Science.gov

Sample records for activity sheets assessment

  1. Activity Sheets. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Power Company, Educational Services Dept., Charlotte, NC.

    This document consists of energy vocabulary activities, three games, worksheets, laboratory activities/exercises, and an introductory classroom exercise designed to introduce energy concepts to students. Vocabulary activities focus on coal and energy consumption. The three games (with instructions) focus on various aspects of energy and energy…

  2. Environmental Education Activity Sheets 1-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, Clifton F.; And Others

    These activity sheets, developed by personnel of the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Minnesota, were designed for youth group campers but may be used by other populations and individuals. Each activity sheet focuses on a separate topic: (1) Selecting Suitable Uses for Land, (2) Measuring the Steepness of Land, (3) Determining…

  3. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  4. Features of the Active Evening Plasma Sheet from MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Avanov, L. A.; Burch, J. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Ergun, R. E.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Lavraud, B.; MacDonald, E.; Mauk, B.; Mukai, T.; Nakamura, R.; Pollock, C. J.; Russell, C. T.; Saito, Y.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Yokota, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, consisting of four identical plasmas and fields observatories, was launched into a 12 RE elliptical equatorial orbit in March 2015 and was in the process of being commissioned through August 2015. During commissioning, the orbit apogee rotated from near midnight through the evening toward the dusk sector and occasionally captured new observations of the plasma sheet, its boundary layers, and the magnetospheric tail lobes. On 22-23 June, an especially active plasma sheet was involved in a major geospace storm that developed a ring current with 200 nT DST. We report on the ion kinetic and flow features of this active plasma sheet, comparing them with familiar observations from earlier missions, as an exercise in validating the MMS observations and assessing their capabilities to provide higher time resolution in multi-point views of thin, fast-moving structures. The observed features include but are not limited to cold lobal wind streams in the lobes, tailward flowing auroral beams and conics, hot earthward field-aligned flows and counter-flows, fast cross-field convection of some flows toward the neutral sheet, and the hot isotropic plasma sheet proper. Relationships between these features, the ionosphere, and the reconnecting magnetotail will be explored and discussed, seeking preliminary conclusions.

  5. Ice stream activity scaled to ice sheet volume during Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, C R; Margold, M; Clark, C D; Tarasov, L

    2016-02-18

    The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but--at the ice-sheet scale--their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. PMID:26887494

  6. Active volcanism beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet and implications for ice-sheet stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenship, D.D.; Bell, R.E.; Hodge, S.M.; Brozena, J.M.; Behrendt, John C.; Finn, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    IT is widely understood that the collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) would cause a global sea level rise of 6 m, yet there continues to be considerable debate about the detailed response of this ice sheet to climate change1-3. Because its bed is grounded well below sea level, the stability of the WAIS may depend on geologically controlled conditions at the base which are independent of climate. In particular, heat supplied to the base of the ice sheet could increase basal melting and thereby trigger ice streaming, by providing the water for a lubricating basal layer of till on which ice streams are thought to slide4,5. Ice streams act to protect the reservoir of slowly moving inland ice from exposure to oceanic degradation, thus enhancing ice-sheet stability. Here we present aerogeophysical evidence for active volcanism and associated elevated heat flow beneath the WAIS near the critical region where ice streaming begins. If this heat flow is indeed controlling ice-stream formation, then penetration of ocean waters inland of the thin hot crust of the active portion of the West Antarctic rift system could lead to the disappearance of ice streams, and possibly trigger a collapse of the inland ice reservoir.

  7. Career Orientation 7-8. Student Activity Sheets in Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, E. L.

    Activity sheets for seventh and eighth grade student use in economics are contained in this document. Activities are developed in the following areas: checking accounts, bank account applications, check writing, keeping a check register, using checks, budgets, insurance, responsibility and planning, consumer shopping, supermarkets, taxes, help…

  8. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  9. Analysis of methanogenic and methanotrophic activity at the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broemsen, E. L.; Webster, K. D.; Dieser, M.; Pratt, L. M.; Christner, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Anoxic conditions in environments beneath the world's glaciers and ice sheets provide plausible habitats supporting the microbial production of methane. Recent reports of potential methane sources beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) suggest in situ production by an active community of methanogens. Beneath the GrIS, microbially derived methane can be dissolved in subglacial water, and during periods of melting, can exchange with the atmosphere at sites of subglacial discharge. Transfer of methane from subglacial fluids to the atmosphere could be a significant climate factor, but few data are available to make such assessments. The specific aim of this study was to characterize the composition and activity of methanogens and methanotrophs present in samples of subglacial outflow at the ice sheet margin near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Subglaical water was collected twice-weekly over a nine week period (mid July to mid September of 2012) and the dissolved methane concentration in the samples was determined via gas chromatography. Extracted RNA and DNA from the subglacial water was analyzed by analysis of 16s rRNA and rRNA genes present in the subglacial assemblages. From the molecular results we infer the presence of active methanogens related to the order Methanosarcinales. Further, locally elevated concentrations of atmospheric methane as high as 1.92 ± 0.03 ppmv, were detected in the ice tunnel of the subglacial outflow using open-path laser spectrometry. From these data we estimate rates of methane release at the ice sheet margin during the summer melt months at this geographical location. The results provide a context for addressing the impact that deglaciation will have on the release of greenhouse gases from ice sheets on a warming Earth.

  10. Preliminary Solar Sail Design and Fabrication Assessment: Spinning Sail Blade, Square Sail Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, J. B.; Dowdle, D. M.; Hahn, D. W.; Hildreth, E. N.; Lagerquist, D. R.; Mahagnoul, E. J.; Munson, J. B.; Origer, T. F.

    1977-01-01

    The designs and fabrication methods, equipment, facilities, economics, and schedules, for the square sail sheet alternate are evaluated. The baseline for the spinning sail blade design and related fabrication issues are assessed.

  11. FACT SHEET: EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    March 29, 2005

    FACT SHEET: EPA's GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSE...

  12. Virus activity on the surface of glaciers and ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellas, C. M.; Anesio, A. M.; Telling, J.; Stibal, M.; Barker, G.; Tranter, M.; Yallop, M.; Cook, J.

    2012-12-01

    Viruses are found wherever there is life. They are major components of aquatic ecosystems and through interactions with their hosts they significantly alter global biogeochemical cycles and drive evolutionary processes. Here we focus on the interactions between bacteriophages and their hosts inhabiting the microbially dominated supraglacial ecosystems known as cryoconite holes. The diversity of phages present in the sediments of cryoconites was examined for the first time by using a molecular based approach to target the T4-type bacteriophage. Through phylogenetic analysis it was determined that the phage community was diverse, consisting of strains that grouped with those from other global habitats and those that formed several completely new T4-type phage clusters. The activity of the viral community present on glaciers from Svalbard and the Greenland Ice Sheet was also addressed through a series of incubation experiments. Here new virus production was found to be capable of turning over the viral population approximately twice a day, a rate comparable to marine and freshwater sediments around the globe. This large scale viral production was found to be theoretically capable of accounting for all heterotrophic bacterial mortality in cryoconite holes. The mode of infection that viruses employ in cryoconite holes was also addressed to show that a variety of viral life strategies are likely responsible for the continued dominance of viruses in these unique habitats. The implications of viral activity are discussed in terms of carbon cycling in supraglacial ecosystems.

  13. Sequential Folding using Light-activated Polystyrene Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yonghee; Lee, Hyeok; Hwang, Taesoon; Lee, Jong-Gu; Cho, Maenghyo

    2015-01-01

    A pre-strained polystyrene (PS) polymer sheet is deformed when it approaches the glass transition state as a result of light absorption. By controlling the light absorption of the polymer sheet, non-contact sequential folding can be accomplished. Line patterns of different transparencies and shapes are used to control the light absorption. The line pattern shape is closely related to the folding angle and folding start time. The relation between the line pattern design and folding performance was evaluated experimentally to develop a technique for folding PS sheets. The results show that sequential folding of PS sheets can be accomplished by changing the degree of transparency of the line pattern. Using the technique developed in this study, self-folding origami structures with complicated shapes can be designed and manufactured. PMID:26559611

  14. An Innovative Parallel Test Sheet Composition Approach to Meet Multiple Assessment Criteria for National Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Lin, Ji-Yu

    2008-01-01

    The national certification tests and entrance examinations are the most important tests for proving the ability or knowledge level of a person. To accurately evaluate the professional skills or knowledge level, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria such as the ratio of relevant concepts to be evaluated and the estimated…

  15. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Kashapova, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks.

  16. A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach to Composing Serial Test Sheets for Multiple Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chang, Kuang-Cheng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chan, Ying

    2006-01-01

    To accurately analyze the problems of students in learning, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria, such as the ratio of relevant concepts to be evaluated, the average discrimination degree, difficulty degree and estimated testing time. Furthermore, to precisely evaluate the improvement of student's learning performance…

  17. Assessing the Impact of Laurentide Ice-sheet Topography on Glacial Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, D. J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Carlson, A. E.; Anslow, F. S.; Licciardi, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of past climates require altered boundary conditions to account for known shifts in the Earth system. For the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and subsequent deglaciation, the existence of large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets caused profound changes in surface topography and albedo. While ice-sheet extent is fairly well known, numerous conflicting reconstructions of ice-sheet topography suggest that precision in this boundary condition is lacking. Here we use a high-resolution and oxygen-isotopeenabled fully coupled global circulation model (GCM) (GISS ModelE2-R), along with two different reconstructions of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) that provide maximum and minimum estimates of LIS elevation, to assess the range of climate variability in response to uncertainty in this boundary condition.We present this comparison at two equilibrium time slices: the LGM, when differences in ice-sheet topography are maximized, and 14 ka, when differences in maximum ice-sheet height are smaller but still exist. Overall, we find significant differences in the climate response to LIS topography, with the larger LIS resulting in enhanced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and warmer surface air temperatures, particularly over northeastern Asia and the North Pacific. These up- and downstream effects are associated with differences in the development of planetary waves in the upper atmosphere, with the larger LIS resulting in a weaker trough over northeastern Asia that leads to the warmer temperatures and decreased albedo from snow and sea-ice cover. Differences between the 14 ka simulations are similar in spatial extent but smaller in magnitude, suggesting that climate is responding primarily to the larger difference in maximum LIS elevation in the LGM simulations. These results suggest that such uncertainty in ice-sheet boundary conditions alone may significantly impact the results of paleoclimate simulations and their ability to successfully simulate past climates

  18. All about Me: Reproducible Activity Sheets To Develop Self-Esteem in Your Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomares, Susanna

    This document contains a set of reproducible activity sheets for teachers to use in enhancing the self-esteem of their students. Designed to supplement other approaches being used by teachers, the activities in this book can be used to infuse esteem-building activities into the core curriculum. The activities are organized around several…

  19. Assessing surface properties of the Greenland ice sheet from multi-sensor optical remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhermitte, Stef; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of the spatio-temporal variations in surface properties of the Greenland ice sheet provides valuable input for various applications ranging from energy and mass budget calculations to climate model validation. Within this context a variety of retrieval methods has been developed to assess surface properties from multi-spectral satellite sensors (e.g. Landsat, MODIS, …) . These methods range from multi-spectral classification to combined approaches that incorporate radiative transfer calculations. This study provides a quantitative analysis of the trade-offs between the state-of-the-art retrieval methodologies for assessing the surface properties of the Greenland ice sheet. Within this context, spatio-temporal patterns of surface properties (e.g., albedo, grain size, impurity load, ponding melt water, snow/ice classification) are derived from Landsat and MODIS reflectance data over the Greenland ice sheet from 2000 to present. The retrieved properties are subsequently compared and validated based on reference measurements. Analysis of the differences in derived surface properties from Landsat and MODIS reveals the importance of understanding the spatial and temporal scales at which variations occur. Large spatial variability within a MODIS pixel complicates the performance of retrieval methods for MODIS time series, especially in the ablation region, where the surface is very heterogeneous. Large temporal variability, on the other hand, constrains the validity of time series of Landsat retrievals and also has a large impact on the use of multi-day composite MODIS data.

  20. Litter Control Achievement - Ohio 4-H Club Score Sheet [and] Activity Guides 1 through 7. 4-H Pilot Program 918.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Seven activity guides, evaluation sheet, and club scoresheet have been prepared for Ohio 4-H clubs' litter education program. Topics of the seven activity guides include: (1) general guidelines and types of activities; (2) little known facts about waste/litter; (3) guidelines for a walking tour; (4) fact sheet (questionnaire) related to garbage;…

  1. Atomically-thin two-dimensional sheets for understanding active sites in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongfu; Gao, Shan; Lei, Fengcai; Xie, Yi

    2015-02-01

    Catalysis can speed up chemical reactions and it usually occurs on the low coordinated steps, edges, terraces, kinks and corner atoms that are often called "active sites". However, the atomic level interplay between active sites and catalytic activity is still an open question, owing to the large difference between idealized models and real catalysts. This stimulates us to pursue a suitable material model for studying the active sites-catalytic activity relationship, in which the atomically-thin two-dimensional sheets could serve as an ideal model, owing to their relatively simple type of active site and the ultrahigh fraction of active sites that are comparable to the overall atoms. In this tutorial review, we focus on the recent progress in disclosing the factors that affect the activity of reactive sites, including characterization of atomic coordination number, structural defects and disorder in ultrathin two-dimensional sheets by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, positron annihilation spectroscopy, electron spin resonance and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Also, we overview their applications in CO catalytic oxidation, photocatalytic water splitting, electrocatalytic oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions, and hence highlight the atomic level interplay among coordination number, structural defects/disorder, active sites and catalytic activity in the two-dimensional sheets with atomic thickness. Finally, we also present the major challenges and opportunities regarding the role of active sites in catalysis. We believe that this review provides critical insights for understanding the catalysis and hence helps to develop new catalysts with high catalytic activity. PMID:25382246

  2. An assessment of the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to future sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, M.; Melia, D. Salas y.

    2012-04-01

    We assess the order of magnitude of future sea level rise due to the melting of the Greenland ice sheet. To this end, we forced GRISLI ice sheet model (LGGE, France) with output from climate simulations run with CNRM-CM5 in the framework of CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5). GRISLI is a 3D thermo-mechanically coupled ice sheet model which mixes shallow ice approximation and shallow shelf approximation. The horizontal resolution is 15km. We use surface mass balance modeled by CNRM-CM5 as a top boundary conditions. CNRM-CM5 is a global coupled climate model developed by CNRM/CERFACS (France). This new global coupled climate model is based on the ocean-atmosphere core formed by the most up-to-date versions of NEMO and ARPEGE-Climat. Surface-atmosphere exchanges, sea ice and river routing are respectively represented by SURFEX v5, Gelato v5 and TRIP models. The atmospheric component of CNRM-CM5 has 31 vertical levels and a horizontal resolution of 1.4°, and the ocean has 42 levels and a horizontal resolution of 1°. GRISLI was forced with the output of a preindustrial simulation run with CNRM-CM5 in order to generate an initial state for the ice sheet that is in near-equilibrium with the preindustrial climate. Then, GRISLI was forced with CNRM-CM5 data from a 1850-2005 historical experiment. From 2006, several scenario experiments run with CNRM-CM5 were run: RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 over 2006-2300. We estimate the additional sea level rise over the whole 21st century. It should be noted that for the RCP8.5 scenario the melting rate of Greenland accelerates very rapidly after the 21st century, which results in almost total melting of Greenland ice sheet before year 2800. This acceleration phenomenon is probably amplified by topographic changes induced by the shrinking of the ice sheet.

  3. "Working." Student Activity Sheets for Selected Interviews Contained in "Working" by Studs Terkel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, David; And Others

    These student activity sheets are intended to accompany a vocational English program based on Studs Terkel's book, "Working," a collection of more than 100 interviews with people about their jobs. The 30 interviews selected for inclusion in the curriculum either illustrate occupations taught in the schools or deal with occupations related to those…

  4. NREL Develops Accelerated Sample Activation Process for Hydrogen Storage Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in developing a new sample activation process that reduces the time to prepare samples for measurement of hydrogen storage from several days to five minutes and provides more uniform samples. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  5. Teen Sexual Activity, Pregnancy and Childbearing among Latinos in the United States. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    The Latino population is the fastest-growing major racial/ethnic group in the United States. By 2020, approximately 16 percent of the population will be Latino. This increase will be even more pronounced among teens. This fact sheet summarizes data from the National Vital Statistics Reports on reported sexual activity, pregnancy rates, and…

  6. Are Adolescents Talking with Their Parents about Sex before Becoming Sexually Active? Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuschner, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines parent-child discussions of sexual behavior. It finds consistency in the timing and content of such discussions; however, many parents and children do not discuss key topics, such as birth control, before adolescents become sexually active. [This fact sheet is based on Megan K. Beckett, Marc N. Elliott, Steven Martino, David E.…

  7. An Investigation of the Use of Student Activity Sheets; Employer-Based Career Education. Technical Report No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfarth, John T.; And Others

    The report examines the use of student activity sheets in evaluating the performance of students in the Appalachia Educational Laboratory's Employer-Based Career Education (AEL/EBCE) program. All activity sheets completed during the second semester of 1972-73 for selected participants in the following subject areas were examined and are analyzed…

  8. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  9. Fe, O, and C Charge States Associated with Quiescent Versus Active Current Sheets in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Ko, Y.-K.; vonSteiger, R.

    2008-01-01

    Ulysses MAG data were used to locate the heliospheric current sheet in data from 1991 through 2006. The purpose was to characterize typical charge states for Fe, O, and C in the vicinity of the current sheet and provide insight into the physical sources for these charge states in the corona. A study of He/H around the current sheets has led to a clear distinction between quiescent current sheets at times of low solar activity and active current sheets associated with magnetic clouds (and, presumably, ICMES). It has been shown that high ionization state Fe is produced in the corona in current sheets associated with CMEs through spectroscopic observations of the corona and through in situ detection at Ulysses. Here we show that the ionization state of Fe is typically only enhanced around active current sheets while the ionization states of O and C are commonly enhanced around both quiescent and active current sheets. This is consistent with UV coronal spectroscopy, which has shown that reconnection in current sheets behind CMEs leads to high temperatures not typically seen above quiet streamers.

  10. Probabilistic framework for assessing the ice sheet contribution to sea level change

    PubMed Central

    Little, Christopher M.; Urban, Nathan M.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Previous sea level rise (SLR) assessments have excluded the potential for dynamic ice loss over much of Greenland and Antarctica, and recently proposed “upper bounds” on Antarctica’s 21st-century SLR contribution are derived principally from regions where present-day mass loss is concentrated (basin 15, or B15, drained largely by Pine Island, Thwaites, and Smith glaciers). Here, we present a probabilistic framework for assessing the ice sheet contribution to sea level change that explicitly accounts for mass balance uncertainty over an entire ice sheet. Applying this framework to Antarctica, we find that ongoing mass imbalances in non-B15 basins give an SLR contribution by 2100 that: (i) is comparable to projected changes in B15 discharge and Antarctica’s surface mass balance, and (ii) varies widely depending on the subset of basins and observational dataset used in projections. Increases in discharge uncertainty, or decreases in the exceedance probability used to define an upper bound, increase the fractional contribution of non-B15 basins; even weak spatial correlations in future discharge growth rates markedly enhance this sensitivity. Although these projections rely on poorly constrained statistical parameters, they may be updated with observations and/or models at many spatial scales, facilitating a more comprehensive account of uncertainty that, if implemented, will improve future assessments. PMID:23404697

  11. World War II Commemoration Committee: Fact Sheet and Suggested Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This packet suggests activities and events that school districts, schools, classes, and educational organizations can conduct to commemorate World War II. Suggestions are made to include local veterans, including those in veteran's and nursing homes and hospitals, and youth at every possible opportunity. Recognition can take the form of military…

  12. Assessing the links between Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance and Arctic climate using Climate Models and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Ruth; Rodehacke, Christian; Boberg, Fredrik; Langen, Peter; Sloth Madsen, Marianne; Høyer Svendsen, Synne; Yang, Shuting; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Olesen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Changes in different parts of the Arctic cryosphere may have knock-on effects on other parts of the system. The fully coupled climate model EC-Earth, which includes the ice sheet model PISM, is a useful tool to examine interactions between sea ice, ice sheet, ocean and atmosphere. Here we present results from EC-Earth experimental simulations that show including an interactive ice sheet model changes ocean circulation, sea ice extent and regional climate with, for example, a dampening of the expected increase in Arctic temperatures under the RCP scenarios when compared with uncoupled experiments. However, the relatively coarse resolution of the climate model likely influences the calculated surface mass balance forcing applied to the ice sheet model and it is important therefore to evaluate the model performance over the ice sheet. Here, we assess the quality of the climate forcing from the GCM to the ice sheet model by comparing the energy balance and surface mass balance (SMB) output from EC-Earth with that from a regional climate model (RCM) run at very high resolution (0.05 degrees) over Greenland. The RCM, HIRHAM5, has been evaluated over a wide range of climate parameters for Greenland which allows us to be confident it gives a representative climate forcing for the Greenland ice sheet. To evaluate the internal variability in the climate forcing, we compare simulations from HIRHAM5 forced with both the EC-Earth historical emissions and the ERA-Interim reanalysis on the boundaries. The EC-Earth-PISM RCP8.5 scenario is also compared with an EC-Earth run without an ice sheet to assess the impact of an interactive ice sheet on likely future changes. To account for the resolution difference between the models we downscale both EC-Earth and HIRHAM5 simulations with a simple offline energy balance model (EBM).

  13. Antibacterial activity of two-dimensional MoS2 sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi; Li, Jie; Liang, Tao; Ma, Chunyan; Zhang, Yingying; Chen, Hongzheng; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Su, Huanxing; Xu, Mingsheng

    2014-08-01

    Graphene-like two-dimensional materials (2DMats) show application potential in optoelectronics and biomedicine due to their unique properties. However, environmental and biological influences of these 2DMats remain to be unveiled. Here we reported the antibacterial activity of two-dimensional (2D) chemically exfoliated MoS2 (ce-MoS2) sheets. We found that the antibacterial activity of ce-MoS2 sheets was much more potent than that of the raw MoS2 powders used for the synthesis of ce-MoS2 sheets possibly due to the 2D planar structure (high specific surface area) and higher conductivity of the ce-MoS2. We investigated the antibacterial mechanisms of the ce-MoS2 sheets and proposed their antibacterial pathways. We found that the ce-MoS2 sheets could produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), different from a previous report on graphene-based materials. Particularly, the oxidation capacity of the ce-MoS2 sheets toward glutathione oxidation showed a time and concentration dependent trend, which is fully consistent with the antibacterial behaviour of the ce-MoS2 sheets. The results suggest that antimicrobial behaviors were attributable to both membrane and oxidation stress. The antibacterial pathways include MoS2-bacteria contact induced membrane stress, superoxide anion (O2&z.rad;-) induced ROS production by the ce-MoS2, and the ensuing superoxide anion-independent oxidation. Our study thus indicates that the tailoring of the dimension of nanomaterials and their electronic properties would manipulate antibacterial activity.Graphene-like two-dimensional materials (2DMats) show application potential in optoelectronics and biomedicine due to their unique properties. However, environmental and biological influences of these 2DMats remain to be unveiled. Here we reported the antibacterial activity of two-dimensional (2D) chemically exfoliated MoS2 (ce-MoS2) sheets. We found that the antibacterial activity of ce-MoS2 sheets was much more potent than that of the raw MoS2 powders

  14. Assessing the Extent of Influence Subglacial Hydrology Has on Dynamic Ice Sheet Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babonis, G. S.; Csatho, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    for generating potentiometric maps for each region of interest. Using these potentiometric maps, along with surficial DEMs, supra- and subglacial routing paths, as well as potential sites for discrete supraglacial hydrologic input sources are identified. Comparison of hydrologic drainage networks with the spatial distribution of recent rapid dynamic changes detected by altimetry allows for the assessment of the extent of influence that subglacial hydrology has on ice sheet behavior.

  15. Energy assessment: physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity is an important component of total energy expenditure, contributing to energy intake needs; it also provides certain health benefits. This review chapter provides state-of-the-art information to researchers and clinicians who are interested in developing research studies or interv...

  16. The hot blow forming of AZ31 Mg sheet: Formability assessment and application development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Jon T.; Krajewski, Paul E.; Verma, Ravi

    2008-11-01

    The hot blow forming of magnesium sheet offers significant opportunity for forming complex, lightweight parts for automotive applications. This paper characterizes the elevated-temperature formability of AZ31 magnesium sheet materials and the effect of processing conditions on the performance of these materials. In addition, magnesium sheet application development at General Motors Corporation is reviewed.

  17. Athena: Assessment Phase Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, David; Ayre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The Athena mission concept has been proposed by the community in response to science themes of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Unlike other, competitive, mission selection exercises this "Large" class observatory mission has essentially been pre-selected. Nevertheless it has to be demonstrated that Athena meets the programmatic constraints of 1Bn euro cost cap, and a readiness level appropriate for formal mission adoption by the end 2019. This should be confirmed through a Phase A study conducted with two parallel industry activities. We describe the technical and programmatic content of these and latest progress in space and ground segment definition.

  18. Active current sheets and hot flow anomalies in Mercury's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uritsky, V. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Sundberg, T.; Raines, J. M.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2012-12-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) represent a subset of heliospheric current sheets interacting with planetary bow shocks. They are typically formed when the normal component of the motional (convective) electric field is directed toward the embedded current sheet on at least one side. The core region of an HFA contains hot and highly deflected ion flows and rather low and turbulent magnetic field. In this talk, we report the first observations of HFA-like events at Mercury. Using the data from the orbital phase of the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, we identify a representative ensemble of active current sheets magnetically connected to Mercury's bow shock. We show that some of these events exhibit unambiguous signatures of HFAs similar to those observed at other planets, and present their key physical characteristics. Our analysis suggests that Mercury's bow shock does not only mediate the flow of supersonic solar wind plasma but also provides conditions for local particle acceleration and heating as predicted by previous numerical simulations. Together with earlier studies of HFA activity at Earth, Venus, and Saturn, our results confirm that hot flow anomalies could be a common property of planetary bow shocks.

  19. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Harris, J.J.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. The WMAC team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts. Foundry operations include mixing and mold formation, core making, metal pouring, shakeout, finishing, and painting. Cutting, shaping, and welding are the principal metal fabrication operations. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations indicated that paint-related wastes are generated in large quantities, and that significant waste reduction and cost savings could be realized by installing a dry powder coating system or by replacing conventional air spray paint guns with high-volume low-pressure spray guns. This research brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  20. Development of the dementia assessment sheet for community-based integrated care system.

    PubMed

    Awata, Shuichi; Sugiyama, Mika; Ito, Kae; Ura, Chiaki; Miyamae, Fumiko; Sakuma, Naoko; Niikawa, Hirotoshi; Okamura, Tsuyoshi; Inagaki, Hiroki; Ijuin, Mutsuo

    2016-03-01

    A series of our studies on the development of the Dementia Assessment Sheet for Community-based Integrated Care System 21-items (DASC-21) were reviewed. Study 1: to examine the distribution of scores and internal reliability of DASC-21, trained nurses and researchers visited the homes of 1341 participants aged 65 years and older and living in the community. The nurses interviewed the participants and, when possible, their family members, to complete the DASC-21. Then, the Mini-Mental State Examination was carried out to select the participants of study 2. Study 2: to examine the concurrent and discriminant validity, experienced psychiatrists and psychologists, who were blind to the findings of study 1, visited the homes of 131 subjects who were selected from the participants of study 1 and completed the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). Cronbach's coefficient alpha of the DASC-21 was 0.808-0.950. Scores of the DASC-21 significantly correlated with CDR total and box scores, Mini-Mental State Examination and Frontal Assessment Battery. In an analysis of variance, CDR had the main effect on the score of the DASC-21. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the DASC-21 had sufficient discriminatory ability between dementia (CDR1+) and non-dementia (CDR0 or CDR0.5; area under the curve = 0.804-0.895). When using a cut-off point of 30/31, sensitivity was 83.3-94.1% and specificity was 77.3-86.4%. The DASC-21 has sufficient reliability and validity as a tool to evaluate impairments in daily functioning and in cognitive functions, to detect dementia, and to assess the severity of dementia in the community. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16 (Suppl. 1): 123-131. PMID:27018290

  1. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Electrothermal Swing Adsorption of Air Emissions from Sheet-Foam Production Compared to Conventional Abatement Techniques.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, David L; Emamipour, Hamidreza; Guest, Jeremy S; Rood, Mark J

    2016-02-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis are presented comparing the environmental and economic impacts of using regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO), granular activated carbon (GAC), and activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) systems to treat gaseous emissions from sheet-foam production. The ACFC system has the lowest operational energy consumption (i.e., 19.2, 8.7, and 3.4 TJ/year at a full-scale facility for RTO, GAC, and ACFC systems, respectively). The GAC system has the smallest environmental impacts across most impact categories for the use of electricity from select states in the United States that produce sheet foam. Monte Carlo simulations indicate the GAC and ACFC systems perform similarly (within one standard deviation) for seven of nine environmental impact categories considered and have lower impacts than the RTO for every category for the use of natural gas to produce electricity. The GAC and ACFC systems recover adequate isobutane to pay for themselves through chemical-consumption offsets, whereas the net present value of the RTO is $4.1 M (20 years, $0.001/m(3) treated). The adsorption systems are more environmentally and economically competitive than the RTO due to recovered isobutane for the production process and are recommended for resource recovery from (and treatment of) sheet-foam-production exhaust gas. Research targets for these adsorption systems should focus on increasing adsorptive capacity and saturation of GAC systems and decreasing electricity and N2 consumption of ACFC systems. PMID:26727459

  2. Active current sheets and candidate hot flow anomalies upstream of Mercury's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uritsky, V. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Sundberg, T.; Raines, J. M.; Gershman, D. J.; Collinson, G.; Sibeck, D.; Khazanov, G. V.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2014-02-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) represent a subset of solar wind discontinuities interacting with collisionless bow shocks. They are typically formed when the normal component of the motional (convective) electric field points toward the embedded current sheet on at least one of its sides. The core region of an HFA contains hot and highly deflected ion flows and rather low and turbulent magnetic field. In this paper, we report observations of possible HFA-like events at Mercury identified over a course of two planetary years. Using data from the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission, we identify a representative ensemble of active current sheets magnetically connected to Mercury's bow shock. We show that some of these events exhibit magnetic and particle signatures of HFAs similar to those observed at other planets, and present their key physical characteristics. Our analysis suggests that Mercury's bow shock does not only mediate the flow of supersonic solar wind plasma but also provides conditions for local particle acceleration and heating as predicted by previous numerical simulations. Together with earlier observations of HFA activity at Earth, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, our results confirm that hot flow anomalies could be a common property of planetary bow shocks and show that the characteristic size of these events is controlled by the bow shock standoff distance and/or local solar wind conditions.

  3. Evaluation of a hyperspectral scanner allowing for deterioration status assessment of asbestos-cement roofing sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascucci, Simone; Bassani, Cristiana; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Palombo, Angelo

    2007-10-01

    Aim of this study is the identification of the hyperspectral scanner operational characteristics allowing for asbestos cement (AC) roofing sheets deterioration status assessment that is related to the asbestos fibers abundance. At this purpose we made laboratory measurements on AC samples with different deterioration status collected in two industrial areas in Italy. The asbestos occurrence in the AC samples was recognized using XRD and FTIR instruments and the abundance of surfacing asbestos fibers was performed by using a high resolution scanner (SEM). The samples optical characteristics and the directional effects that can affect the AC samples were analyzed using a portable field spectrometer (ASD). The results of the ASD measurements (i.e. band-depth ratio of the continuum removed calculated for the asbestos diagnostic band at 2.32μm) were related to the relative percentage of surfacing asbestos fibers (i.e. the AC deterioration status). Since laboratory measurements confirmed that optical measurements are sensitive to variations in asbestos fiber abundance, detection limit analysis was used for defining the requirements (signal-to-noise ratio, band FWHM, and sampling range) of an optimal hyperspectral sensor most suitable for detecting the diagnostic asbestos absorption features.

  4. Airborne Laser Altimetry Mapping of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Application to Mass Balance Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalati, W.; Krabill, W.; Frederick, E.; Manizade, S.; Martin, C.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Thomas, R.; Wright, W.; Yungel, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 and '99, the Arctic Ice Mapping (AIM) program completed resurveys of lines occupied 5 years earlier revealing elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet and identifying areas of significant thinning, thickening and balance. In planning these surveys, consideration had to be given to the spatial constraints associated with aircraft operation, the spatial nature of ice sheet behavior, and limited resources, as well as temporal issues, such as seasonal and interannual variability in the context of measurement accuracy. This paper examines the extent to which the sampling and survey strategy is valid for drawing conclusions on the current state of balance of the Greenland ice sheet. The surveys covered the entire ice sheet with an average distance of 21.4 km between each location on the ice sheet and the nearest flight line. For most of the ice sheet, the elevation changes show relatively little spatial variability, and their magnitudes are significantly smaller than the observed elevation change signal. As a result, we conclude that the density of the sampling and the accuracy of the measurements are sufficient to draw meaningful conclusions on the state of balance of the entire ice sheet over the five-year survey period. Outlet glaciers, however, show far more spatial and temporal variability, and each of the major ones is likely to require individual surveys in order to determine its balance.

  5. Method and apparatus for assessing material properties of sheet-like materials

    DOEpatents

    Telschow, Kenneth L.; Deason, Vance A.

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus for producing an indication of a material property of a sheet-like material according to the present invention may comprise an excitation source for vibrating the sheet-like material to produce at least one traveling wave therein. A light source configured to produce an object wavefront and a reference wavefront directs the object wavefront toward the sheet-like material to produce a modulated object wavefront. A modulator operatively associated with the reference wavefront modulates the reference wavefront in synchronization with the traveling wave on the sheet-like material to produce a modulated reference wavefront. A sensing medium positioned to receive the modulated object wavefront and the modulated reference wavefront produces an image of the traveling wave in the sheet-like material, the image of the anti-symmetric traveling wave being related to a displacement amplitude of the anti-symmetric traveling wave over a two-dimensional area of the vibrating sheet-like material. A detector detects the image of the traveling wave in the sheet-like material.

  6. Assessment of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Estimates: 1992 - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.

    2011-01-01

    Published mass balance estimates for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) lie between approximately +50 to -250 Gt/year for 1992 to 2009, which span a range equivalent to 15% of the annual mass input and 0.8 mm/year Sea Level Equivalent (SLE). Two estimates from radar-altimeter measurements of elevation change by European Remote-sensing Satellites (ERS) (+28 and -31 Gt/year) lie in the upper part, whereas estimates from the Input-minus-Output Method (IOM) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) lie in the lower part (-40 to -246 Gt/year). We compare the various estimates, discuss the methodology used, and critically assess the results. Although recent reports of large and accelerating rates of mass loss from GRACE=based studies cite agreement with IOM results, our evaluation does not support that conclusion. We find that the extrapolation used in the published IOM estimates for the 15 % of the periphery for which discharge velocities are not observed gives twice the rate of discharge per unit of associated ice-sheet area than the 85% faster-moving parts. Our calculations show that the published extrapolation overestimates the ice discharge by 282 Gt/yr compared to our assumption that the slower moving areas have 70% as much discharge per area as the faster moving parts. Also, published data on the time-series of discharge velocities and accumulation/precipitation do not support mass output increases or input decreases with time, respectively. Our modified IOM estimate, using the 70% discharge assumption and substituting input from a field-data compilation for input from an atmospheric model over 6% of area, gives a loss of only 13 Gt/year (versus 136 Gt/year) for the period around 2000. Two ERS-based estimates, our modified IOM, and a GRACE-based estimate for observations within 1992 to 2005 lie in a narrowed range of +27 to - 40 Gt/year, which is about 3% of the annual mass input and only 0.2 mm/year SLE. Our preferred estimate for 1992-2001 is - 47 Gt

  7. Assessing change in mouthguard thickness according to the thickness of the original mouthguard sheet.

    PubMed

    Mizuhashi, Fumi; Koide, Kaoru; Takahashi, Mutsumi

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in thickness and differences in rate of change of mouthguard thickness according to the thickness of the original sheet used to form the mouthguard. The material used in this study was Sports Mouthguard (3.0, 3.8, and 5.0 mm thicknesses, ethylene vinyl acetate sheet). The sheets were heated until they hung 15 mm from the baseline and were then vacuum formed. The thickness of the mouthguard was measured, and the rate of change of thickness was calculated. The differences in thickness and rate of change of thickness at the labial surface of the central incisor and buccal surface of the first molar according to the thickness of sheet were analyzed by one-way anova, and that of the occlusal surface of the first molar was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. The results showed that the thickness of mouthguard increased as the thickness of sheet increased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The thickness of the sheet did not affect the rate of change of thickness at the central incisor and occlusal surface of the first molar. Adequate thickness could be obtained using the original sheet with a thickness >3.8 mm at the buccal surface of the first molar and >3.0 mm at the occlusal surface of the first molar. At the central incisor, the necessary thickness of the original sheet was calculated as 5.6 mm. These results would be useful for selecting the appropriate mouthguard sheet material. PMID:24890333

  8. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  9. Overview and Assessment of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Estimates: 1992-2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.

    2011-01-01

    Mass balance estimates for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) in the 2007 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and in more recent reports lie between approximately ?50 to -250 Gt/year for 1992 to 2009. The 300 Gt/year range is approximately 15% of the annual mass input and 0.8 mm/year Sea Level Equivalent (SLE). Two estimates from radar altimeter measurements of elevation change by European Remote-sensing Satellites (ERS) (?28 and -31 Gt/year) lie in the upper part, whereas estimates from the Input-minus-Output Method (IOM) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) lie in the lower part (-40 to -246 Gt/year). We compare the various estimates, discuss the methodology used, and critically assess the results. We also modify the IOM estimate using (1) an alternate extrapolation to estimate the discharge from the non-observed 15% of the periphery, and (2) substitution of input from a field data compilation for input from an atmospheric model in 6% of area. The modified IOM estimate reduces the loss from 136 Gt/year to 13 Gt/year. Two ERS-based estimates, the modified IOM, and a GRACE-based estimate for observations within 1992 2005 lie in a narrowed range of ?27 to -40 Gt/year, which is about 3% of the annual mass input and only 0.2 mm/year SLE. Our preferred estimate for 1992 2001 is -47 Gt/year for West Antarctica, ?16 Gt/year for East Antarctica, and -31 Gt/year overall (?0.1 mm/year SLE), not including part of the Antarctic Peninsula (1.07% of the AIS area). Although recent reports of large and increasing rates of mass loss with time from GRACE-based studies cite agreement with IOM results, our evaluation does not support that conclusion

  10. Network formation through active migration of human vascular endothelial cells in a multilayered skeletal myoblast sheet.

    PubMed

    Nagamori, Eiji; Ngo, Trung Xuan; Takezawa, Yasunori; Saito, Atsuhiro; Sawa, Yoshiki; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo; Taya, Masahito; Kino-oka, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Autologous transplantation of myoblast sheet has attracted attention as a new technique for curing myocardial infarction. Myoblast sheet has the ability to secret cytokines that improve heart function via the facilitation of angiogenesis on affected part. To mimic the in vivo angiogenesis in the myoblast sheet after transplantation, a five-layered cell sheet of human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMMs) was overlaid on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which enables evaluation of dynamic HUVEC behavior. HUVECs existing initially at the bottom of the sheet changed to be a stretched shape and migrated upward compared with the surrounding HSMMs in the sheet. Prolonged incubation resulted in network formation of HUVECs in the middle of the sheet, although non-networked HUVECs continued to migrate to the top of the sheet, which meant the spatial habitation of HUVECs in the cell sheet. Image processing was performed to determine the variation in the extent of network formation at different HUVEC densities. It was found that the extent of formed network depended on the frequency of encounters among HUVECs in the middle of the sheet. The present system, which can evaluate network formation, is considered to be a promising in vitro angiogenesis model. PMID:23117213

  11. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  12. A data sheet for the simultaneous assessment of dual radioactive tracer uptake in the heart.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The myocardium takes up two major substrates: glucose and fatty acids, and various methods have been used to evaluate this uptake. Despite extensive study of radiotracer uptake-based methods, however, an easily applicable datasheet has not previously been provided. In this manuscript, an example of a method involving an easily modified data sheet based on dual tracer methods is presented. This method, with its data sheet: •Is applicable to all radiotracers, regardless of decay time•Is useful, simple, and modifiable; and•Is applicable to small animal studies. PMID:27114927

  13. A data sheet for the simultaneous assessment of dual radioactive tracer uptake in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The myocardium takes up two major substrates: glucose and fatty acids, and various methods have been used to evaluate this uptake. Despite extensive study of radiotracer uptake-based methods, however, an easily applicable datasheet has not previously been provided. In this manuscript, an example of a method involving an easily modified data sheet based on dual tracer methods is presented. This method, with its data sheet: • Is applicable to all radiotracers, regardless of decay time • Is useful, simple, and modifiable; and • Is applicable to small animal studies. PMID:27114927

  14. ASYMMETRIC SUNSPOT ACTIVITY AND THE SOUTHWARD DISPLACEMENT OF THE HELIOSPHERIC CURRENT SHEET

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-M.; Robbrecht, E. E-mail: eva.robbrecht@oma.be

    2011-08-01

    Observations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have suggested a statistical tendency for the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) to be shifted a few degrees southward of the heliographic equator during the period 1965-2010, particularly in the years near sunspot minimum. Using potential-field source-surface extrapolations and photospheric flux-transport simulations, we demonstrate that this southward displacement follows from Joy's law and the observed hemispheric asymmetry in the sunspot numbers, with activity being stronger in the southern (northern) hemisphere during the declining (rising) phase of cycles 20-23. The hemispheric asymmetry gives rise to an axisymmetric quadrupole field, whose equatorial zone has the sign of the leading-polarity flux in the dominant hemisphere; during the last four cycles, the polarity of the IMF around the equator thus tended to match that of the north polar field both before and after polar field reversal. However, large fluctuations are introduced by the nonaxisymmetric field components, which depend on the longitudinal distribution of sunspot activity in either hemisphere. Consistent with this model, the HCS showed an average northward displacement during cycle 19, when the 'usual' alternation was reversed and the northern hemisphere became far more active than the southern hemisphere during the declining phase of the cycle. We propose a new method for determining the north-south displacement of the HCS from coronal streamer observations.

  15. The heliospheric sheet configuration according to the coronal ray synoptic maps in solar activity cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, S. A.; Fat'yanov, M. P.; Shramko, A. D.

    2015-05-01

    Two catalogs of coronal ray synoptic maps for different altitudes (1.5-5 R ⊙) for solar activity cycles 23 and 24 (1996-2013) were compiled based on a proposed technique with the data from the SOHO space observatory LASCO C2 coronograph and the Mauna-Loa observatory Mark-IV K coronometer. The constructed synoptic maps of coronal rays represent an image of three-dimensional spherical sections of the heliospheric neutral sheet expanded along the heliographic longitude. The evolution of different heliospheric sheet spatial parameters during the analyzed period was studied based on the obtained maps.

  16. Technology Assessment: Strategic Energy Analysis Center (SEAC) 2012 Highlights (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-02-01

    This fact sheet lists key analysis products produced by NREL in 2012. Like all NREL analysis products, these aim to increase the understanding of the current and future interactions and roles of energy policies, markets, resources, technologies, environmental impacts, and infrastructure. NREL analysis, data, and tools inform decisions as energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies advance from concept to commercial application.

  17. Anti-adhesion and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles supported on graphene oxide sheets.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Andreia Fonseca; Martinez, Diego Stéfani Teodoro; Meira, Stela Maris Meister; de Moraes, Ana Carolina Mazarin; Brandelli, Adriano; Filho, Antonio Gomes Souza; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This work reports on the preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of a nanocomposite formed from graphene oxide (GO) sheets decorated with silver nanoparticles (GO-Ag). The GO-Ag nanocomposite was prepared in the presence of AgNO3 and sodium citrate. The physicochemical characterization was performed by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average size of the silver nanoparticles anchored on the GO surface was 7.5 nm. Oxidation debris fragments (a byproduct adsorbed on the GO surface) were found to be crucial for the nucleation and growth of the silver nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of the GO and GO-Ag nanocomposite against the microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated using the standard counting plate methodology. The GO dispersion showed no antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa over the concentration range investigated. On the other hand, the GO-Ag nanocomposite displayed high biocidal activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 2.5 to 5.0 μg/mL. The anti-biofilm activity toward P. aeruginosa adhered on stainless steel surfaces was also investigated. The results showed a 100% inhibition rate of the adhered cells after exposure to the GO-Ag nanocomposite for one hour. To the best of our knowledge, this work provides the first direct evidence that GO-Ag nanocomposites can inhibit the growth of microbial adhered cells, thus preventing the process of biofilm formation. These promising results support the idea that GO-Ag nanocomposites may be applied as antibacterial coatings material to prevent the development of biofilms in food packaging and medical devices. PMID:24060936

  18. Seismicity on the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface fracture in the vicinity of active moulins

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Joughin, Ian; Behn, Mark D.; Das, Sarah; King, Matt A.; Stevens, Laura; Lizarralde, Dan

    2015-06-25

    We analyzed geophone and GPS measurements collected within the ablation zone of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during a ~35 day period of the 2011 melt season to study changes in ice deformation before, during, and after a supraglacial lake drainage event. During rapid lake drainage, ice flow speeds increased to ~400% of winter values, and icequake activity peaked. At times >7 days after drainage, this seismicity developed variability over both diurnal and longer periods (~10 days), while coincident ice speeds fell to ~150% of winter values and showed nightly peaks in spatial variability. Approximately 95% of all detected seismicity in the lake basin and its immediate vicinity was triggered by fracture propagation within near-surface ice (<330 m deep) that generated Rayleigh waves. Icequakes occurring before and during drainage frequently were collocated with the down flow (west) end of the primary hydrofracture through which the lake drained but shifted farther west and outside the lake basin after the drainage. We interpret these results to reveal vertical hydrofracture opening and local uplift during the drainage, followed by enhanced seismicity and ice flow on the downstream side of the lake basin. This region collocates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar-measured speedup in previous years and could reflect the migration path of the meltwater supplied to the bed by the lake. The diurnal seismic signal can be associated with nightly reductions in surface melt input that increase effective basal pressure and traction, thereby promoting elevated strain in the surficial ice.

  19. Field-Aligned Current Sheet Motion and Its Correlation with Solar Wind Conditions and Geomagnetic Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Le, G.; Boardsen, S. A.; Slavin, J. A.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2008-05-01

    Field-aligned currents (FACs) are the currents flowing into and out of the ionosphere which connect to the magnetosphere. They provide an essential linkage between the solar wind - magnetosphere system and the ionosphere, and the understanding of these currents is important for global magnetosphere dynamics and space weather prediction. The three spacecraft ST-5 constellation provides an unprecedented opportunity to study in situ FAC dynamics in time scales (10 sec to 10 min) that can not be achieved previously with single spacecraft studies or large-spaced conjugate spacecraft studies. In this study, we use the magnetic field observations during the whole ST-5 mission and their corresponding solar wind conditions to study the dependence of FAC current sheet motion and intensity on solar wind conditions. FAC peak current densities show very good correlations with some solar wind parameters, including IMF Bz, dynamic pressure, Ey, and some IMF angles, but not with other parameters. Instant FAC speeds show generally much weaker dependence on solar wind conditions comparing to FAC peak current densities. This obvious uncorrelation between FAC peak current densities and speeds implies that FAC peak current densities are more consistently controlled by solar wind conditions and geomagnetic activities, while FAC speeds are more oscillatory, sometimes with higher speeds during quieter times and lower speeds during more turbulent times.

  20. Anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets on graphene sheets via molecular grafting for enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhou, Yunchun; Liu, Li

    2012-01-21

    Owing to their extensive practical applications and fundamental importance, the controllable synthesis of well-faceted anatase TiO(2) crystal with high percentage of reactive facets has attracted increasing attention. Here, nano-sized anatase TiO(2) sheets mainly dominated by {001} facets had been prepared on graphene sheets by using a facile solvothermal synthetic route. The percentage of {001} facets in TiO(2) nanosheets was calculated to be ca. 64%. The morphologies, structural properties, growth procedures and photocatalytic activities of the resultant TiO(2)/graphene nanocomposites were investigated. In comparison with commercial P25 and pure TiO(2) nanosheets, the composite exhibited significant improvement in photocatalytic degradation of the azo dye Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity and stability was attributed to the effective charge anti-recombination of graphene and the high catalytic activity of {001} facets. PMID:22159272

  1. [The influence of anodizing conditions on the activity of urease immobilized to anodized sheet aluminium (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Grunwald, P; Grunsser, W; Pfaff, K P; Krause, R; Lutz, K

    1980-01-01

    The activity of urease immobilized by adsorption on anodized sheet aluminium strongly depends on the method chosen for preparation of these carriers. If oxalic acid is applied as electrolyte, only the anodizing temperature significantly influences the activity of the preparations. In case of the well-known GS process, however, the activity is not only affected by the temperature, but also by other conditions of anodizing, for example the current density and the electrolyte concentration. For both methods the correlation between the topography of the carrier surfaces and the activity of enzyme immobilized to the surface is described. PMID:7445681

  2. Assessing the imaging performance of light sheet microscopies in highly scattering tissues.

    PubMed

    Glaser, A K; Wang, Y; Liu, J T C

    2016-02-01

    Light sheet microscopy (LSM) has emerged as an optical-imaging method for high spatiotemporal volumetric imaging of relatively transparent samples. While this capability has allowed the technique to be highly impactful in fields such as developmental biology, applications involving highly scattering thick tissues have been largely unexplored. Herein, we employ Monte Carlo simulations to explore the use of LSM for imaging turbid media. In particular, due to its similarity to dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopy, we compare LSM performance to point-scanned (PS-DAC) and line-scanned (LS-DAC) dual-axis confocal microscopy techniques that have been previously shown to produce high-quality images at round-trip optical lengths of ~9 - 10 and ~3 - 4 respectively. The results of this study indicate that LSM using widefield collection (WF-LSM) provides comparable performance to LS-DAC in thick tissues, due to the fact that they both utilize an illumination beam focused in one dimension (i.e. a line or sheet). On the other hand, LSM using confocal line detection (CL-LSM) is more analogous to PS-DAC microscopy, in which the illumination beam is focused in two dimensions to a point. The imaging depth of LSM is only slightly inferior to DAC (~2 - 3 and ~6 - 7 optical lengths for WF-LSM and CL-LSM respectively) due to the use of a lower numerical aperture (NA) illumination beam for extended imaging along the illumination axis. Therefore, we conclude that the ability to image deeply is dictated most by the confocality of the microscope technique. In addition, we find that imaging resolution is mostly dependent on the collection NA, and is relatively invariant to imaging depth in a homogeneous scattering medium. Our results indicate that superficial imaging of highly scattering tissues using light sheet microscopy is possible. PMID:26977355

  3. Electromagnetic Scattering Model Performance Assessment of the Global Ice Sheet Mapping Orbiter Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niamsuwan, N.; Johnson, J. T.; Gogineni, P.; Jezek, K. C.

    2006-12-01

    Conditions beneath polar ice are important factors in ice dynamics. Obtaining information on subsurface structures that may be under several km of ice requires use of low frequency electromagnetic sensors. Such measurements have been demonstrated from both ground and airborne platforms in recent experimental campaigns. For larger scale measurements, the Global Ice Sheet Mapping Orbiter (GISMO) mission has been proposed. This NASA Instrument Incubator Program project is a collaboration between Ohio State University, the University of Kansas, Vexcel Corporation and NASA. The GISMO design utilizes an INSAR strategy in which ice sheet reflected signals received by a dual-antenna system are used to produce an interference pattern. The resulting interferogram can be used to filter out surface clutter so as to reveal the signals scattered from the base of the ice sheet. Current simulations of GISMO performance and interpretability are limited by a lack of knowledge of possible electromagnetic scattering interactions at the ice base, including the influence of the base topographical structure and the presence or absence of any water layers. An improved electromagnetic wave scattering model is therefore needed in order to describe the possible range of scattering effects at the basal layered rough surface, and to include these effects in GISMO simulations. This presentation will discuss three distinct electromagnetic models for scattering from a layered rough surface: the Small Perturbation Method (SPM), the Kirchhoff approximation (also know as physical optics (PO)) and the associated geometrical optics method, and numerical methods based on exact simulations of the electromagnetic boundary value problem. The formulation of each of these approaches will be reviewed, as well as the associated advantages and limitations of each. Sample scattering results from the three models for a one-dimensional surface profile will be illustrated for varying assumed base-layers in order

  4. Assessment of climate variability of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Integration of in situ and satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, K.; Abdalati, W.; Stroeve, J.; Key, J.

    1994-01-01

    The proposed research involves the application of multispectral satellite data in combination with ground truth measurements to monitor surface properties of the Greenland Ice Sheet which are essential for describing the energy and mass of the ice sheet. Several key components of the energy balance are parameterized using satellite data and in situ measurements. The analysis will be done for a ten year time period in order to get statistics on the seasonal and interannual variations of the surface processes and the climatology. Our goal is to investigate to what accuracy and over what geographic areas large scale snow properties and radiative fluxes can be derived based upon a combination of available remote sensing and meteorological data sets. Operational satellite sensors are calibrated based on ground measurements and atmospheric modeling prior to large scale analysis to ensure the quality of the satellite data. Further, several satellite sensors of different spatial and spectral resolution are intercompared to access the parameter accuracy. Proposed parameterization schemes to derive key component of the energy balance from satellite data are validated. For the understanding of the surface processes a field program was designed to collect information on spectral albedo, specular reflectance, soot content, grain size and the physical properties of different snow types. Further, the radiative and turbulent fluxes at the ice/snow surface are monitored for the parameterization and interpretation of the satellite data. The expected results include several baseline data sets of albedo, surface temperature, radiative fluxes, and different snow types of the entire Greenland Ice Sheet. These climatological data sets will be of potential use for climate sensitivity studies in the context of future climate change.

  5. Assessing the imaging performance of light sheet microscopies in highly scattering tissues

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, A. K.; Wang, Y.; Liu, J. T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Light sheet microscopy (LSM) has emerged as an optical-imaging method for high spatiotemporal volumetric imaging of relatively transparent samples. While this capability has allowed the technique to be highly impactful in fields such as developmental biology, applications involving highly scattering thick tissues have been largely unexplored. Herein, we employ Monte Carlo simulations to explore the use of LSM for imaging turbid media. In particular, due to its similarity to dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopy, we compare LSM performance to point-scanned (PS-DAC) and line-scanned (LS-DAC) dual-axis confocal microscopy techniques that have been previously shown to produce high-quality images at round-trip optical lengths of ~9 – 10 and ~3 – 4 respectively. The results of this study indicate that LSM using widefield collection (WF-LSM) provides comparable performance to LS-DAC in thick tissues, due to the fact that they both utilize an illumination beam focused in one dimension (i.e. a line or sheet). On the other hand, LSM using confocal line detection (CL-LSM) is more analogous to PS-DAC microscopy, in which the illumination beam is focused in two dimensions to a point. The imaging depth of LSM is only slightly inferior to DAC (~2 – 3 and ~6 – 7 optical lengths for WF-LSM and CL-LSM respectively) due to the use of a lower numerical aperture (NA) illumination beam for extended imaging along the illumination axis. Therefore, we conclude that the ability to image deeply is dictated most by the confocality of the microscope technique. In addition, we find that imaging resolution is mostly dependent on the collection NA, and is relatively invariant to imaging depth in a homogeneous scattering medium. Our results indicate that superficial imaging of highly scattering tissues using light sheet microscopy is possible. PMID:26977355

  6. Development of Dynamic Explicit Crystallographic Homogenization Finite Element Analysis Code to Assess Sheet Metal Formability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasunori; Tam, Nguyen Ngoc; Ohata, Tomiso; Morita, Kiminori; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2004-06-01

    The crystallographic texture evolution induced by plastic deformation in the sheet metal forming process has a great influence on its formability. In the present study, a dynamic explicit finite element (FE) analysis code is newly developed by introducing a crystallographic homogenization method to estimate the polycrystalline sheet metal formability, such as the extreme thinning and "earing." This code can predict the plastic deformation induced texture evolution at the micro scale and the plastic anisotropy at the macro scale, simultaneously. This multi-scale analysis can couple the microscopic crystal plasticity inhomogeneous deformation with the macroscopic continuum deformation. In this homogenization process, the stress at the macro scale is defined by the volume average of those of the corresponding microscopic crystal aggregations in satisfying the equation of motion and compatibility condition in the micro scale "unit cell," where the periodicity of deformation is satisfied. This homogenization algorithm is implemented in the conventional dynamic explicit finite element code by employing the updated Lagrangian formulation and the rate type elastic/viscoplastic constitutive equation. At first, it has been confirmed through a texture evolution analyses in cases of typical deformation modes that Taylor's "constant strain homogenization algorithm" yields extreme concentration toward the preferred crystal orientations compared with our homogenization one. Second, we study the plastic anisotropy effects on "earing" in the hemispherical cup deep drawing process of pure ferrite phase sheet metal. By the comparison of analytical results with those of Taylor's assumption, conclusions are drawn that the present newly developed dynamic explicit crystallographic homogenization FEM shows more reasonable prediction of plastic deformation induced texture evolution and plastic anisotropy at the macro scale.

  7. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with basalt-based FRP sheets: An analytical assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerilli, Francesca; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening of RC beams through basalt fiber-reinforced sheets is investigated. The non-linear flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites applied at the traction side is described via an analytical formulation. Validation results and some comparative analyses confirm soundness and consistency of the proposed approach, and highlight the good mechanical performances (in terms of strength and ductility enhancement of the beam) produced by basalt-based reinforcements in comparison with traditional glass or carbon FRPs.

  8. Electric fields measured by ISEE-1 within and near the neutral sheet during quiet and active times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattell, C. A.; Mozer, F. S.

    1982-01-01

    An understanding of the physical processes occurring in the magnetotail and plasmasheet during different interplanetary magnetic field orientations and differing levels of ground magnetic activity is crucial for the development of a theory of energy transfer from the solar wind to the particles which produce auroral arcs. In the present investigation, the first observations of electric fields during neutral sheet crossings are presented, taking into account the statistical correlations of the interplanetary magnetic field direction and ground activity with the character of the electric field. The electric field data used in the study were obtained from a double probe experiment on the ISEE-1 satellite. The observations suggest that turbulent electric and magnetic fields are intimately related to plasma acceleration in the neutral sheet and to the processes which create auroral particles.

  9. Assessment of Climate Variability of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Integration of In Situ and Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, K.; Abdalati, W.; Stroeve, J.; Nolin, A.; Box, J.; Key, J.; Zwally, J.; Stober, M.; Kreuter, J.

    1996-01-01

    The proposed research involves the application of multispectral satellite data in combination with ground truth measurements to monitor surface properties of the Greenland Ice Sheet which are essential for describing the energy and mass of the ice sheet. Several key components of the energy balance are parameterized using satellite data and in situ measurements. The analysis has been done for a 6 to 17 year time period in order to analyze the seasonal and interannual variations of the surface processes and the climatology. Our goal was to investigate to what accuracy and over what geographic areas large scale snow properties and radiative fluxes can be derived based upon a combination of available remote sensing and meteorological data sets. For the understanding of the surface processes a field program was designed to collect information on spectral albedo, specular reflectance, soot content, grain size and the physical properties of different snow types. Further, the radiative and turbulent fluxes at the ice/snow surface were monitored for the parameterization and interpretation of the satellite data. Highlights include AVHRR time series and surface based radiation measurements, passive microwave time series, and geodetic results from the ETH/CU camp.

  10. Assessment of climate variability of the Greenland ice sheet: Integration of in situ and satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, K.; Abdalati, W.; Stroeve, J.; Stober, M.; Nolin, A.; Key, J.

    1995-01-01

    The proposed research involves the application of multispectral satellite data in combination with ground truth measurements to monitor surface properties of the Greenland ice sheet which are essential for describing the energy and mass of the ice sheet. Several key components of the energy balance are parameterized using satellite data and in situ measurements. The analysis will be done for a ten year time period in order to get statistics on the seasonal and interannual variations of the surface processes and the climatology. Our goal is to investigate to what accuracy and over what geographic areas large scale snow properties and radiative fluxes can be derived based upon a combination of available remote sensing and meterological data sets. Data analysis showed the following results: (1)cloud classification based on longwave sky radiation revealed that overcast sky occurred for 25% of the time in winter, and for 15% in spring and summer respectively (winter and summer both show the same occurrence of clear sky of approximately 26%); (2) comparison of aerodynamic profile method with eddy correlation method to derive sensible and latent heat flux showed good agreement in the diurnal cycle and the turbulent fluxes were underestimated with the aerodynamic method by 10 - 30% as compared to the in situ eddy flux method; (3) the katabatic wind shows a distinct diurnal cycle with a maximum in the morning (7-9 h solar time) and a minimum in the later afternoon (18 h solar time); (4) snow grain size was modeled with a surface energy balance model (SNTHERM) and compared with in situ measurements. Sharp decreases in the modeled snow grain size, caused by accumulation events such as precipitation and deposition, could be verified with observational data; (4) radiative transfer modeling of firn supports our beliefs that the observed trends in 18 and 19 GHz passive microwave brightness temperatures are attributable to accumulation rate changes (modeling also indicates the

  11. Modeling the transition between upper plane bed regime and sheet flow without an active layer formulation. Preliminary results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viparelli, E.; Hernandez Moreira, R. R.; Blom, A.

    2015-12-01

    A perusal of the literature on bedload transport revealed that, notwithstanding the large number of studies on bedform morphology performed in the past decades, the upper plane bed regime has not been thoroughly investigated and the distinction between the upper plane bed and sheet flow transport regimes is still poorly defined. Previous experimental work demonstrated that the upper plane bed regime is characterized by long wavelength and small amplitude bedforms that migrate downstream. These bedforms, however, were not observed in experiments on sheet flow transport suggesting that the upper plane bed and the sheet flow are two different regimes. We thus designed and performed experiments in a sediment feed flume in the hydraulic laboratory of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of South Carolina at Columbia to study the transition from upper plane bed to sheet flow regime. Periodic measurements of water surface and bed elevation, bedform geometry and thicknesses of the bedload layer were performed by eyes, and with cameras, movies and a system of six ultrasonic probes that record the variations of bed elevation at a point over time. We used the time series of bed elevations to determine the probability functions of bed elevation. These probability functions are implemented in a continuous model of river morphodynamics, i.e. a model that does not use the active layer approximation to describe the sediment fluxes between the bedload and the deposit and that should thus be able to capture the details of the vertical and streamwise variation of the deposit grain size distribution. This model is validated against the experimental results for the case of uniform material. We then use the validated model in the attempt to study if and how the spatial distribution of grain sizes in the deposit changes from upper plane bed regime to sheet flow and if these results are influenced by the imposed rates of base level rise.

  12. Seismicity on the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface fracture in the vicinity of active moulins

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Joughin, Ian; Behn, Mark D.; Das, Sarah; King, Matt A.; Stevens, Laura; Lizarralde, Dan

    2015-06-25

    We analyzed geophone and GPS measurements collected within the ablation zone of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during a ~35 day period of the 2011 melt season to study changes in ice deformation before, during, and after a supraglacial lake drainage event. During rapid lake drainage, ice flow speeds increased to ~400% of winter values, and icequake activity peaked. At times >7 days after drainage, this seismicity developed variability over both diurnal and longer periods (~10 days), while coincident ice speeds fell to ~150% of winter values and showed nightly peaks in spatial variability. Approximately 95% of all detected seismicitymore » in the lake basin and its immediate vicinity was triggered by fracture propagation within near-surface ice (<330 m deep) that generated Rayleigh waves. Icequakes occurring before and during drainage frequently were collocated with the down flow (west) end of the primary hydrofracture through which the lake drained but shifted farther west and outside the lake basin after the drainage. We interpret these results to reveal vertical hydrofracture opening and local uplift during the drainage, followed by enhanced seismicity and ice flow on the downstream side of the lake basin. This region collocates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar-measured speedup in previous years and could reflect the migration path of the meltwater supplied to the bed by the lake. The diurnal seismic signal can be associated with nightly reductions in surface melt input that increase effective basal pressure and traction, thereby promoting elevated strain in the surficial ice.« less

  13. Polarization features of solar radio emission and possible existence of current sheets in active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Zheleznyakov, V. V.; White, S. M.; Kundu, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    We show that it is possible to account for the polarization features of solar radio emission provided the linear mode coupling theory is properly applied and the presence of current sheets in the corona is taken into account. We present a schematic model, including a current sheet that can explain the polarization features of both the low frequency slowly varying component and the bipolar noise storm radiation; the two radiations face similar propagation conditions through a current sheet and hence display similar polarization behavior. We discuss the applications of the linear mode coupling theory to the following types of solar emission: the slowly varying component, the microwave radio bursts, metric type U bursts, and bipolar noise storms.

  14. Metal release from stainless steel powders and massive sheets--comparison and implication for risk assessment of alloys.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Mazinanian, Neda; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2013-02-01

    Industries that place metal and alloy products on the market are required to demonstrate that they are safe for all intended uses, and that any risks to humans, animals or the environment are adequately controlled. This requires reliable and robust in vitro test procedures. The aim of this study is to compare the release of alloy constituents from stainless steel powders of different grades (focus on AISI 316L) and production routes into synthetic body fluids with the release of the same metals from massive sheets in relation to material and surface characteristics. The comparison is justified by the fact that the difference between massive surfaces and powders from a metal release/dissolution and surface perspective is not clearly elucidated within current legislations. Powders and abraded and aged (24 h) massive sheets were exposed to synthetic solutions of relevance for biological settings and human exposure routes, for periods of up to one week. Concentrations of released iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese in solution were measured, and the effect of solution pH, acidity, complexation capacity, and proteins elucidated in relation to surface oxide composition and its properties. Implications for risk assessments based on in vitro metal release data from alloys are elucidated. PMID:25208703

  15. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  16. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure at an asbestos cement sheet and pipe factory in Iran.

    PubMed

    Marioryad, Hossein; Kakooei, Hossein; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Yunesian, Masud; Azam, Kamal

    2011-07-01

    Iran imports nearly 55,000 metric tons of asbestos per year, and asbestos cement (AC) plants contribute nearly 94% of the total national usage. In the present study, asbestos fiber concentrations during AC sheet and pipe manufacturing were measured by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) and polarized light microscopy (PLM) in 98 personal air samples. The fiber type and its chemical composition were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Personal monitoring of fiber levels indicated a range from 0.02 to 0.55PCM f/ml (0.02-0.69PLM f/ml). The AC workers' geometric mean asbestos exposure was 0.09 PCM f/ml (0.11 PLM f/ml), with arithmetic mean of 0.13 PCM f/ml (0.16 PLM f/ml). The observed fiber concentrations in many processes were higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. Based on these findings, the PLM values were approximately 25% higher than PCM values. The SEM data demonstrate that fibrous particles contained chrysotile. The thinnest fiber recognized by SEM had a diameter of 0.2μm. Mean exposure exceeded the TLV for asbestos in pipe molding and finishing (100%) as well as sheet molding and finishing (45.5-83.3%). In conclusion exposure control may be needed to be in compliance with the ACGIH TLV and other guidance levels. Also, with regard to PCM limitations for airborne fiber analysis, the use of microscopic methods other than PCM can be used to improve the techniques used presently. PMID:21420461

  17. Formation of lobate debris aprons on Mars: Assessment of regional ice sheet collapse and debris-cover armoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Lobate debris aprons (LDA) are lobate-shaped aprons surrounding scarps and isolated massifs that are concentrated in the vicinity of the northern Dichotomy Boundary on Mars. LDAs have been interpreted as (1) ice-cemented talus aprons undergoing viscous flow, (2) local debris-covered alpine-like glaciers, or (3) remnants of the collapse of a regional retreating ice sheet. We investigate the plausibility that LDAs are remnants of a more extensive regional ice sheet by modeling this process. We find that as a regional ice sheet collapses, the surface drops below cliff and massif bedrock margins, exposing bedrock and regolith, and initiating debris deposition on the surface of a cold-based glacier. Reduced sublimation due to debris-cover armoring of the proto-LDA surface produces a surface slope and consequent ice flow that carries the armoring debris away from the rock outcrops. As collapse and ice retreat continue the debris train eventually reaches the substrate surface at the front of the glacier, leaving the entire LDA armored by debris cover. Using a simplified ice flow model we are able to characterize the temperature and sublimation rate that would be necessary to produce LDAs with a wide range of specified lateral extents and thicknesses. We then apply this method to a database of documented LDA parameters (height, lateral extent) from the Dichotomy Boundary region, and assess the implications for predicted climate conditions during their formation and the range of formation times implied by the model. We find that for the population examined here, typical temperatures are in the range of -85 to -40 °C and typical sublimation rates lie in the range of 6-14 mm/a. Lobate debris apron formation times (from the point of bedrock exposure to complete debris cover) cluster near 400-500 ka. These results show that LDA length and thickness characteristics are consistent with climate conditions and a formation scenario typical of the collapse of a regional retreating

  18. A melamine-assisted chemical blowing synthesis of N-doped activated carbon sheets for supercapacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiliang; Xuan, Huaqing; Lin, Gaoxin; Wang, Fan; Chen, Zhi; Dong, Xiaoping

    2016-07-01

    N-doped activated carbon sheets (NACS) have been successfully synthesized using glucose as carbon source via melamine-assisted chemical blowing and sequent KOH-activation method. The obtained carbon material possesses a sheet-like morphology with ultrathin thickness, hierarchical micro/mesoporous structure, high specific surface area (up to 1997.5 m2 g-1) and high pore volume (0.94 cm3 g-1). Besides, NACS material with a nitrogen content of 3.06 wt% presents a maximum specific capacitance of 312 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte due to the cocontribution of double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance. It also displays good rate performance (246 F g-1 at 30 A g-1) and cycle stability (∼91.3% retention after 4000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles). The assembled NACS-based symmetric capacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 20.2 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 448 W kg-1 within a voltage range of 0-1.8 V in 0.5 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Thus, the unique porous sheet structure and nitrogen-doping characteristic endue the electrode material a potential application for high-performance supercapacitors.

  19. Photocatalytic activity and antimicrobial properties of paper sheets modified with TiO2/Sodium alginate nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rehim, Mona H; El-Samahy, Magda A; Badawy, Abdelrahman A; Mohram, Maysa E

    2016-09-01

    Photocatalytic paper sheets were prepared by addition of different ratios of TiO2/Sodium alginate (TSA) nanocomposite. The modified paper sheets were characterized by XRD, TGA. Their morphology was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Photocatalytic activity of modified paper has been studied by analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste-water. The results confirmed the mineralization of the waste-water and enhanced removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by increasing the amount of photocatalyst in the paper. Moreover, the results also confirmed that presence of sodium alginate as biopolymer increased adhesion of nanoparticles to paper fibers and reduced the harmful effect of the photocatalyst on them. The paper sheets containing 7% as well as 15% TSA showed high photocatalytic activity and anti-bacterial effect against Salmonella typhimurium higher than standard antibiotic beside other microorganisms such as Candida albicans. The maximum antimicrobial effect was found in case of specimen loaded with 15% TSA. Moreover, it was found that by adding 20% TSA to the paper matrix, the properties of the paper composite collapse. The obtained results confirm the possible utilization of the modified paper in both hygienic and food packaging applications. PMID:27185131

  20. Physical Activity Assessments for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Brock, Sheri J.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is important in maintaining and improving overall health for all. Students with disabilities tend to have lower fitness levels due to the lack of participation in physical activities, therefore, progressions and modifications to physical activities are needed. Assessing the physical activity levels of students with disabilities…

  1. Surface Structure Dependent Electrocatalytic Activity of Co3O4 Anchored on Graphene Sheets toward Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Junwu; Kuang, Qin; Yang, Shihe; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai; Guo, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic activity is primarily a surface phenomenon, however, little is known about Co3O4 nanocrystals in terms of the relationship between the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity and surface structure, especially when dispersed on a highly conducting support to improve the electrical conductivity and so to enhance the catalytic activity. Herein, we report a controllable synthesis of Co3O4 nanorods (NR), nanocubes (NC) and nano-octahedrons (OC) with the different exposed nanocrystalline surfaces ({110}, {100}, and {111}), uniformly anchored on graphene sheets, which has allowed us to investigate the effects of the surface structure on the ORR activity. Results show that the catalytically active sites for ORR should be the surface Co2+ ions, whereas the surface Co3+ ions catalyze CO oxidation, and the catalytic ability is closely related to the density of the catalytically active sites. These results underscore the importance of morphological control in the design of highly efficient ORR catalysts. PMID:23892418

  2. A mascon approach to assess ice sheet and glacier mass balances and their uncertainties from GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, Ernst J. O.; Wouters, Bert; Rietbroek, Roelof

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the mass changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), Ice Sheets over Antarctica, and Land glaciers and Ice Caps with a global mascon method that yields monthly mass variations at 10,242 mascons. Input for this method are level 2 data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) system collected between February 2003 and June 2013 to which a number of corrections are made. With glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) corrections from an ensemble of models based on different ice histories and rheologic Earth model parameters, we find for Greenland a mass loss of -278 ± 19 Gt/yr. Whereas the mass balances for the GrIS appear to be less sensitive to GIA modeling uncertainties, this is not the case with the mass balance of Antarctica. Ice history models for Antarctica were recently improved, and updated historic ice height data sets and GPS time series have been used to generate new GIA models. We investigated the effect of two new GIA models for Antarctica and found -92 ± 26 Gt/yr which is half of what is obtained with ICE-5G-based GIA models, where the largest GIA model differences occur on East Antarctica. The mass balance of land glaciers and ice caps currently stands at -162 ± 10 Gt/yr. With the help of new GIA models for Antarctica, we assess the mass contribution to the mean sea level at 1.47 ± 0.09 mm/yr or 532 ± 34Gt/yr which is roughly half of the global sea level rise signal obtained from tide gauges and satellite altimetry.

  3. Prestige in Interest Activity Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodano, Sandro M.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Prestige has been demonstrated to be a component in interest assessment [Tracey, T. J. G. (1997). The structure of interests and self-efficacy expectations: An expanded examination of the spherical model of interests. "Journal of Counseling Psychology", 44, 32-43; Tracey, T. J. G. (2002). Personal Globe Inventory: Measurement of the spherical…

  4. Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations;

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    DOE Industrial Technologies Program case study describes the savings possible if Commonwealth Aluminum (now Aleris Rolled Products) makes improvements noted in energy assessments at two aluminum mills.

  5. Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    DOE Industrial Technologies Program case study describes the savings possible if Commonwealth Aluminum (now Aleris Rolled Products) makes improvements noted in energy assessments at two aluminum mills.

  6. Probing the interactions of phenol with oxygenated functional groups on curved fullerene-like sheets in activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chun-Yang; Ng, Man-Fai; Goh, Bee-Min; Saunders, Martin; Hill, Nick; Jiang, Zhong-Tao; Balach, Juan; El-Harbawi, Mohanad

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism(s) of interactions of phenol with oxygenated functional groups (OH, COO and COOH) in nanopores of activated carbon (AC) is a contentious issue among researchers. This mechanism is of particular interest because a better understanding of the role of such groups in nanopores would essentially translate to advances in AC production and use, especially in regard to the treatment of organic-based wastewaters. We therefore attempt to shed more light on the subject by employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations in which fullerene-like models integrating convex or concave structure, which simulate the eclectic porous structures on AC surface, are adopted. TEM analysis, EDS mapping and Boehm titration are also conducted on actual phenol-adsorbed AC. Our results suggest the widely-reported phenomenon of decreased phenol uptake on AC due to increased concentration of oxygenated functional groups is possibly attributed to the increased presence of the latter on the convex side of the curved carbon sheets. Such a system effectively inhibits phenol from getting direct contact with the carbon sheet, thus constraining any available π-π interaction, while the effect of groups acting on the concave part of the curved sheet does not impart the same detriment. PMID:26760531

  7. Anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets on graphene sheets via molecular grafting for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhou, Yunchun; Liu, Li

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their extensive practical applications and fundamental importance, the controllable synthesis of well-faceted anatase TiO2 crystal with high percentage of reactive facets has attracted increasing attention. Here, nano-sized anatase TiO2 sheets mainly dominated by {001} facets had been prepared on graphene sheets by using a facile solvothermal synthetic route. The percentage of {001} facets in TiO2 nanosheets was calculated to be ca. 64%. The morphologies, structural properties, growth procedures and photocatalytic activities of the resultant TiO2/graphene nanocomposites were investigated. In comparison with commercial P25 and pure TiO2 nanosheets, the composite exhibited significant improvement in photocatalytic degradation of the azo dye Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity and stability was attributed to the effective charge anti-recombination of graphene and the high catalytic activity of {001} facets.Owing to their extensive practical applications and fundamental importance, the controllable synthesis of well-faceted anatase TiO2 crystal with high percentage of reactive facets has attracted increasing attention. Here, nano-sized anatase TiO2 sheets mainly dominated by {001} facets had been prepared on graphene sheets by using a facile solvothermal synthetic route. The percentage of {001} facets in TiO2 nanosheets was calculated to be ca. 64%. The morphologies, structural properties, growth procedures and photocatalytic activities of the resultant TiO2/graphene nanocomposites were investigated. In comparison with commercial P25 and pure TiO2 nanosheets, the composite exhibited significant improvement in photocatalytic degradation of the azo dye Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity and stability was attributed to the effective charge anti-recombination of graphene and the high catalytic activity of {001} facets. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  8. Design and biological activity of {beta}-sheet breaker peptide conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Sandra Cardoso, Isabel; Boerner, Hans; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Coelho, Manuel

    2009-03-06

    The sequence LPFFD (iA{beta}{sub 5}) prevents amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) fibrillogenesis and neurotoxicity, hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as previously demonstrated. In this study iA{beta}{sub 5} was covalently linked to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the activity of conjugates was assessed and compared to the activity of the peptide alone by in vitro studies. The conjugates were characterized by MALDI-TOF. Competition binding assays established that conjugates retained the ability to bind A{beta} with similar strength as iA{beta}{sub 5}. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that iA{beta}{sub 5} conjugates inhibited amyloid fibril formation, which is in agreement with binding properties observed for the conjugates towards A{beta}. The conjugates were also able to prevent amyloid-induced cell death, as evaluated by activation of caspase 3. These results demonstrated that the biological activity of iA{beta}{sub 5} is not affected by the pegylation process.

  9. $4.1 Million in Savings Identified in Paramount Petroleum Assessment: Plant-Wide Assessment Summary--Petroleum (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-08-01

    The Paramount Petroleum Corporation (PPC) and its partners conducted a systematic plant-wide assessment (PWA) to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities at the company's plant in Paramount, California. The assessment team identified$4.1 million in potential annual savings.

  10. Assessing the impact of ocean temperature on the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to future sea-level rise with a heuristic statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calov, R.; Ganopolski, A.; Robinson, A.; Beckmann, J.; Alexander, D.; Perrette, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present large ensembles of simulations of the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea-level rise under RCP2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 future scenarios over 300 years, including several extended simulations over millennia. To this end, we utilise the ice sheet model SICOPOLIS coupled with the regional climate system model of intermediate complexity REMBO. The loss of ice into fjords via outlet glaciers is resolved in a heuristic statistical approach. In this framework, we recently included into our model an ocean temperature parameterization to assess the impact of ice loss of the Greenland ice sheet. This work precedes our planned more comprehensive approach, which will resolve all important ice loss processes in a model of intermediate complexity of the Greenland glacial system. Our large ensembles of simulations under future scenarios serve to estimate the uncertainty of the impact of future ocean temperatures on the state of the Greenland ice sheet. A suite of initial configurations of the ice sheet is generated via paleo simulations over two glacial cycles by introducing present-day and Eemian constraints, such as a range in the mass balance partition, the shape of the ice sheet, the Eemian ice surface elevation change at an upstream position of the NEEM and further local constraints. The paleo simulations support the choice of the range of parameters of our ocean temperature parameterization. The large ensemble simulations together with the paleo constraints enable us to improve estimates onthe range of the possible impact of future changes in ocean temperature around Greenland on the ice loss of the Greenland ice sheet.

  11. Dyscalculia and Access Arrangements for Exams and Assessments. NIACE Briefing Sheet 87

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Dyscalculia is considered to be a learning difficulty or difference. It is increasingly being recognised and "diagnosed" within adult learning. However, practitioners are often unclear about whether learners who are considered to have dyscalculia are entitled to access arrangements for examinations and assessments, and which access arrangements…

  12. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SHEET METAL CABINETS AND PRECISION METAL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

  13. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF IRON CASTINGS AND FABRICATED SHEET METAL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  14. Effect of OSHA's bloodborne pathogens standard on hazardous waste cleanup activities. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Bloodborne pathogens are microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In addition to healthcare workers, the standard also may affect workers who handle waste potentially contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious material during response actions at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The purpose of the Fact Sheet is to describe the additional planning, training, and medical surveillance requirements that the new OSHA standard on bloodborne pathogens imposes upon On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) and Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) during a Superfund response action.

  15. Active sensor assessment of corn nitrogen status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of active sensor measurements of in-season corn (Zea mays L.) nitrogen (N) status for directing spatially-variable N applications has been advocated to improve N use efficiency. However, first it is necessary to confirm that active sensors can reliably assess corn N status. Our research goals we...

  16. Emplacement and inflation of pahoehoe sheet flows: observations and measurements of active lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hon, K.; Kauahikaua, J.; Denlinger, R.; Mackay, K.

    1994-01-01

    Inflated pahoehoe sheet flows have a distinctive horizontal upper surface, which can be several hundred meters across, and are bounded to steep monoclinal uplifts. The inflated sheet flows studied ranged from 1 to 5 m in thickness, but initially propagated as thin sheets of fluid pahoehoe lava, generally 20-30 cm thick. The morphology of the lava as flow advanced is described. Inflated sheet flows from Kilauea and Mauna Loa are morphologically similar to some thick Icelandic and submarine sheet flows, suggesting a similar mechanism of emplacement. -from Authors

  17. Obstacles to activity pacing: assessment, relationship to activity and functioning.

    PubMed

    Cane, Douglas; McCarthy, Mary; Mazmanian, Dwight

    2016-07-01

    Activity pacing is frequently included among the strategies provided to individuals with chronic pain to manage pain and improve functioning. Individuals with chronic pain may, however, limit their use of activity pacing because they perceive significant obstacles to its use. This study describes the development of a measure to assess obstacles to activity pacing and examines the relationship of this measure to activity patterns and functioning. A sample of 637 individuals with chronic pain completed items describing potential obstacles to activity pacing as part of their pretreatment assessment. Item analyses were used to construct a 14-item measure of obstacles to activity pacing. A subset of these individuals completed the measure again after completion of a group treatment program. The resulting measure demonstrated excellent internal consistency and was minimally affected by social desirability. Correlations with measures of activity and psychosocial functioning provided initial construct validity for the measure. Sex differences were found with women initially identifying more obstacles to activity pacing. Fewer obstacles were identified by both men and women after treatment, and these changes were related to modest changes in activity patterns and functioning. The present results identify a number of obstacles that may limit the use of activity pacing by individuals with chronic pain. Treatment may result in a decrease in the number of obstacles identified, and this change is related to changes in the individual's activity pattern and psychosocial functioning. PMID:26963845

  18. Boundary conditions of an active West Antarctic subglacial lake: implications for storage of water beneath the ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, M. J.; Ross, N.; Corr, H.; Smith, B.; Jordan, T.; Bingham, R. G.; Ferraccioli, F.; Rippin, D. M.; Le Brocq, A.

    2014-01-01

    Repeat-pass ICESat altimetry has revealed 124 discrete surface height changes across the Antarctic Ice Sheet, interpreted to be caused by subglacial lake discharges (surface lowering) and inputs (surface uplift). Few of these active lakes have been confirmed by radio-echo sounding (RES) despite several attempts (notable exceptions are Lake Whillans and three in the Adventure Subglacial Trench). Here we present targeted RES and radar altimeter data from an "active lake" location within the upstream Institute Ice Stream, into which at least 0.12 km3 of water was previously calculated to have flowed between October 2003 and February 2008. We use a series of transects to establish an accurate depiction of the influences of bed topography and ice surface elevation on water storage potential. The location of surface height change is downstream of a subglacial hill on the flank of a distinct topographic hollow, where RES reveals no obvious evidence for deep (> 10 m) water. The regional hydropotential reveals a sink coincident with the surface change, however. Governed by the location of the hydrological sink, basal water will likely "drape" over topography in a manner dissimilar to subglacial lakes where flat strong specular RES reflections are measured. The inability of RES to detect the active lake means that more of the Antarctic ice sheet bed may contain stored water than is currently appreciated. Variation in ice surface elevation data sets leads to significant alteration in calculations of the local flow of basal water indicating the value of, and need for, high-resolution altimetry data in both space and time to establish and characterise subglacial hydrological processes.

  19. Boundary conditions of an active West Antarctic subglacial lake: implications for storage of water beneath the ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, M. J.; Ross, N.; Corr, H.; Smith, B.; Jordan, T.; Bingham, R.; Ferraccioli, F.; Rippin, D.; Le Brocq, A.

    2013-06-01

    Repeat-pass IceSat altimetry has revealed 124 discrete surface height changes across the Antarctic Ice Sheet, interpreted to be caused by subglacial lake discharges (surface lowering) and inputs (surface uplift). Few of these active lakes have been confirmed by radio-echo sounding (RES) despite several attempts (notable exceptions are Lake Whillans and three in the Adventure Subglacial Trench). Here we present targeted RES and radar altimeter data from an "active lake" location within the upstream Institute Ice Stream, into which 0.12 km3 of water is calculated to have flowed between October 2003 and February 2008. We use a series of transects to establish an accurate appreciation of the influences of bed topography and ice-surface elevation on water storage potential. The location of surface height change is over the downslope flank of a distinct topographic hollow, where RES reveals no obvious evidence for deep (> 10 m) water. The regional hydropotential reveals a sink coincident with the surface change, however. Governed by the location of the hydrological sink, basal water will likely "drape" over existing topography in a manner dissimilar to subglacial lakes where flat strong specular RES reflections are measured. The inability of RES to detect the active lake means that more of the Antarctic ice sheet bed may contain stored water than is currently appreciated. Variation in ice surface elevation datasets leads to significant alteration in calculations of the local flow of basal water indicating the value of, and need for, high resolution RES datasets in both space and time to establish and characterise subglacial hydrological processes.

  20. Ice sheet sensitivity experiments as part of an assessment of long-term safety for a planned repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wekerle, Claudia; Colleoni, Florence; Masina, Simona; Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny

    2014-05-01

    An application to build a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in south-central Sweden is currently under consideration by Swedish authorities. As part of the safety assessment, the response of the repository to an extensive glaciation over time scales of several hundred thousand years, in terms of ice thickness, bedrock depression and hydrostatic pressure, has to be evaluated. The most extensive glaciation over Eurasia recorded in geological proxies occurred during the MIS 6, at around 140 kyrs BP (Late Saalian glaciation). At this time, the few existing numerical ice-sheet reconstructions suggest that the Eurasian ice volume reached more than 70 m SLE, which is at least three times larger than during the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kyrs BP). The reconstruction of this ice sheet is complicated by the fact that the timing of the maximum ice volume may not have been coeval with the maximum eastern and southern extent of the Saalian ice sheet. In the present study, the maximum geographical extension of the Late Saalian glaciation serves as an extreme test case to assess the impact of ice thickness over the Forsmark repository site. We use the 3D-thermodynamical ice sheet-ice shelves and ice stream model GRISLI (Ritz et al. 2001) to simulate the Northern Hemisphere ice sheet topography of the Late Saalian glaciation. The model is forced by steady-state climatic fields (surface air temperature and precipitation) computed using the coupled atmosphere-ocean Community Earth System Model (CESM, NCAR) at ~1°x1° resolution, with boundary and forcing conditions representative for the MIS6 glacial maximum. Ice sheet simulations are run on a 20 km regular rectangular grid over the northern high latitudes and allow for floating ice. First, as part of the model validation, we show a numerical reconstruction of the MIS 6 Eurasian ice sheet using standard parameters for lapse rate, PDD coefficients and basal hydrology. Second, sensitivity experiments are

  1. Learning Outcomes Assessment Activities, 1989-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathay, Geoffrey A.

    In 1987, Seattle Central Community College (SCCC), in Washington, began a 5-year project to gather evidence on SCCC's success in imparting knowledge, skills, and values to its students. This report represents a compilation of major assessment activities and provides brief descriptions of 10 studies on outcomes grouped by specific dimensions of…

  2. Assessment of a Colonoscopy Triage Sheet for Use in a Province-Wide Population-Based Colorectal Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Sharara, Nour; Nolan, Sabrina; Sewitch, Maida; Martel, Myriam; Dias, Maria; Barkun, Alan N.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. A colonoscopy triage sheet (CTS) integrating 6 hierarchical scheduling priorities based on indications for screening, surveillance, or symptoms was designed for colonoscopy referral. We compared CTS priority ratings by referring physicians and endoscopists, assessing yields. Methods. Retrospective study of consecutive patients. Data were collected on demographics, CTS and endoscopist priority ratings, and endoscopic findings. Weighted kappa values measured interrater agreement on priority assignment. Predictors of agreement and lesions were identified using multivariable analysis. Results. Among 1230 patients (60.3 years, 52.5% female), clinically significant lesions included tumors (1.1%), polyps per patient ≥ 10 mm (7.6%), and ileocolitis (4.6%). Moderate agreement was found between referring physician and endoscopist on all 6 priorities (weighted kappa 0.55 (0.51; 0.59)). P4 and P5 ratings predicted increased agreement (range of OR for P4: 2.47–4.57; P5: 1.58–2.93). Predictors of clinically significant findings were male gender (OR 1.44, 1.03–2.03) and P1/P2 priorities that were significantly superior to P3 (OR = 2.14; 1.04–4.43), P4 (OR = 2.90; 1.35–6.23), and P5 (OR = 4.30; 2.08–8.88). Conclusion. Priority-assignment agreement is moderate and highest for less urgent ratings. Predictors of clinically significant findings validate the hierarchal priority scheme. Broader validation and physician education are needed. PMID:27446841

  3. Assessing the Current Evolution of the Greenland Ice Sheet by Means of Satellite and Ground-Based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, A.; Ewert, H.; Fritsche, M.; Rülke, A.; Rosenau, R.; Scheinert, M.; Dietrich, R.

    2014-11-01

    The present study utilises different satellite and ground-based geodetic observations in order to assess the current evolution of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). Satellite gravimetry data acquired by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment are used to derive ice-mass changes for the period from 2003 to 2012. The inferred time series are investigated regarding long-term, seasonal and interannual variations. Laser altimetry data acquired by the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) are utilised to solve for linear and seasonal changes in the ice-surface height and to infer independent mass-change estimates for the entire GIS and its major drainage basins. We demonstrate that common signals can be identified in the results of both sensors. Moreover, the analysis of a Global Positioning System (GPS) campaign network in West Greenland for the period 1995-2007 allows us to derive crustal deformation caused by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and by present-day ice-mass changes. ICESat-derived elastic crustal deformations are evaluated comparing them with GPS-observed uplift rates which were corrected for the GIA effect inferred by model predictions. Existing differences can be related to the limited resolution of ICESat. Such differences are mostly evident in dynamical regions such as the Disko Bay region including the rapidly changing Jakobshavn Isbræ, which is investigated in more detail. Glacier flow velocities are inferred from satellite imagery yielding an accelerated flow from 1999 to 2012. Since our GPS observations cover a period of more than a decade, changes in the vertical uplift rates can also be investigated. It turns out that the increased mass loss of the glacier is also reflected by an accelerated vertical uplift.

  4. System for objective assessment of fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Kaluzynski, K J; Kret, T; Czajkowski, K; Sieńko, J; Zmigrodzki, J

    2011-07-01

    Fetal activity is an important indicator of fetal well-being. It is proposed to assess this activity using the pulsed wave Doppler method to collect fetal activity data and dedicated software for on-line processing. The system, addressed to 3rd trimester pregnancies, provides information on presence of pseudobreathing, the heart rate trace, the fetal movement trace, the movement velocity spectrogram, histograms of the velocity and acceleration of both the body movements and pseudobreathing, parameters of these histograms (mean values, standard deviations, shape descriptors), and cumulative counts of the velocity histograms. These parameters form the feature vector of the fetal activity. The system was validated by simultaneous echographic and cardiotocographic recordings and during oxytocin challenge tests. Feature vectors obtained from 1h recordings in 61 pregnancies were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance. Activity patterns of physiological cases and "borderline pathologies" were discriminated using reduced feature vectors, containing cumulative counts of velocity histograms. PMID:21277248

  5. Effect of material flow on joint strength in activation spot joining of Al alloy and steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Goro; Yogo, Yasuhiro; Takao, Hisaaki

    2014-08-01

    A new joining method for dissimilar metal sheets was developed where a rotated consumable rod of Al alloy is pressed onto an Al alloy sheet at the part overlapped with a mild steel sheet. The metal flow in the joining region is increased by the through-hole in the Al sheet and consumable Al rod. The rod creates the joint interface and pads out of the thinly joined parts through pressing. This produces a higher joint strength than that of conventional friction stir spot welding. Measurements of the joint interface showed the presence of a 5-10 nm thick amorphous layer consisting of Al and Mg oxides.

  6. Quantitative assessment of growth plate activity

    SciTech Connect

    Harcke, H.T.; Macy, N.J.; Mandell, G.A.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the immature skeleton the physis or growth plate is the area of bone least able to withstand external forces and is therefore prone to trauma. Such trauma often leads to premature closure of the plate and results in limb shortening and/or angular deformity (varus or valgus). Active localization of bone seeking tracers in the physis makes bone scintigraphy an excellent method for assessing growth plate physiology. To be most effective, however, physeal activity should be quantified so that serial evaluations are accurate and comparable. The authors have developed a quantitative method for assessing physeal activity and have applied it ot the hip and knee. Using computer acquired pinhole images of the abnormal and contralateral normal joints, ten regions of interest are placed at key locations around each joint and comparative ratios are generated to form a growth plate profile. The ratios compare segmental physeal activity to total growth plate activity on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides and to adjacent bone. In 25 patients, ages 2 to 15 years, with angular deformities of the legs secondary to trauma, Blount's disease, and Perthes disease, this technique is able to differentiate abnormal segmental physeal activity. This is important since plate closure does not usually occur uniformly across the physis. The technique may permit the use of scintigraphy in the prediction of early closure through the quantitative analysis of serial studies.

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  8. Evidence for Subglacial Volcanic Activity Beneath the area of the Divide of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    There is an increasing body of aeromagnetic, radar ice-sounding, heat flow, subglacial volcanic earthquakes, several exposed active and subglacial volcanoes and other lines of evidence for volcanic activity associated with the West Antarctic Rift System (WR) since the origin (~25 Ma) of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), which flows through it. Exposed late Cenozoic, alkaline volcanic rocks, 34 Ma to present concentrated in Marie Byrd Land (LeMasurier and Thomson, 1990), but also exposed along the rift shoulder on the Transantarctic Mountains flank of the WR, and >1 million cubic kilometers, of mostly subglacially erupted 'volcanic centers' beneath the WAIS inferred from aeromagnetic data, have been interpreted as evidence of a magmatic plume. About 18 high relief, (~600-2000 m) 'volcanic centers' presently beneath the WAIS surface, probably were erupted subaerially when the WAIS was absent, based on the 5-km orthogonally line spaced Central West Antarctica aerogeophysical survey. All would be above sea level after ice removal and isostatic adjustment. Nine of these high relief peaks are in the general area beneath the divide of the WAIS. This high bed relief topography was first interpreted in the 1980s as the volcanic 'Sinuous Ridge ' based on a widely spaced aeromagnetic -radar ice sounding survey (Jankowski et al,. 1983). A 70-km wide, circular ring of interpreted subglacial volcanic rocks was cited as evidence of a volcanic caldera underlying the ice sheet divide based on the CWA survey (Behrendt et al., 1998). A broad magnetic 'low' surrounding the caldera area possibly is evidence of a shallow Curie isotherm. High heat flow reported from temperature logging (Clow et al., 2012) in the WAISCORE and a thick volcanic ash layer in the core (Dunbar et al., 2012) are consistent with this interpretation. A 2 km-high subaerially erupted volcano (subglacial Mt Thiel, ~78.5 degrees S, 111 degrees W) ~ 100 km north from the WAISCORE could be the source of the ash

  9. Different bulk and active bacterial communities in cryoconite from the margin and interior of the Greenland ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Stibal, Marek; Schostag, Morten; Cameron, Karen A; Hansen, Lars H; Chandler, David M; Wadham, Jemma L; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2015-04-01

    Biological processes in the supraglacial ecosystem, including cryoconite, contribute to nutrient cycling within the cryosphere and may affect surface melting, yet little is known of the diversity of the active microbes in these environments. We examined the bacterial abundance and community composition of cryoconite over a melt season at two contrasting sites at the margin and in the interior of the Greenland ice sheet, using sequence analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction of coextracted 16S rDNA and rRNA. Significant differences were found between bulk (rDNA) and potentially active (rRNA) communities, and between communities sampled from the two sites. Higher concentrations of rRNA than rDNA were detected at the interior site, whereas at the margin several orders of magnitude less rRNA was found compared with rDNA, which may be explained by a lower proportion of active bacteria at the margin site. The rRNA communities at both sites were dominated by a few taxa of Cyanobacteria and Alpha- and/or Betaproteobacteria. The bulk alpha diversity was higher in the margin site community, suggesting that local sources may be contributing towards the gene pool in addition to long distance transport. PMID:25405749

  10. Coos County Youth and Out-of-School Activities: Patterns of Involvement and Barriers to Participation. New England Fact Sheet No. 7, Fall 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Erin Hiley

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet draws from surveys administered to a cohort of 416 participants in 7th grade in 2008, again when they were in 8th grade in 2009, and most recently as 10th graders in 2011 to look at patterns of participation in structured activities over time and whether male and female students differ in these patterns of participation. It also…

  11. Operationalization Of The Professional Risks Assessment Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivascu, Victoria Larisa; Cirjaliu, Bianca; Draghici, Anca

    2015-07-01

    Professional risks assessment approach (integration of analysis and evaluation processes) is linked with the general concerns of nowadays companies for their employees' health and safety assurances, in the context of organizations sustainable development. The paper presents an approach for the operationalization of the professional risk assessment activity in companies through the implementation and use of the OnRisk platform (this have been tested in some industrial companies). The short presentation of the relevant technical reports and statistics on OSH management at the European Union level underlines the need for the development of a professional risks assessment. Finally, there have been described the designed and developed OnRisk platform as a web platform together with some case studies that have validate the created tool.

  12. Needs assessment activity report: Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Needs Assessment program has assessed the packaging requirements of many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These assessments have involved site visits and meetings with personnel involved with transportation and packaging of hazardous materials. By September 1995, 24 DOE facilities had been visited, with 14 site visits occurring in fiscal year 1995. As a result, these sites have been informed of some of the packaging activities that DOE has sponsored and is sponsoring, have been apprised of the affects of upcoming changes to transportation regulations, have discussed their near-term packaging needs, and have shared unique packaging they have developed, which may be of use to other DOE facilities. Program successes include discovery of a need for a reusable Type A liquid sample packaging and its development within another DOE task and establishing communications pathways between DOE sites that have similar transportation and packaging needs. This report recommends that the Needs Assessment activity continue to pursue the strategy of visiting DOE sites to meet with their transportation and packaging personnel. These visits will ensure that DOE needs are met, communications pathways between DOE sites are established and cultivated, and redundant packaging development is identified. The site visits should be expanded to include meetings with the long-range and strategic planners at each site, and at the DOE-Headquarters level, to ensure that all future transportation and packaging needs are identified early enough to allow adequate transportation assessment and packaging development. This activity could become a permanent conduit for information and will ensure that all future DOE transportation and packaging needs are satisfied in a cost-effective, timely, and efficient manner.

  13. NREL Team Creates High-Activity, Durable Platinum Extended Surface Catalyst for Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers with NREL's Fuel Cell team showed that platinum can replace copper nanowires in such a way that high-surface-area and high-specific-activity catalysts are produced, potentially allowing for lower-cost catalysts.

  14. The adaptor protein Cindr regulates JNK activity to maintain epithelial sheet integrity.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Hannah W R; van Rensburg, Samuel H; Feiler, Christina E; Johnson, Ruth I

    2016-02-15

    Epithelia are essential barrier tissues that must be appropriately maintained for their correct function. To achieve this a plethora of protein interactions regulate epithelial cell number, structure and adhesion, and differentiation. Here we show that Cindr (the Drosophila Cin85 and Cd2ap ortholog) is required to maintain epithelial integrity. Reducing Cindr triggered cell delamination and movement. Most delaminating cells died. These behaviors were consistent with JNK activation previously associated with loss of epithelial integrity in response to ectopic oncogene activity. We confirmed a novel interaction between Cindr and Drosophila JNK (dJNK), which when perturbed caused inappropriate JNK signaling. Genetically reducing JNK signaling activity suppressed the effects of reducing Cindr. Furthermore, ectopic JNK signaling phenocopied loss of Cindr and was partially rescued by concomitant cindr over-expression. Thus, correct Cindr-dJNK stoichiometry is essential to maintain epithelial integrity and disturbing this balance may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease states, including cancer. PMID:26772997

  15. Youth Demographics. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet compares the numbers of 18-25 year-old residents and citizens by gender, race, ethnicity, geographic distribution, marital status, military status, unemployment, educational attainment, and assesses population trends from 1968-2006. It explores such demographic characteristics of young people using data from the March Annual…

  16. The Marfan Syndrome. Fact Sheet [and] Physical Education and Activity Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Marfan Foundation, Port Washington, NY.

    This document consists of two brochures, the first explaining the Marfan Syndrome and a second providing guidelines for physical education and activity for people who have this syndrome are provided. The brochure on factual information about Marfan syndrome outlines the associated medical problems involving the cardiovascular system, the skeleton,…

  17. Dental Charting. Learning Activities, Unit Tests, Progress Chart, and Work Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Center for Occupational Curriculum Development.

    These materials are part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. These student materials, designed to be used with the Dental Charting Student Manual, consist of learning activities, unit…

  18. Photocatalytic decomposition of selected estrogens and their estrogenic activity by UV-LED irradiated TiO2 immobilized on porous titanium sheets via thermal-chemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Arlos, Maricor J; Liang, Robert; Hatat-Fraile, Melisa M; Bragg, Leslie M; Zhou, Norman Y; Servos, Mark R; Andrews, Susan A

    2016-11-15

    The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) remains a big challenge in water treatment. Risks associated with these compounds are not clearly defined and it is important that the water industry has additional options to increase the resiliency of water treatment systems. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has potential applications for the removal of EDCs from water. TiO2 has been immobilized on supports using a variety of synthesis methods to increase its feasibility for water treatment. In this study, we immobilized TiO2 through the thermal-chemical oxidation of porous titania sheets. The efficiency of the material to degrade target EDCs under UV-LED irradiation was examined under a wide range of pH conditions. A yeast-estrogen screen assay was used to complement chemical analysis in assessing removal efficiency. All compounds but 17β-estradiol were degraded and followed a pseudo first-order kinetics at all pH conditions tested, with pH 4 and pH 11 showing the most and the least efficient treatments respectively. In addition, the total estrogenic activity was substantially reduced even with the inefficient degradation of 17β-estradiol. Additional studies will be required to optimize different treatment conditions, UV-LED configurations, and membrane fouling mitigation measures to make this technology a more viable option for water treatment. PMID:27469042

  19. Wind Powering America Initiative (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative engages in technology market acceptance, barrier reduction, and technology deployment support activities. This fact sheet outlines ways in which the Wind Powering America team works to reduce barriers to appropriate wind energy deployment, primarily by focusing on six program areas: workforce development, communications and outreach, stakeholder analysis and resource assessment, wind technology technical support, wind power for Native Americans, and federal sector support and collaboration.

  20. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  1. Needs assessment activity report: April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    As part of a US Department of Energy Headquarters task (DOE-HQ), the Packaging Operations and Development Group within Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has assessed the packaging needs of many DOE sites. These assessments have involved site visits and meetings with personnel involved with transportation and packaging of hazardous materials. By March 1995, 20 DOE facilities had been visited. As a result, these sites been informed of some of the packaging activities that DOE has sponsored and is sponsoring, have been apprised of the affects of upcoming changes to transportation regulations, have discussed their short-term packaging needs, and have shared unique packaging they have developed which may be of use to other DOE facilities. Program successes include discovery of a need for a reusable Type A liquid sample packaging and its development within another DOE task, establishing communications pathways between DOE sites that have similar transportation and packaging needs, and starting to establish a centralized packaging clearinghouse that will coordinate DOE Complex needs and improve the cost-effectiveness of transportation and packaging activities.

  2. Electrospinning Directly Synthesized Porous TiO2 Nanofibers Modified by Graphitic Carbon Nitride Sheets for Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation Activity under Solar Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Surya Prasad; Awasthi, Ganesh Prasad; Kim, Han Joo; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-06-21

    We report a direct approach to the fabrication of a composite made of porous TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) sheets, by means of an angled two-nozzle electrospinning combined with calcination process. Different wt % amounts of g-C3N4 particles in a polymer solution from one nozzle and TiO2 precursors containing the same polymer solution from another nozzle were electrospun and deposited on the collector. Structural characterizations confirm a well-defined morphology of the TiO2/g-C3N4 composite in which the TiO2 NFs are uniformly attached on the g-C3N4 sheet. This proper attachment of TiO2 NFs on the g-C3N4 sheets occurred during calcination. The prepared composites showed the enhanced photocatalytic activity over the photodegradation of rhodamine B and reactive black 5 under natural sunlight. Here, the synergistic effect between the g-C3N4 sheets and the TiO2 NFs having anisotropic properties enhanced the photogenerated electron-hole pair separation and migration, which was confirmed by the measurement of photoluminescence spectra, cyclic voltammograms, and electrochemical impedance spectra. The direct synthesis approach that is established here for such kinds of sheetlike structure and porous NFs composites could provide new insights for the design of high-performance energy conversion catalysts. PMID:27254544

  3. Self-enhanced catalytic activities of functionalized graphene sheets in the combustion of nitromethane: molecular dynamic simulations by molecular reactive force field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoyang; Wen, Yushi; Xue, Xianggui

    2014-08-13

    Functionalized graphene sheet (FGS) is a promising additive that enhances fuel/propellant combustion, and the determination of its mechanism has attracted much interest. In the present study, a series of molecular dynamic simulations based on a reactive force field (ReaxFF) are performed to explore the catalytic activity (CA) of FGS in the thermal decay of nitromethane (NM, CH3NO2). FGSs and pristine graphene sheets (GSs) are oxidized in hot NM liquid to increase their functionalities and subsequently show self-enhanced CAs during the decay. The CAs result from the interatomic exchanges between the functional groups on the sheets and the NM liquid, i.e., mainly between H and O atoms. CA is dependent on the density of NM, functionalities of sheets, and temperature. The GSs and FGSs that originally exhibit different functionalities tend to possess similar functionalities and consequently similar CAs as temperature increases. Other carbon materials and their oxides can accelerate combustion of other fuels/propellants similar to NM, provided that they can be dispersed and their key reaction steps in combustion are similar to NM. PMID:25055727

  4. Coseismic Faulting and Folding in an Active Thrust Sheet over Multiple Rupture Cycles Resolved by Integrating Surface and Subsurface Records of Earthquake Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockmeyer, J. M.; Shaw, J. H.; Brown, N.; Rhodes, E. J.; Wang, M.; Lavin, L. C.; Guan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Many recent thrust fault earthquakes have involved coseismic surface faulting and folding, revealing the complex nature of surface deformation in active thrust sheets. In this study, we characterize deformation along the active Southern Junggar Thrust (SJT) in the Junggar basin, NW China - which sourced the 1906 M8 Manas earthquake - to gain insight into how fault slip at depth is partitioned between faulting and folding strains at Earth's surface by integrating deformed terrace records, subsurface geophysical data, and luminescence geochronology. Using a 1-m digital elevation model and field surveys, we have mapped the precise geometries of fluvial terraces across the entire Tugulu anticline, which lies in the hanging wall of the SJT. These profiles reveal progressive uplift of several terraces along prominent fault scarps where the SJT is surface-emergent. Similarly aged terraces are folded in the backlimb of the Tugulu fold, providing a sequential record of surface folding. These folded terraces are progressively rotated such that the oldest terraces are dipping much steeper than younger terraces within the same fold limb. Using 2- and 3-D seismic reflection data, we integrate subsurface deformation constraints with records of surface strain. Structural interpretations of these seismic data define the geometry of the SJT and reveal that folding is localized across synclinal bends along the SJT. We evaluate a range of distinct fault-related fold models (e.g. fault-bend folding, shear fault-bend folding) to assess which structural style best describes the geometries of the subsurface and surface fold patterns. By doing so, we have the opportunity to directly relate surface fault slip measures from terrace folding and uplift to total fault slip at depth. This integration of surface and subsurface deformation - combined with constraints on terrace ages from post-IR IRSL geochronology - allows us to characterize how fault slip and seismic moment are partitioned

  5. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  6. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional quality assessment activities. 460.140... FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional quality assessment activities. A PACE organization must meet external quality assessment and reporting...

  7. Life cycle assessment of active and passive groundwater remediation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Finkel, Michael

    2006-02-01

    the valuation of FGS due to the associated emissions that are harmful to human health. In view of that, environmental credits can be achieved by selecting a mineral-based wall instead of sheet piles for the funnel construction and by minimising the steel consumption for the gate construction. Granular activated carbon (GAC) is exclusively considered as the treatment material, both in-situ and on-site. Here it is identified as an additional main determinant of the relative assessment of the technologies since it is continuously consumed.

  8. MMS Spacecraft Observation of Near Tail Thin Current Sheets: Their Locations, Conditions for Formation and Relation to Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Bromund, K. R.; Chutter, M.; Fischer, D.; Kepko, L.; Le Contel, O.; Leinweber, H. K.; Magnes, W.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Slavin, J. A.; Torbert, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    During the commissioning phase of the MMS mission, when the apogee (~12Re) of MMS orbit swept from the pre-midnight to the dusk section of the magnetosphere, the four spacecraft probed the dynamic region of the near-Earth magnetotail. The MMS fleet encountered many structures with unambiguously small-scale spatial gradient in magnetic field (comparable to the separation of the fleet), indicating the existence of very thin current sheets in this near-tail region. During this commissioning phase, the MMS spacecraft were in a string of pearls configuration, not ideally suitable for "curlometer" determination of the current density. Thus the current density and thickness of the sheets are only roughly determined using reasonable assumptions. In this study we correlate the current sheet's location and thickness with solar wind conditions and the ground magnetic field records.

  9. Simultaneous observation of the poleward expansion of substorm electrojet activity and the tailward expansion of current sheet disruption in the near-earth magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, R.E. ); Koskinen, H.E.J.; Pulkkinen, T.I. ); Boesinger, T. ); McEntire, R.W.; Potemra, T.A. )

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports on observations of a magnetospheric substorm on June 7, 1985. This event was observed simultaneously by a number of different systems. Particle and magnetic field data were collected by AMPTE/CCE, located near the neutral sheet; magnetic field data was monitored by the EISCAT magnetometer cross; STARE radar data was also collected; and Pi 1 data from Sodankyla. The ground based systems observed the poleward and westward expansion of electrojet activity at the start of the storm. The satellite was able to see the storms onset, and record perturbations in the current sheet at the onset of the substorm, in addition to later perturbations, which the authors argue originates tailward of the satellite. Satellite measurements are shown to occur in conjunction with ground events.

  10. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  11. Simulations as Active Assessment?: Typologizing by Purpose and Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollars, Nina A.; Rosen, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment through simulation is something that political science pedagogy has yet to explore in a robust manner. This article advances analysis of social science simulation and assessment by laying out a typology of active-learning activities that isolates and examines their potential for assessment. In short, we argue that there are essentially…

  12. Large-scale thrusting along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southwest Tarim basin: 230 km long active Hotian thrust sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppe, J.; Wang, X.; He, D.; Liang, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present the geometry, kinematics and mechanics of large-scale active thrusting in the western Kunlunshan and southwest Tarim basin, which accounts for ~130-165km total shortening of Tarim crust at the northern margin of Tibet. The great frontal structure is the ~230km long bedding-parallel Hotian thrust sheet, which is perhaps the longest active intact thrust sheet in the world, composed of flat-lying strata of the Tarim basin sliding northward on a regional gypsum detachment at the base of the Cenozoic sequence. The toe of the Hotian thrust ramps to the surface two thirds of the way across the Tarim basin, forming the Selibuya-Mazartag hills in the Taklamakan sand desert. At the southern edge of the Tarim basin in the Kunlunshan foothills, a set of high-amplitude anticlines are growing by complex break-forward ramping and wedging in the Hotian thrust sheet as it steps up to the Cenozoic gypsum detachment from a regional Cambrian evaporate detachment that extends under Tibet. More interior structures such as the Tiklik thrust bring older strata and Proterozoic basement to the surface, together with their Cenozoic Tarim cover in the Buya basin. The Cambrian detachment also extends northward under the Tarim basin with minor hanging-wall deformation that locally warps the overlying Hotian thrust sheet, producing a complete syntectonic record in seismically imaged growth strata of its northward motion over these warps. Seismic profiles in the southwest Tarim foothill belt also reveal widespread growth strata that record much of the structural history beginning in the early Pliocene Atushi Formation. Ages of seismic reflectors are calibrated to a surface magnetostratigraphic sequence (Zheng et al., 2000). The beginning of thrusting and folding in the southwest Tarim basin north of the Tiklik thrust is dated at 3.6Ma with shortening >25km and a progressive northward propagation toward the Selibuya-Mazartag hills. The overall shortening rate is ~10 mm/yr. The gypsum

  13. Multiple-satellite studies of magnetospheric substorms: Plasma sheet recovery and the poleward leap of auroral-zone activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pytte, T.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Kivelson, M. G.; West, H. I., Jr.; Hones, E. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Particle observations from pairs of satellites (Ogo 5, Vela 4A and 5B, Imp 3) during the recovery of plasma sheet thickness late in substorms were examined. Six of the nine events occurred within about 5 min in locations near the estimated position of the neutral sheet, but over wide ranges of east-west and radial separations. The time of occurrence and spatial extent of the recovery were related to the onset (defined by ground Pi 2 pulsations) and approximate location (estimated from ground mid-latitude magnetic signatures) of substorm expansions. It was found that the plasma sheet recovery occurred 10 - 30 min after the last in a series of Pi bursts, which were interpreted to indicate that the recovery was not due directly to a late, high latitude substorm expansion. The recovery was also observed to occur after the substorm current wedge had moved into the evening sector and to extend far to the east of the center of the last preceding substorm expansion.

  14. Fiber laser welding of dual-phase galvanized sheet steel (DP590): traditional analysis and new quality assessment techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie; Pfeif, Erik; Kazakov, Andrei; Baumann, Esther; Dowell, Marla

    2016-03-01

    Laser welding has many advantages over traditional joining methods, yet remains underutilized. NIST has undertaken an ambitious initiative to improve predictions of weldability, reliability, and performance of laser welds. This study investigates butt welding of galvanized and ungalvanized dual-phase automotive sheet steels (DP 590) using a 10 kW commercial fiber laser system. Parameter development work, hardness profiles, microstructural characterization, and optical profilometry results are presented. Sound welding was accomplished in a laser power range of 2.0 kW to 4.5 kW and travel speed of 2000 mm/min to 5000 mm/min. Vickers hardness ranged from approximately 2 GPa to 4 GPa across the welds, with limited evidence of heat affected zone softening. Decreased hardness across the heat affected zone directly correlated to the appearance of ferrite. A technique was developed to non-destructively evaluate weld quality based on geometrical criteria. Weld face profilometry data were compared between light optical, metallographic sample, and frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser detection and ranging (FMCW LADAR) methods.

  15. Assessment of visiting activities for young children using the UNAWE Evaluation Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Akihiko

    2015-08-01

    When the target is young children and the activity type is play, the assessment of the activity is not easy. The table of domains of active learning shown in the EU Universe Awareness Programme Evaluation Guide is useful for the assessment; the Guide shows the four domains; motivation, scientific skills, universe knowledge, and intercultural attitudes, and many items of objectives in each domains. The Guide can be a basic format and the items can be modified so as to fit each activity. Taking my activity as an example, I will present an assessment using the Guide. The activity I will present is "Uchu no O-hanashi," a visiting activity which includeds slide show, story telling, and enjoying pictures on large sheets for children at nursery, kindergarten, preschool and other sites. In order to obtain the data, I have recorded the voice of children. The analysis method is a kind of qualitative one. I picked up "motivation" and "scientific skills" words from the record when they muttered about and asked each other what they felt, what they found, and what they got excited about. Among the items in the "scientific skills domain," looking at carefully, asking, exchanging opinions, interpreting or trying to interpret, and trying were frequently appeared. Other skills such as devising and confirming were not frequently appeared but they would sometimes appear later at home or at school after the activity. I also picked up the words of children obtaining scientific way of view and attitude through the activity. One example is "It seems that stars float in the sky and do not move. Do they really set like the Sun, our nearest star? I never saw stars set!" A boy was trying to make a new framework for his understanding. This kind of thinking will enrich his or her future "universe knowledge" and "intercultural attitudes."

  16. Dynamics of energetic plasma sheet electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burin Des Roziers, Edward

    2009-06-01

    (rising and falling) variations in plasma sheet energetic electron fluxes during a single plasma sheet crossing. Case studies are presented for each type of event. The time it takes to fill/empty the plasma sheet of energetic electrons is quantified based on these events. Extreme events, most of which are associated with enhanced geomagnetic activity, showed that energetic electrons in the plasma sheet can vary up to several orders of magnitude. Interestingly, the energetic electron fluxes inside the plasma sheet can still undergo rapid variations when the solar wind is calm and geomagnetic activity is low.

  17. Observed changes in phenology across the USA: A regional review for the 2013 National Climate Assessment, Southeast Regional Information Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2013-01-01

    This information was developed in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s National Climate Assessment and can be used to facilitate preparation for the cascading effects of ongoing climate change.

  18. Observed changes in phenology across the USA: A regional review for the 2013 National Climate Assessment, Midwest Regional Information Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2013-01-01

    This information was developed in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s National Climate Assessment and can be used to facilitate preparation for the cascading effects of ongoing climate change.

  19. Observed changes in phenology across the USA: A regional review for the 2013 National Climate Assessment, Northeast Regional Information Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2013-01-01

    This information was developed in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s National Climate Assessment and can be used to facilitate preparation for the cascading effects of ongoing climate change.

  20. Observed changes in phenology across the USA: A regional review for the 2013 National Climate Assessment, Southwest Regional Information Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2013-01-01

    This information was developed in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s National Climate Assessment and can be used to facilitate preparation for the cascading effects of ongoing climate change.

  1. Assessing the Sensitivity of Satellite-Derived Estimates of Ice Sheet Mass Balance to Regional Climate Model Simulations of Snow Accumulation and Firn Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, K.; Shepherd, A.; Horwath, M.; Horvath, A.; Nagler, T.; Wuite, J.; Muir, A.; Gilbert, L.; Mouginot, J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are fundamental for assessing and understanding ice sheet mass trends. Mass budget and altimetry assessments rely on RCMs both directly for estimates of the SMB contribution to the total mass trend, and indirectly for ancillary data in the form of firn compaction corrections. As such, mass balance assessments can be highly sensitive to RCM outputs and therefore their accuracy. Here we assess the extent to which geodetic measurements of mass balance are sensitive to RCM model outputs at different resolutions. We achieve this by comparing SMB dependent estimates of mass balance from the mass budget method and altimetry, with those from satellite gravimetry that are independent of SMB estimates. Using the outputs of the RACMO/ANT 2.3 model at 5.5 km and 27 km horizontal spatial resolution, we generate estimates of mass balance using the mass budget method and altimetry for the Western Palmer Land region of the Antarctic Peninsula between 2003 and 2014. We find a 19% increase in the long-term (1980 to 2014) mean annual SMB for the region when enhancing the model resolution to 5.5 km. This translates into an approximate 50% reduction in the total mass loss from 2003 to 2014 calculated with the mass budget method and a 15% increase in the altimetry estimate. The use of the enhanced resolution product leads to consistency between the estimates of mass loss from the altimetry and the mass budget method that is not observed with the coarser resolution product, in which estimates of cumulative mass fall beyond the relative errors. Critically, when using the 5.5 km product, we find excellent agreement, both in pattern and magnitude, with the independent estimate derived from gravimetry. Our results point toward the crucial need for high resolution SMB products from RCMs for mass balance assessments, particularly in regions of high mass turnover and complex terrain as found over the Antarctic Peninsula.

  2. On the reduced sensitivity of the Atlantic overturning to Greenland ice sheet melting in projections: a multi-model assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swingedouw, Didier; Rodehacke, Christian B.; Olsen, Steffen M.; Menary, Matthew; Gao, Yongqi; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Mignot, Juliette

    2014-08-01

    Large uncertainties exist concerning the impact of Greenland ice sheet melting on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) in the future, partly due to different sensitivity of the AMOC to freshwater input in the North Atlantic among climate models. Here we analyse five projections from different coupled ocean-atmosphere models with an additional 0.1 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3/s) of freshwater released around Greenland between 2050 and 2089. We find on average a further weakening of the AMOC at 26°N of 1.1 ± 0.6 Sv representing a 27 ± 14 % supplementary weakening in 2080-2089, as compared to the weakening relative to 2006-2015 due to the effect of the external forcing only. This weakening is lower than what has been found with the same ensemble of models in an identical experimental set-up but under recent historical climate conditions. This lower sensitivity in a warmer world is explained by two main factors. First, a tendency of decoupling is detected between the surface and the deep ocean caused by an increased thermal stratification in the North Atlantic under the effect of global warming. This induces a shoaling of ocean deep ventilation through convection hence ventilating only intermediate levels. The second important effect concerns the so-called Canary Current freshwater leakage; a process by which additionally released freshwater in the North Atlantic leaks along the Canary Current and escapes the convection zones towards the subtropical area. This leakage is increasing in a warming climate, which is a consequence of decreasing gyres asymmetry due to changes in Ekman pumping. We suggest that these modifications are related with the northward shift of the jet stream in a warmer world. For these two reasons the AMOC is less susceptible to freshwater perturbations (near the deep water formation sides) in the North Atlantic as compared to the recent historical climate conditions. Finally, we propose a bilinear model that accounts for the two former

  3. Modeling Harris Current Sheets with Themis Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepko, L.; Angelopoulos, V.; McPherron, R. L.; Apatenkov, S.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Current sheets are ubiquitous in nature. occurring in such varied locations as the solar atmosphere. the heliosphere, and the Earth's magnetosphere. The simplest current sheet is the one-dimensional Harris neutral sheet, with the lobe field strength and scale-height the only free parameters. Despite its simplicity, confirmation of the Harris sheet as a reasonable description of the Earth's current sheet has remained elusive. In early 2009 the orbits of the 5 THEMIS probes fortuitously aligned such that profiles of the Earth's current sheet could be modeled in a time dependent manner. For the few hours of alignment we have calculated the time history of the current sheet parameters (scale height and current) in the near-Earth region. during both quiet and active times. For one particular substorm. we further demonstrate good quantitative agreement with the diversion of cross tail current inferred from the Harris modeling with the ionospheric current inferred from ground magnetometer data.

  4. Civic Engagement Assessment: Linking Activities to Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; O'Leary, Lisa S.; Wilson, Nancy E.; Diaz, Ande

    2007-01-01

    Recently, higher education has witnessed a renewed commitment to the mission of preparing students for lives of active citizenship. Under the leadership of President Lawrence S. Bacow, Tufts University (Medford, Massachusetts) has articulated an institutional mission that embraces three areas of focus: active citizenship, internationalism, and…

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF IRON CASTINGS AND FABRICATED SHEET METAL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expense to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected univ...

  6. Seismic activity triggered by the interaction of ice sheet flow with the Sør Rondane Mountains, East-Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camelbeeck, Thierry; Lombardi, Denis; Martin, Henri; Rapagnani, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    The interactions of the Antarctic ice sheet with the various marginal orogenic belts is poorly understood. To make up for this lack of knowledge we installed in early 2014 in the Sør Rondane Mountains of eastern Queen Maud Land, five new broadband seismic stations, in addition to an existing permanent station setting up a 90 x 30 km wide seismic network. All stations are set up to be year-round autonomously powered, all but one being on rock outcrops. Despite technical problems encountered during winter, several months of data were collected and so far about 1 month of this dataset has been processed. The background seismic noise is found to be low to extremely low with seasonal variations suggesting influence from meteorological conditions. In addition to teleseismic events, a lot of local seismicity is observed and so far 155 local quakes were detected and localized using manual picking and 2 localization methods (Hypo and NonLinLoc). The inferred locations indicate 2 major source regions for these quakes: at the border between the ice sheet and outcropping mountains and within the fastest moving ice flow suggesting that the detected seismicity is correlated with the ice flow dynamics. Further information regarding the quake focal depths and the inferred crustal model will be discussed.

  7. Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) Financing of Renewables and Efficiency: Fact Sheet Series on Financing Renewable Energy Projects (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Speer, B.; Koenig, R.

    2010-07-01

    Under property-assessed clean energy (PACE) and similar programs, municipal financing districts lend the proceeds of bonds to property owners for financing energy retrofits. Property owners who invest in energy efficiency (EE) measures and small renewable energy (RE) systems then repay these loans over 15-20 years via annual assessments on their property tax bills. States and local governments can use PACE bonds to help property owners finance EE and RE projects. This factsheet outlines the benefits of PACE programs and describes how they can be designed, implemented, and funded. The factsheet also summarizes the benefits and challenges experienced by PACE programs in Boulder County, Colorado; Annapolis, Maryland; Berkeley, California; Sonoma County, California; Palm Desert, California; and Babylon, New York.

  8. Strong correlation in acene sheets from the active-space variational two-electron reduced density matrix method: effects of symmetry and size.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, Kenley; Greenman, Loren; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A

    2011-06-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic molecules with importance in several branches of science, including medicine, combustion chemistry, and materials science. The delocalized π-orbital systems in PAHs require highly accurate electronic structure methods to capture strong electron correlation. Treating correlation in PAHs has been challenging because (i) traditional wave function methods for strong correlation have not been applicable since they scale exponentially in the number of strongly correlated orbitals, and (ii) alternative methods such as the density-matrix renormalization group and variational two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) methods have not been applied beyond linear acene chains. In this paper we extend the earlier results from active-space variational 2-RDM theory [Gidofalvi, G.; Mazziotti, D. A. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 134108] to the more general two-dimensional arrangement of rings--acene sheets--to study the relationship between geometry and electron correlation in PAHs. The acene-sheet calculations, if performed with conventional wave function methods, would require wave function expansions with as many as 1.5 × 10(17) configuration state functions. To measure electron correlation, we employ several RDM-based metrics: (i) natural-orbital occupation numbers, (ii) the 1-RDM von Neumann entropy, (iii) the correlation energy per carbon atom, and (iv) the squared Frobenius norm of the cumulant 2-RDM. The results confirm a trend of increasing polyradical character with increasing molecular size previously observed in linear PAHs and reveal a corresponding trend in two-dimensional (arch-shaped) PAHs. Furthermore, in PAHs of similar size they show significant variations in correlation with geometry. PAHs with the strictly linear geometry (chains) exhibit more electron correlation than PAHs with nonlinear geometries (sheets). PMID:21563790

  9. Mapping whole-brain activity with cellular resolution by light-sheet microscopy and high-throughput image analysis (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Rudinskiy, Nikita; Paciscopi, Marco; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Costantini, Irene; Sacconi, Leonardo; Frasconi, Paolo; Hyman, Bradley T.; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-03-01

    Mapping neuronal activity patterns across the whole brain with cellular resolution is a challenging task for state-of-the-art imaging methods. Indeed, despite a number of technological efforts, quantitative cellular-resolution activation maps of the whole brain have not yet been obtained. Many techniques are limited by coarse resolution or by a narrow field of view. High-throughput imaging methods, such as light sheet microscopy, can be used to image large specimens with high resolution and in reasonable times. However, the bottleneck is then moved from image acquisition to image analysis, since many TeraBytes of data have to be processed to extract meaningful information. Here, we present a full experimental pipeline to quantify neuronal activity in the entire mouse brain with cellular resolution, based on a combination of genetics, optics and computer science. We used a transgenic mouse strain (Arc-dVenus mouse) in which neurons which have been active in the last hours before brain fixation are fluorescently labelled. Samples were cleared with CLARITY and imaged with a custom-made confocal light sheet microscope. To perform an automatic localization of fluorescent cells on the large images produced, we used a novel computational approach called semantic deconvolution. The combined approach presented here allows quantifying the amount of Arc-expressing neurons throughout the whole mouse brain. When applied to cohorts of mice subject to different stimuli and/or environmental conditions, this method helps finding correlations in activity between different neuronal populations, opening the possibility to infer a sort of brain-wide 'functional connectivity' with cellular resolution.

  10. Active living environment assessments in four rural Latino communities

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Nagel, Corey; Ko, Linda K.; Duggan, Catherine; Linde, Sandra; Rodriguez, Edgar A.; Thompson, Beti

    2015-01-01

    Objective Latinos and rural residents are less active and have a greater prevalence of overweight/obesity compared with their non-Latino white and urban counterparts. The objective of this study was to assess the active living environment in four rural, predominantly Latino communities. Methods Assessments were taken using the Rural Active Living Assessment (RALA) in four rural predominantly Latino communities in Central Washington from September–November 2013. Street Segment Assessments of town center, thoroughfare, neighborhood and school zones were assessed for features related to walkability. Physical activity amenities, programs and policies in each town were assessed. Scores were generated for amenities, programs and policies. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results A total of 103 segments were assessed. Sidewalks in good condition were present in 32% of segments and shoulders in 44% of segments. Half of street segments were rated as walkable. Parks and playgrounds were available; however, half of these were rated in poor condition. All four districts offered after school physical activity programming but only two had a late bus option. Conclusions These four rural towns have some policies, programming and infrastructure in place that support active living. The information from the RALA can be used to inform program and policy development to enhance physical activity in these rural communities. PMID:26844156

  11. Lightning as a space-weather hazard: UK thunderstorm activity modulated by the passage of the heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, M. J.; Scott, C. J.; Bennett, A. J.; Thomas, S. R.; Lockwood, M.; Harrison, R. G.; Lam, M. M.

    2015-11-01

    Lightning flash rates, RL, are modulated by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) and the polarity of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) in near-Earth space. As the HMF polarity reverses at the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), typically within a CIR, these phenomena are likely related. In this study, RL is found to be significantly enhanced at the HCS and at 27 days prior/after. The strength of the enhancement depends on the polarity of the HMF reversal at the HCS. Near-Earth solar and galactic energetic particle fluxes are also ordered by HMF polarity, though the variations qualitatively differ from RL, with the main increase occurring prior to the HCS crossing. Thus, the CIR effect on lightning is either the result of compression/amplification of the HMF (and its subsequent interaction with the terrestrial system) or that energetic particle preconditioning of the Earth system prior to the HMF polarity change is central to solar wind lightning coupling mechanism.

  12. The RFad Method--a new fatigue recovery time assessment for industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Silva e Santos, Marcello; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez; Moreira, Sergio Bastos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study about fatigue recovery time assessment processes in work activities. It came about due to a demand presented by an automotive industry giant, in need of updating existing cycle time sheets and TAKT time parameters. The company decided to hire an Ergonomics Laboratory with ties to a major Brazilian University in order to evaluate current conditions and establish a new method to either calculate recovery times or validate existing assessment criteria, based in the ergonomics evaluation of the work activities. It is clear that there has been evident evolution in the industrial sector in the past two decades. It brought up fast modernization of industrial processes, not only in production but also in terms of management systems. Due to improved computer and robotics systems, combined with overall operational advancements - like the use of lighter hand tools and more effective hoist systems - most work activities have had its physical effort requirements reduced in the past decades. Thus, compensation factors built into production times need to be reviewed in order to avoid unnecessary costs associated to them. By using ergonomics considerations, we prevent simply removing the physical variables built in rest time calculations without taking on account, for example, additional cognitive load represented by the use of more sophisticated pieces of equipment. PMID:22316952

  13. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  14. Large-scale thrusting along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southwest Tarim basin: 230 km long active Hotian thrust sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Suppe, John; Liang, Hang; He, Dengfa

    2014-05-01

    We present the geometry, kinematics and mechanics of large-scale thrusting in the West Kunlun Shan and the southwest Tarim Basin, which is associated with the northward motion of Tibet. The great frontal structure is the ~230km long intact bedding parallel Hotian thrust sheet composed of strata of the Tarim Basin lying above a regional gypsum horizon at the base of the Cenozoic sequence. The toe of the Hotian thrust sheet steps steeply to the surface two thirds of the way across the basin forming the Selibuya-Mazartag hills in the sand desert. The Hotan thrust constitutes one of the longest active intact thrust sheets in the world, showing little internal deformation, however at its back it steps down to a Cambrian detachment at the base of the Paleozoic below a belt of complex high-amplitude anticlines near the front of the West Kunlun Shan, which display break-forward imbricate and wedge structure. More interior, steep reverse faults such as the Tieklik thrust bring older strata to the surface, including Paleozoic basement. The Cambrian detachment also extends northward under the Tarim basin with minor hanging-wall deformation that warps the Hotian Thrust sheet locally, causing the development of growth strata in the Hotian thrust sheet that providesa quantitative record of its motion over these warps. Seismic profiles in the southwest Tarim basin reveal widespread growth strata that record much of the structural history beginning in the early Pliocene Atushi Formation. Ages of seismic reflectors are calibrated to a surface magnetostratigraphic sequence(from Zheng et al., 2000)and traced throughout the seismic grid. The bottom of the growth strata is dated at 3.6 Ma indicating a Pliocene and younger age of thrusting and folding in the southwest Tarim Basin. Structural restoration suggests minimum shortening greater than 35km. The Tieklik thrust consumed at least 10 km in early Pliocene. The fold-and-thrust belts of the southwest Tarim basin shortened >25km in

  15. Marketing Education Assessment Guide. Performance-Based Activities with Authentic Assessments Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Donna R.

    This guide presents performance-based authentic assessment ideas, samples, and suggestions to help marketing teachers and students respond to changes and pressures from outside the classroom. It contains 21 activities, each accompanied by a method of authentic assessment. In most cases, the authentic assessment method is a scoring device. The…

  16. Assessment as a Scholarly Activity?: Faculty Perceptions of and Willingness to Engage in Student Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli; Hurley, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of survey data collected at a liberal arts college suggests that faculty perception of assessment as a scholarly activity has a significant relationship with willingness to engage in assessment. This finding indicates the importance of focusing on the scholarly nature of assessment when encouraging faculty participation in assessment…

  17. Keratinocyte cytoskeletal roles in cell sheet engineering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing need to understand cell-cell interactions for cell and tissue engineering purposes, such as optimizing cell sheet constructs, as well as for examining adhesion defect diseases. For cell-sheet engineering, one major obstacle to sheet function is that cell sheets in suspension are fragile and, over time, will contract. While the role of the cytoskeleton in maintaining the structure and adhesion of cells cultured on a rigid substrate is well-characterized, a systematic examination of the role played by different components of the cytoskeleton in regulating cell sheet contraction and cohesion in the absence of a substrate has been lacking. Results In this study, keratinocytes were cultured until confluent and cell sheets were generated using dispase to remove the influence of the substrate. The effects of disrupting actin, microtubules or intermediate filaments on cell-cell interactions were assessed by measuring cell sheet cohesion and contraction. Keratin intermediate filament disruption caused comparable effects on cell sheet cohesion and contraction, when compared to actin or microtubule disruption. Interfering with actomyosin contraction demonstrated that interfering with cell contraction can also diminish cell cohesion. Conclusions All components of the cytoskeleton are involved in maintaining cell sheet cohesion and contraction, although not to the same extent. These findings demonstrate that substrate-free cell sheet biomechanical properties are dependent on the integrity of the cytoskeleton network. PMID:23442760

  18. Immigrant Youth Demographics. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios; Lopez, Mark Hugo

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet compares the numbers of 18-25 year-old immigrants by nativity status, gender, race, ethnicity, geographic distribution, country of origin, year of arrival, marital status, educational attainment, and assesses population trends from 1994-2006. These numbers are based on Current Population Survey data. An appendix presents: 2006 At a…

  19. EADB: An Estrogenic Activity Database for Assessing Potential Endocrine Activity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active chemicals can potentially have adverse effects on both humans and wildlife. They can interfere with the body’s endocrine system through direct or indirect interactions with many protein targets. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are one of the major targets, and many ...

  20. Personnel Dose Assessment during Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Akkurt, Hatice; Patton, Bruce W

    2010-01-01

    A leading candidate in the detection of special nuclear material (SNM) is active interrogation (AI). Unlike passive interrogation, AI uses a source to enhance or create a detectable signal from SNM (usually fission), particularly in shielded scenarios or scenarios where the SNM has a low activity. The use of AI thus makes the detection of SNM easier or, in some scenarios, even enables previously impossible detection. During the development of AI sources, significant effort is put into determining the source strength required to detect SNM in specific scenarios. Usually during this process, but not always, an evaluation of personnel dose is also completed. In this instance personnel dose could involve any of the following: (1) personnel performing the AI; (2) unknown stowaways who are inside the object being interrogated; or (3) in clandestine interrogations, personnel who are known to be inside the object being interrogated but are unaware of the interrogation. In most instances, dose to anyone found smuggling SNM will be a secondary issue. However, for the organizations performing the AI, legal if not moral considerations should make dose to the personnel performing the AI, unknown stowaways, or innocent bystanders in clandestine interrogations a serious concern.

  1. Exploring Formative Assessment Using Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asghar, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    Formative assessment is a pedagogic practice that has been the subject of much research and debate, as to how it can be used most effectively to deliver enhanced student learning in the higher education setting. Often described as a complex concept it embraces activities that range from facilitating students understanding of assessment standards,…

  2. Assessing Sustainability of Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, R. P.; Pate, R. R.; Dowda, M.; Ward, D. S.; Epping, J. N.; Dishman, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Sustained intervention effects are needed for positive health impacts in populations; however, few published examples illustrate methods for assessing sustainability in health promotion programs. This paper describes the methods for assessing sustainability of the Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP). LEAP was a comprehensive…

  3. Assessing the antimicrobial activities of Ocins.

    PubMed

    Choyam, Shilja; Lokesh, Dhanashree; Kempaiah, Bettadaiah Bheemakere; Kammara, Rajagopal

    2015-01-01

    The generation of a zone of inhibition on a solid substrate indicates the bioactivity of antimicrobial peptides such as bacteriocin and enterocin. The indicator strain plays a significant role in bacteriocin assays. Other characteristics of bacteriocins, such as their dispersal ability and the different zymogram components, also affect bacteriocin assays. However, universal well diffusion assays for antimicrobials, irrespective of their ability to diffuse (bacteriocin and enterocin), do not exist. The ability of different zymography components to generate non-specific activities have rarely been explored in the literature. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the impact of major factors (diffusion and rate of diffusion) in a solid substrate bioassay, and to document the adverse effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate in zymograms used to estimate the approximate molecular weight of bacteriocins. PMID:26441952

  4. Assessing the antimicrobial activities of Ocins

    PubMed Central

    Choyam, Shilja; Lokesh, Dhanashree; Kempaiah, Bettadaiah Bheemakere; Kammara, Rajagopal

    2015-01-01

    The generation of a zone of inhibition on a solid substrate indicates the bioactivity of antimicrobial peptides such as bacteriocin and enterocin. The indicator strain plays a significant role in bacteriocin assays. Other characteristics of bacteriocins, such as their dispersal ability and the different zymogram components, also affect bacteriocin assays. However, universal well diffusion assays for antimicrobials, irrespective of their ability to diffuse (bacteriocin and enterocin), do not exist. The ability of different zymography components to generate non-specific activities have rarely been explored in the literature. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the impact of major factors (diffusion and rate of diffusion) in a solid substrate bioassay, and to document the adverse effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate in zymograms used to estimate the approximate molecular weight of bacteriocins. PMID:26441952

  5. Apollo experience report: Assessment of metabolic expenditures. [extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.; Hawkins, W. R.; Humbert, G. F.; Nelson, L. J.; Vogel, S. J.; Kuznetz, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A significant effort was made to assess the metabolic expenditure for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. After evaluation of the real-time data available to the flight controller during extravehicular activity, three independent methods of metabolic assessment were chosen based on the relationship between heart rate and metabolic production, between oxygen consumption and metabolic production, and between the thermodynamics of the liquid-cooled garment and metabolic production. The metabolic assessment procedure is analyzed and discussed. Real-time use of this information by the Apollo flight surgeon is discussed. Results and analyses of the Apollo missions and comments concerning future applications are included.

  6. Assessment Results Following Inquiry and Traditional Physics Laboratory Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Joel Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Preservice elementary teachers in a conceptual physics course were given multiple resources to use during several inquiry activities in order to investigate how materials were chosen, used, and valued. These students performed significantly better on assessment items related to the inquiry physics activities than on items related to traditional…

  7. Assessing High School Student Learning on Science Outreach Lab Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Courtney L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of hands-on laboratory activities on secondary student learning was examined. Assessment was conducted over a two-year period, with 262 students participating the first year and 264 students the second year. Students took a prequiz, performed a laboratory activity (gas chromatography of alcohols, or photosynthesis and respiration), and…

  8. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  9. [Assessment of DNAse activity by the rivanol clot method].

    PubMed

    Generalova, A G; Generalov, I I

    1997-11-01

    A method for assessing DNAse activity in various biological substrata is offered. It is based on the capacity of rivanol to form a clot with DNA inversely proportionate to depolymeraization of DNAse under the effect of nucleases of different origin. The sensitivity of the method is more than 10 times higher than of viscosimetry and the alcohol clot formation test. In addition, the new method permits quantitative assessment of the clot, with the detection performed by any colorimetric or fluorimetric method. The method is adapted to measurement of the activities of commercial DNAse preparations, serum and immunoglobulin DNAse, and bacterial nuclease activities. PMID:9471317

  10. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease After a comprehensive review of evidence, there ...

  11. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  12. A model of job activity description for workplace accommodation assessment.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Joaquin; Sanford, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    Workplace accommodations to enable employees with disabilities to perform essential job tasks are an important strategy ways for increasing the presence of people with disabilities in the labor market. However, assessments, which are crucial to identifying necessary accommodations, are typically conducted using a variety of methods that lack consistent procedures and comprehensiveness of information. This can lead to the rediscovery of the same solutions over and over, inability to replicate assessments and a failure to effectively meet all of an individual's accommodation needs. To address standardize assessment tools and processes, a taxonomy of demand-producing activity factors is needed to complement the taxonomies of demand-producing person and environment factors already available in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The purpose of this article is to propose a hierarchical model of accommodation assessment based on level of specificity of job activity. While the proposed model is neither a taxonomy nor an assessment process, the seven-level hierarchical model provides a conceptual framework of job activity that is the first step toward such a taxonomy as well as providing a common language that can bridge the many approaches to assessment. The model was designed and refined through testing against various job examples. Different levels of activity are defined to be easily linked to different accommodation strategies. Finally, the levels can be cross-walked to the ICF, which enhances its acceptability, utility and universality. PMID:23923694

  13. Optimal swimming of a sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D.; Lauga, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hairlike organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude wave form of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency: the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show that the optimal wave form is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  14. Activities Joining Learning Objectives to Assessments in Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palen, Stacy E.; Larson, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, accreditation boards and other governing bodies have been pushing hard for explicit learning goals and quantitative measures of assessment for general education courses such as Astronomy 101. This added assessment burden can be problematic, especially for harried adjuncts teaching multiple courses at multiple institutions. It would be helpful to have a field-tested set of combined hands-on activities and assessment tools that help instructors meet these assessment requirements. The authors have produced just such a set. We have been using hands-on activities in our classrooms for more than 15 years. These activities require no special equipment or preparation and can be completed within an hour by most students working in groups of two or three. The sections of each activity are arranged in steps, guiding the students from initial knowledge-level questions or practice to a final evaluation or synthesis of what they have just accomplished. Students thus get practice thinking at higher cognitive levels. A recent addition to these activities is the inclusion of formalized learning objectives and accompanying pre- and post-activity questions. The pre-activity questions address common misconceptions, relate familiar analogous terrestrial examples to the activity, and act as a brief refresher meta-concepts like scale factors, measurements, and basic mathematics review. The post-activity questions review the most important concepts introduced in the activity. We present a number of examples as well as a summary as to how we have initiated their use in a large lecture setting of 300 students, in smaller classrooms of 15 students, and in a community college online course.

  15. Activity of Daily Living assessment through wireless sensor data.

    PubMed

    Qing Zhang; Karunanithi, Mohan; Bradford, Dana; van Kasteren, Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    Activity of Daily Living has become a clinical de facto instrument to assess daily functional status of older people living independently at home. Almost all ADLs scales are based on subjective assessment of clinical staff and self-reported responses of the elderly person. A great deal of variability in ADL assessment is likely due to the different cultural beliefs, language and education, and over-assessment of personal capability to potentially avoid negative consequences. This paper proposes automatic and objective ADLs assessment as key component of a technology platform that supports older people to live independently in their home, called Smarter Safer Homes. The objective ADL assessment is achieved through communicating data from simple non-intrusive, wireless sensors placed in a home environment. Pilot sensor data sets were collected over six months from nine independent living homes of participants aged 70+ year. The application of a clustering based, unsupervised learning method on these data sets demonstrates the potential to automatically detect five domains of activity contributing to functional independence. Furthermore, the method provides features that support elderlys self-monitoring of daily activities more regularly, that could provide the potential for timely and early intervention from family and carers. PMID:25570315

  16. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Evaluate Current Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Marszalek, Jolanta; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Rutkowska, Izabela; Kosmol, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of ecological momentary assessment in evaluating physical activity among children, adolescents, and adults. It also determines whether ecological momentary assessment fulfills the criteria of validity, reliability, objectivity, norms, and standardization applied to the tools used for the evaluation of physical activity. Methods. The EBSCO-CINHAL, Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, and SPORTDiscuss databases were reviewed in December 2012 for articles associated with EMA. Results. Of the 20 articles examined, half (10) used electronic methods for data collection, although various methods were used, ranging from pen and paper to smartphone applications. Ten studies used objective monitoring equipment. Nineteen studies were performed over 4 days. While the validity of the EMA method was discussed in 18 studies, only four found it to be objective. In all cases, the EMA procedures were precisely documented and confirmed to be feasible. Conclusions. Ecological momentary assessment is a valid, reliable, and feasible approach to evaluate activity and sedentary behavior. Researchers should be aware that while ecological momentary assessment offers many benefits, it simultaneously imposes many limitations which should be considered when studying physical activity. PMID:25126580

  17. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  18. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  19. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  20. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  1. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  2. Assessing the Biological Activity of the Glucan Phosphatase Laforin.

    PubMed

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Raththagala, Madushi; Gentry, Mathew S; Sanz, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Glucan phosphatases are a recently discovered family of enzymes that dephosphorylate either starch or glycogen and are essential for proper starch metabolism in plants and glycogen metabolism in humans. Mutations in the gene encoding the only human glucan phosphatase, laforin, result in the fatal, neurodegenerative, epilepsy known as Lafora disease. Here, we describe phosphatase assays to assess both generic laforin phosphatase activity and laforin's unique glycogen phosphatase activity. PMID:27514803

  3. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  4. Examining Alignment between State Performance Assessment and Mathematics Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Lane, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe research on the extent to which mathematics classroom activities in Maryland were aligned with Maryland learning outcomes and the Maryland School Performance Assessment Program (MSPAP; Maryland State Department of Education, 1995, 2000). The study was part of a larger research project (S. Lane, C. S. Parke, & C. A. Stone,…

  5. Assessing Environmental Impact: A Secondary School Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nous, Albert P.

    This packet contains information on teaching about environmental impact. Background information is included on the role of environmental impact on our society and environmental risk is also discussed. Environmental impacts are studied using Stages of Assessment. Learning activities and seven lesson plans include: (1) "The Community Initiative";…

  6. Texting to increase adolescent physical activity: Feasibility assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feasibility trials assess whether a behavior change program warrants a definite trial evaluation. This paper reports the feasibility of an intervention consisting of Self Determination Theory-informed text messages, pedometers, and goal prompts to increase adolescent physical activity. A 4-group ran...

  7. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  8. Construction of self-supported three-dimensional TiO2 sheeted networks with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Chao; Bai, Hua; Yan, Yan; Li, Junfang; Yang, Haifeng; Lu, Xiaojing; Xi, Guangcheng

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of toxic gases and liquids using a catalyst and solar energy is an ideal method, compared with landfill and combustion methods. The search for active semiconductor photocatalysts that efficiently decompose contaminations under light irradiation remains one of the most challenging tasks for solar-energy utilization. In this work, free-supporting three-dimensional (3D) nanosheeted hierarchical porous tungsten, titanium, and tin oxide networks were obtained by a facile Lewis acid catalytic binary template route. These networks possess large macroscopic scale (millimeter-sized) and hierarchical macro/mesoporous nanostructure with high surface area and large pore volume. Photocatalytic degradation of Azo dyes demonstrated that the nanosheets-constructed hierarchical porous networks have high photocatalytic activity and stability. The present synthetic route can serve as the new design concept for functional 3D layered porous nanostructures. PMID:24356418

  9. Microcalorimetric and manometric tests to assess anammox activity.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, D; Buttiglieri, G; Ficara, E; Caffaz, S; Lubello, C; Malpei, F

    2009-01-01

    The present study compares two experimental methods to evaluate Anammox activity based on the assessment of (1) the N(2) production rate by a manometric device, as previously proposed, and (2) the heat production rate by a microcalorimeter. Two samples of Anammox suspended biomass were taken from a pilot-plant, and their specific Anammox activity measured by both techniques. Both methods were successfully applied. As for calorimetric tests, they were performed for the first time on Anammox enriched sludge samples. Comparisons between the specific Anammox activities estimated by manometry and calorimetry and between expected (from the reaction enthalpy) and measured heat productions were performed. Promising results were obtained. PMID:19923777

  10. Assessment of toxicity using dehydrogenases activity and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Matyja, Konrad; Małachowska-Jutsz, Anna; Mazur, Anna K; Grabas, Kazimierz

    2016-07-01

    Dehydrogenase activity is frequently used to assess the general condition of microorganisms in soil and activated sludge. Many studies have investigated the inhibition of dehydrogenase activity by various compounds, including heavy metal ions. However, the time after which the measurements are carried out is often chosen arbitrarily. Thus, it can be difficult to estimate how the toxic effects of compounds vary during the reaction and when the maximum of the effect would be reached. Hence, the aim of this study was to create simple and useful mathematical model describing changes in dehydrogenase activity during exposure to substances that inactivate enzymes. Our model is based on the Lagergrens pseudo-first-order equation, the rate of chemical reactions, enzyme activity, and inactivation and was created to describe short-term changes in dehydrogenase activity. The main assumption of our model is that toxic substances cause irreversible inactivation of enzyme units. The model is able to predict the maximum direct toxic effect (MDTE) and the time to reach this maximum (TMDTE). In order to validate our model, we present two examples: inactivation of dehydrogenase in microorganisms in soil and activated sludge. The model was applied successfully for cadmium and copper ions. Our results indicate that the predicted MDTE and TMDTE are more appropriate than EC50 and IC50 for toxicity assessments, except for long exposure times. PMID:27021434

  11. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Brown, Barbara B.; Werner, Carol M.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces: the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals’ trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time. PMID:27213027

  12. Microwave assisted synthesis of sheet-like Cu/BiVO{sub 4} and its activities of various photocatalytic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Li, Li; Yi, Tingting; Zhang, WenZhi; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Lili

    2015-09-15

    The Cu/BiVO{sub 4} photocatalyst with visible-light responsivity was prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase structures, chemical composition and surface physicochemical properties were well-characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance absorption (UV–vis/DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption tests. Results indicate that the crystal structure of synthetic composite materials is mainly monoclinic scheelite BiVO{sub 4}, which is not changed with the increasing doping amount of Cu. In addition, the presence of Cu not only enlarges the range of the composite materials under the visible-light response, but also increases the BET value significantly. Compared to pure BiVO{sub 4}, 1% Cu/BiVO{sub 4}-160 performs the highest photocatalytic activity to degrade methylene blue under the irradiation of ultraviolet, visible and simulated sunlight. In addition, the capture experiments prove that the main active species was superoxide radicals during photocatalytic reaction. Moreover, the 1% Cu/BiVO{sub 4}-160 composite shows good photocatalytic stability after three times of recycling. - Graphical abstract: A series of BiVO{sub 4} with different amounts of Cu doping were prepared by the microwave-assisted method, moreover, which performed the high photocatalytic activities to degrade methylene blue under multi-mode. - Highlights: • A series of Cu/BiVO{sub 4} with different amounts of Cu doping were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • The morphologies of as-samples were different with the amount of Cu doping increased. • Compared with pure BiVO{sub 4}, as-Cu/BiVO{sub 4} showed stronger absorption in the visible light region obviously. • 1% Cu/BiVO{sub 4}-160 performed the high photocatalytic activities to degrade methylene blue under multi-mode. • OH{sup •} and h{sup +} both play important roles in the photocatalytic reaction.

  13. Microwave assisted synthesis of sheet-like Cu/BiVO4 and its activities of various photocatalytic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Li; Yi, Tingting; Zhang, WenZhi; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Lili

    2015-09-01

    The Cu/BiVO4 photocatalyst with visible-light responsivity was prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase structures, chemical composition and surface physicochemical properties were well-characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance absorption (UV-vis/DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption tests. Results indicate that the crystal structure of synthetic composite materials is mainly monoclinic scheelite BiVO4, which is not changed with the increasing doping amount of Cu. In addition, the presence of Cu not only enlarges the range of the composite materials under the visible-light response, but also increases the BET value significantly. Compared to pure BiVO4, 1% Cu/BiVO4-160 performs the highest photocatalytic activity to degrade methylene blue under the irradiation of ultraviolet, visible and simulated sunlight. In addition, the capture experiments prove that the main active species was superoxide radicals during photocatalytic reaction. Moreover, the 1% Cu/BiVO4-160 composite shows good photocatalytic stability after three times of recycling.

  14. Characterization of Chitosan Nanofiber Sheets for Antifungal Application

    PubMed Central

    Egusa, Mayumi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Kaminaka, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan produced by the deacetylation of chitin is a cationic polymer with antimicrobial properties. In this study, we demonstrate the improvement of chitosan properties by nanofibrillation. Nanofiber sheets were prepared from nanofibrillated chitosan under neutral conditions. The Young’s modulus and tensile strength of the chitosan NF sheets were higher than those of the chitosan sheets prepared from dissolving chitosan in acetic acid. The chitosan NF sheets showed strong mycelial growth inhibition against dermatophytes Microsporum and Trichophyton. Moreover, the chitosan NF sheets exhibited resistance to degradation by the fungi, suggesting potentials long-lasting usage. In addition, surface-deacetylated chitin nanofiber (SDCNF) sheets were prepared. The SDCNF sheet had a high Young’s modulus and tensile strength and showed antifungal activity to dermatophytes. These data indicate that nanofibrillation improved the properties of chitosan. Thus, chitosan NF and SDCNF sheets are useful candidates for antimicrobial materials. PMID:26540046

  15. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE DOE COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.

    2012-01-23

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) has established a Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) to foster the sharing of information among performance assessment (PA) and risk assessment practitioners, regulators and oversight personnel. The general intent is to contribute to continuous improvement in the consistency, technical adequacy and quality of implementation of PAs and risk assessments around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP activities have involved commercial disposal facilities and international participants to provide a global perspective. The PA CoP has also sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from on-going modelling activities. The PA CoP encourages activities to provide programmatic and technical assistance in the form of sharing experience and lessons learned with practitioners during the development of PAs and risk assessments. This assistance complements DOE-EM reviews through the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) that are conducted after modelling efforts are completed. Such up-front assistance is providing additional value in terms of improving consistency and sharing of information. There has been a substantial increase in the amount of assistance being provided. The assistance has been well received by practitioners and regulators that have been involved. The paper highlights assistance and sharing of information that has been conducted in the last two years to support activities underway in support of proposed disposal facilities at Paducah, Portsmouth, and the Idaho National Laboratory and tank closure at Hanford.

  16. Risk assessment activities at NIOSH: Information resources and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Stayner, L.T.; Meinhardt, T.; Hardin, B.

    1990-12-31

    Under the Occupational Safety and Health, and Mine Safety and Health Acts, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is charged with development of recommended occupational safety and health standards, and with conducting research to support the development of these standards. Thus, NIOSH has been actively involved in the analysis of risk associated with occupational exposures, and in the development of research information that is critical for the risk assessment process. NIOSH research programs and other information resources relevant to the risk assessment process are described in this paper. Future needs for information resources are also discussed.

  17. Assessing design activity in complex CMOS circuit design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Goldman, Susan R.; Fisher, Doug; Bhuva, Bharat; Glewwe, Grant

    1994-03-01

    This chapter characterizes human problem solving in digital circuit design. We analyze protocols of designers with varying degrees of training, identifying problem solving strategies used by these designers, discuss activity patterns that differentiate designers, and propose these as a tentative basis for assessing expertise in digital design. Throughout, we argue that a comprehensive model of human design should integrate a variety of strategies, which heretofore have been proposed as individually sufficient models of human design problem solving. We close by describing an automated tool for design and its assessment.

  18. Perforating Thin Metal Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Sheets only few mils thick bonded together, punched, then debonded. Three-step process yields perforated sheets of metal. (1): Individual sheets bonded together to form laminate. (2): laminate perforated in desired geometric pattern. (3): After baking, laminate separates into individual sheets. Developed for fabricating conductive layer on blankets that collect and remove ions; however, perforated foils have other applications - as conductive surfaces on insulating materials; stiffeners and conductors in plastic laminates; reflectors in antenna dishes; supports for thermal blankets; lightweight grille cover materials; and material for mockup of components.

  19. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  20. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  1. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  2. Indiana Reading Diagnostic Assessment: Resource & Intervention Guide, First Grade. Additional Activities and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The materials included in this manual are organized according to the Indiana Grade 1 Academic Standards for English/Language Arts. In each section teachers will find: (1) Indiana Grade 1 Academic Standards for English/Language Arts; (2) Assessments: diagnostic/practice pages for skill areas, checklists, and rubrics; (3) Classroom Activities:…

  3. Assessing physical activity preferences in Latino and white preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Olvera, Norma; McCarley, Kendall E; Leung, Patrick; McLeod, Jessica; Rodriguez, Augusto X

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity preferences (PAP) in preadolescent children. 191 Latino and White children (M = 11.9, SD = +/- 0.7) participated. Demographic, anthropometric, and PAP measures were employed. Both Latino and White children reported water play, basketball, and bicycling as their most preferred activities while indoor chores were least preferred. Compared with Latino, White children reported a higher preference for baseball/softball. Exploratory factor analysis of PAP measure indicated a three-factor solution: free play, sports, and exercise. Multiple linear regression models revealed that PAP varied as a function of ethnicity, gender, age, and body mass index. PMID:20128360

  4. Chronic Assessment of Diaphragm Muscle EMG Activity across Motor Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Carlos B.; Seven, Yasin B.; Hurtado-Palomino, Juan N.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

    2011-01-01

    The diaphragm muscle is main inspiratory muscle in mammals. Quantitative analyses documenting the reliability of chronic diaphragm EMG recordings are lacking. Assessment of ventilatory and non-ventilatory motor behaviors may facilitate evaluating diaphragm EMG activity over time. We hypothesized that normalization of diaphragm EMG amplitude across behaviors provides stable and reliable parameters for longitudinal assessments of diaphragm activity. We found that diaphragm EMG activity shows substantial intra-animal variability over 6 weeks, with coefficient of variation (CV) for different behaviors ~29–42%. Normalization of diaphragm EMG activity to near maximal behaviors (e.g., deep breathing) reduced intra-animal variability over time (CV ~22–29%). Plethysmographic measurements of eupneic ventilation were also stable over 6 weeks (CV ~13% for minute ventilation). Thus, stable and reliable measurements of diaphragm EMG activity can be obtained longitudinally using chronically implanted electrodes by examining multiple motor behaviors. By quantitatively determining the reliability of longitudinal diaphragm EMG analyses, we provide an important tool for evaluating the progression of diseases or injuries that impair ventilation. PMID:21414423

  5. Assessing Overweight, Obesity, Diet, and Physical Activity in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Terry T.-K.; Harris, Kari Jo; Lee, Rebecca E.; Nazir, Niaman; Born, Wendi; Kaur, Harsohena

    2003-01-01

    The authors surveyed 738 college students aged 18 to 27 years to assess over weight, obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity. They used BMI (body mass index) [greater than or equal to] 25 kg/m[squared] or BMI [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile and BMI [greater than or equal to] 30 kg/m[squared] or BMI [greater than or equal to] 95th…

  6. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity

    PubMed Central

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy’s path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter’s message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster. PMID:27034978

  7. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity.

    PubMed

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter's message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster. PMID:27034978

  8. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  9. Performance Assessment Assistance Activities in the DOE Complex - 12325

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Phifer, Mark A.; Letourneau, Martin J.

    2012-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) has established a Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) to foster the sharing of information among performance assessment (PA) and risk assessment practitioners, regulators and oversight personnel. The general intent is to contribute to continuous improvement in the consistency, technical adequacy and quality of implementation of PAs and risk assessments around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP activities have involved commercial disposal facilities and international participants to provide a global perspective. The PA CoP has also sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from on-going modelling activities. The PA CoP encourages activities to provide programmatic and technical assistance in the form of sharing experience and lessons learned with practitioners during the development of PAs and risk assessments. This assistance complements DOE-EM reviews through the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) that are conducted after modelling efforts are completed. Such up-front assistance is providing additional value in terms of improving consistency and sharing of information. There has been a substantial increase in the amount of assistance being provided. The assistance has been well received by practitioners and regulators that have been involved. The paper highlights assistance and sharing of information that has been conducted in the last two years to support activities underway in support of proposed disposal facilities at Paducah, Portsmouth, and the Idaho National Laboratory and tank closure at Hanford. DOE-EM established the PA CoP to help improve the consistency and quality of implementation of modelling activities around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP has sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from ongoing

  10. Evidence for in-situ metabolic activity in ice sheets based on anomalous trace gas records from the Vostok and other ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, T.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of trace gas species in ice cores are the primary means for reconstructing the composition of the atmosphere. The longest such record comes from the Vostok core taken from the central portion of the East Antarctic ice sheet [Petit et al., 1999]. In general, the trace gas records from Vostok are utilized as the reference signal when correlating trace gas measurements from other ice cores. The underlying assumption implicit in such endeavors is that the bubbles recovered from the ice cores record the composition of the atmosphere at the time the bubbles were formed. Another implicit assumption is that the composition of the bubbles has not been compromised by the extremely long storage periods within the ice sheet. While there is ample evidence that certain trace gas records (e.g. CO2 and CH4) have probably not been compromised, anomalous nitrous oxide (N2O) measurements from the penultimate glacial termination at Vostok are consistent with in-situ (N2O) production [Sowers, 2001]. In general, trace gas measurements from high altitude tropical/temperate glaciers are higher than expected based on contemporaneous measurements from polar cores. Measurements spanning the last 25kyr from the Sajama ice core from central Bolivia (18oS, 69oW, 6542masl), for example, were 1X-5X higher than contemporaneous values recorded in polar ice cores [Campen et al., 2003]. While other physical factors (like temperature/melting) may contribute to the elevated trace gas levels at these sites, the most likely explanation involves the accumulation of in-situ metabolic trace gas byproducts. Stable isotope measurements provide independent information for assessing the origin of the elevated trace gas levels in select samples. For the penultimate glacial termination at Vostok, the anomalous (N2O) values carry high δ15Nbulk and low δ18Obulk values that would be predicted if the added (N2O) was associated with in-situ nitrification. At Sajama, low δ13CH4 values observed during

  11. Assessment of dual life stage antiplasmodial activity of british seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Spavieri, Jasmine; Allmendinger, Andrea; Kaiser, Marcel; Itoe, Maurice Ayamba; Blunden, Gerald; Mota, Maria M; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-10-01

    Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS) and liver stage (LS) Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14) of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC(50)s around 3 μg/mL). The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10). Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7) cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL). The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds. PMID:24152562

  12. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    PubMed

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  13. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  14. Assessment of Dual Life Stage Antiplasmodial Activity of British Seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Spavieri, Jasmine; Allmendinger, Andrea; Kaiser, Marcel; Itoe, Maurice Ayamba; Blunden, Gerald; Mota, Maria M.; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS) and liver stage (LS) Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14) of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC50s around 3 μg/mL). The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10). Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7) cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL). The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds. PMID:24152562

  15. The thickness history of the northern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: an assessment of glacial isostatic adjustment models, sea-level measurements, and vertical land motion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A.

    2014-12-01

    The fit of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model predictions to 24 relative sea-level histories and an additional 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates constrains the thickness and volume history of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet. The predictions of the best-fit GIA model indicate respective peak ice thicknesses west and east of Hudson Bay of 3.4-3.6 km and approximately 4 km. These values represent, respectively, a large decrease, and a moderate increase, to the load thickness compared to ICE-5G. This result is generally consistent with other GIA studies focussing on space-geodetic constraints. The large reduction to the ice load west of Hudson Bay also reduces the vertical mantle response along the margins of the load centre, which improves the fit to relative sea-level data from the southern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The fit of GIA model predictions to relative sea-level data from the Baffin Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet indicate peak ice thicknesses there of 1.2-1.3 km, a modest reduction compared to ICE-5G. On Baffin Island, the modelled elastic crustal response of the Earth to present-day ice mass changes is large. Accounting for this effect improves the agreement between GPS measurements of vertical crustal motion and the GIA model predictions. However, work is needed to incorporate more detailed observations and modelling of present-day changes to glaciers and ice caps. Overall, the fit to the data is most strongly improved in the region west of Hudson Bay (the χ2 RSL misfit is reduced by a factor of ~4) although the entire revised reconstruction for the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet provides an improved fit to both the regional RSL data (the cumulative χ2 misfit is reduced by a factor of >2) and the GPS data (the RMS misfit is reduced by a factor of 9).

  16. Studies of the Use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Characterize and Assess the Performance of Lacquers Used to Protect Aluminum Sheet and Can Ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohammad

    This study involved investigating the feasibility of using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to assess the performance of coatings used to protect aluminum in beverage containers, and developing an accelerated testing procedure. In the preliminary investigation, tests were performed to ensure that the EIS systems at hand are capable, functional and consistent. This was followed by EIS testing of kitchen-aluminum foil and high-impedance epoxy polymer as a baseline for chemically-active and chemically-inert systems. The ability of EIS to differentiate between intact and flawed coatings was tested by investigating deliberately damaged coatings. The effects of varying the pH and oxygen content on the performance of the coated aluminum samples were also tested. From this investigation, it has been concluded that EIS can be used to differentiate between intact and flawed coatings and detect corrosion before it is visually observable. Signatures of corrosion have been recorded and a preliminary testing procedure has been drawn.

  17. Parent-Offspring Correlations in Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jacobi, David; Caille, Agnès; Borys, Jean-Michel; Lommez, Agnès; Couet, Charles; Charles, Marie-Aline; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is a major component of a healthy lifestyle in youth and adults. To identify determinants of this complex behavior is an important research objective in the process of designing interventions to promote physical activity at population level. In addition to individual determinants, there is evidence documenting familial influences on physical activity. However, the few studies that have addressed this issue with objective measures did not provide data on parent-offspring physical activity relationships throughout childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to assess familial correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity. Methods We measured ambulatory activity in 286 French nuclear families (283 mothers, 237 fathers, and 631 children aged 8–18 years) by pedometer recordings (Yamax Digiwalker DW 450) over a week. Correlations were computed with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for spouse pairs, siblings, mother-offspring, and father-offspring. Data were expressed as steps per day and computed both for the full recording period and separately for weekdays and weekends. Results The correlations were the highest between siblings (r = 0.28, 95%CI: 0.17–0.38). Parent–offspring correlations were significant in mothers (r = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.12–0.30), especially between mothers and daughters (r = 0.24, 95%CI: 0.12–0.36 vs. r = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.05–0.31 for sons), but were almost nonexistent in fathers. Correlations were generally higher on weekend days compared to weekdays. Mother-offspring correlations did not decrease with increasing age of children (r = 0.17, 95%CI: 0.00–0.34 in 8–11-year-olds, r = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.07–0.33 in 12–15-year-olds, and r = 0.25, 95%CI: 0.07–0.39 in ≥16-year-olds). Finally, between-spouse correlations were significant only during weekend days (r = 0.14, 95%CI: 0.01–0.27). Conclusion Ambulatory activity correlated within families, with a

  18. Semiautomated assessment of in vitro activity of potential antileishmanial drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, J D; Gallalee, J V

    1985-01-01

    We have compared the in vitro activity of six agents against macrophage-contained Leishmania tropica amastigotes determined by the conventional Giemsa staining procedure, with the activity determined by the semiautomated assessment of incorporation of radiolabeled uracil into the nucleic acid of the organisms. Although the mean 50% effective dose of Pentostam by Giemsa staining (4.1 micrograms/ml) was somewhat higher than that by uracil incorporation (2.8 micrograms/ml), the ED50S for the other two clinical agents (pentamidine, 0.035 versus 0.037 micrograms/ml; amphotericin B, 0.67 versus 0.70 micrograms/ml) and for three promising experimental agents (ketoconazole, 11.3 versus 11.3 micrograms/ml; the 8-aminoquinoline WR 6026, 1.6 versus 1.5 micrograms/ml formycin B, 0.018 versus 0.017 micrograms/ml) were virtually identical. The radiolabeling technique has several advantages over the Giemsa staining procedure. These include the need for relatively few macrophages, rapid and objective data generation, and viability of the test organism being measured. The successful application of the radiolabeling technique to at least six different chemical classes of compounds suggests that it would be useful for the routine assessment of antileishmanial activity in vitro. PMID:3002244

  19. Assessment of anti-Salmonella activity of boot dip samples.

    PubMed

    Rabie, André J; McLaren, Ian M; Breslin, Mark F; Sayers, Robin; Davies, Rob H

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of pathogens from the external environment into poultry houses via the boots of farm workers and visitors presents a significant risk. The use of boot dips containing disinfectant to help prevent this from happening is common practice, but the effectiveness of these boot dips as a preventive measure can vary. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-Salmonella activity of boot dips that are being used on poultry farms. Boot dip samples were collected from commercial laying hen farms in the UK and tested within 24 hours of receipt at the laboratory to assess their anti-Salmonella activity. All boot dip samples were tested against a field strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis using three test models: pure culture, paper disc surface matrix and yeast suspension model. Of the 112 boot dip samples tested 83.6% were effective against Salmonella in pure culture, 37.3% in paper disc surface matrix and 44.5% in yeast suspension model. Numerous factors may influence the efficacy of the disinfectants. Disinfectants used in the dips may not always be fully active against surface or organic matter contamination; they may be inaccurately measured or diluted to a concentration other than that specified or recommended; dips may not be changed regularly or may have been exposed to rain and other environmental elements. This study showed that boot dips in use on poultry farms are frequently ineffective. PMID:25650744

  20. Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

    1996-07-01

    This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 60}C, and {sup 65}Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated.

  1. Active Piezoelectric Structures for Tip Clearance Management Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Managing blade tip clearance in turbomachinery stages is critical to developing advanced subsonic propulsion systems. Active casing structures with embedded piezoelectric actuators appear to be a promising solution. They can control static and dynamic tip clearance, compensate for uneven deflections, and accomplish electromechanical coupling at the material level. In addition, they have a compact design. To assess the feasibility of this concept and assist the development of these novel structures, the NASA Lewis Research Center developed in-house computational capabilities for composite structures with piezoelectric actuators and sensors, and subsequently used them to simulate candidate active casing structures. The simulations indicated the potential of active casings to modify the blade tip clearance enough to improve stage efficiency. They also provided valuable design information, such as preliminary actuator configurations (number and location) and the corresponding voltage patterns required to compensate for uneven casing deformations. An active ovalization of a casing with four discrete piezoceramic actuators attached on the outer surface is shown. The center figure shows the predicted radial displacements along the hoop direction that are induced when electrostatic voltage is applied at the piezoceramic actuators. This work, which has demonstrated the capabilities of in-house computational models to analyze and design active casing structures, is expected to contribute toward the development of advanced subsonic engines.

  2. Silicon sheet technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1982-09-01

    A classification of silicon sheet growth methods by meniscus geometry permits them to be discussed in three groups: short meniscus techniques, high meniscus techniques, and extended meniscus or large solid/liquid interface area techniques. A second parameter, meniscus shaper interaction with the liquid silicon, is also instrumental in determining the characteristics of the various sheet processes. The current status of each process is discussed in the context of meniscus geometry and shaper/melt interaction. One aspect of sheet growth, surface area generation rate, is quantitatively compared with combined ingot growth and wafering surface area generation rates.

  3. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  4. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; McDonald, Carolyn E.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  5. Protocol for Assessing Antifouling Activities of Macroalgal Extracts.

    PubMed

    Hellio, Claire; Trepos, Rozenn; Aguila-Ramírez, R Noemí; Hernández-Guerrero, Claudia J

    2015-01-01

    The development of novel environmentally friendly antifouling (AF) solutions is a very active field in fundamental and applied research. An attractive option in producing such material resides in biomimetic studies: living organisms have evolved well-adapted structures and materials over geological times through natural selection. In this chapter, we explain the experimental procedure to be followed for the preparation of macroalgal extracts and to assess their AF efficiency towards key species. All bioassays described here have the advantage of being fast, reliable, and standardized. PMID:26108522

  6. A state-of-the-art assessment of active structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A state-of-the-art assessment of active structures with emphasis towards the applications in aeronautics and space is presented. It is felt that since this technology area is growing at such a rapid pace in many different disciplines, it is not feasible to cover all of the current research but only the relevant work as relates to aeronautics and space. Research in smart actuation materials, smart sensors, and control of smart/intelligent structures is covered. In smart actuation materials, piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, shape memory, electrorheological, and electrostrictive materials are covered. For sensory materials, fiber optics, dielectric loss, and piezoelectric sensors are examined. Applications of embedded sensors and smart sensors are discussed.

  7. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  8. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS ... I get more information? What is a cerebral aneurysm? A cerebral aneurysm (also known as an intracranial ...

  9. Sheet electron beam tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Alexander Grenbeaux

    The DARPA HiFIVE project uses a pulsed electron sheet beam gun to power a traveling wave tube amplifier operating at 220 GHz. Presented is a method for characterizing the high current density 0.1 mm by 1 mm sheet electron beam. A tungsten tipped probe was scanned through the cross section of the sheet electron beam inside of a vacuum vessel. The probe was controlled with sub-micron precision using stepper motors and LabView computer control while boxcar averaging hardware sampled the pulsed beam. Matlab algorithms were used to interpret the data, calculate beam dimensions and current density, and create 2-dimensional cross section images. Full characterization of two separate HiFIVE sheet electron guns was accomplished and is also presented.

  10. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  11. Polarised light sheet tomography.

    PubMed

    Reidt, Sascha L; O'Brien, Daniel J; Wood, Kenneth; MacDonald, Michael P

    2016-05-16

    The various benefits of light sheet microscopy have made it a widely used modality for capturing three-dimensional images. It is mostly used for fluorescence imaging, but recently another technique called light sheet tomography solely relying on scattering was presented. The method was successfully applied to imaging of plant roots in transparent soil, but is limited when it comes to more turbid samples. This study presents a polarised light sheet tomography system and its advantages when imaging in highly scattering turbid media. The experimental configuration is guided by Monte Carlo radiation transfer methods, which model the propagation of a polarised light sheet in the sample. Images of both reflecting and absorbing phantoms in a complex collagenous matrix were acquired, and the results for different polarisation configurations are compared. Focus scanning methods were then used to reduce noise and produce three-dimensional reconstructions of absorbing targets. PMID:27409945

  12. Emittance Measurements for a Thin Liquid Sheet Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englehart, Amy N.; McConley, Marc W.; Chubb, Donald L.

    1996-01-01

    The Liquid Sheet Radiator (LSR) is an external flow radiator that uses a triangular-shaped flowing liquid sheet as the radiating surface. It has potentially much lower mass than solid wall radiators such as pumped loop and heat pipe radiators, along with being nearly immune to micrometeoroid penetration. The LSR has an added advantage of simplicity. Surface tension causes a thin (100-300 microns) liquid sheet to coalesce to a point, causing the sheet flow to have a triangular shape. Such a triangular sheet is desirable since it allows for simple collection of the flow at a single point. A major problem for all external flow radiators is the requirement that the working fluid be of very low (approx. 10(sup -8) torr) vapor pressure to keep evaporative losses low. As a result, working fluids are limited to certain oils (such as used in diffusion pumps) for low temperatures (300-400 K) and liquid metals for higher temperatures. Previous research on the LSR has been directed at understanding the fluid mechanics of thin sheet flows and assessing the stability of such flows, especially with regard to the formation of holes in the sheet. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. The latest research has been directed at determining the emittance of thin sheet flows. The emittance was calculated from spectral transmittance data for the Dow Corning 705 silicone oil. By experimentally setting up a sheet flow, the emittance was also determined as a function of measurable quantities, most importantly, the temperature drop between the top of the sheet and the temperature at the coalescence point of the sheet. Temperature fluctuations upstream of the liquid sheet were a potential problem in the analysis and were investigated.

  13. Marine & Hydrokinetic Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-04-01

    This fact sheet describes the U.S. Department of Energy's Water Power Program. The program supports the development of advanced water power devices that capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, rivers, streams, and ocean thermal gradients. The program works to promote the development and deployment of these new technologies, known as marine and hydrokinetic technologies, to assess the potential extractable energy from rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters, and to help industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity.

  14. Optical Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Optical Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Optical Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) conducts optical characterization of large solar concentration devices. Concentration solar power (CSP) mirror panels and concentrating solar systems are tested with an emphasis is on measurement of parabolic trough mirror panels. The Optical Characterization Laboratory provides state-of-the-art characterization and testing capabilities for assessing the optical surface quality and optical performance for various CSP technologies including parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel, dishes, and heliostats.

  15. Dose assessment activities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Simon, S L; Graham, J C

    1996-10-01

    Dose assessments, both retrospective and prospective, comprise one important function of a radiological study commissioned by the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government in late 1989. Estimating past or future exposure requires the synthesis of information from historical data, results from a recently completed field monitoring program, laboratory measurements, and some experimental studies. Most of the activities in the RMI to date have emphasized a pragmatic rather than theoretical approach. In particular, most of the recent effort has been expended on conducting an independent radiological monitoring program to determine the degree of deposition and the geographical extent of weapons test fallout over the nation. Contamination levels on 70% of the land mass of the Marshall Islands were unknown prior to 1994. The environmental radioactivity data play an integral role in both retrospective and prospective assessments. One recent use of dose assessment has been to interpret environmental measurements of radioactivity into annual doses that might be expected at every atoll. A second use for dose assessment has been to determine compliance with a dose action level for the rehabilitation of Rongelap Island. Careful examination of exposure pathways relevant to the island lifestyle has been necessary to accommodate these purposes. Examples of specific issues studied include defining traditional island diets as well as current day variations, sources of drinking water, uses of tropical plants including those consumed for food and for medicinal purposes, the nature and microvariability of plutonium particles in the soil and unusual pathways of exposure, e.g., that which might be associated with cooking and washing outdoors and inadvertent soil ingestion. A study on the prevalence of thyroid disease is also being conducted and the geographic pattern of disease may be useful as a bioindicator of the geographic pattern of exposure to radioiodine. Finally, an

  16. Energy information sheets

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  17. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  18. Current sheet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The model of a rectenna based on the current sheet equivalency of a large planar array is described. The model is mathematically characterized by expression for the fraction of the incident plane wave that is reflected from the sheet. The model is conceptually justified for normal incidence by comparing it to the waveguide model in which evanescent modes, present as beyond and cutoff, correspond to the near field components which become negligible at any significant distance from the antenna array.

  19. Quality assessment and antiplasmodial activity of West African Cochlospermum species.

    PubMed

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Compaoré, Moussa; Meda, Roland N T; Bacher, Markus; Koenig, Karin; Pacher, Thomas; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Noedl, Harald; Willcox, Merlin; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on development of phytochemical methods for quality assessment of two West-African Cochlospermum species (Cochlospermum planchonii and Cochlospermum tinctorium) traditionally used for malaria treatment in Burkina Faso. Antimalarial activity of preparations from dried rhizomes (decoction) was tested against the chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium strain 3D7 using the histidine-rich protein II (HRP2) drug susceptibility assay and compared with extract preparations using organic solvents of different polarity. Two main apocarotenoids were isolated from rhizomes of C. planchonii and unambiguously identified as dihydrocochloxanthine and cochloxanthine by spectroscopic methods. Comparative HPLC analyses of thirty-nine (39) samples from markets and from collections in natural habitats of both species showed a high variability in the accumulation of cochloxanthines and related carotenoids which were proven to be characteristic for rhizomes of both species and generally absent in leaves. Furthermore, content of total phenolics and antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) as well as haemolytic activity of various extracts was tested. The HPLC method presented here was validated and provides a good separation of both compounds including 10 minor carotenoids. Extracts from both species and pure cochloxanthine offered pronounced antioxidant activities and weak haemolytic activity while, in contrast, dihydrocochloxanthine had a strong haemolytic effect at the highest concentration analysed. However, cochloxanthine as well as dihydrocochloxanthine showed erythroprotective effects against the haemolytic activity of the reference saponin. Moderate antiplasmodial activity between 16 and 63 μg/ml were observed with all tested extracts, and lower IC50 values were obtained with pure dihydrocochloxanthine (IC50=6.9 μg/ml), cochloxanthine (IC50=6.8 μg/ml), the DCM fraction (IC50=2.4 μg/ml) and the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50=11.5μg/ml) derived from a methanolic

  20. Barcoding Human Physical Activity to Assess Chronic Pain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Perruchoud, Christophe; Buchser, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern theories define chronic pain as a multidimensional experience – the result of complex interplay between physiological and psychological factors with significant impact on patients' physical, emotional and social functioning. The development of reliable assessment tools capable of capturing the multidimensional impact of chronic pain has challenged the medical community for decades. A number of validated tools are currently used in clinical practice however they all rely on self-reporting and are therefore inherently subjective. In this study we show that a comprehensive analysis of physical activity (PA) under real life conditions may capture behavioral aspects that may reflect physical and emotional functioning. Methodology PA was monitored during five consecutive days in 60 chronic pain patients and 15 pain-free healthy subjects. To analyze the various aspects of pain-related activity behaviors we defined the concept of PA ‘barcoding’. The main idea was to combine different features of PA (type, intensity, duration) to define various PA states. The temporal sequence of different states was visualized as a ‘barcode’ which indicated that significant information about daily activity can be contained in the amount and variety of PA states, and in the temporal structure of sequence. This information was quantified using complementary measures such as structural complexity metrics (information and sample entropy, Lempel-Ziv complexity), time spent in PA states, and two composite scores, which integrate all measures. The reliability of these measures to characterize chronic pain conditions was assessed by comparing groups of subjects with clinically different pain intensity. Conclusion The defined measures of PA showed good discriminative features. The results suggest that significant information about pain-related functional limitations is captured by the structural complexity of PA barcodes, which decreases when the intensity of pain

  1. Annual Sea Level Variability Induced by Changes in Sea Ice Extent and Accumulation on Ice Sheets: An Assessment Based on Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. J.; Giovinetto, M. B.

    1997-01-01

    Changes of mean annual net accumulation at the surface on the grounded ice sheets of East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and Greenland in response to variations in sea ice extent are estimated using grid-point values 100 km apart. The data bases are assembled principally by bilinear interpolation of remotely sensed brightness temperature (Nimbus-5 ESMR, Nimbus-7 SMMR), surface temperature (Nimbus-7 THIR), and surface elevation (ERS-1 radar altimeter). These data, complemented by field data where remotely sensed data are not available, are used in multivariate analyses in which mean annual accumulation (derived from firn emissivity) is the dependent variable; the independent variables are latitude, surface elevation, mean annual surface temperature, and mean annual distance to open ocean (as a source of energy and moisture). The last is the shortest distance measured between a grid point and the mean annual position of the 10% sea ice concentration boundary, and is used as an index of changes in sea ice extent as well as of mean concentration. Stepwise correlation analyses indicate that variations in sea ice extent of +/-50 km would lead to changes in accumulation inversely of +/-4% on East Antarctica, +/- 10% on West Antarctica, and +4% on Greenland. These results are compared with those obtained in a previous study using visually interpolated values from contoured compilations of field data; they substantiate the findings for the Antarctic ice sheets (+/-4% on East Antarctica, +/-9% in West Antarctica), and suggest a reduction by one half of the probable change of accumulation on Greenland (from +/-8%). The results also suggest a reduction of the combined contribution to sea level variability to +/- 0.19 mm/a (from +/- 0.22 mm/a).

  2. Free-Living Physical Activity in COPD: Assessment with Accelerometer and Activity Checklist

    PubMed Central

    MATTHESS, KIRBY; STOLZMANN, KELLY; REILLY, JOHN; GARSHICK, ERIC

    2009-01-01

    Rationale In order to assess participation in physical activities (PA) and disability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we evaluated the use of an accelerometer and checklist to measure free-living PA. Methods 17 males with stable COPD completed a daily activity checklist for 14 days. 10 subjects concurrently wore an accelerometer (FitSense, Southborough, MA) that records steps per day. Regression models assessed relationships between steps per day, number of daily checklist activities performed, and clinical measures of COPD status. Results The average steps per day ranged from 406 to 4,856. The median intra-subject coefficient of variation for steps per day was 0.52 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.41-0.58) and for number of daily checklist activities performed was 0.28 (IQR 0.22-0.32). A higher number of steps per day were associated with a greater distance walked on the 6-minute walk test and better health-related quality of life. A higher number of daily checklist activities performed was associated with a higher FEV1 % predicted and lower BODE index. Conclusions It is feasible to prospectively measure free-living PA in COPD using an unobtrusive accelerometer and simple activity checklist. There is low intra-subject variation in free-living PA, which is significantly associated with clinical measures of COPD status. PMID:19533541

  3. West Antarctic Ice Sheet Initiative. Volume 2: Discipline Reviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Seven discipline review papers are presented on the state of the knowledge of West Antarctica and opinions on how that knowledge must be increased to predict the future behavior of this ice sheet and to assess its potential to collapse, rapidly raising the global sea level. These are the goals of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Initiative (WAIS).

  4. Development of Transcriptional Fusions to Assess Leptospira interrogans Promoter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Souza, Natalie M.; Araújo, Eduardo R.; Barros, Aline T.; Morais, Zenaide M.; Vasconcellos, Sílvio A.; Nascimento, Ana L. T. O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that affects both humans and animals. The existing genetic tools for Leptospira spp. have improved our understanding of the biology of this spirochete as well as the interaction of pathogenic leptospires with the mammalian host. However, new tools are necessary to provide novel and useful information to the field. Methodology and Principal Findings A series of promoter-probe vectors carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) were constructed for use in L. biflexa. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the lipL41, Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like A (ligA) and Sphingomielynase 2 (sph2) promoters from L. interrogans and the reporter gene. ligA and sph2 promoters were the most active, in comparison to the lipL41 promoter and the non-induced controls. The results obtained are in agreement with LigA expression from the L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 strain. Conclusions The novel vectors facilitated the in vitro evaluation of L. interrogans promoter activity under defined growth conditions which simulate the mammalian host environment. The fluorescence and rt-PCR data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the promoters, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in L. biflexa. PMID:21445252

  5. Volunteering among High School Students. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet explores volunteering among high school students, ages 16-18. Overall, volunteering among high school students was down slightly in 2006 as compared to 2005. Additional information includes types of volunteer organizations and activities, and ways that high school students become involved in these activities. Volunteer rate vary by…

  6. Assessment of denitrifying bacterial composition in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Srinandan, C S; Shah, Mrinal; Patel, Bhavita; Nerurkar, Anuradha S

    2011-10-01

    The abundance and structure of denitrifying bacterial community in different activated sludge samples were assessed, where the abundance of denitrifying functional genes showed nirS in the range of 10(4)-10(5), nosZ with 10(4)-10(6) and 16S rRNA gene in the range 10(9)-10(10) copy number per ml of sludge. The culturable approach revealed Pseudomonas sp. and Alcaligenes sp. to be numerically high, whereas culture independent method showed betaproteobacteria to dominate the sludge samples. Comamonas sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates showed efficient denitrification, while Pseudomonas mendocina, Pseudomonas stutzeri and Brevundimonas diminuta accumulated nitrite during denitrification. Numerically dominant RFLP OTUs of the nosZ gene from the fertilizer factory sludge samples clustered with the known isolates of betaproteobacteria. The data also suggests the presence of different truncated denitrifiers with high numbers in sludge habitat. PMID:21868215

  7. Biological activity assessment of a novel contraceptive antimicrobial agent.

    PubMed

    Garg, A; Anderson, R A; Zaneveld, L J D; Garg, S

    2005-01-01

    Microbicides are a new category of compounds being developed as a prophylactic approach for the prevention of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These are primarily being developed as women-controlled methods, with the target of designing new compounds or formulations that can be used without the knowledge of a male partner. Microbicide screening can be initially based on their hyaluronidase-inhibiting (HI) activity, as this enzyme plays a major role in the sperm and microbe penetration into the substrate. Derivatives of hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid glycoside, have been reported in the literature for their HI effects. Hesperidin was thereby sulphonated under strictly controlled conditions and the active fraction isolated and characterized, based on its HI activity. This derivative was screened for antimicrobial and enzyme-inhibitory activities, specifically for the reproductive tract. Sulphonated hesperidin (SH) was found to completely inhibit the sperm enzymes hyaluronidase, giving an indication toward its contraceptive effects. It was also been found to inhibit various sexually transmitted pathogens, including Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, HIV, and Herpes Simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Its safety assessment was based on its noninterference in sperm motility and its penetration through the cervical mucus, and no effect on the growth of lactobacilli, the normal vaginal flora. It was also found to be nontoxic to the HIV substrate cells (MT2 cells). The study concludes that sulphonated hesperidin can be developed as a potential microbicide for a dual prophylaxis of contraception and transmission of STDs and AIDS. PMID:15867010

  8. Unobtrusive assessment of activity patterns associated with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, T.L.; Abendroth, F.; Adami, A.; Pavel, M.; Zitzelberger, T.A.; Kaye, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Timely detection of early cognitive impairment is difficult. Measures taken in the clinic reflect a single snapshot of performance that may be confounded by the increased variability typical in aging and disease. We evaluated the use of continuous, long-term and unobtrusive in-home monitoring to assess neurological function in healthy and cognitively impaired elders. Methods Fourteen older adults 65 years and older living independently in the community were monitored in their homes using an unobtrusive sensor system. Measures of walking speed and amount of activity in the home were obtained. Wavelet analysis was used to examine variance in activity at multiple timescales. Results More than 108,000 person-hours of continuous activity data were collected over periods as long as 418 days (mean 315 ± 82 days). The coefficient of variation in the median walking speed was twice as high in the MCI group (0.147 ± 0.074) as compared to the healthy group (0.079 ± 0.027; t11 = 2.266, p<0.03). Furthermore, the 24-hour wavelet variance was greater in the MCI group (MCI: 4.07 ± 0.14, Healthy elderly: 3.79± 0.23; F = 7.58, p=<0.008), indicating that the day-to-day pattern of activity of subjects in the MCI group was more variable than that of the cognitively healthy controls. Conclusions The results not only demonstrate the feasibility of these methods, but also suggest clear potential advantages to this new methodology. This approach may provide an improved means of detecting the earliest transition to MCI compared to conventional episodic testing in a clinic environment. PMID:19012864

  9. Satellite remote sensing for ice sheet research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.; omplexity of the land cover and land use p; omplexity of the land cover and land use p

    1985-01-01

    Potential research applications of satellite data over the terrestrial ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica are assessed and actions required to ensure acquisition of relevant data and appropriate processing to a form suitable for research purposes are recommended. Relevant data include high-resolution visible and SAR imagery, infrared, passive-microwave and scatterometer measurements, and surface topography information from laser and radar altimeters.

  10. Geomorphic Indices in the Assessment of Tectonic Activity in Forearc of the Active Mexican Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidzik, K.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of GIS techniques and constant advancement of digital elevation models significantly improved the accuracy of extraction of information on active tectonics from landscape features. Numerous attempts were made to quantitatively evaluate recent tectonic activity using GIS and DEMs, and a set of geomorphic indices (GI), however these studies focused mainly on sub-basins or small-scale areal units. In forearc regions where crustal deformation is usually large-scale and do not concentrate only along one specific fault, an assessment of the complete basin is more accurate. We present here the first attempt to implement thirteen GI in the assessment of active tectonics of a forearc region of an active convergent margin using the entire river basins. The GIs were divided into groups: BTAI - basin geomorphic indices (reflecting areal erosion vs. tectonics) and STAI - stream geomorphic indices (reflecting vertical erosion vs. tectonics). We calculated selected indices for 9 large (> 450 km2) drainage basins. Then we categorized the obtained results of each index into three classes of relative tectonic activity: 1 - high, 2 - moderate, and 3 - low. Finally we averaged these classes for each basin to determine the tectonic activity level (TAI). The analysis for the case study area, the Guerrero sector at the Mexican subduction zone, revealed high tectonic activity in this area, particularly in its central and, to a lesser degree, eastern part. This pattern agrees with and is supported by interpretation of satellite images and DEM, and field observations. The results proved that the proposed approach indeed allows identification and recognition of areas witnessing recent tectonic deformation. Moreover, our results indicated that, even though no large earthquake has been recorded in this sector for more than 100 years, the area is highly active and may represent a seismic hazard for the region.

  11. Structure activity relationships to assess new chemicals under TSCA

    SciTech Connect

    Auletta, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), manufacturers must notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 90 days before manufacturing, processing, or importing a new chemical substance. This is referred to as a premanufacture notice (PMN). The PMN must contain certain information including chemical identity, production volume, proposed uses, estimates of exposure and release, and any health or environmental test data that are available to the submitter. Because there is no explicit statutory authority that requires testing of new chemicals prior to their entry into the market, most PMNs are submitted with little or no data. As a result, EPA has developed special techniques for hazard assessment of PMN chemicals. These include (1) evaluation of available data on the chemical itself, (2) evaluation of data on analogues of the PMN, or evaluation of data on metabolites or analogues of metabolites of the PMN, (3) use of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), and (4) knowledge and judgement of scientific assessors in the interpretation and integration of the information developed in the course of the assessment. This approach to evaluating potential hazards of new chemicals is used to identify those that are most in need of addition review of further testing. It should not be viewed as a replacement for testing. 4 tabs.

  12. Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  13. Manufacturing Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Manufacturing Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Manufacturing Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) focuses on developing methods and technologies that will assist manufacturers of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, as well as other renewable energy technologies, to scale up their manufacturing capabilities to volumes that meet DOE and industry targets. Specifically, the manufacturing activity is currently focused on developing and validating quality control techniques to assist manufacturers of low temperature and high temperature fuel cells in the transition from low to high volume production methods for cells and stacks. Capabilities include initial proof-of-concept studies through prototype system development and in-line validation. Existing diagnostic capabilities address a wide range of materials, including polymer films, carbon and catalyst coatings, carbon fiber papers and wovens, and multi-layer assemblies of these materials, as well as ceramic-based materials in pre- or post-fired forms. Work leading to the development of non-contact, non-destructive techniques to measure critical dimensional and functional properties of fuel cell and other materials, and validation of those techniques on the continuous processing line. This work will be supported by materials provided by our partners. Looking forward, the equipment in the laboratory is set up to be modified and extended to provide processing capabilities such as coating, casting, and deposition of functional layers, as well as associated processes such as drying or curing. In addition, continuous processes are used for components of organic and thin film photovoltaics (PV) as well as battery technologies, so synergies with these important areas will be explored.

  14. Criminal investigations and the Superfund program. Fact sheet (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The fact sheet, directed toward any one who witnesses fraudulent activity in EPA programs, discusses areas in which fraud and abuse can occur and provides an understanding of the criminal investigation process that results from reports of suspicious activity.

  15. Energy information sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  16. THE MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION ASSESSMENT: A MEASURE OF ENGAGEMENT IN PERSONALLY VALUED ACTIVITIES*

    PubMed Central

    EAKMAN, AARON M.; CARLSON, MIKE E.; CLARK, FLORENCE A.

    2011-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement. PMID:20649161

  17. A pincer-shaped plasma sheet at Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, C.M.; Walker, R.J.; Kivelson, M.G. )

    1990-09-01

    A model from Voigt et al. (1987) and an MHD simulation from Walker et al. (1989) both show that the curvature of the plasma sheet at Uranus changes as the dipole tilt varies between 38{degree} and 22{degree}. The models suggest that one of the two partial traversals of the uranian plasma sheet made during the outbound trajectory of Voyager 2 can be explained as an entry into the highly curved plasma sheet that develops when Uranus is near the maximum dipole tilt value of 38{degree}; previously both partial traversals have been explained as anomalous. The spacecraft would have reversed its motion relative to the plasma sheet as the continued rotation diminished the dipole tilt and the retreating plasma sheet uncurled. As the dipole tilt approached its minimum value, spacecraft motion towards the neutral sheet resumed and the traversal of the plasma sheet was completed. Evidence from the PWS plasma wave detector suggests that the spacecraft trajectory skimmed the plasma sheet boundary layer for several hours prior to the partial immersion. The plasma sheet of the Voigt et al. model was not located near the spacecraft during this time interval. On the other hand, the MHD simulation reveals a plasma sheet that is more curved than in the Boigt et al. model; near maximum dipole tilt, the plasma sheet is pincer-shaped. The unusual geometry implies that Voyager 2 remained near the plasma sheet boundary layer during the period suggested by the PWS data. Thus the simulation accounts easily for the first of the plasma sheet encounters previously called anomalous. The second partial immersion remains anomalous, having previously been related to substorm activity, and thus is not discussed here. The stagnation distances of the earth and Uranus at the nose of the magnetopause were used to scale the Walker et al. (1989) simulation of the terrestrial magnetosphere to represent the uranian magnetosphere.

  18. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET #21, Showing the house as restored since Survey. (Dormer windows omitted as not authentic) - Samuel des Marest House, River Road, New Milford, Bergen County, NJ

  19. 71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 3; DECEMBER 20, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Modeling and Analysis of CSP Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of modeling and analysis of CSP systems: assessing the solar resource, predicting performance and cost, studying environmental impact, and developing modeling software packages.

  1. New Stream-Reach Hydropower Development (NSD) Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-25

    This fact sheet explores the more than 65 gigawatts (GW) of sustainable hydropower potential in U.S. stream-reaches, according to the hydropower resource assessment funded by DOE and executed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  2. Observed changes in phenology across the USA: A regional review for the 2013 National Climate Assessment, Hawaii and Pacific Islands Regional Information Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2013-01-01

    This information was developed in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s National Climate Assessment and can be used to facilitate preparation for the cascading effects of ongoing climate change.

  3. Observed changes in phenology across the USA: A regional review for the 2013 National Climate Assessment, Great Plains Regional Information Sheet.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2013-01-01

    This information was developed in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s National Climate Assessment and can be used to facilitate preparation for the cascading effects of ongoing climate change.

  4. Observed changes in phenology across the USA: A regional review for the 2013 National Climate Assessment, Pacific Northwest Regional Information Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2013-01-01

    This information was developed in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s National Climate Assessment and can be used to facilitate preparation for the cascading effects of ongoing climate change.

  5. Observed changes in phenology across the USA: A regional review for the 2013 National Climate Assessment, Alaska and the Arctic Regional Information Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2013-01-01

    This information was developed in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s National Climate Assessment and can be used to facilitate preparation for the cascading effects of ongoing climate change.

  6. Paleoclimate perspectives on Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Near- and long-term future projections of global mean sea level rise (SLR) are hampered by a lack of understanding of the potential dynamic contribution of the polar ice sheets, and in particular the Antarctic ice sheets. With the completion of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Assessment Report a major challenge continues to be placing an upper bound in sea-level projections for 2100 and beyond. The so-called "deterministic" approach which sums observed- and model-projected trends in the known contributions (e.g. ice sheet and glacier surface mass balance, ocean thermal expansion and ground water storage changes) implies a "likely" upper bound of +100cm by 2080-2100. The "semi-empirical" approach which scales past observed sea-level change to mean surface temperature, and uses this relationship to scale future temperature scenarios, predicts a significantly higher upper bound of up to ~2m by 2100. The discrepancy between the two approaches may in part reflect the poorly understood contribution of ice dynamics - that is the rate of flow of ice sheets into the ocean. An ensemble of Antarctic ice sheet models produces highly divergent results for future sea-level projections, primarily because of uncertainties around the mass changes in the East Antarctic Ice Sheet with some models showing increased precipitation driving a positive mass balance overall, even with loss of the marine-based West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Current best estimates suggest a 10-20cm dynamic ice sheet contribution by 2100 to global SLR. Of concern is that marine based ice sheets are highly sensitive to increases in ocean temperature at their margins and rapid disintegration may ensue if the ice sheets grounding lines retreat into deep sub-glacial basins. Recent studies show the highest rates of ice sheet thinning and retreat are occurring at locations around the WAIS where the surface ocean has warmed, and that some WAIS loss may now be irreversible. Geological records allow

  7. 78 FR 3824 - Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for Activities (Outside...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 117 Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of... comment on, a document entitled ``Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations.... II. Qualitative Risk Assessment As explained in the draft RA, we conducted the qualitative...

  8. 78 FR 64428 - Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal Food Combinations for Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 507 Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of... requesting comment on, a document entitled ``Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal...(n) of the FD&C Act. II. Qualitative Risk Assessment As explained in the draft RA, we conducted...

  9. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the active thermal control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the available NASA FMEA/CIL data. Discrepancies from the comparison were documented, and where enough information was available, recommendations for resolution of the discrepancies were made. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter ATCS hardware. The IOA product for the ATCS independent analysis consisted of 310 failure mode worksheets that resulted in 101 potential critical items (PCI) being identified. A comparison was made to the available NASA data which consisted of 252 FMEAs and 109 CIL items.

  10. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ∼3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas. PMID:25908601

  11. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ∼3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas. PMID:25908601

  12. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ~3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas.

  13. Quick Information Sheets. 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Trace Center.

    The Trace Center gathers and organizes information on communication, control, and computer access for handicapped individuals. The information is disseminated in the form of brief sheets describing print, nonprint, and organizational resources and listing addresses and telephone numbers for ordering or for additional information. This compilation…

  14. Quick Information Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Trace Center.

    This compilation of "Trace Quick Sheets" provides descriptions, prices, and ordering information for products and services that assist with communication, control, and computer access for disabled individuals. Product descriptions or product sources are included for: adaptive toys and toy modifications; head pointers, light pointers, and…

  15. Insulation Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Heating and cooling account for 50-70% of the energy consumed in the average American home. Heating water accounts for another 20%. A poorly insulated home loses much of this energy, causing drafty rooms and high energy bills. This fact sheet discusses how to determine if your home needs more insulation, the additional thermal resistance (called…

  16. Ethanol Myths Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    Ethanol is a clean, renewable fuel that is helping to reduce our nation’s dependence on oil and can offer additional economic and environmental benefits in the future. This fact sheet is intended to address some common misconceptions about this important alternative fuel.

  17. GED Testing Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GED Testing Service, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This GED Testing fact sheet provides information on: (1) GED[R] Tests; (2) Versions and Editions of the GED Tests; (3) Earning a Credential; (4) GED Testing Service[R]; (5) History of the GED Tests; (6) Who Accepts the GED Credential; (7) Public/Private Partnership of GEDTS; (8) Renowned GED Credential Recipients; (9) GED Testing Numbers for 2008;…

  18. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  19. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  20. Reading Recovery. [Fact Sheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This set of 10 fact sheets (each 2 to 4 pages long) addresses aspects of Reading Recovery, a program that helps children to be proficient readers and writers by the end of the first grade. It discusses the basic facts of Reading Recovery; Reading Recovery for Spanish literacy; Reading Recovery lessons; Reading Recovery professional development;…

  1. Regional Patterns of Blowing Snow Dynamics on the Antarctic Ice Sheet from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR), Assessed with In Situ and Remote Sensing data (2000-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, R.; Tedesco, M.; Fettweis, X.; Gallee, H.; Booth, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The erosion and sublimation of blowing snow in Antarctica is a considerable source of error in surface mass balance estimates of the Antarctic Ice sheet. These processes are also crucial to an understanding of near-surface atmospheric processes at the margins. Because ground measurements of blowing snow are difficult to capture, regional climate models (RCMs) are crucial to an understanding of the phenomenon. Here, we present a comparison of outputs of two implementations of the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) RCM at a 50 km resolution over Antarctica for the period 2000-2011. While previous versions of MAR have been run for time periods beginning in 1958, this abbreviated run was performed specifically to test the blowing snow routine. The model is forced at the boundaries with 6-hourly reanalysis data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The two MAR configurations are identical except for the implementation of blowing snow dynamics. The differences in surface and atmospheric outputs between the models can therefore isolate the seasonal and regional effects of blowing snow. We determine spatio-temporal patterns of covariance between variables over the entire 11-year period, as well as inter-seasonal trends within each year using Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The most prominent of these patterns pinpoints specific regions and time periods for model outputs which are compared with available temperature, surface pressure, wind speed and relative humidity data from Automatic Weather Stations as well as with radiosonde data generally available at the ice sheet margins (made available by the University of Wisconsin-Madison). Additionally, model outputs in selected areas are compared with satellite data (MODIS surface temperature and pressure) to assess the robustness of these trends. The analysis shows that there are specific regions and weeks in the winter where increased blowing snow flux corresponds to

  2. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for the Rubella fact sheet page. The current fact sheet can ... http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/diseases/child/rubella.html Print page Share Compartir File Formats Help: ...

  3. Fast Light-Sheet Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, William W., Jr.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Bartram, Scott M.

    1995-01-01

    Optomechanical apparatus maintains sheet of pulsed laser light perpendicular to reference axis while causing sheet of light to translate in oscillatory fashion along reference axis. Produces illumination for laser velocimeter in which submicrometer particles entrained in flow illuminated and imaged in parallel planes displaced from each other in rapid succession. Selected frequency of oscillation range upward from tens of hertz. Rotating window continuously shifts sheet of light laterally while maintaining sheet parallel to same plane.

  4. Plasma sheet ion energization during dipolarization events

    SciTech Connect

    Delcourt, D.C. ); Sauvaud, J.A. )

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents simulation results for acceleration processes for ions during what are referred to as dipolarization events associated with storm activity. Time variations of magnetic fields over cyclotron periods, and generation of electric fields parallel to the geomagnetic field, both contribute to ion acceleration in the plasma sheet. Calculations support the observation of earthward injection of ions during such events.

  5. Characterisation of carbon nanotube pastes for field emission using their sheet resistances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floweri, Octia; Kim, Jihan; Seo, Yongho; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung

    2015-10-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) pastes for field emitters were fabricated by varying the milling speed, CNT amount and glass frit (GF) powder size. The CNTs remained agglomerated at lower milling speeds while they were damaged and shortened at higher speeds. Increasing the amount of CNTs improved the field emission properties, but excessive CNTs led to increased removal of the CNT paste with surface activation because of lower cohesion strength. Small GF particles were incorporated to provide a flat surface to the CNT paste, which improved its field emission uniformity and lifespan. The dispersion, density and milling damage characteristics of CNTs in the pastes were assessed by their sheet resistances under the assumption of equal printed thicknesses. Tape activation reduced the thickness of the CNT pastes by different amounts that depended on the cohesion strength of the paste. This reduction caused the sheet resistance to increase. For all cases in this study, the field emission properties of the CNT pastes were closely related to their sheet resistances, suggesting that sheet resistance could be used as a figure-of-merit for the evaluation of CNT pastes for field emission applications.

  6. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 33 skill sheets for agricultural mechanics was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Some sheets teach operational procedures while others are for simple projects. Each skill sheet covers a single topic and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step construction or operational…

  7. Beginning Child Care Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Pat

    These six fact sheets from Child Care Aware are designed to help parents ease their children's transition to child care. The first fact sheet, "Before Your Child's First Day," discusses tips such as: (1) "prepare your child"; (2) read and look at picture books about child care; and (3) "prepare yourself." The second fact sheet, "First Day Tips,"…

  8. The Physics of Ice Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassis, J. N.

    2008-01-01

    The great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are vast deposits of frozen freshwater that contain enough to raise sea level by approximately 70 m if they were to completely melt. Because of the potentially catastrophic impact that ice sheets can have, it is important that we understand how ice sheets have responded to past climate changes and…

  9. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Turner, D. D.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (+/-5.2) W m-2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  10. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Lhermitte, Stef; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Noël, Brice; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Turner, David D.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m‑2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  11. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    PubMed Central

    Van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Turner, D. D.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m−2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise. PMID:26756470

  12. 78 FR 8190 - Commercial Wind Leasing and Site Assessment Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...BOEM is reopening the comment period announced in the Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment (EA) for Commercial Wind Leasing and Site Assessment Activities on the OCS Offshore North...

  13. Evaluation Tools to Guide Students' Peer-Assessment and Self-Assessment in Group Activities for the Lab and Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation tools are provided that help students' peer-assessment and self-assessment in group activities for the laboratories and classroom. The self- and peer-evaluations have helped teachers provide better feedback to the students and feel more confident in assigning each individual a grade for their contribution to the group laboratory project.

  14. Ice-sheet response to oceanic forcing.

    PubMed

    Joughin, Ian; Alley, Richard B; Holland, David M

    2012-11-30

    The ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica are losing ice at accelerating rates, much of which is a response to oceanic forcing, especially of the floating ice shelves. Recent observations establish a clear correspondence between the increased delivery of oceanic heat to the ice-sheet margin and increased ice loss. In Antarctica, most of these processes are reasonably well understood but have not been rigorously quantified. In Greenland, an understanding of the processes by which warmer ocean temperatures drive the observed retreat remains elusive. Experiments designed to identify the relevant processes are confounded by the logistical difficulties of instrumenting ice-choked fjords with actively calving glaciers. For both ice sheets, multiple challenges remain before the fully coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere models needed for rigorous sea-level projection are available. PMID:23197526

  15. Evolution of a Coupled Marine Ice Sheet - Sea Level Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, N.; Pollard, D.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Huybers, P.; Clark, P. U.

    2012-04-01

    the ice-sheet model is forced from steady state, then on short timescales (< ~500 years) viscous effects may be ignored and grounding-line migration at a given time will depend on the local bedrock topography and on contemporaneous sea-level changes driven by ongoing ice-sheet mass flux. On longer timescales, an accurate assessment of the present stability of a marine ice sheet requires knowledge of its past evolution. We end with a discussion of the first results of simulations in which post-glacial sea-level physics is coupled to a 3D, dynamic model of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  16. Free-standing carbon nanotube-titania photoactive sheets.

    PubMed

    Koo, Youngmi; Malik, Rachit; Alvarez, Noe; Shanov, Vesselin N; Schulz, Mark; Sankar, Jag; Yun, Yeoheung

    2015-06-15

    We report on the development of a new photoactive material via titania (TiO2) nanoparticle deposition on free-standing aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets. Controlling homogeneous dispersion of negatively charged TiO2 nanoparticles, achieved by adjusting pH higher than the point of zero charge (PZC), influenced electrochemical deposition of TiO2 on CNT sheets substrate. Varying deposition time with constant voltage, 5 V allowed different thickness of TiO2 to be deposited layer on the CNT sheets. The thickness and morphology of CNT-TiO2 sheets was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical experiments show that diffusion coefficient of Fe(CN)6(3-) was 5.56×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) at pristine CNT sheets and 2.19×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) at the CNT-TiO2 sheets. Photocatalytic activity for CNT-TiO2 sheets exhibits high photocurrent density (when deposition time=30 min, 4.3 μA cm(-2) in N2, 13.4 μA cm(-2) in CO2). This paper proved a possibility to use CNT-TiO2 sheets based on highly-aligned CNT sheets substrate as new photoactive material. PMID:25725399

  17. Assessing global vegetation activity using spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Vera L.; van Eck, Christel M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Regnier, Pierre A. G.

    2016-04-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of modelling vegetation activity using a hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal model. This approach allows modelling changes in vegetation and climate simultaneous in space and time. Changes of vegetation activity such as phenology are modelled as a dynamic process depending on climate variability in both space and time. Additionally, differences in observed vegetation status can be contributed to other abiotic ecosystem properties, e.g. soil and terrain properties. Although these properties do not change in time, they do change in space and may provide valuable information in addition to the climate dynamics. The spatio-temporal Bayesian models were calibrated at a regional scale because the local trends in space and time can be better captured by the model. The regional subsets were defined according to the SREX segmentation, as defined by the IPCC. Each region is considered being relatively homogeneous in terms of large-scale climate and biomes, still capturing small-scale (grid-cell level) variability. Modelling within these regions is hence expected to be less uncertain due to the absence of these large-scale patterns, compared to a global approach. This overall modelling approach allows the comparison of model behavior for the different regions and may provide insights on the main dynamic processes driving the interaction between vegetation and climate within different regions. The data employed in this study encompasses the global datasets for soil properties (SoilGrids), terrain properties (Global Relief Model based on SRTM DEM and ETOPO), monthly time series of satellite-derived vegetation indices (GIMMS NDVI3g) and climate variables (Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset). The findings proved the potential of a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling approach for assessing vegetation dynamics, at a regional scale. The observed interrelationships of the employed data and the different spatial and temporal trends support

  18. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  19. Temporal variations of membrane foulants in the process of using flat-sheet membrane for simultaneous thickening and digestion of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhiwei

    2011-07-01

    Membrane foulants were extracted at different operation time in simultaneous sludge thickening and digestion reactors using flat-sheet membranes. Temporal variations of foulants were analyzed by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, gel filtration chromatography (GFC), particle size distribution (PSD) and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Results showed that during the first 4days fouling was mainly assigned to internal membrane foulants (IMFs), and afterwards external membrane foulants (EMFs) increased dramatically. EEM analysis showed that both IMFs and EMFs changed during the operation. Cluster analysis demonstrated that the characteristics of IMFs were relatively similar; however, both quantity and properties of EMFs were changed. GFC analysis showed that EMFs contained more molecules with large molecular weight compared to IMFs. PSD analysis illuminated that particle size of EMFs gradually increased and was larger than that of IMFs. ATR-FTIR analysis indicated that the foulants on membranes consisted of polysaccharides and proteins. PMID:21555218

  20. Calcium ion-induced formation of β-sheet/-turn structure leading to alteration of osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; He, Hongyan; Tian, Yu; Gan, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Preserving bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) still remains a challenge in protein-based therapy. It is not known how Ca2+ released from extracellular matrix or existing in physiological environment influences bioactivity in situ till now. Here, effects of extracellular Ca2+ on conformation and osteogenic bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) were investigated systematically. In vitro results indicated that Ca2+ could bind rhBMP-2 rapidly and had no obvious effect on cell behaviors. Low concentration of Ca2+ (0.18 mM) enhanced rhBMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation, while high Ca2+ concentration (>1.80 mM) exerted negative effect. In vivo ectopic bone formation exhibited similar trend. Further studies by circular dichroism spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, together with cell culture experiments revealed at low concentration, weak interaction of Ca2+ and rhBMP-2 slightly increased β-sheet/-turn content and facilitated recognition of BMP-2 and BMPRIA. But, high Ca2+ concentration (>1.8 mM) induced formation of Ca-rhBMP-2 complex and markedly increased content of β-sheet/-turn, which led to inhibition binding of rhBMP-2 and BMPRIA and thus suppression of downstream Smad1/5/8, ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-associated protein kinase signaling pathways. Our work suggests osteogenic bioactivity of BMP-2 can be adjusted via extracellular Ca2+, which should provide guide and assist for development of BMP-2-based materials for bone regeneration. PMID:26212061

  1. SHEET PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, O.A.

    1962-07-17

    An ion-electron plasma heating apparatus of the pinch tube class was developed wherein a plasma is formed by an intense arc discharge through a gas and is radially constricted by the magnetic field of the discharge. To avoid kink and interchange instabilities which can disrupt a conventional arc shortiy after it is formed, the apparatus is a pinch tube with a flat configuration for forming a sheet of plasma between two conductive plates disposed parallel and adjacent to the plasma sheet. Kink instabilities are suppressed by image currents induced in the conductive plates while the interchange instabilities are neutrally stable because of the flat plasma configuration wherein such instabilities may occur but do not dynamically increase in amplitude. (AEC)

  2. Authentic Assessment: Active, Engaging Product and Performance Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurr, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    AMLE's hot new release provides teachers with more than 60 ways to authentically assess student learning. Whether it's researching and describing Lewis and Clark's discoveries of the western frontier in a traditional journal format or writing blog entries from the perspective of a cell, students will learn to demonstrate and assess their own…

  3. Confidentiality in Classroom Assessment Activities: Lessons from Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Andrew M.; Santanello, Cathy R.; Kirn, Kim L.

    2006-01-01

    The primary goal of classroom assessment is the improvement of student learning rather than the evaluation of teaching through observation. Many formative assessment techniques, including the group instructional feedback technique (GIFT), electronic mail feedback, and small group instructional diagnosis, carry an implicit or explicit promise of…

  4. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  5. Topographical atlas sheets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, George Montague

    1876-01-01

    The following topographical atlas sheets, accompanying Appendix J.J. of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army-being Annual Report upon U. S. Geographical Surveys-have been published during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, and are a portion of the series projected to embrace the territory of the United States lying west of the 100th meridian.

  6. Silicon sheet surface studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danyluk, S.

    1985-06-01

    Results of the program are presented on developing an understanding of the basic mechanisms of abrasion and wear of silicon and on the nondestructive measurement of residual stresses in sheet silicon. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures and in the presence of various fluids. In abrasive wear, it was shown that dislocations, microtwins, and cracks are generated beneath the contact surface. Residual stresses in ribbon by the edge defined film growth process were measured by use of a shadow moire interferometry technique.

  7. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  8. Experimental investigation of a 1 kA/cm2 sheet beam plasma cathode electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Narayan Pal, Udit; Kumar Pal, Dharmendra; Prajesh, Rahul; Prakash, Ram

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a cold cathode based sheet-beam plasma cathode electron gun is reported with achieved sheet-beam current density ˜1 kA/cm2 from pseudospark based argon plasma for pulse length of ˜200 ns in a single shot experiment. For the qualitative assessment of the sheet-beam, an arrangement of three isolated metallic-sheets is proposed. The actual shape and size of the sheet-electron-beam are obtained through a non-conventional method by proposing a dielectric charging technique and scanning electron microscope based imaging. As distinct from the earlier developed sheet beam sources, the generated sheet-beam has been propagated more than 190 mm distance in a drift space region maintaining sheet structure without assistance of any external magnetic field.

  9. Experimental investigation of a 1 kA/cm² sheet beam plasma cathode electron gun.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Niraj; Pal, Udit Narayan; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Prajesh, Rahul; Prakash, Ram

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a cold cathode based sheet-beam plasma cathode electron gun is reported with achieved sheet-beam current density ∼1 kA/cm(2) from pseudospark based argon plasma for pulse length of ∼200 ns in a single shot experiment. For the qualitative assessment of the sheet-beam, an arrangement of three isolated metallic-sheets is proposed. The actual shape and size of the sheet-electron-beam are obtained through a non-conventional method by proposing a dielectric charging technique and scanning electron microscope based imaging. As distinct from the earlier developed sheet beam sources, the generated sheet-beam has been propagated more than 190 mm distance in a drift space region maintaining sheet structure without assistance of any external magnetic field. PMID:25638082

  10. Sense and readability: participant information sheets for research studies

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til

    2016-01-01

    Background Informed consent in research is partly achieved through the use of information sheets. There is a perception however that these information sheets are long and complex. The recommended reading level for patient information is grade 6, or 11–12 years old. Aims To investigate whether the readability of participant information sheets has changed over time, whether particular study characteristics are related to poorer readability and whether readability and other study characteristics are related to successful study recruitment. Method We obtained 522 information sheets from the UK National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network: Mental Health portfolio database and study principal investigators. Readability was assessed with the Flesch reading index and the Grade level test. Results Information sheets increased in length over the study period. The mean grade level across all information sheets was 9.8, or 15–16 years old. A high level of patient involvement was associated with more recruitment success and studies involving pharmaceutical or device interventions were the least successful. The complexity of information sheets had little bearing on successful recruitment. Conclusions Information sheets are far more complex than the recommended reading level of grade 6 for patient information. The disparity may be exacerbated by an increasing focus on legal content. Researchers would benefit from clear guidance from ethics committees on writing succinctly and accessibly and how to balance the competing legal issues with the ability of participants to understand what a study entails. PMID:26382948

  11. Titanium Sheet Fabricated from Powder for Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, William H; Muth, Thomas R; Chen, Wei; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Jolly, Brian C; Stone, Nigel; Cantin, G.M.D.; Barnes, John; Paliwal, Muktesh; Smith, Ryan; Capone, Joseph; Liby, Alan L; Williams, James C; Blue, Craig A

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with Ametek and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory has evaluated three different methods for converting titanium hydride-dehydride (HDH) powder into thin gauge titanium sheet from a roll compacted preform. Methodologies include sintering, followed by cold rolling and annealing; direct hot rolling of the roll-compacted sheet; and hot rolling of multiple layers of roll compacted sheet that are encapsulated in a steel can. All three methods have demonstrated fully consolidated sheet, and each process route has the ability to produce sheet that meets ASTM B265 specifications. However, not every method currently provides sheet that can be highly formed without tearing. The degree of sintering between powder particles, post processing density, and the particle to particle boundary layer where compositional variations may exist, have a significant effect on the ability to form the sheet into useful components. Uniaxial tensile test results, compositional analysis, bend testing, and biaxial testing of the titanium sheet produced from hydride-dehydride powder will be discussed. Multiple methods of fabrication and the resulting properties can then be assessed to determine the most economical means of making components for industrial applications.

  12. INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON OF MOTOR ACTIVITY EXPERIMENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR NEUROTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Motor activity is an important functional measure used in neurotoxicology the effects of chemicals on motor activity, however, may depend on variables such as, type of measurement apparatus, physical and environmental testing conditions, and many other experimental protocol and o...

  13. Validation of uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers for the assessment of physical activity in preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the unique physical activity patterns of preschoolers, wearable electronic devices for quantitative assessment of physical activity require validation in this population. Study objective was to validate uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers in preschoolers. Room calorimetry was performed over 3...

  14. An Approach for Performance Assessments of Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benosn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of two sets of prototype EVA gloves developed ILC Dover and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. Both companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test subjects representing the design-to hand

  15. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  16. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  17. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  18. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  19. Solar: A Clean Energy Source for Utilities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts with utilities to remove the technical, regulatory, and market challenges they face in deploying solar technologies.

  20. Strengthening America's Energy Security with Offshore Wind (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the current state of the offshore wind industry in the United States and the offshore wind research and development activities conducted the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program.

  1. Solar America Cities Awards: Solar America Initiative Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Solar America Cities activities within the Solar America Initiative and lists the 25 cities that have received financial awards from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. The thermographic nondestructive evaluation of iron aluminide green sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Michael Lee

    The recent development of manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of thin iron aluminide sheet requires advanced quantitative methods for on-line inspection. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for flaws and the development of appropriate flaw detection methods are key elements in an effective quality management system. The first step in the fabrication of thin FeAl alloy sheet is the formation of a green sheet by cold rolling FeAl powder mixed with organic binding agents. The green sheet composite has a bulk density, which is typically less than about 3.6 g/cc. The finished sheet, with a density of about 6.1 g/cc, is obtained using a series of process steps involving binder elimination, densification, sintering, and annealing. Non-uniformities within the green sheet are the major contributor to material failure in subsequent sheet processing and the production of non-conforming finished sheet. The production environment and physical characteristics of the composite provide for unique challenges in developing a rapid nondestructive inspection capability. The method must be non-contact due to the fragile nature of the composite. Limited access to the material also demands a one-sided inspection technique. An active thermographic method providing for 100% on-line inspection within an industrial, process has been developed. This approach is cost competitive with alternative technologies, such as x-ray imaging systems, and provides the required sensitivity to the variations in material composition. The mechanism of flaw formation and the transformation of green sheet flaws into defects that appear in intermediate and finished sheet products are described. A mathematical model which describes the green sheet heat transfer propagation, in the context of the inspection technique and the compact heterogeneity, is also presented. The potential for feedback within the production process is also discussed.

  3. MESSENGER Observations of Asymmetries at Mercury's Magnetotail Current Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, Gangkai; Slavin, James; Jia, Xianzhe; Raines, Jim; Sun, Wei-Jie; Genestreti, Kevin; Smith, Andy; Gershman, Daniel; Anderson, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Dawn-dusk asymmetries in the Earth's magnetotail current sheet have been observed and remain an active area of research. With an internal magnetic dipole field structure similar to Earth's, similar dawn-dusk asymmetries might be expected in Mercury's magnetotail current sheet. However, no observation of dawn-dusk asymmetries has been reported in the structure of Mercury's magnetotail. Using 4 years of MESSENGER's magnetic field and plasma data, we analyzed 319 current sheet crossings. From the polarity of Bz in the cross-tail current sheet, we determined that MESSENGER is on closed field lines about 90% of the time. During the other 10% MESSENGER observed negative Bz indicating that it was tailward of the Near Mercury Neutral Line (NMNL). The Bz magnetic field is also observed to be higher at the dawnside than the duskside of the magnetotail current sheet by approximately a factor of three. Further the asymmetry decreases with increasing downstream distance. A reduction (enhancement) in Bz should correspond to a more (less) stretched and thinned (thickened) current sheet. Analysis of current sheet thickness based upon MESSENGER's observations confirms this behavior with mean current sheet thickness and Bz intensity having dawn-dusk asymmetries with the same sense. Plasma β in the current sheet also exhibits a dawn-dusk asymmetry opposite to that of Bz. This is consistent with expectations based on MHD stress balance. Earlier studies had shown a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the heavy ion in Mercury's magnetotail. We suggest that this enhancement of heavy ions in the duskside current sheet, due to centrifugal acceleration of ions from the cusp and gradient-curvature drift from the NMNL, may provide a partial explanation of the dawn-dusk current sheet asymmetries found in this study.

  4. Concentrating Solar Power Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. CSP is a dispatchable, renewable energy option that uses mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. CSP systems can store solar energy to be used when the sun is not shining. It will help meet the nation’s goal of making solar energy fully cost-competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. Worldwide, CSP activity is rapidly scaling, with approximately 10 gigawatts (GW) in various stages of operation or development. In the United States alone, nearly 2 GW of CSP are in operation.

  5. Magnetic sheet steel lamination detection, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, F. J.; Syniuta, W. D.

    1980-08-01

    Research to assess the feasibility of a nondestructive magnetic inspection technique for detecting defective sheet steel is reported. A major problem in the deep drawing and stamping industry is the failure of sheet steel due to laminations which occur when the steel is formed into various shapes or processed further. A continuous nondestructive testing method was developed based upon differences in magnetic properties of acceptable steel and defective steel. The technique assumes an increase in the magnetic hardness of the defect compared to the base material. Experimental results obtained with the artificial flaw demonstrate that it is possible to sense magnetic differences in sheet steel if the differences are large enough. However, as the differences in magnetic hardness diminish, or where thin surface defects or internal laminations occur, detection becomes increasingly difficult. Moreoever, it has not been established that all sheet steel defects are magnetically harder than unflawed material. It was concluded that the technique, which can detect only some flaws and is incapable of detecting many important defects, would be only marginally useful.

  6. Evaluating the implementation of a pain management flow sheet.

    PubMed

    Joyce, B A; Keck, J F; Gerkensmeyer, J E

    1999-10-01

    This study evaluated the outcome of implementing a pain flow sheet, using protocols derived from the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) guidelines for pain management, for children recovering from surgery. Findings indicated the flow sheet was not used as designed; thus, implementing the flow sheet did not result in increased documentation of pain assessments, interventions, and outcomes, except in the increased documentation of nonpharmacological interventions for pain management. Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory gives insight as to why this occurred and provides rationale for more intensive in-service education when new innovations are implemented. PMID:10554443

  7. Determining Greenland Ice Sheet Accumulation Rates from Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, Kenneth C.

    2001-01-01

    An important component of NASA's Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA) is a mass balance investigation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The mass balance is calculated by taking the difference between the snow accumulation and the ice discharge of the ice sheet. Uncertainties in this calculation include the snow accumulation rate, which has traditionally been determined by interpolating data from ice core samples taken throughout the ice sheet. The sparse data associated with ice cores, coupled with the high spatial and temporal resolution provided by remote sensing, have motivated scientists to investigate relationships between accumulation rate and microwave observations.

  8. Ice sheets play important role in climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Peter U.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.; Andrews, John T.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    Ice sheets once were viewed as passive elements in the climate system enslaved to orbitally generated variations in solar radiation. Today, modeling results and new geologic records suggest that ice sheets actively participated in late-Pleistocene climate change, amplifying or driving significant variability at millennial as well as orbital timescales. Although large changes in global ice volume were ultimately caused by orbital variations (the Milankovitch hypothesis), once in existence, the former ice sheets behaved dynamically and strongly influenced regional and perhaps even global climate by altering atmospheric and oceanic circulation and temperature.Experiments with General Circulation Models (GCMs) yielded the first inklings of ice sheets' climatic significance. Manabe and Broccoli [1985], for example, found that the topographic and albedo effects of ice sheets alone explain much of the Northern Hemisphere cooling identified in paleoclimatic records of the last glacial maximum (˜21 ka).

  9. Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Thomas, Robert H.; Abdalati, Waleed (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA) is a NASA-sponsored initiative with the prime objective of understanding the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. In October 1998, PARCA investigators met to review activities of the previous year, assess the program's progress, and plan future investigations directed at accomplishing that objective. Some exciting results were presented and discussed, including evidence of dramatic thinning of the ice sheet near the southeastern coast. Details of the investigations and many of the accomplishments are given in this report, but major highlights are given in the Executive Summary of the report.

  10. Assessment of nerve morphology in nerve activation during electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Tames, Jose; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-10-01

    The distance between nerve and stimulation electrode is fundamental for nerve activation in Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TES). However, it is not clear the need to have an approximate representation of the morphology of peripheral nerves in simulation models and its influence in the nerve activation. In this work, depth and curvature of a nerve are investigated around the middle thigh. As preliminary result, the curvature of the nerve helps to reduce the simulation amplitude necessary for nerve activation from far field stimulation.

  11. Capacity Building as a Tool for Assessing Training and Development Activity: An Indian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnaveni, R.; Sripirabaa, B.

    2008-01-01

    In recognition of its increasing importance, many organizations make periodic assessments of their training and development activity. The objective of the present study was to extend the concept of capacity building to the assessment of training and development activity in an automobile component manufacturing organization, using a developed and…

  12. Assessing Physical Activity in Children with Asthma: Convergent Validity between Accelerometer and Electronic Diary Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floro, Josh N.; Dunton, Genevieve F.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    Convergent validity of accelerometer and electronic diary physical activity data was assessed in children with asthma. Sixty-two participants, ages 9-18 years, wore an accelerometer and reported their physical activity level in quarter-hour segments every 2 hr using the Ambulatory Diary Assessment (ADA). Moderate validity was found between…

  13. Reliability and Validity of Canada's Physical Activity Monitor for Assessing Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cora L.; Russell, Storm J.; Cameron, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the reliability and criterion validity of the Physical Activity Monitor, a telephone-interview adaptation of the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPAQ), for assessing trends in the Canadian population. Interviews with Canadian adults and comparisons of the Monitor against the Campbell's Survey of Well-Being…

  14. Role Play Simulations: The Assessment of an Active Learning Technique and Comparisons with Traditional Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNeve, Kristina; Heppner, Mary J.

    1997-01-01

    Use of active learning techniques of role-playing and simulation in an industrial psychology course (n=29 students) is described and assessed. Subjective reports and objective assessments of knowledge retention indicate the approach was effective. The differential importance of active learning and passive learning (lecture) in the college…

  15. Zinc Oxide-Containing Porous Boron-Carbon-Nitrogen Sheets from Glycine-Nitrate Combustion: Synthesis, Self-Cleaning, and Sunlight-Driven Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Bharathidasan, T; Mandalam, Aditya; Balasubramanian, M; Dhandapani, P; Sathiyanarayanan, S; Mayavan, Sundar

    2015-08-26

    We developed a single-step thermal method that enables successful inclusion of ZnO components in the porous boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) framework to form a new class of functional hybrid. ZnO-containing BCN hybrids were prepared by treating a mixture of B2O3, glycine, and zinc nitrate at 500 °C. Glycine-nitrate decomposition along with B2O3 acts as a source for ZnO-BCN formation. The incorporation of ZnO onto BCN has extended the photoresponse of ZnO in the visible region, which makes ZnO-BCN a preferable photocatalyst relative to ZnO upon sunlight exposure. It is interesting to note that as-prepared 2D ZnO-BCN sheets dispersed in PDMS form a stable coating over aluminum alloys. The surface exhibited a water contact angle (CA) of 157.6° with 66.6 wt % ZnO-BCN in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a water droplet (7 μL) roll-off angle of <6° and also demonstrates oil fouling resistant superhydrophobicity. In brief, the present study focuses on the gram scale synthesis of a new class of sunlight-driven photocatalyst and also its application toward the development of superhydrophobic and oleophobic coating. PMID:26252873

  16. Analysis of active compounds and antioxidant activity assessment of six popular Chinese Juhua teas.

    PubMed

    Du, Hui; Li, Shan-Shan; Wu, Qian; Ji, Kui-Xian; Wu, Jie; Liu, Yang; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Chrysanthemum is an important traditional Chinese medicine and is drunk daily as a herbal tea. Chlorogenic acids and flavonoids are generally considered as the bioactive compounds. In this work, six kinds of Juhua Tea were analyzed and their active compounds and antioxidant activities were compared. In total, 32 phenolic compounds were profiled and identified using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MSn, composed of chlorogenic acids (10), flavones (8), chalcones (8), flavanones (4) and flavonols (2). Chalcones were the main flavonoids in Kunlun Xueju (Coreopsis tinctoria) extract, while flavones and chlorogenic acids were dominant in the five Chrysanthemum teas. Total chlorogenic acids content (TCA) was highest in Tai Ju (Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. 'Tai Ju') (8.59 ± 0.87 mg/g DW), and total flavonoids content (TF) was highest in Kunlun Xueju (87.2 ± 7.0 mg/g DW), which were both lowest in Ganye Ju (Chrysanthemum eticuspe) (TCA 0.86 ± 0.26 mg/g DW, TF 1.43 ± 0.41 mg/g DW). Huangin Ju (Anthemis tinctoria) possessed the most flavones (19.7 ± 0.6 mg/g DW). Antioxidant capacity of each drink, assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, consistently showed that Kunlun Xueju extract possessed stronger antioxidant activity than the other five, suggesting that the flavonoids content accounted for the free radical scavenging. The present work provides a method for the characterization and quality control of Juhua Tea. Moreover, it is a guideline for consuming choice, due to the different biological functions resulting from chalcones, chlorogenic acids, and flavones. PMID:25924537

  17. Assessment of uranium exposure from total activity and 234U:238U activity ratios in urine.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, T; Bingham, D

    2011-03-01

    Radiation workers at Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are monitored for uranium exposure by routine bioassay sampling (primarily urine sampling). However, the interpretation of uranium in urine and faecal results in terms of occupational intakes is difficult because of the presence of uranium due to intakes from environmental (dietary) sources. For uranium in urine data obtained using current analytical techniques at AWE, the mean, median and standard deviation of excreted uranium concentrations were 0.006, 0.002 and 0.012 μg per g creatinine, respectively. These values are consistent with what might be expected from local dietary intakes and the knowledge that occupational exposures at AWE are likely to be very low. However, some samples do exceed derived investigation levels (DILs), which have been set up taking account of the likely contribution from environmental sources. We investigate how the activity and isotopic composition of uranium in the diet affects the sensitivity of uranium in urine monitoring for occupational exposures. We conclude that DILs based on both total uranium in urine activity and also (234)U:(238)U ratios are useful given the likely variation in dietary contribution for AWE workers. Assuming a background excretion rate and that the enrichment of the likely exposure is known, it is possible to assess exposures using (234)U:(238)U ratios and/or total uranium activity. The health implications of internalised uranium, enriched to <5-8 % by mass (235)U, centre on its nephrotoxicity; the DILs for bioassay samples at AWE are an order of magnitude below the conservative recommendations made by the literature. PMID:21036806

  18. Health Impact Assessment, Physical Activity and Federal Lands Trail Policy

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Cruz, Theresa H.; Kozoll, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this paper are to describe the application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to inform trail decisions affecting a rural, under-resourced community and propose the routine integration of HIAs to enhance NEPA environmental assessments and environmental impact statements for trail decisions on federal lands. Methods Screening, scoping, assessment, recommendations, reporting, monitoring and evaluation are being used to examine the health impact of trail location and design. Results HIA recommendations are being integrated into the public lands National Environmental Protection Act process for planning access to a new segment of the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail. Potential users from a nearby rural New Mexico community and a region of almost one million may benefit from this HIA-informed planning. Conclusions HIA can be integrated into the policy and decision-making process for trails on public lands.

  19. Interfacial Assembly of Graphene Oxide Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Laura J.

    Scientific interest in graphene oxide (GO) sheets, the product of chemical oxidation and exfoliation of graphite powder, has resurged in recent years because GO is considered a promising precursor for the bulk production of graphene-based sheets for a variety of applications. In addition, GO can be viewed as an unconventional type of soft material as it is characterized by two abruptly different length scales. Its thickness is of typical molecular dimensions, measured to be about 1 nm by atomic force microscopy, but its lateral dimensions are that of common colloidal particles, ranging from nanometers to tens of microns. This high anisotropy leads to interesting fundamental colloidal interactions between the soft sheets which have practical implications in the solution processing and assembly of the material. This research therefore aims to use a variety of techniques to control these inter-sheet interactions to gain an understanding of the processing-structure relationships which ultimately determine the overall properties of the bulk GO assembly. GO is identified as a two-dimensional amphiphile with a unique edge-to-center arrangement of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, which has led to the demonstration of its pH- and size-dependent surface activity. The water surface is then utilized, as in the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, as an ideal substrate to tile up the GO sheets and study the interactions between them. Sheet-sheet interaction morphologies were successfully altered between wrinkled and overlapped states by pH tuning of sheet charge density, and the resulting structure-property relationships are explored. In addition, a novel flash-reduction and assembly process is described in which a simple photographic camera flash can rapidly and cleanly turn an insulating, well-stacked GO paper to a more open and fluffy conducting film. Lastly, the use of these research results as educational outreach platforms is highlighted. A variety of outlets, such as You

  20. [Information sheet and informed consent in biomedical research with samples].

    PubMed

    Gil Membrado, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines from a practical perspective, the content of the information sheet to the participant in a clinical trial in which pharmacogenetic studies are conducted and/or pharmacogenomics, and scope of informed consent. The text is accompanied by a guide of questions to assess the fit of a participant information sheet on the regulation of clinical trials, biological samples and protection of personal data. PMID:23115824

  1. NREL's Renewable Energy Development Expertise Reduces Project Risks (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    This National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) success story fact sheet highlights a June 2012 solar power purchase agreement between the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and three corporations. The fact sheet describes how technical assistance from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory enabled the U.S. Virgin Islands to realistically assess its clean energy resources and identify the most viable and cost-effective solutions to its energy challenges--resulting in a $65 million investment in solar energy in the territory.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of In Vitro Androgenic Activity in Feedlot Effluent. Lambright, CS 1 , Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville FL

    Recent studies have shown the presence of androgenic activity in water...

  3. Determining if Active Learning through a Formative Assessment Process Translates to Better Performance in Summative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosas, Aidan Bradley; Raju, Shiwani Rani; Schuett, Burkhardt Siegfried; Chuck, Jo-Anne; Millar, Thomas James

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment used in a level 2 unit, Immunology, gave outcomes that were both surprising and applicable across disciplines. Four formative tests were given and reviewed during class time. The students' attitudes to formative assessment were evaluated using questionnaires and its effectiveness in closing the gap was measured by the…

  4. LOCALLY LED CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES: DEVELOPING A SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT TOOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers base many management decisions on a variety of personal observations of their crops and soils. However, there was no soil assessment procedure applicable to farms across the country to help farmers record these observations and to use them to guide their future management decisions. To add...

  5. Physical Activity Stories: Assessing the "Meaning Standard" in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the "meaning standard" in both national and state content standards suggests that professionals consider it an important outcome of a quality physical education program. However, only 10 percent of states require an assessment to examine whether students achieve this standard. The purpose of this article is to introduce…

  6. Biochemical Visual Literacy with Constructive Alignment: Outcomes, Assessment, and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herraez, Angel; Costa, Manuel Joao

    2013-01-01

    Several contributions in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education" have highlighted the role of visualization tools and the importance of developing students' visual literacy in biochemistry education. In this forum, the authors suggest that more focus is needed on the assessment of student learning, and they advance…

  7. Finding the Discipline: Assessing Student Activity in "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Scott; Clerehan, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    For the second-language learner, the affordances of a virtual world have the potential to confer benefits conventionally aligned with real world experiences. However, little is known about the pedagogical benefits linked to the specific characteristics of the virtual world, let alone the issues arising for staff hoping to assess students'…

  8. Assessment of Physical Activity by Applying IPAQ Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biernat, Elzbieta; Stupnicki, Romuald; Lebiedzinski, Bartlomiej; Janczewska, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the suitability of the short 7-day IPAQ (self-completed) adapted to Polish population. Material and methods: Two surveys were conducted in 2005 on 296 random subjects (aged 20-60 years) from Warsaw and the Mazowiecki region. From these, 54 men and 79 women were requested to fill questionnaires, and 70 men and 93 women, were…

  9. Overview of DOD activities in ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Whaley, J E; Porter, R C

    1997-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Congress has mandated that all designated hazardous waste sites will be remediated to protect human health and the environment. This law is the driving force behind the Department of Defense (DOD) ecological risk assessment (ERA) program. Ecological risk assessments are currently underway at many DOD sites with budgets ranging from five thousand to ten million dollars. However, with the advent of downsizing government and shrinking funds, efforts are being made within DOD to better refine these assessments. Two DOD work groups function to develop guidance for and assist project managers with the ERA process. These groups are the Army Biological Technical Assistance Group chaired by the Army Environmental Center and the Tri-Service Ecological Risk Assessment Work Group (ERWG) chartered by the Tri-Service Environmental Support Centers Coordinating Committee. Membership in the Tri-Service ERWG includes all facets of DOD. In the research arena, the Fate & Effects Research and Development Program is one of four primary thrust areas under the Army's Environmental Quality Technology Program "Clean Up" pillar. This program is currently being executed by three laboratories, the Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, the Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, and the Army Center for Environmental Health Research (Provisional), Ft. Detrick, MD. The goal of this program is to provide tools to improve environmental risk assessments, both human and ecological. The research is geared toward addressing user requirements and is defined by the Fate and Effects Research Program. PMID:9433659

  10. A hitchhiker's guide to assessing young people's physical activity: Deciding what method to use.

    PubMed

    Dollman, James; Okely, Anthony D; Hardy, Louise; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo; Hills, Andrew P

    2009-09-01

    Researchers and practitioners interested in assessing physical activity in children are often faced with the dilemma of what instrument to use. While there is a plethora of physical activity instruments to choose from, there is currently no guide regarding the suitability of common assessment instruments. The purpose of this paper is to provide a user's guide for selecting physical activity assessment instruments appropriate for use with children and adolescents. While recommendations regarding specific instruments are not provided, the guide offers information about key attributes and considerations for the use of eight physical activity assessment approaches: heart rate monitoring; accelerometry; pedometry; direct observation; self-report; parent report; teacher report; and diaries/logs. Attributes of instruments and other factors to be considered in the selection of assessment instruments include: population (age); sample size; respondent burden; method/delivery mode; assessment time frame; physical activity information required (data output); data management; measurement error; cost (instrument and administration) and other limitations. A decision flow chart has been developed to assist researchers and practitioners to select an appropriate method of assessing physical activity. Five real-life scenarios are presented to illustrate this process in light of key instrument attributes. It is important that researchers, practitioners and policy makers understand the strengths and limitations of different methods of assessing physical activity, and are guided on selection of the most appropriate instrument/s to suit their needs. PMID:19038579

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL RISKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the field of environmental toxicology, structure activity relationships (SARs) have developed as scientifically-credible tools for predicting the effects of chemicals when little or no empirical data are available.

  12. Ice sheets and nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    Snow and ice play their most important role in the nitrogen cycle as a barrier to land–atmosphere and ocean–atmosphere exchanges that would otherwise occur. The inventory of nitrogen compounds in the polar ice sheets is approximately 260 Tg N, dominated by nitrate in the much larger Antarctic ice sheet. Ice cores help to inform us about the natural variability of the nitrogen cycle at global and regional scale, and about the extent of disturbance in recent decades. Nitrous oxide concentrations have risen about 20 per cent in the last 200 years and are now almost certainly higher than at any time in the last 800 000 years. Nitrate concentrations recorded in Greenland ice rose by a factor of 2–3, particularly between the 1950s and 1980s, reflecting a major change in NOx emissions reaching the background atmosphere. Increases in ice cores drilled at lower latitudes can be used to validate or constrain regional emission inventories. Background ammonium concentrations in Greenland ice show no significant recent trend, although the record is very noisy, being dominated by spikes of input from biomass burning events. Neither nitrate nor ammonium shows significant recent trends in Antarctica, although their natural variations are of biogeochemical and atmospheric chemical interest. Finally, it has been found that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack leads to significant re-emissions of NOx that can strongly impact the regional atmosphere in snow-covered areas. PMID:23713125

  13. Twisting of sheet metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, C. H.; Thuillier, S.; Manach, P. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Twisting of metallic sheets is one particular mode of springback that occurs after drawing of elongated parts, i.e. with one dimension much larger than the two others. In this study, a dedicated device for drawing of elongated part with a U-shaped section has been designed on purpose, in order to obtain reproducible data. Very thin metallic sheet, of thickness 0.15 mm, has been used, so that the maximum length of the part is 100 mm. Two different orientations of the part with respect to the tools have been chosen: either aligned with the tools, or purposefully misaligned by 2°. Several samples were drawn for each configuration, leading to the conclusion that almost no twisting occurs in the first case whereas a significant one can be measured for the second one. In a second step, 2D and 3D numerical simulations within the implicit framework for drawing and springback were carried out. A mixed hardening law associated to von Mises yield criterion represents accurately the mechanical behavior of the material. This paper highlights a comparison of numerical predictions with experiments, e.g. the final shape of the part and the twisting parameter.

  14. 17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. 9. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of the State Highway Department of Indiana repair plans of 1957 for the Cicott Street Bridge. Photograph of a 24' by 36' print made from microfilm in the archives of the Indiana Department of Transportation in Indianapolis. - Cicott Street Bridge, Spanning Wabash River at State Road 25, Logansport, Cass County, IN

  16. 13. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of the Indiana State Highway Commission repair plans of 1969 for the Cicott Street Bridge. Photograph of a 24' by 36' print made from microfilm in the archives of the Indiana Department of Transportation in Indianapolis. - Cicott Street Bridge, Spanning Wabash River at State Road 25, Logansport, Cass County, IN

  17. 10. KIDNER BRIDGE STRUCTURAL STEEL DETAIL SHEET (original plan sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. KIDNER BRIDGE STRUCTURAL STEEL DETAIL SHEET (original plan sheet is in possession of Ball State University, Drawings and Documents Archive, COllege of Architecture and Planing, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, 47306 - Kidner Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River at County Road 700 South, Upland, Grant County, IN

  18. Environmental risk assessment of Polish wastewater treatment plant activity.

    PubMed

    Kudłak, Błażej; Wieczerzak, Monika; Yotova, Galina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play an extremely important role in shaping modern society's environmental well-being and awareness, however only well operated and supervised systems can be considered as environmentally sustainable. For this reason, an attempt was undertaken to assess the environmental burden posed by WWTPs in major Polish cities by collecting water samples prior to and just after wastewater release points. Both classical and biological methods (Microtox(®), Ostracodtoxkit F™ and comet assay) were utilized to assess environmental impact of given WWTP. Interestingly, in some cases, water quality improvement indicated as a toxicity decrement toward one of the bio-indicating organisms makes water worse for others in the systems. This fact is particularly noticeable in case of Silesian cities where heavy industry and high population density is present. It proves that WWTP should undergo individual evaluation of pollutant removal efficiency and tuned to selectively remove pollutants of highest risk to surrounding regional ecosystems. Biotests again proved to be an extremely important tool to fully assess the impact of environmental stressors on water bodies receiving effluents from WWTPs. PMID:27376857

  19. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  20. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  1. Chronologic evidence for multiple periods of loess deposition during the Late Pleistocene in the Missouri and Mississippi River Valley, United States: Implications for the activity of the Laurentide ice sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forman, S.L.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III; Kemmis, T.J.; Miller, B.B.

    1992-01-01

    The loess stratigraphy of the mid-continental U.S. is an important proxy record for the activity of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in North America. One of the most outstanding problems is deciphering the age of loess deposits in this area during the late Pleistocene. Radiocarbon dating of snails and thermoluminescence dating of the fine-silt fraction (4-11 ??m) from loess at the Loveland Loess type section, Loveland, Iowa and a recent excavation at the Pleasant Grove School section. Madison County, Illinois provide new chronologic control on loess deposition in the Mississippi/Missouri River Valley chronology indicates that the Loveland Loess is Illinoian in age (135??20 ka) but is not correlative with the Teneriffe Silt which is dated to 77 ?? 8 ka. Concordant radiocarbon and thermoluminescence age estimates demonstrate that the Roxana Silt and a correlative loess in Iowa, the Pisgah Formation, is probably 40-30 ka old. These age estimates in conjunction with previous results indicate that there were four periods of loess deposition during the last 150 ka at 25-12 ka, 45-30 ka, 85-70 ka and at ca. 135 ?? 20 ka. This chronology of loess deposition supports the presence of both a late Illinoian and early Wisconsinan loess and associated soils. Thus, there may be more than one soil in the loess stratigraphy of the mid-continental U.S. with morphologies similar to the Sangamon Soil. The last three periods of loess deposition may be correlative with periods of elevated dust concentrations recorded in the Dye 3 ice core from southern Greenland. This is particularly significant because both areas possibly had the same source for eolian particles. Reconstructions of atmospheric circulation for glacial periods show a southerly deflected jet stream that could have transported dust from the mid-continental USA to southern Greenland. Lastly, the inferred record of loess deposition is parallel to a chronology for deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet deciphered from chronologic

  2. Recording sympathetic nerve activity chronically in rats: surgery techniques, assessment of nerve activity, and quantification

    PubMed Central

    Muntzel, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system plays a pivotal role in homeostasis through its direct innervation and functional impact on a variety of end organs. In rats, a number of methods are available to assess sympathetic nervous system function. Traditionally, direct recording of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) has been restricted to acute, anesthetized preparations or conscious animals within a few days after electrode implantation. However, these approaches provide short-term data in studies designed to investigate changes in SNA during chronic disease states. Over the last several years, chronic SNA recording has been pioneered in rabbits and more recently in rats. The purpose of this article is to provide insights and a “how to” guide for chronic SNA recordings in rats based on experiences from two independent laboratories. We will present common methodologies used to chronically record SNA, characteristics and methods to distinguish sympathetic bursts versus electrical artifacts (and provide corresponding audio clips when available), and provide suggestions for analysis and presentation of data. In many instances, these same guidelines are applicable to acute SNA recordings. Using the surgical approaches described herein, both laboratories have been able to chronically record SNA in >50% of rats for a duration >3 wk. The ability to record SNA over the time course of several weeks will, undoubtedly, greatly impact the field of autonomic and cardiovascular physiology. PMID:24014674

  3. Electrochemical Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Electrochemical Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The research focus at the Electrochemical Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is evaluating the electrochemical properties of novel materials synthesized by various techniques and understanding and delineating the reaction mechanisms to provide practical solutions to PEMFCs commercialization issues of cost, performance and durability. It is also involved in the development of new tools and techniques for electrochemical characterization. The laboratory concentrates on the development and characterization of new materials for PEMFCs such as electrocatalysts, catalyst supports in terms of electrochemical activity, electrochemical surface area and corrosion/durability. The impact of impurities and/or contaminants on the catalyst activity is also under study. Experiments that can be performed include: (1) Determination and benchmarking of novel electrocatalyst activity; (2) Determination of electrochemical surface area; (3) Determination of electrocatalyst and support corrosion resistance and durability; (4) Synthesis and characterization of novel electrocatalyst; (5) Determination of fundamental electrochemical parameters; and (6) Estimation of electrocatalyst utilization.

  4. Simultaneous observation of the poleward expansion of substorm electrojet activity and the tailward expansion of current sheet disruption in the near-earth magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Koskinen, H. E. J.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Bosinger, T.; Mcentire, R. W.; Potemra, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    A substorm that occurred on 7 June 1985 at 2209 UT for which simultaneous measurements from ground stations and CCE are available is considered. The event occurred during a close conjunction between CCE, the EISCAT magnetometer cross, and the STARE radar, allowing a detailed comparison of satellite and ground-based data. Two discrete activations took place during the first few minutes of this substorm: the expansion phase onset at 2209 UT and an intensification at 2212 UT, corresponding to a poleward expansion of activity. The energetic particle data indicate that the active region of the magnetotail during the 2212 UT intensification was located tailward of the active region at 2209 UT. This is direct evidence for a correspondence between tailward expansion of localized activity in the near-earth magnetotail (current disruption and particle energization) and poleward expansion of activity (electrojet formation) in the ionosphere.

  5. Use of an Activity Monitor and GPS Device to Assess Community Activity and Participation in Transtibial Amputees

    PubMed Central

    Hordacre, Brenton; Barr, Christopher; Crotty, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized measures of community activity and participation of transtibial amputees based on combined data from separate accelerometer and GPS devices. The relationship between community activity and participation and standard clinical measures was assessed. Forty-seven participants were recruited (78% male, mean age 60.5 years). Participants wore the accelerometer and GPS devices for seven consecutive days. Data were linked to assess community activity (community based step counts) and community participation (number of community visits). Community activity and participation were compared across amputee K-level groups. Forty-six participants completed the study. On average each participant completed 16,645 (standard deviation (SD) 13,274) community steps and 16 (SD 10.9) community visits over seven days. There were differences between K-level groups for measures of community activity (F(2,45) = 9.4, p < 0.001) and participation (F(2,45) = 6.9, p = 0.002) with lower functioning K1/2 amputees demonstrating lower levels of community activity and participation than K3 and K4 amputees. There was no significant difference between K3 and K4 for community activity (p = 0.28) or participation (p = 0.43). This study demonstrated methodology to link accelerometer and GPS data to assess community activity and participation in a group of transtibial amputees. Differences in K-levels do not appear to accurately reflect actual community activity or participation in higher functioning transtibial amputees. PMID:24670721

  6. Operations Assessment of Launch Vehicle Architectures using Activity Based Cost Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz-Torres, Alex J.; McCleskey, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The growing emphasis on affordability for space transportation systems requires the assessment of new space vehicles for all life cycle activities, from design and development, through manufacturing and operations. This paper addresses the operational assessment of launch vehicles, focusing on modeling the ground support requirements of a vehicle architecture, and estimating the resulting costs and flight rate. This paper proposes the use of Activity Based Costing (ABC) modeling for this assessment. The model uses expert knowledge to determine the activities, the activity times and the activity costs based on vehicle design characteristics. The approach provides several advantages to current approaches to vehicle architecture assessment including easier validation and allowing vehicle designers to understand the cost and cycle time drivers.

  7. Disparity in Physical Activity among Urban Youth: An Ecologically Guided Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda; Brown, Michael D.; O'Brien, Matthew J.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insufficient physical activity among urban youth increases risk of chronic disease.Purpose:This study assessed reported physical activity to determine when disparities in participation emerge and what ecologically guided factors are linked with high activity. Methods:We administered a cross-sectional survey to a diverse sample of 321…

  8. Mathematical Art-O-Facts: Activities to Introduce, Reinforce, or Assess Geometry & Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, Catherine Jones

    2008-01-01

    This book is loaded with hands-on measurement and geometry activities that will get students rolling up their sleeves, excited to use their math skills. The author has created these activities to supplement a teacher's existing math curriculum. They are flexibly designed for use as either introductory, reinforcement, or assessment activities. This…

  9. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Assessing Physical Activity and Its Contexts Using Systematic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more…

  10. WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2011-01-06

    The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

  11. Assessment of Tamarindus indica extracts for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Obiiyeke, Grace E; Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-01-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051. PMID:22072893

  12. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, Judith A.; Todd, M. Kent; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) patterns of children. Forty-four 7th-grade students (19 boys, 25 girls) recorded pedometer data for 2 consecutive weeks. Separate 2 x 3 repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine differences in total steps/day between boys and girls and between after-school…

  13. Roads to Consider in Assessments of Extraction Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural resource extraction in large undeveloped areas often necessitates construction of roads that substantially contribute to the environmental risk of the activity. Based on a scenario of potential mining in a large virtually roadless salmonid-rich watershed, we consider the ...

  14. Anticancer activity assessment of two novel binuclear platinum (II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Shahsavani, Mohammad Bagher; Ahmadi, Shamseddin; Aseman, Marzieh Dadkhah; Nabavizadeh, S Masoud; Rashidi, Mehdi; Asadi, Zahra; Erfani, Nasrollah; Ghasemi, Atiyeh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Niazi, Ali; Bahaoddini, Aminollah; Yousefi, Reza

    2016-08-01

    In the current study, two binuclear Pt (II) complexes, containing cis, cis-[Me2Pt (μ-NN) (μ-dppm) PtMe2] (1), and cis,cis-[Me2Pt(μ-NN)(μ dppm) Pt((CH2)4)] (2) in which NN=phthalazine and dppm=bis (diphenylphosphino) methane were evaluated for their anticancer activities and DNA/purine nucleotide binding properties. These Pt (II) complexes, with the non-classical structures, demonstrated a significant anticancer activity against Jurkat and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. The results of ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and Caspase-III activity suggest that these complexes were capable to stimulate an apoptotic mechanism of cell death in the cancer cells. Using different biophysical techniques and docking simulation analysis, we indicated that these complexes were also capable to interact efficiently with DNA via a non-intercalative mechanism. According to our results, substitution of cyclopentane (in complex 2) with two methyl groups (in complex 1) results in significant improvement of the complex ability to interact with DNA and subsequently to induce the anticancer activity. Overall, these binuclear Pt (II) complexes are promising group of the non-classical potential anticancer agents which can be considered as molecular templates in designing of highly efficient platinum anticancer drugs. PMID:27289447

  15. ASSESSING AND MANAGING MERCURY FROM HISTORIC AND CURRENT MINING ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce between one and two billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination o...

  16. Assessment of Tamarindus indica Extracts for Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Obiiyeke, Grace E.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2011-01-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051. PMID:22072893

  17. Direct Experimental Assessment of Microbial Activity in North Pond Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdelman, T. G.; Picard, A.; Morando, M.; Ziebis, W.

    2009-12-01

    North Pond, an isolated sediment pond located at 22°45’N on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, offered the opportunity to study microbial activities in deeply-buried low-activity sediments. About 8 x 15 km in size with sediment maximum thickness of about 300 m, North Pond is completely surrounded by exposed 7 Ma old basement. North Pond lies above the carbonate compensation depth at a water depth about 4500 m; hydrostatic pressure at the seafloor is about 45 MPa and the temperature is near 2°C. During the a R/V MS Merian cruise (MSM-11/1) in February -March 2009, 14 gravity cores of up to 9 m length were successfully obtained, from which samples were taken with 1-m resolution for experimental activity measurements. The goal of the experimental work was 1) to examine potential metabolic pathways in North Pond sediments and carbon assimilation pathways in this low-energy environment, and 2) explore the effects of pressure on microbial metabolic activities. As dissolved oxygen penetrated through all depths, sediments were aerobically sampled, processed and incubated at 4°C. Selected samples were immediately stored at in situ pressure until further use. The microbial uptake of both organic and inorganic carbon in selected North Pond sediment samples was investigated by following the fate of 14C in radio-labeled organic and organic compounds in North Pond sediment slurry incubations. Shipboard and on-shore experiments using 14C-leucine, 14C-glucose and 14C-bicarbonate were performed on selected cores. Day- to month- incubations were performed at 4°C. Parallel incubations were conducted at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) and in situ pressure (~45 MPa). Either whole cell extraction (Kallmeyer et al., Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 6, 2008, 238-245) or protein-DNA extraction was carried on after various incubations to determine the fraction of 14C incorporated into cellular components. Formation of 14C-labeled CO2 was determined on samples incubated with 14C

  18. Silicone Coating on Polyimide Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Silicone coatings applied to polyimide sheeting for variety of space-related applications. Coatings intended to protect flexible substrates of solar-cell blankets from degradation by oxygen atoms, electrons, plasmas, and ultraviolet light in low Earth orbit and outer space. Since coatings are flexible, generally useful in forming flexible laminates or protective layers on polyimide-sheet products.

  19. Cutting Guide for Fibrous Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A., D.

    1985-01-01

    Tool facilitates repetitive cutting of fibrous sheets. Flexible aluminum tape allows metal strips folded back on themselves, exposing fresh material for cutting. More than one strip folded back, and cutting width therefore increased in multiples of strip width. Developed for cutting strips of alumina-fiber matting, tool also used on such materials as felts, textiles, and sheet metals.

  20. 78 FR 78063 - Appendix 4 to Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... RA) (78 FR 3824). We conducted the qualitative risk assessment to identify activity/ food... 16 and 121 Appendix 4 to Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/ Food Combinations for... Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for Activities (Outside the...

  1. Anthropogenic climate change and the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajewicz, U.; Vizcaíno, M.; Rodehacke, C.; Ziemen, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the standard CMIP5 simulations the ice sheets are kept fixed. Only few groups have been able to perform CMIP5 simulations with interactively coupled ice sheet models. Beside its importance for the future evolution of global mean sea level, the Greenland ice sheet also has the potential to strongly affect deep water formation, especially in the Labrador Sea, but also in the Nordic Seas. Here we present a set of simulations with two interactively coupled ice sheet models, which allows to assess the uncertainty arising from both the ice sheet model as well as the coupling technique. The climate model ECHAM5/MPIOM is coupled interactively to two different ice sheet models using two different coupling strategies. The ice sheet models are a Greenland set-up of SICOPOLIS with 10 km horizontal resolution and a northern hemisphere set-up of PISM with a horizontal resolution of 20 km. The coupling is done either with a simple positive degree days approach or a mass-balance scheme calculating the surface melting with an energy-balance scheme. The atmospheric forcing is applied directly to the ice sheet model without flux correction or anomaly coupling, which avoids inconsistencies between the models. The resulting net mass loss rates for the Greenland ice sheet in a 1-percent-scenario capped at 4x preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentrations show a considerable dependence on both ice sheet model and coupling technique. The resulting differences in atmospheric climate, however, are small within the first centuries and restricted to the immediate vicinity of Greenland. The feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and the Greenland ice sheet are studied in a series of sensitivity experiments, where individual feedbacks were suppressed. It turns out that the future development of the Atlantic overturning and its associated heat transport are quite important for the future evolution of the Greenland ice sheet: The stronger the Atlantic overturning remains, the stronger the mass loss

  2. Evolution of a Coupled Marine Ice Sheet - Sea Level Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, N.; Pollard, D.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Huybers, P.; Clark, P. U.

    2011-12-01

    effects may be ignored and grounding-line migration at a given time will depend on the local bedrock topography and on contemporaneous sea-level changes driven by ongoing ice-sheet mass flux. On longer timescales, an accurate assessment of the present stability of a marine ice sheet requires knowledge of its past evolution. Finally, we end with a discussion of the first results of simulations in which post-glacial sea-level physics is coupled to a 3D, dynamic marine ice sheet-ice shelf model.

  3. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  4. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  5. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  6. Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Quantitative phase imaging technologies to assess neuronal activity (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouvenin, Olivier; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, Claude

    2016-03-01

    Active neurons tends to have a different dynamical behavior compared to resting ones. Non-exhaustively, vesicular transport towards the synapses is increased, since axonal growth becomes slower. Previous studies also reported small phase variations occurring simultaneously with the action potential. Such changes exhibit times scales ranging from milliseconds to several seconds on spatial scales smaller than the optical diffraction limit. Therefore, QPI systems are of particular interest to measure neuronal activity without labels. Here, we report the development of two new QPI systems that should enable the detection of such activity. Both systems can acquire full field phase images with a sub nanometer sensitivity at a few hundreds of frames per second. The first setup is a synchronous combination of Full Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) and Fluorescence wide field imaging. The latter modality enables the measurement of neurons electrical activity using calcium indicators. In cultures, FF-OCT exhibits similar features to Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM), except from complex computational reconstruction. However, FF-OCT is of particular interest in order to measure phase variations in tissues. The second setup is based on a Quantitative Differential Interference Contrast setup mounted in an epi-illumination configuration with a spectrally incoherent illumination. Such a common path interferometer exhibits a very good mechanical stability, and thus enables the measurement of phase images during hours. Additionally, such setup can not only measure a height change, but also an optical index change for both polarization. Hence, one can measure simultaneously a phase change and a birefringence change.

  8. A statistical survey of the central plasma sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Frank, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the ion plasma properties and magnetic field of the central plasma sheet at distances from 10 to 23 R(sub E) from the Earth. This study incorporates International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 1 plasma sheet samples accumulated with the University of Iowa Lepedea plasma analyzer during 1979. Our study of the bulk properties of the ion plasma shows that there is relatively little change as a result of increasing geomagnetic activity. The main macroscopic effect is an increase in plasma temperature. When the transverse profile of the plasma sheet is examined, it is clear that this increase in temperature occurs preferentially at high latitudes. The magnetic field shows an increase in magnitude in the vicinity of the neutral sheet periods of high geomagnetic activity. The radial profiles of the density, temperature, plasma, and magnetic pressures show a gradient in total energy density in the plasma sheet. The convective velocities are systematically directed earthward, and there is a bias toward positive V(sub y) on the duskside of the magnetotail. We infer that particle motion can be attributed to a pressure gradient, combined with steady state convective electric fields. We compute the convective electric fields from our measured bulk velocities, arriving at a pattern similar to that observed at low altitudes. The cross-tail electric field E(sub y) is dominant near the neutral sheet region, but at high latitudes E(sub z) is a major component. Our results suggest that the plasma sheet boundary layer, rather than the central plasma sheet, is a region of diverging electric fields. The picture of the plasma sheet that emerges from our study is that of a stable reservoir of hot plasma in which thermodynamic, rather than dynamic, processes is important.

  9. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tables Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  10. Functional Fitness Assessment for Adults Over 60 Years (A Field Based Assessment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osness, Wayne H.; And Others

    This field test to assess the functional fitness of adults over 60 covers of the following areas: (1) body composition; (2) body weight; (3) standing height measurement; (4) flexibility; (5) agility/dynamic balance; (6) coordination; (7) strength; and (8) endurance. Posttest activities are suggested, and a data sheet and exercise consent form are…

  11. ASSESSMENT OF RELEASE RATES FOR RADIONUCLIDES IN ACTIVATED CONCRETE.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN,T.M.

    2003-08-23

    The Maine Yankee (MY) nuclear power plant is undergoing the process of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). Part of the process requires analyses that demonstrate that any radioactivity that remains after D&D will not cause exposure to radioactive contaminants to exceed acceptable limits. This requires knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the remaining material and their potential release mechanisms from the material to the contacting groundwater. In this study the concern involves radionuclide contamination in activated concrete in the ICI Sump below the containment building. Figures 1-3 are schematic representations of the ICI Sump. Figure 2 and 3 contain the relevant dimensions needed for the analysis. The key features of Figures 2 and 3 are the 3/8-inch carbon steel liner that isolates the activated concrete from the pit and the concrete wall, which is between 7 feet and 7 feet 2 inches thick. During operations, a small neutron flux from the reactor activated the carbon steel liner and the concrete outside the liner. Current MY plans call for filling the ICI sump with compacted sand.

  12. An ultrasound personal locator for time-activity assessment.

    PubMed

    Allen-Piccolo, Gian; Rogers, Jamesine V; Edwards, Rufus; Clark, Michael C; Allen, T Tracy; Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Shields, Kyra N; Canuz, Eduardo; Smith, Kirk R

    2009-01-01

    The UC Berkeley Time-Activity Monitoring System (UCB-TAMS) was developed to measure time-activity in exposure studies. The system consists of small, light, inexpensive battery-operated 40-kHz ultrasound transmitters (tags) worn by participants and an ultrasound receiver (locator) attached to a datalogger fixed in an indoor location. Presence or absence of participants is monitored by distinguishing the unique ultrasound ID of each tag. Efficacy tests in rural households of highland Guatemala showed the system to be comparable to the gold-standard time-activity measure of direct observation by researchers, with an accuracy of predicting time-weighted averages of 90-95%, minute-by-minute accuracy of 80-85%, and sensitivity/specificity values of 86-89%/71-74% for one-minute readings on children 3-8 years-old. Additional controlled tests in modern buildings and in rural Guatemalan homes confirmed the performance of the system with the presence of other ultrasound sources, with multiple tags, covered by clothing, and in other non-ideal circumstances. PMID:19496478

  13. Assessing acoustic communication active space in the Lusitanian toadfish.

    PubMed

    Alves, Daniel; Amorim, M Clara P; Fonseca, Paulo J

    2016-04-15

    The active space of a signal is an important concept in acoustic communication as it has implications for the function and evolution of acoustic signals. However, it remains mostly unknown for fish as it has been measured in only a restricted number of species. We combined physiological and sound propagation approaches to estimate the communication range of the Lusitanian toadfish's ( ITALIC! Halobatrachus didactylus) advertisement sound, the boatwhistle (BW). We recorded BWs at different distances from vocalizing fish in a natural nesting site at ca. 2-3 m depth. We measured the representation of these increasingly attenuated BWs in the auditory pathway through the auditory evoked potential (AEP) technique. These measurements point to a communication range of between 6 and 13 m, depending on the spectral characteristics of the BW. A similar communication range (ca. 8 m) was derived from comparing sound attenuation at selected frequencies with auditory sensitivity. This is one of the few studies to combine auditory measurements with sound propagation to estimate the active space of acoustic signals in fish. We emphasize the need in future studies for estimates of active space to take informational masking into account. PMID:26896547

  14. Alpha contamination assessment for D&D activities: Technology overview

    SciTech Connect

    Conaway, J.G.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    Instruments based on the principle of Long-Range Alpha Detection (LRAD) detect the ions created in ambient air by Ionizing radiation, particularly alpha radiation, interacting with air molecules. Using either an electrostatic field or forced convection, these ions can be transported to a detection grid where the ions produce a small current that is measured with a sensitive electrometer. LRAD-based instruments can give separate, simultaneous measurements of alpha-emitting solids and inert radioactive gases such as radon. LRAD-based instruments assess surface contamination on an entire object or large surface area in a single, rapid measurement, including relatively inaccessible areas such as interior surfaces of pipes and process equipment. The LRAD concept is well proven and has been developed into a range of different radiation detection devices. This paper presents an overview of the technology, while several associated papers explore specific applications in greater detail.

  15. Assessing adult leisure activities: an extension of a self-report activity questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Jopp, Daniela S; Hertzog, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    Everyday leisure activities in adulthood and old age have been investigated with respect to constructs such as successful aging, an engaged lifestyle, and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. They also relate to mental health and have clinical value, as they can inform diagnosis and interventions. In the present study, the authors enhanced the content validity of the Victoria Longitudinal Study activity questionnaire by adding items on physical and social activities and validated a shortened version of the questionnaire. The proposed leisure activity model included 11 activity categories: 3 types of social activities (i.e., activities with close social partners, group-centered public activity, religious activities), physical activities, developmental activities, experiential activities, crafts, game playing, TV watching, travel, and technology use. Confirmatory factor analyses validated the proposed factor structure in 2 independent samples. A higher order model with a general activity factor fitted the activity factor correlations with relatively little loss of fit. Convergent and discriminant validity for the activity scales were supported by patterns of their correlations with education, health, depression, cognition, and personality. In sum, the scores derived from of the augmented Victoria Longitudinal Study activity questionnaire demonstrate good reliability, and validity evidence supports their use as measures of leisure activities in young, middle-aged, and older individuals. PMID:20230157

  16. Assessing Microbial Activity in Marcellus Shale Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishart, J. R.; Morono, Y.; Itoh, M.; Ijiri, A.; Hoshino, T.; Inagaki, F.; Verba, C.; Torres, M. E.; Colwell, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) produces millions of gallons of waste fluid which contains a microbial community adapted to harsh conditions such as high temperatures, high salinities and the presence of heavy metals and radionuclides. Here we present evidence for microbial activity in HF production fluids. Fluids collected from a Marcellus shale HF well were supplemented with 13C-labeled carbon sources and 15N-labeled ammonium at 25°C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Samples were analyzed for 13C and 15N incorporation at sub-micrometer scale by ion imaging with the JAMSTEC NanoSIMS to determine percent carbon and nitrogen assimilation in individual cells. Headspace CO2 and CH4 were analyzed for 13C enrichment using irm-GC/MS. At 32 days incubation carbon assimilation was observed in samples containing 1 mM 13C-labeled glucose under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with a maximum of 10.4 and 6.5% total carbon, respectively. Nitrogen assimilation of 15N ammonium observed in these samples were 0.3 and 0.8% of total nitrogen, respectively. Head space gas analysis showed 13C enrichment in CH4 in anaerobic samples incubated with 1mM 13C-labeled bicarbonate (2227 ‰) or methanol (98943 ‰). Lesser 13C enrichment of CO2 was observed in anaerobic samples containing 1 mM 13C-labeled acetate (13.7 ‰), methanol (29.9 ‰) or glucose (85.4 ‰). These results indicate metabolic activity and diversity in microbial communities present in HF flowback fluids. The assimilation of 13C-labeled glucose demonstrates the production of biomass, a critical part of cell replication. The production of 13CO2 and 13CH4 demonstrate microbial metabolism in the forms of respiration and methanogenesis, respectively. Methanogenesis additionally indicates the presence of an active archaeal community. This research shows that HF production fluid chemistry does not entirely inhibit microbial activity or growth and encourages further research regarding biogeochemical processes occurring in

  17. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSING THE MAGNITUDE OF HUMAN INGESTION OF RECREATIONAL WATER DURING SWIMMING ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's Beaches Environmental Assessment, Closure, and Health (BEACH) Program is a multi-year, multifaceted strategy for reducing human exposure to certain risks from infectious pathogenic organisms associated with human behavior, and activities related to hygienic practices, o...

  18. 78 FR 34669 - Incidental Take Permit and Environmental Assessment for Forest Management Activities, Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Incidental Take Permit and Environmental Assessment for Forest Management... of a proposed habitat conservation plan (HCP) and accompanying documents for proposed forest management activities by Potlatch Forest Holdings, Inc. (Applicant) that would take the endangered...

  19. Eruptive Current Sheets Trailing SOHO/LASCO CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, David F.

    2015-04-01

    Current sheets are important signatures of magnetic reconnection during the eruption of solar magnetic structures. Many models of eruptive flare/Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) involve formation of a current sheet connecting the ejecting CME flux rope with the post-eruption magnetic loop arcade. Current sheets have been interpreted in white light images as narrow rays trailing the outward-moving CME, in ultraviolet spectra as narrow, bright hot features, and with different manifestations in other wavebands. This study continues that of Webb et al. (2003), who analyzed SMM white light CMEs having candidate magnetic disconnection features at the base of the CME. About half of those were followed by coaxial, bright rays suggestive of newly formed current sheets, and Webb et al. (2003) presented detailed results of analysis of those structures. In this work we extend the study of white light eruptive current sheets to the more sensitive and extensive SOHO/LASCO coronagraph data on CMEs. We comprehensively examined all LASCO CMEs during two periods that we identify with the minimum and maximum activity of solar cycle 23. We identified ~130 ray/current sheets during these periods, nearly all of which trailed CMEs with concave-outward backs. The occurrence rate of the ray/current sheets is 6-7% of all CMEs, irrespective of the solar cycle. We analyze the rays for durations, speeds, alignments, and motions and compare the observational results with some model predictions.

  20. Assessing Adult Leisure Activities: An Extension of a Self-Report Activity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Jopp, Daniela; Hertzog, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Everyday leisure activities in adulthood and old age have been investigated with respect to constructs such as successful aging, an engaged lifestyle, and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. They also relate to mental health and have clinical value as they can inform diagnosis and interventions. In the present study, we enhanced the content validity of the Victoria Longitudinal Study activity questionnaire by adding items on physical and social activities, and validated a shortened version of the questionnaire. Our proposed leisure activity model included 11 activity categories: three types of social activities (i.e., activities with close social partners, group-centered public activity, religious activities), physical, developmental, and experiential activities, crafts, game playing, TV watching, travel, and technology use. Confirmatory factor analyses validated the proposed factor structure in two independent samples. A higher-order model with a general activity factor fitted the activity factor correlations with relatively little loss of fit. Convergent and discriminant validity for the activity scales were supported by patterns of their correlations with education, health, depression, cognition, and personality. In sum, the scores derived from of the augmented VLS activity questionnaire demonstrate good reliability, and validity evidence supports their use as measure of leisure activities in young, middle-aged, and older individuals. PMID:20230157

  1. A Novel Method for Assessing the Chaperone Activity of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hristozova, Nevena; Tompa, Peter; Kovacs, Denes

    2016-01-01

    Protein chaperones are molecular machines which function both during homeostasis and stress conditions in all living organisms. Depending on their specific function, molecular chaperones are involved in a plethora of cellular processes by playing key roles in nascent protein chain folding, transport and quality control. Among stress protein families-molecules expressed during adverse conditions, infection, and diseases-chaperones are highly abundant. Their molecular functions range from stabilizing stress-susceptible molecules and membranes to assisting the refolding of stress-damaged proteins, thereby acting as protective barriers against cellular damage. Here we propose a novel technique to test and measure the capability for protective activity of known and putative chaperones in a semi-high throughput manner on a plate reader. The current state of the art does not allow the in vitro measurements of chaperone activity in a highly parallel manner with high accuracy or high reproducibility, thus we believe that the method we report will be of significant benefit in this direction. The use of this method may lead to a considerable increase in the number of experimentally verified proteins with such functions, and may also allow the dissection of their molecular mechanism for a better understanding of their function. PMID:27564234

  2. A Novel Method for Assessing the Chaperone Activity of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hristozova, Nevena; Tompa, Peter; Kovacs, Denes

    2016-01-01

    Protein chaperones are molecular machines which function both during homeostasis and stress conditions in all living organisms. Depending on their specific function, molecular chaperones are involved in a plethora of cellular processes by playing key roles in nascent protein chain folding, transport and quality control. Among stress protein families–molecules expressed during adverse conditions, infection, and diseases–chaperones are highly abundant. Their molecular functions range from stabilizing stress-susceptible molecules and membranes to assisting the refolding of stress-damaged proteins, thereby acting as protective barriers against cellular damage. Here we propose a novel technique to test and measure the capability for protective activity of known and putative chaperones in a semi-high throughput manner on a plate reader. The current state of the art does not allow the in vitro measurements of chaperone activity in a highly parallel manner with high accuracy or high reproducibility, thus we believe that the method we report will be of significant benefit in this direction. The use of this method may lead to a considerable increase in the number of experimentally verified proteins with such functions, and may also allow the dissection of their molecular mechanism for a better understanding of their function. PMID:27564234

  3. ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-BIOREMEDIATED SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBIN

    2004-10-20

    The relationship between toxicity and soil contamination must be understood to develop reliable indicators of environmental restoration for bioremediation. Two bacterial rapid bioassays: SOS chromotest and umu-test with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mixture) were used to evaluate genotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil following bioremediation treatment. The soil was taken from an engineered biopile at the Czor Polish oil refinery. The bioremediation process in the biopile lasted 4 years, and the toxicity measurements were done after this treatment. Carcinogens detected in the soil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were reduced to low concentrations (2 mg/kg dry wt) by the bioremediation process. Genotoxicity was not observed for soils tested with and without metabolic activation by a liver homogenate (S-9 mixture). However, umu-test was more sensitive than SOS-chromotest in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil. Analytical results of soil used in the bioassays confirmed that the bioremediation process reduced 81 percent of the petroleum hydrocarbons including PAHs. We conclude that the combined test systems employed in this study are useful tools for the genotoxic examination of remediated petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  4. Reconstructing the last Newfoundland Ice Sheet,Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHenry, Maureen; Dunlop, Paul

    2015-04-01

    attempt at unravelling this new record using flowset analysis which separates discrete ice flow patterns into snapshots of ice sheet behaviour through time. Our initial flowset analysis shows the NIS was a dynamic ice sheet which was susceptible to configuration changes throughout the last glacial cycle including ice divide migration, regional configuration changes, ice stream activity and enhanced ice flow caused by marine drawdown.

  5. Risk assessment of selected priority pollutants coming from boating activities.

    PubMed

    Ansanelli, Giuliana; Parrella, Luisa; Di Landa, Giuseppe; Massanisso, Paolo; Schiavo, Simona; Manzo, Sonia

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we evaluated the risk posed to aquatic organisms in the coastal waters of Albania and Apulia (Italy) by two priority pollutants (PPs), Irgarol 1051 and Diuron, used as biocides in antifouling paints on boat hulls. With this aim, we carried out an extensive 3-year monitoring in ports and marinas along the coasts of both countries, which showed a widespread occurrence of both PPs, with Irgarol 1051 concentrations usually being lower than the Diuron ones. The measured concentrations were compared with regulatory Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) (Directive 2008/105/EC) and used to perform a probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA), for a thorough evaluation of the potential adverse effects upon marine ecosystem. Irgarol 1051 amounts above the Annual Average Concentration (AA-EQS, 2.5 ng/L) were often detected in Apulia and, less frequently, in Albania. Moreover, in Apulia, sometimes the Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAC-EQS, 16 ng/L) was exceeded. In Apulia, where levels exceeded MAC/AA-EQS, ERA found not negligible probabilities of exceeding the toxicity level (6-18 %). A less critical situation was observed for Diuron whose levels were always below the MAC-EQS (1800 ng/L) in both countries and, in Albania, also below the AA-EQS (200 ng/L). On the other hand, in Apulia, this limit was exceeded in some locations. Correspondingly, ERA determined a not negligible risk in these sites (probability of exceedance 4-7 %). PMID:27344560

  6. 77 FR 36001 - Draft Report Assessing Rural Water Activities and Related Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Report Assessing Rural Water Activities and Related Programs AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The draft Rural Water Assessment Report reviews the status of the Bureau of Reclamation's rural potable water projects and its plan...

  7. EPA ACTIVITIES TO PREPARE FOR REGULATORY AND RISK ASSESSMENT APPLICATIONS OF GENOMICS INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomics will have significant implications for risk assessment and regulatory decision making. Since 2002, the U.S. EPA has undertaken a number of cross-Agency activities to further prepare itself to receive,interpret and apply genomics information for risk assessment and regul...

  8. Performance objectives for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-03-17

    Performance objectives for the disposal of low activity waste from Hanford Waste Tanks have been developed. These objectives have been based on DOE requirements, programmatic requirements, and public involvement. The DOE requirements include regulations that direct the performance assessment and are cited within the Radioactive Waste Management Order (DOE Order 435.1). Performance objectives for other DOE complex performance assessments have been included.

  9. 78 FR 33908 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Assessment Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... identified Wind Energy Area (WEA) on the OCS offshore Rhode Island (RI) and Massachusetts (MA). The revised... from leasing, site characterization, and site assessment in and around the Call Area (76 FR 51391). The... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Assessment Activities on...

  10. 77 FR 39508 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Assessment Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... specific project proposals on those leases) in an identified Wind Energy Area (WEA) on the OCS offshore..., site characterization, and site assessment in and around the Call Area (76 FR 51391). The Call Area is... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Assessment Activities on...

  11. An Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Patterns of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Peter C.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We used ecological momentary assessment to understand the physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns of university students. Study design: Cross sectional, opportunistic sample from a university in the English midlands. Methods: Ecological momentary assessment diaries were completed every 15 minutes across two days. The sample…

  12. A Case Study Objectively Assessing Female Physical Activity Levels within the National Curriculum for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Matthew; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Morley, David; McKenna, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the National Curriculum for Physical Education (NCPE) lesson themes and contexts on the profile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fifteen, Year 9 Physical Education (PE) lessons were assessed within the lesson themes of Outwitting Opponents (OO) (delivered through field hockey…

  13. Assessing risk based on uncertain avalanche activity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Antonia; Fromm, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    Avalanches may affect critical infrastructure and may cause great economic losses. The planning horizon of infrastructures, e.g. hydropower generation facilities, reaches well into the future. Based on the results of previous studies on the effect of changing meteorological parameters (precipitation, temperature) and the effect on avalanche activity we assume that there will be a change of the risk pattern in future. The decision makers need to understand what the future might bring to best formulate their mitigation strategies. Therefore, we explore a commercial risk software to calculate risk for the coming years that might help in decision processes. The software @risk, is known to many larger companies, and therefore we explore its capabilities to include avalanche risk simulations in order to guarantee a comparability of different risks. In a first step, we develop a model for a hydropower generation facility that reflects the problem of changing avalanche activity patterns in future by selecting relevant input parameters and assigning likely probability distributions. The uncertain input variables include the probability of avalanches affecting an object, the vulnerability of an object, the expected costs for repairing the object and the expected cost due to interruption. The crux is to find the distribution that best represents the input variables under changing meteorological conditions. Our focus is on including the uncertain probability of avalanches based on the analysis of past avalanche data and expert knowledge. In order to explore different likely outcomes we base the analysis on three different climate scenarios (likely, worst case, baseline). For some variables, it is possible to fit a distribution to historical data, whereas in cases where the past dataset is insufficient or not available the software allows to select from over 30 different distribution types. The Monte Carlo simulation uses the probability distribution of uncertain variables

  14. Assessing the Nonbiodegradable Fraction of the Thickened Waste Activated Sludge.

    PubMed

    Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Nakhla, George

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the feasibility of using three methods to estimate the nonbiodegradable fraction of five thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) samples was evaluated using long-term biochemical methane potential tests at four substrate to biomass ratios. The nonbiodegradable fraction was calculated based on the remaining volatile suspended solids (VSS), remaining total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), and remaining total organic carbon (TOC). It was evident that the nonbiodegradable fraction of TWAS ranged from 12 to 27%. The average nonbiodegradable fractions of TWAS were 21, 18, and 23% based on remaining VSS, TCOD, and TOC, respectively. The proposed method can be potentially used to characterize biosolids for design and modeling anaerobic treatment processes. PMID:26237686

  15. Assessing bone banking activities at University of Malaya medical centre.

    PubMed

    Mohd, Suhaili; Samsuddin, Sharifah Mazni; Ramalingam, Saravana; Min, Ng Wuey; Yusof, Norimah; Zaman, T Kamarul; Mansor, Azura

    2015-12-01

    The main advantage of establishing in-house bone banks is its ability to readily provide allograft bones for local surgeries. Bone procurement activities of our university bone bank during the 10 years of operation were reviewed. Socio-demographic data of donors, types of bone procured, cases of rejected bones and types of allograft bones transplanted are presented. From 179 potential donors, 73 % were accepted with 213 procured bones. Femoral head was the common bone transplanted (45 %), as it was also the most common procured (82 %). Bones were rejected mainly due to non-technical reasons (83 %) rather than positive results of microbiological (13 %) and serological (4 %) tests. Comprehensive data could not be obtained for further analysis due to difficulties in retrieving information. Therefore, quality assurance system was improved to establish more systematic documentations, as the basis of good banking practice with process control hence allowing traceability. PMID:25656787

  16. Subglacial lake and meltwater flow predictions of the last North American and European Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, S. J.; Clark, C. D.; Tarasov, L.

    2012-04-01

    There is increasing recognition that subglacial lakes act as key components within the ice sheet system, capable of influencing ice-sheet topography, ice volume and ice flow. The subglacial water systems themselves are recognised as being both active and dynamic, with large discharges of meltwater capable of flowing down hydrological pathways both between lakes and to the ice-sheet margins. At present, much glaciological research is concerned with the role of modern subglacial lake systems in Antarctica. Another approach to the exploration of subglacial lakes involves identification of the geological record of subglacial lakes that once existed beneath ice sheets of the last glaciation. Investigation of such palaeo-subglacial lakes offers significant advantages because we have comprehensive information about the bed properties, they are much more accessible and we can examine and sample the sediments with ease. If we can find palaeo-subglacial lakes then we have the potential to advance understanding with regard to the topographic context and hydrological pathways that the phenomena form a part of; essentially we gain spatial and sedimentological information in relation to investigations of contemporary subglacial lakes and lose out on the short-time dynamics. In this work we present predictions of palaeo-subglacial lakes and meltwater drainage pathways under the former European and North American ice sheets during the last glaciation. We utilise data on the current topography and seafloor bathymetry, and elevation models of the ice and ground surface topography (interpolated to a 5 km grid) to calculate the hydraulic potential surface at the ice-sheet bed. Meltwater routing algorithms and the flooding of local hydraulic minima allow us to predict subglacial channels and lakes respectively. Given that specific ice-surface and bed topographies are only known from modelled outputs, and thus contain significant uncertainty, we utilise many such outputs to examine

  17. High-throughput and quantitative assessment of enhancer activity in mammals by CapStarr-seq.

    PubMed

    Vanhille, Laurent; Griffon, Aurélien; Maqbool, Muhammad Ahmad; Zacarias-Cabeza, Joaquin; Dao, Lan T M; Fernandez, Nicolas; Ballester, Benoit; Andrau, Jean Christophe; Spicuglia, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Cell-type specific regulation of gene expression requires the activation of promoters by distal genomic elements defined as enhancers. The identification and the characterization of enhancers are challenging in mammals due to their genome complexity. Here we develop CapStarr-Seq, a novel high-throughput strategy to quantitatively assess enhancer activity in mammals. This approach couples capture of regions of interest to previously developed Starr-seq technique. Extensive assessment of CapStarr-seq demonstrates accurate quantification of enhancer activity. Furthermore, we find that enhancer strength is associated with binding complexity of tissue-specific transcription factors and super-enhancers, while additive enhancer activity isolates key genes involved in cell identity and function. The CapStarr-Seq thus provides a fast and cost-effective approach to assess the activity of potential enhancers for a given cell type and will be helpful in decrypting transcription regulation mechanisms. PMID:25872643

  18. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change: volume II, part I. Response of the West Antarctic ice sheet to CO/sub 2/-induced climatic warming

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C.

    1982-04-01

    The paper proposes a research plan to deal with the question of what the response of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet would be to a rise in global temperatures caused by an anthropogenic CO/sub 2/ buildup in the atmosphere. The plan is designed to answer the following questions: (1) how fast is the ice mass changing now, and why; (2) how will the boundary conditions that affect the ice sheet respond to an atmospheric temperature change and how are those boundary conditions changing now; (3) what will be the response of the ice sheet to changes in boundary conditions; and (4) what can be learned by analogy with what has happened in the past. (ACR)

  19. Mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Wingham, D J; Shepherd, A; Muir, A; Marshall, G J

    2006-07-15

    The Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise has long been uncertain. While regional variability in ice dynamics has been revealed, a picture of mass changes throughout the continental ice sheet is lacking. Here, we use satellite radar altimetry to measure the elevation change of 72% of the grounded ice sheet during the period 1992-2003. Depending on the density of the snow giving rise to the observed elevation fluctuations, the ice sheet mass trend falls in the range -5-+85Gtyr-1. We find that data from climate model reanalyses are not able to characterise the contemporary snowfall fluctuation with useful accuracy and our best estimate of the overall mass trend-growth of 27+/-29Gtyr-1-is based on an assessment of the expected snowfall variability. Mass gains from accumulating snow, particularly on the Antarctic Peninsula and within East Antarctica, exceed the ice dynamic mass loss from West Antarctica. The result exacerbates the difficulty of explaining twentieth century sea-level rise. PMID:16782603

  20. Can vesicle size distributions assess eruption intensity during volcanic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRue, A.; Baker, D. R.; Polacci, M.; Allard, P.; Sodini, N.

    2013-10-01

    We studied three-dimensional (3-D) vesicle size distributions by X-ray microtomography in scoria collected during the relatively quiescent Phase II of the April-May 2010 eruption at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland. Our goal was to compare cumulative vesicle size distributions (VSDs) measured in these samples with those found in Stromboli volcano, Italy. Stromboli was chosen because its VSDs are well-characterized and show a correlation with eruption intensity: typical Strombolian activity produces VSDs with power-law exponents near 1, whereas larger and more energetic vulcanian-type explosions and Plinian eruptions produce VSDs with power-law exponents near 1.5. The first hypothesis to be tested was whether or not the samples studied in this work would contain VSDs similar to normal Strombolian products, display higher power-law exponents, or be described by exponential functions. Before making this comparison, we tested a second hypothesis, which was that the magma-water interactions in the Eyjafjallajökull eruption might have a significant effect on the VSDs. We performed 1 bar bubble-growth experiments in which the samples were inundated with water and compared them to similar control experiments without water inundation. No significant differences between the VSDs of the two sets of experiments were found, and the second hypothesis is not supported by the experimental evidence. The Phase II Eyjafjallajökull VSDs are described by power-law exponents of ~0.8, typical of normal Strombolian eruptions, and support the first hypothesis. The comparable VSDs and behavior of Phase II of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption to Stromboli are interpreted to be a reflection of similar conduit systems in both volcanoes that are being constantly fed by the ascent of mingled/mixed magma from depth. Such behavior implies that continued activity during Phase II of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption could be expected and would have been predicted, had our VSDs been measured in

  1. Workload assessment in building construction related activities in India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rina

    2008-11-01

    A field study was conducted to highlight the occupational risk factors related to building construction activities in India among female workers. These workers were engaged in eight different types of activities and related work parameters were studied in detail. From field environmental parameters, the calculated WBGT was obtained as 30.26+/-1.52 degrees C, indicated that these workers worked under a positive heat load condition. Whole day work study was conducted on 11 adult female workers performing concreting operation. They were having age of 28-32 years with 5-7 years of work experience. These workers were mainly performing two types of operations in the field: (A) asymmetric lifting during concreting a boundary wall formwork of a lift unit and (B) carrying the concrete mixture. During asymmetric lifting, the average field working heart rate (HR) was calculated as 124.1+/-12.5 beats min(-1), equivalent to 45.03+/-6.93% of VO(2) max level. These working heart rates (HRs) were significantly (p

  2. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  3. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.; Birmingham, Joseph G.; McDonald, Carolyn Evans; Kurath, Dean E.; Friedrich, Michele

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  4. NATIONAL HUMAN ACTIVITY PATTERN SURVEY (NHAPS): USE OF NATIONWIDE ACTIVITY DATA FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) was initiated to fill a need for updated activity information on a nationwide scale. Several recent exposure field monitoring studies have shown that human activities play a critical role in explaining the variation in human expo...

  5. An Assessment of a Physical Chemistry Online Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamby Towns, Marcy; Kreke, Kelley; Sauder, Deborah; Stout, Roland; Long, George; Zielinski, Theresa Julia

    1998-12-01

    A questionnaire and list server archive were used to investigate the perception of students and faculty who took part in a physical chemistry online project. Students at four universities worked cooperatively in their own classrooms and collaborated as a larger team on the Internet via a list server to determine the best mathematical model to describe the PV behavior of a gas at a specified temperature. The strengths of the project were the interaction among students, the use of Mathcad and modern technology, and the experience of authentic problem-solving. The weaknesses were the problems with the technology, the facilitation of interaction, and the student's ability to ask questions to solve an ill-defined problem. The suggestions for improvements focused on facilitating interuniversity interaction between students, clarifying tasks and goals, and implementation of the online activities. We discuss how our evaluation of the project guided and informed the design of a subsequent online project, and our planning for future projects. In addition, we describe the professional learning community that evolved among faculty who participated in this project.

  6. Assessing the antimicrobial activity of polyisoprene based surfaces.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Hope; Brunellière, Jérôme; Veryaskina, Marina; Brotons, Guillaume; Sablé, Sophie; Lanneluc, Isabelle; Lambert, Kelly; Marmey, Pascal; Milsted, Amy; Cutright, Teresa; Nourry, Arnaud; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Pasetto, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    There has been an intense research effort in the last decades in the field of biofouling prevention as it concerns many aspects of everyday life and causes problems to devices, the environment, and human health. Many different antifouling and antimicrobial materials have been developed to struggle against bacteria and other micro- and macro-organism attachment to different surfaces. However the "miracle solution" has still to be found. The research presented here concerns the synthesis of bio-based polymeric materials and the biological tests that showed their antifouling and, at the same time, antibacterial activity. The raw material used for the coating synthesis was natural rubber. The polyisoprene chains were fragmented to obtain oligomers, which had reactive chemical groups at their chain ends, therefore they could be modified to insert polymerizable and biocidal groups. Films were obtained by radical photopolymerization of the natural rubber derived oligomers and their structure was altered, in order to understand the mechanism of attachment inhibition and to increase the efficiency of the anti-biofouling action. The adhesion of three species of pathogenic bacteria and six strains of marine bacteria was studied. The coatings were able to inhibit bacterial attachment by contact, as it was verified that no detectable leaching of toxic molecules occurred. PMID:25706513

  7. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgepeth, J; Johnson, Gary E. ); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  8. Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Polyisoprene Based Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Badawy, Hope; Brunellière, Jérôme; Veryaskina, Marina; Brotons, Guillaume; Sablé, Sophie; Lanneluc, Isabelle; Lambert, Kelly; Marmey, Pascal; Milsted, Amy; Cutright, Teresa; Nourry, Arnaud; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Pasetto, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    There has been an intense research effort in the last decades in the field of biofouling prevention as it concerns many aspects of everyday life and causes problems to devices, the environment, and human health. Many different antifouling and antimicrobial materials have been developed to struggle against bacteria and other micro- and macro-organism attachment to different surfaces. However the “miracle solution” has still to be found. The research presented here concerns the synthesis of bio-based polymeric materials and the biological tests that showed their antifouling and, at the same time, antibacterial activity. The raw material used for the coating synthesis was natural rubber. The polyisoprene chains were fragmented to obtain oligomers, which had reactive chemical groups at their chain ends, therefore they could be modified to insert polymerizable and biocidal groups. Films were obtained by radical photopolymerization of the natural rubber derived oligomers and their structure was altered, in order to understand the mechanism of attachment inhibition and to increase the efficiency of the anti-biofouling action. The adhesion of three species of pathogenic bacteria and six strains of marine bacteria was studied. The coatings were able to inhibit bacterial attachment by contact, as it was verified that no detectable leaching of toxic molecules occurred. PMID:25706513

  9. Superfund fact sheet: The removal program. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes the Superfund Emergency Response Program, a program specifically designed to respond to multi-media hazardous materials accidents (e.g. illegal disposal or improper handling of materials, transportation accidents, chemical fires) that endanger people and/or the environment. Explanations of how the removal program works and how the affected communities are involved are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no scientific training.

  10. Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation activities. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Meichle, R.H.

    1994-11-08

    This revision adds a section addressing impacts of dropping surfacing tool and rack cutter on the basin floor, and corrects typographical errors. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparisons of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions was made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classifications.

  11. Characterization of Tensile Mechanical Behavior of MSCs/PLCL Hybrid Layered Sheet.

    PubMed

    Pangesty, Azizah Intan; Arahira, Takaaki; Todo, Mitsugu

    2016-01-01

    A layered construct was developed by combining a porous polymer sheet and a cell sheet as a tissue engineered vascular patch. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sheet on the tensile mechanical properties of porous poly-(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) sheet. The porous PLCL sheet was fabricated by the solid-liquid phase separation method and the following freeze-drying method. The MSCs sheet, prepared by the temperature-responsive dish, was then layered on the top of the PLCL sheet and cultured for 2 weeks. During the in vitro study, cellular properties such as cell infiltration, spreading and proliferation were evaluated. Tensile test of the layered construct was performed periodically to characterize the tensile mechanical behavior. The tensile properties were then correlated with the cellular properties to understand the effect of MSCs sheet on the variation of the mechanical behavior during the in vitro study. It was found that MSCs from the cell sheet were able to migrate into the PLCL sheet and actively proliferated into the porous structure then formed a new layer of MSCs on the opposite surface of the PLCL sheet. Mechanical evaluation revealed that the PLCL sheet with MSCs showed enhancement of tensile strength and strain energy density at the first week of culture which is characterized as the effect of MSCs proliferation and its infiltration into the porous structure of the PLCL sheet. New technique was presented to develop tissue engineered patch by combining MSCs sheet and porous PLCL sheet, and it is expected that the layered patch may prolong biomechanical stability when implanted in vivo. PMID:27271675

  12. Characterization of Tensile Mechanical Behavior of MSCs/PLCL Hybrid Layered Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Pangesty, Azizah Intan; Arahira, Takaaki; Todo, Mitsugu

    2016-01-01

    A layered construct was developed by combining a porous polymer sheet and a cell sheet as a tissue engineered vascular patch. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sheet on the tensile mechanical properties of porous poly-(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) sheet. The porous PLCL sheet was fabricated by the solid-liquid phase separation method and the following freeze-drying method. The MSCs sheet, prepared by the temperature-responsive dish, was then layered on the top of the PLCL sheet and cultured for 2 weeks. During the in vitro study, cellular properties such as cell infiltration, spreading and proliferation were evaluated. Tensile test of the layered construct was performed periodically to characterize the tensile mechanical behavior. The tensile properties were then correlated with the cellular properties to understand the effect of MSCs sheet on the variation of the mechanical behavior during the in vitro study. It was found that MSCs from the cell sheet were able to migrate into the PLCL sheet and actively proliferated into the porous structure then formed a new layer of MSCs on the opposite surface of the PLCL sheet. Mechanical evaluation revealed that the PLCL sheet with MSCs showed enhancement of tensile strength and strain energy density at the first week of culture which is characterized as the effect of MSCs proliferation and its infiltration into the porous structure of the PLCL sheet. New technique was presented to develop tissue engineered patch by combining MSCs sheet and porous PLCL sheet, and it is expected that the layered patch may prolong biomechanical stability when implanted in vivo. PMID:27271675

  13. Assessment of nose protector for sport activities: finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Coto, Neide Pena; Meira, Josete Barbosa Cruz; Brito e Dias, Reinaldo; Driemeier, Larissa; de Oliveira Roveri, Guilherme; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2012-04-01

    There has been a significant increase in the number of facial fractures stemming from sport activities in recent years, with the nasal bone one of the most affected structures. Researchers recommend the use of a nose protector, but there is no standardization regarding the material employed. Clinical experience has demonstrated that a combination of a flexible and rigid layer of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) offers both comfort and safety to practitioners of sports. The aim of the present study was the investigation into the stresses generated by the impact of a rigid body on the nasal bone on models with and without an EVA protector. For such, finite element analysis was employed. A craniofacial model was constructed from images obtained through computed tomography. The nose protector was modeled with two layers of EVA (1 mm of rigid EVA over 2 mm of flexible EVA), following the geometry of the soft tissue. Finite element analysis was performed using the LS Dyna program. The bone and rigid EVA were represented as elastic linear material, whereas the soft tissues and flexible EVA were represented as hyperelastic material. The impact from a rigid sphere on the frontal region of the face was simulated with a constant velocity of 20 m s(-1) for 9.1 μs. The model without the protector served as the control. The distribution of maximal stress of the facial bones was recorded. The maximal stress on the nasal bone surpassed the breaking limit of 0.13-0.34 MPa on the model without a protector, while remaining below this limit on the model with the protector. Thus, the nose protector made from both flexible and rigid EVA proved effective at protecting the nasal bones under high-impact conditions. PMID:21790992

  14. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  15. Quality assurance guidance for laboratory assessment plates in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document is one of several guidance documents developed to support the EM (DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management) Analytical Services program. Its purpose is to introduce assessment plates that can be used to conduct performance assessments of an organization`s or project`s ability to meet quality goals for analytical laboratory activities. These assessment plates are provided as non-prescriptive guidance to EM-support organizations responsible for collection of environmental data for remediation and waste management programs at DOE facilities. The assessments evaluate objectively all components of the analytical laboratory process to determine their proper selection and use.

  16. Selective and efficient electrochemical biosensing of ultrathin molybdenum disulfide sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Tharangattu N.; Vusa, Chiranjeevi S. R.; Alwarappan, Subbiah

    2014-08-01

    Atomically thin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) sheets were synthesized and isolated via solvent-assisted chemical exfoliation. The charge-dependent electrochemical activities of these MoS2 sheets were studied using positively charged hexamine ruthenium (III) chloride and negatively charged ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox probes. Ultrathin MoS2 sheet-based electrodes were employed for the electrochemical detection of an important neurotransmitter, namely dopamine (DA), in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA). MoS2 electrodes were identified as being capable of distinguishing the coexistence of the DA and the AA with an excellent stability. Moreover, the enzymatic detection of the glucose was studied by immobilizing glucose oxidase on the MoS2. This study opens enzymatic and non-enzymatic electrochemical biosensing applications of atomic MoS2 sheets, which will supplement their established electronic applications.

  17. Heating and cooling of the earth's plasma sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic-field models based on pressure equilibrium in the quiet magnetotail require nonadiabatic cooling of the plasma as it convects inward or a decrease of the flux tube content. Recent in situ observations of plasma density and temperature indicate that, during quiet convection, the flux tube content may actually increase. Thus the plasma must be cooled during quiet times. The earth plasma sheet is generally significantly hotter after the expansion phase of a substorm than before the plasma sheet thinning begins and cools during the recovery phase. Heating mechanisms such as reconnection, current sheet acceleration, plasma expansion, and resonant absorption of surface waves are discussed. It seems that all mechanisms are active, albeit in different regions of the plasma sheet. Near-earth tail signatures of substorms require local heating as well as a decrease of the flux tube content. It is shown that the resonant absorption of surface waves can provide both.

  18. Escape of O+ through the distant tail plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, L. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Popecki, M. A.; Simunac, K. D. C.; Farrugia, C.; Moebius, E.; Lee, M. A.; Blush, L. M.; Bochsler, P.; Wurz, P.; Klecker, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Opitz, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Thompson, B.; Russell, C. T.

    2010-11-01

    In February 2007, the STEREO-B spacecraft encountered the magnetosheath, plasma sheet and plasma sheet boundary layer from about 200 RE to 300 RE downtail. This time period was during solar minimum, and there was no storm activity during this month. Using data from the PLASTIC instrument, we find that even during quiet times, O+ is a constant feature of the deep magnetotail, with an O+ density of about 15% of the O+ density in the near-earth plasma sheet for similar conditions. The tailward flux of the O+ is similar to the flux of O+ beams that have been observed in the lobe/mantle region of the deep tail. The total outflow rate of the O+ down the plasma sheet is 1.1 × 1024 ions/s, which is 10% of the total outflow rate of 1 × 1025 ions/s, and of the same order as the estimated loss from dayside transport.

  19. Neuroimaging supports behavioral personality assessment: Overlapping activations during reflective and impulsive risk taking.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda; M Ortner, Tuulia

    2016-09-01

    Personality assessment has been challenged by the fact that different assessment methods (implicit measures, behavioral measures and explicit rating scales) show little or no convergence in behavioral studies. In this neuroimaging study we address for the first time, whether different assessment methods rely on separate or overlapping neuronal systems. Fifty nine healthy adult participants completed two objective personality tests of risk propensity: the more implicit Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the more explicit Game of Dice Task (GDT). Significant differences in activation, as well as connectivity patterns between both tasks were observed. In both tasks, risky decisions yielded significantly stronger activations than safe decisions in the bilateral caudate, as well as the bilateral Insula. The finding of overlapping brain areas validates different assessment methods, despite their behavioral non-convergence. This suggests that neuroimaging can be an important tool of validation in the field of personality assessment. PMID:27373370

  20. Adolescent Literacy. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Millions of students are graduating from high school without the necessary reading and writing skills for career and college success. According to the long-term trend reading assessments of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the literacy of thirteen- and seventeen-year-olds on the NAEP has stagnated for close to four decades.…

  1. Advantages and Limitations in using Active Remote Sensing Technology for Disaster Damage Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauhidur Rahman, Muhammad

    2013-04-01

    Following any major natural or man-made disaster, rapid monitoring and assessment of infrastructures and environmental damages are essential for successful rescue and relief operations. While pre- and post-disaster data from passive remote sensing imageries have played a major role in assessing damages on a damage/no damage basis for over four decades, latest advances in active remote sensing technologies such as Radar and Lidar are also becoming quite useful. The goal of this paper is to first explain the basic theories and analytical techniques involved in using active remote sensing data for assessing damages following a major natural disaster. It will then discuss some of the advantages and limitations often faced by researchers and disaster management personnel when using data from these sensors. Finally, it will highlight how data from Lidar and other active sensors were used to assess damages from three recent major disasters.

  2. Validity of a Questionnaire to Assess the Physical Activity Level in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiraud, Thibaut; Granger, Richard; Bousquet, Marc; Gremeaux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare, in coronary artery disease patients, physical activity (PA) assessed with the Dijon Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ) and the true PA objectively measured using an accelerometer. Seventy patients wore an accelerometer (MyWellness Key actimeter) throughout 1 week after a cardiac rehabilitation program that…

  3. An Observational Assessment of Physical Activity Levels and Social Behaviour during Elementary School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon J.; Fairclough, Stuart J.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Porteous, Conor

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess children's physical activity, social play behaviour, activity type and social interactions during elementary school recess using a pre-validated systematic observation system. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Two elementary schools located in Merseyside, England. Method: Fifty-six…

  4. Qualitative Career Assessment: Developing the My System of Career Influences Reflection Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark; Patton, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a qualitative career assessment activity, the My System of Career Influences (MSCI) Reflection Activity. The article describes the process of developing and testing the instrument. The testing was conducted in two stages with adults and adolescents. Findings from Stage 1 indicate that the MSCI (pilot…

  5. BEACHES: An Observational System for Assessing Children's Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors and Associated Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System (BEACHES) codes direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors and associated environmental events, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. The system's reliability and validity was assessed in a study of 42 children (ages…

  6. The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…

  7. The Risky Situation: A Procedure for Assessing the Father-Child Activation Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Daniel; Bigras, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Initial validation data are presented for the Risky Situation (RS), a 20-minute observational procedure designed to assess the father-child activation relationship with children aged 12-18 months. The coding grid, which is simple and easy to use, allows parent-child dyads to be classified into three categories and provides an activation score. By…

  8. Experimental investigation of a 1 kA/cm{sup 2} sheet beam plasma cathode electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Niraj Narayan Pal, Udit; Prajesh, Rahul; Prakash, Ram; Kumar Pal, Dharmendra

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a cold cathode based sheet-beam plasma cathode electron gun is reported with achieved sheet-beam current density ∼1 kA/cm{sup 2} from pseudospark based argon plasma for pulse length of ∼200 ns in a single shot experiment. For the qualitative assessment of the sheet-beam, an arrangement of three isolated metallic-sheets is proposed. The actual shape and size of the sheet-electron-beam are obtained through a non-conventional method by proposing a dielectric charging technique and scanning electron microscope based imaging. As distinct from the earlier developed sheet beam sources, the generated sheet-beam has been propagated more than 190 mm distance in a drift space region maintaining sheet structure without assistance of any external magnetic field.

  9. Analysis of a Sheet Silicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, J. M.; Evans, S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student project in analytical chemistry using sheet silicates. Provides specific information regarding the use of phlogopite in an experiment to analyze samples for silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fluoride. (CS)

  10. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing the overall capabilities of the NREL CSP Program: collector/receiver characterization, advanced reflector and absorber materials, thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids, and CSP modeling and analysis.

  11. SEER Cancer Stat Fact Sheets

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  12. Measurements and Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Analytical Microscopy, Electro-Optical Characterization, Surface Analysis, and Cell and Module Performance.

  13. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finance Human Resources and Administrative Services Information Technology Marketing and Sales Membership Practice Public Affairs Quality Publishing ... Feedback Recent a a a print email share Facebook Twitter 2016 Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet 3/ ...

  14. Deep Space 1 (fact sheet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    Exerting less force than does a single sheet of paper resting in your hand, Deep Space 1's ion propulsion system will slowly, yet continuously accelerate the spacecraft well beyond speeds attainable by conventional chemical propulsion.

  15. Data assimilation methods for ice-sheet model initialisation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodet, M.; Ritz, C.; Bonan, B.

    2012-04-01

    A hot topic in ice-sheet modelling is to run prognostic simulations over the next 100 years, to investigate the impact of Antarctica and Greenland ice-sheets on sea-level change. Such simulations require an initial state of the ice-sheets which must be as close as possible to what is currently observed. The use of advanced inverse methods appears to be the adequate tool to produce such an initial state. Criteria for a good initial state are: an optimal fit to available observations, such as surface and (sparse) bedrock topography, surface velocities, surface elevation trend. Large scale ice-sheet dynamical models are mostly governed by the following input parameters and variables: basal dragging coefficient, bedrock topography, surface elevation, temperature field. We use variational and sequential data assimilation methods to infer these inputs parameters from available observations. To address this problem we perform identical twin experiments on the realistic flow-line large-scale ice-sheet model GRISLI. Thanks to the model, we simulate observations from a set of given input parameters (bedrock topography, basal sliding field, surface elevation), and we then try to recover these parameters with the generated observations. We also run several diagnostics to assess the quality of the recovered parameters. In the light of the results of our numerical twin experiments, we will discuss advantages and drawbacks of the state-of-the-art data assimilation methods currently used for the initialization problem of ice-sheet models.

  16. Preparation and characterization of Zr doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays on the titanium sheet and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Haijin; Liu Guoguang; Zhou Qingxiang

    2009-12-15

    This paper described a new method for the preparation of Zr doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays by electrochemical method. TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization with titanium anode and platinum cathode. Afterwards, the formed TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays and Pt were used as cathode and anode, respectively, for preparation of Zr/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays in the electrolyte of 0.1 M Zr(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} with different voltage and post-calcination process. The nanotube arrays were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and UV-Vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic activities of these nanotubes were investigated with Rhodamine B as the model pollutant and the results demonstrated that the photocatalytic efficiency of Zr doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes was much better than that of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes under UV irradiation. Zr/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays doped at 7 V and calcined at 600 deg. C (denoted as TiO{sub 2}-7 V-600) achieved the best photocatalytic efficiency and the most optimal doping ratio was 0.047 (Zr/Ti). TiO{sub 2}-7 V-600 could be reused for more than 20 times and maintained good photocatalytic activities. - Graphical abstract: Zr-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by two-step electrochemical process. The photocatalytic efficiency of Zr/TiO{sub 2} was much better than that of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes under UV irradiation. Nanotube arrays prepared by this method could be reused for more than 20 times and maintained good photocatalytic activities.

  17. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  18. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  19. Crib sheets or security blankets?

    PubMed

    Drake, V K; Freed, P; Hunter, J M

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the sanctioned use of crib sheets as a nursing intervention to decrease test anxiety when the classroom is the practice setting for psychiatric/mental health nursing faculty. The products that the students created offered additional unsuspected benefits. The faculty were convinced that the use of crib sheets can be a sound intervention to reduce students' test-taking anxiety. PMID:9661379

  20. Narcolepsy: Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the sleep cycle. It records heart and respiratory rates, electrical activity in the brain using electroencephalography, and ... than narcolepsy. The MSLT also measures heart and respiratory rates, records nerve activity in muscles, and pinpoints the ...

  1. A Dual Role of Graphene Oxide Sheet Deposition on Titanate Nanowire Scaffolds for Osteo-implantation: Mechanical Hardener and Surface Activity Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenjun; Hou, Lijuan; Li, Tingting; Gong, Ziqiang; Huang, Huandi; Wang, Ge; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold biomaterials with open pores and channels are favourable for cell growth and tissue regeneration, however the inherent poor mechanical strength and low surface activity limit their applications as load-bearing bone grafts with satisfactory osseointegration. In this study, macro-porous graphene oxide (GO) modified titanate nanowire scaffolds with desirable surface chemistry and tunable mechanical properties were prepared through a simple hydrothermal process followed by electrochemical deposition of GO nanosheets. The interconnected and porous structure of the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds provides a large surface area for cellular attachment and migration and displays a high compressive strength of approximately 81.1 MPa and a tunable Young’s modulus over the range of 12.4–41.0 GPa, which satisfies site-specific requirements for implantation. Surface chemistry of the scaffolds was modulated by the introduction of GO, which endows the scaffolds flexibility in attaching and patterning bioactive groups (such as -OH, -COOH and -NH2). In vitro cell culture tests suggest that the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds act as a promising biomaterial candidate, in particular the one terminated with -OH groups, which demonstrates improved cell viability, and proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic activities. PMID:26687002

  2. A Dual Role of Graphene Oxide Sheet Deposition on Titanate Nanowire Scaffolds for Osteo-implantation: Mechanical Hardener and Surface Activity Regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenjun; Hou, Lijuan; Li, Tingting; Gong, Ziqiang; Huang, Huandi; Wang, Ge; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaoyun

    2015-12-01

    Scaffold biomaterials with open pores and channels are favourable for cell growth and tissue regeneration, however the inherent poor mechanical strength and low surface activity limit their applications as load-bearing bone grafts with satisfactory osseointegration. In this study, macro-porous graphene oxide (GO) modified titanate nanowire scaffolds with desirable surface chemistry and tunable mechanical properties were prepared through a simple hydrothermal process followed by electrochemical deposition of GO nanosheets. The interconnected and porous structure of the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds provides a large surface area for cellular attachment and migration and displays a high compressive strength of approximately 81.1 MPa and a tunable Young’s modulus over the range of 12.4-41.0 GPa, which satisfies site-specific requirements for implantation. Surface chemistry of the scaffolds was modulated by the introduction of GO, which endows the scaffolds flexibility in attaching and patterning bioactive groups (such as -OH, -COOH and -NH2). In vitro cell culture tests suggest that the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds act as a promising biomaterial candidate, in particular the one terminated with -OH groups, which demonstrates improved cell viability, and proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic activities.

  3. AFRICAN MUSIC SPEAKS, NO. 6--PROJECT CUE, A TV UTILIZATION SHEET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.

    FOURTEEN SETS OF EDUCATIONAL TV UTILIZATION GUIDE SHEETS WERE PREPARED AS TEACHER AIDS. THESE SHEETS COVER SUCH AREAS AS SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECT, SUGGESTED PREPARATION (PRETELECAST), KEY WORDS, WHAT PUPILS SHOULD LOOK AND LISTEN FOR, SUGGESTED FOLLOWUP ACTIVITIES, SUGGESTED RELATED ACTIVITIES, SUGGESTED EVALUATION, AND SUGGESTED RELATED MATERIALS.…

  4. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  5. Acceptability and Feasibility of Physical Activity Assessment Methods for an Appalachian Population.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, Yelena N; Howell, Britteny M; Studts, Christina R; Strath, Scott J; Schoenberg, Nancy E

    2015-08-01

    Nowhere is improving understanding and accurate assessment of physical activity more important for disease prevention and health promotion than among health disparities populations such as those residing in rural and Appalachian regions. To enhance accurate assessment of physical activity and potentially improve intervention capacity, we conducted a mixed-methods study examining the acceptability and feasibility of self-report physical activity questionnaires, pedometers, and accelerometers among rural Appalachian children, adolescents, and adults. Most participants reported positive experiences with all three physical activity assessment tools. Several acceptability ratings differed by age group and by sex within each age group. With very few exceptions, no significant differences in acceptability were found by race, education, employment status, health status, BMI categories, income levels, or insurance status within age groups or overall. Several factors may impact the choice of the physical activity assessment method, including target population age, equipment cost, researcher burden, and potential influence on physical activity levels. Children and adolescents appear to have more constraints on when they can wear pedometers and accelerometers. While pedometers are inexpensive and convenient, they may influence physical activity levels, rather than simply measure them. Accelerometers, while less influential on behavior, consume extensive resources, including high purchase costs and researcher burden. PMID:25608476

  6. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond; Kunz, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. It is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods. These sheets are characterized by a discontinuity in the tangential magnetic field on either side of the sheet but no discontinuity in tangential electric field. This continuity, or single valued behavior of the electric field, allows the sheet current to be expressed in terms of an impedance multiplying this electric field.

  7. Universal Strategy to Fabricate a Two-Dimensional Layered Mesoporous Mo2C Electrocatalyst Hybridized on Graphene Sheets with High Activity and Durability for Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Huo, Lili; Liu, Baocang; Zhang, Geng; Zhang, Jun

    2016-07-20

    A universal strategy was developed for fabrication of a highly active and durable precious-metal-free mesoporous Mo2C/graphene (m-Mo2C/G) electrocatalyst with a two-dimensional layered structural feature via a nanocasting method using glucose as a carbon source and an in-stiu assembled mesoporous KIT-6/graphene (KIT-6/G) as a template. The m-Mo2C/G catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity and excellent durability for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a wide pH range, which displays a small onset potential of 8 mV, owerpotential (η10) for driving a cathodic current density of 10 mA·cm(-2) of 135 mV, a Tafel slope of 58 mV·dec(-1), and an exchange current density of 6.31 × 10(-2) mA·cm(-2) in acidic media and an onset potential of of 41 mV, η10 of 128 mV, Tafel slope of 56 mV·dec(-1), and an exchange current density of 4.09 × 10(-2) mA·cm(-2) in alkaline media, respectively. Furthermore, such an m-Mo2C/G electrocatalyst also gives about 100% Faradaic yield and shows excellent durability during 3000 cycles of a long-term test, and the catalytic current remains stable over 20 h at fixed overpotentials, making it a great potential application prospect for energy issues. PMID:27334022

  8. Magnetic Co@g-C3N4 Core-Shells on rGO Sheets for Momentum Transfer with Catalytic Activity toward Continuous-Flow Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shasha; Han, Guosheng; Su, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yanyan; Wu, Xianli; Li, Baojun

    2016-06-28

    Magnetic core-shell structures provide abundant opportunities for the construction of multifunctional composites. In this article, magnetic core-shells were fabricated with Co nanoparticles (NPs) as cores and g-C3N4 as shells. In the fabrication process, the Co@g-C3N4 core-shells were anchored onto the rGO nanosheets to form a Co@g-C3N4-rGO composite (CNG-I). For hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of NaBH4 or NH3BH3, the Co NP cores act as catalytic active sites. The g-C3N4 shells protect Co NPs cores from aggregating or growing. The connection between Co NPs and rGO was strengthened by the g-C3N4 shells to prevent them from leaching or flowing away. The g-C3N4 shells also work as a cocatalyst for hydrogen generation. The magnetism of Co NPs and the shape of rGO nanosheets achieve effective momentum transfer in the external magnetic field. In the batch reactor, a higher catalytic activity was obtained for CNG-I in self-stirring mode than in magneton stirring mode. In the continuous-flow process, stable hydrogen generation was carried out with CNG-I being fixed and propelled by the external magnetic field. The separation film is unnecessary because of magnetic momentum transfer. This idea of the composite design and magnetic momentum transfer will be useful for the development of both hydrogen generation and multifunctional composite materials. PMID:27276187

  9. Hybrid simulations of thin current sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, G. R.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Speiser, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    A one-dimensional, hybrid simulation code is used to study current sheets with a nonzero normal magnetic field B(sub z) and a dawn-to-dusk electric field E(sub y). Such configurations are dependent upon only two parameters: we use the normalized normal magnetic field B-normalized (sub z) = B(sub z)/(4(pi)(n(sub b)) (v(exp 2 sub T))(exp 1/2) and normalized electric field V-normalized (sub D) = (1/V(sub T)(cE(sub y)/B(sub z)), where V(sub T) is the thermal velocity of ions prior to their interaction with the current sheet and n(sub b) is the number density outside the current sheet (at the simulation boundary). A third parameter that is relevant to the motion of particles in current sheets is kappa(sub A), the value of kappa = (R(sub min)/rho(sub max))(exp 1/2) for particles of average energy. We find that if either B-normalized (sub z) is close to or greater than 1, or if kappa(sub A) is close to 1, a rotational mode develops in which the z = 0 current rotates with the ion sense about the normal magnetic field, while for small values of both B-normalized (sub z) or kappa(sub A), the configuration is quasi-steady. To achieve values of kappa(sub A) of the order of or larger than 1, we decrease the value of V-normalized (sub D) uniformly. We find that the magnetic field fluctuations and particle distribution functions are similar in many respects to what was observed in the day 240, 1986, Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE)/CCE current disruption event, an event that appears to be located at the site of initiation of current disruption and related particle energization.

  10. Cluster Observations of Neutral Sheet Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volwerk, M.; Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Zhang, T. L.; Eichelberger, H.-U.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Balogh, A.

    In the period of early July through the end of October 2001, the Cluster spacecraft had their apogee in the Earth's magnetotail at approximately 19 R_{rm E}. This allowed us to study substorm related phenomena in the neutral sheet. We investigated the FGM data for neutral sheet crossings during strong activity (AE), and in particular looked at ULF waves. For this presentation we will first look at three days: July 17, August 22 and September 15, 2001. Spectral analysis shows that the main power is in compressional waves, similar to the results of {em Bauer et al.} [JGR 100, 23737, 1995] with a significant peak at 30 - 60 mHz. Having four spacecraft, we can de- termine the propagation direction and velocity of the waves, using cross correlation of the bandpass filtered data to get the time lag between the spacecraft and the rela- tive location of the spacecraft. As expected, we find that the waves propagate mainly perpendicular to the magnetic field, either earthward or tailward. The velocity of the waves varies from 60 - 250 km s^{-1}. The propagation direction of the waves may be dependent on the local plasma flow direction or amplitude. Not every neutral sheet crossing shows evidence of these ULF waves near 30 - 60 mHz. There are several days in which the spectral power falls off much more quickly than in the days men- tioned before. Examples are: August 12 and 29 and September 24, 2001. The main spectral power for these days is at frequencies of 60 - 200 mHz. An indication for the difference between these two sets of observations can be found in the AE index. The days with strong ULF wave power at 30 - 60 mHz are during neutral sheet crossings at the onset or expansion phase of a substorm, whereas the days without these waves are crossings that occur during substorm recovery phase, or during quiescent times.

  11. Assessing risk factors for early hip osteoarthritis in activity-related hip pain: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, K A; Glyn-Jones, S; Batt, M E; Arden, N K; Newton, J L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hip pain and injury as a result of activity can lead to the development of early hip osteoarthritis (OA) in susceptible individuals. Our understanding of the factors that increase susceptibility continues to evolve. The ability to clearly identify individuals (and cohorts) with activity-related hip pain who are at risk of early hip OA is currently lacking. The purpose of this study was to gain expert consensus on which key clinical measures might help predict the risk of early hip OA in individuals presenting with activity-related hip pain. The agreed measures would constitute a standardised approach to initial clinical assessment to help identify these individuals. Methods This Dephi study used online surveys to gain concordance of expert opinion in a structured process of ‘rounds’. In this study, we asked ‘What outcome measures are useful in predicting hip OA in activity-related hip pain?’ The Delphi panel consisted of experts from sport and exercise medicine, orthopaedics, rheumatology, physiotherapy and OA research. Results The study identified key clinical measures in the history, examination and investigations (plain anteroposterior radiograph and femoroacetabular impingement views) that the panel agreed would be useful in predicting future risk of hip OA when assessing activity-related hip pain. The panel also agreed that certain investigations and tests (eg, MR angiography) did not currently have a role in routine assessment. There was a lack of consensus regarding the role of MRI, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and certain biomechanical and functional assessments. Conclusions We provide a standardised approach to the clinical assessment of patients with activity-related hip pain. Assessment measures rejected by the Delphi panel were newer, more expensive investigations that currently lack evidence. Assessment measures that did not reach consensus include MRI and PROMs. Their role remains ambiguous and would benefit from further

  12. Tobacco Assessment in Actively Accruing National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group Program Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Erica N.; Torres, Essie; Toll, Benjamin A.; Cummings, K. Michael; Gritz, Ellen R.; Hyland, Andrew; Herbst, Roy S.; Marshall, James R.; Warren, Graham W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Substantial evidence suggests that tobacco use has adverse effects on cancer treatment outcomes; however, routine assessment of tobacco use has not been fully incorporated into standard clinical oncology practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tobacco use assessment in patients enrolled onto actively accruing cancer clinical trials. Methods Protocols and forms for 155 actively accruing trials in the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program were evaluated for tobacco use assessment at enrollment and follow-up by using a structured coding instrument. Results Of the 155 clinical trials reviewed, 45 (29%) assessed any form of tobacco use at enrollment, but only 34 (21.9%) assessed current cigarette use. Only seven trials (4.5%) assessed any form of tobacco use during follow-up. Secondhand smoke exposure was captured in 2.6% of trials at enrollment and 0.6% during follow-up. None of the trials assessed nicotine dependence or interest in quitting at any point during enrollment or treatment. Tobacco status assessment was higher in lung/head and neck trials as well as phase III trials, but there was no difference according to year of starting accrual or cooperative group. Conclusion Most actively accruing cooperative group clinical trials do not assess tobacco use, and there is no observable trend in improvement over the past 8 years. Failure to incorporate standardized tobacco assessments into NCI-funded Cooperative Group Clinical Trials will limit the ability to provide evidence-based cessation support and will limit the ability to accurately understand the precise effect of tobacco use on cancer treatment outcomes. PMID:22689794

  13. An Effective Approach for Test-Sheet Composition with Large-Scale Item Banks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Lin, Bertrand M. T.; Lin, Tsung-Liang

    2006-01-01

    A well-constructed test sheet not only helps the instructor evaluate the learning status of the students, but also facilitates the diagnosis of the problems embedded in the students' learning process. This paper addresses the problem of selecting proper test items to compose a test sheet that conforms to such assessment requirements as average…

  14. 76 FR 76941 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ..., Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 47540... Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). \\13\\ See Notice of Amended Final... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) from Taiwan, 67 FR 44174 (July 1, 2002) (Investigation...

  15. A smart ink for the assessment of low activity photocatalytic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mills, Andrew; O'Rourke, Christopher; Wells, Nathan

    2014-11-01

    The azo dye, basic blue 66 (BB66) is used in a photocatalyst activity indicator ink (paii) to assess the activity of low activity photocatalytic surfaces, such as commercial photocatalytic tiles and silicone contaminated self-cleaning glass. The BB66 paii is shown to respond much faster than a previously reported, resazurin (Rz) based paii, i.e. the use of a BB66 paii on low activity self-cleaning tiles was found to be >6 times faster than the Rz paii. The BB66 paii is also shown to be effective at assessing the activity of piece of commercial self-cleaning glass contaminated with a coating of silicone, on which the Rz ink, in contrast, failed to show any significant change in colour over the same time period. PMID:25219346

  16. ASSESSMENT OF UPPER EXTREMITY IMPAIRMENT, FUNCTION, AND ACTIVITY FOLLOWING STROKE: FOUNDATIONS FOR CLINICAL DECISION MAKING

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Catherine E.; Bland, Marghuretta D.; Bailey, Ryan R.; Schaefer, Sydney Y.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive approach for assessing the upper extremity (UE) after stroke. First, common upper extremity impairments and how to assess them are briefly discussed. While multiple UE impairments are typically present after stroke, the severity of one impairment, paresis, is the primary determinant of UE functional loss. Second, UE function is operationally defined and a number of clinical measures are discussed. It is important to consider how impairment and loss of function affect UE activity outside of the clinical environment. Thus, this review also identifies accelerometry as an objective method for assessing UE activity in daily life. Finally, the role that each of these levels of assessment should play in clinical decision making is discussed in order to optimize the provision of stroke rehabilitation services. PMID:22975740

  17. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  18. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1988-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  19. New methodology to assess activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth using laser fluorescence device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Mariana Minatel; Saveriano de Benedetto, Monique; Imparato, Jose Carlos Pettorossi; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2010-07-01

    An in vivo study was conducted to verify the ability of laser fluorescence (LF) to assess the activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth, using different air-drying times. Occlusal sites (707) were examined using LF (DIAGNOdent) after air-drying for 3 s and 15 s, and the difference between readings (DIF15 s-3 s) was calculated. For concurrent validation of LF, visual criteria-Nyvad (NY) and Lesion Activity Assessment associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (LAA-ICDAS)-were the reference standards for lesion activity. Histological exam using a pH-indicator dye (0.1% methyl red) was performed in 46 exfoliated/extracted teeth for criterion validation. LF readings and DIF15 s-3 s were compared using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed and validity parameters calculated, considering the caries activity assessment. Using NY, active lesions (3 s: 30.0+/-29.3 15 s: 34.2+/-30.6) presented higher LF readings than inactive lesions (3 s: 17.0+/-16.3 15 s: 19.2+/-17.3 p<0.05), different from LAA-ICDAS. Active cavitated caries resulted in higher LF readings (3 s: 50.3+/-3.5 15 s: 54.7+/-30.2) than inactive cavitated caries (3 s: 19.9+/-16.3 15 s: 22.8+/-16.8). Therefore, LF can distinguish cavitated active and inactive lesions classified by NY, but not by LAA-ICDAS; however, this difference might be related to the visual system rather than to LF. The air-drying time could be an alternative to improve the caries activity assessment; however, longer air-drying time is suggested to be tested subsequently.

  20. New methodology to assess activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth using laser fluorescence device.

    PubMed

    Braga, Mariana Minatel; de Benedetto, Monique Saveriano; Imparato, Jose Carlos Pettorossi; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    An in vivo study was conducted to verify the ability of laser fluorescence (LF) to assess the activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth, using different air-drying times. Occlusal sites (707) were examined using LF (DIAGNOdent) after air-drying for 3 s and 15 s, and the difference between readings (DIF15 s-3 s) was calculated. For concurrent validation of LF, visual criteria-Nyvad (NY) and Lesion Activity Assessment associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (LAA-ICDAS)-were the reference standards for lesion activity. Histological exam using a pH-indicator dye (0.1% methyl red) was performed in 46 exfoliated/extracted teeth for criterion validation. LF readings and DIF15 s-3 s were compared using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed and validity parameters calculated, considering the caries activity assessment. Using NY, active lesions (3 s: 30.0+/-29.3; 15 s: 34.2+/-30.6) presented higher LF readings than inactive lesions (3 s: 17.0+/-16.3; 15 s: 19.2+/-17.3; p<0.05), different from LAA-ICDAS. Active cavitated caries resulted in higher LF readings (3 s: 50.3+/-3.5; 15 s: 54.7+/-30.2) than inactive cavitated caries (3 s: 19.9+/-16.3; 15 s: 22.8+/-16.8). Therefore, LF can distinguish cavitated active and inactive lesions classified by NY, but not by LAA-ICDAS; however, this difference might be related to the visual system rather than to LF. The air-drying time could be an alternative to improve the caries activity assessment; however, longer air-drying time is suggested to be tested subsequently. PMID:20799836

  1. Temporal profiling of the growth and multi-lineage potentiality of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells cell-sheets.

    PubMed

    Neo, Puay Yong; See, Eugene Yong-Shun; Toh, Siew Lok; Goh, James Cho-Hong

    2016-07-01

    Cell-sheet tissue engineering retains the benefits of an intact extracellular matrix (ECM) and can be used to produce scaffold-free constructs. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are multipotent and more easily obtainable than the commonly used bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs). Although BMSC cell sheets have been previously reported to display multipotentiality, a detailed study of the development and multilineage potential of ASC cell sheets (ASC-CSs) is non-existent in the literature. The aims of this study were to temporally profile: (a) the effect of hyperconfluent culture duration on ASC-CSs development; and (b) the multipotentiality of ASC-CSs by differentiation into the osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Rabbit ASCs were first isolated and cultured until confluence (day 0). The confluent cells were then cultured in ascorbic acid-supplemented medium for 3 weeks to study cell metabolic activity, cell sheet thickness and early differentiation gene expressions at weekly time points. ASC-CSs and ASCs were then differentiated into the three lineages, using established protocols, and assessed by RT-PCR and histology at multiple time points. ASC-CSs remained healthy up to 3 weeks of hyperconfluent culture. One week-old cell sheets displayed upregulation of early differentiation gene markers (Runx2 and Sox9); however, subsequent differentiation results indicated that they did not necessarily translate to an improved phenotype. ASCs within the preformed cell sheet groups did not differentiate as efficiently as the non-hyperconfluent ASCs, which were directly differentiated. Although ASCs within the cell sheets retained their differentiation capacity and remained viable under prolonged hyperconfluent conditions, future applications of ASC-CSs in tissue engineering should be considered with care. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23784965

  2. Current Sheet Formation and Reconnection at a Magnetic X Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, S. K.

    2011-05-01

    Phenomena ranging from the quiescent heating of the ambient plasma to the highly explosive release of energy and acceleration of particles in flares are conjectured to result from magnetic reconnection at electric current sheets in the Sun's corona. We are investigating numerically the formation and eventual reconnection of a current sheet in an initially potential 2D magnetic field containing a null. Subjecting this simple configuration to unequal stresses in the four quadrants bounded by the X-line separatrix distorts the potential null into a double-Y-line current sheet. Although the gas pressure is finite in our simulations, so that the plasma beta is infinite at the null, we find that even small distortions of the magnetic field induce the formation of a tangential discontinuity there. This result is well known to occur in the zero-beta, force-free limit; surprisingly, it persists into the high-beta regime where, in principle, a small plasma pressure inhomogeneity could balance all of the magnetic stress. In addition to working to understand the dynamical details of this ideal process, we are examining the effect of resistive dissipation on the development of the current sheet and are seeking to determine the critical condition for fast-reconnection onset in the sheet. Our progress on understanding these issues, and the implications for the dynamic activity associated with current sheets in the solar corona, will be reported at the conference. We gratefully acknowledge NASA sponsorship of our research.

  3. Studies of the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets.

    PubMed

    Hamahashi, K; Sato, M; Yamato, M; Kokubo, M; Mitani, G; Ito, S; Nagai, T; Ebihara, G; Kutsuna, T; Okano, T; Mochida, J

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to repair and regenerate articular cartilage with layered chondrocyte sheets, produced using temperature-responsive culture dishes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets. Articular chondrocytes and synovial cells were harvested during total knee arthroplasty. After co-culture, the samples were divided into three groups: a monolayer, 7 day culture sheet group (group M); a triple-layered, 7 day culture sheet group (group L); and a monolayer culture group with a cell count identical to that of group L (group C). The secretion of collagen type 1 (COL1), collagen type 2 (COL2), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13), transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Layered chondrocyte sheets produced the most humoral factors. PGE2 expression declined over time in group C but was significantly higher in groups M and L. TGFβ expression was low in group C but was significantly higher in groups M and L (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets may contribute to cartilaginous tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:23165985

  4. Evidence of Meltwater Retention within the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennermalm, A. K.; Smith, L. C.; Chu, V. W.; Box, J. E.; Forster, R. R.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Greenland ice sheet water release, and the magnitude of sub- and englacial storage, firn densification, internal refreezing and other hydrologic processes that delay or reduce true water export to the global ocean remain poorly understood. This problem is compounded by scant hydrometerological measurements. Here, ice sheet surface meltwater runoff and proglacial river discharge determined between 2008 and 2010 for three sites near Kangerlussuaq, western Greenland were used to establish the water budget for a small ice sheet watershed. The water budget could not be closed in the three years, even when uncertainty ranges were considered. Instead, between 12% and 53% of ice sheet surface runoff is retained within the catchment each melt year (time between onset of ice sheet runoff in two consecutive years) most likely in en- and subglacial storages. Evidence suggests that while some holdover summer meltwater may escape during the cold-season, this water volume is too small to close the budget. Thus, this study indicates that the Greenland ice sheet cryo-hydrologic system may remain active year round, and that meltwater may be retained in the pro glacial area, internally, or in firn layers for prolonged time periods before release to the ocean.

  5. Escape of O+ Through the Distant Tail Plasma Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, L. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Popecki, M.; Simunac, K. D.; Farrugia, C. J.; Moebius, E.; Lee, M. A.; Blush, L. M.; Bochsler, P. A.; Wurz, P.; Klecker, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Opitz, A.; Sauvaud, J.; Russell, C. T.

    2010-12-01

    During the early orbit phase of the STEREO mission, in February, 2007, the STEREO-B spacecraft went down the deep magnetotail, and encountered the magnetosheath, plasma sheet and plasma sheet boundary layer from about 200 Re to 300 Re downtail, before finally exiting to the solar wind. This time period was during solar minimum, and there was no storm activity during this month. We have used the ion composition data from the PLASTIC instrument to determine how much ionospheric O+ is in the deep tail plasma sheet, and to calculate the loss rate through this path. Surprisingly, we find that during this solar and geomagnetically quiet time, O+ is a constant feature of the deep magnetotail. We find that the O+ density is about 15% of the density in the near-earth plasma sheet for similar conditions. The tailward flux of the O+ is similar to the flux of O+ beams that have been observed in the lobe/mantle region of the deep tail. The observations provide a consistent picture that some O+ is transported into the distant tail in the lobe/mantle region, and then enters the plasma sheet tailward of the distant neutral line. The total outflow of the O+ down the plasma sheet is a rate of 1.1x1024 ions/s, which is 10% of the total outflow rate of 1x 1025 ions/s, and of the same order as the estimated loss from dayside transport.

  6. A Structured and Flexible Language for Physical Activity Assessment and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Pedro; Andrade, Maria Teresa; Carvalho, Pedro; Mota, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Developing more accurate assessments of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) is an important public health research priority. Assessing PA and SB is challenging in all segments of the population, but it is especially difficult in children due to cognitive limitations and more sporadic and intermittent activity patterns. Moreover, they are influenced by several factors including temporal-spatial constraints and social conditions. To accurately assess PA and SB, it is essential to clearly define methods for describing all these factors. The goal of this paper is to potentiate advances in the field by proposing a base ontology for characterizing physical activity, sedentary behavior, and the context in which it occurs. The ontology would establish a flexible base language to facilitate standardized descriptions of these behaviors for researchers and public health professionals. PMID:26464878

  7. The Research Assessment Exercise and Motivation: A Note on the Difference in the Impact on the Active Researchers and the Non-Active.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talib, Ameen Ali

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed British academics, hypothesizing that the effect of Britain's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) on individual academics is dependent on their self-assessed level of research activity. Found that the RAE's effect does appear to be dependent on level of research activity, with moderately active researchers the most influenced to increase…

  8. A new Splash and Sheet Erosion Equation for Rangelands 1957

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil loss rates predicted from erosion models for rangelands have the potential to be important quantitative indicators for rangeland health and for assessing conservation practice effects. Splash and sheet erosion processes on rangelands differ in substantial ways from those in croplands, where the...

  9. Heart Attack Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Risk Assessment Updated:May 31,2016 We're sorry, but ... Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz Risk Assessment Patient Information Sheets: Heart Attack Heart Attack Personal ...

  10. Investigating the capacity of self and peer assessment activities to engage students and promote learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, Keith; Gardner, Anne

    2010-08-01

    The authors have previously reported the effectiveness of using self and peer assessment to improve learning outcomes by providing opportunities to practise, assess and provide feedback on students' attribute development. Despite this work and the research of others, a significant number of students and, indeed, many academics focus on the free-rider deterrent capability of self and peer assessment, rather than its capacity to provide opportunities for developing judgement and facilitating reflection and feedback to complete the learning cycle. The advent of web-based tools such as SPARKPLUS allows the frequent and efficient implementation of self and peer assessment activities even in large classes. This article reports the results of an investigation into whether the regular use of self and peer assessment in different contexts promoted effective peer learning, increased engagement and encouraged students to learn.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY USING WEARABLE MONITORS: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MONITOR CALIBRATION AND USE IN THE FIELD

    PubMed Central

    Freedson, Patty; Bowles, Heather R.; Troiano, Richard; Haskell, William

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides recommendations for the use of wearable monitors for assessing physical activity. We have provided recommendations for measurement researchers, end users, and developers of activity monitors. We discuss new horizons and future directions in the field of objective measurement of physical activity and present challenges that remain for the future. These recommendations are based on the proceedings from the workshop, “Objective Measurement of Physical Activity: Best Practices & Future Direction,” July 20-21, 2009, and also on data and information presented since the workshop. PMID:22157769

  12. New insights from modeling the neutral heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raath, J. L.; Strauss, R. D.; Potgieter, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere has increasingly been studied by solving the well known transport equation via an approach based on stochastic differential equations. This approach, which is now well-established and published, allows for an in depth study of the modulation effects of the wavy heliospheric current sheet, in particular as its waviness increases with solar activity up to extreme maximum conditions. This is possible because of the numerical stability of the approach as well as its ability to trace pseudo-particles so that insightful trajectories of how they respond to the wavy heliospheric current sheet can be computed and displayed. Utilising such a stochastic model, we present valuable new insights into how the geometry of the wavy current sheet can affect the modulation of cosmic rays, especially at the highest levels of solar activity. This enables us to show, from a modeling perspective, why a certain choice for the current sheet profile is more suited than another at these high solar activity levels. We emphasise the importance of an effective tilt angle and illustrate how this concept can be employed effectively in interpreting results pertaining to the wavy current sheet as well as the modulation associated with this important heliospheric structure.

  13. Methods and considerations for the analysis and standardization of assessing muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans.

    PubMed

    White, Daniel W; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Raven, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    The technique of microneurography and the assessment of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) are used in laboratories throughout the world. The variables used to describe MSNA, and the criteria by which these variables are quantified from the integrated neurogram, vary among studies and laboratories and, therefore, can become confusing to those starting to learn the technique. Therefore, the purpose of this educational review is to discuss guidelines and standards for the assessment of sympathetic nervous activity through the collection and analysis of MSNA. This review will reiterate common practices in the collection of MSNA, but will also introduce considerations for the evaluation and physiological inference using MSNA. PMID:26299824

  14. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  15. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  16. The magnetohydrodynamics of current sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Examples of current sheets are summarized and their formation is described. A universal phenomenon in cosmic plasmas is the creation of sheets off intense current near X-type neutral points (where the magnetic field vanishes). These sheets are important as sites where the magnetic-field energy is converted efficiently into heat and bulk kinetic energy and where particles can be accelerated to high energies. Examples include disruptions in laboratory tokamaks, substorms in the earth's magnetosphere, and flares on the sun. The basic behavior of a one-dimensional sheet is presented, together with an account of the linear tearing-mode instability that can cause the field lines in such a sheet to reconnect. Such reconnection may develop in different ways: it may arise from a spontaneous instability or it may be driven, either from outside by motions or locally by a resistivity enhancement. Various processes are described that may occur during the nonlinear development of tearing, along with the many numerical and laboratory experiments that are aiding our understanding of this intriguing cosmical process.

  17. Assessing Adult Leisure Activities: An Extension of a Self-Report Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopp, Daniela S.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Everyday leisure activities in adulthood and old age have been investigated with respect to constructs such as successful aging, an engaged lifestyle, and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. They also relate to mental health and have clinical value, as they can inform diagnosis and interventions. In the present study, the authors enhanced…

  18. Assessment of physical activity using wearable monitors: Measures of physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activitymay be defined broadly as "all bodily actions produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increase energy expenditure above basal level." Physical activity is a complex construct that can be classified into major categories qualitatively, quantitatively, or contextually. The...

  19. Mini-Lab Activities: Inquiry-Based Lab Activities for Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branan, Daniel; Morgan, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Students everywhere love chemistry demonstrations, especially if they involve explosions. But have you ever wanted to move beyond the "wow" factor and find a way to incorporate active student learning into your demos? What if you could get them to think more deeply about what they're observing, and then find out if they really understand what…

  20. Rapid assessment of maternal activity among rural Indian mothers (Pune Maternal Nutrition Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kanade, AN; Rao, S; Yajnik, CS; Margetts, BM; Fall, CHD

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop an activity questionnaire for objective and rapid assessment of maternal habitual physical activity with the aim of describing its relationship with birth size. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Six villages near Pune, Maharashtra, India. Subjects Seven hundred and ninety-seven rural Indian mothers were studied after excluding abortions and termination of pregnancies, foetal anomalies, etc. Method Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify a few leading questions from an elaborate questionnaire involving 36 questions related to 14 typical maternal activities. Results On the basis of high loading (>0.8), PCA identified three activities, i.e. farming, fetching water and washing clothes. Questions and sub-questions related to these activities only were considered for defining an activity score for rapid assessment. Validation of this new activity score, with the score based on the elaborate questionnaire, showed 70% sensitivity as well as specificity. New activity scores showed strong inverse relationships similar to those observed using the elaborate questionnaire, at early as well as late gestation, with neonatal head circumference (P = 0.001 and 0.055) and mid-arm circumference (P = 0.02 and 0.03). Conclusions Simple questionnaires, based on leading activities identified by PCA, can be as informative as longer and detailed questionnaires. This method has potential for adaptation, especially in rural communities in developing countries. PMID:16236188