometry-derived sedentary behavior relative to the other three arms (P values for between-arm differences = .02-.001; Social vs. Control app: d = 1.10,CI = 0.48,1.72; Social vs. Affect app: d = 0.94, CI = 0.32,1.56; Social vs. Analytic app: d = 1.24, CI = 0.59,1.89). Additionally, Social and Affect app users reported lower overall sitting time compared to the other two arms (P values for between-arm differences < .001; Social vs. Control app: d = 1.59,CI = 0.92, 2.25; Social vs

  7. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict the physical activity behaviour of individuals?

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Nicola; Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie; Howie, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can identify cognitions that predict differences in behaviour between individuals. However, it is not clear whether the TPB can predict the behaviour of an individual person. This study employs a series of n-of-1 studies and time series analyses to examine the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity (PA) behaviours of six individuals. Six n-of-1 studies were conducted, in which TPB cognitions and up to three PA behaviours (walking, gym workout and a personally defined PA) were measured twice daily for six weeks. Walking was measured by pedometer step count, gym attendance by self-report with objective validation of gym entry and the personally defined PA behaviour by self-report. Intra-individual variability in TPB cognitions and PA behaviour was observed in all participants. The TPB showed variable predictive utility within individuals and across behaviours. The TPB predicted at least one PA behaviour for five participants but had no predictive utility for one participant. Thus, n-of-1 designs and time series analyses can be used to test theory in an individual.

  8. Associations of objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity and sedentary time with all-cause mortality in a population of adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bakrania, Kishan; Edwardson, Charlotte L; Khunti, Kamlesh; Henson, Joseph; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Hamer, Mark; Davies, Melanie J; Yates, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The relationships of physical activity and sedentary time with all-cause mortality in those at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are unexplored. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the associations of objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time with all-cause mortality in a population of adults at high risk of T2DM. In 2010-2011, 712 adults (Leicestershire, U.K.), identified as being at high risk of T2DM, consented to be followed up for mortality. MVPA and sedentary time were assessed by accelerometer; those with valid data (≥ 10 hours of wear-time/day with ≥ 4 days of data) were included. Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to investigate the independent associations of MVPA and sedentary time with all-cause mortality. 683 participants (250 females (36.6%)) were included and during a mean follow-up period of 5.7 years, 26 deaths were registered. Every 10% increase in MVPA time/day was associated with a 5% lower risk of all-cause mortality [Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.95 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.91, 0.98); p = 0.004]; indicating that for the average adult in this cohort undertaking approximately 27.5 minutes of MVPA/day, this benefit would be associated with only 2.75 additional minutes of MVPA/day. Conversely, sedentary time showed no association with all-cause mortality [HR (every 10-minute increase in sedentary time/day): 0.99 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.03); p = 0.589]. These data support the importance of MVPA in adults at high risk of T2DM. The association between sedentary time and mortality in this population needs further investigation.

  9. A step-defined sedentary lifestyle index: <5000 steps/day.

    PubMed

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Craig, Cora L; Thyfault, John P; Spence, John C

    2013-02-01

    Step counting (using pedometers or accelerometers) is widely accepted by researchers, practitioners, and the general public. Given the mounting evidence of the link between low steps/day and time spent in sedentary behaviours, how few steps/day some populations actually perform, and the growing interest in the potentially deleterious effects of excessive sedentary behaviours on health, an emerging question is "How many steps/day are too few?" This review examines the utility, appropriateness, and limitations of using a reoccurring candidate for a step-defined sedentary lifestyle index: <5000 steps/day. Adults taking <5000 steps/day are more likely to have a lower household income and be female, older, of African-American vs. European-American heritage, a current vs. never smoker, and (or) living with chronic disease and (or) disability. Little is known about how contextual factors (e.g., built environment) foster such low levels of step-defined physical activity. Unfavorable indicators of body composition and cardiometabolic risk have been consistently associated with taking <5000 steps/day. The acute transition (3-14 days) of healthy active young people from higher (>10 000) to lower (<5000 or as low as 1500) daily step counts induces reduced insulin sensitivity and glycemic control, increased adiposity, and other negative changes in health parameters. Although few alternative values have been considered, the continued use of <5000 steps/day as a step-defined sedentary lifestyle index for adults is appropriate for researchers and practitioners and for communicating with the general public. There is little evidence to advocate any specific value indicative of a step-defined sedentary lifestyle index in children and adolescents.

  10. The cost of changing physical activity behaviour: evidence from a "physical activity pathway" in the primary care setting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The 'Physical Activity Care Pathway' (a Pilot for the 'Let's Get Moving' policy) is a systematic approach to integrating physical activity promotion into the primary care setting. It combines several methods reported to support behavioural change, including brief interventions, motivational interviewing, goal setting, providing written resources, and follow-up support. This paper compares costs falling on the UK National Health Service (NHS) of implementing the care pathway using two different recruitment strategies and provides initial insights into the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Methods A combination of a time driven variant of activity based costing, audit data through EMIS and a survey of practice managers provided patient-level cost data for 411 screened individuals. Self reported physical activity data of 70 people completing the care pathway at three month was compared with baseline using a regression based 'difference in differences' approach. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses in combination with hypothesis testing were used to judge how robust findings are to key assumptions and to assess the uncertainty around estimates of the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Results It cost £53 (SD 7.8) per patient completing the PACP in opportunistic centres and £191 (SD 39) at disease register sites. The completer rate was higher in disease register centres (27.3% vs. 16.2%) and the difference in differences in time spent on physical activity was 81.32 (SE 17.16) minutes/week in patients completing the PACP; so that the incremental cost of converting one sedentary adult to an 'active state' of 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week amounts to £ 886.50 in disease register practices, compared to opportunistic screening. Conclusions Disease register screening is more costly than opportunistic patient recruitment. However, additional costs come with a higher completion rate and better

  11. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    PubMed

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts.

  12. Validation of a previous day recall for measuring the location and purpose of active and sedentary behaviors compared to direct observation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gathering contextual information (i.e., location and purpose) about active and sedentary behaviors is an advantage of self-report tools such as previous day recalls (PDR). However, the validity of PDR’s for measuring context has not been empirically tested. The purpose of this paper was to compare PDR estimates of location and purpose to direct observation (DO). Methods Fifteen adult (18–75 y) and 15 adolescent (12–17 y) participants were directly observed during at least one segment of the day (i.e., morning, afternoon or evening). Participants completed their normal daily routine while trained observers recorded the location (i.e., home, community, work/school), purpose (e.g., leisure, transportation) and whether the behavior was sedentary or active. The day following the observation, participants completed an unannounced PDR. Estimates of time in each context were compared between PDR and DO. Intra-class correlations (ICC), percent agreement and Kappa statistics were calculated. Results For adults, percent agreement was 85% or greater for each location and ICC values ranged from 0.71 to 0.96. The PDR-reported purpose of adults’ behaviors were highly correlated with DO for household activities and work (ICCs of 0.84 and 0.88, respectively). Transportation was not significantly correlated with DO (ICC = -0.08). For adolescents, reported classification of activity location was 80.8% or greater. The ICCs for purpose of adolescents’ behaviors ranged from 0.46 to 0.78. Participants were most accurate in classifying the location and purpose of the behaviors in which they spent the most time. Conclusions This study suggests that adults and adolescents can accurately report where and why they spend time in behaviors using a PDR. This information on behavioral context is essential for translating the evidence for specific behavior-disease associations to health interventions and public policy. PMID:24490619

  13. Effect of 3-Day Bed Rest on the Basal Sympathetic Activity and Responsiveness of this System to Physiological Stimuli In Athletes and Sedentary Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, Jerzy; Adrian, Jacek; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, P. Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine the effect of three days of bed rest (BR) on basal plasma epinephrine [E] and norepinephrine [NE] and the catecholamine responses to various physiological stimuli, and (2) to find out whether previous physical activity modifies effects of BR. In the first series, 29 young men (11 sedentary students, 8 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test in supine position and to active orthostatic test before and after 3 days of BR. Plasma [E] and [NE] were measured after overnight fast (basal condition), at 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion (70 a), and at the 8th min of unsupported standing. In the second series, other 22 subjects (12 sedentary students, 10 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to 2 min cold pressor test (CPT) and exercise. Plasma E and NE were determined in the supine position after overnight fast and at 60th and 120th s of hand cooling. Then, after breakfast followed by 2-3 hour sitting, the subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise with workload increasing until volitional exhaustion. Plasma [E] and [NE] were determined at the end of each load. Plasma catecholamines were determined made radioenzymatically. After BR, basal plasma [NE] was decreased in endurance and strength athletes (p<0.01) but not in sedentary subjects. In neither group BR affected the basal [E]. Responses of both catecholamines to glucose load were diminished after BR in all three groups (p<0.05) but the effect was most pronounced in the endurance athletes. All subjects tolerated well 8-min standing although their heart rate response was increased after BR. Plasma catecholamine responses standing were not significantly affected by BR in either group but the plasma [NE] and [E] during standing were lowered after BR in endurance athletes (p<0.01). BR did not affect blood pressure and catecholamine responses to CPT. The pre- and post-exercise plasma catecholamines

  14. A cluster-randomized controlled trial to reduce sedentary behavior and promote physical activity and health of 8-9 year olds: The Transform-Us! Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with positive cardio-metabolic health and emerging evidence suggests sedentary behavior (SB) may be detrimental to children's health independent of PA. The primary aim of the Transform-Us! study is to determine whether an 18-month, behavioral and environmental intervention in the school and family settings results in higher levels of PA and lower rates of SB among 8-9 year old children compared with usual practice (post-intervention and 12-months follow-up). The secondary aims are to determine the independent and combined effects of PA and SB on children's cardio-metabolic health risk factors; identify the factors that mediate the success of the intervention; and determine whether the intervention is cost-effective. Methods/design A four-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 2 × 2 factorial design, with schools as the unit of randomization. Twenty schools will be allocated to one of four intervention groups, sedentary behavior (SB-I), physical activity (PA-I), combined SB and PA (SB+PA-I) or current practice control (C), which will be evaluated among approximately 600 children aged 8-9 years in school year 3 living in Melbourne, Australia. All children in year 3 at intervention schools in 2010 (8-9 years) will receive the intervention over an 18-month period with a maintenance 'booster' delivered in 2012 and children at all schools will be invited to participate in the evaluation assessments. To maximize the sample and to capture new students arriving at intervention and control schools, recruitment will be on-going up to the post-intervention time point. Primary outcomes are time spent sitting and in PA assessed via accelerometers and inclinometers and survey. Discussion To our knowledge, Transform-Us! is the first RCT to examine the effectiveness of intervention strategies for reducing children's overall sedentary time, promoting PA and optimizing health outcomes. The integration of consistent

  15. Exercise and energy intake in overweight, sedentary individuals.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kristin L; Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2009-01-01

    Exercise expends energy, but without dietary intervention, exercise does not appear to produce substantial weight loss. The present study examined whether overweight, sedentary individuals increase their energy intake after moderate intensity exercise, particularly in the presence of negative mood. A repeated measures design was used where overweight, sedentary individuals (N=65) completed, in counterbalanced order, two conditions: 3 min of exercise (Active) and 3 min of sedentary activity (Sedentary) during one session. Snack foods were presented 10 min after each activity. Mixed-effects regression modeling revealed no significant effect of Active versus Sedentary condition on energy intake. However, moderational analyses revealed that change in negative mood interacted with condition to predict energy intake, such that participants who reported increased negative mood during exercise consumed more calories in the Active compared to the Sedentary condition. That a short bout of exercise resulted in mood deterioration and increased energy intake for some overweight, sedentary individuals is concerning. Further research examining behavioral and physiological mechanisms of mood deterioration and caloric overcompensation following exercise in overweight, sedentary individuals is warranted.

  16. Leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep, and cardiometabolic risk factors at baseline in the PREDIMED-PLUS intervention trial: A cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosique-Esteban, Nuria; Díaz-López, Andrés; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Corella, Dolores; Goday, Albert; Martínez, J Alfredo; Romaguera, Dora; Vioque, Jesus; Arós, Fernando; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Tinahones, Francisco; Estruch, Ramon; Fernández-García, José Carlos; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Luís; Pinto, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Vidal, Josep; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Daimiel, Lidia; Vázquez, Clotilde; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Limited data exists on the interrelationships between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors and sleep concerning cardiometabolic risk factors in aged adults at high cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine independent and joint associations between time spent in leisure-time PA, sedentary behaviors and sleep on the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline data from 5776 Spanish adults (aged 55-75y in men; 60-75y in women) with overweight/obesity and MetS, from October 2013 to October 2016, in the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. Employing multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with robust variance and constant time (given the cross-sectional design), higher prevalence of obesity, T2D and abdominal obesity as component of the MetS were associated with greater time in TV-viewing (Relative Risk, RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03; RR:1.04, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.06 and RR: 1.01 95%CI: 1.00, 1.02; respectively, all P < .01). Conversely, greater time in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with lower prevalence of obesity, T2D, abdominal obesity and low HDL-cholesterol (RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.93, 0.97; RR: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89, 0.99; RR: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.98; and RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.91, 0.99, respectively, all P < .05). For these outcomes, theoretically substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day TV-viewing was also significantly associated with lower prevalence (RR 0.91 to 0.97, all P < .05). Similar lower RR in these outcomes was observed when substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day of sleeping. Longer time watching TV and not meeting MVPA recommendations were jointly associated with higher RR of the prevalence of obesity and T2D. We concluded that, in senior individuals at high cardiovascular risk, greater time spent on MVPA and fewer on sedentary behaviors was inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, T2D, and

  17. Level and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis of the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study_2

    PubMed Central

    Balducci, Stefano; D’Errico, Valeria; Haxhi, Jonida; Sacchetti, Massimo; Orlando, Giorgio; Cardelli, Patrizia; Di Biase, Nicolina; Bollanti, Lucilla; Conti, Francesco; Zanuso, Silvano; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with type 2 diabetes usually show reduced physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary (SED)-time, though to a varying extent, especially for low-intensity PA (LPA), a major determinant of daily energy expenditure that is not accurately captured by questionnaires. This study assessed the level and correlates of PA and SED-time in patients from the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study_2 (IDES_2). Methods Three-hundred physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the IDES_2 to be randomized to an intervention group, receiving theoretical and practical exercise counseling, and a control group, receiving standard care. At baseline, LPA, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), and SED-time were measured by accelerometer. Physical fitness and cardiovascular risk factors and scores were also assessed. Results LPA was 3.93±1.35 hours∙day-1, MVPA was 12.4±4.6 min∙day-1, and SED-time was 11.6±1.2 hours∙day-1, with a large range of values (0.89–7.11 hours∙day-1, 0.6–21.0 min∙day-1, and 9.14–15.28 hours∙day-1, respectively). At bivariate analysis, LPA and MVPA correlated with better cardiovascular risk profile and fitness parameters, whereas the opposite was observed for SED-time. Likewise, values of LPA, MVPA, and SED-time falling in the best tertile were associated with optimal or acceptable levels of cardiovascular risk factors and scores. At multivariate analysis, age, female gender, HbA1c, BMI or waist circumference, and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (for LPA and SED-time only) were negatively associated with LPA and MPA and positively associated with SED-time in an independent manner. Conclusions Physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes from the IDES_2 show a low level of PA, though values of LPA, MVPA, and SED-time vary largely. Furthermore, there is a strong correlation of these measures with glycemic control, adiposity and inflammation, thus suggesting that even

  18. Leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep, and cardiometabolic risk factors at baseline in the PREDIMED-PLUS intervention trial: A cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosique-Esteban, Nuria; Díaz-López, Andrés; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Corella, Dolores; Goday, Albert; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Romaguera, Dora; Vioque, Jesus; Arós, Fernando; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Tinahones, Francisco; Estruch, Ramon; Fernández-García, José Carlos; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Luís; Pinto, Xavier; Tur, Josep A.; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Vidal, Josep; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Daimiel, Lidia; Vázquez, Clotilde; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Limited data exists on the interrelationships between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors and sleep concerning cardiometabolic risk factors in aged adults at high cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine independent and joint associations between time spent in leisure-time PA, sedentary behaviors and sleep on the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline data from 5776 Spanish adults (aged 55-75y in men; 60-75y in women) with overweight/obesity and MetS, from October 2013 to October 2016, in the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. Employing multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with robust variance and constant time (given the cross-sectional design), higher prevalence of obesity, T2D and abdominal obesity as component of the MetS were associated with greater time in TV-viewing (Relative Risk, RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03; RR:1.04, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.06 and RR: 1.01 95%CI: 1.00, 1.02; respectively, all P < .01). Conversely, greater time in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with lower prevalence of obesity, T2D, abdominal obesity and low HDL-cholesterol (RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.93, 0.97; RR: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89, 0.99; RR: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.98; and RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.91, 0.99, respectively, all P < .05). For these outcomes, theoretically substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day TV-viewing was also significantly associated with lower prevalence (RR 0.91 to 0.97, all P < .05). Similar lower RR in these outcomes was observed when substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day of sleeping. Longer time watching TV and not meeting MVPA recommendations were jointly associated with higher RR of the prevalence of obesity and T2D. We concluded that, in senior individuals at high cardiovascular risk, greater time spent on MVPA and fewer on sedentary behaviors was inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, T2D, and

  19. From Spontaneous Motor Activity to Coordinated Behaviour: A Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Hugo Gravato; Bharadwaj, Arjun; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the developmental path that links the primary behaviours observed during foetal stages to the full fledged behaviours observed in adults is still beyond our understanding. Often theories of motor control try to deal with the process of incremental learning in an abstract and modular way without establishing any correspondence with the mammalian developmental stages. In this paper, we propose a computational model that links three distinct behaviours which appear at three different stages of development. In order of appearance, these behaviours are: spontaneous motor activity (SMA), reflexes, and coordinated behaviours, such as locomotion. The goal of our model is to address in silico four hypotheses that are currently hard to verify in vivo: First, the hypothesis that spinal reflex circuits can be self-organized from the sensor and motor activity induced by SMA. Second, the hypothesis that supraspinal systems can modulate reflex circuits to achieve coordinated behaviour. Third, the hypothesis that, since SMA is observed in an organism throughout its entire lifetime, it provides a mechanism suitable to maintain the reflex circuits aligned with the musculoskeletal system, and thus adapt to changes in body morphology. And fourth, the hypothesis that by changing the modulation of the reflex circuits over time, one can switch between different coordinated behaviours. Our model is tested in a simulated musculoskeletal leg actuated by six muscles arranged in a number of different ways. Hopping is used as a case study of coordinated behaviour. Our results show that reflex circuits can be self-organized from SMA, and that, once these circuits are in place, they can be modulated to achieve coordinated behaviour. In addition, our results show that our model can naturally adapt to different morphological changes and perform behavioural transitions. PMID:25057775

  20. The neurocognitive connection between physical activity and eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Joseph, R J; Alonso-Alonso, M; Bond, D S; Pascual-Leone, A; Blackburn, G L

    2011-10-01

    As obesity rates increase worldwide, healthcare providers require methods to instill the lifestyle behaviours necessary for sustainable weight loss. Designing effective weight-loss interventions requires an understanding of how these behaviours are elicited, how they relate to each other and whether they are supported by common neurocognitive mechanisms. This may provide valuable insights to optimize existing interventions and develop novel approaches to weight control. Researchers have begun to investigate the neurocognitive underpinnings of eating behaviour and the impact of physical activity on cognition and the brain. This review attempts to bring these somewhat disparate, yet interrelated lines of literature together in order to examine a hypothesis that eating behaviour and physical activity share a common neurocognitive link. The link pertains to executive functions, which rely on brain circuits located in the prefrontal cortex. These advanced cognitive processes are of limited capacity and undergo relentless strain in the current obesogenic environment. The increased demand on these neurocognitive resources as well as their overuse and/or impairment may facilitate impulses to over-eat, contributing to weight gain and obesity. This impulsive eating drive may be counteracted by physical activity due to its enhancement of neurocognitive resources for executive functions and goal-oriented behaviour. By enhancing the resources that facilitate 'top-down' inhibitory control, increased physical activity may help compensate and suppress the hedonic drive to over-eat. Understanding how physical activity and eating behaviours interact on a neurocognitive level may help to maintain a healthy lifestyle in an obesogenic environment.

  1. Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

  2. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl

    2015-11-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a synthesis these classical processes and cast them as successive hierarchical contextualisations of sensorimotor constructs, using the generative models that underpin Active Inference. This dissolves any apparent mechanistic distinction between the optimization processes that mediate classical control or learning. Furthermore, we generalize the scope of Active Inference by emphasizing interoceptive inference and homeostatic regulation. The ensuing homeostatic (or allostatic) perspective provides an intuitive explanation for how priors act as drives or goals to enslave action, and emphasises the embodied nature of inference.

  3. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control

    PubMed Central

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a synthesis these classical processes and cast them as successive hierarchical contextualisations of sensorimotor constructs, using the generative models that underpin Active Inference. This dissolves any apparent mechanistic distinction between the optimization processes that mediate classical control or learning. Furthermore, we generalize the scope of Active Inference by emphasizing interoceptive inference and homeostatic regulation. The ensuing homeostatic (or allostatic) perspective provides an intuitive explanation for how priors act as drives or goals to enslave action, and emphasises the embodied nature of inference. PMID:26365173

  4. Effect of a 24-month physical activity intervention compared to health education on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults: the LIFE Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sink, Kaycee M.; Espeland, Mark A.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Church, Timothy; Cohen, Ron; Dodson, John A.; Guralnik, Jack; Hendrie, Hugh C.; Jennings, Janine; Katula, Jeffery; Lopez, Oscar L.; McDermott, Mary M.; Pahor, Marco; Reid, Kieran F.; Rushing, Julia; Verghese, Joe; Rapp, Stephen; Williamson, Jeff D.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Epidemiologic evidence suggests that physical activity benefits cognition, but results from randomized trials are limited and mixed. Objective To determine whether a 24-month physical activity program results in better cognitive function and/or lower risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia compared to a health education program. Design, Setting, and Participants The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study was a multicenter, randomized clinical trial that enrolled 1635 community-living participants at 8 centers in the U.S. from February 2010 until December 2011. Participants were sedentary adults aged 70–89 years at risk for mobility disability, but able to walk 400m. Intervention Participants were randomized to a structured, moderate-intensity physical activity program (n=818) that included walking, resistance training, and flexibility exercises or to a health education program (n=817) of educational workshops and upper extremity stretching. Outcomes and Measures Pre-specified secondary outcomes of the LIFE study included cognitive function measured by the Digit Symbol Coding task (0–133 scale, higher=better) and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (12-word list recall) assessed in 1,476 (90.3%) participants. Tertiary outcomes included global and executive cognitive function and incident MCI or dementia at 24 months. Pre-specified subgroups analyses were performed based on age, sex, baseline physical performance, and baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination score. Results At 24 months, DSC and HVLT-R scores (adjusted for clinic site, gender, and baseline values) were not different between groups. Mean DSC scores were 46.26 points for physical activity vs. 46.28 for health education; mean difference −0.014 points, 95% CI −0.80 to 0.77, p= 0.97. Mean HVLT-R delayed recall scores were 7.22 for physical activity vs. 7.25 for health education; mean difference −0.03 words, 95% CI −0.29 to 0.24, p= 0

  5. A microenvironment approach to reducing sedentary time and increasing physical activity of children and adults at a playground

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. Test whether a micro-environment park intervention in Grand Forks, ND, movement of seating away from a playground, would increase the physical activity and length of stay of park users. Method. STUDY 1, summer 2012: physical activity of children and adults was assessed during baseline (...

  6. Development of new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy questionnaires using item response modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theoretically, increased levels of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) should lead to increased physical activity, but few studies have reported this effect among youth. This failure may be at least partially attributable to measurement limitations. In this study, Item Response Modeling (IRM) was...

  7. Associations of sedentary time and patterns of sedentary time accumulation with health-related quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Eline H; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Bours, Martijn J L; Lynch, Brigid M; Willems, Paul J B; Meijer, Kenneth; Kant, Ijmert; Beets, Geerard L; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Healy, Genevieve N; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2016-12-01

    Sedentary behavior (sitting/lying at low energy expenditure while awake) is emerging as an important risk factor that may compromise the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. We examined associations of sedentary time with HRQoL in CRC survivors, 2-10 years post-diagnosis. In a cross-sectional study, stage I-III CRC survivors (n = 145) diagnosed (2002-2010) at Maastricht University Medical Center+, the Netherlands, wore the thigh-mounted MOX activity monitor 24 h/day for seven consecutive days. HRQoL outcomes were assessed by validated questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, WHODAS II, Checklist Individual Strength, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Confounder-adjusted linear regression models were used to estimate associations with HRQoL outcomes of MOX-derived total and prolonged sedentary time (in prolonged sedentary bouts ≥ 30 min), and usual sedentary bout duration, corrected for waking wear time. On average, participants spent 10.2 h/day sedentary (SD, 1.6), and 4.5 h/day in prolonged sedentary time (2.3). Mean usual sedentary bout duration was 27.3 min (SD, 16.8). Greater total and prolonged sedentary time, and longer usual sedentary bout duration were associated with significantly (P < 0.05) lower physical functioning, and higher disability and fatigue scores. Greater prolonged sedentary time and longer usual sedentary bout duration also showed significant associations with lower global quality of life and role functioning. Associations with distress and social functioning were non-significant. Sedentary time was cross-sectionally associated with poorer HRQoL outcomes in CRC survivors. Prospective studies are needed to investigate whether sedentary time reduction is a potential target for lifestyle interventions aiming to improve the HRQoL of CRC survivors.

  8. Web-enabled feedback control over energy balance promotes an increase in physical activity and a reduction of body weight and disease risk in overweight sedentary adults.

    PubMed

    Kraushaar, Lutz Erwin; Krämer, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to investigate whether a Web-based tool will facilitate the adoption of feedback control over calorie balance in overweight individuals, thereby promoting an increase of physical activity and a reduction of body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This is a prospective exercise intervention study, commencing with a minimum weekly 3 × 20-min requirement of high-intensity interval training and requirement for Web-based self-monitoring and self-reporting of exercise and body weight. Subjects of this study include 83 overweight, sedentary, otherwise healthy adults aged 26-68 years. Anthropometric parameters, body fat, peak oxygen consumption, self-reported physical activity, frequency of use of the Web-based tool are among the characters measured in this study. This 24-week intervention substantially increased time spent for exercise (mean and median of 135 and 170 min/week, respectively) among the 72 % of participants who had adopted cognitive feedback control vs. no increase in the remaining participants of nonadopters. Adopters witnessed significantly improved peak oxygen consumption of >1 metabolic equivalent vs. no improvement among nonadopters. Adopters also reduced body mass index, body weight, and body fat by 1.6 kg/m(2), 4.8 kg, and 3.6 kg, respectively vs. 0.4 kg/m(2), 1.4 kg, and 1.1 kg in the control group. The increase in physical activity came at virtually no intervention effort of the investigators. This study demonstrates for the first time that adoption of cognitive feedback control over energy balance is possible with the help of a simple Web-based tool and that overweight adopters self-regulate exercise volume to significantly reduce body weight and improve biomarkers of fitness and cardiovascular risk.

  9. Combined Effects of Time Spent in Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors and Sleep on Obesity and Cardio-Metabolic Health Markers: A Novel Compositional Data Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Chastin, Sebastien F M; Palarea-Albaladejo, Javier; Dontje, Manon L; Skelton, Dawn A

    2015-01-01

    The associations between time spent in sleep, sedentary behaviors (SB) and physical activity with health are usually studied without taking into account that time is finite during the day, so time spent in each of these behaviors are codependent. Therefore, little is known about the combined effect of time spent in sleep, SB and physical activity, that together constitute a composite whole, on obesity and cardio-metabolic health markers. Cross-sectional analysis of NHANES 2005-6 cycle on N = 1937 adults, was undertaken using a compositional analysis paradigm, which accounts for this intrinsic codependence. Time spent in SB, light intensity (LIPA) and moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA) was determined from accelerometry and combined with self-reported sleep time to obtain the 24 hour time budget composition. The distribution of time spent in sleep, SB, LIPA and MVPA is significantly associated with BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, plasma glucose, plasma insulin (all p<0.001), and systolic (p<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.003), but not HDL or LDL. Within the composition, the strongest positive effect is found for the proportion of time spent in MVPA. Strikingly, the effects of MVPA replacing another behavior and of MVPA being displaced by another behavior are asymmetric. For example, re-allocating 10 minutes of SB to MVPA was associated with a lower waist circumference by 0.001% but if 10 minutes of MVPA is displaced by SB this was associated with a 0.84% higher waist circumference. The proportion of time spent in LIPA and SB were detrimentally associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease markers, but the association with SB was stronger. For diabetes risk markers, replacing SB with LIPA was associated with more favorable outcomes. Time spent in MVPA is an important target for intervention and preventing transfer of time from LIPA to SB might lessen the negative effects of physical inactivity.

  10. Combined Effects of Time Spent in Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors and Sleep on Obesity and Cardio-Metabolic Health Markers: A Novel Compositional Data Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Palarea-Albaladejo, Javier; Dontje, Manon L.; Skelton, Dawn A.

    2015-01-01

    The associations between time spent in sleep, sedentary behaviors (SB) and physical activity with health are usually studied without taking into account that time is finite during the day, so time spent in each of these behaviors are codependent. Therefore, little is known about the combined effect of time spent in sleep, SB and physical activity, that together constitute a composite whole, on obesity and cardio-metabolic health markers. Cross-sectional analysis of NHANES 2005–6 cycle on N = 1937 adults, was undertaken using a compositional analysis paradigm, which accounts for this intrinsic codependence. Time spent in SB, light intensity (LIPA) and moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA) was determined from accelerometry and combined with self-reported sleep time to obtain the 24 hour time budget composition. The distribution of time spent in sleep, SB, LIPA and MVPA is significantly associated with BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, plasma glucose, plasma insulin (all p<0.001), and systolic (p<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.003), but not HDL or LDL. Within the composition, the strongest positive effect is found for the proportion of time spent in MVPA. Strikingly, the effects of MVPA replacing another behavior and of MVPA being displaced by another behavior are asymmetric. For example, re-allocating 10 minutes of SB to MVPA was associated with a lower waist circumference by 0.001% but if 10 minutes of MVPA is displaced by SB this was associated with a 0.84% higher waist circumference. The proportion of time spent in LIPA and SB were detrimentally associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease markers, but the association with SB was stronger. For diabetes risk markers, replacing SB with LIPA was associated with more favorable outcomes. Time spent in MVPA is an important target for intervention and preventing transfer of time from LIPA to SB might lessen the negative effects of physical inactivity. PMID:26461112

  11. Recreational Activities to Reduce Behavioural Symptoms in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kolanowski, Ann; Fick, Donna M.; Buettner, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Few clinicians have an educational grounding in the use of nonpharmacological therapies for people with dementia. In this article, we explore the utility of recreational activities as one nonpharmacological intervention that has demonstrated effectiveness for reducing the behavioural symptoms of dementia. The implementation of effective recreational activities involves three components: understanding the evidence for this approach; acknowledging the need to reduce medications that have the potential to interfere with activity effectiveness; and individualizing activities so that the maximum benefit from the intervention is obtained. PMID:20046903

  12. Influence of social context on eating, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors of Latina mothers and their preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ana C; Sussner, Katarina M; Greaney, Mary L; Peterson, Karen E

    2009-02-01

    As more U.S. children grow up in Latino families, understanding how social class, culture, and environment influence feeding practices is key to preventing obesity. The authors conducted six focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews among immigrant, low-income Latina mothers in the Northeast United States and classified 17 emergent themes from content analysis according to ecologic frameworks for behavior change. Respondents related environmental influences to child feeding, diet, and activity, namely, supermarket proximity, food cost, access to recreational facilities, neighborhood safety, and weather. Television watching was seen as integral to family life, including watching during meals and using TV as babysitter and tool to learn English. Participation in the WIC program helped families address food insecurity, and child care provided healthy eating and physical activity opportunities. Health promotion efforts addressing obesity trends in Latino children must account for organizational and environmental influences on the day-to-day social context of young immigrant families.

  13. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in

  14. Sedentary women: sit less, live more!

    PubMed

    Pines, A

    2015-01-01

    Even lay persons know that a sedentary lifestyle is unhealthy. Still, the majority of people do not comply with current recommendations for physical activity. Data on the ill effects of sedentarism keep on increasing, clearly showing a significant adverse impact and increased risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, fracture and various overweight-related metabolic conditions. The simple fact that prolonged sitting is associated with a shorter life span must be repeatedly discussed with our patients.

  15. Independent Associations between Sedentary Time, Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardio-Metabolic Health: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Johan; Wijtzes, Anne; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Bourgois, Jan G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the independent associations of sedentary time (ST), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardio-metabolic risk and its individual components (waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure). We also investigated whether any associations between MVPA or ST and clustered cardio-metabolic risk were mediated by CRF. MVPA, ST, CRF and individual cardio-metabolic components were measured in a population-based sample of 341 adults (age 53.8 ± 8.9 years; 61% men) between 2012 and 2014. MVPA and ST were measured with the SenseWear pro 3 Armband and CRF was measured with a maximal exercise test. Multiple linear regression models and the product of coefficients method were used to examine independent associations and mediation effects, respectively. Results showed that low MVPA and low CRF were associated with a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.26 and β = -0.43, both p<0.001, respectively). CRF explained 73% of the variance in the association between MVPA and clustered cardio-metabolic risk and attenuated this association to non-significance. After mutual adjustment for MVPA and ST, CRF was the most important risk factor for a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.39, p<0.001). In conclusion, because of the mediating role of CRF, lifestyle-interventions need to be feasible yet challenging enough to lead to increases in CRF to improve someone’s cardio-metabolic health. PMID:27463377

  16. Screen-based media use clusters are related to other activity behaviours and health indicators in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Screen-based media (SBM) occupy a considerable portion of young peoples’ discretionary leisure time. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether distinct clusters of SBM use exist, and if so, to examine the relationship of any identified clusters with other activity/sedentary behaviours and physical and mental health indicators. Methods The data for this study come from 643 adolescents, aged 14 years, who were participating in the longitudinal Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study through May 2003 to June 2006. Time spent on SBM, phone use and reading was assessed using the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults. Height, weight, muscle strength were measured at a clinic visit and the adolescents also completed questionnaires on their physical activity and psychosocial health. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to analyse groupings of SBM use. Results Three clusters of SBM use were found; C1 ‘instrumental computer users’ (high email use, general computer use), C2 ‘multi-modal e-gamers’ (both high console and computer game use) and C3 ‘computer e-gamers’ (high computer game use only). Television viewing was moderately high amongst all the clusters. C2 males took fewer steps than their male peers in C1 and C3 (-13,787/week, 95% CI: -4619 to -22957, p = 0.003 and -14,806, 95% CI: -5,306 to -24,305, p = 0.002) and recorded less MVPA than the C1 males (-3.5 h, 95% CI: -1.0 to -5.9, p = 0.005). There was no difference in activity levels between females in clusters C1 and C3. Conclusion SBM use by adolescents did cluster and these clusters related differently to activity/sedentary behaviours and both physical and psychosocial health indicators. It is clear that SBM use is not a single construct and future research needs to take consideration of this if it intends to understand the impact SBM has on health. PMID:24330626

  17. Sedentary time assessed by actigraphy and mortality: The Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Koolhaas, Chantal M; Dhana, Klodian; van Rooij, Frank J A; Kocevska, Desana; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that sedentary behavior is a risk factor for mortality. However, most studies rely on questionnaires, which are prone to reporting error. We examined the association between sedentary time assessed by actigraphy and mortality among 1839 participants, aged 45-98years, from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, enrolled between 2004 and 2007. Participants wore an actigraph around the wrist for seven days. Sedentary time was evaluated continuously, per 1h/day increase, and categorically in three groups (<8, 8-11, ≥11h/day). The lowest category was used as reference. Mortality risks were examined using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for confounders and biological risk factors. We examined the association between sedentary behavior and mortality over and beyond other activity measures (including physical activity (PA) and activities of daily living (ADL)) in a final model. During 11years of follow-up (median: 7.5years, interquartile range: 6.6-8.3years), 212 participants (11.5%) died. In the multivariable model, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) per 1 more hour/day sedentary time was 1.09 (1.00, 1.18). The HR (95% CI) after adjustment for PA and ADL was 1.04 (0.96, 1.13). Participants sedentary for ≥11h/day had a higher mortality risk (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.84) than those sedentary <8h/day, in the multivariable model. After adjusting for PA and ADL, this association was clearly attenuated (HR: 1.50, 95% CI: 0.93, 2.41). In conclusion, our study suggests that sedentary behavior is a risk factor for mortality. Further investigation is needed to examine whether this association is distinct from the effect of other measures of activity.

  18. Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Lemia H; Vaccaro, Joan A; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G

    2016-01-01

    Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents' self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public), TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females' body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value.

  19. Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shaban, Lemia H.; Sukhram, Shiryn D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents' self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public), TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females' body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value. PMID:28042301

  20. Determinants of Change in Children’s Sedentary Time

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, Andrew J.; Corder, Kirsten; Ekelund, Ulf; Wijndaele, Katrien; Griffin, Simon J.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the determinants of sedentary time during childhood contributes to the development of effective intervention programmes. Purpose To examine family and home-environmental determinants of 1-year change in objectively measured sedentary time after-school and at the weekend. Methods Participants wore accelerometers at baseline and 1 year later. Longitudinal data for after-school and weekend analyses were available for 854 (41.5%male, mean±SD age 10.2±0.3years) and 718 (41.8%male, age 10.2±0.3years) participants. Information on 26 candidate determinants, including socioeconomic status (SES), availability of electronic media and parental rules for sedentary behaviours was self-reported by children or their parents at baseline. Change in the proportion of registered time spent sedentary was used as the outcome variable in multi-level linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and baseline sedentary time. Simple and multiple models were run and interactions with sex explored. Results Children from higher socioeconomic status families exhibited greater increases in after-school (beta; 95% CI for change in % time spent sedentary 1.02; 0.37, 1.66) and weekend (1.42; 0.65, 2.18) sedentary time. Smaller increases in after-school sedentary time were observed in children with more siblings (−1.00; −1.69, −0.30), greater availability of electronic media (−0.81; −1.29, −0.33) and, for boys, more frequent family visits to the park (−1.89; −3.28, −0.51) and family participation in sport (−1.28; −2.54, −0.02). Greater maternal weekend screen-time (0.45; 0.08, 0.83) and, in girls, greater parental restriction on playing outside (0.91; 0.08, 1.74) were associated with larger increases in weekend sedentary time. The analytical sample was younger, more likely to be female, had lower BMI and was of higher SES than the original baseline sample. Conclusions Intervention strategies aimed at reducing parents’ weekend

  1. Evaluation of raw acceleration sedentary thresholds in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Maria; Hansen, Bjørge H; van Hees, Vincent T; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-11-22

    The aim was to develop sedentary (sitting/lying) thresholds from hip and wrist worn raw tri-axial acceleration data from the ActiGraph and GENEActiv, and to examine the agreement between free-living time spent below these thresholds with sedentary time estimated by the activPAL. Sixty children and adults wore an ActiGraph and GENEActiv on the hip and wrist while performing six structured activities, before wearing the monitors, in addition to an activPAL, for 24 h. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine sedentary thresholds based on activities in the laboratory. Agreement between developed sedentary thresholds during free-living and activPAL were assessed by Bland-Altman plots and by calculating sensitivity and specificity. Using laboratory data and ROC-curves showed similar classification accuracy for wrist and hip thresholds (Area under the curve = 0.84-0.92). Greatest sensitivity (97-98%) and specificity (74-78%) were observed for the wrist thresholds, with no large differences between brands. During free-living, Bland-Altman plots showed large mean individual biases and 95% limits of agreement compared with activPAL, with smallest difference for the ActiGraph wrist threshold in children (+30 min, P = 0.3). Sensitivity and specificity for the developed thresholds during free-living were low for both age groups and for wrist (Sensitivity, 68-88%, Specificity, 46-59%) and hip placements (Sensitivity, 89-97%, Specificity, 26-34%). Laboratory derived sedentary thresholds generally overestimate free-living sedentary time compared with activPAL. Wrist thresholds appear to perform better than hip thresholds for estimating free-living sedentary time in children and adults relative to activPAL, however, specificity for all the developed thresholds are low.

  2. Sucking pump activity in feeding behaviour regulation in carpenter ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Gontijo, Alberto de Figueiredo; Josens, Roxana

    2009-06-01

    Modulation of liquid feeding-rate would allow insects to ingest more food in the same time when this was required. Ants can vary nectar intake rate by increasing sucking pump frequency according to colony requirements. We analysed electrical signals generated by sucking pump activity of ants during drinking solutions of different sucrose concentrations and under different carbohydrate-deprivation levels. Our aim was to define parameters that characterize the recordings and analyse their relationship with feeding behaviour. Signals showed that the initial and final frequencies of sucking pump activity, as well as the difference between them were higher in sugar-deprived ants. However, these parameters were not influenced by sucrose solution concentration, which affected the number of pump contractions and the volume per contraction. Unexpectedly, we found two different responses in feeding behaviour of starved and non-starved ants depending on concentration. Starved ants drank dilute solutions for the same length of time as non-starved ants but ingested higher volumes. While drinking the concentrated solutions, starved ants drank the same volume, but did so in a shorter time than the non-starved ones. Despite these differences, for each analysed concentration the total number of pump contractions remained constant independently of sugar-deprivation level. These results are discussed in the frame of feeding regulation and decision making in ant foraging behaviour.

  3. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial to assess the impact of a workplace osteoporosis prevention intervention on the dietary and physical activity behaviours of working women: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease and its risk can be reduced through adequate calcium consumption and physical activity. This protocol paper describes a workplace-based intervention targeting behaviour change in premenopausal women working in sedentary occupations. Method/Design A cluster-randomised design was used, comparing the efficacy of a tailored intervention to standard care. Workplaces were the clusters and units of randomisation and intervention. Sample size calculations incorporated the cluster design. Final number of clusters was determined to be 16, based on a cluster size of 20 and calcium intake parameters (effect size 250 mg, ICC 0.5 and standard deviation 290 mg) as it required the highest number of clusters. Sixteen workplaces were recruited from a pool of 97 workplaces and randomly assigned to intervention and control arms (eight in each). Women meeting specified inclusion criteria were then recruited to participate. Workplaces in the intervention arm received three participatory workshops and organisation wide educational activities. Workplaces in the control/standard care arm received print resources. Intervention workshops were guided by self-efficacy theory and included participatory activities such as goal setting, problem solving, local food sampling, exercise trials, group discussion and behaviour feedback. Outcomes measures were calcium intake (milligrams/day) and physical activity level (duration: minutes/week), measured at baseline, four weeks and six months post intervention. Discussion This study addresses the current lack of evidence for behaviour change interventions focussing on osteoporosis prevention. It addresses missed opportunities of using workplaces as a platform to target high-risk individuals with sedentary occupations. The intervention was designed to modify behaviour levels to bring about risk reduction. It is the first to address dietary and physical activity components each with unique intervention

  4. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  5. An Animal Model of Active (Act) Versus Sedentary (Sed) Lifestyle and Susceptibility to Air Pollution: Response to Ozone (O3) in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats Allowed to Train Chronically On Running Wheels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological data suggest that a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to increased suseptibility to environmental pollutants. Furthermore, the association between a sedentary pattern and development of obesity may exacerbate susceptibility. To study the effects of ACT vs. SED l...

  6. Long-range scaling behaviours of human colonic pressure activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Rongguo; Yan, Guozheng; Zhang, Wenqiang; Wang, Long

    2008-11-01

    The long-range scaling behaviours of human colonic pressure activities under normal physiological conditions are studied by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The DFA is an effective period representation with a single quantitative scaling exponent α to accurately quantify long-range correlations naturally presented in a complex non-stationary time series. The method shows that the colonic activities of the healthy subjects exhibit long-range power-law correlations; however such correlations either will be destroyed if we randomly shuffle the original data or will cease to be of a power-law form if we chop some high-amplitude spikes off. These facts indicate that the colonic tissue or enteric nervous system (ENS) with a good functional motility has a good memory to its past behaviours and generates well-organized colonic spikes; however such good memory becomes too long to be remembered for the colonic activity of the slow transit constipation (STC) patient and colonic dysmotility occurs.

  7. Comparison of sedentary behaviors between children with autism spectrum disorders and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E; Maslin, Melissa; Lividini, Keith; Bandini, Linda G

    2014-05-01

    Time spent in sedentary behavior is largely due to time spent engaged with electronic screen media. Little is known about the extent to which sedentary behaviors for children with autism spectrum disorder differ from typically developing children. We used parental report to assess and compare time spent in sedentary behaviors for 53 children with autism spectrum disorder and 58 typically developing children aged 3-11 years. We also determined how sedentary behavior was related to child weight status (body mass index z-score). Overall, children with autism spectrum disorder spent an hour more in sedentary behaviors on weekdays compared to typically developing children (5.2 vs 4.2 h, p = 0.03), and most of this difference was due to screen time. The age- and sex-adjusted estimate of weekday total daily screen time was 1.6 h (typically developing) compared to 2.5 h (autism spectrum disorder, p = 0.004 for difference). A significant relationship between BMI z-score and total sedentary behavior time on weekend days was observed among young children with ASD, but not among TD children. The modest association between weekend sedentary behaviour time and BMI z-score among children with ASD suggests that sedentary behaiour is linked to relative weight status in these children. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and identify causal pathways.

  8. Prevalence and factors associated with sedentary behavior in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Paula Jaudy Pedroso; Domingos, Isabela Prado; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Muraro, Ana Paula; Sichieri, Rosely; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of sedentary behavior and associated factors in adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 10 to 17 years, of both sexes, belonging to a 1994-1999 birth cohort in the city of Cuiabá, MT, Central Western Brazil. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, economic, lifestyle and anthropometric variables. Sedentary behavior was determined as using television and/or computer/video games for a time greater than or equal to 4 hours/day. Associations with sedentary behavior were evaluated using body mass index in childhood and adolescence and sociodemographic and behavioral variables using hierarchical logistic regression. RESULTS The overall prevalence of sedentary behavior was 58.1%. Of the 1,716 adolescents evaluated, 50.7% (n = 870) were male. In multivariate analysis, after adjustment for confounding factors, the variables that remained associated with sedentary behavior were: age (14 and over) (OR = 3.51, 95%CI 2.19;5.60); higher socioeconomic class (OR = 3.83, 95%CI 2.10;7.01), higher level of maternal education (OR = 1.81, 95%CI 1.09;3.01); living in the country (OR = 0.49, 95%CI 0.30;0.81); insufficient physical activity (OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.02;1.53); experimentation with alcoholic beverages (OR = 1.34, 95%CI 1.08;1.66) and being overweight in adolescence (OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.06;1.68). CONCLUSIONS The high proportion of adolescents in sedentary activities and the lack of association with being overweight in childhood, indicates the need for educational initiatives to reduce multiple risk behaviors. Encouraging physical activity in young people as a way of reducing sedentary behavior and, consequently, being overweight is fundamental. PMID:24897048

  9. Analysis of communicative behaviour: profiling roles and activities.

    PubMed

    Sørby, Inger Dybdahl; Nytrø, Oystein

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how profiles of communicative behaviour can be used to present and analyse information about role activity recorded through structured observation of specific situations. The role activities are encoded as distinctive speech acts. Example profiles resulting from the analysis of three clinicians' communicative behaviour during pre-rounds meetings and ward rounds are given. The examples are based on an observational study performed at a Norwegian university hospital. One fifth-year medical student spent 20 days in two different hospital wards, following 7 physicians from one to seven days each. The observer recorded data from several ward situations such as pre-rounds meetings, ward rounds, and discharge situations. The data was recorded by means of an observation form consisting of a mixture of codes and free-text fields. The data has been post-processed by associating each event with one communicative act. The approach is an efficient and useful means for studying clinicians' information and communication patterns in hospital wards, which can serve as an important tool in the design of new clinical information systems.

  10. Metabolic and hormonal responses to body carbohydrate store depletion followed by high or low carbohydrate meal in sedentary and physically active subjects.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, T; Ziemba, A; Nazar, K

    2010-04-01

    The study was designed to determine metabolic and hormonal responses to acute modification of body carbohydrate stores by exercise and subsequent meals and to find out whether the responses depend on the training status of subjects. Nine sedentary students and 10 endurance athletes took part in four experimental sessions. During control session, after overnight fast oxygen uptake and CO2 production were measured and blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin (I), leptin (L), growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T), catecholamines, ACTH and cortisol were determined. The remaining sessions were preceded by 1.5 h exercise at 70% HRmax in the evening followed by 12-16 hrs fast till morning when subjects ate either high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) or low-carbohydrate (L-CHO) meal or fasted. Respiratory gases and blood samples were collected before and 2 hours after meal. In glycogen depleted subjects respiratory quotient (RQ), I, norepinephrine (NE) and L decreased, whilst other variables were unaltered. Changes in I and NE were greater in athletes than in sedentary subjects. After H-CHO RQ, blood glucose, I and NE increased and FFA, GH and T decreased. The latter effect was greater in athletes than in untrained subjects. After L-CHO, RQ was at the fasting level and FFA increased only in sedentary group. In both groups I increased and GH and T decreased. Neither meal affected L concentration. In conclusion, hormonal and metabolic changes observed after depleting carbohydrate stores resemble those occurring during starvation. Composition of the ingested meal affects postprandial metabolism, which additionally depends on the subjects' training status.

  11. Heterosexual sexual behaviour in a sample of homosexually active men.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J

    1989-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner. Fewer men described themselves as bisexual than would be expected from the sample's recent sexual histories. More attention is needed to the definition and measurement of "bisexuality" to understand its role in HIV transmission. PMID:2807286

  12. Data Linkage Between the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to Assess Workplace Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors, and Emotional Stressors During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Laura J.; Symanski, Elaine; Lupo, Philip J.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Razzaghi, Hilda; Pompeii, Lisa A.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Canfield, Mark A.; Chan, Wenyaw

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the prevalence of work-related physical activities, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors among pregnant women is limited, and the extent to which these exposures vary by maternal characteristics remains unclear. Methods Data on mothers of 6,817 infants without major birth defects, with estimated delivery during 1997 through 2009 who worked during pregnancy were obtained from the ‘National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Information on multiple domains of occupational exposures was gathered by linking mother’s primary job to the Occupational Information Network Version 9.0. Results The most frequent estimated physical activity associated with jobs during pregnancy was standing. Of 6,337 mothers, 31.0% reported jobs associated with standing for ≥ 75% of their time. There was significant variability in estimated occupational exposures by maternal age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Conclusions Our findings augment existing literature on occupational physical activities, sedentary behaviors, emotional stressors, and occupational health disparities during pregnancy. PMID:26681357

  13. Using behavioural activation in the treatment of depression: a control theory perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, P; Law, A; Bates, R; Hylton, K; Mansell, W

    2013-12-01

    Behavioural activation is an intervention that can be used to counteract the typical patterns of withdrawal, avoidance and inactivity that characterize depression. This paper examines the processes of change that may occur during behavioural activation from the perspective of control theory. Some of the key concepts that are associated with control theory are introduced and the process of change that may occur during behavioural activation is illustrated using two case studies. The case studies provide anecdotal evidence which supports the hypothesis that the effective implementation of behavioural activation may depend upon clients being able to retain or regain the sense of control that they value. The differences between a control-theory-based approach and more orthodox behavioural and cognitive approaches are highlighted and the implications of these differences are discussed. Flexible approaches that are informed by control theory, may offer a useful alternative to the more established behavioural and cognitive approaches towards behavioural activation.

  14. Factors Influencing Physical Activity among Postpartum Iranian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roozbahani, Nasrin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum women are a population at risk for sedentary living. Physical activity (PA) prior to pregnancy may be effective in predicting similar behaviour in the postpartum period. Objective: To test a composite version of the extended transtheoretical model (TTM) by adding "past behaviour" in order to predict PA behaviour…

  15. Attitudes and exercise adherence: test of the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Smith, R A; Biddle, S J

    1999-04-01

    Three studies of exercise adherence and attitudes are reported that tested the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In a prospective study of adherence to a private fitness club, structural equation modelling path analysis showed that attitudinal and social normative components of the Theory of Reasoned Action accounted for 13.1% of the variance in adherence 4 months later, although only social norm significantly predicted intention. In a second study, the Theory of Planned Behaviour was used to predict both physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Path analyses showed that attitude and perceived control, but not social norm, predicted total physical activity. Physical activity was predicted from intentions and control over sedentary behaviour. Finally, an intervention study with previously sedentary adults showed that intentions to be active measured at the start and end of a 10-week intervention were associated with the planned behaviour variables. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed no significant multivariate effects for time on the planned behaviour variables measured before and after intervention. Qualitative data provided evidence that participants had a positive experience on the intervention programme and supported the role of social normative factors in the adherence process.

  16. Sedentary Behavior and Health: Broadening the Knowledge Base and Strengthening the Science.

    PubMed

    Hadgraft, Nyssa; Owen, Neville

    2017-04-07

    We provide an overview of a recently published, edited book in a rapidly emerging field of research, policy, and practice for physical activity: Sedentary Behavior and Health. In this commentary, we highlight the broad perspectives provided in the 27 chapters of Sedentary Behavior and Health and suggest a research strategy to move the field forward-not only with scientific rigor, but also with breadth of scholarship. The book's chapters provide an overview of the background to and contexts for sedentary behavior and health. They then highlight the importance of understanding health consequences and underlying mechanisms; introduce key measurement technology and analytic strategies; consider sedentary behavior in subpopulations; describe conceptual models and theories to guide sedentary behavior interventions; and explain what is known about interventions in different settings. Considering the breadth of perspectives brought to bear on the field and the plethora of opportunities for research, policy, and practice, we suggest 3 elements of an interdisciplinary research strategy drawing upon the primary knowledge bases of physical activity and health: through the experimental methods of exercise science, through the observational tools of epidemiology, and through the conceptual approaches and methods of behavioral science. A better understanding of the health consequences of sedentary behavior and how they may be influenced can be encompassed by 3 key questions: What changes are needed to most effectively influence sedentary behaviors? What elements of sedentary behavior should be changed to improve health outcomes? What are the feasibility of and the benefits from changing sedentary behavior?

  17. Joint effects of smoking and sedentary lifestyle on lung function in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Sarpong, Daniel F; Addison, Clifton; White, Monique S; Hickson, Demarc A; White, Wendy; Burchfiel, Cecil

    2014-01-28

    This study examined: (a) differences in lung function between current and non current smokers who had sedentary lifestyles and non sedentary lifestyles and (b) the mediating effect of sedentary lifestyle on the association between smoking and lung function in African Americans. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as the lowest quartile of the total physical activity score. The results of linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that non smokers with non sedentary lifestyles had the highest level of lung function, and smokers with sedentary lifestyles had the lowest level. The female non-smokers with sedentary lifestyles had a significantly higher FEV1% predicted and FVC% predicted than smokers with non sedentary lifestyles (93.3% vs. 88.6%; p = 0.0102 and 92.1% vs. 86.9%; p = 0.0055 respectively). FEV1/FVC ratio for men was higher in non smokers with sedentary lifestyles than in smokers with non sedentary lifestyles (80.9 vs. 78.1; p = 0.0048). Though smoking is inversely associated with lung function, it seems to have a more deleterious effect than sedentary lifestyle on lung function. Physically active smokers had higher lung function than their non physically active counterparts.

  18. Behaviour change interventions to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Louise; Gallagher, Stephen; Cramp, Fiona; Brand, Charles; Fraser, Alexander; Kennedy, Norelee

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.

  19. Social desirability is associated with some physical activity, psychosocial variables and sedentary behavior but not self-reported physical activity among adolescent males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined whether controlling for social desirability improved the association between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among adolescent males and the extent that psychosocial variables predict physical activity after controlling for social desirability. Participant...

  20. Influencing Factors of Sedentary Behavior in European Preschool Settings: An Exploration through Focus Groups with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Decker, Ellen; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wijndaele, Katrien; Duvinage, Kristin; Androutsos, Odysseas; Iotova, Violeta; Lateva, Mina; Alvira, Juan Miguel Fernandez; Zych, Kamila; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sedentary behavior refers to activities involving sitting down and reclining (eg, watching TV, using the computer) and has been associated with different health outcomes. In preschool, children are sedentary for 50% to 80% of the time, in the classroom as well as during recess. Because of the absence of qualitative studies examining…

  1. Lower extremity muscular strength, sedentary behavior, and mortality.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-04-01

    To examine whether lower extremity strength (LES) is predictive of all-cause mortality, independent of physical activity and among those with vary levels of sedentary behavior. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used (N = 2768; 50-85 years). Peak isokinetic knee extensor strength was objectively measured, sedentary behavior and physical activity were self-reported, and mortality was assessed via the National Death Index, with follow-up through 2011. Participants were followed for up to 12.6 years with the weighted average follow-up period lasting 9.9 years (standard error, 1.13). In the sample, 321,996 person-months occurred with a mortality rate of 2.1 deaths per 1000 person-months. After adjustments (including physical activity), for every 15 N increase in LES, participants had a 7 % reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.91-0.95; P < 0.001). When adding a three-level sedentary behavior variable (< 2, 2-4, 5+ h/day) as a covariate in this model, results were unchanged (HR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.92-0.96; P < 0.001). Similarly, when sedentary behavior was included as a continuous covariate in the model, results regarding the relationship between LES and mortality were unchanged (HR = 0.94; 95 % CI 0.91-0.96; P < 0.001). There was no evidence of statistical interaction between LES and sedentary behavior on all-cause mortality (HRinteraction = 1.01; 95 % CI 0.92-1.10; P = 0.88). LES was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, and this association was unchanged when considering the participant's sedentary behavior.

  2. The effect of reinforcement or stimulus control to reduce sedentary behavior in the treatment of pediatric obesity.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Paluch, Rocco A; Kilanowski, Colleen K; Raynor, Hollie A

    2004-07-01

    Obese children were randomly assigned to a family-based behavioral treatment that included either stimulus control or reinforcement to reduce sedentary behaviors. Significant and equivalent decreases in sedentary behavior and high energy density foods, increases in physical activity and fruits and vegetables, and decreases in standardized body mass index (z-BMI) were observed. Children who substituted active for sedentary behaviors had significantly greater z-BMI changes at 6 (-1.21 vs. -0.76) and 12 (-1.05 vs. -0.51) months, respectively. Substitution of physically active for sedentary behaviors and changes in activity level predicted 6- and 12-month z-BMI changes. Results suggest stimulus control and reinforcing reduced sedentary behaviors are equivalent ways to decrease sedentary behaviors, and behavioral economic relationships in eating and activity may mediate the effects of treatment.

  3. Sedentary behavior and physical function: Objective Evidence from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungwha; Chang, Rowland W.; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Kwoh, C. Kent; Nevitt, Michael; Semanik, Pamela A.; Sharma, Leena; Sohn, Min-Woong; Song, Jing; Dunlop, Dorothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Investigate the relationship between sedentary behavior and physical function in adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA), controlling for moderate-vigorous physical activity () levels. Methods Sedentary behavior was objectively measured by accelerometer on 1,168 participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative aged 49–83 years with radiographic knee OA at the 48 month clinic visit. Physical function was assessed using 20-meter walk and chair stand testing. Sedentary behavior was identified by accelerometer activity counts/minute <100. The cross-sectional association between sedentary quartiles and physical function was examined by multiple linear regression adjusting for demographic factors (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education level), health factors (comorbidity, body mass index, knee pain, knee OA severity, presence of knee symptoms) and average daily MVPA minutes. Results Adults with knee OA spent 2/3 their daily time in sedentary behavior. The average gait speed among the most sedentary quartile was 3.88 feet/second, which was significantly slower than the speed of the less sedentary groups (4.23, 4.33, 4.33 feet/second, respectively). The average chair stand rate among the most sedentary group was significantly lower (25.9 stands/minute) than the rates of the less sedentary behavior groups (28.9, 29.1, 31.1 stands/minute, respectively). These trends remained significant in multivariable analyses adjusted for demographic factors, health factors and average daily MVPA minutes. Conclusion Being less sedentary was related to better physical function in adults with knee OA independent of MVPA time. These findings support guidelines to encourage adults with knee OA to decrease time spent in sedentary behavior in order to improve physical function. PMID:25155652

  4. Genotype by Sex and Genotype by Age Interactions with Sedentary Behavior: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Daniel M. V.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Diego, Vincent P.; Blangero, John; Souza, Michele C.; Freitas, Duarte L.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Gomes, Thayse N.; Santos, Fernanda K.; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SB) expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge) and Genotype x Sex (GxSex) interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05) and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day), EEsed (kcal/day), personal computer (PC) usage and physical activty (PA) tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day). For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex. PMID:25302714

  5. Experimentally increasing sedentary behavior results in decreased life satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Meghan K.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: No study has experimentally manipulated sedentary behavior and evaluated its effect on life satisfaction. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a free-living, sedentary behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on life satisfaction. Methods: Active, young adults between the ages of 18-35 were recruited and randomly assigned into a sedentary behavior intervention group (n = 26) or a control group (n = 13). The intervention group participants were instructed to eliminate all exercise and restrict daily steps (as measured via pedometry) to 5000 or less per day for one week. The control group was instructed to maintain regular levels of exercise and other physical activity for one week. Both groups completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) pre-intervention and immediately post-intervention. Results: There was a significant group x time interaction (F = 32.75, P < 0.001), with post-hoc contrast tests indicating decreased SWLS score (indicating lower levels of life satisfaction) in the intervention group during Visit 2 (post-intervention) compared with Visit 1 (pre-intervention); this corresponded with a mean absolute (Visit 2 minus Visit 1) change of -8.58 (95% CI: -5.91, -11.24) for SWLS scores in the intervention group (31.1% reduction). Conclusion: A one-week sedentary behavior-inducing intervention may negatively impact life satisfaction in an active, young adult population. Regular physical activity may be imperative in avoiding negative life satisfaction-related consequences. PMID:28326289

  6. Too much sitting: the population health science of sedentary behavior.

    PubMed

    Owen, Neville; Healy, Geneviève N; Matthews, Charles E; Dunstan, David W

    2010-07-01

    Even when adults meet physical activity guidelines, sitting for prolonged periods can compromise metabolic health. Television (TV) time and objective measurement studies show deleterious associations, and breaking up sedentary time is beneficial. Sitting time, TV time, and time sitting in automobiles increase premature mortality risk. Further evidence from prospective studies, intervention trials, and population-based behavioral studies is required.

  7. Young School-Aged Children's Behaviour and Their Participation in Extra-Curricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoncini, Kym; Caltabiono, Nerina

    2012-01-01

    While research has repeatedly shown the benefits of participation in extracurricular activities for adolescents, few studies have focused on very young children. Extra-curricular activities afford children opportunities for development and can also influence their behaviour. Children's behaviour is an important predictor of their future successes…

  8. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  9. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  10. Synchronous behaviour of cetaceans observed with active acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godø, Olav Rune; Sivle, Lise Doksæter; Patel, Ruben; Torkelsen, Terje

    2013-12-01

    Scientific split-beam echosounders are sensitive instruments for observing biomass densities and individual behaviour. Earlier studies have demonstrated that these instruments can be used to study diving behaviour of cetaceans. In this paper, we go into more detail about the recorded signal to see if and how acoustic split-beam data can be used to extract information about synchronous behaviour and other species related characteristics. Data of several cetacean individuals were collected by a moored echosounder pinging upwards from about 900 m in the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone. In this paper, we discuss methodological issues associated with using split-beam tracking of large marine animals. Further we demonstrate that target tracking of cetaceans can be used to study solo dives as well as behavioural synchrony. We also show that paired signals can easily be interpreted as false synchrony due to the size of the animals. In such cases a rough estimate of the diameter, and hence size, of the animals can be estimated. We emphasise on four examples that clarify methodological challenges including synchronous swimmers as well as large single cetaceans that might be interpreted as two synchronous swimmers. The applied technology requires that the animals remain in a narrow acoustic beam for long enough time to extract behavioural information. The technology can be improved by developing automatic tracking of cetaceans with a steerable transducer. This will substantially increase the search volume and enable tracking of cetaceans over longer periods and thus, produce more realistic information about the whale behaviour.

  11. Bedroom media, sedentary time and screen-time in children: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Having electronic media in the bedroom is cross-sectionally associated with greater screen-time in children, but few longitudinal studies exist. The aim of this study was to describe longitudinal patterns of ownership and examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of bedroom media with children’s sedentary behaviour. Methods Data are from the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study, collected at 3 time-points: baseline (2007, T0; age 10.3 ± 0.3 years), 1-year (T1y) and 4-year (T4y) follow-up. For each assessment, 1512 (44.9% male), 715 (41.0% male), and 319 (48.3% male) participants provided valid accelerometer data. Outcome variables were accelerometer-assessed sedentary time and self-reported screen-time. The presence of a television or computer in the bedroom was self-reported by participants and a combined bedroom media score calculated as the sum of such items. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between bedroom media and each outcome were examined using multi-level linear regression. Results Bedroom TV ownership fell from 70.9% at T0 to 42.5% at T4y. Having a TV in the bedroom (beta; 95% CI*100, T0: -1.17; -1.88, -0.46. T1y: -1.68; -2.67, -0.70) and combined bedroom media (T0: -0.76; -1.26, -0.27. T1y: -0.79; -1.51, -0.07) were negatively associated with objectively measured weekly sedentary time at T0 and T1y. Having a computer in the bedroom (beta; 95% CI, T0: 0.15; 0.02, 0.29. T4y: 0.35; 0.10, 0.60) and combined bedroom media (T0: 0.09: 0.01, 0.18. T4y: 0.20; 0.05, 0.34) were positively associated with screen-time at T0 and T4y. Relative to participants without a computer throughout the study, children that had a computer in their bedroom at T0 but not at T4y (beta; 95% CI for change in screen-time: -8.02; -12.75, -3.29) reported smaller increases in screen-time. Conclusions The bedroom media environment changes with age and exhibits a complex

  12. Automobile, construction and entertainment business sector influences on sedentary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Parra, Diana C; de Sá, Thiago H; Monteiro, Carlos A; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-08-25

    Sedentary lifestyles contribute to premature death and health inequalities. Researchers have studied personal and community-level determinants of inactivity but few have analyzed corporate influences. To reframe the public health debate on inactivity and open new doors for public sector intervention, we conducted a scoping review of evidence from several disciplines to describe how the business and political practices of the automobile, construction, and entertainment sectors have encouraged sedentary lifestyles. In the last 50 years, these industries have found it profitable to produce motor vehicles, housing, and entertainment, which intentionally or unintentionally discourage physical activity. Ceding primary authority for policy decisions in these sectors to the market-based economy has enabled the growth of powerful lobbies that encourage and maintain sedentary lifestyles. To counteract these influences, public health and civil society need to confront more upstream economic and social determinants of sedentary lifestyles. Building on evidence from efforts to change harmful tobacco, alcohol and food industry practices, we propose the creation of research and policy agendas that contribute to public health practice that can modify corporate practices that contribute to physical, social and political environments that discourage physical activity.

  13. Positive Impact on Physical Activity and Health Behaviour Changes of a 15-Week Family Focused Intervention Program: “Juniors for Seniors”

    PubMed Central

    Bronikowska, Małgorzata; Pluta, Beata; Maciaszek, Janusz; Tomczak, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity (PA) in children and their parents requires effective planning and sometimes even interventions. This study shows the effect of PA during a 15-week intervention program “Junior for Seniors” by applying a socioecological model to the interpretation of the data. This comprehensive approach emphasizes the fact that health promotion should focus not only on intrapersonal factors but also on the multilevel factors that might be determinants and modulators of increased PA. In 2015, 24 children (“juniors,” 14 girls and 10 boys, aged M = 7.96 ± 0.69) and 22 parents (“seniors,” 14 mothers aged M = 38.86 ± 2.96 and 8 fathers aged M = 37.38 ± 2.97) were voluntarily enrolled in a study spread across three primary schools in the city of Poznań, Poland. The effectiveness of the intervention was determined according to postintervention behavioural changes in PA in comparison to preintervention levels, as reported by the parents and children. Overall, the study found increases in PA levels and reductions in sedentary time. Although the changes are modest, there are some unrecognized benefits of the intervention which may have occurred, such as improved sport and motor skills, more frequent family social behaviours (walks, meals, and visiting relatives), or simply improved quality of “do-together” leisure time PA. PMID:27766262

  14. Optogenetically enhanced pituitary corticotroph cell activity post-stress onset causes rapid organizing effects on behaviour

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Thiemann, Theresa; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    The anterior pituitary is the major link between nervous and hormonal systems, which allow the brain to generate adequate and flexible behaviour. Here, we address its role in mediating behavioural adjustments that aid in coping with acutely threatening environments. For this we combine optogenetic manipulation of pituitary corticotroph cells in larval zebrafish with newly developed assays for measuring goal-directed actions in very short timescales. Our results reveal modulatory actions of corticotroph cell activity on locomotion, avoidance behaviours and stimulus responsiveness directly after the onset of stress. Altogether, the findings uncover the significance of endocrine pituitary cells for rapidly optimizing behaviour in local antagonistic environments. PMID:27646867

  15. Issues and Challenges in Sedentary Behavior Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Minsoo; Rowe, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown the negative impact of sedentary behavior on health, including cardiovascular risk factors, chronic disease-related morbidity, and mortality. Accurate measurement of sedentary behavior is thus important to plan effective interventions and to inform public health messages. This article (a) provides an overview of the…

  16. Protocol for the ‘Virtual Traveller’ cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons

    PubMed Central

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. ‘Virtual Traveller’ is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. Methods and analysis This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8–9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University

  17. Postglacial northward expansion and genetic differentiation between migratory and sedentary populations of the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus).

    PubMed

    Malpica, Andreia; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2014-02-01

    Unlike other migratory hummingbirds in North America, the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus) exhibits both long-distance migratory behaviour in the USA and sedentary behaviour in Mexico and Guatemala. We examined the evolution of migration linked to its northward expansion using a multiperspective approach. We analysed variation in morphology, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, estimated migration rates between migratory and sedentary populations, compared divergence times with the occurrence of Quaternary climate events and constructed species distribution models to predict where migratory and sedentary populations resided during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Last Interglacial (LIG) events. Our results are consistent with a recent northward population expansion driven by migration from southern sedentary populations. Phylogeographical analyses and population genetics methods revealed that migratory populations in the USA and sedentary populations in Mexico of the platycercus subspecies form one admixed population, and that sedentary populations from southern Mexico and Guatemala (guatemalae) undertook independent evolutionary trajectories. Species distribution modelling revealed that the species is a niche tracker and that the climate conditions associated with modern obligate migrants in the USA were not present during the LIG, which provides indirect evidence for recent migratory behaviour in broad-tailed hummingbirds on the temporal scale of glacial cycles. The finding that platycercus hummingbirds form one genetic population and that suitable habitat for migratory populations was observed in eastern Mexico during the LIG also suggests that the conservation of overwintering sites is crucial for obligate migratory populations currently facing climate change effects.

  18. Individual and Environmental Factors Determining Sedentary Lifestyle of the Polish Population

    PubMed Central

    BIERNAT, Elżbieta; PIĄTKOWSKA, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the sedentary lifestyle of the Polish population and its link with prolonged sitting in light of individual and environmental factors. Methods The sample consisted of 1505 Polish people between 18 and 64 years old. The Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) survey was conducted with the Polish version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-LF) and the survey of the determinants of a sport activity among the Polish population. The relationships between the time spent sitting and the individual and environmental factors among Polish citizens were investigated through log-linear analysis. Results The total time Polish people spent sitting was 2812.4±1593.9 min/week. During the weekend, men (Chi2=45.0; P=0.04) spent significantly more time sitting than women (251.1±170.1min/week, 230.9±155.0 min/week, respectively). Despite the relatively high proportion of people declaring participation in the Sport for All initiative (67.8%), only 9.6% of Polish people undertake a physical activity on a daily basis. The odds ratios above the median (>2545 min/week) are higher (OR=1.33; 95% CI=1.03—1.72) for those who are not physically active (54.5% vs. 45.5%). There was no relationship between prolonged sitting time and the environmental factors. Conclusion It is necessary to increase consistent efforts to create an environment that would successfully promote anactive lifestyle among Polish citizens in their place of residence and prevent sedentary behaviours within this population. The recommendations for physical activity should include the guidelines intervening in the time people spend sitting. PMID:25927033

  19. Gender and Age Differences in Hourly and Daily Patterns of Sedentary Time in Older Adults Living in Retirement Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bellettiere, John; Carlson, Jordan A.; Rosenberg, Dori; Singhania, Anant; Natarajan, Loki; Berardi, Vincent; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Moran, Kevin; Crist, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Background Total sedentary time varies across population groups with important health consequences. Patterns of sedentary time accumulation may vary and have differential health risks. The purpose of this study is to describe sedentary patterns of older adults living in retirement communities and illustrate gender and age differences in those patterns. Methods Baseline accelerometer data from 307 men and women (mean age = 84±6 years) who wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers for ≥ 4 days as part of a physical activity intervention were classified into bouts of sedentary time (<100 counts per minute). Linear mixed models were used to account for intra-person and site-level clustering. Daily and hourly summaries were examined in mutually non-exclusive bouts of sedentary time that were 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+, 60+, 90+ and 120+ minutes in duration. Variations by time of day, age and gender were explored. Results Men accumulated more sedentary time than women in 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+ and 60+ minute bouts; the largest gender-differences were observed in 10+ and 20+ minute bouts. Age was positively associated with sedentary time, but only in bouts of 10+, 20+, 30+, and 40+ minutes. Women had more daily 1+ minute sedentary bouts than men (71.8 vs. 65.2), indicating they break up sedentary time more often. For men and women, a greater proportion of time was spent being sedentary during later hours of the day than earlier. Gender differences in intra-day sedentary time were observed during morning hours with women accumulating less sedentary time overall and having more 1+ minute bouts. Conclusions Patterns identified using bouts of sedentary time revealed gender and age differences in the way in which sedentary time was accumulated by older adults in retirement communities. Awareness of these patterns can help interventionists better target sedentary time and may aid in the identification of health risks associated with sedentary behavior. Future studies

  20. [Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated factors in adolescents 10 to 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro Curi; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Physical activity in adolescence is associated with several health benefits, including a direct influence on adolescent morbidity and an indirect effect on adult health mediated by physical activity levels in adulthood. This study assessed the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated variables in 4,452 adolescents aged 10-12 years, belonging to the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, representing 87.5% of the original cohort. Sedentary lifestyle, defined as < 300 minutes per week of physical activity, was reported by 58.2% (95%CI: 56.7-59.7) of the cohort. In the multivariate analysis, sedentary lifestyle was positively associated with female gender, socioeconomic status, maternal physical inactivity, and television viewing, but inversely correlated with time spent playing videogames. Adolescents with low socioeconomic status were more likely to walk or bicycle to and from school. Effective strategies against sedentary lifestyle in adolescence are needed because of its high prevalence and association with physical inactivity in adulthood.

  1. Comparison of central artery elasticity in swimmers, runners, and the sedentary.

    PubMed

    Nualnim, Nantinee; Barnes, Jill N; Tarumi, Takashi; Renzi, Christopher P; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2011-03-01

    Although swimming is one of the most popular, most practiced, and most recommended forms of physical activity, little information is available regarding the influence of regular swimming on vascular disease risks. Using a cross-sectional study design, key measurements of vascular function were performed in middle-aged and older swimmers, runners, and sedentary controls. There were no group differences in age, height, dietary intake, and fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Runners and swimmers were not different in their weekly training volume. Brachial systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were higher (p <0.05) in swimmers than in sedentary controls and runners. Runners and swimmers had lower (p <0.05) carotid systolic blood pressure and carotid pulse pressure than sedentary controls. Carotid arterial compliance was higher (p <0.05) and β-stiffness index was lower (p <0.05) in runners and swimmers than in sedentary controls. There were no significant group differences between runners and swimmers. Cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity was greater (p <0.05) in runners than in sedentary controls and swimmers and baroreflex sensitivity tended to be higher in swimmers than in sedentary controls (p = 0.07). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was significant greater (p <0.05) in runners compared with sedentary controls and swimmers. In conclusion, our present findings are consistent with the notion that habitual swimming exercise may be an effective endurance exercise for preventing loss in central arterial compliance.

  2. Activity patterns as a correlate for sleep-wake behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Storch, Corinna; Höhne, Arnold; Holsboer, Florian; Ohl, Frauke

    2004-02-15

    Sleep-wake behaviour in mice is known to interact with various behavioural dimensions. Therefore, it is necessary to control for such dimensions when evaluating sleep in mice. The characterisation of sleep in rodents usually is based on EEG signals. Since this method demands the invasive implantation of electrodes, it cannot be integrated into general behavioural phenotyping procedures. Thus, non- or minimum-invasive methods are needed for the analysis of sleep-wake behaviour. Although physiological parameters, like for instance general locomotor activity, allow for the assessment of sleep-wake behaviour in mice, existing methods lack reliability especially in measuring stationary and three-dimensional activities. In this study, a small magnet was implanted subcutaneously near the neck muscles of mice and each movement of the magnet was registered via a sensor plate. For validation of the described method, the effects of sleep deprivation were evaluated by both the magnet and the EEG in parallel. Our results show that the data obtained via the subcutaneously implanted magnet represent a reliable and sensitive measurement of quantitative aspects of sleep-wake behaviour: spatial variation as well as stationary activities could be dissociated from sleep. Qualitative sleep characteristics were not detected. In summary, this minimum invasive method allows for the detection of quantitative alterations in sleep-wake behaviour in mice, thus, offering a useful, rapid pre-screen in animal sleep research.

  3. Movement Activity Based Classification of Animal Behaviour with an Application to Data from Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Grünewälder, Steffen; Broekhuis, Femke; Macdonald, David Whyte; Wilson, Alan Martin; McNutt, John Weldon; Shawe-Taylor, John; Hailes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary), creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be , but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail. PMID:23185301

  4. Movement activity based classification of animal behaviour with an application to data from cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Grünewälder, Steffen; Broekhuis, Femke; Macdonald, David Whyte; Wilson, Alan Martin; McNutt, John Weldon; Shawe-Taylor, John; Hailes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary), creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be 83%-94%, but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail.

  5. Changes in adolescents' intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and sedentary behaviour: Results at 8 month mid-way assessment of the HEIA study - a comprehensive, multi-component school-based randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inconsistent effects of school-based obesity prevention interventions may be related to how different subgroups receive them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intervention program, including fact sheets to parents and classroom components, on intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and screen time. Further, to explore whether potential effects and parental involvement varied by adolescents' gender, weight status (WS) and parental educational level. Methods In total, 1465 11-year-olds participated at the pre-test and the 8 month mid-way assessment of the HEIA study. Parents (n = 349) contributed with process evaluation data. Self-reported intake of SSB was collected from the 11-year-olds assessing frequency and amount, while time used on watching TV/DVD and computer/game-use (weekday and weekend day) were assed by frequency measures. Data on awareness of the intervention and dose received were collected from parents. Covariance analyses (ANCOVA) were conducted testing for effects by gender and for moderation by WS and parental education. Results Time spent on TV/DVD (week p = 0.001, weekend p = 0.03) and computer/game-use (week p = 0.004, weekend p <.001), and the intake of SSB during weekend days (p = 0.04), were significantly lower among girls in the intervention group compared to the control group girls after 8 months. Girls' WS did not moderate these findings. However, no significant effects of the intervention were found for boys, but moderation effects were found for WS (week days: TV/DVD, p = 0.03 and computer/games, p = 0.02). There were no moderating effects of parental education for neither boys nor girls with respect to intake of SSB, time used for watching TV/DVD and computer/game-use. Parental awareness of the intervention was significantly higher among the parents of girls, while the parents of boys were more satisfied with the fact sheets. Conclusions The preventive initiatives appeared to change behaviour in girls

  6. Heart rate measurement as a tool to quantify sedentary behavior.

    PubMed

    Åkerberg, Anna; Koshmak, Gregory; Johansson, Anders; Lindén, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary work is very common today. The aim of this pilot study was to attempt to differentiate between typical work situations and to investigate the possibility to break sedentary behavior, based on physiological measurement among office workers. Ten test persons used one heart rate based activity monitor (Linkura), one pulse oximeter device (Wrist) and one movement based activity wristband (Fitbit Flex), in different working situations. The results showed that both heart rate devices, Linkura and Wrist, were able to detect differences in heart rate between the different working situations (resting, sitting, standing, slow walk and medium fast walk). The movement based device, Fitbit Flex, was only able to separate differences in steps between slow walk and medium fast walk. It can be concluded that heart rate measurement is a promising tool for quantifying and separating different working situations, such as sitting, standing and walking.

  7. Executive function mediates prospective relationships between sleep duration and sedentary behavior in children.

    PubMed

    Warren, Christopher; Riggs, Nathaniel; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2016-10-01

    Childhood sedentary behavior has been linked to increased obesity risk. Prior work has identified associations between sedentary behavior, executive function (EF), and sleep. This study tested the hypothesis that reduced sleep duration may adversely impact EF and lead to increased childhood sedentary behavior. Southern California schoolchildren participating in the school-based health promotion program Pathways to Health (N=709) were assessed annually from 4th through 6th grades (2010-2013) on self-report measures of sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and executive function. A series of path models were specified treating average nightly sleep duration and weekend wake/bed-time shift at 4th grade as predictors of 6th grade sedentary behavior. Four EF subdomains were tested as potential mediators of longitudinal associations at 5th grade. Significant associations between average nightly sleep duration, EF and sedentary behavior were identified (p<0.05), adjusting for participant gender, physical activity, SES, ethnicity, program group assignment, and the presence/absence of parental screen time rules. Fifth grade overall EF (p<0.05)-and in particular the subdomains of inhibitory control (p<0.05) and organization of materials (p<0.01)-significantly mediated the relationship between 4th grade sleep duration and 6th grade sedentary behavior (p<0.05). Furthermore, delay of weekend bed- or wake-times relative to weekdays was prospectively associated with decreased overall EF (p<0.05), but not increased sedentary behavior (p=0.35 for bed-time delay; p=0.64 for wake-time delay), irrespective of average nightly sleep duration. Findings suggest that sleep promotion efforts may reduce children's sedentary behavior both directly and indirectly through changes in EF.

  8. Exercising choice: the economic determinants of physical activity behaviour of an employed population.

    PubMed

    Brown, Heather; Roberts, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    Lack of physical activity is a major contributing factor to the worldwide obesity epidemic, and to the overall burden of disease. The deindustrialisation of developed economies and move to more sedentary employment has impacted on the opportunities of working individuals to participate in physical activity. This can have negative effects on productivity and worker health potentially influencing economic growth. Thus, it is important to determine the factors influencing the frequency of participation in physical activity for employed individuals. This paper uses a modified time allocation framework to explore this issue. We use data from the first six waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia survey (HILDA). The analysis examines frequency of participation in physical activity using a generalised random effects ordered probit model. We control for non-parallel cut-points between the physical activity categories and individual heterogeneity, as well as exploring differences across gender. The results indicate that there is a time trade-off between non-market work, market work, and the frequency of physical activity participation. This effect is moderated by gender. For example, dependent children have a larger negative effect on the frequency of physical activity participation for women. Education and marriage have a larger negative effect on the frequency of participation for men. The findings suggests that policies which make exercise more convenient, and hence decrease the opportunity cost of exercise, will help to encourage more frequent participation in physical activity for working adults.

  9. Whole-brain mapping of behaviourally induced neural activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Vousden, Dulcie A; Epp, Jonathan; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Nieman, Brian J; van Eede, Matthijs; Dazai, Jun; Ragan, Timothy; Bito, Haruhiko; Frankland, Paul W; Lerch, Jason P; Henkelman, R Mark

    2015-07-01

    The ability to visualize behaviourally evoked neural activity patterns across the rodent brain is essential for understanding the distributed brain networks mediating particular behaviours. However, current imaging methods are limited in their spatial resolution and/or ability to obtain brain-wide coverage of functional activity. Here, we describe a new automated method for obtaining cellular-level, whole-brain maps of behaviourally induced neural activity in the mouse. This method combines the use of transgenic immediate-early gene reporter mice to visualize neural activity; serial two-photon tomography to image the entire brain at cellular resolution; advanced image processing algorithms to count the activated neurons and align the datasets to the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas; and statistical analysis to identify the network of activated brain regions evoked by behaviour. We demonstrate the use of this approach to determine the whole-brain networks activated during the retrieval of fear memories. Consistent with previous studies, we identified a large network of amygdalar, hippocampal, and neocortical brain regions implicated in fear memory retrieval. Our proposed methods can thus be used to map cellular networks involved in the expression of normal behaviours as well as to investigate in depth circuit dysfunction in mouse models of neurobiological disease.

  10. Dynamics of auditory cortical activity during behavioural engagement and auditory perception

    PubMed Central

    Carcea, Ioana; Insanally, Michele N.; Froemke, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Behavioural engagement can enhance sensory perception. However, the neuronal mechanisms by which behavioural states affect stimulus perception remain poorly understood. Here we record from single units in auditory cortex of rats performing a self-initiated go/no-go auditory task. Self-initiation transforms cortical tuning curves and bidirectionally modulates stimulus-evoked activity patterns and improves auditory detection and recognition. Trial self-initiation decreases the rate of spontaneous activity in the majority of recorded cells. Optogenetic disruption of cortical activity before and during tone presentation shows that these changes in evoked and spontaneous activity are important for sound perception. Thus, behavioural engagement can prepare cortical circuits for sensory processing by dynamically changing sound representation and by controlling the pattern of spontaneous activity. PMID:28176787

  11. Dynamics of auditory cortical activity during behavioural engagement and auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Carcea, Ioana; Insanally, Michele N; Froemke, Robert C

    2017-02-08

    Behavioural engagement can enhance sensory perception. However, the neuronal mechanisms by which behavioural states affect stimulus perception remain poorly understood. Here we record from single units in auditory cortex of rats performing a self-initiated go/no-go auditory task. Self-initiation transforms cortical tuning curves and bidirectionally modulates stimulus-evoked activity patterns and improves auditory detection and recognition. Trial self-initiation decreases the rate of spontaneous activity in the majority of recorded cells. Optogenetic disruption of cortical activity before and during tone presentation shows that these changes in evoked and spontaneous activity are important for sound perception. Thus, behavioural engagement can prepare cortical circuits for sensory processing by dynamically changing sound representation and by controlling the pattern of spontaneous activity.

  12. Patterns of Sedentary Behavior in US Middle-Age and Older Adults: The REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Keith M.; Howard, Virginia J.; Hutto, Brent; Colabianchi, Natalie; Vena, John E.; Blair, Steven N.; Hooker, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in a national cohort of U.S. middle-aged and older adults and determine factors that influence prolonged sedentary behavior. Methods We studied 8,096 participants from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a population-based study of black and white adults ≥45 years. Seven-day accelerometry was conducted. Prolonged sedentary behavior was defined as accumulating ≥50% of total sedentary time in bouts ≥30 min. Results The number of sedentary bouts ≥20, ≥30, ≥60, and ≥90 min were 8.8 ± 2.3, 5.5 ± 1.9, 1.9 ± 1.1, and 0.8 ± 0.7 bouts/day, respectively. Sedentary bouts ≥20, ≥30, ≥60, and ≥90 min accounted for 60.0 ± 13.9%, 48.0 ± 15.5%, 26.0 ± 15.4%, and 14.2 ± 12.9% of total sedentary time, respectively. Several factors were associated with prolonged sedentary behavior in multivariate-adjusted models (Odds Ratio [95% CI]): older age (65-74 years: 1.99 [1.55-2.57]; ≥75 years: 4.68 [3.61-6.07] vs. 45-54 years), male sex (1.41 [1.28-1.56] vs. female), residence in non-stroke belt/buckle region of U.S. (stroke belt: 0.87 [0.77-0.98]; stroke buckle: 0.86 [0.77-0.95] vs. non-belt/buckle), body mass index (BMI) (overweight: 1.33 [1.18-1.51]; obese: 2.15 [1.89-2.44] vs. normal weight), winter (1.18 [1.03-1.35] vs. summer), and low amounts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) [0 min/week: 2.00 [1.66-2.40] vs. ≥150 min/week). Conclusions In this sample of U.S. middle-aged and older adults, a large proportion of total sedentary time was accumulated in prolonged, uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behavior as almost one-half was accumulated in sedentary bouts ≥30 min. Several sociodemographic (age, sex, BMI), behavioral (MVPA), environmental (region), and seasonal factors are associated with patterns of prolonged sedentary behavior. PMID:26460633

  13. Disease prevention--should we target obesity or sedentary lifestyle?

    PubMed

    Charansonney, Olivier L; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2010-08-01

    Obesity is a major health challenge facing the modern world. Some evidence points to obesity itself as the main driver of premature mortality. We propose that this view is oversimplified. For example, high levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with lower mortality, even in those who are overweight or obese. To address this issue, we combine epidemiological and physiological evidence in a new paradigm that integrates excess calorie intake, sedentary behavior, and a maladaptive response to stress. Human physiology is optimized to allow large distances to be covered on foot every day in order to find enough food to sustain brain metabolism. Furthermore, when the body is immobilized by an injury, it triggers efficient life-saving metabolic and inflammatory responses. Both these critical adaptations are, however, confounded by a sedentary lifestyle. The implications of these issues for clinical trial design and epidemiologic data analysis are discussed in this article.

  14. Brain and behavioural evidence for rest-activity cycles in Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Brown, Euan R; Piscopo, Stefania; De Stefano, Rosanna; Giuditta, Antonio

    2006-09-25

    Octopus vulgaris maintained under a 12/12h light/dark cycle exhibit a pronounced nocturnal activity pattern. Animals deprived of rest during the light period show a marked 'rebound' in activity in the following 24h. 'Active' octopuses attack faster than 'quiet' animals and brain activity recorded electrically intensifies during 'quiet' behaviour. Thus, in Octopus as in vertebrates, brain areas involved in memory or 'higher' processes exhibit 'off-line' activity during rest periods.

  15. Pilot Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among Sedentary Urban Middle School Girls: A Two-Group Pretest-Posttest Quasi-Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; Lo, Yun-Jia; Wesolek, Stacey M.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether girls in one school receiving nurse counseling plus an after-school physical activity club showed greater improvement in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition than girls assigned to an attention control condition in another school (N = 69). Linear regressions…

  16. Health complaints among adolescents: Associations with more screen-based behaviours and less physical activity.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Calmeiro, Luís; Loureiro, Nuno; Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between screen-based behaviours, physical activity, and health complaints (headaches, feeling low, irritability, and nervousness). Screen-based behaviour included TV viewing, computer use, and time spent playing video games. Data were collected from 4462 Portuguese adolescents (2394 girls) aged 11-16 years. Girls who reported engaging in more screen-based behaviour (hours/day) also reported having more headaches, feeling lower, being more irritable, and feeling more nervous. Boys who reported more screen time were more irritable. Physical activity (times/week) was negatively associated with reports of feeling nervous among girls, and with headaches, feeling low, irritability, and feeling nervous among boys. Considering that time spent using the computer is related with more health complaints, and physical activity was related with fewer health complaints among boys, it is important to develop strategies to reduce adolescents' computer screen time, and to promote physical activity.