Science.gov

Sample records for activity sheets references

  1. Preventing Sexual Abuse. Reference Sheet 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

    This reference book, developed to present options for the prevention and treatment of child sexual abuse, contains descriptions of creative approaches used to address the problem of child sexual abuse. Some of the programs described offer active and entertaining interventions, such as puppet shows, coloring books, stories, teddy bears, and…

  2. Activity Sheets. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Power Company, Educational Services Dept., Charlotte, NC.

    This document consists of energy vocabulary activities, three games, worksheets, laboratory activities/exercises, and an introductory classroom exercise designed to introduce energy concepts to students. Vocabulary activities focus on coal and energy consumption. The three games (with instructions) focus on various aspects of energy and energy…

  3. Environmental Education Activity Sheets 1-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, Clifton F.; And Others

    These activity sheets, developed by personnel of the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Minnesota, were designed for youth group campers but may be used by other populations and individuals. Each activity sheet focuses on a separate topic: (1) Selecting Suitable Uses for Land, (2) Measuring the Steepness of Land, (3) Determining…

  4. Ice stream activity scaled to ice sheet volume during Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, C R; Margold, M; Clark, C D; Tarasov, L

    2016-02-18

    The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but--at the ice-sheet scale--their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. PMID:26887494

  5. Active volcanism beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet and implications for ice-sheet stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenship, D.D.; Bell, R.E.; Hodge, S.M.; Brozena, J.M.; Behrendt, John C.; Finn, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    IT is widely understood that the collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) would cause a global sea level rise of 6 m, yet there continues to be considerable debate about the detailed response of this ice sheet to climate change1-3. Because its bed is grounded well below sea level, the stability of the WAIS may depend on geologically controlled conditions at the base which are independent of climate. In particular, heat supplied to the base of the ice sheet could increase basal melting and thereby trigger ice streaming, by providing the water for a lubricating basal layer of till on which ice streams are thought to slide4,5. Ice streams act to protect the reservoir of slowly moving inland ice from exposure to oceanic degradation, thus enhancing ice-sheet stability. Here we present aerogeophysical evidence for active volcanism and associated elevated heat flow beneath the WAIS near the critical region where ice streaming begins. If this heat flow is indeed controlling ice-stream formation, then penetration of ocean waters inland of the thin hot crust of the active portion of the West Antarctic rift system could lead to the disappearance of ice streams, and possibly trigger a collapse of the inland ice reservoir.

  6. Career Orientation 7-8. Student Activity Sheets in Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, E. L.

    Activity sheets for seventh and eighth grade student use in economics are contained in this document. Activities are developed in the following areas: checking accounts, bank account applications, check writing, keeping a check register, using checks, budgets, insurance, responsibility and planning, consumer shopping, supermarkets, taxes, help…

  7. Features of the Active Evening Plasma Sheet from MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Avanov, L. A.; Burch, J. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Ergun, R. E.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Lavraud, B.; MacDonald, E.; Mauk, B.; Mukai, T.; Nakamura, R.; Pollock, C. J.; Russell, C. T.; Saito, Y.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Yokota, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, consisting of four identical plasmas and fields observatories, was launched into a 12 RE elliptical equatorial orbit in March 2015 and was in the process of being commissioned through August 2015. During commissioning, the orbit apogee rotated from near midnight through the evening toward the dusk sector and occasionally captured new observations of the plasma sheet, its boundary layers, and the magnetospheric tail lobes. On 22-23 June, an especially active plasma sheet was involved in a major geospace storm that developed a ring current with 200 nT DST. We report on the ion kinetic and flow features of this active plasma sheet, comparing them with familiar observations from earlier missions, as an exercise in validating the MMS observations and assessing their capabilities to provide higher time resolution in multi-point views of thin, fast-moving structures. The observed features include but are not limited to cold lobal wind streams in the lobes, tailward flowing auroral beams and conics, hot earthward field-aligned flows and counter-flows, fast cross-field convection of some flows toward the neutral sheet, and the hot isotropic plasma sheet proper. Relationships between these features, the ionosphere, and the reconnecting magnetotail will be explored and discussed, seeking preliminary conclusions.

  8. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  9. Guide for conducting treatability studies under CERCLA: Solvent extraction quick reference fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Rawe, J.

    1992-08-01

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of remedy evaluation and selection under the Superfund Program. This fact sheet focuses on solvent extraction treatability studies, and is a highly abridged version of the guide which bears the same title. This fact sheet presents an abbreviated guide for designing and implementing solvent extraction treatability studies. The fact sheet presents a description of and discusses the applicability and limitations of solvent extraction technologies and defines the prescreening and field measurement data needed to determine if treatability testing is required.

  10. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: SOLVENT EXTRACTION QUICK REFERENCE FACT SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of remedy evaluation and selection under the Superfund Program. his fact sheet focuses on solvent extraction treatability studies, and is highly abridged version of the guide which bears the...

  11. Virus activity on the surface of glaciers and ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellas, C. M.; Anesio, A. M.; Telling, J.; Stibal, M.; Barker, G.; Tranter, M.; Yallop, M.; Cook, J.

    2012-12-01

    Viruses are found wherever there is life. They are major components of aquatic ecosystems and through interactions with their hosts they significantly alter global biogeochemical cycles and drive evolutionary processes. Here we focus on the interactions between bacteriophages and their hosts inhabiting the microbially dominated supraglacial ecosystems known as cryoconite holes. The diversity of phages present in the sediments of cryoconites was examined for the first time by using a molecular based approach to target the T4-type bacteriophage. Through phylogenetic analysis it was determined that the phage community was diverse, consisting of strains that grouped with those from other global habitats and those that formed several completely new T4-type phage clusters. The activity of the viral community present on glaciers from Svalbard and the Greenland Ice Sheet was also addressed through a series of incubation experiments. Here new virus production was found to be capable of turning over the viral population approximately twice a day, a rate comparable to marine and freshwater sediments around the globe. This large scale viral production was found to be theoretically capable of accounting for all heterotrophic bacterial mortality in cryoconite holes. The mode of infection that viruses employ in cryoconite holes was also addressed to show that a variety of viral life strategies are likely responsible for the continued dominance of viruses in these unique habitats. The implications of viral activity are discussed in terms of carbon cycling in supraglacial ecosystems.

  12. Sequential Folding using Light-activated Polystyrene Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yonghee; Lee, Hyeok; Hwang, Taesoon; Lee, Jong-Gu; Cho, Maenghyo

    2015-01-01

    A pre-strained polystyrene (PS) polymer sheet is deformed when it approaches the glass transition state as a result of light absorption. By controlling the light absorption of the polymer sheet, non-contact sequential folding can be accomplished. Line patterns of different transparencies and shapes are used to control the light absorption. The line pattern shape is closely related to the folding angle and folding start time. The relation between the line pattern design and folding performance was evaluated experimentally to develop a technique for folding PS sheets. The results show that sequential folding of PS sheets can be accomplished by changing the degree of transparency of the line pattern. Using the technique developed in this study, self-folding origami structures with complicated shapes can be designed and manufactured. PMID:26559611

  13. Services for Older Adults. Reference Book [and] Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.

    This student activity book and reference book, which are part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, are intended for use in 1- and 2- programs preparing Texas high school students for employment in occupations related to providing services for older adults. The reference book…

  14. All about Me: Reproducible Activity Sheets To Develop Self-Esteem in Your Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomares, Susanna

    This document contains a set of reproducible activity sheets for teachers to use in enhancing the self-esteem of their students. Designed to supplement other approaches being used by teachers, the activities in this book can be used to infuse esteem-building activities into the core curriculum. The activities are organized around several…

  15. An Analysis of the Stability and Ultimate Compressive Strength of Short Sheet-Stringer Panels with Special Reference to the Influence of Riveted Connection Between Sheet and Stringer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semonian, Joseph W; Peterson, James P

    1955-01-01

    A method of strength analysis of short sheet-stringer panels subjected to compression is presented which takes into account the effect that the riveted attachments between the plate and the stiffeners have on the strength of the panels. An analysis of experimental data shows that panel strength is highly influenced by rivet pitch, diameter, and location and that the degree of influence for a given riveting depends on the panel configuration and panel material. (author)

  16. Optimized Flow Sheet for a Reference Commercial-Scale Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; E. A. Harvego; J. S. Herring

    2007-11-01

    This report presents results from the development and optimization of a reference commercialscale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540° C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4.176 × 10 6 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm•cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 49.07% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.45 kg/s with the high-temperature helium-cooled reactor concept. The information presented in this report is intended to establish an optimized design for the reference nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant so that parameters can be compared with other hydrogen production methods and power cycles to evaluate relative performance characteristics and plant economics.

  17. Radwaste desk reference. [Dry Active Wastes; Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, L.F. ); Kelly, J. ); Deltete, C.P.; Hahn, R.E. ); Haight, R.F.; Kahn, D. )

    1991-06-01

    This volume of the Radwaste Desk Reference contains fundamental practical and theoretical information on dry active waste (DAW). Because its information is based entirely on actual industry practice, the work can serve as an extensive how-to'' manual for both the newcomer and the experienced radwaste professional responsible for DAW generation, processing, packaging, or assay.

  18. Litter Control Achievement - Ohio 4-H Club Score Sheet [and] Activity Guides 1 through 7. 4-H Pilot Program 918.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Seven activity guides, evaluation sheet, and club scoresheet have been prepared for Ohio 4-H clubs' litter education program. Topics of the seven activity guides include: (1) general guidelines and types of activities; (2) little known facts about waste/litter; (3) guidelines for a walking tour; (4) fact sheet (questionnaire) related to garbage;…

  19. Atomically-thin two-dimensional sheets for understanding active sites in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongfu; Gao, Shan; Lei, Fengcai; Xie, Yi

    2015-02-01

    Catalysis can speed up chemical reactions and it usually occurs on the low coordinated steps, edges, terraces, kinks and corner atoms that are often called "active sites". However, the atomic level interplay between active sites and catalytic activity is still an open question, owing to the large difference between idealized models and real catalysts. This stimulates us to pursue a suitable material model for studying the active sites-catalytic activity relationship, in which the atomically-thin two-dimensional sheets could serve as an ideal model, owing to their relatively simple type of active site and the ultrahigh fraction of active sites that are comparable to the overall atoms. In this tutorial review, we focus on the recent progress in disclosing the factors that affect the activity of reactive sites, including characterization of atomic coordination number, structural defects and disorder in ultrathin two-dimensional sheets by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, positron annihilation spectroscopy, electron spin resonance and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Also, we overview their applications in CO catalytic oxidation, photocatalytic water splitting, electrocatalytic oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions, and hence highlight the atomic level interplay among coordination number, structural defects/disorder, active sites and catalytic activity in the two-dimensional sheets with atomic thickness. Finally, we also present the major challenges and opportunities regarding the role of active sites in catalysis. We believe that this review provides critical insights for understanding the catalysis and hence helps to develop new catalysts with high catalytic activity. PMID:25382246

  20. "Working." Student Activity Sheets for Selected Interviews Contained in "Working" by Studs Terkel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, David; And Others

    These student activity sheets are intended to accompany a vocational English program based on Studs Terkel's book, "Working," a collection of more than 100 interviews with people about their jobs. The 30 interviews selected for inclusion in the curriculum either illustrate occupations taught in the schools or deal with occupations related to those…

  1. NREL Develops Accelerated Sample Activation Process for Hydrogen Storage Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in developing a new sample activation process that reduces the time to prepare samples for measurement of hydrogen storage from several days to five minutes and provides more uniform samples. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  2. Teen Sexual Activity, Pregnancy and Childbearing among Latinos in the United States. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    The Latino population is the fastest-growing major racial/ethnic group in the United States. By 2020, approximately 16 percent of the population will be Latino. This increase will be even more pronounced among teens. This fact sheet summarizes data from the National Vital Statistics Reports on reported sexual activity, pregnancy rates, and…

  3. Are Adolescents Talking with Their Parents about Sex before Becoming Sexually Active? Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuschner, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines parent-child discussions of sexual behavior. It finds consistency in the timing and content of such discussions; however, many parents and children do not discuss key topics, such as birth control, before adolescents become sexually active. [This fact sheet is based on Megan K. Beckett, Marc N. Elliott, Steven Martino, David E.…

  4. An Investigation of the Use of Student Activity Sheets; Employer-Based Career Education. Technical Report No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfarth, John T.; And Others

    The report examines the use of student activity sheets in evaluating the performance of students in the Appalachia Educational Laboratory's Employer-Based Career Education (AEL/EBCE) program. All activity sheets completed during the second semester of 1972-73 for selected participants in the following subject areas were examined and are analyzed…

  5. Fe, O, and C Charge States Associated with Quiescent Versus Active Current Sheets in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Ko, Y.-K.; vonSteiger, R.

    2008-01-01

    Ulysses MAG data were used to locate the heliospheric current sheet in data from 1991 through 2006. The purpose was to characterize typical charge states for Fe, O, and C in the vicinity of the current sheet and provide insight into the physical sources for these charge states in the corona. A study of He/H around the current sheets has led to a clear distinction between quiescent current sheets at times of low solar activity and active current sheets associated with magnetic clouds (and, presumably, ICMES). It has been shown that high ionization state Fe is produced in the corona in current sheets associated with CMEs through spectroscopic observations of the corona and through in situ detection at Ulysses. Here we show that the ionization state of Fe is typically only enhanced around active current sheets while the ionization states of O and C are commonly enhanced around both quiescent and active current sheets. This is consistent with UV coronal spectroscopy, which has shown that reconnection in current sheets behind CMEs leads to high temperatures not typically seen above quiet streamers.

  6. World War II Commemoration Committee: Fact Sheet and Suggested Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This packet suggests activities and events that school districts, schools, classes, and educational organizations can conduct to commemorate World War II. Suggestions are made to include local veterans, including those in veteran's and nursing homes and hospitals, and youth at every possible opportunity. Recognition can take the form of military…

  7. Analysis of methanogenic and methanotrophic activity at the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broemsen, E. L.; Webster, K. D.; Dieser, M.; Pratt, L. M.; Christner, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Anoxic conditions in environments beneath the world's glaciers and ice sheets provide plausible habitats supporting the microbial production of methane. Recent reports of potential methane sources beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) suggest in situ production by an active community of methanogens. Beneath the GrIS, microbially derived methane can be dissolved in subglacial water, and during periods of melting, can exchange with the atmosphere at sites of subglacial discharge. Transfer of methane from subglacial fluids to the atmosphere could be a significant climate factor, but few data are available to make such assessments. The specific aim of this study was to characterize the composition and activity of methanogens and methanotrophs present in samples of subglacial outflow at the ice sheet margin near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Subglaical water was collected twice-weekly over a nine week period (mid July to mid September of 2012) and the dissolved methane concentration in the samples was determined via gas chromatography. Extracted RNA and DNA from the subglacial water was analyzed by analysis of 16s rRNA and rRNA genes present in the subglacial assemblages. From the molecular results we infer the presence of active methanogens related to the order Methanosarcinales. Further, locally elevated concentrations of atmospheric methane as high as 1.92 ± 0.03 ppmv, were detected in the ice tunnel of the subglacial outflow using open-path laser spectrometry. From these data we estimate rates of methane release at the ice sheet margin during the summer melt months at this geographical location. The results provide a context for addressing the impact that deglaciation will have on the release of greenhouse gases from ice sheets on a warming Earth.

  8. Antibacterial activity of two-dimensional MoS2 sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi; Li, Jie; Liang, Tao; Ma, Chunyan; Zhang, Yingying; Chen, Hongzheng; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Su, Huanxing; Xu, Mingsheng

    2014-08-01

    Graphene-like two-dimensional materials (2DMats) show application potential in optoelectronics and biomedicine due to their unique properties. However, environmental and biological influences of these 2DMats remain to be unveiled. Here we reported the antibacterial activity of two-dimensional (2D) chemically exfoliated MoS2 (ce-MoS2) sheets. We found that the antibacterial activity of ce-MoS2 sheets was much more potent than that of the raw MoS2 powders used for the synthesis of ce-MoS2 sheets possibly due to the 2D planar structure (high specific surface area) and higher conductivity of the ce-MoS2. We investigated the antibacterial mechanisms of the ce-MoS2 sheets and proposed their antibacterial pathways. We found that the ce-MoS2 sheets could produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), different from a previous report on graphene-based materials. Particularly, the oxidation capacity of the ce-MoS2 sheets toward glutathione oxidation showed a time and concentration dependent trend, which is fully consistent with the antibacterial behaviour of the ce-MoS2 sheets. The results suggest that antimicrobial behaviors were attributable to both membrane and oxidation stress. The antibacterial pathways include MoS2-bacteria contact induced membrane stress, superoxide anion (O2&z.rad;-) induced ROS production by the ce-MoS2, and the ensuing superoxide anion-independent oxidation. Our study thus indicates that the tailoring of the dimension of nanomaterials and their electronic properties would manipulate antibacterial activity.Graphene-like two-dimensional materials (2DMats) show application potential in optoelectronics and biomedicine due to their unique properties. However, environmental and biological influences of these 2DMats remain to be unveiled. Here we reported the antibacterial activity of two-dimensional (2D) chemically exfoliated MoS2 (ce-MoS2) sheets. We found that the antibacterial activity of ce-MoS2 sheets was much more potent than that of the raw MoS2 powders

  9. Activity Management System user reference manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, T.A.; Burdick, M.B.

    1994-09-22

    The Activity Management System (AMS) was developed in response to the need for a simple-to-use, low-cost, user interface system for collecting and logging Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project (HWVP) activities. This system needed to run on user workstations and provide common user access to a database stored on a local network file server. Most important, users wanted a system that provided a management tool that supported their individual process for completing activities. Existing system treated the performer as a tool of the system. All AMS data is maintained in encrypted format. Users can feel confident that any activities they have entered into the database are private and that, as the originator, they retain sole control over who can see them. Once entered into the AMS database, the activities cannot be accessed by anyone other than the originator, the designated agent, or by authorized viewers who have been explicitly granted the right to look at specific activities by the originator. This user guide is intended to assist new AMS users in learning how to use the application and, after the initial learning process, will serve as an ongoing reference for experienced users in performing infrequently used functions. Online help screens provide reference to some of the key information in this manual. Additional help screens, encompassing all the applicable material in this manual, will be incorporated into future AMS revisions. A third, and most important, source of help is the AMS administrator(s). This guide describes the initial production version of AMS, which has been designated Revision 1.0.

  10. Hemagglutinating activity of serovar reference strains of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.

    PubMed

    Vega, Vicente; Zepeda, Andrea; Ramírez, Saúl; Morales, Vladimir; Fernández, Pomposo; de Oca, Roberto Montes; Guerra-Infante, Fernando M; de Jesús de Haro-Cruz, María; Blackall, Patrick J; Soriano, Edgardo V

    2008-05-01

    In the present study, the hemagglutinating activity of 9 reference strains (serovars A-I) of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale was investigated by using fresh erythrocytes from 15 different species: chicken (broiler, rooster, hen), turkey, pigeon, quail, duck, Harris hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), cow, sheep, horse, dog, rabbit, pig, human (groups A, B, AB, and O), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). All 9 strains agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes. None of the strains was able to agglutinate hen, cow, horse, or rainbow trout erythrocytes. The number of positive reactions among the remaining species varied. Results indicate that the use of rabbit erythrocytes is better suited for testing the hemagglutinating activity of O. rhinotracheale. PMID:18460626

  11. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis. [813 references

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-12-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials.

  12. Active current sheets and hot flow anomalies in Mercury's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uritsky, V. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Sundberg, T.; Raines, J. M.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2012-12-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) represent a subset of heliospheric current sheets interacting with planetary bow shocks. They are typically formed when the normal component of the motional (convective) electric field is directed toward the embedded current sheet on at least one side. The core region of an HFA contains hot and highly deflected ion flows and rather low and turbulent magnetic field. In this talk, we report the first observations of HFA-like events at Mercury. Using the data from the orbital phase of the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, we identify a representative ensemble of active current sheets magnetically connected to Mercury's bow shock. We show that some of these events exhibit unambiguous signatures of HFAs similar to those observed at other planets, and present their key physical characteristics. Our analysis suggests that Mercury's bow shock does not only mediate the flow of supersonic solar wind plasma but also provides conditions for local particle acceleration and heating as predicted by previous numerical simulations. Together with earlier studies of HFA activity at Earth, Venus, and Saturn, our results confirm that hot flow anomalies could be a common property of planetary bow shocks.

  13. An Investigation of Sheet-stiffener Panels Subjected to Compression Loads with Particular Reference to Torsionally Weak Stiffeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Louis G

    1940-01-01

    A total of 183 panel specimens of 24ST aluminum alloy with nominal thickness of 0.020, and 0.040 inch with extruded bulb-angle sections of 12 shapes spaced 4 and 5 inches as stiffeners were tested to obtain the buckling stress and the amplitude of the maximum wave when buckled. Bulb angles from 3 to 27 1/2 inches long were tested as pin-end columns. The experimental data are presented as stress-strain and column curves and in tabular form. Some comparisons with theoretical results are presented. Analytical methods are developed that make it possible for the designer to predict with reasonable accuracy the buckling stress and the maximum-wave amplitude of the sheet in stiffened-panel combinations. The scope of the tests was insufficient to formulate general design criteria but the results are presented as a guide for design and an indication of the type of theoretical and experimental work that is needed.

  14. Active current sheets and candidate hot flow anomalies upstream of Mercury's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uritsky, V. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Sundberg, T.; Raines, J. M.; Gershman, D. J.; Collinson, G.; Sibeck, D.; Khazanov, G. V.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2014-02-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) represent a subset of solar wind discontinuities interacting with collisionless bow shocks. They are typically formed when the normal component of the motional (convective) electric field points toward the embedded current sheet on at least one of its sides. The core region of an HFA contains hot and highly deflected ion flows and rather low and turbulent magnetic field. In this paper, we report observations of possible HFA-like events at Mercury identified over a course of two planetary years. Using data from the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission, we identify a representative ensemble of active current sheets magnetically connected to Mercury's bow shock. We show that some of these events exhibit magnetic and particle signatures of HFAs similar to those observed at other planets, and present their key physical characteristics. Our analysis suggests that Mercury's bow shock does not only mediate the flow of supersonic solar wind plasma but also provides conditions for local particle acceleration and heating as predicted by previous numerical simulations. Together with earlier observations of HFA activity at Earth, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, our results confirm that hot flow anomalies could be a common property of planetary bow shocks and show that the characteristic size of these events is controlled by the bow shock standoff distance and/or local solar wind conditions.

  15. Fast Light-Sheet Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, William W., Jr.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Bartram, Scott M.

    1995-01-01

    Optomechanical apparatus maintains sheet of pulsed laser light perpendicular to reference axis while causing sheet of light to translate in oscillatory fashion along reference axis. Produces illumination for laser velocimeter in which submicrometer particles entrained in flow illuminated and imaged in parallel planes displaced from each other in rapid succession. Selected frequency of oscillation range upward from tens of hertz. Rotating window continuously shifts sheet of light laterally while maintaining sheet parallel to same plane.

  16. Network formation through active migration of human vascular endothelial cells in a multilayered skeletal myoblast sheet.

    PubMed

    Nagamori, Eiji; Ngo, Trung Xuan; Takezawa, Yasunori; Saito, Atsuhiro; Sawa, Yoshiki; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo; Taya, Masahito; Kino-oka, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Autologous transplantation of myoblast sheet has attracted attention as a new technique for curing myocardial infarction. Myoblast sheet has the ability to secret cytokines that improve heart function via the facilitation of angiogenesis on affected part. To mimic the in vivo angiogenesis in the myoblast sheet after transplantation, a five-layered cell sheet of human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMMs) was overlaid on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which enables evaluation of dynamic HUVEC behavior. HUVECs existing initially at the bottom of the sheet changed to be a stretched shape and migrated upward compared with the surrounding HSMMs in the sheet. Prolonged incubation resulted in network formation of HUVECs in the middle of the sheet, although non-networked HUVECs continued to migrate to the top of the sheet, which meant the spatial habitation of HUVECs in the cell sheet. Image processing was performed to determine the variation in the extent of network formation at different HUVEC densities. It was found that the extent of formed network depended on the frequency of encounters among HUVECs in the middle of the sheet. The present system, which can evaluate network formation, is considered to be a promising in vitro angiogenesis model. PMID:23117213

  17. Reference Framework for Active Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naithani, Pranav

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this paper traces the history of active learning and further utilizes the available literature to define the meaning and importance of active learning in higher education. The study highlights common practical problems faced by students and instructors in implementing active learning in higher education and further identifies…

  18. Genetics Home Reference: activated PI3K-delta syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions activated PI3K-delta syndrome activated PI3K-delta syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Activated PI3K-delta syndrome is a disorder that impairs the immune ...

  19. ASYMMETRIC SUNSPOT ACTIVITY AND THE SOUTHWARD DISPLACEMENT OF THE HELIOSPHERIC CURRENT SHEET

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-M.; Robbrecht, E. E-mail: eva.robbrecht@oma.be

    2011-08-01

    Observations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have suggested a statistical tendency for the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) to be shifted a few degrees southward of the heliographic equator during the period 1965-2010, particularly in the years near sunspot minimum. Using potential-field source-surface extrapolations and photospheric flux-transport simulations, we demonstrate that this southward displacement follows from Joy's law and the observed hemispheric asymmetry in the sunspot numbers, with activity being stronger in the southern (northern) hemisphere during the declining (rising) phase of cycles 20-23. The hemispheric asymmetry gives rise to an axisymmetric quadrupole field, whose equatorial zone has the sign of the leading-polarity flux in the dominant hemisphere; during the last four cycles, the polarity of the IMF around the equator thus tended to match that of the north polar field both before and after polar field reversal. However, large fluctuations are introduced by the nonaxisymmetric field components, which depend on the longitudinal distribution of sunspot activity in either hemisphere. Consistent with this model, the HCS showed an average northward displacement during cycle 19, when the 'usual' alternation was reversed and the northern hemisphere became far more active than the southern hemisphere during the declining phase of the cycle. We propose a new method for determining the north-south displacement of the HCS from coronal streamer observations.

  20. The heliospheric sheet configuration according to the coronal ray synoptic maps in solar activity cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, S. A.; Fat'yanov, M. P.; Shramko, A. D.

    2015-05-01

    Two catalogs of coronal ray synoptic maps for different altitudes (1.5-5 R ⊙) for solar activity cycles 23 and 24 (1996-2013) were compiled based on a proposed technique with the data from the SOHO space observatory LASCO C2 coronograph and the Mauna-Loa observatory Mark-IV K coronometer. The constructed synoptic maps of coronal rays represent an image of three-dimensional spherical sections of the heliospheric neutral sheet expanded along the heliographic longitude. The evolution of different heliospheric sheet spatial parameters during the analyzed period was studied based on the obtained maps.

  1. Anti-adhesion and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles supported on graphene oxide sheets.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Andreia Fonseca; Martinez, Diego Stéfani Teodoro; Meira, Stela Maris Meister; de Moraes, Ana Carolina Mazarin; Brandelli, Adriano; Filho, Antonio Gomes Souza; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This work reports on the preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of a nanocomposite formed from graphene oxide (GO) sheets decorated with silver nanoparticles (GO-Ag). The GO-Ag nanocomposite was prepared in the presence of AgNO3 and sodium citrate. The physicochemical characterization was performed by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average size of the silver nanoparticles anchored on the GO surface was 7.5 nm. Oxidation debris fragments (a byproduct adsorbed on the GO surface) were found to be crucial for the nucleation and growth of the silver nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of the GO and GO-Ag nanocomposite against the microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated using the standard counting plate methodology. The GO dispersion showed no antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa over the concentration range investigated. On the other hand, the GO-Ag nanocomposite displayed high biocidal activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 2.5 to 5.0 μg/mL. The anti-biofilm activity toward P. aeruginosa adhered on stainless steel surfaces was also investigated. The results showed a 100% inhibition rate of the adhered cells after exposure to the GO-Ag nanocomposite for one hour. To the best of our knowledge, this work provides the first direct evidence that GO-Ag nanocomposites can inhibit the growth of microbial adhered cells, thus preventing the process of biofilm formation. These promising results support the idea that GO-Ag nanocomposites may be applied as antibacterial coatings material to prevent the development of biofilms in food packaging and medical devices. PMID:24060936

  2. Plasma sheet ion energization during dipolarization events

    SciTech Connect

    Delcourt, D.C. ); Sauvaud, J.A. )

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents simulation results for acceleration processes for ions during what are referred to as dipolarization events associated with storm activity. Time variations of magnetic fields over cyclotron periods, and generation of electric fields parallel to the geomagnetic field, both contribute to ion acceleration in the plasma sheet. Calculations support the observation of earthward injection of ions during such events.

  3. International Reference Ionosphere (IRI): Task Force Activity 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, D.

    2000-01-01

    The annual IRI Task Force Activity was held at the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy from July 10 to July 14. The participants included J. Adeniyi (University of Ilorin, Nigeria), D. Bilitza (NSSDC/RITSS, USA), D. Buresova (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Republic), B. Forte (ICTP, Italy), R. Leitinger (University of Graz, Austria), B. Nava (ICTP, Italy), M. Mosert (University National Tucuman, Argentina), S. Pulinets (IZMIRAN, Russia), S. Radicella (ICTP, Italy), and B. Reinisch (University of Mass. Lowell, USA). The main topic of this Task Force Activity was the modeling of the topside ionosphere and the development of strategies for modeling of ionospheric variability. Each day during the workshop week the team debated a specific modeling problem in the morning during informal presentations and round table discussions of all participants. Ways of resolving the specific modeling problem were devised and tested in the afternoon in front of the computers of the ICTP Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory using ICTP s computer networks and internet access.

  4. Seismicity on the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface fracture in the vicinity of active moulins

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Joughin, Ian; Behn, Mark D.; Das, Sarah; King, Matt A.; Stevens, Laura; Lizarralde, Dan

    2015-06-25

    We analyzed geophone and GPS measurements collected within the ablation zone of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during a ~35 day period of the 2011 melt season to study changes in ice deformation before, during, and after a supraglacial lake drainage event. During rapid lake drainage, ice flow speeds increased to ~400% of winter values, and icequake activity peaked. At times >7 days after drainage, this seismicity developed variability over both diurnal and longer periods (~10 days), while coincident ice speeds fell to ~150% of winter values and showed nightly peaks in spatial variability. Approximately 95% of all detected seismicity in the lake basin and its immediate vicinity was triggered by fracture propagation within near-surface ice (<330 m deep) that generated Rayleigh waves. Icequakes occurring before and during drainage frequently were collocated with the down flow (west) end of the primary hydrofracture through which the lake drained but shifted farther west and outside the lake basin after the drainage. We interpret these results to reveal vertical hydrofracture opening and local uplift during the drainage, followed by enhanced seismicity and ice flow on the downstream side of the lake basin. This region collocates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar-measured speedup in previous years and could reflect the migration path of the meltwater supplied to the bed by the lake. The diurnal seismic signal can be associated with nightly reductions in surface melt input that increase effective basal pressure and traction, thereby promoting elevated strain in the surficial ice.

  5. Field-Aligned Current Sheet Motion and Its Correlation with Solar Wind Conditions and Geomagnetic Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Le, G.; Boardsen, S. A.; Slavin, J. A.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2008-05-01

    Field-aligned currents (FACs) are the currents flowing into and out of the ionosphere which connect to the magnetosphere. They provide an essential linkage between the solar wind - magnetosphere system and the ionosphere, and the understanding of these currents is important for global magnetosphere dynamics and space weather prediction. The three spacecraft ST-5 constellation provides an unprecedented opportunity to study in situ FAC dynamics in time scales (10 sec to 10 min) that can not be achieved previously with single spacecraft studies or large-spaced conjugate spacecraft studies. In this study, we use the magnetic field observations during the whole ST-5 mission and their corresponding solar wind conditions to study the dependence of FAC current sheet motion and intensity on solar wind conditions. FAC peak current densities show very good correlations with some solar wind parameters, including IMF Bz, dynamic pressure, Ey, and some IMF angles, but not with other parameters. Instant FAC speeds show generally much weaker dependence on solar wind conditions comparing to FAC peak current densities. This obvious uncorrelation between FAC peak current densities and speeds implies that FAC peak current densities are more consistently controlled by solar wind conditions and geomagnetic activities, while FAC speeds are more oscillatory, sometimes with higher speeds during quieter times and lower speeds during more turbulent times.

  6. Anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets on graphene sheets via molecular grafting for enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhou, Yunchun; Liu, Li

    2012-01-21

    Owing to their extensive practical applications and fundamental importance, the controllable synthesis of well-faceted anatase TiO(2) crystal with high percentage of reactive facets has attracted increasing attention. Here, nano-sized anatase TiO(2) sheets mainly dominated by {001} facets had been prepared on graphene sheets by using a facile solvothermal synthetic route. The percentage of {001} facets in TiO(2) nanosheets was calculated to be ca. 64%. The morphologies, structural properties, growth procedures and photocatalytic activities of the resultant TiO(2)/graphene nanocomposites were investigated. In comparison with commercial P25 and pure TiO(2) nanosheets, the composite exhibited significant improvement in photocatalytic degradation of the azo dye Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity and stability was attributed to the effective charge anti-recombination of graphene and the high catalytic activity of {001} facets. PMID:22159272

  7. A novel method for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources.

    PubMed

    Stanga, D; De Felice, P; Keightley, J; Capogni, M; Ioan, M R

    2016-03-01

    A novel method has been developed for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources. It makes use of two emission rate measurements and is based on the weak dependence between the source activity and the activity distribution for a given value of transmission coefficient. The method was checked experimentally by measuring the activity of two ((60)Co and (137)Cs) large-area reference sources constructed from anodized aluminum foils. Measurement results were compared with the activity values measured by gamma spectrometry. For each source, they agree within one standard uncertainty and also agree within the same limits with the certified values of the source activity. PMID:26701656

  8. [The influence of anodizing conditions on the activity of urease immobilized to anodized sheet aluminium (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Grunwald, P; Grunsser, W; Pfaff, K P; Krause, R; Lutz, K

    1980-01-01

    The activity of urease immobilized by adsorption on anodized sheet aluminium strongly depends on the method chosen for preparation of these carriers. If oxalic acid is applied as electrolyte, only the anodizing temperature significantly influences the activity of the preparations. In case of the well-known GS process, however, the activity is not only affected by the temperature, but also by other conditions of anodizing, for example the current density and the electrolyte concentration. For both methods the correlation between the topography of the carrier surfaces and the activity of enzyme immobilized to the surface is described. PMID:7445681

  9. Textile and Apparel Production, Management, and Services. Reference Book [and] Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.

    This student activity book and reference book, which are part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, are intended for use in 1- and 2-year textile and apparel production, management, and services programs for Texas high school students. The reference book provides information…

  10. Food Production, Management, and Services. Reference Book [and] Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.

    This student activity book and reference book, which are part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, are intended for use in one- and two-year food production, management, and services programs for Texas high school students. The reference book provides information needed by…

  11. Electric fields measured by ISEE-1 within and near the neutral sheet during quiet and active times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattell, C. A.; Mozer, F. S.

    1982-01-01

    An understanding of the physical processes occurring in the magnetotail and plasmasheet during different interplanetary magnetic field orientations and differing levels of ground magnetic activity is crucial for the development of a theory of energy transfer from the solar wind to the particles which produce auroral arcs. In the present investigation, the first observations of electric fields during neutral sheet crossings are presented, taking into account the statistical correlations of the interplanetary magnetic field direction and ground activity with the character of the electric field. The electric field data used in the study were obtained from a double probe experiment on the ISEE-1 satellite. The observations suggest that turbulent electric and magnetic fields are intimately related to plasma acceleration in the neutral sheet and to the processes which create auroral particles.

  12. Modeling the transition between upper plane bed regime and sheet flow without an active layer formulation. Preliminary results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viparelli, E.; Hernandez Moreira, R. R.; Blom, A.

    2015-12-01

    A perusal of the literature on bedload transport revealed that, notwithstanding the large number of studies on bedform morphology performed in the past decades, the upper plane bed regime has not been thoroughly investigated and the distinction between the upper plane bed and sheet flow transport regimes is still poorly defined. Previous experimental work demonstrated that the upper plane bed regime is characterized by long wavelength and small amplitude bedforms that migrate downstream. These bedforms, however, were not observed in experiments on sheet flow transport suggesting that the upper plane bed and the sheet flow are two different regimes. We thus designed and performed experiments in a sediment feed flume in the hydraulic laboratory of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of South Carolina at Columbia to study the transition from upper plane bed to sheet flow regime. Periodic measurements of water surface and bed elevation, bedform geometry and thicknesses of the bedload layer were performed by eyes, and with cameras, movies and a system of six ultrasonic probes that record the variations of bed elevation at a point over time. We used the time series of bed elevations to determine the probability functions of bed elevation. These probability functions are implemented in a continuous model of river morphodynamics, i.e. a model that does not use the active layer approximation to describe the sediment fluxes between the bedload and the deposit and that should thus be able to capture the details of the vertical and streamwise variation of the deposit grain size distribution. This model is validated against the experimental results for the case of uniform material. We then use the validated model in the attempt to study if and how the spatial distribution of grain sizes in the deposit changes from upper plane bed regime to sheet flow and if these results are influenced by the imposed rates of base level rise.

  13. Seismicity on the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface fracture in the vicinity of active moulins

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Joughin, Ian; Behn, Mark D.; Das, Sarah; King, Matt A.; Stevens, Laura; Lizarralde, Dan

    2015-06-25

    We analyzed geophone and GPS measurements collected within the ablation zone of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during a ~35 day period of the 2011 melt season to study changes in ice deformation before, during, and after a supraglacial lake drainage event. During rapid lake drainage, ice flow speeds increased to ~400% of winter values, and icequake activity peaked. At times >7 days after drainage, this seismicity developed variability over both diurnal and longer periods (~10 days), while coincident ice speeds fell to ~150% of winter values and showed nightly peaks in spatial variability. Approximately 95% of all detected seismicitymore » in the lake basin and its immediate vicinity was triggered by fracture propagation within near-surface ice (<330 m deep) that generated Rayleigh waves. Icequakes occurring before and during drainage frequently were collocated with the down flow (west) end of the primary hydrofracture through which the lake drained but shifted farther west and outside the lake basin after the drainage. We interpret these results to reveal vertical hydrofracture opening and local uplift during the drainage, followed by enhanced seismicity and ice flow on the downstream side of the lake basin. This region collocates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar-measured speedup in previous years and could reflect the migration path of the meltwater supplied to the bed by the lake. The diurnal seismic signal can be associated with nightly reductions in surface melt input that increase effective basal pressure and traction, thereby promoting elevated strain in the surficial ice.« less

  14. Polarization features of solar radio emission and possible existence of current sheets in active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Zheleznyakov, V. V.; White, S. M.; Kundu, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    We show that it is possible to account for the polarization features of solar radio emission provided the linear mode coupling theory is properly applied and the presence of current sheets in the corona is taken into account. We present a schematic model, including a current sheet that can explain the polarization features of both the low frequency slowly varying component and the bipolar noise storm radiation; the two radiations face similar propagation conditions through a current sheet and hence display similar polarization behavior. We discuss the applications of the linear mode coupling theory to the following types of solar emission: the slowly varying component, the microwave radio bursts, metric type U bursts, and bipolar noise storms.

  15. An Analysis of the Stability and Ultimate Compressive Strength of Short Sheet-stringer Panels with Special Reference to the Influence of the Riveted Connection Between Sheet and Stringer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semonian, Joseph W; Peterson, James P

    1955-01-01

    A method of strength analysis of short sheet-stringer panels subjected to compression is presented which takes into account the effect that the riveted attachments between the plate and the stiffeners have on the strength of panels. An analysis of experimental data shows that panel strength is highly influenced by rivet pitch, diameter, and location and that the degree of influence for a given riveting depends on the panel configuration and panel material.

  16. A melamine-assisted chemical blowing synthesis of N-doped activated carbon sheets for supercapacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiliang; Xuan, Huaqing; Lin, Gaoxin; Wang, Fan; Chen, Zhi; Dong, Xiaoping

    2016-07-01

    N-doped activated carbon sheets (NACS) have been successfully synthesized using glucose as carbon source via melamine-assisted chemical blowing and sequent KOH-activation method. The obtained carbon material possesses a sheet-like morphology with ultrathin thickness, hierarchical micro/mesoporous structure, high specific surface area (up to 1997.5 m2 g-1) and high pore volume (0.94 cm3 g-1). Besides, NACS material with a nitrogen content of 3.06 wt% presents a maximum specific capacitance of 312 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte due to the cocontribution of double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance. It also displays good rate performance (246 F g-1 at 30 A g-1) and cycle stability (∼91.3% retention after 4000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles). The assembled NACS-based symmetric capacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 20.2 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 448 W kg-1 within a voltage range of 0-1.8 V in 0.5 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Thus, the unique porous sheet structure and nitrogen-doping characteristic endue the electrode material a potential application for high-performance supercapacitors.

  17. Photocatalytic activity and antimicrobial properties of paper sheets modified with TiO2/Sodium alginate nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rehim, Mona H; El-Samahy, Magda A; Badawy, Abdelrahman A; Mohram, Maysa E

    2016-09-01

    Photocatalytic paper sheets were prepared by addition of different ratios of TiO2/Sodium alginate (TSA) nanocomposite. The modified paper sheets were characterized by XRD, TGA. Their morphology was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Photocatalytic activity of modified paper has been studied by analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste-water. The results confirmed the mineralization of the waste-water and enhanced removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by increasing the amount of photocatalyst in the paper. Moreover, the results also confirmed that presence of sodium alginate as biopolymer increased adhesion of nanoparticles to paper fibers and reduced the harmful effect of the photocatalyst on them. The paper sheets containing 7% as well as 15% TSA showed high photocatalytic activity and anti-bacterial effect against Salmonella typhimurium higher than standard antibiotic beside other microorganisms such as Candida albicans. The maximum antimicrobial effect was found in case of specimen loaded with 15% TSA. Moreover, it was found that by adding 20% TSA to the paper matrix, the properties of the paper composite collapse. The obtained results confirm the possible utilization of the modified paper in both hygienic and food packaging applications. PMID:27185131

  18. Surface Structure Dependent Electrocatalytic Activity of Co3O4 Anchored on Graphene Sheets toward Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Junwu; Kuang, Qin; Yang, Shihe; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai; Guo, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic activity is primarily a surface phenomenon, however, little is known about Co3O4 nanocrystals in terms of the relationship between the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity and surface structure, especially when dispersed on a highly conducting support to improve the electrical conductivity and so to enhance the catalytic activity. Herein, we report a controllable synthesis of Co3O4 nanorods (NR), nanocubes (NC) and nano-octahedrons (OC) with the different exposed nanocrystalline surfaces ({110}, {100}, and {111}), uniformly anchored on graphene sheets, which has allowed us to investigate the effects of the surface structure on the ORR activity. Results show that the catalytically active sites for ORR should be the surface Co2+ ions, whereas the surface Co3+ ions catalyze CO oxidation, and the catalytic ability is closely related to the density of the catalytically active sites. These results underscore the importance of morphological control in the design of highly efficient ORR catalysts. PMID:23892418

  19. Probing the interactions of phenol with oxygenated functional groups on curved fullerene-like sheets in activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chun-Yang; Ng, Man-Fai; Goh, Bee-Min; Saunders, Martin; Hill, Nick; Jiang, Zhong-Tao; Balach, Juan; El-Harbawi, Mohanad

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism(s) of interactions of phenol with oxygenated functional groups (OH, COO and COOH) in nanopores of activated carbon (AC) is a contentious issue among researchers. This mechanism is of particular interest because a better understanding of the role of such groups in nanopores would essentially translate to advances in AC production and use, especially in regard to the treatment of organic-based wastewaters. We therefore attempt to shed more light on the subject by employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations in which fullerene-like models integrating convex or concave structure, which simulate the eclectic porous structures on AC surface, are adopted. TEM analysis, EDS mapping and Boehm titration are also conducted on actual phenol-adsorbed AC. Our results suggest the widely-reported phenomenon of decreased phenol uptake on AC due to increased concentration of oxygenated functional groups is possibly attributed to the increased presence of the latter on the convex side of the curved carbon sheets. Such a system effectively inhibits phenol from getting direct contact with the carbon sheet, thus constraining any available π-π interaction, while the effect of groups acting on the concave part of the curved sheet does not impart the same detriment. PMID:26760531

  20. Anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets on graphene sheets via molecular grafting for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhou, Yunchun; Liu, Li

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their extensive practical applications and fundamental importance, the controllable synthesis of well-faceted anatase TiO2 crystal with high percentage of reactive facets has attracted increasing attention. Here, nano-sized anatase TiO2 sheets mainly dominated by {001} facets had been prepared on graphene sheets by using a facile solvothermal synthetic route. The percentage of {001} facets in TiO2 nanosheets was calculated to be ca. 64%. The morphologies, structural properties, growth procedures and photocatalytic activities of the resultant TiO2/graphene nanocomposites were investigated. In comparison with commercial P25 and pure TiO2 nanosheets, the composite exhibited significant improvement in photocatalytic degradation of the azo dye Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity and stability was attributed to the effective charge anti-recombination of graphene and the high catalytic activity of {001} facets.Owing to their extensive practical applications and fundamental importance, the controllable synthesis of well-faceted anatase TiO2 crystal with high percentage of reactive facets has attracted increasing attention. Here, nano-sized anatase TiO2 sheets mainly dominated by {001} facets had been prepared on graphene sheets by using a facile solvothermal synthetic route. The percentage of {001} facets in TiO2 nanosheets was calculated to be ca. 64%. The morphologies, structural properties, growth procedures and photocatalytic activities of the resultant TiO2/graphene nanocomposites were investigated. In comparison with commercial P25 and pure TiO2 nanosheets, the composite exhibited significant improvement in photocatalytic degradation of the azo dye Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity and stability was attributed to the effective charge anti-recombination of graphene and the high catalytic activity of {001} facets. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  1. Using Photon Activation Analysis To Determine Concentrations Of Unknown Components In Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jaromy; Sun, Zaijing; Wells, Doug; Maschner, Herb

    2011-06-01

    Using certified multi-element reference materials for instrumental analyses one frequently is confronted with the embarrassing fact that the concentration of some desired elements are not given in the respective certificate, nonetheless are detectable, e.g. by photon activation analysis (PAA). However, these elements might be determinable with sufficient quality of the results using scaling parameters and the well-known quantities of a reference element within the reference material itself. Scaling parameters include: activation threshold energy, Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) peak and endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung continuum; integrated photo-nuclear cross sections for the isotopes of the reference element; bremsstrahlung continuum integral; target thickness; photon flux density. Photo-nuclear cross sections from the unreferenced elements must be known, too. With these quantities, the integral was obtained for both the known and unknown elements resulting in an inference of the concentration of the unreported element based upon the reported value, thus also the concentration of the unreferenced element in the reference material. A similar method to determine elements using the basic nuclear and experimental data has been developed for thermal neutron activation analysis some time ago (k{sub 0} Method).

  2. Effect of OSHA's bloodborne pathogens standard on hazardous waste cleanup activities. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Bloodborne pathogens are microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In addition to healthcare workers, the standard also may affect workers who handle waste potentially contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious material during response actions at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The purpose of the Fact Sheet is to describe the additional planning, training, and medical surveillance requirements that the new OSHA standard on bloodborne pathogens imposes upon On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) and Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) during a Superfund response action.

  3. Coordinating and Performing Activities for Employer. Using Other Reference Materials. Student Manual and Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maleeta M.

    Supporting performance objective 45 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on using reference books are included in this packet. (The packet is the third in a set of four on coordinating and performing activities for employers--CE 016…

  4. IDEA Fiscal Monitoring and Support Activities 2011-2012 Quick Reference Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Resource Center Program, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This Quick Reference Document is being distributed by the Regional Resource Center Program ARRA/Fiscal Priority Team to provide RRCP state liaisons and other (Technical Assistance) TA providers with a summary of critical fiscal monitoring and support activities they may be involved in during calendar years 2011 and 2012. Like other documents in…

  5. IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C. Part 1. The concept of reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Siekmann, Lothar; Bonora, Roberto; Burtis, Carl A; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Clerc-Renaud, Pascale; Férard, Georges; Ferrero, Carlo A; Forest, Jean-Claude; Franck, Paul F H; Gella, F Javier; Hoelzel, Wieland; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen; Kanno, Takashi; Kessner, Art; Klauke, Rainer; Kristiansen, Nina; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Misaki, Hideo; Mueller, Mathias M; Panteghini, Mauro; Pauwels, Jean; Schiele, Françoise; Schimmel, Heinz G; Vialle, Arlette; Weidemann, Gerhard; Schumann, Gerhard

    2002-06-01

    This paper is the first in a series dealing with reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C and with the certification of reference preparations. Other parts deal with: Part 2. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Creatine Kinase; Part 3. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Lactate Dehydrogenase; Part 4. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Alanine Aminotransferase; Part 5. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Aspartate Aminotransferase; Part 6. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic fication of Four Reference Materials for the Determination of Enzymatic Activity of y-Glutamyltransferase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Creatine Kinase at 37 degrees C. A document describing the determination of preliminary reference values is also in preparation. PMID:12211661

  6. Evaluation of homogeneity of a certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, B.; Duke, M.J.M.; Ng, D.

    1986-01-01

    The homogeneity of the marine reference material TORT-1, a spray-dried and acetone-extracted hepatopancreatic material from the lobster, was tested for 26 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Through a one-way analysis of variance based on six analyses on each of six bottles of TORT-1, it was concluded that the between-bottle heterogeneity is no greater than the within-bottle heterogeneity. The analytical results for those elements for which values were provided by NRC agree with the NRC values within 95% confidence limits. 8 references, 6 tables.

  7. Analysis of marine sediment and lobster hepatopancreas reference materials by instrumental photon activation

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Davidson, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    By use of instrumental photon activation analysis, twelve trace (As, Ba, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, U, Zn, and Zr) and eight minor (C, Na, Mg, Co, K, Ca, Tl, and Fe) elements were determined in a certified marine sediment standard reference material as well as eight trace (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, and Pb) and four minor (Na, Mg, Cl, and Ca) elements in a certified marine tissue (lobster hepatopancreas) standard reference material. The precision and accuracy of the present results when compared to the accepted values clearly demonstrate the reliability of this nondestructive technique and its applicability to marine environmental or marine geochemical studies. 24 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Emplacement and inflation of pahoehoe sheet flows: observations and measurements of active lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hon, K.; Kauahikaua, J.; Denlinger, R.; Mackay, K.

    1994-01-01

    Inflated pahoehoe sheet flows have a distinctive horizontal upper surface, which can be several hundred meters across, and are bounded to steep monoclinal uplifts. The inflated sheet flows studied ranged from 1 to 5 m in thickness, but initially propagated as thin sheets of fluid pahoehoe lava, generally 20-30 cm thick. The morphology of the lava as flow advanced is described. Inflated sheet flows from Kilauea and Mauna Loa are morphologically similar to some thick Icelandic and submarine sheet flows, suggesting a similar mechanism of emplacement. -from Authors

  9. Boundary conditions of an active West Antarctic subglacial lake: implications for storage of water beneath the ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, M. J.; Ross, N.; Corr, H.; Smith, B.; Jordan, T.; Bingham, R. G.; Ferraccioli, F.; Rippin, D. M.; Le Brocq, A.

    2014-01-01

    Repeat-pass ICESat altimetry has revealed 124 discrete surface height changes across the Antarctic Ice Sheet, interpreted to be caused by subglacial lake discharges (surface lowering) and inputs (surface uplift). Few of these active lakes have been confirmed by radio-echo sounding (RES) despite several attempts (notable exceptions are Lake Whillans and three in the Adventure Subglacial Trench). Here we present targeted RES and radar altimeter data from an "active lake" location within the upstream Institute Ice Stream, into which at least 0.12 km3 of water was previously calculated to have flowed between October 2003 and February 2008. We use a series of transects to establish an accurate depiction of the influences of bed topography and ice surface elevation on water storage potential. The location of surface height change is downstream of a subglacial hill on the flank of a distinct topographic hollow, where RES reveals no obvious evidence for deep (> 10 m) water. The regional hydropotential reveals a sink coincident with the surface change, however. Governed by the location of the hydrological sink, basal water will likely "drape" over topography in a manner dissimilar to subglacial lakes where flat strong specular RES reflections are measured. The inability of RES to detect the active lake means that more of the Antarctic ice sheet bed may contain stored water than is currently appreciated. Variation in ice surface elevation data sets leads to significant alteration in calculations of the local flow of basal water indicating the value of, and need for, high-resolution altimetry data in both space and time to establish and characterise subglacial hydrological processes.

  10. Boundary conditions of an active West Antarctic subglacial lake: implications for storage of water beneath the ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, M. J.; Ross, N.; Corr, H.; Smith, B.; Jordan, T.; Bingham, R.; Ferraccioli, F.; Rippin, D.; Le Brocq, A.

    2013-06-01

    Repeat-pass IceSat altimetry has revealed 124 discrete surface height changes across the Antarctic Ice Sheet, interpreted to be caused by subglacial lake discharges (surface lowering) and inputs (surface uplift). Few of these active lakes have been confirmed by radio-echo sounding (RES) despite several attempts (notable exceptions are Lake Whillans and three in the Adventure Subglacial Trench). Here we present targeted RES and radar altimeter data from an "active lake" location within the upstream Institute Ice Stream, into which 0.12 km3 of water is calculated to have flowed between October 2003 and February 2008. We use a series of transects to establish an accurate appreciation of the influences of bed topography and ice-surface elevation on water storage potential. The location of surface height change is over the downslope flank of a distinct topographic hollow, where RES reveals no obvious evidence for deep (> 10 m) water. The regional hydropotential reveals a sink coincident with the surface change, however. Governed by the location of the hydrological sink, basal water will likely "drape" over existing topography in a manner dissimilar to subglacial lakes where flat strong specular RES reflections are measured. The inability of RES to detect the active lake means that more of the Antarctic ice sheet bed may contain stored water than is currently appreciated. Variation in ice surface elevation datasets leads to significant alteration in calculations of the local flow of basal water indicating the value of, and need for, high resolution RES datasets in both space and time to establish and characterise subglacial hydrological processes.

  11. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  12. Methodology of selecting the reference source for an active noise control system in a car.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Stankiewicz, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, a significant development in digital technologies of signal processing made it possible to apply active noise control methods in new domains. A proper selection of the reference signal source is a main problem in implementing such systems. This paper presents an estimation method based on an indicator of the coherent power level. It also presents a simple system of active noise control in a car, operating according to the proposed method of optimising the positioning of reference sources. This system makes it possible to considerably increase the comfort of work of drivers in various kinds of road transport without a great increase in cost. This is especially significant in the case of trucks and vans. Passive barriers are considerably more expensive in them, which results in a higher level of noise than in passenger cars. PMID:23498706

  13. Second Research Coordination Meeting on Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis -- Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B.; Kellett, Mark A.

    2008-03-19

    The second meeting of the Co-ordinated Research Project on"Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis" was held at the IAEA, Vienna from 7-9 May, 2007. A summary of the presentations made by participants is given, along with reports on specifically assigned tasks and subsequent discussions. In order to meet the overall objectives of this CRP, the outputs have been reiterated and new task assignments made.

  14. Neutron activation analysis for reference determination of the implantation dose of cobalt ions

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, R.P.H.; Bubert, H.; Palmetshofer, L.

    1992-05-15

    The authors prepared depth profilling reference materials by cobalt ion implantation at an ion energy of 300 keV into n-type silicon. The implanted Co dose was then determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) giving an analytical dynamic range of almost 5 decades and uncertainty of 1.5%. This form of analysis allows sources of error (beam spreading, misalignment) to be corrected. 70 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Determination of elements in National Bureau of Standards' geological Standard Reference Materials by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Glascock, M.D.; Carni, J.J.; Vogt, J.R.; Spalding, T.G.

    1982-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) have been used to determine elemental concentrations in two recently issued National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified and information values reported by NBS for those elements in each material for which comparisons are available. Average concentrations of 35 elements in SRM 278 obsidian rock and 32 elements in SRM 688 basalt rock are reported for comparison with results that may be obtained by other laboratories.

  16. Effect of material flow on joint strength in activation spot joining of Al alloy and steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Goro; Yogo, Yasuhiro; Takao, Hisaaki

    2014-08-01

    A new joining method for dissimilar metal sheets was developed where a rotated consumable rod of Al alloy is pressed onto an Al alloy sheet at the part overlapped with a mild steel sheet. The metal flow in the joining region is increased by the through-hole in the Al sheet and consumable Al rod. The rod creates the joint interface and pads out of the thinly joined parts through pressing. This produces a higher joint strength than that of conventional friction stir spot welding. Measurements of the joint interface showed the presence of a 5-10 nm thick amorphous layer consisting of Al and Mg oxides.

  17. Activated Sludge. Selected Instructional Activities and References. Instructional Resources Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Clinton L.; Walasek, James B.

    This monograph contains a variety of selected materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. Part I presents a brief discussion of the activated sludge process in wastewater treatment operations. Part II, Instructional Units, contains selected portions of existing programs which may be utilized in…

  18. Active Volcanoes of the Kurile Islands: A Reference Guide for Aviation Users

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; Rybin, Alexander; Chibisova, Marina; Miller, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The many volcanoes of the remote and mostly uninhabited Kurile Island arc (fig. 1; table 1) pose a serious hazard for air traffic in the North Pacific. Ash clouds from Kurile eruptions can impact some of the busiest air travel routes in the world and drift quickly into airspace managed by three countries: Russia, Japan, and the United States. Prevailing westerly winds throughout the region will most commonly send ash from any Kurile eruption directly across the parallel North Pacific airways between North America and Asia (Kristine A. Nelson, National Weather Service, oral commun., 2006; fig. 1). This report presents maps showing locations of the 36 most active Kurile volcanoes plotted on Operational Navigational Charts published by the Defense Mapping Agency (map sheets ONC F-10, F-11, and E-10; figs. 1, 2, 3, 4). These maps are intended to assist aviation and other users in the identification of restless Kurile volcanoes. A regional map is followed by three subsections of the Kurile volcanic arc (North, Central, South). Volcanoes and selected primary geographic features are labeled. All maps contain schematic versions of the principal air routes and selected air navigational fixes in this region.

  19. Research Activities for the DORIS Contribution to the Next International Terrestrial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soudarin, L.; Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Ferrage, P.

    2012-01-01

    For the preparation of ITRF2008, the IDS processed data from 1993 to 2008, including data from TOPEX/Poseidon, the SPOT satellites and Envisat in the weekly solutions. Since the development of ITRF2008, the IDS has been engaged in a number of efforts to try and improve the reference frame solutions. These efforts include (i) assessing the contribution of the new DORIS satellites, Jason-2 and Cryosat2 (2008-2011), (ii) individually analyzing the DORIS satellite contributions to geocenter and scale, and (iii) improving orbit dynamics (atmospheric loading effects, satellite surface force modeling. . . ). We report on the preliminary results from these research activities, review the status of the IDS combination which is now routinely generated from the contributions of the IDS analysis centers, and discuss the prospects for continued improvement in the DORIS contribution to the next international reference frame.

  20. Evidence for Subglacial Volcanic Activity Beneath the area of the Divide of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    There is an increasing body of aeromagnetic, radar ice-sounding, heat flow, subglacial volcanic earthquakes, several exposed active and subglacial volcanoes and other lines of evidence for volcanic activity associated with the West Antarctic Rift System (WR) since the origin (~25 Ma) of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), which flows through it. Exposed late Cenozoic, alkaline volcanic rocks, 34 Ma to present concentrated in Marie Byrd Land (LeMasurier and Thomson, 1990), but also exposed along the rift shoulder on the Transantarctic Mountains flank of the WR, and >1 million cubic kilometers, of mostly subglacially erupted 'volcanic centers' beneath the WAIS inferred from aeromagnetic data, have been interpreted as evidence of a magmatic plume. About 18 high relief, (~600-2000 m) 'volcanic centers' presently beneath the WAIS surface, probably were erupted subaerially when the WAIS was absent, based on the 5-km orthogonally line spaced Central West Antarctica aerogeophysical survey. All would be above sea level after ice removal and isostatic adjustment. Nine of these high relief peaks are in the general area beneath the divide of the WAIS. This high bed relief topography was first interpreted in the 1980s as the volcanic 'Sinuous Ridge ' based on a widely spaced aeromagnetic -radar ice sounding survey (Jankowski et al,. 1983). A 70-km wide, circular ring of interpreted subglacial volcanic rocks was cited as evidence of a volcanic caldera underlying the ice sheet divide based on the CWA survey (Behrendt et al., 1998). A broad magnetic 'low' surrounding the caldera area possibly is evidence of a shallow Curie isotherm. High heat flow reported from temperature logging (Clow et al., 2012) in the WAISCORE and a thick volcanic ash layer in the core (Dunbar et al., 2012) are consistent with this interpretation. A 2 km-high subaerially erupted volcano (subglacial Mt Thiel, ~78.5 degrees S, 111 degrees W) ~ 100 km north from the WAISCORE could be the source of the ash

  1. Different bulk and active bacterial communities in cryoconite from the margin and interior of the Greenland ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Stibal, Marek; Schostag, Morten; Cameron, Karen A; Hansen, Lars H; Chandler, David M; Wadham, Jemma L; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2015-04-01

    Biological processes in the supraglacial ecosystem, including cryoconite, contribute to nutrient cycling within the cryosphere and may affect surface melting, yet little is known of the diversity of the active microbes in these environments. We examined the bacterial abundance and community composition of cryoconite over a melt season at two contrasting sites at the margin and in the interior of the Greenland ice sheet, using sequence analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction of coextracted 16S rDNA and rRNA. Significant differences were found between bulk (rDNA) and potentially active (rRNA) communities, and between communities sampled from the two sites. Higher concentrations of rRNA than rDNA were detected at the interior site, whereas at the margin several orders of magnitude less rRNA was found compared with rDNA, which may be explained by a lower proportion of active bacteria at the margin site. The rRNA communities at both sites were dominated by a few taxa of Cyanobacteria and Alpha- and/or Betaproteobacteria. The bulk alpha diversity was higher in the margin site community, suggesting that local sources may be contributing towards the gene pool in addition to long distance transport. PMID:25405749

  2. Choice of solvent in the extraction of Angelica archangelica roots with reference to calcium blocking activity.

    PubMed

    Härmälä, P; Vuorela, H; Törnquist, K; Hiltunen, R

    1992-04-01

    Twenty solvents were tested in the extraction of compounds from the roots of Angelica archangelica L. (Apiaceae), and the calcium-antagonistic activity of the extracts was investigated. Special attention was paid to the physical and chemical properties of the solvents and their extraction abilities. The calcium antagonistic effect of the extracts was investigated by measuring the inhibition of depolarization-induced Ca2+ uptake in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. The criteria used in determining the best solvents for the extraction were the yield and the biological activity of the extract, as well as the amount of nonpolar compounds in the extract. The final criterion used in selecting the solvent was its usability with reference to boiling point, chemical interactions (e.g. methylation), etc. Chloroform was found to be the best solvent for the extraction of nonpolar, biologically active compounds from the roots of A. archangelica. PMID:1529031

  3. Coos County Youth and Out-of-School Activities: Patterns of Involvement and Barriers to Participation. New England Fact Sheet No. 7, Fall 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Erin Hiley

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet draws from surveys administered to a cohort of 416 participants in 7th grade in 2008, again when they were in 8th grade in 2009, and most recently as 10th graders in 2011 to look at patterns of participation in structured activities over time and whether male and female students differ in these patterns of participation. It also…

  4. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kenneth L.; Peck, Karen Y.; Thompson, Brandon S.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Owens, Brett D.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. Objective: To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. Results: The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ2 = 13.22, df = 1, P < 0.001) with no prior history of knee ligament injury. In contrast, there was no significant difference in median MARS scores between men and women (χ2 = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ2 = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Conclusion: Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex

  5. Reference frames in allocentric representations are invariant across static and active encoding

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Edgar; Baumann, Oliver; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2013-01-01

    An influential model of spatial memory—the so-called reference systems account—proposes that relationships between objects are biased by salient axes (“frames of reference”) provided by environmental cues, such as the geometry of a room. In this study, we sought to examine the extent to which a salient environmental feature influences the formation of spatial memories when learning occurs via a single, static viewpoint and via active navigation, where information has to be integrated across multiple viewpoints. In our study, participants learned the spatial layout of an object array that was arranged with respect to a prominent environmental feature within a virtual arena. Location memory was tested using judgments of relative direction. Experiment 1A employed a design similar to previous studies whereby learning of object-location information occurred from a single, static viewpoint. Consistent with previous studies, spatial judgments were significantly more accurate when made from an orientation that was aligned, as opposed to misaligned, with the salient environmental feature. In Experiment 1B, a fresh group of participants learned the same object-location information through active exploration, which required integration of spatial information over time from a ground-level perspective. As in Experiment 1A, object-location information was organized around the salient environmental cue. Taken together, the findings suggest that the learning condition (static vs. active) does not affect the reference system employed to encode object-location information. Spatial reference systems appear to be a ubiquitous property of spatial representations, and might serve to reduce the cognitive demands of spatial processing. PMID:24009595

  6. NREL Team Creates High-Activity, Durable Platinum Extended Surface Catalyst for Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers with NREL's Fuel Cell team showed that platinum can replace copper nanowires in such a way that high-surface-area and high-specific-activity catalysts are produced, potentially allowing for lower-cost catalysts.

  7. The adaptor protein Cindr regulates JNK activity to maintain epithelial sheet integrity.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Hannah W R; van Rensburg, Samuel H; Feiler, Christina E; Johnson, Ruth I

    2016-02-15

    Epithelia are essential barrier tissues that must be appropriately maintained for their correct function. To achieve this a plethora of protein interactions regulate epithelial cell number, structure and adhesion, and differentiation. Here we show that Cindr (the Drosophila Cin85 and Cd2ap ortholog) is required to maintain epithelial integrity. Reducing Cindr triggered cell delamination and movement. Most delaminating cells died. These behaviors were consistent with JNK activation previously associated with loss of epithelial integrity in response to ectopic oncogene activity. We confirmed a novel interaction between Cindr and Drosophila JNK (dJNK), which when perturbed caused inappropriate JNK signaling. Genetically reducing JNK signaling activity suppressed the effects of reducing Cindr. Furthermore, ectopic JNK signaling phenocopied loss of Cindr and was partially rescued by concomitant cindr over-expression. Thus, correct Cindr-dJNK stoichiometry is essential to maintain epithelial integrity and disturbing this balance may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease states, including cancer. PMID:26772997

  8. The Marfan Syndrome. Fact Sheet [and] Physical Education and Activity Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Marfan Foundation, Port Washington, NY.

    This document consists of two brochures, the first explaining the Marfan Syndrome and a second providing guidelines for physical education and activity for people who have this syndrome are provided. The brochure on factual information about Marfan syndrome outlines the associated medical problems involving the cardiovascular system, the skeleton,…

  9. Design and biological activity of {beta}-sheet breaker peptide conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Sandra Cardoso, Isabel; Boerner, Hans; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Coelho, Manuel

    2009-03-06

    The sequence LPFFD (iA{beta}{sub 5}) prevents amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) fibrillogenesis and neurotoxicity, hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as previously demonstrated. In this study iA{beta}{sub 5} was covalently linked to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the activity of conjugates was assessed and compared to the activity of the peptide alone by in vitro studies. The conjugates were characterized by MALDI-TOF. Competition binding assays established that conjugates retained the ability to bind A{beta} with similar strength as iA{beta}{sub 5}. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that iA{beta}{sub 5} conjugates inhibited amyloid fibril formation, which is in agreement with binding properties observed for the conjugates towards A{beta}. The conjugates were also able to prevent amyloid-induced cell death, as evaluated by activation of caspase 3. These results demonstrated that the biological activity of iA{beta}{sub 5} is not affected by the pegylation process.

  10. Dental Charting. Learning Activities, Unit Tests, Progress Chart, and Work Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Center for Occupational Curriculum Development.

    These materials are part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. These student materials, designed to be used with the Dental Charting Student Manual, consist of learning activities, unit…

  11. Defects inspection of the solder bumps using self reference technology in active thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiangning; Shi, Tielin; Han, Jiguang; Liao, Guanglan; Su, Lei; Wang, Suya

    2014-03-01

    With the decrease of solder bumps in dimension and pitch, defects inspection of the solder bumps become more difficult. A nondestructive detection system based on the active thermography has been developed for solder bumps inspection. However, heating non-uniformities and emissivity differences may impede the defects recognition. In this paper, we propose a method using a self reference technology based on a source distribution image (SDI) to eliminate the influence of unevenness in emissivity values and heating power distribution. Three thermograms captured right after the heat pulse are averaged to create the SDI. Then the SDI is subtracted from the original thermograms, and we get the thermal contrast images, in which eight points on the edge of each hot spot are selected as the feature points for the corresponding bump. Thermal difference between the feature points and the central point are adopted to quantify the thermal behaviors of the solder bumps, by which the missing bump is distinguished from the reference bumps. The results show that it is effective using the method to eliminate the impacts of emissivity unevenness and heating non-uniformities on defects identification in the active infrared test.

  12. The International Reference Ionosphere: A review of current activities and plans for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2014-05-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is at the core of many assimilative models of the global ionosphere that aspire to provide a more accurate representation of the 4-D ionosphere by combining a core ionosphere model with GNSS and other data sets. This presentation will review the status of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project and model with special emphasis on activities during the last two years. We will discuss the most important IRI improvements and parameter additions that were accomplished during this time period. The scorecard includes significant improvements in the bottomside electron density and ion composition, the inclusion of solar activity variations for the topside electron temperature, and for the first time a model for auroral oval boundaries. In addition we will also review the status of several ongoing collaborative projects that promise significant future improvements for the IRI model including a better representation of the F2-peak height (hmF2), the coupling of IRI to plasmaspheric models, and the development of a real-time IRI (IRI-RT). Work also continues on the accurate IRI representation of ionosphere conditions during the recent highly unusually low and extended solar minimum. Time permitting, we will briefly discuss recent IRI-related meetings and workshops and their outcomes, and present some recent IRI usage statistics.

  13. Superfund fact sheet: The removal program. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes the Superfund Emergency Response Program, a program specifically designed to respond to multi-media hazardous materials accidents (e.g. illegal disposal or improper handling of materials, transportation accidents, chemical fires) that endanger people and/or the environment. Explanations of how the removal program works and how the affected communities are involved are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no scientific training.

  14. Developing Restoration Planting Mixes for Active Ski Slopes: A Multi-Site Reference Community Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Jennifer Williamson

    2012-03-01

    Downhill ski areas occupy large expanses of mountainous lands where restoration of ecosystem function is of increasing importance and interest. Establishing diverse native plant communities on ski runs should enhance sediment and water retention, wildlife habitat, biodiversity and aesthetics. Because ski slopes are managed for recreation, ski slope revegetation mixes must consist of low-stature or herbaceous plants that can tolerate typical environmental conditions on ski slopes (high elevation, disturbed soils, open, steep slopes). The most appropriate reference communities for selecting ski slope revegetation species are thus successional, or seral plant communities in similar environments (i.e., other ski slopes). Using results from a broad-scale reference community analysis, I evaluated plant communities naturally occurring on ski slopes from 21 active and abandoned ski areas throughout the northern Sierra Nevada to identify native plant species suitable for use in ski slope restoration. I constructed a baseline planting palette of regionally appropriate plant species (for restoration of either newly created or already existing ski runs) that is functionally diverse and is likely to succeed across a broad range of environments. I also identify a more comprehensive list of species for more specialized planting mixes based on site-specific goals and particular environmental settings. Establishing seral plant communities may be an appropriate restoration goal for many other types of managed lands, including roadsides, firebreaks and utility rights-of-way. This study describes an ecological (and potentially cost-effective) approach to developing restoration planting palettes for such managed lands.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF STANDARD REFERENCE COMPOUNDS FOR COMPARATIVE STUDIES USING THE SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM MUTAGENICITY ASSAY: II. WITH EXOGENOUS ACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the variability in the mutagenic response of potential standard reference chemicals that require exogenous metabolic activation in the standard plate; incorporation Salmonella mutagenicity assay, and to develop ranking criteria for muta...

  16. Video-Quality Estimation Based on Reduced-Reference Model Employing Activity-Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Toru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Senda, Yuzo; Serizawa, Masahiro

    This paper presents a Reduced-reference based video-quality estimation method suitable for individual end-user quality monitoring of IPTV services. With the proposed method, the activity values for individual given-size pixel blocks of an original video are transmitted to end-user terminals. At the end-user terminals, the video quality of a received video is estimated on the basis of the activity-difference between the original video and the received video. Psychovisual weightings and video-quality score adjustments for fatal degradations are applied to improve estimation accuracy. In addition, low-bit-rate transmission is achieved by using temporal sub-sampling and by transmitting only the lower six bits of each activity value. The proposed method achieves accurate video quality estimation using only low-bit-rate original video information (15kbps for SDTV). The correlation coefficient between actual subjective video quality and estimated quality is 0.901 with 15kbps side information. The proposed method does not need computationally demanding spatial and gain-and-offset registrations. Therefore, it is suitable for real-time video-quality monitoring in IPTV services.

  17. Reference frames and reference networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Krynski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The summary of research activities concerning reference frames and reference networks performed in Poland in a period of 2011-2014 is presented. It contains the results of research on implementation of IUGG2011 and IAU2012 resolutions on reference systems, implementation of the ETRS89 in Poland, operational work of permanent IGS/ EUREF stations in Poland, operational work of ILRS laser ranging station in Poland, active GNSS station networks in Poland, maintenance of vertical control in Poland, maintenance and modernization of gravity control, and maintenance of magnetic control in Poland. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.

  18. Electrospinning Directly Synthesized Porous TiO2 Nanofibers Modified by Graphitic Carbon Nitride Sheets for Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation Activity under Solar Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Surya Prasad; Awasthi, Ganesh Prasad; Kim, Han Joo; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-06-21

    We report a direct approach to the fabrication of a composite made of porous TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) sheets, by means of an angled two-nozzle electrospinning combined with calcination process. Different wt % amounts of g-C3N4 particles in a polymer solution from one nozzle and TiO2 precursors containing the same polymer solution from another nozzle were electrospun and deposited on the collector. Structural characterizations confirm a well-defined morphology of the TiO2/g-C3N4 composite in which the TiO2 NFs are uniformly attached on the g-C3N4 sheet. This proper attachment of TiO2 NFs on the g-C3N4 sheets occurred during calcination. The prepared composites showed the enhanced photocatalytic activity over the photodegradation of rhodamine B and reactive black 5 under natural sunlight. Here, the synergistic effect between the g-C3N4 sheets and the TiO2 NFs having anisotropic properties enhanced the photogenerated electron-hole pair separation and migration, which was confirmed by the measurement of photoluminescence spectra, cyclic voltammograms, and electrochemical impedance spectra. The direct synthesis approach that is established here for such kinds of sheetlike structure and porous NFs composites could provide new insights for the design of high-performance energy conversion catalysts. PMID:27254544

  19. Self-enhanced catalytic activities of functionalized graphene sheets in the combustion of nitromethane: molecular dynamic simulations by molecular reactive force field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoyang; Wen, Yushi; Xue, Xianggui

    2014-08-13

    Functionalized graphene sheet (FGS) is a promising additive that enhances fuel/propellant combustion, and the determination of its mechanism has attracted much interest. In the present study, a series of molecular dynamic simulations based on a reactive force field (ReaxFF) are performed to explore the catalytic activity (CA) of FGS in the thermal decay of nitromethane (NM, CH3NO2). FGSs and pristine graphene sheets (GSs) are oxidized in hot NM liquid to increase their functionalities and subsequently show self-enhanced CAs during the decay. The CAs result from the interatomic exchanges between the functional groups on the sheets and the NM liquid, i.e., mainly between H and O atoms. CA is dependent on the density of NM, functionalities of sheets, and temperature. The GSs and FGSs that originally exhibit different functionalities tend to possess similar functionalities and consequently similar CAs as temperature increases. Other carbon materials and their oxides can accelerate combustion of other fuels/propellants similar to NM, provided that they can be dispersed and their key reaction steps in combustion are similar to NM. PMID:25055727

  20. Neutron-activation analysis of several US Geological Survey and National Bureau of Standards reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    In this work, several US Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) and National Bureau of Standards (N.B.S.) reference samples have been analyzed in an effort to improve the quality of elemental concentration data available on these materials, so they can be used in a program of verification of factor analysis source resolution procedures. The analyses of these samples were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples analyzed were: U.S.G.S. Green River Shale, N.B.S. 45b Homogeneous River Sediment, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Peridotite N.B.S. 1579 Powdered Lead-based Paint, U.S.G.S. Hawaian Basalt U.S.G.S. Marine Mud, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Cody Shale U.S.G.S. Glass Mountain Rhyolite, N.B.S. Argillaceous Limestone No. 1, and a sample of Spex ultrapure graphite. Neutron activation analysis was employed because of the high sensitivity that can be attained in determining elemental concentrations. Although INAA is a relatively simple method and the reproducibility of the data is good, the method shows some inaccuracies. The basic theory and technique are reviewed in an attempt to show where problems can arise and how they can be dealt with.

  1. MMS Spacecraft Observation of Near Tail Thin Current Sheets: Their Locations, Conditions for Formation and Relation to Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Bromund, K. R.; Chutter, M.; Fischer, D.; Kepko, L.; Le Contel, O.; Leinweber, H. K.; Magnes, W.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Slavin, J. A.; Torbert, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    During the commissioning phase of the MMS mission, when the apogee (~12Re) of MMS orbit swept from the pre-midnight to the dusk section of the magnetosphere, the four spacecraft probed the dynamic region of the near-Earth magnetotail. The MMS fleet encountered many structures with unambiguously small-scale spatial gradient in magnetic field (comparable to the separation of the fleet), indicating the existence of very thin current sheets in this near-tail region. During this commissioning phase, the MMS spacecraft were in a string of pearls configuration, not ideally suitable for "curlometer" determination of the current density. Thus the current density and thickness of the sheets are only roughly determined using reasonable assumptions. In this study we correlate the current sheet's location and thickness with solar wind conditions and the ground magnetic field records.

  2. Determination of multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2003-08-01

    Multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five samples (ca. 510-1000 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional gama-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 38 elements were determined by these methods. PMID:12945682

  3. Twenty five years of reference material activity at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

    PubMed

    Ihnat, M

    2001-06-01

    In the mid 1970s, the available RMs, notably Bowen's Kale and Orchard Leaves and Bovine liver from National Bureau of Standards (NBS), although of great benefit, were overwhelmingly insufficiently representative, in respect of matrix and elemental composition, of the wide range of natural products submitted for analysis and in worldwide commerce. To provide additional coverage, an RM development project was initiated with input from cooperating analysts leading to an Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada/National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cooperative venture and development of a total of 12 different agricultural/food RMs. With a total of 303 concentration values for 34 elements and a wide range of matrix components such as ash, silica, protein, fat, carbohydrate and fiber, these RMs significantly augment the world repertoire of biological control materials. A final material under consideration is a highly reliable, discrete, synthetic RM for quality control and calibration. This paper summarizes the research and developmental activities undertaken during the past quarter of a century related to RM development at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and includes a short historical background, conceptual considerations, preparation, physical characterization, homogeneity estimation, chemical characterization, calculation of recommended reference values and associated uncertainties, methodology development and application, and performance of inorganic analytical methods in a multielement, multilaboratory, collaborative characterization campaign. PMID:11451252

  4. Simultaneous observation of the poleward expansion of substorm electrojet activity and the tailward expansion of current sheet disruption in the near-earth magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, R.E. ); Koskinen, H.E.J.; Pulkkinen, T.I. ); Boesinger, T. ); McEntire, R.W.; Potemra, T.A. )

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports on observations of a magnetospheric substorm on June 7, 1985. This event was observed simultaneously by a number of different systems. Particle and magnetic field data were collected by AMPTE/CCE, located near the neutral sheet; magnetic field data was monitored by the EISCAT magnetometer cross; STARE radar data was also collected; and Pi 1 data from Sodankyla. The ground based systems observed the poleward and westward expansion of electrojet activity at the start of the storm. The satellite was able to see the storms onset, and record perturbations in the current sheet at the onset of the substorm, in addition to later perturbations, which the authors argue originates tailward of the satellite. Satellite measurements are shown to occur in conjunction with ground events.

  5. A procedure for the standardization of gamma reference sources for quality assurance in activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Serra, R; Gutiérrez, S; Hernández, A T

    2002-06-01

    A simplified procedure for the standardization of gamma reference sources, for use in quality assurance of activity measurements during production and application of radiopharmaceuticals in Cuban nuclear medicine laboratories, is described. The method is based on the reliable achievement of consistent measurements by both gamma-spectrometry and ionization chamber techniques, and allows to obtain reference sources with uncertainties lower than 2%. Experimental setup, validation procedure and typical results obtained for 99mTc, 131I, 201Tl and 153Sm are described and discussed. The method will serve also as a secondary reference system for radioactivity measurements in the country. PMID:12102334

  6. Summary Report: First Research Coordination Meeting on ReferenceDatabase for Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B.; Trkov, Andrej

    2005-10-31

    Potential problems associated with nuclear data for neutronactivation analysis were identified, the scope of the work to beundertaken was defined together with its priorities, and tasks wereassigned to participants. Data testing and measurements refer to gammaspectrum peak evaluations, detector efficiency calibration, neutronspectrum characteristics and reference materials analysis.

  7. Summary Report: First Research Coordination Meeting on ReferenceDatabase for Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B.; Trkov, Andrej

    2005-10-01

    Potential problems associated with nuclear data for neutronactivation analysis were identified, the scope of the work to beundertaken was defined together with its priorities, and tasks wereassigned to participants. Data testing and measurements refer to gammaspectrumpeak evaluations, detector efficiency calibration, neutronspectrum characteristics and reference materials analysis.

  8. Catalog of CERCLA applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) - fact sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Section 121(d) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), requires attainment of federal and state applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). Subpart E, Section 300.400(g) {open_quotes}Identification of applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements{close_quotes} of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)(55 FR 8666, March 8, 1990) describes the process for attaining ARARs. The purpose of this catalog is to provide DOE Program Offices and Field Organizations with all of the {open_quotes}Quick Reference Fact Sheets{close_quotes} on attaining ARARS. These fact sheets provide overviews of ARARs for CERCLA cleanup actions pertinent to DOE environmental restoration activities. All of the fact sheets in this catalog were prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency`s Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Fact sheets 1-7 discuss land disposal restrictions (LDRs) and their applicability. LDRs may pertain to a number of CERCLA response actions at DOE facilities. Fact Sheets 8-13 are based on the CERCLA Compliance with Other Laws Manual: Parts I and II and provide an overview of many other CERCLA ARARs. Overview of ARARs-Focus on ARAR Waivers (fact sheet 11), provides a good introduction to ARARS. The last two fact sheets, 14 and 15, are periodic reports that describe additional fact sheets and clarify issues.

  9. Large-scale thrusting along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southwest Tarim basin: 230 km long active Hotian thrust sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppe, J.; Wang, X.; He, D.; Liang, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present the geometry, kinematics and mechanics of large-scale active thrusting in the western Kunlunshan and southwest Tarim basin, which accounts for ~130-165km total shortening of Tarim crust at the northern margin of Tibet. The great frontal structure is the ~230km long bedding-parallel Hotian thrust sheet, which is perhaps the longest active intact thrust sheet in the world, composed of flat-lying strata of the Tarim basin sliding northward on a regional gypsum detachment at the base of the Cenozoic sequence. The toe of the Hotian thrust ramps to the surface two thirds of the way across the Tarim basin, forming the Selibuya-Mazartag hills in the Taklamakan sand desert. At the southern edge of the Tarim basin in the Kunlunshan foothills, a set of high-amplitude anticlines are growing by complex break-forward ramping and wedging in the Hotian thrust sheet as it steps up to the Cenozoic gypsum detachment from a regional Cambrian evaporate detachment that extends under Tibet. More interior structures such as the Tiklik thrust bring older strata and Proterozoic basement to the surface, together with their Cenozoic Tarim cover in the Buya basin. The Cambrian detachment also extends northward under the Tarim basin with minor hanging-wall deformation that locally warps the overlying Hotian thrust sheet, producing a complete syntectonic record in seismically imaged growth strata of its northward motion over these warps. Seismic profiles in the southwest Tarim foothill belt also reveal widespread growth strata that record much of the structural history beginning in the early Pliocene Atushi Formation. Ages of seismic reflectors are calibrated to a surface magnetostratigraphic sequence (Zheng et al., 2000). The beginning of thrusting and folding in the southwest Tarim basin north of the Tiklik thrust is dated at 3.6Ma with shortening >25km and a progressive northward propagation toward the Selibuya-Mazartag hills. The overall shortening rate is ~10 mm/yr. The gypsum

  10. Multiple-satellite studies of magnetospheric substorms: Plasma sheet recovery and the poleward leap of auroral-zone activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pytte, T.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Kivelson, M. G.; West, H. I., Jr.; Hones, E. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Particle observations from pairs of satellites (Ogo 5, Vela 4A and 5B, Imp 3) during the recovery of plasma sheet thickness late in substorms were examined. Six of the nine events occurred within about 5 min in locations near the estimated position of the neutral sheet, but over wide ranges of east-west and radial separations. The time of occurrence and spatial extent of the recovery were related to the onset (defined by ground Pi 2 pulsations) and approximate location (estimated from ground mid-latitude magnetic signatures) of substorm expansions. It was found that the plasma sheet recovery occurred 10 - 30 min after the last in a series of Pi bursts, which were interpreted to indicate that the recovery was not due directly to a late, high latitude substorm expansion. The recovery was also observed to occur after the substorm current wedge had moved into the evening sector and to extend far to the east of the center of the last preceding substorm expansion.

  11. Dynamics of energetic plasma sheet electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burin Des Roziers, Edward

    2009-06-01

    (rising and falling) variations in plasma sheet energetic electron fluxes during a single plasma sheet crossing. Case studies are presented for each type of event. The time it takes to fill/empty the plasma sheet of energetic electrons is quantified based on these events. Extreme events, most of which are associated with enhanced geomagnetic activity, showed that energetic electrons in the plasma sheet can vary up to several orders of magnitude. Interestingly, the energetic electron fluxes inside the plasma sheet can still undergo rapid variations when the solar wind is calm and geomagnetic activity is low.

  12. Assistance Services for the Elderly. Reference Book and Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    These coordinated components focus on the career cluster of assistance services for the elderly. The reference book 1987 provide information needed by employees. Each chapter begins with competencies to develop and objectives to achieve. Within the text, bold-faced vocabulary terms are defined. Each chapter concludes with a content summary in the…

  13. Housing, Furnishings, and Equipment Production, Management, and Services. Student Activity Book [and] Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukel, Sonja D.

    These two publications are two of three that comprise a course that provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of housing, furnishings, and equipment production, management, and services. The reference book is a student text that provides information needed by employees in the…

  14. Instructional Resources Monograph Series: Safety in Wastewater Treatment Systems. Selected Instructional Activities and References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Herbert L.

    Described are instructional and reference materials that may be useful to managers, supervisors, foremen and others who are interested in the safety education of workers in wastewater systems. Emphasis is upon items relevant to the development and presentation of wastewater treatment training programs. Part I contains descriptions and excerpts…

  15. Anaerobic Digestion. Selected Instructional Activities and References. Instructional Resources Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Robert D., Comp.

    Focusing specifically on the wastewater treatment process of anaerobic digestion, this document identifies instructional and reference materials for use by professionals in the field in the development and implementation of new programs or in the updating of existing programs. It is designed to help trainers, plant operators, educators, engineers,…

  16. Food Production, Management, and Services. Reference Book, Student Activity Book, Student Aid Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document includes three of a set of four components covering the food service occupational cluster. The reference book (1985) provides information needed by employees in this occupational area, concentrating on the skills and attitudes needed for successful employment in the food service industry. It provides basic and current information on…

  17. Institutional Maintenance Management and Services. Student Activity Book [and] Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukel, Sonja D.

    These publications are two of three that comprise a course that provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of institutional maintenance management and services. The reference book is a student text that provides information needed by employees in the institutional maintenance…

  18. Modeling Harris Current Sheets with Themis Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepko, L.; Angelopoulos, V.; McPherron, R. L.; Apatenkov, S.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Current sheets are ubiquitous in nature. occurring in such varied locations as the solar atmosphere. the heliosphere, and the Earth's magnetosphere. The simplest current sheet is the one-dimensional Harris neutral sheet, with the lobe field strength and scale-height the only free parameters. Despite its simplicity, confirmation of the Harris sheet as a reasonable description of the Earth's current sheet has remained elusive. In early 2009 the orbits of the 5 THEMIS probes fortuitously aligned such that profiles of the Earth's current sheet could be modeled in a time dependent manner. For the few hours of alignment we have calculated the time history of the current sheet parameters (scale height and current) in the near-Earth region. during both quiet and active times. For one particular substorm. we further demonstrate good quantitative agreement with the diversion of cross tail current inferred from the Harris modeling with the ionospheric current inferred from ground magnetometer data.

  19. Seismic activity triggered by the interaction of ice sheet flow with the Sør Rondane Mountains, East-Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camelbeeck, Thierry; Lombardi, Denis; Martin, Henri; Rapagnani, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    The interactions of the Antarctic ice sheet with the various marginal orogenic belts is poorly understood. To make up for this lack of knowledge we installed in early 2014 in the Sør Rondane Mountains of eastern Queen Maud Land, five new broadband seismic stations, in addition to an existing permanent station setting up a 90 x 30 km wide seismic network. All stations are set up to be year-round autonomously powered, all but one being on rock outcrops. Despite technical problems encountered during winter, several months of data were collected and so far about 1 month of this dataset has been processed. The background seismic noise is found to be low to extremely low with seasonal variations suggesting influence from meteorological conditions. In addition to teleseismic events, a lot of local seismicity is observed and so far 155 local quakes were detected and localized using manual picking and 2 localization methods (Hypo and NonLinLoc). The inferred locations indicate 2 major source regions for these quakes: at the border between the ice sheet and outcropping mountains and within the fastest moving ice flow suggesting that the detected seismicity is correlated with the ice flow dynamics. Further information regarding the quake focal depths and the inferred crustal model will be discussed.

  20. Active Control of Multi-Tonal Noise with Reference Generator Based on On-Line Frequency Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, S.; PARK, Y.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper, a novel active noise control (ANC) structure with a frequency estimator is proposed for systems with multi-tonal noise. The conventional feedforward ANC algorithms need a measured reference signal to calculate the gradient of the squared error and filter coefficients. For ANC systems applied to aircraft or passenger ships, which reference signals are usually measured are so far from seats where engines from the main part of controllers is placed that the scheme might be difficult to implement or very costly. Feedback ANC algorithms which do not require a measure of reference signals, use error signals alone to update the filter and are usually sensitive to measurement noise and unexpected transient noise such as a sneeze, clapping of hands and so on.The proposed algorithm, which estimates frequencies of the multi-tonal noise in real time using adaptive notch filter (ANF), improves convergence rate, threshold SNR and computational efficiency compared with the conventional ones. The reference signal needed for the feedforward control is not measured directly, but is generated with the estimated frequencies. It has a strong similarity to the conventional IMC-based feedback control because the reference is generated from the error signal in both cases. The proposed ANC algorithm is compared with the conventional IMC-based feedback control algorithm.Cascade ANF, which has a low computational burden, is used to implement the ANC system in real time. Experiments for verifying efficacy of the proposed algorithm are carried out in the laboratory.

  1. Strong correlation in acene sheets from the active-space variational two-electron reduced density matrix method: effects of symmetry and size.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, Kenley; Greenman, Loren; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A

    2011-06-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic molecules with importance in several branches of science, including medicine, combustion chemistry, and materials science. The delocalized π-orbital systems in PAHs require highly accurate electronic structure methods to capture strong electron correlation. Treating correlation in PAHs has been challenging because (i) traditional wave function methods for strong correlation have not been applicable since they scale exponentially in the number of strongly correlated orbitals, and (ii) alternative methods such as the density-matrix renormalization group and variational two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) methods have not been applied beyond linear acene chains. In this paper we extend the earlier results from active-space variational 2-RDM theory [Gidofalvi, G.; Mazziotti, D. A. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 134108] to the more general two-dimensional arrangement of rings--acene sheets--to study the relationship between geometry and electron correlation in PAHs. The acene-sheet calculations, if performed with conventional wave function methods, would require wave function expansions with as many as 1.5 × 10(17) configuration state functions. To measure electron correlation, we employ several RDM-based metrics: (i) natural-orbital occupation numbers, (ii) the 1-RDM von Neumann entropy, (iii) the correlation energy per carbon atom, and (iv) the squared Frobenius norm of the cumulant 2-RDM. The results confirm a trend of increasing polyradical character with increasing molecular size previously observed in linear PAHs and reveal a corresponding trend in two-dimensional (arch-shaped) PAHs. Furthermore, in PAHs of similar size they show significant variations in correlation with geometry. PAHs with the strictly linear geometry (chains) exhibit more electron correlation than PAHs with nonlinear geometries (sheets). PMID:21563790

  2. Mapping whole-brain activity with cellular resolution by light-sheet microscopy and high-throughput image analysis (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Rudinskiy, Nikita; Paciscopi, Marco; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Costantini, Irene; Sacconi, Leonardo; Frasconi, Paolo; Hyman, Bradley T.; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-03-01

    Mapping neuronal activity patterns across the whole brain with cellular resolution is a challenging task for state-of-the-art imaging methods. Indeed, despite a number of technological efforts, quantitative cellular-resolution activation maps of the whole brain have not yet been obtained. Many techniques are limited by coarse resolution or by a narrow field of view. High-throughput imaging methods, such as light sheet microscopy, can be used to image large specimens with high resolution and in reasonable times. However, the bottleneck is then moved from image acquisition to image analysis, since many TeraBytes of data have to be processed to extract meaningful information. Here, we present a full experimental pipeline to quantify neuronal activity in the entire mouse brain with cellular resolution, based on a combination of genetics, optics and computer science. We used a transgenic mouse strain (Arc-dVenus mouse) in which neurons which have been active in the last hours before brain fixation are fluorescently labelled. Samples were cleared with CLARITY and imaged with a custom-made confocal light sheet microscope. To perform an automatic localization of fluorescent cells on the large images produced, we used a novel computational approach called semantic deconvolution. The combined approach presented here allows quantifying the amount of Arc-expressing neurons throughout the whole mouse brain. When applied to cohorts of mice subject to different stimuli and/or environmental conditions, this method helps finding correlations in activity between different neuronal populations, opening the possibility to infer a sort of brain-wide 'functional connectivity' with cellular resolution.

  3. Lightning as a space-weather hazard: UK thunderstorm activity modulated by the passage of the heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, M. J.; Scott, C. J.; Bennett, A. J.; Thomas, S. R.; Lockwood, M.; Harrison, R. G.; Lam, M. M.

    2015-11-01

    Lightning flash rates, RL, are modulated by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) and the polarity of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) in near-Earth space. As the HMF polarity reverses at the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), typically within a CIR, these phenomena are likely related. In this study, RL is found to be significantly enhanced at the HCS and at 27 days prior/after. The strength of the enhancement depends on the polarity of the HMF reversal at the HCS. Near-Earth solar and galactic energetic particle fluxes are also ordered by HMF polarity, though the variations qualitatively differ from RL, with the main increase occurring prior to the HCS crossing. Thus, the CIR effect on lightning is either the result of compression/amplification of the HMF (and its subsequent interaction with the terrestrial system) or that energetic particle preconditioning of the Earth system prior to the HMF polarity change is central to solar wind lightning coupling mechanism.

  4. Large-scale thrusting along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southwest Tarim basin: 230 km long active Hotian thrust sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Suppe, John; Liang, Hang; He, Dengfa

    2014-05-01

    We present the geometry, kinematics and mechanics of large-scale thrusting in the West Kunlun Shan and the southwest Tarim Basin, which is associated with the northward motion of Tibet. The great frontal structure is the ~230km long intact bedding parallel Hotian thrust sheet composed of strata of the Tarim Basin lying above a regional gypsum horizon at the base of the Cenozoic sequence. The toe of the Hotian thrust sheet steps steeply to the surface two thirds of the way across the basin forming the Selibuya-Mazartag hills in the sand desert. The Hotan thrust constitutes one of the longest active intact thrust sheets in the world, showing little internal deformation, however at its back it steps down to a Cambrian detachment at the base of the Paleozoic below a belt of complex high-amplitude anticlines near the front of the West Kunlun Shan, which display break-forward imbricate and wedge structure. More interior, steep reverse faults such as the Tieklik thrust bring older strata to the surface, including Paleozoic basement. The Cambrian detachment also extends northward under the Tarim basin with minor hanging-wall deformation that warps the Hotian Thrust sheet locally, causing the development of growth strata in the Hotian thrust sheet that providesa quantitative record of its motion over these warps. Seismic profiles in the southwest Tarim basin reveal widespread growth strata that record much of the structural history beginning in the early Pliocene Atushi Formation. Ages of seismic reflectors are calibrated to a surface magnetostratigraphic sequence(from Zheng et al., 2000)and traced throughout the seismic grid. The bottom of the growth strata is dated at 3.6 Ma indicating a Pliocene and younger age of thrusting and folding in the southwest Tarim Basin. Structural restoration suggests minimum shortening greater than 35km. The Tieklik thrust consumed at least 10 km in early Pliocene. The fold-and-thrust belts of the southwest Tarim basin shortened >25km in

  5. Effects of resource activities upon repository siting and waste containment with reference to bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.; Rowe, J.

    1980-02-01

    The primary consideration for the suitability of a nuclear waste repository site is the overall ability of the repository to safely contain radioactive waste. This report is a discussion of the past, present, and future effects of resource activities on waste containment. Past and present resource activities which provide release pathways (i.e., leaky boreholes, adjacent mines) will receive initial evaluation during the early stages of any repository site study. However, other resource activities which may have subtle effects on containment (e.g., long-term pumping causing increased groundwater gradients, invasion of saline water causing lower retardation) and all potential future resource activities must also be considered during the site evaluation process. Resource activities will affect both the siting and the designing of repositories. Ideally, sites should be located in areas of low resource activity and low potential for future activity, and repository design should seek to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of any resource activity. Buffer zones should be created to provide areas in which resource activities that might adversely affect containment can be restricted or curtailed. This could mean removing large areas of land from resource development. The impact of these frozen assets should be assessed in terms of their economic value and of their effect upon resource reserves. This step could require a major effort in data acquisition and analysis followed by extensive numerical modeling of regional fluid flow and mass transport. Numerical models should be used to assess the effects of resource activity upon containment and should include the cumulative effects of different resource activities. Analysis by other methods is probably not possible except for relatively simple cases.

  6. Reciprocal influences among adrenocortical activation, psychosocial processes, and the behavioral adjustment of clinic-referred children.

    PubMed

    Granger, D A; Weisz, J R; McCracken, J T; Ikeda, S C; Douglas, P

    1996-12-01

    The reciprocal effects among cognitive-behavioral, environmental, and biological influences on clinic-referred children's (N = 64; 34 boys; M age 12.71 years) short-term psychological and psychiatric adjustment were studied. At clinic intake and 6 months later, standardized measures of adjustment and control-related beliefs were assessed. Before and after conflict-oriented parent-child interaction tasks the children's saliva was sampled. Adrenocortical responses (i.e., increases in salivary cortisol) to the social conflict task predicted children's internalizing problem behaviors and anxiety disorders at follow-up. Consistently high adrenocortical reactivity at intake and follow-up was associated with deflated social competence over the 6-month period. Also, specific patterns of discontinuity in children's internalizing behavior problems predicted individual differences in their subsequent adrenocortical responsiveness. Specifically, rising behavior problem levels across time predicted higher and declining behavior problem levels predicted lower adrenocortical reactivity at follow-up. Findings are among the first to suggest links among internalizing behavior problems, adrenocortical responsiveness to social challenge, and clinic-referred children's short-term cognitive-behavioral and emotional adjustment. PMID:9071780

  7. Estrogenic activity – a frame of reference for some foods, agricultural wastewaters, and animal feedstuffs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last decade, several in vitro estrogenic activity assays have been used to assess municipal and agricultural wastewaters and surface waters. Some work has been published to provide context by measuring activity from waters collected in pristine or “control” sites, but the relative estrogenic...

  8. The Novel Dipeptide Translocator Protein Ligand, Referred to As GD-23, Exerts Anxiolytic and Nootropic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Povarnina, P. Yu.; Yarkov, S. A.; Gudasheva, T. A.; Yarkova, M. A.; Seredenin, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO) promotes the translocation of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane and mediates steroid formation. In this study, we first report on a biological evaluation of the dipeptide GD-23 (N-carbobenzoxy-L tryptophanyl-L isoleucine amide), a structural analogue of Alpidem, the principal TSPO ligand. We show that GD-23 in a dose range of 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.) exhibits anxiolytic activity in the elevated plus maze test and nootropic activity in the object recognition test in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rodents. It was shown that GD-23 did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity, holding promise as a nonsedative anxiolytic agent. The anxiolytic and nootropic activities of GD-23 were abrogated by the TSPO specific ligand PK11195, which thus suggests a role for TSPO in mediating the pharmacological activity of GD-23. PMID:26483966

  9. The Novel Dipeptide Translocator Protein Ligand, Referred to As GD-23, Exerts Anxiolytic and Nootropic Activities.

    PubMed

    Povarnina, P Yu; Yarkov, S A; Gudasheva, T A; Yarkova, M A; Seredenin, S B

    2015-01-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO) promotes the translocation of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane and mediates steroid formation. In this study, we first report on a biological evaluation of the dipeptide GD-23 (N-carbobenzoxy-L tryptophanyl-L isoleucine amide), a structural analogue of Alpidem, the principal TSPO ligand. We show that GD-23 in a dose range of 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.) exhibits anxiolytic activity in the elevated plus maze test and nootropic activity in the object recognition test in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rodents. It was shown that GD-23 did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity, holding promise as a nonsedative anxiolytic agent. The anxiolytic and nootropic activities of GD-23 were abrogated by the TSPO specific ligand PK11195, which thus suggests a role for TSPO in mediating the pharmacological activity of GD-23. PMID:26483966

  10. Multilayered Genetic and Omics Dissection of Mitochondrial Activity in a Mouse Reference Population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yibo; Williams, Evan G.; Dubuis, Sébastien; Mottis, Adrienne; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Houten, Sander M.; Argmann, Carmen A.; Faridi, Pouya; Wolski, Witold; Kutalik, Zoltán; Zamboni, Nicola; Auwerx, Johan; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The manner by which genotype and environment affect complex phenotypes is one of the fundamental questions in biology. In this study, we quantified the transcriptome—a subset of the metabolome—and, using targeted proteomics, quantified a subset of the liver proteome from 40 strains of the BXD mouse genetic reference population on two diverse diets. We discovered dozens of transcript, protein, and metabolite QTLs, several of which linked to metabolic phenotypes. Most prominently, Dhtkd1 was identified as a primary regulator of 2-aminoadipate, explaining variance in fasted glucose and diabetes status in both mice and humans. These integrated molecular profiles also allowed further characterization of complex pathways, particularly the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). UPRmt shows strikingly variant responses at the transcript and protein level that are remarkably conserved among C. elegans, mice, and humans. Overall, these examples demonstrate the value of an integrated multilayered omics approach to characterize complex metabolic phenotypes. PMID:25215496

  11. Expanding Adolescent Role Expectations. Information, Activities, Resources for Vocational Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Community Service Education.

    Developed for vocational educators as a self-study guide or as a basis for inservice workshops, this source book presents information on sex fair education. Each of the six sections contains fact sheets and references, and some contain checklists, guidelines or rating sheets, and highlighted questions and activities which may be used for…

  12. THE REGENERATIVE CYCLE OF MOTONEURONS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Bodian, David; Mellors, Robert C.

    1945-01-01

    1. The regenerative cycle of motoneurons after axon amputation is described, and an attempt made to correlate morphological and chemical events in cell bodies with the growth requirements of regenerating axons. 2. The "normal" pattern of Nissl material in the cell is considered to be the resultant of a steady state in cytoplasmic nucleoprotein. Chromatol is then interpreted as a shift of the balance of nucleoprotein turnover in fa of degradation. The rapid early depletion of Nissl substance in chromatolysis is ascribed to the increased growth requirements created by the active early sprouting of the regenerating axon. Acid phosphatase activity begins to increase above normal levels during this period in the region of nucleopro degradation. 3. The recovery period of chromatolysis due to axon section coincide in time with the phase of gradual lengthening of the regenerating axon, and is thought to represent a gradual restoration of the balance of nucleoprotein degradation and synthesis. During this period acid phosphatase activity is at its height in the region of transformation of Nissl substance, later declines to normal levels when the original pattern of Nissl bodie is restored. 4. The transformation of cytoplasmic nucleoprotein which occurs in chromatolysis after axon section, with the probable liberation (46), and depletion (44), of nucleotides, associated with acid phosphatase activity, suggests the hypothesis that liberated nucleotides or nucleotide compounds may pass down the axon in which they take part in enzymatic activity associated with growth and organization of the newly formed axon. This type of activity would not be incompatible with the ideas previously expressed (30, 81) of a continual function of Nissl substance in maintaining the integrity of the large volume of cytoplasm represented by the axon, as well perhaps as the associated myelin sheath. PMID:19871470

  13. The contents of predictions in sentence comprehension: activation of the shape of objects before they are referred to.

    PubMed

    Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Praamstra, Peter; Huettig, Falk

    2013-02-01

    When comprehending concrete words, listeners and readers can activate specific visual information such as the shape of the words' referents. In two experiments we examined whether such information can be activated in an anticipatory fashion. In Experiment 1, listeners' eye movements were tracked while they were listening to sentences that were predictive of a specific critical word (e.g., "moon" in "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon"). 500 ms before the acoustic onset of the critical word, participants were shown four-object displays featuring three unrelated distractor objects and a critical object, which was either the target object (e.g., moon), an object with a similar shape (e.g., tomato), or an unrelated control object (e.g., rice). In a time window before shape information from the spoken target word could be retrieved, participants already tended to fixate both the target and the shape competitors more often than they fixated the control objects, indicating that they had anticipatorily activated the shape of the upcoming word's referent. This was confirmed in Experiment 2, which was an ERP experiment without picture displays. Participants listened to the same lead-in sentences as in Experiment 1. The sentence-final words corresponded to the predictable target, the shape competitor, or the unrelated control object (yielding, for instance, "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon/tomato/rice"). N400 amplitude in response to the final words was significantly attenuated in the shape-related compared to the unrelated condition. Taken together, these results suggest that listeners can activate perceptual attributes of objects before they are referred to in an utterance. PMID:23238371

  14. Thera-band® elastic band tension: reference values for physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Marco Carlos; Nishida, Márcio Makoto; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Moritani, Toshio; Arai, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this technical note was to report significant differences in the tension forces of the different-sized Thera-band® elastic bands (Hygenic Corp.) determined by us versus the manufacturer. [Subjects] Two trained observers performed all measurements. [Methods] The tension force (kilogram-force units) of eight color-coded elastic bands (tan, yellow, red, green, blue, black, silver, and gold) with different resistance levels was measured at 10 different percentages of elongation (25% to 250% with 25% increments) using an electronic elongation gauge tensiometer. [Results] There were significant differences in the tension force of the elastic bands of different colors when compared in pairs (excepting the tan/yellow pair) at 100% and 200% elongation, as determined via one-way analysis of variance. There were no differences in the slopes for the tan versus yellow and green versus blue bands, as determined via linear regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Comparison of the tension force values obtained in our study with the reference values of the manufacturer (the t-test applied to the slopes) showed significant differences for five colors (yellow, green, blue, silver, and gold). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that the tension force values for Thera-Band elastic bands provided by the manufacturer are overestimates. PMID:27190465

  15. Thera-band(®) elastic band tension: reference values for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Marco Carlos; Nishida, Márcio Makoto; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Moritani, Toshio; Arai, Hidenori

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this technical note was to report significant differences in the tension forces of the different-sized Thera-band(®) elastic bands (Hygenic Corp.) determined by us versus the manufacturer. [Subjects] Two trained observers performed all measurements. [Methods] The tension force (kilogram-force units) of eight color-coded elastic bands (tan, yellow, red, green, blue, black, silver, and gold) with different resistance levels was measured at 10 different percentages of elongation (25% to 250% with 25% increments) using an electronic elongation gauge tensiometer. [Results] There were significant differences in the tension force of the elastic bands of different colors when compared in pairs (excepting the tan/yellow pair) at 100% and 200% elongation, as determined via one-way analysis of variance. There were no differences in the slopes for the tan versus yellow and green versus blue bands, as determined via linear regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Comparison of the tension force values obtained in our study with the reference values of the manufacturer (the t-test applied to the slopes) showed significant differences for five colors (yellow, green, blue, silver, and gold). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that the tension force values for Thera-Band elastic bands provided by the manufacturer are overestimates. PMID:27190465

  16. Effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine, with special reference to delayed charcoal ingestion.

    PubMed

    Laine, K; Kivistö, K T; Ojala-Karlsson, P; Neuvonen, P J

    1997-02-01

    We conducted a randomized study with four parallel groups to investigate the effect of single and multiple doses of activated charcoal on the absorption and elimination of pholcodine administered in a cough syrup. The first group received 100 mg of pholcodine on an empty stomach with water only (control); the second group took 25 g of activated charcoal immediately after pholcodine; the third group received 25 g of activated charcoal 2 h and the fourth group 5 h after ingestion of the 100-mg dose of pholcodine. In addition, the fourth group received multiple doses (10 g each) of charcoal every 12 h for 84 h. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and urine for 72 h. Pholcodine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A significant reduction in absorption was found when charcoal was administered immediately after pholcodine; the AUC0-96h was reduced by 91% (p < 0.0005), the Cmax by 77% (p < 0.0005), and the amount of pholcodine excreted into urine by 85% (p < 0.0005). When charcoal was administered 2 h after pholcodine, the AUC0-96h was reduced by 26% (p = 0.002), the Cmax by 23% (p = NS), and the urinary excretion by 28% (p = 0.004). When administered 5 h after pholcodine, charcoal produced only a 17% reduction in the AUC0-96h (p = 0.06), but reduced the further absorption of pholcodine still present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of charcoal administration, as measured by AUC5-96h (p = 0.006). Repeated administration of charcoal failed to accelerate the elimination of pholcodine. We conclude that activated charcoal is effective in preventing the absorption of pholcodine, and its administration can be beneficial even several hours after pholcodine ingestion. PMID:9029746

  17. An evaluation of thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis compton suppression methods for biological reference materials.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, S; Wu, D

    1999-01-01

    For neutron activation analysis (NAA), the usual matrix problems of sodium, chlorine, and bromine are well known to give rise to high backgrounds that inhibit the determination of several trace elements for short-lived or medium-lived NAA. For long counting times in long-lived NAA, very low backgrounds are required to achieve good sensitivities. We have investigated the use of thermal and epithermal NAA in conjunction with Compton suppression to determine several elements such as arsenic, antimony, cadmium, and mercury, at the level of a few nanograms. The values of these techniques are discussed in contrast to the standard radiochemical methods. PMID:10676521

  18. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease After a comprehensive review of evidence, there ...

  19. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  20. Confirmatory biopsy for the assessment of prostate cancer in men considering active surveillance: reference centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Cecilia; Cozzi, Gabriele; Kinsella, Janette; Bianchi, Roberto; Acher, Peter; Challacombe, Benjamin; Popert, Rick; Brown, Christian; George, Gincy; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Cahill, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how accurate a 12-core transrectal biopsy derived low-risk prostate cancer diagnosis is for an active surveillance programme by comparing the histological outcome with that from confirmatory transperineal sector biopsy. Subjects and methods The cohort included 166 men diagnosed with low volume Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer on initial transrectal biopsy who also underwent a confirmatory biopsy. Both biopsy techniques were performed according to standard protocols and samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed according to disease severity at baseline to determine possible disease parameters of upgrading at confirmatory biopsy. Results After confirmatory biopsy, 34% demonstrated Gleason score upgrade, out of which 25% were Gleason score 3+4 and 8.5% primary Gleason pattern 4. Results remained consistent for the subgroup analysis and a weak positive association, but not statistically significant, between prostate specific antigen (PSA), age, and percentage of positive cores, and PCa upgrading at confirmatory biopsy was found. Conclusion In our single centre study, we found that one-third of patients had higher Gleason score at confirmatory biopsy. Furthermore 8.5% of these upgraders had a primary Gleason pattern 4. Our results together with previously published evidence highlight the need for the revision of current guidelines in prostate cancer diagnosis for the selection of men for active surveillance. PMID:27170833

  1. Pharmacognostic evaluation with reference to catechin content and antioxidant activities of pale catechu in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Duangyod, Thidarat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-01-01

    Pale catechu, a well-known crude drug, has been widely used for anti-diarrhea. Due to its medicinal usage, this study was performed to evaluate the pharmacognostic and antioxidant properties as well as catechins contents of pale catechu in Thailand. Twenty samples of pale catechu collected from traditional drug stores throughout Thailand were investigated. Antioxidant activities, total phenolic, nontannin phenolic, and total tannin contents were evaluated. (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin were quantitatively analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The results revealed that most of pale catechu samples were adulterated according to high ash values. Qualified pale catechu in Thailand were demonstrated for their average contents of total ash, acid insoluble ash, loss on drying, and moisture as 5.20 ± 0.19, 1.61 ± 0.17, 13.14 ± 0.10, and 13.20 ± 1.07 g/100 g of dry weight, respectively. The ethanol and water soluble extractive matters were 91.66 ± 5.16 and 44.59 ± 3.18 g/100 g of dry weight respectively. (+)-catechin in theses samples was 478.87 ± 2.77 μg/mg of crude drug, whereas (−)-epicatechin was found to be trace (activities were demonstrated compared to (+)-catechin hydrate. PMID:26317072

  2. Determining optimal clothing ensembles based on weather forecasts, with particular reference to outdoor winter military activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, Marco; Pavlinic, Daniela Z.; Crisci, Alfonso; Capecchi, Valerio; Orlandini, Simone; Mekjavic, Igor B.

    2011-07-01

    Military and civil defense personnel are often involved in complex activities in a variety of outdoor environments. The choice of appropriate clothing ensembles represents an important strategy to establish the success of a military mission. The main aim of this study was to compare the known clothing insulation of the garment ensembles worn by soldiers during two winter outdoor field trials (hike and guard duty) with the estimated optimal clothing thermal insulations recommended to maintain thermoneutrality, assessed by using two different biometeorological procedures. The overall aim was to assess the applicability of such biometeorological procedures to weather forecast systems, thereby developing a comprehensive biometeorological tool for military operational forecast purposes. Military trials were carried out during winter 2006 in Pokljuka (Slovenia) by Slovene Armed Forces personnel. Gastrointestinal temperature, heart rate and environmental parameters were measured with portable data acquisition systems. The thermal characteristics of the clothing ensembles worn by the soldiers, namely thermal resistance, were determined with a sweating thermal manikin. Results showed that the clothing ensemble worn by the military was appropriate during guard duty but generally inappropriate during the hike. A general under-estimation of the biometeorological forecast model in predicting the optimal clothing insulation value was observed and an additional post-processing calibration might further improve forecast accuracy. This study represents the first step in the development of a comprehensive personalized biometeorological forecast system aimed at improving recommendations regarding the optimal thermal insulation of military garment ensembles for winter activities.

  3. “Nihon Koujin Club” and Its Activities with reference to Social Cooperation and Continuing Development of Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kazu-Hiro

    “Nihon Koujin Club” and its activities are reviewed with reference to social cooperation and continuing development of engineers. Nihon Koujin Club was the first Japanese association of working-engineers (“koujin” in Japanese) established in 1920. At one time, more than 5000 engineers from various fields of engineering registered as the member of the club. Nihon-Koujin Club carried out various activities such as examinations to qualify professional engineers, enlightening activities for engineers' ethics and improvement of working conditions and so on. Proposals to governments were sometimes made one of which was that on engineering education. When it started, Nihon Koujin Club had an ambition to exchange information together with international counterparts such as The British Association of Scientific Worker. Unfortunately the direction of the club has deviated from its original purpose due to historical circumstances of nationalism of those days. Nevertheless its activities could be appreciated as an early stage of movement of engineers in Japan. The modern activities related to social cooperation or continuing development of engineers can be traced back to the activities of Nihon Koujin Club.

  4. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure. PMID:27060750

  5. Optimal swimming of a sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D.; Lauga, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hairlike organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude wave form of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency: the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show that the optimal wave form is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  6. In vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against oxacillin resistant staphylococci with special reference to Staphylococcus haemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, A; Kumar, A G

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and sixty seven isolates of staphylococci isolated from the inpatients of a tertiary care referral hospital in South India were speciated and activity of oxacillin, glycopeptides, linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin against these isolates was tested by broth microdilution method. Of the 114 coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), 49.1 % were S. haemolyticus, isolated predominantly from urine (64.6%), while the rest belonged to 11 other species. More than half the isolates of S. aureus (52.8%) and 68.4% of the CoNS were oxacillin resistant. All the strains were uniformly susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin; but 25.6% isolates of S. haemolyticus showed reduced susceptibility to teicoplanin (MIC: 8-16 mg/L). Our study demonstrates the high prevalence of oxacillin resistance among hospital isolates of S. aureus and CoNS in India. Vancomycin, along with the newer agents like linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin remains the drug of choice for treating multi drug resistant staphylococcal infections. PMID:17377353

  7. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  8. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  9. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  10. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  11. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  12. Best Reference Sources 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian; McConnell, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of the best reference materials published in 2001. Discusses activity in the reference publishing industry; costs; and lists print materials, Web sites, databases, and CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  13. Evaluation of liver histopathology and EROD activity in St. Lawrence lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in comparison with a reference population

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseaux, C.G. ||; Branchaud, A.; Spear, P.A.

    1995-05-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the effects of contaminants on the lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, fish were netted from two sites: Riviere des Prairies, confluent with the St. Lawrence River near Montreal, and a reference site on the upper reaches of the Ottawa River in the La Verendrye Park. Livers of fish collected from the Riviere des Prairies were difficult to homogenize, and they left behind strands of what appeared to be connective tissue. Suspecting hepatic fibrosis, the authors decided to evaluate the livers for histopathologic changes. Nineteen adult lake sturgeon (eleven male and eight female) were examined. Following fixation, routine processing, sectioning, and staining with hematoxylin and eosin, microscopic evaluation revealed the following: Sections taken from livers of fish from the Riviere des Prairies site showed excessive fat accumulation and often severe chronic-active cholangiohepatitis. Bile duct proliferation (p < 0.0001), periportal fibrosis (p < 0.0001), inflammation (p < 0.001), and fat accumulation (p < 0.05) were more pronounced in the fish from the Riviere des Prairies site. Melano-macrophage centers appeared to be both paler and gave the appearance of fewer numbers (p < 0.01). Livers from lake sturgeon taken from the reference site had a more normal appearance. The EROD levels were also significantly induced in these fish (reference 3.39 {+-} 0.57; Riviere des Prairies site 8.21 {+-} 0.87 pmol/mg protein/min; p < 0.0005). The EROD levels positively correlated with bile duct proliferation (r{sup 2} = 0.44; p = 0.001) and periportal fibrosis (r{sup 2} = 0.41; p = 0.002). Despite the statistical associations above, the authors cannot categorically state that contaminants are the sole cause of the lesions seen.

  14. Evidence for in-situ metabolic activity in ice sheets based on anomalous trace gas records from the Vostok and other ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, T.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of trace gas species in ice cores are the primary means for reconstructing the composition of the atmosphere. The longest such record comes from the Vostok core taken from the central portion of the East Antarctic ice sheet [Petit et al., 1999]. In general, the trace gas records from Vostok are utilized as the reference signal when correlating trace gas measurements from other ice cores. The underlying assumption implicit in such endeavors is that the bubbles recovered from the ice cores record the composition of the atmosphere at the time the bubbles were formed. Another implicit assumption is that the composition of the bubbles has not been compromised by the extremely long storage periods within the ice sheet. While there is ample evidence that certain trace gas records (e.g. CO2 and CH4) have probably not been compromised, anomalous nitrous oxide (N2O) measurements from the penultimate glacial termination at Vostok are consistent with in-situ (N2O) production [Sowers, 2001]. In general, trace gas measurements from high altitude tropical/temperate glaciers are higher than expected based on contemporaneous measurements from polar cores. Measurements spanning the last 25kyr from the Sajama ice core from central Bolivia (18oS, 69oW, 6542masl), for example, were 1X-5X higher than contemporaneous values recorded in polar ice cores [Campen et al., 2003]. While other physical factors (like temperature/melting) may contribute to the elevated trace gas levels at these sites, the most likely explanation involves the accumulation of in-situ metabolic trace gas byproducts. Stable isotope measurements provide independent information for assessing the origin of the elevated trace gas levels in select samples. For the penultimate glacial termination at Vostok, the anomalous (N2O) values carry high δ15Nbulk and low δ18Obulk values that would be predicted if the added (N2O) was associated with in-situ nitrification. At Sajama, low δ13CH4 values observed during

  15. An active reference spring array for in-situ calibration of the normal spring constant of AFM cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S.; Brand, U.; Hahn, S.; Hiller, K.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper the concept of an "active reference spring array (ARSA)" for the AFM cantilever normal spring constant calibration is proposed. The ARSA with nominal stiffness varying from 0.4 N/m to 150 N/m will be available on these arrays with the aim to calibrate the normal stiffness of cantilevers ranging from 0.04 N/m to 1500 N/m. The fabrication process of the MEMS ARSA on basis of the Bonding Deep RIE technology developed at Chemnitz University of Technology is reported. A first characterization of the MEMS and the traceable determination of the stiffness of the MEMS suspending system have been realized. First experimental results compare very well with the Finite Element (FE) simulation of the numerical design, and prove the feasibility of the proposed concept.

  16. Precise determination of Cr and Co in certified reference material of silicon nitride by neutron activation analysis using internal standardization.

    PubMed

    Miura, Tsutomu; Matsue, Hideaki; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Chiba, Koichi

    2009-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis with an internal standard correction was applied to the determination of Cr and Co in a ceramics certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 8004-a silicon nitride powder). Cesium was used as an internal standard to compensate for any inhomogeneity of the neutron flux through an irradiation capsule and to improve the repeatability of gamma-ray measurements. It was found that the linearity of the calibration curves of Cr and Co was improved by using an internal standard. The analytical results of Cr and Co in NMIJ CRM 8004-a were in good agreement with those obtained by ICP-OES, ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS), and isotope dilution/ICP-SFMS for Cr. The relative expanded uncertainties (k = 2) were 1.9% for Cr and 1.5% for Co. The uncertainties were comparable to those of atomic spectrometric methods. PMID:19609027

  17. Construction of self-supported three-dimensional TiO2 sheeted networks with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Chao; Bai, Hua; Yan, Yan; Li, Junfang; Yang, Haifeng; Lu, Xiaojing; Xi, Guangcheng

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of toxic gases and liquids using a catalyst and solar energy is an ideal method, compared with landfill and combustion methods. The search for active semiconductor photocatalysts that efficiently decompose contaminations under light irradiation remains one of the most challenging tasks for solar-energy utilization. In this work, free-supporting three-dimensional (3D) nanosheeted hierarchical porous tungsten, titanium, and tin oxide networks were obtained by a facile Lewis acid catalytic binary template route. These networks possess large macroscopic scale (millimeter-sized) and hierarchical macro/mesoporous nanostructure with high surface area and large pore volume. Photocatalytic degradation of Azo dyes demonstrated that the nanosheets-constructed hierarchical porous networks have high photocatalytic activity and stability. The present synthetic route can serve as the new design concept for functional 3D layered porous nanostructures. PMID:24356418

  18. Perceived athletic competence and physical activity in children with developmental coordination disorder who are clinically referred, and control children.

    PubMed

    Noordstar, Johannes J; Stuive, Ilse; Herweijer, Hester; Holty, Lian; Oudenampsen, Chantal; Schoemaker, Marina M; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between perceived athletic competence (PAC) and physical activity (PA) in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is still unclear. This study investigated differences in PAC and PA between, and within, a group of children with DCD that were clinically referred (n = 31) and a group of control children (n = 38), aged 7-12 years. All children were categorized in four groups: (1) children with DCD/low PAC, (2) children with DCD/normal to high PAC, (3) control children/low PAC, and (4) control children/normal to high PAC. PAC was assessed with the Self-Perception Profile for Children, and PA was assessed with the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire. Children with DCD participated less in unorganized PA, but not in organized PA, compared with control children. Normal to high PAC was found in more than half of the children (64.5%) with DCD. Children with DCD/low PAC and children with DCD/normal to high PAC participated significantly less in unorganized physical activity compared with control children/normal to high PAC, but not compared with control children/low PAC. The results indicate that there are large individual differences in PAC in children with DCD. PMID:25244693

  19. Microwave assisted synthesis of sheet-like Cu/BiVO{sub 4} and its activities of various photocatalytic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Li, Li; Yi, Tingting; Zhang, WenZhi; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Lili

    2015-09-15

    The Cu/BiVO{sub 4} photocatalyst with visible-light responsivity was prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase structures, chemical composition and surface physicochemical properties were well-characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance absorption (UV–vis/DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption tests. Results indicate that the crystal structure of synthetic composite materials is mainly monoclinic scheelite BiVO{sub 4}, which is not changed with the increasing doping amount of Cu. In addition, the presence of Cu not only enlarges the range of the composite materials under the visible-light response, but also increases the BET value significantly. Compared to pure BiVO{sub 4}, 1% Cu/BiVO{sub 4}-160 performs the highest photocatalytic activity to degrade methylene blue under the irradiation of ultraviolet, visible and simulated sunlight. In addition, the capture experiments prove that the main active species was superoxide radicals during photocatalytic reaction. Moreover, the 1% Cu/BiVO{sub 4}-160 composite shows good photocatalytic stability after three times of recycling. - Graphical abstract: A series of BiVO{sub 4} with different amounts of Cu doping were prepared by the microwave-assisted method, moreover, which performed the high photocatalytic activities to degrade methylene blue under multi-mode. - Highlights: • A series of Cu/BiVO{sub 4} with different amounts of Cu doping were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • The morphologies of as-samples were different with the amount of Cu doping increased. • Compared with pure BiVO{sub 4}, as-Cu/BiVO{sub 4} showed stronger absorption in the visible light region obviously. • 1% Cu/BiVO{sub 4}-160 performed the high photocatalytic activities to degrade methylene blue under multi-mode. • OH{sup •} and h{sup +} both play important roles in the photocatalytic reaction.

  20. Microwave assisted synthesis of sheet-like Cu/BiVO4 and its activities of various photocatalytic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Li; Yi, Tingting; Zhang, WenZhi; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Lili

    2015-09-01

    The Cu/BiVO4 photocatalyst with visible-light responsivity was prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase structures, chemical composition and surface physicochemical properties were well-characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance absorption (UV-vis/DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption tests. Results indicate that the crystal structure of synthetic composite materials is mainly monoclinic scheelite BiVO4, which is not changed with the increasing doping amount of Cu. In addition, the presence of Cu not only enlarges the range of the composite materials under the visible-light response, but also increases the BET value significantly. Compared to pure BiVO4, 1% Cu/BiVO4-160 performs the highest photocatalytic activity to degrade methylene blue under the irradiation of ultraviolet, visible and simulated sunlight. In addition, the capture experiments prove that the main active species was superoxide radicals during photocatalytic reaction. Moreover, the 1% Cu/BiVO4-160 composite shows good photocatalytic stability after three times of recycling.

  1. Photocatalytic decomposition of selected estrogens and their estrogenic activity by UV-LED irradiated TiO2 immobilized on porous titanium sheets via thermal-chemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Arlos, Maricor J; Liang, Robert; Hatat-Fraile, Melisa M; Bragg, Leslie M; Zhou, Norman Y; Servos, Mark R; Andrews, Susan A

    2016-11-15

    The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) remains a big challenge in water treatment. Risks associated with these compounds are not clearly defined and it is important that the water industry has additional options to increase the resiliency of water treatment systems. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has potential applications for the removal of EDCs from water. TiO2 has been immobilized on supports using a variety of synthesis methods to increase its feasibility for water treatment. In this study, we immobilized TiO2 through the thermal-chemical oxidation of porous titania sheets. The efficiency of the material to degrade target EDCs under UV-LED irradiation was examined under a wide range of pH conditions. A yeast-estrogen screen assay was used to complement chemical analysis in assessing removal efficiency. All compounds but 17β-estradiol were degraded and followed a pseudo first-order kinetics at all pH conditions tested, with pH 4 and pH 11 showing the most and the least efficient treatments respectively. In addition, the total estrogenic activity was substantially reduced even with the inefficient degradation of 17β-estradiol. Additional studies will be required to optimize different treatment conditions, UV-LED configurations, and membrane fouling mitigation measures to make this technology a more viable option for water treatment. PMID:27469042

  2. Characterization of Chitosan Nanofiber Sheets for Antifungal Application

    PubMed Central

    Egusa, Mayumi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Kaminaka, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan produced by the deacetylation of chitin is a cationic polymer with antimicrobial properties. In this study, we demonstrate the improvement of chitosan properties by nanofibrillation. Nanofiber sheets were prepared from nanofibrillated chitosan under neutral conditions. The Young’s modulus and tensile strength of the chitosan NF sheets were higher than those of the chitosan sheets prepared from dissolving chitosan in acetic acid. The chitosan NF sheets showed strong mycelial growth inhibition against dermatophytes Microsporum and Trichophyton. Moreover, the chitosan NF sheets exhibited resistance to degradation by the fungi, suggesting potentials long-lasting usage. In addition, surface-deacetylated chitin nanofiber (SDCNF) sheets were prepared. The SDCNF sheet had a high Young’s modulus and tensile strength and showed antifungal activity to dermatophytes. These data indicate that nanofibrillation improved the properties of chitosan. Thus, chitosan NF and SDCNF sheets are useful candidates for antimicrobial materials. PMID:26540046

  3. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  4. Perforating Thin Metal Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Sheets only few mils thick bonded together, punched, then debonded. Three-step process yields perforated sheets of metal. (1): Individual sheets bonded together to form laminate. (2): laminate perforated in desired geometric pattern. (3): After baking, laminate separates into individual sheets. Developed for fabricating conductive layer on blankets that collect and remove ions; however, perforated foils have other applications - as conductive surfaces on insulating materials; stiffeners and conductors in plastic laminates; reflectors in antenna dishes; supports for thermal blankets; lightweight grille cover materials; and material for mockup of components.

  5. Water quality: Historic values and impact of drilling activities during FY 1988 at the reference repository location in southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, P.A.; Teel, S.S.; Raymond, J.R.; Bierschenk, W.H.

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring Program was to monitor the characterization activities related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at boreholes DC-24CX and DC-25CX and document any environmental impacts as a result of these activities including contamination and/or degradation of the aquifer water quality from the invasion of drilling fluids into the formation and surface contamination from the disposal of drilling fluid at the land surface. The first phase of this program involved describing the baseline water quality at the Reference Repository Location (RRL) including data for spring and surface waters, and both the unconfined and confined aquifers. The second phase involved the collection and analysis of samples collected during drilling operations at wells DC-24CX and DC-25CX. Five surface water and 25 spring sampling sites were designated for chemical and radiological background data collection for BWIP. Chemical and radiological background data from 61 wells that obtain water from the unconfined aquifers indicate that the chemistry of these aquifers is similar to the spring and surface water samples. However, some of the wells show contamination from existing operations and past operations of various facilities on the Hanford Site. These contaminants are both chemical and radiological in nature with nitrate as the primary chemical constituent and tritium as the major radiological constituent. 20 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Simulation and experimental tests on active mass damper control system based on Model Reference Adaptive Control algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jianwei; Lin, Xiaofeng; Tu, Bo; Xu, Jiayun; Tan, Dongmei

    2014-09-01

    In the process of sudden natural disasters (such as earthquake or typhoon), the active mass damper (AMD) system can reduce the structural vibration response optimally, which serves as a frequently applied but less mature vibration-reducing technology in wind and earthquake resistance of high-rise buildings. As the core of this technology, the selection of control algorithm is extremely challenging due to the uncertainty of structural parameters and the randomness of external loads. It is not necessary for the Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) based on the Minimal Controller Synthesis (MCS) algorithm to know in advance the structural parameters, which produces special advantages in conditions of real-time change of system parameters, uncertain external disturbance, and the nonlinear dynamic system. This paper studies the application of the MRAC into the AMD active control system. The principle of MRAC algorithm is recommended and the dynamic model and the motion differential equation of AMD system based on MRAC is established under seismic excitation. The simulation analysis for linear and nonlinear structures when the structural stiffness is degenerated is performed under AMD system controlled by MRAC algorithm. To verify the validity of the MRAC over the AMD system, experimental tests are carried out on a linear structure and a structure with variable stiffness with the AMD system under seismic excitation on the shake table, and the experimental results are compared with those of the traditional pole assignment control algorithm.

  7. 49 CFR 224.103 - Characteristics of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference of this standard in this section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.... Retroreflective sheeting applied pursuant to this part shall be yellow, fluorescent yellow, or white as...

  8. Coseismic Faulting and Folding in an Active Thrust Sheet over Multiple Rupture Cycles Resolved by Integrating Surface and Subsurface Records of Earthquake Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockmeyer, J. M.; Shaw, J. H.; Brown, N.; Rhodes, E. J.; Wang, M.; Lavin, L. C.; Guan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Many recent thrust fault earthquakes have involved coseismic surface faulting and folding, revealing the complex nature of surface deformation in active thrust sheets. In this study, we characterize deformation along the active Southern Junggar Thrust (SJT) in the Junggar basin, NW China - which sourced the 1906 M8 Manas earthquake - to gain insight into how fault slip at depth is partitioned between faulting and folding strains at Earth's surface by integrating deformed terrace records, subsurface geophysical data, and luminescence geochronology. Using a 1-m digital elevation model and field surveys, we have mapped the precise geometries of fluvial terraces across the entire Tugulu anticline, which lies in the hanging wall of the SJT. These profiles reveal progressive uplift of several terraces along prominent fault scarps where the SJT is surface-emergent. Similarly aged terraces are folded in the backlimb of the Tugulu fold, providing a sequential record of surface folding. These folded terraces are progressively rotated such that the oldest terraces are dipping much steeper than younger terraces within the same fold limb. Using 2- and 3-D seismic reflection data, we integrate subsurface deformation constraints with records of surface strain. Structural interpretations of these seismic data define the geometry of the SJT and reveal that folding is localized across synclinal bends along the SJT. We evaluate a range of distinct fault-related fold models (e.g. fault-bend folding, shear fault-bend folding) to assess which structural style best describes the geometries of the subsurface and surface fold patterns. By doing so, we have the opportunity to directly relate surface fault slip measures from terrace folding and uplift to total fault slip at depth. This integration of surface and subsurface deformation - combined with constraints on terrace ages from post-IR IRSL geochronology - allows us to characterize how fault slip and seismic moment are partitioned

  9. Evaluation of Anatomical and Functional Hip Joint Center Methods: The Effects of Activity Type, Gender, and Proximal Reference Segment.

    PubMed

    McGibbon, C A; Fowler, J; Chase, S; Steeves, K; Landry, J; Mohamed, A

    2016-01-01

    Accurate hip joint center (HJC) location is critical when studying hip joint biomechanics. The HJC is often determined from anatomical methods, but functional methods are becoming increasingly popular. Several studies have examined these methods using simulations and in vivo gait data, but none has studied high-range of motion activities, such a chair rise, nor has HJC prediction been compared between males and females. Furthermore, anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) marker visibility during chair rise can be problematic, requiring a sacral cluster as an alternative proximal segment; but functional HJC has not been explored using this approach. For this study, the quality of HJC measurement was based on the joint gap error (JGE), which is the difference in global HJC between proximal and distal reference segments. The aims of the present study were to: (1) determine if JGE varies between pelvic and sacral referenced HJC for functional and anatomical methods, (2) investigate which functional calibration motion results in the lowest JGE and if the JGE varies depending on movement type (gait versus chair rise) and gender, and (3) assess whether the functional HJC calibration results in lower JGE than commonly used anatomical approaches and if it varies with movement type and gender. Data were collected on 39 healthy adults (19 males and 20 females) aged 14-50 yr old. Participants performed four hip "calibration" tests (arc, cross, star, and star-arc), as well as gait and chair rise (activities of daily living (ADL)). Two common anatomical methods were used to estimate HJC and were compared to HJC computed using a published functional method with the calibration motions above, when using pelvis or sacral cluster as the proximal reference. For ADL trials, functional methods resulted in lower JGE (12-19 mm) compared to anatomical methods (13-34 mm). It was also found that women had significantly higher JGE compared to men and JGE was significantly higher for

  10. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  11. Silver Nanoparticles: Biosynthesis Using an ATCC Reference Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Activity as Broad Spectrum Clinical Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Quinteros, Melisa A.; Aiassa Martínez, Ivana M.; Dalmasso, Pablo R.; Páez, Paulina L.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the biosynthesis of silver-based nanomaterials attracts enormous attention owing to the documented antimicrobial properties of these ones. This study reports the extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain from a reference culture collection. A greenish culture supernatant of P. aeruginosa incubated at 37°C with a silver nitrate solution for 24 h changed to a yellowish brown color, indicating the formation of Ag-NPs, which was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. TEM analysis showed spherical and pseudospherical nanoparticles with a distributed size mainly between 25 and 45 nm, and the XRD pattern revealed the crystalline nature of Ag-NPs. Also it provides an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the biosynthesized Ag-NPs against human pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia. Ag-NPs were found to be bioactive at picomolar concentration levels showing bactericidal effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. This work demonstrates the first helpful use of biosynthesized Ag-NPs as broad spectrum bactericidal agents for clinical strains of pathogenic multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, A. baumannii, and E. coli. In addition, these Ag-NPs showed negligible cytotoxic effect in human neutrophils suggesting low toxicity to the host. PMID:27340405

  12. Silver Nanoparticles: Biosynthesis Using an ATCC Reference Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Activity as Broad Spectrum Clinical Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Quinteros, Melisa A; Aiassa Martínez, Ivana M; Dalmasso, Pablo R; Páez, Paulina L

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the biosynthesis of silver-based nanomaterials attracts enormous attention owing to the documented antimicrobial properties of these ones. This study reports the extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain from a reference culture collection. A greenish culture supernatant of P. aeruginosa incubated at 37°C with a silver nitrate solution for 24 h changed to a yellowish brown color, indicating the formation of Ag-NPs, which was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. TEM analysis showed spherical and pseudospherical nanoparticles with a distributed size mainly between 25 and 45 nm, and the XRD pattern revealed the crystalline nature of Ag-NPs. Also it provides an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the biosynthesized Ag-NPs against human pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia. Ag-NPs were found to be bioactive at picomolar concentration levels showing bactericidal effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. This work demonstrates the first helpful use of biosynthesized Ag-NPs as broad spectrum bactericidal agents for clinical strains of pathogenic multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, A. baumannii, and E. coli. In addition, these Ag-NPs showed negligible cytotoxic effect in human neutrophils suggesting low toxicity to the host. PMID:27340405

  13. The NPL reference hazemeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, G. H. C.

    1992-09-01

    The reference hazemeter is a development of a commercial pivotable sphere hazemeter. The principle improvements are a high quality photometer and its associated electronic and temperature controller, a stable power supply for the source and the determination of the lamp current of illuminants A and C, improvements to the optics to achieve a well shaped beam, and mechanical modifications to accommodate the improvements and allow a good mechanical movement. Various tests were carried out to validate the instrument behavior. These identified systematic errors caused by inter-reflections. To reduce the inter-reflection errors, the blue filter and the input lenses were antireflection coated. The reference hazemeter complies with BS 2782--methods of testing plastics; part 5--optical and color properties; method 521A--determination of haze of film and sheet. A calibration service using the hazemeter is now in operation.

  14. Silicon sheet technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1982-09-01

    A classification of silicon sheet growth methods by meniscus geometry permits them to be discussed in three groups: short meniscus techniques, high meniscus techniques, and extended meniscus or large solid/liquid interface area techniques. A second parameter, meniscus shaper interaction with the liquid silicon, is also instrumental in determining the characteristics of the various sheet processes. The current status of each process is discussed in the context of meniscus geometry and shaper/melt interaction. One aspect of sheet growth, surface area generation rate, is quantitatively compared with combined ingot growth and wafering surface area generation rates.

  15. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  16. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; McDonald, Carolyn E.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  17. Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Laizuman; Nasrin, Fatema; Zahan, Ronok; Haque, Anamul; Haque, Ekramul; Mosaddik, Ashik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2) but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. Objective: The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC) and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI). Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg). In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. Results: There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001), reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001) in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress. PMID:24761124

  18. Continuous liquid sheet generator for ion stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, B.; Batson, P.; Leemann, B.; Rude, B.

    1984-10-01

    Many of the technical problems of generating a large thin liquid sheet from 0.02 to 0.20 ..mu..m thick (3 to 40 ..mu..gm/cm/sup 2/) have been solved. It is shown that this perennial sheet is stable and consonant in dimension. Several ion beam species from the SuperHILAC have been used for evaluation; at 0.11 MeV/n. In one of three modes this sheet serves as an equivalent substitute for a carbon foil. The second mode is characterized by a solid-like charge state distribution but with a varying fraction of unstripped ions. The third mode gives stripping performance akin to a vapor stripping medium. 9 references, 7 figures.

  19. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  20. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS ... I get more information? What is a cerebral aneurysm? A cerebral aneurysm (also known as an intracranial ...

  1. Sheet electron beam tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Alexander Grenbeaux

    The DARPA HiFIVE project uses a pulsed electron sheet beam gun to power a traveling wave tube amplifier operating at 220 GHz. Presented is a method for characterizing the high current density 0.1 mm by 1 mm sheet electron beam. A tungsten tipped probe was scanned through the cross section of the sheet electron beam inside of a vacuum vessel. The probe was controlled with sub-micron precision using stepper motors and LabView computer control while boxcar averaging hardware sampled the pulsed beam. Matlab algorithms were used to interpret the data, calculate beam dimensions and current density, and create 2-dimensional cross section images. Full characterization of two separate HiFIVE sheet electron guns was accomplished and is also presented.

  2. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  3. Polarised light sheet tomography.

    PubMed

    Reidt, Sascha L; O'Brien, Daniel J; Wood, Kenneth; MacDonald, Michael P

    2016-05-16

    The various benefits of light sheet microscopy have made it a widely used modality for capturing three-dimensional images. It is mostly used for fluorescence imaging, but recently another technique called light sheet tomography solely relying on scattering was presented. The method was successfully applied to imaging of plant roots in transparent soil, but is limited when it comes to more turbid samples. This study presents a polarised light sheet tomography system and its advantages when imaging in highly scattering turbid media. The experimental configuration is guided by Monte Carlo radiation transfer methods, which model the propagation of a polarised light sheet in the sample. Images of both reflecting and absorbing phantoms in a complex collagenous matrix were acquired, and the results for different polarisation configurations are compared. Focus scanning methods were then used to reduce noise and produce three-dimensional reconstructions of absorbing targets. PMID:27409945

  4. Energy information sheets

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  5. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  6. Current sheet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The model of a rectenna based on the current sheet equivalency of a large planar array is described. The model is mathematically characterized by expression for the fraction of the incident plane wave that is reflected from the sheet. The model is conceptually justified for normal incidence by comparing it to the waveguide model in which evanescent modes, present as beyond and cutoff, correspond to the near field components which become negligible at any significant distance from the antenna array.

  7. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  8. Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library reference services. Topics include the historical development of reference services; instruction in library use, particularly in college and university libraries; guidance; information and referral services and how they differ from traditional question-answering service; and future concerns, including user fees and the planning…

  9. Volunteering among High School Students. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet explores volunteering among high school students, ages 16-18. Overall, volunteering among high school students was down slightly in 2006 as compared to 2005. Additional information includes types of volunteer organizations and activities, and ways that high school students become involved in these activities. Volunteer rate vary by…

  10. A Statistical Model of the Magnetotail Neutral Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Sudong; Zhang, Tielong; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Nakamura, Rumi; Ge, Yasong; Du, Aimin; Wang, Guoqiang; Lu, Quanming

    2015-04-01

    The neutral sheet of the magnetotail is characterized by weak magnetic field, strong cross tail current, and a reversal of the magnetic field direction across it. The dynamics of the earth's magnetosphere is greatly influenced by physical processes that occur near the neutral sheet. However, the exact position of the neutral sheet is variable in time. It is therefore essential to have a reliable estimate of the average position of the neutral sheet. Magnetic field data from ten years of Cluster, nineteen years of Geotail, four years of TC 1, and seven years of THEMIS observations have been incorporated to obtain a model of the magnetotail neutral sheet. All data in aberrated GSM (Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric) coordinate system are normalized to the same solar wind pressure condition. The shape and position of the neutral sheet, illustrated directly by the separator of positive and negative Bx on the YZ cross sections, are fitted with a displaced ellipse model. It is consistent with previous studies that the neutral sheet becomes curvier in the YZ cross section when the dipole tilt increases, yet our model shows the curviest neutral sheet compared with previous models. The new model reveals a hinging distance very close to 10 RE at a reference solar wind dynamic pressure of 2 nPa. We find that the earth dipole tilt angle not only affects the neutral sheet configuration in the YZ cross section but also in the XZ cross section. The neutral sheet becomes more tilting in the XZ cross section when the dipole tilt increases. The effect of an interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) penetration is studied, and an IMF By-related twisting of about 3° is found. Anticlockwise twisting of the neutral sheet is observed, looking along the downtail direction, for a positive IMF By, and clockwise twisting of the neutral sheet for a negative IMF By.

  11. Library Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schippleck, Suzanne

    The Inglewood, California, public library provides a manual on reference service. The theory, purpose, and objectives of reference are noted, and goals and activities are described in terms of budget, personnel, resources, and services. A chapter on organization covers service structure, information services, relationships with other library…

  12. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following ready reference information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)

  13. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 198

    SciTech Connect

    Chunmei, Zhou

    1995-02-01

    The 1990 version of nuclear data sheets for A = 198 has been updated on the basis of decay and reaction experiments, which lead to nuclei in the A = 198 mass chain. The data sets of experimental reaction and decay studies are presented in the drawings or tables. The adopted values of levels and their {gamma}-radiations, and as well as other nuclear properties are presented in tables. The experimental methods, references, and comments are given in the text.

  14. Nuclear Data Sheets for 225Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2005-05-16

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to {sup 225}Fr have been evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation includes literature available by 16 May 2005 and supersedes the previous publication for {sup 225}Fr (Y.A. Akovali, ''Nuclear Data Sheets 60, 617 (1990)'', literature cutoff date 1 June 1989). Data have been incorporated from the following references: 1987Co19, 1997BuO3 and 2003AuO3.

  15. Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  16. Manufacturing Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Manufacturing Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Manufacturing Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) focuses on developing methods and technologies that will assist manufacturers of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, as well as other renewable energy technologies, to scale up their manufacturing capabilities to volumes that meet DOE and industry targets. Specifically, the manufacturing activity is currently focused on developing and validating quality control techniques to assist manufacturers of low temperature and high temperature fuel cells in the transition from low to high volume production methods for cells and stacks. Capabilities include initial proof-of-concept studies through prototype system development and in-line validation. Existing diagnostic capabilities address a wide range of materials, including polymer films, carbon and catalyst coatings, carbon fiber papers and wovens, and multi-layer assemblies of these materials, as well as ceramic-based materials in pre- or post-fired forms. Work leading to the development of non-contact, non-destructive techniques to measure critical dimensional and functional properties of fuel cell and other materials, and validation of those techniques on the continuous processing line. This work will be supported by materials provided by our partners. Looking forward, the equipment in the laboratory is set up to be modified and extended to provide processing capabilities such as coating, casting, and deposition of functional layers, as well as associated processes such as drying or curing. In addition, continuous processes are used for components of organic and thin film photovoltaics (PV) as well as battery technologies, so synergies with these important areas will be explored.

  17. The study of physical activity and some relative factors in referred pregnant women to Isfahan Health-Care Centers and Shahid Beheshti Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; Mohamadirizi, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity generally declines during pregnancy, but activity barriers during this period are not well understood. The objective was to determine physical activity and some relative factors in referred pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried on 384 in referred pregnant women to Isfahan Health Care Centers and Shahid Beheshti Hospital in second stage sampling method in 2013. Demographic/prenatal characteristics, physical activity (36Q) and prenatal life quality questionnaire (26Q) were completed by participants. The statistical analysis was performed with various statistical tests such as the t-test, one-way ANOVA, individual correlation coefficient, and linear regression using SPSS statistical software (version 16). Results: Based on the findings, 98.7% (n = 378) of pregnant women had low physical activity. Also, there were a correlation among physical activity and parity, age, gestational age (P ≤ 0.005). Conclusion: Since physical activity is recommended for the most of pregnant women, it is imperative to promote physical activity between pregnant women and some intervention suggestions.

  18. Criminal investigations and the Superfund program. Fact sheet (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The fact sheet, directed toward any one who witnesses fraudulent activity in EPA programs, discusses areas in which fraud and abuse can occur and provides an understanding of the criminal investigation process that results from reports of suspicious activity.

  19. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  20. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF REFERENCE RANGES FOR PLASMA TOTAL CHOLINESTERASE AND BRAIN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN FREE-RANGING CARNABY'S BLACK-COCKATOOS (CALYPTORHYNCHUS LATIROSTRIS).

    PubMed

    Vaughan-Higgins, Rebecca; Vitali, Simone; Reiss, Andrea; Besier, Shane; Hollingsworth, Tom; Smith, Gerard

    2016-07-01

    Published avian reference ranges for plasma cholinesterase (ChE) and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are numerous. However, a consistently reported recommendation is the need for species- and laboratory-specific reference ranges because of variables, including assay methods, sample storage conditions, season, and bird sex, age, and physiologic status. We developed normal reference ranges for brain AChE and plasma total ChE (tChE) activity for Carnaby's Black-Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) using a standardized protocol (substrate acetylthiocholine at 25 C). We report reference ranges for brain AChE (19-41 μmol/min per g, mean 21±6.38) and plasma tChE (0.41-0.53 μmol/min per mL, mean 0.47±0.11) (n=15). This information will be of use in the ongoing field investigation of a paresis-paralysis syndrome in the endangered Carnaby's Black-Cockatoos, suspected to be associated with exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and add to the paucity of reference ranges for plasma tChE and brain AChE in Australian psittacine birds. PMID:27195690

  2. Energy information sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  3. A pincer-shaped plasma sheet at Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, C.M.; Walker, R.J.; Kivelson, M.G. )

    1990-09-01

    A model from Voigt et al. (1987) and an MHD simulation from Walker et al. (1989) both show that the curvature of the plasma sheet at Uranus changes as the dipole tilt varies between 38{degree} and 22{degree}. The models suggest that one of the two partial traversals of the uranian plasma sheet made during the outbound trajectory of Voyager 2 can be explained as an entry into the highly curved plasma sheet that develops when Uranus is near the maximum dipole tilt value of 38{degree}; previously both partial traversals have been explained as anomalous. The spacecraft would have reversed its motion relative to the plasma sheet as the continued rotation diminished the dipole tilt and the retreating plasma sheet uncurled. As the dipole tilt approached its minimum value, spacecraft motion towards the neutral sheet resumed and the traversal of the plasma sheet was completed. Evidence from the PWS plasma wave detector suggests that the spacecraft trajectory skimmed the plasma sheet boundary layer for several hours prior to the partial immersion. The plasma sheet of the Voigt et al. model was not located near the spacecraft during this time interval. On the other hand, the MHD simulation reveals a plasma sheet that is more curved than in the Boigt et al. model; near maximum dipole tilt, the plasma sheet is pincer-shaped. The unusual geometry implies that Voyager 2 remained near the plasma sheet boundary layer during the period suggested by the PWS data. Thus the simulation accounts easily for the first of the plasma sheet encounters previously called anomalous. The second partial immersion remains anomalous, having previously been related to substorm activity, and thus is not discussed here. The stagnation distances of the earth and Uranus at the nose of the magnetopause were used to scale the Walker et al. (1989) simulation of the terrestrial magnetosphere to represent the uranian magnetosphere.

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET #21, Showing the house as restored since Survey. (Dormer windows omitted as not authentic) - Samuel des Marest House, River Road, New Milford, Bergen County, NJ

  5. 71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 3; DECEMBER 20, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Geological constraints on the dynamic emplacement of cone-sheets - The Ardnamurchan cone-sheet swarm, NW Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Lucie; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Krumbholz, Michael; Delcamp, Audray

    2015-11-01

    Cone-sheets are a significant constituent of many central volcanoes, where they contribute to volcano growth by intrusion and through flank eruptions, although the exact emplacement mechanisms are still controversially discussed. In particular, it is not yet fully resolved whether cone-sheets propagate as magma-driven, opening-mode fractures or as shear fractures, and to what extent pre-existing host-rock structures and different stress fields influence cone-sheet emplacement. To shed further light on the role of these parameters in cone-sheet emplacement, we use detailed field and remote sensing data of the classic Ardnamurchan cone-sheet swarm in NW-Scotland, and we show that the cone-sheets primarily propagated as opening-mode fractures in the σ1-σ2 plane of the volcanic stress field. In addition, more than one third of the Ardnamurchan cone-sheet segments are parallel to lineaments that form a conjugate set of NNW and WNW striking fractures and probably reflect the regional NW-SE orientation of σ1 during emplacement in the Palaeogene. Cone-sheets exploit these lineaments within the NE and SW sectors of the Ardnamurchan central complex, which indicates that the local volcanic stress field dominated during sheet propagation and only allowed exploitation of host-rock discontinuities that were approximately parallel to the sheet propagation path. In addition, outcrop-scale deflections of cone-sheets into sills and back into cone-sheets (also referred to as "staircase" geometry) are explained by the interaction of stresses at the propagating sheet tip with variations in host-rock strength, as well as the influence of sheet-induced strain. As a consequence, cone-sheets associated with sill-like segments propagate as mixed-mode I/II fractures. Hence, cone-sheet emplacement requires a dynamic model that takes into account stress fields at various scales and the way propagating magma interacts with the host rock and its inherent variations in rock strength.

  7. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that relate to ready reference, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…

  8. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  9. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ∼3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas. PMID:25908601

  10. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ∼3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas. PMID:25908601

  11. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ~3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas.

  12. Quick Information Sheets. 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Trace Center.

    The Trace Center gathers and organizes information on communication, control, and computer access for handicapped individuals. The information is disseminated in the form of brief sheets describing print, nonprint, and organizational resources and listing addresses and telephone numbers for ordering or for additional information. This compilation…

  13. Quick Information Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Trace Center.

    This compilation of "Trace Quick Sheets" provides descriptions, prices, and ordering information for products and services that assist with communication, control, and computer access for disabled individuals. Product descriptions or product sources are included for: adaptive toys and toy modifications; head pointers, light pointers, and…

  14. Insulation Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Heating and cooling account for 50-70% of the energy consumed in the average American home. Heating water accounts for another 20%. A poorly insulated home loses much of this energy, causing drafty rooms and high energy bills. This fact sheet discusses how to determine if your home needs more insulation, the additional thermal resistance (called…

  15. Ethanol Myths Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    Ethanol is a clean, renewable fuel that is helping to reduce our nation’s dependence on oil and can offer additional economic and environmental benefits in the future. This fact sheet is intended to address some common misconceptions about this important alternative fuel.

  16. GED Testing Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GED Testing Service, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This GED Testing fact sheet provides information on: (1) GED[R] Tests; (2) Versions and Editions of the GED Tests; (3) Earning a Credential; (4) GED Testing Service[R]; (5) History of the GED Tests; (6) Who Accepts the GED Credential; (7) Public/Private Partnership of GEDTS; (8) Renowned GED Credential Recipients; (9) GED Testing Numbers for 2008;…

  17. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  18. Youth Demographics. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet compares the numbers of 18-25 year-old residents and citizens by gender, race, ethnicity, geographic distribution, marital status, military status, unemployment, educational attainment, and assesses population trends from 1968-2006. It explores such demographic characteristics of young people using data from the March Annual…

  19. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  20. Reading Recovery. [Fact Sheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This set of 10 fact sheets (each 2 to 4 pages long) addresses aspects of Reading Recovery, a program that helps children to be proficient readers and writers by the end of the first grade. It discusses the basic facts of Reading Recovery; Reading Recovery for Spanish literacy; Reading Recovery lessons; Reading Recovery professional development;…

  1. IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Part 7. Certification of four reference materials for the determination of enzymatic activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase accord.

    PubMed

    Siekmann, Lothar; Bonora, Roberto; Burtis, Carl A; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Clerc-Renaud, Pascale; Férard, Georges; Ferrero, Carlo A; Forest, Jean-Claude; Franck, Paul F H; Gella, F-Javier; Hoelzel, Wieland; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen; Kanno, Takashi; Kessner, Art; Klauke, Rainer; Kristiansen, Nina; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Misaki, Hideo; Mueller, Mathias M; Panteghini, Mauro; Pauwels, Jean; Schiele, Françoise; Schimmel, Heinz G; Vialle, Arlette; Weidemann, Gerhard; Schumann, Gerhard

    2002-07-01

    This paper is the seventh in a series dealing with reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C and the certification of reference preparations. Other parts deal with: Part 1. The Concept of Reference Procedures for the Measurement of Catalytic Activity Concentrations of Enzymes; Part 2. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Creatine Kinase; Part 3. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Lactate Dehydrogenase; Part 4. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Alanine Aminotransferase; Part 5. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Aspartate Aminotransferase; Part 6. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase. A document describing the determination of preliminary reference values is also in preparation. The certification of the catalytic activity concentrations as determined by the recently elaborated IFCC primary reference methods at 37 degrees C of four enzyme preparations, namely IRMM/IFCC 452 (gamma-glutamyltransferase), IRMM/IFCC 453 (lactate dehydrogenase 1), IRMM/IFCC 454 (alanine aminotransferase) and IRMM/IFCC 455 (creatine kinase) is described. Homogeneity data were derived from previous results. Stability was assessed using recently obtained data as well as data from previous stability studies. The collaborative study for value assignment was performed under a strict quality control scheme to ensure traceability to the primary reference method. Uncertainty of the materials was assessed in compliance with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The certified values obtained at 37 degrees C are 1.90 microkat/l +/- 0.04 microkat/l (114.1 U/l +/- 2.4 U/l), for gamma-glutamyltransferase, 8.37 microkat/l +/- 0.12 microkat/l (502 U/l +/- 7 U/l), for lactate dehydrogenase 1, 3.09 microkat/l +/- 0.07 microkat

  2. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for the Rubella fact sheet page. The current fact sheet can ... http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/diseases/child/rubella.html Print page Share Compartir File Formats Help: ...

  3. Measurement of physical activity in children with particular reference to the use of heart rate and pedometry.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, A V; Eston, R G; Ingledew, D K

    1997-10-01

    Understanding the progression of physical activity behaviour from childhood to adulthood requires a valid, reliable and practical method of assessing activity levels which is appropriate for use in large groups. The measurement of physical activity in large scale research projects requires a method which is low in cost, agreeable to the study volunteer and accurate. Self-report can be used to determine adult activity patterns, but children lack the cognitive ability to recall details about their activity patterns. Heart rate telemetry has been used to estimate daily activity in children as a sole criterion and to validate commercial accelerometers. However, heart rate is an indirect estimate of physical activity which makes assumptions based on the linear relationship between heart rate and oxygen uptake. It is sensitive to emotional stress and body position, and takes longer to reach resting levels after physical exertion compared with oxygen uptake. It also lags behind movement, particularly as children's physical activity is spasmodic or intermittent in nature. One alternative is the pedometer. Many early studies reported that the pedometer is inaccurate and unreliable in measuring distance or counting steps. While reasonably accurate at mid range speeds, the accuracy of the pedometer decreases in very slow walking or very fast walking or running. However, more recent studies have examined the efficacy of using pedometers to assess daily or weekly activity patterns as a whole, and these have produced more promising results. In this regard, the pedometer has a number of advantages. It is very cheap, objective and does not interfere with daily activities and is therefore appropriate for use in population studies. Commercial accelerometers with a time-sampling mechanism offer further potential and could be used to provide a picture of the pattern of children's activity. As it has been observed that prolonged activity periods are not typically associated with

  4. Athletic Classmates, Physical Self-Concept, and Free-Time Physical Activity: A Longitudinal Study of Frame of Reference Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Gerlach, Erin; Ludtke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The systematic analysis of factors that promote or impede physical activity in children is an urgent task for educational researchers. The present study investigated the reciprocal relationship between physical self-concept, teacher-assigned grades in physical education classes, and free-time physical activity, and analyzed positive and negative…

  5. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 33 skill sheets for agricultural mechanics was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Some sheets teach operational procedures while others are for simple projects. Each skill sheet covers a single topic and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step construction or operational…

  6. Beginning Child Care Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Pat

    These six fact sheets from Child Care Aware are designed to help parents ease their children's transition to child care. The first fact sheet, "Before Your Child's First Day," discusses tips such as: (1) "prepare your child"; (2) read and look at picture books about child care; and (3) "prepare yourself." The second fact sheet, "First Day Tips,"…

  7. The Physics of Ice Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassis, J. N.

    2008-01-01

    The great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are vast deposits of frozen freshwater that contain enough to raise sea level by approximately 70 m if they were to completely melt. Because of the potentially catastrophic impact that ice sheets can have, it is important that we understand how ice sheets have responded to past climate changes and…

  8. A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2001-08-01

    A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

  9. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Turner, D. D.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (+/-5.2) W m-2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  10. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Lhermitte, Stef; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Noël, Brice; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Turner, David D.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m‑2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  11. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    PubMed Central

    Van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Turner, D. D.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m−2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise. PMID:26756470

  12. Ice-sheet response to oceanic forcing.

    PubMed

    Joughin, Ian; Alley, Richard B; Holland, David M

    2012-11-30

    The ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica are losing ice at accelerating rates, much of which is a response to oceanic forcing, especially of the floating ice shelves. Recent observations establish a clear correspondence between the increased delivery of oceanic heat to the ice-sheet margin and increased ice loss. In Antarctica, most of these processes are reasonably well understood but have not been rigorously quantified. In Greenland, an understanding of the processes by which warmer ocean temperatures drive the observed retreat remains elusive. Experiments designed to identify the relevant processes are confounded by the logistical difficulties of instrumenting ice-choked fjords with actively calving glaciers. For both ice sheets, multiple challenges remain before the fully coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere models needed for rigorous sea-level projection are available. PMID:23197526

  13. Free-standing carbon nanotube-titania photoactive sheets.

    PubMed

    Koo, Youngmi; Malik, Rachit; Alvarez, Noe; Shanov, Vesselin N; Schulz, Mark; Sankar, Jag; Yun, Yeoheung

    2015-06-15

    We report on the development of a new photoactive material via titania (TiO2) nanoparticle deposition on free-standing aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets. Controlling homogeneous dispersion of negatively charged TiO2 nanoparticles, achieved by adjusting pH higher than the point of zero charge (PZC), influenced electrochemical deposition of TiO2 on CNT sheets substrate. Varying deposition time with constant voltage, 5 V allowed different thickness of TiO2 to be deposited layer on the CNT sheets. The thickness and morphology of CNT-TiO2 sheets was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical experiments show that diffusion coefficient of Fe(CN)6(3-) was 5.56×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) at pristine CNT sheets and 2.19×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) at the CNT-TiO2 sheets. Photocatalytic activity for CNT-TiO2 sheets exhibits high photocurrent density (when deposition time=30 min, 4.3 μA cm(-2) in N2, 13.4 μA cm(-2) in CO2). This paper proved a possibility to use CNT-TiO2 sheets based on highly-aligned CNT sheets substrate as new photoactive material. PMID:25725399

  14. Evaluating the Reference Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Gary E.

    1980-01-01

    Examines quantitative and qualitative evaluation and analysis of Washington State Library reference activities, based on research activities of the Consortium for Public Library Innovation. Several methods of data collection for a sample day are discussed, including a user ticket and a patterns of information requests form. (Author)

  15. Temporal variations of membrane foulants in the process of using flat-sheet membrane for simultaneous thickening and digestion of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhiwei

    2011-07-01

    Membrane foulants were extracted at different operation time in simultaneous sludge thickening and digestion reactors using flat-sheet membranes. Temporal variations of foulants were analyzed by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, gel filtration chromatography (GFC), particle size distribution (PSD) and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Results showed that during the first 4days fouling was mainly assigned to internal membrane foulants (IMFs), and afterwards external membrane foulants (EMFs) increased dramatically. EEM analysis showed that both IMFs and EMFs changed during the operation. Cluster analysis demonstrated that the characteristics of IMFs were relatively similar; however, both quantity and properties of EMFs were changed. GFC analysis showed that EMFs contained more molecules with large molecular weight compared to IMFs. PSD analysis illuminated that particle size of EMFs gradually increased and was larger than that of IMFs. ATR-FTIR analysis indicated that the foulants on membranes consisted of polysaccharides and proteins. PMID:21555218

  16. Calcium ion-induced formation of β-sheet/-turn structure leading to alteration of osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; He, Hongyan; Tian, Yu; Gan, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Preserving bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) still remains a challenge in protein-based therapy. It is not known how Ca2+ released from extracellular matrix or existing in physiological environment influences bioactivity in situ till now. Here, effects of extracellular Ca2+ on conformation and osteogenic bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) were investigated systematically. In vitro results indicated that Ca2+ could bind rhBMP-2 rapidly and had no obvious effect on cell behaviors. Low concentration of Ca2+ (0.18 mM) enhanced rhBMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation, while high Ca2+ concentration (>1.80 mM) exerted negative effect. In vivo ectopic bone formation exhibited similar trend. Further studies by circular dichroism spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, together with cell culture experiments revealed at low concentration, weak interaction of Ca2+ and rhBMP-2 slightly increased β-sheet/-turn content and facilitated recognition of BMP-2 and BMPRIA. But, high Ca2+ concentration (>1.8 mM) induced formation of Ca-rhBMP-2 complex and markedly increased content of β-sheet/-turn, which led to inhibition binding of rhBMP-2 and BMPRIA and thus suppression of downstream Smad1/5/8, ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-associated protein kinase signaling pathways. Our work suggests osteogenic bioactivity of BMP-2 can be adjusted via extracellular Ca2+, which should provide guide and assist for development of BMP-2-based materials for bone regeneration. PMID:26212061

  17. SHEET PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, O.A.

    1962-07-17

    An ion-electron plasma heating apparatus of the pinch tube class was developed wherein a plasma is formed by an intense arc discharge through a gas and is radially constricted by the magnetic field of the discharge. To avoid kink and interchange instabilities which can disrupt a conventional arc shortiy after it is formed, the apparatus is a pinch tube with a flat configuration for forming a sheet of plasma between two conductive plates disposed parallel and adjacent to the plasma sheet. Kink instabilities are suppressed by image currents induced in the conductive plates while the interchange instabilities are neutrally stable because of the flat plasma configuration wherein such instabilities may occur but do not dynamically increase in amplitude. (AEC)

  18. Understanding hippocampal activity by using purposeful behavior: Place navigation induces place cell discharge in both task-relevant and task-irrelevant spatial reference frames

    PubMed Central

    Zinyuk, L.; Kubik, S.; Kaminsky, Yu.; Fenton, A. A.; Bures, J.

    2000-01-01

    Continuous rotation of an arena in a cue-rich room dissociates the stationary room-bound information from the rotating arena-bound information. This disrupted spatial discharge in the majority of place cells from rats trained to collect randomly scattered food. In contrast, most place cell firing patterns recorded from rats trained to solve a navigation task on the rotating arena were preserved during the rotation. Spatial discharge was preserved in both the task-relevant stationary and the task-irrelevant rotating reference frames, but firing was more organized in the task-relevant frame. It is concluded that, (i) the effects of environmental manipulations can be understood with confidence only when the rat's purposeful behavior is used to formulate interpretations of the data, and (ii) hippocampal place cell activity is organized in multiple overlapping spatial reference frames. PMID:10716713

  19. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  20. Topographical atlas sheets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, George Montague

    1876-01-01

    The following topographical atlas sheets, accompanying Appendix J.J. of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army-being Annual Report upon U. S. Geographical Surveys-have been published during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, and are a portion of the series projected to embrace the territory of the United States lying west of the 100th meridian.

  1. Silicon sheet surface studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danyluk, S.

    1985-06-01

    Results of the program are presented on developing an understanding of the basic mechanisms of abrasion and wear of silicon and on the nondestructive measurement of residual stresses in sheet silicon. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures and in the presence of various fluids. In abrasive wear, it was shown that dislocations, microtwins, and cracks are generated beneath the contact surface. Residual stresses in ribbon by the edge defined film growth process were measured by use of a shadow moire interferometry technique.

  2. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  3. The Role of Self-Efficacy and Referent Specific Social Support in Promoting Rural Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Forlaw, Loretta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the role of social support (SS) and self-efficacy (SE) for physical activity (PA) in rural high school girls (N = 259, 15.5+1.2yrs). Methods: Using structural equation modeling, the relationships among PA, SS for PA from mother, father, and peers, and SE for overcoming barriers, seeking support, and resisting competing…

  4. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 3: Silicon sheet: Wafers and ribbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briglio, A.; Dumas, K.; Leipold, M.; Morrison, A.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective of the Silicon Sheet Task of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was the development of one or more low cost technologies for producing silicon sheet suitable for processing into cost-competitive solar cells. Silicon sheet refers to high purity crystalline silicon of size and thickness for fabrication into solar cells. Areas covered in the project were ingot growth and casting, wafering, ribbon growth, and other sheet technologies. The task made and fostered significant improvements in silicon sheet including processing of both ingot and ribbon technologies. An additional important outcome was the vastly improved understanding of the characteristics associated with high quality sheet, and the control of the parameters required for higher efficiency solar cells. Although significant sheet cost reductions were made, the technology advancements required to meet the task cost goals were not achieved.

  5. alpha-Amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to Phyllanthus amarus.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hasenah; Houghton, P J; Soumyanath, Amala

    2006-10-11

    Extracts of six selected Malaysian plants with a reputation of usefulness in treating diabetes were examined for alpha-amylase inhibition using an in vitro model. Inhibitory activity studied by two different protocols (with and without pre-incubation) showed that Phyllanthus amarus hexane extract had alpha-amylase inhibitory properties. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Averrhoa bilimbiPithecellobium jiringa and Parkia speciosa were not active when tested without pre-incubation. Extraction and fractionation of Phyllanthus amarus hexane extract led to the isolation of dotriacontanyl docosanoate, triacontanol and a mixture of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. Dotriacontanyl docosanoate and the mixture of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are reported from this plant species for the first time. All compounds were tested in the alpha-amylase inhibition assay and the results revealed that the oleanolic acid and ursolic acid (2:1) mixture was a potent alpha-amylase inhibitor with IC(50)=2.01 microg/ml (4.41 microM) and that it contributes significantly to the alpha-amylase inhibition activity of the extract. Three pure pentacyclic triterpenoids, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and lupeol were shown to inhibit alpha-amylase. PMID:16678367

  6. Operational Definition of Active and Healthy Aging (AHA): The European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on AHA Reference Site Questionnaire: Montpellier October 20-21, 2014, Lisbon July 2, 2015.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Jean; Malva, Joao; Nogues, Michel; Mañas, Leocadio Rodriguez; Vellas, Bruno; Farrell, John

    2015-12-01

    A core operational definition of active and healthy aging (AHA) is needed to conduct comparisons. A conceptual AHA framework proposed by the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing Reference Site Network includes several items such as functioning (individual capability and underlying body systems), well-being, activities and participation, and diseases (including noncommunicable diseases, frailty, mental and oral health disorders). The instruments proposed to assess the conceptual framework of AHA have common applicability and availability attributes. The approach includes core and optional domains/instruments depending on the needs and the questions. A major common domain is function, as measured by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). WHODAS 2.0 can be used across all diseases and healthy individuals. It covers many of the AHA dimensions proposed by the Reference Site network. However, WHODAS 2.0 does not include all dimensions proposed for AHA assessment. The second common domain is health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A report of the AHA questionnaire in the form of a spider net has been proposed to facilitate usual comparisons across individuals and groups of interest. PMID:26498697

  7. Solar: A Clean Energy Source for Utilities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts with utilities to remove the technical, regulatory, and market challenges they face in deploying solar technologies.

  8. Strengthening America's Energy Security with Offshore Wind (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the current state of the offshore wind industry in the United States and the offshore wind research and development activities conducted the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program.

  9. Solar America Cities Awards: Solar America Initiative Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Solar America Cities activities within the Solar America Initiative and lists the 25 cities that have received financial awards from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Comparison of Reference Values in Whole Blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J Mice Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Suzuki, M. F.; Júnior, C. R. B.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2011-08-01

    The Br, Ca, Cl, K, Na and S concentrations in whole blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J mice were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Reference values obtained from twenty one whole blood samples of these strains were analyzed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (São Paulo, Brasil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood as well as to evaluate the performance of treatments in muscular dystrophy.

  11. A comparative phenotypical analysis of rheumatoid nodules and rheumatoid synovium with special reference to adhesion molecules and activation markers

    PubMed Central

    Elewaut, D.; De Keyser, F.; De Wever, N.; Baeten, D.; Van Damme, N.; Verbruggen, G.; Cuvelier, C.; Veys, E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—(1)To analyse the in situ expression of adhesion molecules in rheumatoid nodules. (2) To compare the endothelial expression of adhesion molecules in synovial tissue and subcutaneous nodules obtained from the same patients. (3) To compare the expression of adhesion molecules and activation markers on T cell lines from nodules and synovium.
METHODS—(1) Immunohistochemical analysis by APAAP technique of E selectin, CD44, ICAM-1, PECAM-1, and VCAM-1 was performed on 10 rheumatoid nodules from seven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); nodules and synovium were simultaneously analysed from three patients. (2) T cell lines were generated from RA nodules (n=7) and synovium (n=7) by interleukin 2 expansion, and subsequently characterised by flow cytometry for surface expression of αEβ7, α4β7, CD44, L selectin, LFA-1a, PECAM-1, and CD30.
RESULTS—(1) In rheumatoid nodules, the palisading layer strongly stains for ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, but less pronounced for CD44. VCAM-1 staining was usually negative. ICAM-1 is upregulated in the vessels surrounding the central zone of fibrinoid necrosis. The immunohistological picture in different nodules derived from the same patient was similar. (2) The endothelial expression of adhesion molecules is comparable in RA nodules and synovium on an individual level, except for E selectin, which is overexpressed in nodule endothelium. (3) T cell lines from nodules and synovium display similar adhesion molecule profiles. However, the expression of CD30, a T cell activation marker linked with Th2 subsets, is higher in nodules compared with synovium.
CONCLUSION—These data support a recirculation hypothesis of T cells between articular and extra-articular manifestations in RA, although the activation state of the T cells in each of these localisations may differ.

 Keywords: T cells; adhesion molecules; rheumatoid nodules; rheumatoid synovium PMID:9797554

  12. Surface analytical characterization of chromium-stabilized protecting oxide layers on stainless steel referring to activity buildup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieme, M.; Scharnweber, D.; Drechsler, L.; Heiser, C.; Adolphi, B.; Weiss, A.

    1992-08-01

    Surface analytical methods were used to characterize both protecting oxide layers formed by hydrothermal chromate treatment (HTCT) on stabilized austenitic stainless steel and hydrothermally grown corrosion product layers (CPL) within the scope of lowering the activity buildup in the primary circuit of nuclear power plants. Morphology, thickness and chromium depth distribution of the layers proved to be considerably different from each other. According to Raman microspectrometry, there were also alterations in the chemical nature of the oxide species. Preceding electropolishing gave rise to particular properties of the respective layers. Prerequisites for an optimal corrosion behaviour of the protecting layers are discussed. Titanium-containing precipitations were oxidatively transformed by HTCT.

  13. The thermographic nondestructive evaluation of iron aluminide green sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Michael Lee

    The recent development of manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of thin iron aluminide sheet requires advanced quantitative methods for on-line inspection. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for flaws and the development of appropriate flaw detection methods are key elements in an effective quality management system. The first step in the fabrication of thin FeAl alloy sheet is the formation of a green sheet by cold rolling FeAl powder mixed with organic binding agents. The green sheet composite has a bulk density, which is typically less than about 3.6 g/cc. The finished sheet, with a density of about 6.1 g/cc, is obtained using a series of process steps involving binder elimination, densification, sintering, and annealing. Non-uniformities within the green sheet are the major contributor to material failure in subsequent sheet processing and the production of non-conforming finished sheet. The production environment and physical characteristics of the composite provide for unique challenges in developing a rapid nondestructive inspection capability. The method must be non-contact due to the fragile nature of the composite. Limited access to the material also demands a one-sided inspection technique. An active thermographic method providing for 100% on-line inspection within an industrial, process has been developed. This approach is cost competitive with alternative technologies, such as x-ray imaging systems, and provides the required sensitivity to the variations in material composition. The mechanism of flaw formation and the transformation of green sheet flaws into defects that appear in intermediate and finished sheet products are described. A mathematical model which describes the green sheet heat transfer propagation, in the context of the inspection technique and the compact heterogeneity, is also presented. The potential for feedback within the production process is also discussed.

  14. MESSENGER Observations of Asymmetries at Mercury's Magnetotail Current Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, Gangkai; Slavin, James; Jia, Xianzhe; Raines, Jim; Sun, Wei-Jie; Genestreti, Kevin; Smith, Andy; Gershman, Daniel; Anderson, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Dawn-dusk asymmetries in the Earth's magnetotail current sheet have been observed and remain an active area of research. With an internal magnetic dipole field structure similar to Earth's, similar dawn-dusk asymmetries might be expected in Mercury's magnetotail current sheet. However, no observation of dawn-dusk asymmetries has been reported in the structure of Mercury's magnetotail. Using 4 years of MESSENGER's magnetic field and plasma data, we analyzed 319 current sheet crossings. From the polarity of Bz in the cross-tail current sheet, we determined that MESSENGER is on closed field lines about 90% of the time. During the other 10% MESSENGER observed negative Bz indicating that it was tailward of the Near Mercury Neutral Line (NMNL). The Bz magnetic field is also observed to be higher at the dawnside than the duskside of the magnetotail current sheet by approximately a factor of three. Further the asymmetry decreases with increasing downstream distance. A reduction (enhancement) in Bz should correspond to a more (less) stretched and thinned (thickened) current sheet. Analysis of current sheet thickness based upon MESSENGER's observations confirms this behavior with mean current sheet thickness and Bz intensity having dawn-dusk asymmetries with the same sense. Plasma β in the current sheet also exhibits a dawn-dusk asymmetry opposite to that of Bz. This is consistent with expectations based on MHD stress balance. Earlier studies had shown a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the heavy ion in Mercury's magnetotail. We suggest that this enhancement of heavy ions in the duskside current sheet, due to centrifugal acceleration of ions from the cusp and gradient-curvature drift from the NMNL, may provide a partial explanation of the dawn-dusk current sheet asymmetries found in this study.

  15. Concentrating Solar Power Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. CSP is a dispatchable, renewable energy option that uses mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. CSP systems can store solar energy to be used when the sun is not shining. It will help meet the nation’s goal of making solar energy fully cost-competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. Worldwide, CSP activity is rapidly scaling, with approximately 10 gigawatts (GW) in various stages of operation or development. In the United States alone, nearly 2 GW of CSP are in operation.

  16. Comparative analysis of biosynthesised and chemosynthesised silver nanoparticles with special reference to their antibacterial activity against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bawskar, Manisha; Deshmukh, Shivaji; Bansod, Sunita; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    The present study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using both biological and chemical routes to find out the best method for control of their size and activity. The fungal agent (Fusarium oxysporum) and the plant (Azadirachta indica) were found to be the best source for AgNPs synthesis. Both biosynthesis and chemosynthesis were achieved by challenging filtrate with AgNO3 (1 mM) solution. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (LM20), zeta potential measurement and transmission electron microscopy. The biologically synthesised nanoparticles were spherical, polydispersed and in the range of 10-40 nm, while chemically synthesised nanoparticles were highly monodispersed with a size of 5 nm. The antimicrobial assay against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus proved biogenic AgNPs to be more potent antibacterial agents than chemically synthesised AgNPs. The possible antibacterial mechanism of AgNPs has also been discussed. Biogenic AgNPs have shown more activity because of the protein capping and their mode of entry into the bacterial cell. These findings may encourage the use of biosynthesis over the chemosynthesis method. PMID:26023154

  17. Ice sheets play important role in climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Peter U.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.; Andrews, John T.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    Ice sheets once were viewed as passive elements in the climate system enslaved to orbitally generated variations in solar radiation. Today, modeling results and new geologic records suggest that ice sheets actively participated in late-Pleistocene climate change, amplifying or driving significant variability at millennial as well as orbital timescales. Although large changes in global ice volume were ultimately caused by orbital variations (the Milankovitch hypothesis), once in existence, the former ice sheets behaved dynamically and strongly influenced regional and perhaps even global climate by altering atmospheric and oceanic circulation and temperature.Experiments with General Circulation Models (GCMs) yielded the first inklings of ice sheets' climatic significance. Manabe and Broccoli [1985], for example, found that the topographic and albedo effects of ice sheets alone explain much of the Northern Hemisphere cooling identified in paleoclimatic records of the last glacial maximum (˜21 ka).

  18. Zinc Oxide-Containing Porous Boron-Carbon-Nitrogen Sheets from Glycine-Nitrate Combustion: Synthesis, Self-Cleaning, and Sunlight-Driven Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Bharathidasan, T; Mandalam, Aditya; Balasubramanian, M; Dhandapani, P; Sathiyanarayanan, S; Mayavan, Sundar

    2015-08-26

    We developed a single-step thermal method that enables successful inclusion of ZnO components in the porous boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) framework to form a new class of functional hybrid. ZnO-containing BCN hybrids were prepared by treating a mixture of B2O3, glycine, and zinc nitrate at 500 °C. Glycine-nitrate decomposition along with B2O3 acts as a source for ZnO-BCN formation. The incorporation of ZnO onto BCN has extended the photoresponse of ZnO in the visible region, which makes ZnO-BCN a preferable photocatalyst relative to ZnO upon sunlight exposure. It is interesting to note that as-prepared 2D ZnO-BCN sheets dispersed in PDMS form a stable coating over aluminum alloys. The surface exhibited a water contact angle (CA) of 157.6° with 66.6 wt % ZnO-BCN in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a water droplet (7 μL) roll-off angle of <6° and also demonstrates oil fouling resistant superhydrophobicity. In brief, the present study focuses on the gram scale synthesis of a new class of sunlight-driven photocatalyst and also its application toward the development of superhydrophobic and oleophobic coating. PMID:26252873

  19. Cytological Study of Breast Carcinoma Before and After Oncotherapy with Special Reference to Morphometry and Proliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Koley, Sananda; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pathak, Swapan; Manna, Asim Kumar; Basu, Siddhartha

    2015-12-01

    Our study was done to assess the cytological changes due to oncotherapy in breast carcinoma especially on morphometry and proliferative activity. Cytological aspirates were collected from a total of 32 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma both before and after oncotherapy. Morphometry was done on the stained cytological smears to assess the different morphological parameters of cell dimension by using the ocular morphometer and the software AutoCAD 2007. Staining was done with Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as proliferative markers. Different morphological parameters were compared before and after oncotherapy by unpaired Student's t test. Statistically significant differences were found in morphometric parameters, e.g., mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear area, mean cell diameter, and mean cell area, and in the expression of proliferative markers (Ki-67 and PCNA). Statistical analysis was done by obtaining p values. There are statistically significant differences between morphological parameter of breast carcinoma cells before and after oncotherapy. PMID:26730066

  20. Interfacial Assembly of Graphene Oxide Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Laura J.

    Scientific interest in graphene oxide (GO) sheets, the product of chemical oxidation and exfoliation of graphite powder, has resurged in recent years because GO is considered a promising precursor for the bulk production of graphene-based sheets for a variety of applications. In addition, GO can be viewed as an unconventional type of soft material as it is characterized by two abruptly different length scales. Its thickness is of typical molecular dimensions, measured to be about 1 nm by atomic force microscopy, but its lateral dimensions are that of common colloidal particles, ranging from nanometers to tens of microns. This high anisotropy leads to interesting fundamental colloidal interactions between the soft sheets which have practical implications in the solution processing and assembly of the material. This research therefore aims to use a variety of techniques to control these inter-sheet interactions to gain an understanding of the processing-structure relationships which ultimately determine the overall properties of the bulk GO assembly. GO is identified as a two-dimensional amphiphile with a unique edge-to-center arrangement of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, which has led to the demonstration of its pH- and size-dependent surface activity. The water surface is then utilized, as in the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, as an ideal substrate to tile up the GO sheets and study the interactions between them. Sheet-sheet interaction morphologies were successfully altered between wrinkled and overlapped states by pH tuning of sheet charge density, and the resulting structure-property relationships are explored. In addition, a novel flash-reduction and assembly process is described in which a simple photographic camera flash can rapidly and cleanly turn an insulating, well-stacked GO paper to a more open and fluffy conducting film. Lastly, the use of these research results as educational outreach platforms is highlighted. A variety of outlets, such as You

  1. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 196

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Xiaolong

    2007-06-15

    The 1998 version of nuclear data sheets for A = 196 has been revised and updated on the basis of the experimental results from various decay and reaction studies before January 2006. The experimental data for all known nuclei of A = 196 (Os,Ir,Pt,Au,Hg, Tl,Pb,Bi,Po,At,Rn) have been reevaluated. The experimental methods, references,J{pi} arguments,and necessary comments are given in the text. Summary band structure drawings and level schemes from both radioactive decay and reaction studies are presented. Also of special interest are the new identification of superdeformed bands in {sup 196}Pb and {sup 196}Bi.

  2. Nuclear Data Sheets for {sup 170}Pt

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    1999-02-22

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to 170Pt have been compiled and evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation of170Pt supersedes the previous publication (Coral M. Baglin,Nuclear Data Sheets 77,125 (1996) (literature cutoff date October 1995)), and includes literature available by 17 February 1999. The newly incorporated references are: 98Se20, 98Ki20, 97Ju04, 96Bi07 and 95Au04. Three new data sets have been added, as follows:174Hg ? decay,171Au p decay (1.02 ms), (HI,xn?).

  3. Radiostrontium levels in foodstuffs: 4-Years control activity by Italian reference centre, as a contribution to risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Iammarino, Marco; dell'Oro, Daniela; Bortone, Nicola; Mangiacotti, Michele; Damiano, Rita; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio

    2016-11-01

    (90)Sr is considered an important contaminant relating to food supply chains. In this study, 176 liquid and 260 solid foods, were analysed in order to quantify (90)Sr. Through ruggedness tests, the application field of radiochemical methods used was extended successfully to all most important types of foodstuffs. Regarding liquid matrices, milk samples resulted the most important indicator about (90)Sr contamination, with mean (90)Sr activity concentration equal to 0.058BqL(-1). Among other liquid foods, wine/spirits and livestock watering resulted the most contaminated, with mean contamination levels equal to 0.022 and 0.035BqL(-1), respectively. Concerning solid matrices, cheeses produced from sheep's milk and animal feeds resulted the most contaminated (mean levels: 1.237 and 1.557Bqkg(-1), respectively). Meat products and seafood showed contamination levels not significant within this survey; while, among vegetables, cacao/chocolate and spices resulted in contamination levels comparable with those of cheese obtained from milk of cows origin. PMID:27211657

  4. Investigating the effect of education based on need to prevent falling during activities of daily living among the elderlies referring to health centers of Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Marziyeh; RezaeiDehaghani, Abdollah; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Falling has a great importance among the elderlies. Even if no physical injury occurs, it can cause fear of falling down again and, consequently, reduce older adults’ activities. With regard to the prevalence of falling among older adults, its prevention is essential. Therefore, the present study was aimed to define the effect of need-based education on prevention of older adults’ falling during their everyday life activities. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study. Study population comprised all the older adults of age 60 years and over referring to health care centers in Isfahan. Through multiple random sampling, 15 older adults were selected from four health care centers. Data collection tool in the present study was Daily Activity Questionnaire. Results: Results showed a significant difference between the mean of daily activity scores in the intervention group before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention (12, 13.6, and 13.5, respectively; P = 0.01). Meanwhile, there was no significant deference between the scores immediately after and 1 month after the intervention. There was no significant difference observed between the three time points in the control group (mean = 12.3; P = 0.907). Conclusion: Implementation of education concerning prevention of older adults’ falling led to improvement of their daily activity in the intervention group. PMID:27563329

  5. Remedial Sheets for Progress Checks, Segments 1-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    The first part of the Self-Paced Physics Course remediation materials is presented for U. S. Naval Academy students who miss core problems on the progress check. The total of 78 problems is incorporated in this volume to match study segments 1 through 14. Each remedial sheet is composed of a statement of the missed problem and references to…

  6. Remedial Sheets for Progress Checks, Segments 19-40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    The second part of the Self-Paced Physics Course remediation materials is presented for U. S. Naval Academy students who miss core problems on the progress check. The total of 101 problems is incorporated in this volume to match study segments 19 through 40. Each remedial sheet is composed of a statement of the missed problem and references to…

  7. Method and apparatus for assessing material properties of sheet-like materials

    DOEpatents

    Telschow, Kenneth L.; Deason, Vance A.

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus for producing an indication of a material property of a sheet-like material according to the present invention may comprise an excitation source for vibrating the sheet-like material to produce at least one traveling wave therein. A light source configured to produce an object wavefront and a reference wavefront directs the object wavefront toward the sheet-like material to produce a modulated object wavefront. A modulator operatively associated with the reference wavefront modulates the reference wavefront in synchronization with the traveling wave on the sheet-like material to produce a modulated reference wavefront. A sensing medium positioned to receive the modulated object wavefront and the modulated reference wavefront produces an image of the traveling wave in the sheet-like material, the image of the anti-symmetric traveling wave being related to a displacement amplitude of the anti-symmetric traveling wave over a two-dimensional area of the vibrating sheet-like material. A detector detects the image of the traveling wave in the sheet-like material.

  8. Ice sheets and nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    Snow and ice play their most important role in the nitrogen cycle as a barrier to land–atmosphere and ocean–atmosphere exchanges that would otherwise occur. The inventory of nitrogen compounds in the polar ice sheets is approximately 260 Tg N, dominated by nitrate in the much larger Antarctic ice sheet. Ice cores help to inform us about the natural variability of the nitrogen cycle at global and regional scale, and about the extent of disturbance in recent decades. Nitrous oxide concentrations have risen about 20 per cent in the last 200 years and are now almost certainly higher than at any time in the last 800 000 years. Nitrate concentrations recorded in Greenland ice rose by a factor of 2–3, particularly between the 1950s and 1980s, reflecting a major change in NOx emissions reaching the background atmosphere. Increases in ice cores drilled at lower latitudes can be used to validate or constrain regional emission inventories. Background ammonium concentrations in Greenland ice show no significant recent trend, although the record is very noisy, being dominated by spikes of input from biomass burning events. Neither nitrate nor ammonium shows significant recent trends in Antarctica, although their natural variations are of biogeochemical and atmospheric chemical interest. Finally, it has been found that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack leads to significant re-emissions of NOx that can strongly impact the regional atmosphere in snow-covered areas. PMID:23713125

  9. Twisting of sheet metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, C. H.; Thuillier, S.; Manach, P. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Twisting of metallic sheets is one particular mode of springback that occurs after drawing of elongated parts, i.e. with one dimension much larger than the two others. In this study, a dedicated device for drawing of elongated part with a U-shaped section has been designed on purpose, in order to obtain reproducible data. Very thin metallic sheet, of thickness 0.15 mm, has been used, so that the maximum length of the part is 100 mm. Two different orientations of the part with respect to the tools have been chosen: either aligned with the tools, or purposefully misaligned by 2°. Several samples were drawn for each configuration, leading to the conclusion that almost no twisting occurs in the first case whereas a significant one can be measured for the second one. In a second step, 2D and 3D numerical simulations within the implicit framework for drawing and springback were carried out. A mixed hardening law associated to von Mises yield criterion represents accurately the mechanical behavior of the material. This paper highlights a comparison of numerical predictions with experiments, e.g. the final shape of the part and the twisting parameter.

  10. 17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. 9. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of the State Highway Department of Indiana repair plans of 1957 for the Cicott Street Bridge. Photograph of a 24' by 36' print made from microfilm in the archives of the Indiana Department of Transportation in Indianapolis. - Cicott Street Bridge, Spanning Wabash River at State Road 25, Logansport, Cass County, IN

  12. 13. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of the Indiana State Highway Commission repair plans of 1969 for the Cicott Street Bridge. Photograph of a 24' by 36' print made from microfilm in the archives of the Indiana Department of Transportation in Indianapolis. - Cicott Street Bridge, Spanning Wabash River at State Road 25, Logansport, Cass County, IN

  13. 10. KIDNER BRIDGE STRUCTURAL STEEL DETAIL SHEET (original plan sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. KIDNER BRIDGE STRUCTURAL STEEL DETAIL SHEET (original plan sheet is in possession of Ball State University, Drawings and Documents Archive, COllege of Architecture and Planing, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, 47306 - Kidner Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River at County Road 700 South, Upland, Grant County, IN

  14. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  15. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  16. Chronologic evidence for multiple periods of loess deposition during the Late Pleistocene in the Missouri and Mississippi River Valley, United States: Implications for the activity of the Laurentide ice sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forman, S.L.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III; Kemmis, T.J.; Miller, B.B.

    1992-01-01

    The loess stratigraphy of the mid-continental U.S. is an important proxy record for the activity of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in North America. One of the most outstanding problems is deciphering the age of loess deposits in this area during the late Pleistocene. Radiocarbon dating of snails and thermoluminescence dating of the fine-silt fraction (4-11 ??m) from loess at the Loveland Loess type section, Loveland, Iowa and a recent excavation at the Pleasant Grove School section. Madison County, Illinois provide new chronologic control on loess deposition in the Mississippi/Missouri River Valley chronology indicates that the Loveland Loess is Illinoian in age (135??20 ka) but is not correlative with the Teneriffe Silt which is dated to 77 ?? 8 ka. Concordant radiocarbon and thermoluminescence age estimates demonstrate that the Roxana Silt and a correlative loess in Iowa, the Pisgah Formation, is probably 40-30 ka old. These age estimates in conjunction with previous results indicate that there were four periods of loess deposition during the last 150 ka at 25-12 ka, 45-30 ka, 85-70 ka and at ca. 135 ?? 20 ka. This chronology of loess deposition supports the presence of both a late Illinoian and early Wisconsinan loess and associated soils. Thus, there may be more than one soil in the loess stratigraphy of the mid-continental U.S. with morphologies similar to the Sangamon Soil. The last three periods of loess deposition may be correlative with periods of elevated dust concentrations recorded in the Dye 3 ice core from southern Greenland. This is particularly significant because both areas possibly had the same source for eolian particles. Reconstructions of atmospheric circulation for glacial periods show a southerly deflected jet stream that could have transported dust from the mid-continental USA to southern Greenland. Lastly, the inferred record of loess deposition is parallel to a chronology for deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet deciphered from chronologic

  17. The Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.; Clinton, J. F.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Ekstrom, G.; Giardini, D.; Govoni, A.; Hanka, W.; Kanao, M.; Larsen, T.; Lasocki, S.; McCormack, D. A.; Mykkeltveit, S.; Nettles, M.; Agostinetti, N. P.; Stutzmann, E.; Tsuboi, S.; Voss, P.

    2010-12-01

    The GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN) is an international, broadband seismic capability for Greenland, being installed and implemented through the collaboration of Denmark, Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland, and USA. GLISN is a real-time sensor array of seismic stations to enhance and upgrade the performance of the sparse Greenland seismic infrastructure for detecting, locating, and characterizing glacial earthquakes and other cryo-seismic phenomena, and contributing to our understanding of Ice Sheet dynamics. Complementing data from satellites, geodesy, and other sources, and in concert with these technologies, GLISN will provide a powerful tool for detecting change, and will advance new frontiers of research in the glacial systems; the underlying geological and geophysical processes affecting the Greenland Ice Sheet; interactions between oceans, climate, and the cryosphere; and other multidisciplinary areas of interest to geoscience and climate dynamics. The glacial processes that induce seismic events (internal deformation, sliding at the base, disintegration at the calving front, drainage of supra-glacial lakes) are all integral to the overall dynamics of glaciers, and seismic observations of glaciers therefore provide a quantitative means for monitoring changes in their behavior over time. Long-term seismic monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet will contribute to identifying possible unsuspected mechanisms and metrics relevant to ice sheet collapse, and will provide new constraints on Ice Sheet dynamic processes and their potential roles in sea-level rise during the coming decades. GLISN will provide a new, fiducial reference network in and around Greenland for monitoring these phenomena in real-time, and for the broad seismological study of Earth and earthquakes. The 2010 summer field season saw the installation or upgrade of 9 stations in the GLISN network. Sites visited under the GLISN project include Station Nord (NOR

  18. Electrochemical Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Electrochemical Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The research focus at the Electrochemical Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is evaluating the electrochemical properties of novel materials synthesized by various techniques and understanding and delineating the reaction mechanisms to provide practical solutions to PEMFCs commercialization issues of cost, performance and durability. It is also involved in the development of new tools and techniques for electrochemical characterization. The laboratory concentrates on the development and characterization of new materials for PEMFCs such as electrocatalysts, catalyst supports in terms of electrochemical activity, electrochemical surface area and corrosion/durability. The impact of impurities and/or contaminants on the catalyst activity is also under study. Experiments that can be performed include: (1) Determination and benchmarking of novel electrocatalyst activity; (2) Determination of electrochemical surface area; (3) Determination of electrocatalyst and support corrosion resistance and durability; (4) Synthesis and characterization of novel electrocatalyst; (5) Determination of fundamental electrochemical parameters; and (6) Estimation of electrocatalyst utilization.

  19. Simultaneous observation of the poleward expansion of substorm electrojet activity and the tailward expansion of current sheet disruption in the near-earth magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Koskinen, H. E. J.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Bosinger, T.; Mcentire, R. W.; Potemra, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    A substorm that occurred on 7 June 1985 at 2209 UT for which simultaneous measurements from ground stations and CCE are available is considered. The event occurred during a close conjunction between CCE, the EISCAT magnetometer cross, and the STARE radar, allowing a detailed comparison of satellite and ground-based data. Two discrete activations took place during the first few minutes of this substorm: the expansion phase onset at 2209 UT and an intensification at 2212 UT, corresponding to a poleward expansion of activity. The energetic particle data indicate that the active region of the magnetotail during the 2212 UT intensification was located tailward of the active region at 2209 UT. This is direct evidence for a correspondence between tailward expansion of localized activity in the near-earth magnetotail (current disruption and particle energization) and poleward expansion of activity (electrojet formation) in the ionosphere.

  20. Wind Powering America Initiative (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative engages in technology market acceptance, barrier reduction, and technology deployment support activities. This fact sheet outlines ways in which the Wind Powering America team works to reduce barriers to appropriate wind energy deployment, primarily by focusing on six program areas: workforce development, communications and outreach, stakeholder analysis and resource assessment, wind technology technical support, wind power for Native Americans, and federal sector support and collaboration.

  1. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  2. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  3. Silicone Coating on Polyimide Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Silicone coatings applied to polyimide sheeting for variety of space-related applications. Coatings intended to protect flexible substrates of solar-cell blankets from degradation by oxygen atoms, electrons, plasmas, and ultraviolet light in low Earth orbit and outer space. Since coatings are flexible, generally useful in forming flexible laminates or protective layers on polyimide-sheet products.

  4. Cutting Guide for Fibrous Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A., D.

    1985-01-01

    Tool facilitates repetitive cutting of fibrous sheets. Flexible aluminum tape allows metal strips folded back on themselves, exposing fresh material for cutting. More than one strip folded back, and cutting width therefore increased in multiples of strip width. Developed for cutting strips of alumina-fiber matting, tool also used on such materials as felts, textiles, and sheet metals.

  5. Comparison of dermal tumor promotion activity of cigarette smoke condensate from prototype (heated) cigarette and reference (combusted) cigarette in SENCAR mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Okubo, Chigusa; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Ichiro; Nishino, Tomoki; Lee, K Monica; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2014-10-01

    Test cigarette (prototype "heated" cigarette) was evaluated on its dermal tumor promotion activity in SENCAR mice relative to conventional 3R4F cigarette. Mainstream cigarette smoke was generated under the modified Health Canada Intensive Regimen, and smoke condensate (CSCs) were collected using cold traps and extracted with acetone. Female mice received a topical application of 7,12-dimehtylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as the tumor initiator on the back skin during Week 1. Subsequently, CSC was repeatedly applied as the tumor promoter at 5 doses, up to 30 mg tar/application, three times per week for 30 weeks. Test groups showed a clearly longer latency at lower doses (⩽15 mg), but the difference was less clear at higher doses (⩾22.5 mg), while mortalities were not affected throughout the study. Test groups also had consistently lower incidence and multiplicity of neoplasms, as well as lower incidences of non-neoplastic changes (e.g., inflammations and squamous epithelial hyperplasia on the site of application). The group without DMBA initiation did not induce any neoplasm but the respective Reference group showed an increase in tumorigenicity. In conclusion, the study demonstrated significant reduction in dermal irritancy and tumorigenicity of Test CSC compared to Reference CSC. PMID:25047211

  6. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  7. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  8. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  9. Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. A statistical survey of the central plasma sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Frank, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the ion plasma properties and magnetic field of the central plasma sheet at distances from 10 to 23 R(sub E) from the Earth. This study incorporates International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 1 plasma sheet samples accumulated with the University of Iowa Lepedea plasma analyzer during 1979. Our study of the bulk properties of the ion plasma shows that there is relatively little change as a result of increasing geomagnetic activity. The main macroscopic effect is an increase in plasma temperature. When the transverse profile of the plasma sheet is examined, it is clear that this increase in temperature occurs preferentially at high latitudes. The magnetic field shows an increase in magnitude in the vicinity of the neutral sheet periods of high geomagnetic activity. The radial profiles of the density, temperature, plasma, and magnetic pressures show a gradient in total energy density in the plasma sheet. The convective velocities are systematically directed earthward, and there is a bias toward positive V(sub y) on the duskside of the magnetotail. We infer that particle motion can be attributed to a pressure gradient, combined with steady state convective electric fields. We compute the convective electric fields from our measured bulk velocities, arriving at a pattern similar to that observed at low altitudes. The cross-tail electric field E(sub y) is dominant near the neutral sheet region, but at high latitudes E(sub z) is a major component. Our results suggest that the plasma sheet boundary layer, rather than the central plasma sheet, is a region of diverging electric fields. The picture of the plasma sheet that emerges from our study is that of a stable reservoir of hot plasma in which thermodynamic, rather than dynamic, processes is important.

  11. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tables Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  12. Mineralogy and instrumental neutron activation analysis of seven National Bureau of Standards and three Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas clay reference samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosterman, John W.; Flanagan, F.J.; Bragg, Anne; Doughten, M.W.; Filby, R.H.; Grimm, Catherine; Mee, J.S.; Potts, P.J.; Rogers, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    The concentrations of 3 oxides and 29 elements in 7 National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and 3 Instituto de Pesquisas Techno16gicas (IPT) reference clay samples were etermined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The analytical work was designed to test the homogeneity of constituents in three new NBS reference clays, NBS-97b, NBS-98b, and NBS-679. The analyses of variance of 276 sets of data for these three standards show that the constituents are distributed homogeneously among bottles of samples for 94 percent of the sets of data. Three of the reference samples (NBS-97, NBS-97a, and NBS-97b) are flint clays; four of the samples (NBS-98, NBS-98a, NBS-98b, and IPT-32) are plastic clays, and three of the samples (NBS-679, IPT-28, and IPT-42) are miscellaneous clays (both sedimentary and residual). Seven clays are predominantly kaolinite; the other three clays contain illite and kaolinite in the approximate ratio 3:2. Seven clays contain quartz as the major nonclay mineral. The mineralogy of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri (NBS-97a and NBS-98a) differs markedly from that of the flint and plastic clays from Pennsylvania (NBS-97, NBS-97b, NBS-98, and NBS-98b). The flint clay NBS-97 has higher average chromium, hafnium, lithium, and zirconium contents than its replacement, reference sample NBS-97b. The differences between the plastic clay NBS-98 and its replacement, NBS-98b, are not as pronounced. The trace element contents of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri, NBS-97a and NBS-98a, differ significantly from those of the clays from Pennsylvania, especially the average rare earth element (REE) contents. The trace element contents of clay sample IPT-32 differ from those of the other plastic clays. IPT-28 and IPT-42 have some average trace element contents that differ not only between these two samples but also from all the other clays. IPT-28 has the highest summation of the average REE contents of the 10 samples. The uranium content of NBS-98a, 46

  13. Geoscience laser altimeter system - stellar reference system

    SciTech Connect

    Millar, Pamela S.; Sirota, J. Marcos

    1998-01-15

    GLAS is an EOS space-based laser altimeter being developed to profile the height of the Earth's ice sheets with {approx}15 cm single shot accuracy from space under NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). The primary science goal of GLAS is to determine if the ice sheets are increasing or diminishing for climate change modeling. This is achieved by measuring the ice sheet heights over Greenland and Antarctica to 1.5 cm/yr over 100 kmx100 km areas by crossover analysis (Zwally 1994). This measurement performance requires the instrument to determine the pointing of the laser beam to {approx}5 urad (1 arcsecond), 1-sigma, with respect to the inertial reference frame. The GLAS design incorporates a stellar reference system (SRS) to relate the laser beam pointing angle to the star field with this accuracy. This is the first time a spaceborne laser altimeter is measuring pointing to such high accuracy. The design for the stellar reference system combines an attitude determination system (ADS) with a laser reference system (LRS) to meet this requirement. The SRS approach and expected performance are described in this paper.

  14. Eruptive Current Sheets Trailing SOHO/LASCO CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, David F.

    2015-04-01

    Current sheets are important signatures of magnetic reconnection during the eruption of solar magnetic structures. Many models of eruptive flare/Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) involve formation of a current sheet connecting the ejecting CME flux rope with the post-eruption magnetic loop arcade. Current sheets have been interpreted in white light images as narrow rays trailing the outward-moving CME, in ultraviolet spectra as narrow, bright hot features, and with different manifestations in other wavebands. This study continues that of Webb et al. (2003), who analyzed SMM white light CMEs having candidate magnetic disconnection features at the base of the CME. About half of those were followed by coaxial, bright rays suggestive of newly formed current sheets, and Webb et al. (2003) presented detailed results of analysis of those structures. In this work we extend the study of white light eruptive current sheets to the more sensitive and extensive SOHO/LASCO coronagraph data on CMEs. We comprehensively examined all LASCO CMEs during two periods that we identify with the minimum and maximum activity of solar cycle 23. We identified ~130 ray/current sheets during these periods, nearly all of which trailed CMEs with concave-outward backs. The occurrence rate of the ray/current sheets is 6-7% of all CMEs, irrespective of the solar cycle. We analyze the rays for durations, speeds, alignments, and motions and compare the observational results with some model predictions.

  15. "Domain gauges": A reference system for multivariate profiling of brain fMRI activation patterns induced by psychoactive drugs in rats.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Andreas; Mueggler, Thomas; Künnecke, Basil; Risterucci, Céline; Prinssen, Eric P; Wettstein, Joseph G; von Kienlin, Markus

    2015-05-15

    Pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) of the brain has become a widely used tool in both preclinical and clinical drug research. One of its challenges is to condense the observed complex drug-induced brain-activation patterns into semantically meaningful metrics that can then serve as a basis for informed decision making. To aid interpretation of spatially distributed activation patterns, we propose here a set of multivariate metrics termed "domain gauges", which have been calibrated based on different classes of marketed or validated reference drugs. Each class represents a particular "domain" of interest, i.e., a specific therapeutic indication or mode of action. The drug class is empirically characterized by the unique activation pattern it evokes in the brain-the "domain profile". A domain gauge provides, for any tested intervention, a "classifier" as a measure of response strength with respect to the domain in question, and a "differentiator" as a measure of deviation from the domain profile, both along with error ranges. Capitalizing on our in-house database with an unprecedented wealth of standardized perfusion-based phMRI data obtained from rats subjected to various validated treatments, we exemplarily focused on 3 domains based on therapeutic indications: an antipsychotic, an antidepressant and an anxiolytic domain. The domain profiles identified as part of the gauge definition process, as well as the outputs of the gauges when applied to both reference and validation data, were evaluated for their reconcilability with prior biological knowledge and for their performance in drug characterization. The domain profiles provided quantitative activation patterns with high biological plausibility. The antipsychotic profile, for instance, comprised key areas (e.g., cingulate cortex, nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra) which are believed to be strongly involved in mediating an antipsychotic effect, and which are in line with

  16. Toxic and antifeedant activities of prenylated flavonoids isolated from Tephrosia apollinea L. against three major coleopteran pests of stored grains with reference to their structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Nenaah, Gomah E

    2014-01-01

    Four prenylated flavonoids, isoglabratephrin, (+)-glabratephrin, tephroapollin-F and lanceolatin-A, were isolated from Tephrosia apollinea L. and tested against three stored grain insects. Using the filter paper bioassay, compounds showed adulticidal activity against Sitophilus oryzae (L), Rhyzopertha dominica (F) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) at concentrations of 0.875, 1.75 and 3.5 mg mL(- 1). At 3.5 mg mL(- 1), tephroapollin-F was the most toxic (78.6%, 64.6% and 60.7% mortality was recorded after 10 days exposure of S. oryzae, R. dominica and T. castaneum, respectively). The F1 progeny production of insects was affected after parental exposure to flavonoids, where S. oryzae was the most susceptible. A nutritional bioassay, employing a flour disc and test concentrations of 0.65, 1.3 and 2.6 mg g(- 1), revealed a significant reduction in the relative growth rate, relative consumption rate and efficiency of conversion of ingested food by all insects. The structure-activity relationship among the tested flavonoids was discussed. PMID:24980754

  17. Reconstructing the last Newfoundland Ice Sheet,Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHenry, Maureen; Dunlop, Paul

    2015-04-01

    attempt at unravelling this new record using flowset analysis which separates discrete ice flow patterns into snapshots of ice sheet behaviour through time. Our initial flowset analysis shows the NIS was a dynamic ice sheet which was susceptible to configuration changes throughout the last glacial cycle including ice divide migration, regional configuration changes, ice stream activity and enhanced ice flow caused by marine drawdown.

  18. Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seven articles on library reference services highlight reference obsolescence in academic libraries, major studies of unobtrusive reference tests, methods for evaluating reference desk performance, reference interview evaluation, problems of reference desk control, online searching by end users, and reference collection development in…

  19. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  20. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.; Birmingham, Joseph G.; McDonald, Carolyn Evans; Kurath, Dean E.; Friedrich, Michele

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  1. Activity concentration measurements of 137Cs, 90Sr and 40K in a wild food matrix reference material (Wild Berries) CCRI(II)-S8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wätjen, U.; Altzitzogloa, T.; Ceccatelli, A.; Dikmen, H.; Ferreux, L.; Frechou, C.; García, L.; Gündogdu, G.; Kis-Benedek, G.; La Rosa, J.; Luca, A.; Moreno, Y.; Oropesa, P.; Pierre, S.; Schmiedel, M.; Spasova, Y.; Szücs, L.; Vasile, M.; Wershofen, H.; Yücel, Ü.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the CCRI approved a supplementary comparison to be organized by the IRMM as pilot laboratory for the activity concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr and 40K in a matrix material of dried bilberries. The organization of this comparison and the material and measurement methods used are described. The supplementary comparison reference values (SCRV) for each of the three radionuclides are given together with the degrees of equivalence of each participating laboratory with the SCRV for the specific radionuclide. The results of this supplementary comparison allow the participating NMIs/designated institutes to declare calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) for the given radionuclides in a similar type of food matrix, an important aspect given the relatively few supplementary comparisons for activity in matrix materials organized so far. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Characterization of Tensile Mechanical Behavior of MSCs/PLCL Hybrid Layered Sheet.

    PubMed

    Pangesty, Azizah Intan; Arahira, Takaaki; Todo, Mitsugu

    2016-01-01

    A layered construct was developed by combining a porous polymer sheet and a cell sheet as a tissue engineered vascular patch. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sheet on the tensile mechanical properties of porous poly-(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) sheet. The porous PLCL sheet was fabricated by the solid-liquid phase separation method and the following freeze-drying method. The MSCs sheet, prepared by the temperature-responsive dish, was then layered on the top of the PLCL sheet and cultured for 2 weeks. During the in vitro study, cellular properties such as cell infiltration, spreading and proliferation were evaluated. Tensile test of the layered construct was performed periodically to characterize the tensile mechanical behavior. The tensile properties were then correlated with the cellular properties to understand the effect of MSCs sheet on the variation of the mechanical behavior during the in vitro study. It was found that MSCs from the cell sheet were able to migrate into the PLCL sheet and actively proliferated into the porous structure then formed a new layer of MSCs on the opposite surface of the PLCL sheet. Mechanical evaluation revealed that the PLCL sheet with MSCs showed enhancement of tensile strength and strain energy density at the first week of culture which is characterized as the effect of MSCs proliferation and its infiltration into the porous structure of the PLCL sheet. New technique was presented to develop tissue engineered patch by combining MSCs sheet and porous PLCL sheet, and it is expected that the layered patch may prolong biomechanical stability when implanted in vivo. PMID:27271675

  3. Characterization of Tensile Mechanical Behavior of MSCs/PLCL Hybrid Layered Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Pangesty, Azizah Intan; Arahira, Takaaki; Todo, Mitsugu

    2016-01-01

    A layered construct was developed by combining a porous polymer sheet and a cell sheet as a tissue engineered vascular patch. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sheet on the tensile mechanical properties of porous poly-(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) sheet. The porous PLCL sheet was fabricated by the solid-liquid phase separation method and the following freeze-drying method. The MSCs sheet, prepared by the temperature-responsive dish, was then layered on the top of the PLCL sheet and cultured for 2 weeks. During the in vitro study, cellular properties such as cell infiltration, spreading and proliferation were evaluated. Tensile test of the layered construct was performed periodically to characterize the tensile mechanical behavior. The tensile properties were then correlated with the cellular properties to understand the effect of MSCs sheet on the variation of the mechanical behavior during the in vitro study. It was found that MSCs from the cell sheet were able to migrate into the PLCL sheet and actively proliferated into the porous structure then formed a new layer of MSCs on the opposite surface of the PLCL sheet. Mechanical evaluation revealed that the PLCL sheet with MSCs showed enhancement of tensile strength and strain energy density at the first week of culture which is characterized as the effect of MSCs proliferation and its infiltration into the porous structure of the PLCL sheet. New technique was presented to develop tissue engineered patch by combining MSCs sheet and porous PLCL sheet, and it is expected that the layered patch may prolong biomechanical stability when implanted in vivo. PMID:27271675

  4. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  5. Selective and efficient electrochemical biosensing of ultrathin molybdenum disulfide sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Tharangattu N.; Vusa, Chiranjeevi S. R.; Alwarappan, Subbiah

    2014-08-01

    Atomically thin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) sheets were synthesized and isolated via solvent-assisted chemical exfoliation. The charge-dependent electrochemical activities of these MoS2 sheets were studied using positively charged hexamine ruthenium (III) chloride and negatively charged ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox probes. Ultrathin MoS2 sheet-based electrodes were employed for the electrochemical detection of an important neurotransmitter, namely dopamine (DA), in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA). MoS2 electrodes were identified as being capable of distinguishing the coexistence of the DA and the AA with an excellent stability. Moreover, the enzymatic detection of the glucose was studied by immobilizing glucose oxidase on the MoS2. This study opens enzymatic and non-enzymatic electrochemical biosensing applications of atomic MoS2 sheets, which will supplement their established electronic applications.

  6. Heating and cooling of the earth's plasma sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic-field models based on pressure equilibrium in the quiet magnetotail require nonadiabatic cooling of the plasma as it convects inward or a decrease of the flux tube content. Recent in situ observations of plasma density and temperature indicate that, during quiet convection, the flux tube content may actually increase. Thus the plasma must be cooled during quiet times. The earth plasma sheet is generally significantly hotter after the expansion phase of a substorm than before the plasma sheet thinning begins and cools during the recovery phase. Heating mechanisms such as reconnection, current sheet acceleration, plasma expansion, and resonant absorption of surface waves are discussed. It seems that all mechanisms are active, albeit in different regions of the plasma sheet. Near-earth tail signatures of substorms require local heating as well as a decrease of the flux tube content. It is shown that the resonant absorption of surface waves can provide both.

  7. Escape of O+ through the distant tail plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, L. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Popecki, M. A.; Simunac, K. D. C.; Farrugia, C.; Moebius, E.; Lee, M. A.; Blush, L. M.; Bochsler, P.; Wurz, P.; Klecker, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Opitz, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Thompson, B.; Russell, C. T.

    2010-11-01

    In February 2007, the STEREO-B spacecraft encountered the magnetosheath, plasma sheet and plasma sheet boundary layer from about 200 RE to 300 RE downtail. This time period was during solar minimum, and there was no storm activity during this month. Using data from the PLASTIC instrument, we find that even during quiet times, O+ is a constant feature of the deep magnetotail, with an O+ density of about 15% of the O+ density in the near-earth plasma sheet for similar conditions. The tailward flux of the O+ is similar to the flux of O+ beams that have been observed in the lobe/mantle region of the deep tail. The total outflow rate of the O+ down the plasma sheet is 1.1 × 1024 ions/s, which is 10% of the total outflow rate of 1 × 1025 ions/s, and of the same order as the estimated loss from dayside transport.

  8. Analysis of a Sheet Silicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, J. M.; Evans, S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student project in analytical chemistry using sheet silicates. Provides specific information regarding the use of phlogopite in an experiment to analyze samples for silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fluoride. (CS)

  9. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing the overall capabilities of the NREL CSP Program: collector/receiver characterization, advanced reflector and absorber materials, thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids, and CSP modeling and analysis.

  10. SEER Cancer Stat Fact Sheets

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  11. Measurements and Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Analytical Microscopy, Electro-Optical Characterization, Surface Analysis, and Cell and Module Performance.

  12. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finance Human Resources and Administrative Services Information Technology Marketing and Sales Membership Practice Public Affairs Quality Publishing ... Feedback Recent a a a print email share Facebook Twitter 2016 Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet 3/ ...

  13. Deep Space 1 (fact sheet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    Exerting less force than does a single sheet of paper resting in your hand, Deep Space 1's ion propulsion system will slowly, yet continuously accelerate the spacecraft well beyond speeds attainable by conventional chemical propulsion.

  14. Preparation and characterization of Zr doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays on the titanium sheet and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Haijin; Liu Guoguang; Zhou Qingxiang

    2009-12-15

    This paper described a new method for the preparation of Zr doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays by electrochemical method. TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization with titanium anode and platinum cathode. Afterwards, the formed TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays and Pt were used as cathode and anode, respectively, for preparation of Zr/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays in the electrolyte of 0.1 M Zr(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} with different voltage and post-calcination process. The nanotube arrays were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and UV-Vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic activities of these nanotubes were investigated with Rhodamine B as the model pollutant and the results demonstrated that the photocatalytic efficiency of Zr doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes was much better than that of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes under UV irradiation. Zr/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays doped at 7 V and calcined at 600 deg. C (denoted as TiO{sub 2}-7 V-600) achieved the best photocatalytic efficiency and the most optimal doping ratio was 0.047 (Zr/Ti). TiO{sub 2}-7 V-600 could be reused for more than 20 times and maintained good photocatalytic activities. - Graphical abstract: Zr-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by two-step electrochemical process. The photocatalytic efficiency of Zr/TiO{sub 2} was much better than that of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes under UV irradiation. Nanotube arrays prepared by this method could be reused for more than 20 times and maintained good photocatalytic activities.

  15. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  16. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  17. Crib sheets or security blankets?

    PubMed

    Drake, V K; Freed, P; Hunter, J M

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the sanctioned use of crib sheets as a nursing intervention to decrease test anxiety when the classroom is the practice setting for psychiatric/mental health nursing faculty. The products that the students created offered additional unsuspected benefits. The faculty were convinced that the use of crib sheets can be a sound intervention to reduce students' test-taking anxiety. PMID:9661379

  18. Kinematics of Mid-Ocean Ridge Relative Motions in the Indo-Atlantic Frame of Reference: Passive and Active Spreading Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, C. J.; Rowley, D. B.; Forte, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    A kinematic analysis of the motions of mid-ocean ridges is presented in the Indo-Atlantic hotspot frame of reference. Relative motions of all major divergent plate boundaries are computed, including an assessment of uncertainties in their motions, back to 83 Ma (C34ny). As is expected from the general assumption that ridges are passive components of the plate boundary and mantle convective system, most ridges migrate across the underlying mantle along simple paths, largely perpendicular to the trend of the ridge. In the Indo-Atlantic reference frame, the Nansen-Gakkel ridge has migrated away from Europe by ~800 km along a NE trajectory. The Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) just north of the Azores triple junction (TJ) has moved away from Europe by ~1800km towards the WNW. South of the Azores TJ the MAR has moved away from Africa by ~1600 km towards the W. The slow to ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge has migrated slightly away from Antarctica, with a considerable fraction of the motion approximately parallel to the ridge trend. The Carlsberg Ridge has moved ~3400 km away from Africa towards the NNE in the past 65 Ma, while the Mid-Indian Ridge has migrated to the NNE away from Africa by ~3950 km over 83 Ma. The Southeast Indian Ridge, west of the 90°E ridge (Capricorn-Australia-East Antarctica TJ), has migrated ~3950 km to the NE away from Antarctica. Farther east, divergence between Australia and Antarctica has resulted in ~1800 km of northward motion of the ridge away from Antarctica. The Southwest Pacific Ridge, between the Pacific and West Antarctic plates has migrated ~1500 km to the NW away from west Antarctica. These motions are entirely consistent with intuition, given that Africa and Antarctica are largely surrounded by spreading systems. In contrast to the rest of the global ridge system, despite its high spreading rate the East Pacific Ridge has undergone essentially no (<±500 km) ridge perpendicular (E-W) migration in the past 80 Ma, and neglible

  19. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  20. Optimization of a Frequency-Stabilized Laser Reference at 1.57μM for AN Active Laser Remote Sensing of CO2 from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Petway, L. B.; Lee, H. R.; Harrison, F. W.; Browell, E. V.

    2011-12-01

    Several airborne flight campaigns have shown that active remote sensing of carbon dioxide mixing ratio (XCO2) in the atmosphere using either an Intensity Modulated-Continuous Wave (IM-CW) Laser Absorption Spectrometer (LAS) at 1.57 μm or a pulsed laser CO2 sounder at 1.57 μm is a promising technique for an accurate space measurement approach for the Active Sensing of CO2 over Nights, Days, and Seasons mission [1, 2]. In order to achieve a measurement accuracy of one part per million (ppmv) for CO2 column density and associated mixing ratio by volume, the frequency stability (frequency or wavelength variance) of the lasers at 1.57 μm for a space-borne active remote sensing system should be greater than 1.5e-9 (less than 300 kHz or less than 2.5e-3 pm) is required for most moderate-size instruments [3]. In this paper, we report a design and optimization of a frequency-locking laser reference with an integration of Frequency Modulation (FM), Phase Sensitive Detection (PSD) and Proportional Integration Derivation (PID) feed-back control techniques to stabilize laser frequency associated to one of CO or CO2 absorption lines at 1.57 μm. The optimized sensitivity based on PSD signals in terms of the modulation frequency, the length of the gas cell, and the pressure of the gas will be provided. The design and optimization has been demonstrated at a 2-μm CO2 absorption line and is applicable to the active remote sensing systems at 1.57 μm. [1] E. V. Browell, J. Dobler, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore III, "Development and Validation of CO2 and O2 Laser Measurements for Future Active XCO2 Space Mission", Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 13, EGU2011-12598, 2011 [2] J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allen, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, S. Biraud, "Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 column Absorption", Tellus (2010), 62B, 770-783 [3] E. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, 2008: Space

  1. Narcolepsy: Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the sleep cycle. It records heart and respiratory rates, electrical activity in the brain using electroencephalography, and ... than narcolepsy. The MSLT also measures heart and respiratory rates, records nerve activity in muscles, and pinpoints the ...

  2. A Dual Role of Graphene Oxide Sheet Deposition on Titanate Nanowire Scaffolds for Osteo-implantation: Mechanical Hardener and Surface Activity Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenjun; Hou, Lijuan; Li, Tingting; Gong, Ziqiang; Huang, Huandi; Wang, Ge; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold biomaterials with open pores and channels are favourable for cell growth and tissue regeneration, however the inherent poor mechanical strength and low surface activity limit their applications as load-bearing bone grafts with satisfactory osseointegration. In this study, macro-porous graphene oxide (GO) modified titanate nanowire scaffolds with desirable surface chemistry and tunable mechanical properties were prepared through a simple hydrothermal process followed by electrochemical deposition of GO nanosheets. The interconnected and porous structure of the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds provides a large surface area for cellular attachment and migration and displays a high compressive strength of approximately 81.1 MPa and a tunable Young’s modulus over the range of 12.4–41.0 GPa, which satisfies site-specific requirements for implantation. Surface chemistry of the scaffolds was modulated by the introduction of GO, which endows the scaffolds flexibility in attaching and patterning bioactive groups (such as -OH, -COOH and -NH2). In vitro cell culture tests suggest that the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds act as a promising biomaterial candidate, in particular the one terminated with -OH groups, which demonstrates improved cell viability, and proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic activities. PMID:26687002

  3. A Dual Role of Graphene Oxide Sheet Deposition on Titanate Nanowire Scaffolds for Osteo-implantation: Mechanical Hardener and Surface Activity Regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenjun; Hou, Lijuan; Li, Tingting; Gong, Ziqiang; Huang, Huandi; Wang, Ge; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaoyun

    2015-12-01

    Scaffold biomaterials with open pores and channels are favourable for cell growth and tissue regeneration, however the inherent poor mechanical strength and low surface activity limit their applications as load-bearing bone grafts with satisfactory osseointegration. In this study, macro-porous graphene oxide (GO) modified titanate nanowire scaffolds with desirable surface chemistry and tunable mechanical properties were prepared through a simple hydrothermal process followed by electrochemical deposition of GO nanosheets. The interconnected and porous structure of the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds provides a large surface area for cellular attachment and migration and displays a high compressive strength of approximately 81.1 MPa and a tunable Young’s modulus over the range of 12.4-41.0 GPa, which satisfies site-specific requirements for implantation. Surface chemistry of the scaffolds was modulated by the introduction of GO, which endows the scaffolds flexibility in attaching and patterning bioactive groups (such as -OH, -COOH and -NH2). In vitro cell culture tests suggest that the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds act as a promising biomaterial candidate, in particular the one terminated with -OH groups, which demonstrates improved cell viability, and proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic activities.

  4. AFRICAN MUSIC SPEAKS, NO. 6--PROJECT CUE, A TV UTILIZATION SHEET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.

    FOURTEEN SETS OF EDUCATIONAL TV UTILIZATION GUIDE SHEETS WERE PREPARED AS TEACHER AIDS. THESE SHEETS COVER SUCH AREAS AS SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECT, SUGGESTED PREPARATION (PRETELECAST), KEY WORDS, WHAT PUPILS SHOULD LOOK AND LISTEN FOR, SUGGESTED FOLLOWUP ACTIVITIES, SUGGESTED RELATED ACTIVITIES, SUGGESTED EVALUATION, AND SUGGESTED RELATED MATERIALS.…

  5. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  6. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond; Kunz, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. It is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods. These sheets are characterized by a discontinuity in the tangential magnetic field on either side of the sheet but no discontinuity in tangential electric field. This continuity, or single valued behavior of the electric field, allows the sheet current to be expressed in terms of an impedance multiplying this electric field.

  7. Universal Strategy to Fabricate a Two-Dimensional Layered Mesoporous Mo2C Electrocatalyst Hybridized on Graphene Sheets with High Activity and Durability for Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Huo, Lili; Liu, Baocang; Zhang, Geng; Zhang, Jun

    2016-07-20

    A universal strategy was developed for fabrication of a highly active and durable precious-metal-free mesoporous Mo2C/graphene (m-Mo2C/G) electrocatalyst with a two-dimensional layered structural feature via a nanocasting method using glucose as a carbon source and an in-stiu assembled mesoporous KIT-6/graphene (KIT-6/G) as a template. The m-Mo2C/G catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity and excellent durability for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a wide pH range, which displays a small onset potential of 8 mV, owerpotential (η10) for driving a cathodic current density of 10 mA·cm(-2) of 135 mV, a Tafel slope of 58 mV·dec(-1), and an exchange current density of 6.31 × 10(-2) mA·cm(-2) in acidic media and an onset potential of of 41 mV, η10 of 128 mV, Tafel slope of 56 mV·dec(-1), and an exchange current density of 4.09 × 10(-2) mA·cm(-2) in alkaline media, respectively. Furthermore, such an m-Mo2C/G electrocatalyst also gives about 100% Faradaic yield and shows excellent durability during 3000 cycles of a long-term test, and the catalytic current remains stable over 20 h at fixed overpotentials, making it a great potential application prospect for energy issues. PMID:27334022

  8. Magnetic Co@g-C3N4 Core-Shells on rGO Sheets for Momentum Transfer with Catalytic Activity toward Continuous-Flow Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shasha; Han, Guosheng; Su, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yanyan; Wu, Xianli; Li, Baojun

    2016-06-28

    Magnetic core-shell structures provide abundant opportunities for the construction of multifunctional composites. In this article, magnetic core-shells were fabricated with Co nanoparticles (NPs) as cores and g-C3N4 as shells. In the fabrication process, the Co@g-C3N4 core-shells were anchored onto the rGO nanosheets to form a Co@g-C3N4-rGO composite (CNG-I). For hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of NaBH4 or NH3BH3, the Co NP cores act as catalytic active sites. The g-C3N4 shells protect Co NPs cores from aggregating or growing. The connection between Co NPs and rGO was strengthened by the g-C3N4 shells to prevent them from leaching or flowing away. The g-C3N4 shells also work as a cocatalyst for hydrogen generation. The magnetism of Co NPs and the shape of rGO nanosheets achieve effective momentum transfer in the external magnetic field. In the batch reactor, a higher catalytic activity was obtained for CNG-I in self-stirring mode than in magneton stirring mode. In the continuous-flow process, stable hydrogen generation was carried out with CNG-I being fixed and propelled by the external magnetic field. The separation film is unnecessary because of magnetic momentum transfer. This idea of the composite design and magnetic momentum transfer will be useful for the development of both hydrogen generation and multifunctional composite materials. PMID:27276187

  9. Hybrid simulations of thin current sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, G. R.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Speiser, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    A one-dimensional, hybrid simulation code is used to study current sheets with a nonzero normal magnetic field B(sub z) and a dawn-to-dusk electric field E(sub y). Such configurations are dependent upon only two parameters: we use the normalized normal magnetic field B-normalized (sub z) = B(sub z)/(4(pi)(n(sub b)) (v(exp 2 sub T))(exp 1/2) and normalized electric field V-normalized (sub D) = (1/V(sub T)(cE(sub y)/B(sub z)), where V(sub T) is the thermal velocity of ions prior to their interaction with the current sheet and n(sub b) is the number density outside the current sheet (at the simulation boundary). A third parameter that is relevant to the motion of particles in current sheets is kappa(sub A), the value of kappa = (R(sub min)/rho(sub max))(exp 1/2) for particles of average energy. We find that if either B-normalized (sub z) is close to or greater than 1, or if kappa(sub A) is close to 1, a rotational mode develops in which the z = 0 current rotates with the ion sense about the normal magnetic field, while for small values of both B-normalized (sub z) or kappa(sub A), the configuration is quasi-steady. To achieve values of kappa(sub A) of the order of or larger than 1, we decrease the value of V-normalized (sub D) uniformly. We find that the magnetic field fluctuations and particle distribution functions are similar in many respects to what was observed in the day 240, 1986, Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE)/CCE current disruption event, an event that appears to be located at the site of initiation of current disruption and related particle energization.

  10. Cluster Observations of Neutral Sheet Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volwerk, M.; Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Zhang, T. L.; Eichelberger, H.-U.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Balogh, A.

    In the period of early July through the end of October 2001, the Cluster spacecraft had their apogee in the Earth's magnetotail at approximately 19 R_{rm E}. This allowed us to study substorm related phenomena in the neutral sheet. We investigated the FGM data for neutral sheet crossings during strong activity (AE), and in particular looked at ULF waves. For this presentation we will first look at three days: July 17, August 22 and September 15, 2001. Spectral analysis shows that the main power is in compressional waves, similar to the results of {em Bauer et al.} [JGR 100, 23737, 1995] with a significant peak at 30 - 60 mHz. Having four spacecraft, we can de- termine the propagation direction and velocity of the waves, using cross correlation of the bandpass filtered data to get the time lag between the spacecraft and the rela- tive location of the spacecraft. As expected, we find that the waves propagate mainly perpendicular to the magnetic field, either earthward or tailward. The velocity of the waves varies from 60 - 250 km s^{-1}. The propagation direction of the waves may be dependent on the local plasma flow direction or amplitude. Not every neutral sheet crossing shows evidence of these ULF waves near 30 - 60 mHz. There are several days in which the spectral power falls off much more quickly than in the days men- tioned before. Examples are: August 12 and 29 and September 24, 2001. The main spectral power for these days is at frequencies of 60 - 200 mHz. An indication for the difference between these two sets of observations can be found in the AE index. The days with strong ULF wave power at 30 - 60 mHz are during neutral sheet crossings at the onset or expansion phase of a substorm, whereas the days without these waves are crossings that occur during substorm recovery phase, or during quiescent times.

  11. Demonstrative Reference in Nepali: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giri, Ram Ashish

    The demonstratives in Napali are outlined, and their operation within the language system is analyzed. Demonstratives in Nepali are words used to refer to places, things, names, and activities. The reference may be endophoric (in which case the referents are in the text) or exophoric (in which case the referents are in the context or situation).…

  12. OSH technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  13. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  14. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1988-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  15. Current Sheet Formation and Reconnection at a Magnetic X Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, S. K.

    2011-05-01

    Phenomena ranging from the quiescent heating of the ambient plasma to the highly explosive release of energy and acceleration of particles in flares are conjectured to result from magnetic reconnection at electric current sheets in the Sun's corona. We are investigating numerically the formation and eventual reconnection of a current sheet in an initially potential 2D magnetic field containing a null. Subjecting this simple configuration to unequal stresses in the four quadrants bounded by the X-line separatrix distorts the potential null into a double-Y-line current sheet. Although the gas pressure is finite in our simulations, so that the plasma beta is infinite at the null, we find that even small distortions of the magnetic field induce the formation of a tangential discontinuity there. This result is well known to occur in the zero-beta, force-free limit; surprisingly, it persists into the high-beta regime where, in principle, a small plasma pressure inhomogeneity could balance all of the magnetic stress. In addition to working to understand the dynamical details of this ideal process, we are examining the effect of resistive dissipation on the development of the current sheet and are seeking to determine the critical condition for fast-reconnection onset in the sheet. Our progress on understanding these issues, and the implications for the dynamic activity associated with current sheets in the solar corona, will be reported at the conference. We gratefully acknowledge NASA sponsorship of our research.

  16. Studies of the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets.

    PubMed

    Hamahashi, K; Sato, M; Yamato, M; Kokubo, M; Mitani, G; Ito, S; Nagai, T; Ebihara, G; Kutsuna, T; Okano, T; Mochida, J

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to repair and regenerate articular cartilage with layered chondrocyte sheets, produced using temperature-responsive culture dishes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets. Articular chondrocytes and synovial cells were harvested during total knee arthroplasty. After co-culture, the samples were divided into three groups: a monolayer, 7 day culture sheet group (group M); a triple-layered, 7 day culture sheet group (group L); and a monolayer culture group with a cell count identical to that of group L (group C). The secretion of collagen type 1 (COL1), collagen type 2 (COL2), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13), transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Layered chondrocyte sheets produced the most humoral factors. PGE2 expression declined over time in group C but was significantly higher in groups M and L. TGFβ expression was low in group C but was significantly higher in groups M and L (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets may contribute to cartilaginous tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:23165985

  17. Evidence of Meltwater Retention within the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennermalm, A. K.; Smith, L. C.; Chu, V. W.; Box, J. E.; Forster, R. R.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Greenland ice sheet water release, and the magnitude of sub- and englacial storage, firn densification, internal refreezing and other hydrologic processes that delay or reduce true water export to the global ocean remain poorly understood. This problem is compounded by scant hydrometerological measurements. Here, ice sheet surface meltwater runoff and proglacial river discharge determined between 2008 and 2010 for three sites near Kangerlussuaq, western Greenland were used to establish the water budget for a small ice sheet watershed. The water budget could not be closed in the three years, even when uncertainty ranges were considered. Instead, between 12% and 53% of ice sheet surface runoff is retained within the catchment each melt year (time between onset of ice sheet runoff in two consecutive years) most likely in en- and subglacial storages. Evidence suggests that while some holdover summer meltwater may escape during the cold-season, this water volume is too small to close the budget. Thus, this study indicates that the Greenland ice sheet cryo-hydrologic system may remain active year round, and that meltwater may be retained in the pro glacial area, internally, or in firn layers for prolonged time periods before release to the ocean.

  18. Escape of O+ Through the Distant Tail Plasma Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, L. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Popecki, M.; Simunac, K. D.; Farrugia, C. J.; Moebius, E.; Lee, M. A.; Blush, L. M.; Bochsler, P. A.; Wurz, P.; Klecker, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Opitz, A.; Sauvaud, J.; Russell, C. T.

    2010-12-01

    During the early orbit phase of the STEREO mission, in February, 2007, the STEREO-B spacecraft went down the deep magnetotail, and encountered the magnetosheath, plasma sheet and plasma sheet boundary layer from about 200 Re to 300 Re downtail, before finally exiting to the solar wind. This time period was during solar minimum, and there was no storm activity during this month. We have used the ion composition data from the PLASTIC instrument to determine how much ionospheric O+ is in the deep tail plasma sheet, and to calculate the loss rate through this path. Surprisingly, we find that during this solar and geomagnetically quiet time, O+ is a constant feature of the deep magnetotail. We find that the O+ density is about 15% of the density in the near-earth plasma sheet for similar conditions. The tailward flux of the O+ is similar to the flux of O+ beams that have been observed in the lobe/mantle region of the deep tail. The observations provide a consistent picture that some O+ is transported into the distant tail in the lobe/mantle region, and then enters the plasma sheet tailward of the distant neutral line. The total outflow of the O+ down the plasma sheet is a rate of 1.1x1024 ions/s, which is 10% of the total outflow rate of 1x 1025 ions/s, and of the same order as the estimated loss from dayside transport.

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 195

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaolong; Kang, Mengxiao

    2014-09-15

    Experimental structure and decay data for all nuclides with mass number A=195 (Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn) have been revised, updated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. All literature available by March 2014 has been considered. This evaluation supersedes the previous one for this mass chain (Zhou Chunmei, Nuclear Data Sheets 86, 645 (1999), 1999Zh11). The detailed level schemes, decay schemes, experimental reaction and decay data on which they are based are summarized and presented here. References, Jπ arguments, and comments are given in the text. No excited state data are yet available for {sup 195}Re and {sup 195}Rn. The adopted levels for {sup 195}At are firstly presented in this evaluation. In addition, Q values have been updated based on 2012Wa38.

  20. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 198

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Xiaolong

    2009-10-15

    The 2002 version of Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 198 (2002Zh04) has been updated and revised on the basis of the experimental results from various decay and reaction studies before June 2008. The experimental data for all known nuclei of A = 198 (Ir,Pt,Au,Hg, Tl,Pb,Bi,Po,At,Rn) have been reevaluated. The experimental methods, references, J{pi} arguments, and necessary comments are given in the text. The theoretical internal conversion coefficient (ICC) (and its associated uncertainty) for {gamma}-rays have been interpolated from theoretical values based on the 'Frozen Orbital' approximation (2002Ba85) using the BRICC(v2.2) computer program. Summary band-structure drawings and level schemes from both radioactive decay and reaction studies are presented. Also of special interest are the new levels of {sup 198}Ir, {sup 198}Tl nuclei and identification of new superdeformed bands in {sup 198}Pb and {sup 198}Po.

  1. Nuclear data sheets for A = 195

    SciTech Connect

    Chunmei, Zhou

    1999-03-01

    The 1994 version of Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 195 (94Zh15) has been updated on the basis of the experimental results from reactions and decays leading to nuclides of mass number A = 195 by the cutoff date noted below. The detailed level schemes and decay schemes, and experimental reaction and decay data on which they are based are summarized and presented for all nuclides with mass number A = 195. The experimental data are evaluated; the inconsistencies and discrepancies are noted; and adopted values for levels and {gamma}-ray energies, {gamma}-ray intensities, as well as for other nuclear properties, are presented. The references, J{pi} arguments, and necessary comments are given in the text.

  2. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 197

    SciTech Connect

    Chunmei, Zhou

    1995-11-01

    The 1991 Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 197 have been updated on the basis of the experimental results from various decay and reaction studies leading to nuclides in the A = 197 mass chain since December 1989 (cutoff date of the last evaluation). The updated level schemes and decay schemes, and experimental decay and reaction data on which they are based, are summarized and presented for all nuclides with mass number A = 197. The adopted values of level energies, level spins and parities are given, and {gamma}-ray energies, {gamma}-ray intensities, as well as other nuclear properties are presented. The references, J{pi} arguments, and necessary comments are given in the text.

  3. New insights from modeling the neutral heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raath, J. L.; Strauss, R. D.; Potgieter, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere has increasingly been studied by solving the well known transport equation via an approach based on stochastic differential equations. This approach, which is now well-established and published, allows for an in depth study of the modulation effects of the wavy heliospheric current sheet, in particular as its waviness increases with solar activity up to extreme maximum conditions. This is possible because of the numerical stability of the approach as well as its ability to trace pseudo-particles so that insightful trajectories of how they respond to the wavy heliospheric current sheet can be computed and displayed. Utilising such a stochastic model, we present valuable new insights into how the geometry of the wavy current sheet can affect the modulation of cosmic rays, especially at the highest levels of solar activity. This enables us to show, from a modeling perspective, why a certain choice for the current sheet profile is more suited than another at these high solar activity levels. We emphasise the importance of an effective tilt angle and illustrate how this concept can be employed effectively in interpreting results pertaining to the wavy current sheet as well as the modulation associated with this important heliospheric structure.

  4. The magnetohydrodynamics of current sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Examples of current sheets are summarized and their formation is described. A universal phenomenon in cosmic plasmas is the creation of sheets off intense current near X-type neutral points (where the magnetic field vanishes). These sheets are important as sites where the magnetic-field energy is converted efficiently into heat and bulk kinetic energy and where particles can be accelerated to high energies. Examples include disruptions in laboratory tokamaks, substorms in the earth's magnetosphere, and flares on the sun. The basic behavior of a one-dimensional sheet is presented, together with an account of the linear tearing-mode instability that can cause the field lines in such a sheet to reconnect. Such reconnection may develop in different ways: it may arise from a spontaneous instability or it may be driven, either from outside by motions or locally by a resistivity enhancement. Various processes are described that may occur during the nonlinear development of tearing, along with the many numerical and laboratory experiments that are aiding our understanding of this intriguing cosmical process.

  5. Computers and Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the current status and potential for automated library reference services in the areas of community information systems, online catalogs, remote online reference services, and telephone reference services. Several models of the reference procedure which might be used in developing expert systems are examined. (19 references) (CLB)

  6. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  7. The GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.; Clinton, J. F.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Ekstrom, G.; Giardini, D.; Hanka, W.; Kanao, M.; Larsen, T.; McCormack, D.; Mykkeltveit, S.; Nettles, M.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Tsuboi, S.; Voss, P.

    2009-12-01

    The GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN) is a new, international, broadband seismic capability for Greenland, being installed and implemented through the joint collaboration of Denmark, Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Switzerland, and USA. GLISN is a real-time sensor array of 25 stations to enhance and upgrade the performance of the scarce existing Greenland seismic infrastructure for detecting, locating, and characterizing glacial earthquakes and other cryo-seismic phenomena, and contribute to our understanding of Ice Sheet dynamics. Complementing data from satellites, geodesy, and other sources, and in concert with these technologies, GLISN will provide a powerful tool for detecting change, and will advance new frontiers of research in the glacial systems; the underlying geological and geophysical processes affecting the Greenland Ice Sheet; interactions between oceans, climate, and the cryosphere; and other multidisciplinary areas of interest to geoscience and climate dynamics. The glacial processes that induce seismic events (internal deformation, sliding at the base, disintegration at the calving front, drainage of supra-glacial lakes) are all integral to the overall dynamics of glaciers, and seismic observations of glaciers therefore provide a quantitative means for monitoring changes in their behavior over time. Long-term seismic monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet will contribute to identifying possible unsuspected mechanisms and metrics relevant to ice sheet collapse, and will provide new constraints on Ice Sheet dynamic processes and their potential roles in sea-level rise during the coming decades. GLISN will provide a new, fiducial reference network in and around Greenland for monitoring these phenomena in real-time, and for the broad seismological study of Earth and earthquakes. The GLISN development is focused on 1) upgrading equipment and adding real-time telemetry to existing seismic infrastructure in Greenland, 2) installing new

  8. Cardiosphere-derived cell sheet primed with hypoxia improves left ventricular function of chronically infarcted heart

    PubMed Central

    Hosoyama, Tohru; Samura, Makoto; Kudo, Tomoaki; Nishimoto, Arata; Ueno, Koji; Murata, Tomoaki; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi; Mikamo, Akihito; Yoshimura, Koichi; Li, Tao-Sheng; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2015-01-01

    Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) isolated from postnatal heart tissue are a convenient and efficientresource for the treatment of myocardial infarction. However, poor retention of CDCs in infarcted hearts often causes less than ideal therapeutic outcomes. Cell sheet technology has been developed as a means of permitting longer retention of graft cells, and this therapeutic strategy has opened new avenues of cell-based therapy for severe ischemic diseases. However, there is still scope for improvement before this treatment can be routinely applied in clinical settings. In this study, we investigated whether hypoxic preconditioning enhances the therapeutic efficacy of CDC monolayer sheets. To induce hypoxia priming, CDC monolayer sheets were placed in an incubator adjusted to 2% oxygen for 24 hours, and then preconditioned mouse CDC sheets were implanted into the infarcted heart of old myocardial infarction mouse models. Hypoxic preconditioning of CDC sheets remarkably increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor through the PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Implantation of preconditioned CDC sheets improved left ventricular function inchronically infarcted hearts and reduced fibrosis. The therapeutic efficacy of preconditioned CDC sheets was higher than the CDC sheets that were cultured under normaxia condition. These results suggest that hypoxic preconditioning augments the therapeutic angiogenic and anti-fibrotic activity of CDC sheets. A combination of cell sheets and hypoxic preconditioning offers an attractive therapeutic protocol for CDC transplantation into chronically infarcted hearts. PMID:26885271

  9. Cardiosphere-derived cell sheet primed with hypoxia improves left ventricular function of chronically infarcted heart.

    PubMed

    Hosoyama, Tohru; Samura, Makoto; Kudo, Tomoaki; Nishimoto, Arata; Ueno, Koji; Murata, Tomoaki; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi; Mikamo, Akihito; Yoshimura, Koichi; Li, Tao-Sheng; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2015-01-01

    Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) isolated from postnatal heart tissue are a convenient and efficientresource for the treatment of myocardial infarction. However, poor retention of CDCs in infarcted hearts often causes less than ideal therapeutic outcomes. Cell sheet technology has been developed as a means of permitting longer retention of graft cells, and this therapeutic strategy has opened new avenues of cell-based therapy for severe ischemic diseases. However, there is still scope for improvement before this treatment can be routinely applied in clinical settings. In this study, we investigated whether hypoxic preconditioning enhances the therapeutic efficacy of CDC monolayer sheets. To induce hypoxia priming, CDC monolayer sheets were placed in an incubator adjusted to 2% oxygen for 24 hours, and then preconditioned mouse CDC sheets were implanted into the infarcted heart of old myocardial infarction mouse models. Hypoxic preconditioning of CDC sheets remarkably increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor through the PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Implantation of preconditioned CDC sheets improved left ventricular function inchronically infarcted hearts and reduced fibrosis. The therapeutic efficacy of preconditioned CDC sheets was higher than the CDC sheets that were cultured under normaxia condition. These results suggest that hypoxic preconditioning augments the therapeutic angiogenic and anti-fibrotic activity of CDC sheets. A combination of cell sheets and hypoxic preconditioning offers an attractive therapeutic protocol for CDC transplantation into chronically infarcted hearts. PMID:26885271

  10. Casimir forces and graphene sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Drosdoff, D.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2010-10-15

    The Casimir force between two infinitely thin parallel sheets in a setting of N such sheets is found. The finite two-dimensional conductivities, which describe the dispersive and absorptive properties of each sheet, are taken into account, whereupon the theory is applied to interacting graphenes. By exploring similarities with in-plane optical spectra for graphite, the conductivity of graphene is modeled as a combination of Lorentz-type oscillators. We find that the graphene transparency and the existence of a universal constant conductivity e{sup 2}/(4({h_bar}/2{pi})) result in the graphene/graphene Casimir interaction at large separations to have the same distance dependence as the one for perfect conductors but with much smaller magnitude. The Casimir force is also studied when the graphene system is above a substrate or immersed in a medium. It is found that the response properties of the environmental materials can strongly affect the graphene interaction.

  11. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene; Van Voris, Peter

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  12. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    DOEpatents

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  13. Ice Stream Dynamics during Deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, C.; Margold, M.; Clark, C.

    2014-12-01

    Ice streams can rapidly drain large sectors of ice sheet interiors. At present, they account for approximately 50% and 90% of the mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, but there are concerns over recent increases in ice discharge. This has been linked to atmospheric and oceanic warming, but the longer-term implications for ice sheet deglaciation are less clear. A key question is whether the activity of ice streams is predictably linked to climate-driven ice sheet mass balance, or whether their activity might accelerate deglaciation. To explore this, we analyse ice streaming during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) from ~18 to ~7 ka. Following a recent mapping inventory, we bracket the timing of >100 ice streams using published ice margin chronologies. At the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), ice streams formed a drainage network similar to modern ice sheets. Numerous ice streams were located in topographic troughs and likely operated for thousands of years from the LGM. These drained the marine-based sectors of the northern and eastern margins of the ice sheet until ~11 ka and show a degree of spatial self-organisation. Other ice streams operated on much shorter time-scales and turned on and off, perhaps in as little as a few hundred years. These include large ice streams that switched positions over sedimentary bedrock at the western and southern terrestrial margins until ~13 ka. As the LIS retreated onto its low-relief and predominantly crystalline bedrock interior (after ~11 ka), a smaller number of large ice streams operated that were very wide (50-100 km), and have no modern analogue. Overall, the number of ice streams decreased during deglaciation and they drained a smaller proportion of the ice sheet margin: 30% at the LGM (similar to present-day Antarctica), 15% at 12 ka, and 12% at 10 ka. We use simple scaling relationships to estimate the mass loss delivered by ice streams and examine their role during deglaciation.

  14. Light-sheet microscopy with digital Fourier analysis measures transport properties over large field-of-view.

    PubMed

    Wulstein, Devynn M; Regan, Kathryn E; Robertson-Anderson, Rae M; McGorty, Ryan

    2016-09-01

    Using light-sheet microscopy combined with digital Fourier methods we probe the dynamics of colloidal samples and DNA molecules. This combination, referred to as selective-plane illumination differential dynamic microscopy (SPIDDM), has the benefit of optical sectioning to study, with minimal photobleaching, thick samples allowing us to measure the diffusivity of colloidal particles at high volume fractions. Further, SPIDDM exploits the inherent spatially-varying thickness of Gaussian light-sheets. Where the excitation sheet is most focused, we capture high spatial frequency dynamics as the signal-to-background is high. In thicker regions, we capture the slower dynamics as diffusion out of the sheet takes longer. PMID:27607692

  15. Explosive welding of a tube into a tube sheet

    DOEpatents

    Green, Sheryll C.; Linse, Vonne D.

    1978-10-03

    A cartridge containing an explosive charge is placed within a tube assembled within a tube sheet. The charge is detonated through use of a detonator cord containing a minimum but effective amount of explosive material. The cord is contained inside a tubular shield throughout most of its length within the cartridge. A small length of the cord extends beyond the tubular shield to contact and detonate the explosive charge in its rear portion near the cartridge base. The cartridge base is provided of substantial mass and thickness in respect to side and front walls of the cartridge to minimize bulging beyond the rear face of the tube sheet. For remote activation an electrically activated detonator of higher charge density than the cord is attached to the cord at a location spaced from the tube sheet, cartridge and tube.

  16. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Jensen, A.; Li, Z.; Stupakov, G.; Adolphsen, C.; /SLAC

    2009-05-08

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly.

  17. Eumelanin kinetics and sheet structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, J. U.; Bidláková, T.; Karolin, J.; Birch, D. J. S.

    2012-03-01

    Melanins are common pigments with a non-repeating primary structure that is generally accepted to be composed of dihydroxyindoles. However, despite intensive research the secondary structure defining the minimum functional unit (protomolecule) remains elusive. We have revisited eumelanin formation in-situ during the non-enzymatic auto-oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine by using the fluorescence of thioflavin T; an extrinsic probe known to report on sheet structure. This approach obviates the complex intrinsic fluorescence and reveals a sigmoidal temporal dependence of assembly that is consistent with protomolecule formation and assembly into a stacked sheet structure rather than a randomized heteropolymer formed by monomer addition.

  18. Biaxially corrugated flexible sheet material

    DOEpatents

    Schmertz, John C.

    1991-04-16

    A flexible biaxially corrugated sheet material is formed from a plurality of identical trapezium segments which are arranged in a plurality of long strips a single segment wide. Adjacent strips are mirror images of each other and connected along adjoining sides with the angles of the four corners of adjacent segments being alternately less than 360.degree. and greater than 360.degree. along the length of a strip such that the sheet material has an undulating configuration, and is inherently curved and cannot lie in a flat plane.

  19. Characterization of commercial sheet polarizer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Dennis H.; Jones, Douglas G.

    2006-05-01

    Sheet polarizers were invented by Land in the 1920s. The fabrication of the type of sheet polarizers we use today, i.e. H-sheet polarizers, was described in the basic H-sheet patent issued in 1948. Single polarizer transmittance, and parallel pair and crossed pair transmittance are typically quoted for these polarizers. In this paper we describe spectropolarimetric measurement results for a variety of commercial sheet polarizer and sheet retarder materials. The measurements cover the nominal spectral region for the polarization elements but also describe performance well beyond the advertised range. Mueller matrices for the elements were measured, and diattenuation and retardance for both polarizers and retarders are presented.

  20. Fact Sheet: Summary of Self-Determination. NRC Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael; Lewin, Lori

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides an explanation of what self determination is, provides the four principles of self determination, describes the values supported by self determination. The authors contend that if self-determination is going to be successful, it requires that those who supply services and fund them make certain changes in both the way they…

  1. The quantitative inspection of iron aluminide green sheet using transient thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Hinders, Mark K.; Scorey, Clive; Winfree, William

    1999-12-01

    The recent development of manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of thin iron aluminide, FeAl, sheet requires advanced quantitative methods for on-line inspection. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for flaws and the development of appropriate flaw detection methods are key elements in an effective quality management system. The first step in the fabrication of thin FeAl alloy sheet is the formation of a green sheet, either by cold rolling or tape casting FeAl powder mixed with organic binding agents. The finished sheet is obtained using a series of process steps involving binder elimination, densification, sintering, and annealing. Non-uniformities within the green sheet are the major contributor to material failure in subsequent sheet processing and the production of non-conforming finished sheet. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of using active thermography to detect the flaws and heterogeneity within green powder composites (1)(2)(3). The production environment and physical characteristics of these composites provide for unique challenges in developing a rapid nondestructive inspection capability. Thermography is non-contact and minimizes the potential damage to the fragile green sheet. Limited access to the material also demands a one-sided inspection technique. In this paper, we will describe the application of thermography for 100% on-line inspection within an industrial process. This approach is cost competitive with alternative technologies, such as x-ray imaging systems, and provides the required sensitivity to the variations in material composition. The formation of green sheet flaws and their transformation into defects within intermediate and finished sheet products will be described. A green sheet conformance criterion will be presented which would significantly reduce the probability of processing poor quality green sheet which contributes to higher waste and inferior bulk alloy sheet.

  2. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

  3. Environmental Management Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    In recent years, the need for nuclear materials has decreased and the Department of Energy (DOE) has focused greater attention on cleaning up contamination left from past activities. The Office of Environmental Management (EM) within DOE is responsible for managing waste and cleaning up contamination at DOE sites across the nation. This collection…

  4. Foldameric probes for membrane interactions by induced β-sheet folding.

    PubMed

    Hegedüs, Zsófia; Makra, Ildikó; Imre, Norbert; Hetényi, Anasztázia; Mándity, István M; Monostori, Éva; Martinek, Tamás A

    2016-01-31

    Design strategies were devised for α/β-peptide foldameric analogues of the antiangiogenic anginex with the goal of mimicking the diverse structural features from the unordered conformation to a folded β-sheet in response to membrane interactions. Structure-activity relationships were investigated in the light of different β-sheet folding levels. PMID:26672754

  5. Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Roberts, Barry C.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of standard and reference atmosphere models along with the history of their origin and use since the mid 19th century. The first "Standard Atmospheres" were established by international agreement in the 1920's. Later some countries, notably the United States, also developed and published "Standard Atmospheres". The term "Reference Atmospheres" is used to identify atmosphere models for specific geographical locations. Range Reference Atmosphere Models developed first during the 1960's are examples of these descriptions of the atmosphere. This paper discusses the various models, scopes, applications and limitations relative to use in aerospace industry activities.

  6. Fact Sheet: Vulnerable Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…

  7. Technology Performance Exchange (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    This fact sheet, 'The Technology Performance Exchange' will be presented at the ET Summit, held at the Pasadena Convention Center on October 15-17, 2012. The Technology Performance Exchange will be a centralized, Web-based portal for finding and sharing energy performance data for commercial building technologies.

  8. Strategic Energy Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    NREL complements its scientific research with high-quality, credible, technology-neutral, objective analysis that informs policy and investment decisions as renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies move from innovation through integration. This sheet highlights NREL's analytical capabilities and achievements.

  9. Fact Sheets on Institutional Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Change, Inc., New York, NY.

    This fact sheet on institutional racism contains statistics on white control of the economy, health, housing, education, the media, and government. It also shows the oppression of minorities in these areas. The areas of wealth, the stock exchange, business, banks, unions, poverty, and unemployment, are discussed in terms of economy. Health matters…

  10. Bedload sheets in heterogeneous sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, P.J.; Dietrich, W.E.; Leopold, L.B.; Drake, T.G.; Shreve, R.L.

    1988-02-01

    Field observations in streams with beds of coarse sand and fine gravel have revealed that bedload moves primarily as thin, migrating accumulations of sediment, and coarse grains cluster at their leading edge. These accumulations are one or two coarse grains high and are much longer (0.2-0.6 m long in sand; 0.5-2.0 m in fine gravel) than their height. The authors propose the term bedload sheet for these features, and the authors argue that they result from an instability inherent to bedload movement of moderately and poorly sorted sediment. In essence, coarse particles in the bedload slow or stop each other, trap finer particles in their interstices, and thus cause the coarse particles to become mobile again. Bedload sheets develop on the stoss side of dunes, causing the dune to advance incrementally with the arrival of each sheet. Successive deposition of coarse sediment from the leading edge followed by fine sediment may generate the grain-size sorting that distinguishes cross-bedding. Available flume experiments and field observations indicate that bedload sheets are a common, but generally unrecognized, feature of heterogeneous sediment transport.

  11. Immigrant Youth Demographics. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios; Lopez, Mark Hugo

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet compares the numbers of 18-25 year-old immigrants by nativity status, gender, race, ethnicity, geographic distribution, country of origin, year of arrival, marital status, educational attainment, and assesses population trends from 1994-2006. These numbers are based on Current Population Survey data. An appendix presents: 2006 At a…

  12. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  13. [Fact Sheets on Working Women].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    These four fact sheets address a number of issues relating to women in the work force. The first, "An Overview of Women in the Work Force," offers a look at the numbers of women in the labor force, the occupational categories represented by women workers, women in professional and nonprofessional occupations, and women in nontraditional…

  14. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  15. Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

  16. Epistemology of Ice Sheet Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waibel, M. S.; Hulbe, C. L.; Johnson, J. V.

    2012-12-01

    Recent change in the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets is observed as surface lowering accompanied by speed up of the ice. One of two types of perturbation is usually invoked to account for these changes, unbalanced forces at either the bed or at the marine margin of the ice sheet. The former is linked to change in meltwater at the bed while the latter is linked to a change in the temperature of the ocean near the margin. Observational data have been used together with numerical models to reproduce both cases. What we ask here is whether or not there is anything distinctive in the observed patterns of change that warrants preferring one type of perturbation over the other. That is, our interest is epistemological: is there anything distinctive in the pattern of ice sheet response to environmental forcing that allows the correct forcing to be identified using observational data? We hypothesize that specific changes in ice dynamics—perturbation at the bed or at the margin—lead to unique patterns of change in ice sheet flow, and thus geometry. For example, ocean warming may have its largest expression close to the coast and then propagate into the interior on time and spatial scales set by the material properties of the ice and various boundary conditions. Other perturbations may yield different patterns. The hypothesis is tested using an ice sheet model and a set of simple perturbations that represent environmental changes that might drive ice sheet change. We use surface lowering (ice thinning) as our indicator of change and conduct an EOF analysis to identify modes in that time dependent field. If leading modes derived from different perturbation experiments are distinguishable, the null hypothesis—that there is nothing diagnostic in the observed changes—is rejected and we conclude that observed patterns of change in ice sheets may be used to identify underlying causes for that change. This, in turn, would yield normal mode "finger prints" for

  17. Whooping Cough (Pertussis) - Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for the Pertussis fact sheet page. The current fact sheet can ... http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/diseases/child/pertussis.html Print page Share Compartir File Formats Help: ...

  18. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  19. The Effect of Solar Forcing on the Greenland Ice Sheet during the Holocene - A Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bügelmayer, Marianne; Roche, Didier; Renssen, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Abrupt climate changes did not only happen during glacials but also during interglacials such as the Holocene. Marine sediments provide evidence for the periodic occurrence of centennial-scale events with enhanced iceberg discharge during the past 11.000 years (Bond et al., 2001). These events were chronologically linked to reduced solar activity as reconstructed using cosmogenic isotopes (Bond et al., 2001), indicating that even an external forcing that is considered to be small, has a potential impact on climate due to several feedback mechanisms (Renssen et al., 2006). The interactions between climate and solar irradiance have been investigated using numerical models (e.g. Haigh, 1996; Renssen et al, 2006), but so far without dynamically computing the Greenland ice sheet and iceberg calving. Thus, the impact of solar variations on iceberg discharge and the underlying mechanisms have not been analysed so far. To analyse the effect of variations in solar activity on the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) and the iceberg calving, as well as possible feedback mechanisms that enhance the impact of the total solar irradiance, we use the earth system model of intermediate complexity (iLOVECLIM, Roche et al., 2013), coupled to the ice sheet/ice shelf model GRISLI (Ritz et al., 2001) and to a dynamic-thermodynamic iceberg module (Jongma et al., 2009, Bügelmayer et al., 2014) to perform transient experiments of the last 6000 years. The experiments are conducted applying reconstructed atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, volcanic aerosol loads, orbital parameters and variations in the total solar irradiance. We present the response of the coupled model to different solar irradiance scenarios to evaluate modeled GIS sensitivity to relatively modest variations in radiative forcing. Moreover, we investigate the dependence of the model results on the chosen model sensitivity. References: Bond, G., Kromer, B., Beer, J., Muscheler, R., Evans, M. N., Showers, W., … Bonani, G

  20. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  1. Live, Digital Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

  2. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  3. Ringin' the water bell: dynamic modes of curved fluid sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolinski, John; Aharoni, Hillel; Fineberg, Jay; Sharon, Eran

    2015-11-01

    A water bell is formed by fluid flowing in a thin, coherent sheet in the shape of a bell. Experimentally, a water bell is created via the impact of a cylindrical jet on a flat surface. Its shape is set by the splash angle (the separation angle) of the resulting cylindrically symmetric water sheet. The separation angle is altered by adjusting the height of a lip surrounding the impact point, as in a water sprinkler. We drive the lip's height sinusoidally, altering the separation angle, and ringin' the water bell. This forcing generates disturbances on the steady-state water bell that propagate forward and backward in the fluid's reference frame at well-defined velocities, and interact, resulting in the emergence of an interference pattern unique to each steady-state geometry. We analytically model these dynamics by linearizing the amplitude of the bell's response about the underlying curved geometry. This simple model predicts the nodal structure over a wide range of steady-state water bell configurations and driving frequencies. Due to the curved water bell geometry, the nodal structure is quite complex; nevertheless, the predicted nodal structure agrees extremely well with the experimental data. When we drive the bell beyond perturbative separation angles, the nodal locations surprisingly persist, despite the strikingly altered underlying water bell shape. At extreme driving amplitudes the water sheet assumes a rich variety of tortuous, non-convex shapes; nevertheless, the fluid sheet remains intact.

  4. The Forming of AISI 409 sheets for fan blade manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Foroni, F. D.; Menezes, M. A.; Moreira Filho, L. A.

    2007-04-07

    The necessity of adapting the standardized fan models to conditions of higher temperature has emerged due to the growth of concern referring to the consequences of the gas expelling after the Mont Blanc tunnel accident in Italy and France, where even though, with 100 fans in operation, 41 people died. The objective of this work is to present an alternative to the market standard fans considering a new technology in constructing blades. This new technology introduces the use of the stainless steel AISI 409 due to its good to temperatures of gas exhaust from tunnels in fire situation. The innovation is centered in the process of a deep drawing of metallic sheets in order to keep the ideal aerodynamic superficies for the fan ideal performance. Through the impression of circles on the sheet plane it is shown, experimentally, that, during the pressing process, the more deformed regions on the sheet plane of the blade can not reach the deformation limits of the utilized sheet material.

  5. 10. VIEW OF THE ADDITION TO BUILDING 883, REFERRED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF THE ADDITION TO BUILDING 883, REFERRED TO AS SIDE C. ARMOR PLATE MADE WITH DEPLETED URANIUM WAS HEATED IN A MOLTEN SALT BATH, THEN PROCESSED THROUGH THE ROLLING MILL TO FORM LARGE SHEETS. (9/16/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. 37 CFR 1.57 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... paragraph, a reference made in the English language in an application data sheet in accordance with § 1.76... English language translation of the previously filed application, and the fee required by § 1.17(i) if it is in a language other than English, and pay the surcharge required by § 1.16(f), to...

  7. 3D modelling of the Tejeda Caldera cone-sheet swarm, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samrock, Lisa K.; Jensen, Max J.; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Mattsson, Tobias; Geiger, Harri

    2015-04-01

    Cone-sheet swarms provide vital information on the interior of volcanic systems and their plumbing systems (e.g. Burchardt et al. 2013). This information is important for the interpretation of processes and dynamics of modern and ancient volcanic systems, and is therefore vital for assessing volcanic hazards and to reduce risks to modern society. To more realistically model cone-sheet emplacement an approximation of their 3D shape needs to be known. Most cone-sheet swarms are not sufficiently exposed laterally and/or vertically, however, which makes it difficult to determine the geometry of a cone-sheet swarm at depth, especially since different shapes (e.g. convex, straight or concave continuations) would produce a similar trace at the surface (cf. Burchardt et al. 2011, and references therein). The Miocene Tejeda Caldera on Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain, hosts a cone-sheet swarm that was emplaced into volcaniclastic caldera infill at about 12.3-7.3 Ma (Schirnick et al. 1999). The dyke swarm displays over 1000 m of vertical exposure and more than 15 km of horizontal exposure, making it a superb locality to study the evolution of cone-sheet swarms in detail and to determine its actual geometry in 3D space. We have used structural data of Schirnick (1996) to model the geometry of the Tejeda cone-sheet in 3D, using the software Move® by Midland Valley Ltd. Based on previous 2D projections, Schirnick et al. (1999) suggested that the cone-sheet swarm is formed by a stack of parallel intrusive sheets which have a truncated dome geometry and form a concentric structure around a central axis, assuming straight sheet-intrusions. Our 3D model gives insight into the symmetries of the sheets and the overall geometry of the cone-sheet swarm below the surface. This visualization now allows to grasp the complexity of the Tejeda cone-sheet swarm at depth, particularly in relation to different possible cone-sheet geometries suggested in the literature (cf. Burchardt et al

  8. The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, A.; Ivins, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in the mass of ice stored in Antarctica and Greenland are of considerable societal importance. The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-Comparison Exercise (IMBIE) is a joint-initiative of ESA and NASA aimed at producing a single estimate of the global sea level contribution to polar ice sheet losses. Within IMBIE, estimates of ice sheet mass balance are developed from a variety of satellite geodetic techniques using a common spatial and temporal reference frame and a common appreciation of the contributions due to external signals. The project brings together the laboratories and space agencies that have been instrumental in developing independent estimates of ice sheet mass balance to date. In its first phase, IMBIE involved 27 science teams, and delivered a first community assessment of ice sheet mass imbalance to replace 40 individual estimates. The project established that (i) there is good agreement between the three main satellite-based techniques for estimating ice sheet mass balance, (ii) combining satellite data sets leads to significant improvement in certainty, (iii) the polar ice sheets contributed 11 ± 4 mm to global sea levels between 1992 and 2012, and (iv) that combined ice losses from Antarctica and Greenland have increased over time, rising from 10% of the global trend in the early 1990's to 30% in the late 2000's. Demand for an updated assessment has grown, and there are now new satellite missions, new geophysical corrections, new techniques, and new teams producing data. The period of overlap between independent satellite techniques has increased from 5 to 12 years, and the full period of satellite data over which an assessment can be performed has increased from 19 to 40 years. It is also clear that multiple satellite techniques are required to confidently separate mass changes associated with snowfall and ice dynamical imbalance - information that is of critical importance for climate modelling. This presentation outlines the approach

  9. Participation in Sports and Civic Engagement. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mark Hugo; Moore, Kimberlee

    2006-01-01

    One reason to offer sports in school is to teach youth the values, skills, and habits that will make them more active, engaged, and responsible citizens. Past evidence on the civic effects of sports is mixed, but points to some potential positive civic effects. This fact sheet uses recent data from the 2002 National Youth Survey of Civic…

  10. State Arts Agency Fact Sheet: Support for Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This national overview of state arts agency grants and services for arts education includes summary statistics and geographic distribution. The fact sheet uses data from Final Descriptive Reports of state arts agency grant-making activities submitted annually to the National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) and the National Endowment for…

  11. Runaway electrons in plasma current sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Sudan, R.N. )

    1994-01-31

    It is shown that a runaway electron population accelerates along the main magnetic field in a Sweet-Parker current sheet. After a characteristic distance the entire current is carried by runaways. The thickness of this runaway sheet is much smaller than the original Ohmic sheet. The influence of microinstabilities is discussed.

  12. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Bridges, Robert L.

    2004-01-13

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  13. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Bridges, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  14. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact sheets for the insulation products you sell to them. Each sheet must contain what is listed here. You can... uses. (b) A heading: “This is ____ insulation.” Fill in the blank with the type and form of...

  15. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact sheets for the insulation products you sell to them. Each sheet must contain what is listed here. You can... uses. (b) A heading: “This is ____ insulation.” Fill in the blank with the type and form of...

  16. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact sheets for the insulation products you sell to them. Each sheet must contain what is listed here. You can... uses. (b) A heading: “This is ____ insulation.” Fill in the blank with the type and form of...

  17. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact sheets for the insulation products you sell to them. Each sheet must contain what is listed here. You can... uses. (b) A heading: “This is ____ insulation.” Fill in the blank with the type and form of...

  18. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact sheets for the insulation products you sell to them. Each sheet must contain what is listed here. You can... uses. (b) A heading: “This is ____ insulation.” Fill in the blank with the type and form of...

  19. Sheet Metal Worker: A Training Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    This training profile is intended for use by program developers and trainers in the development of training courses and programs for sheet metal workers. It contains 17 modules: safety for sheet metal worker; tools and machinery; materials and gauges; drafting and shop drawing; pattern development; methods of joining sheet metal; shearing and…

  20. Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treatment Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast cancer treatment fact sheet ePublications Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet Print this fact sheet Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet (PDF, 943 KB) Related information ...

  1. Effects of Coaching on Educators' and Preschoolers' Use of References to Print and Phonological Awareness during a Small-Group Craft/Writing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigated the effects of coaching as part of an emergent literacy professional development program to increase early childhood educators' use of verbal references to print and phonological awareness during interactions with children. Method: Thirty-one educators and 4 children from each of their classrooms (N = 121)…

  2. The Venus ionopause current sheet - Thickness length scale and controlling factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Scarf, F. L.; Brace, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the fluxgate magnetometer, plasma wave experiment and Langmuir probe aboard Pioneer Venus are used to investigate the characteristic thickness length scale of the ionopause current sheet, as well as how this length scale is controlled. Thickness is found to be a bistatic quality, large scales being associated with high field strengths and current sheet altitudes below 300 km, while smaller scales are found with lower field strengths and ionopause altitudes above 300 km. Ion collisions and plasma wave activity contribute to the formation of the broader, low-altitude ionopause current sheets. Although evidence suggests that the wave activity influences the thin ionopause current sheets, a simple model points to the control of the thin ionopause current sheets by ionospheric ion and electron temperatures

  3. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  4. Bedforms of the Keewatin Ice Sheet, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylsworth, J. M.; Shilts, W. W.

    1989-05-01

    By compiling glacial bedforms on a map that covers most of one sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, it is possible to make some suggestions about their genesis based largely on spatial relationships. It can be concluded that drumlins and ribbed moraine form at the base of actively flowing ice under similar dynamic conditions. For either landform to exist, however, there must have been enough sediment available in the base of the glacier to leave or form a feature large enough to be recognizable. The presence or absence of sufficient load is related to the geology of the glacier bed and has little to do with regionally changing dynamics of the ice-water system. Likewise, given sufficient load, it is evident that whether drumlins formed or whether ribbed moraine formed in a certain area is a function of the physical nature of the load which is, again, related to geology of the source outcrops. Whether the physical characteristics come into play after the sediment has been released from the ice and is being reshaped by basal drag, streamlining, etc., or whether the nature of the load while entrained changes the behaviour of the basal part of the ice is unclear. Physical characteristics of the basal sediment load have apparently promoted internal thrusting of coherent slabs of entrained debris and ice to form ribbed moraine on melting, whereas drumlins may reflect moulding of plastic subglacial debris or erosional streamlining of both the unconsolidated glacial substrate and bedrock. The observation that many eskers cross drumlin fields at nearly right angles to their orientation suggests that conditions producing streamlining and those pertaining to subglacial drainage are separated in time and circumstance. The general occurrence of drumlins and eskers throughout the sediment-rich portions of the Keewatin Ice Sheet, from Zone 1 to its edge, is difficult to reconcile with the restriction and intimate association of these forms with ribbed moraine almost exclusively in

  5. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  6. Tank characterization reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  7. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  8. A statistical study on the shape and position of the magnetotail neutral sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Sudong; Zhang, Tielong; Ge, Yasong; Wang, Guoqiang; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Nakamura, Rumi

    2016-02-01

    We study the average shape and position of the magnetotail neutral sheet based on magnetic field data obtained by Cluster, Geotail, TC-1, and THEMIS from the years 1995 to 2013. All data in the aberrated GSM (geocentric solar magnetospheric) coordinate system are normalized to the same solar wind pressure 2 nPa and downtail distance X ˜ -20RE. Our results show characteristics of the neutral sheet, as follows. (1) The neutral sheet assumes a greater degree of curve in the YZ cross section when the dipole tilt increases, the Earth dipole tilt angle affects the neutral sheet configuration not only in the YZ cross section but also in the XY cross section, and the neutral sheet assumes a more significant degree of tilt in the XY cross section when the dipole tilt increases. (2) Counterclockwise twisting of the neutral sheet with 3.10° is observed, looking along the downtail direction, for the positive interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) BY with a value of 3 to 8 nT, and clockwise twisting of the neutral sheet with 3.37° for the negative IMF BY with a value of -8 to -3 nT, and a northward IMF can result in a greater twisting of the near-tail neutral sheet than southward. The above results can be a reference to the neutral sheet model. Our large database also shows that the displaced ellipse model is effective to study the average shape of the neutral sheet with proper parameters when the dipole tilt angle is larger (less) than 10° (-10° ).

  9. Action Sheet 36 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kips, R E; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D

    2012-02-24

    Pursuant to the Arrangement between the European Commission DG Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) to continue cooperation on research, development, testing, and evaluation of technology, equipment, and procedures in order to improve nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for international safeguards, dated 1 September 2008, the IRMM and LLNL established cooperation in a program on the Study of Chemical Changes in Uranium Oxyfluoride Particles under IRMM-LLNL Action Sheet 36. The work under this action sheet had 2 objectives: (1) Achieve a better understanding of the loss of fluorine in UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} particles after exposure to certain environmental conditions; and (2) Provide feedback to the EC-JRC on sample reproducibility and characteristics.

  10. Reconnection in thin current sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenerani, Anna; Velli, Marco; Pucci, Fulvia; Rappazzo, A. F.

    2016-05-01

    It has been widely believed that reconnection is the underlying mechanism of many explosive processes observed both in nature and laboratory, but the question of reconnection speed and initial trigger have remained mysterious. How is fast magnetic energy release triggered in high Lundquist (S) and Reynolds (R) number plasmas?It has been shown that a tearing mode instability can grow on an ideal timescale, i.e., independent from the the Lundquist number, once the current sheet thickness becomes thin enough, or rather the inverse aspect ratio a/L reaches a scale a/L~S-1/3. As such, the latter provides a natural, critical threshold for current sheets that can be formed in nature before they disrupt in a few Alfvén time units. Here we discuss the transition to fast reconnection extended to simple viscous and kinetic models and we propose a possible scenario for the transition to explosive reconnection in high-Lundquist number plasmas, that we support with fully nonlinear numerical MHD simulations of a collapsing current sheet.

  11. Peeling behavior and spalling resistance of CFRP sheets bonded to bent concrete surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hong; Li, Faping

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, the peeling behavior and the spalling resistance effect of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets externally bonded to bent concrete surfaces are firstly investigated experimentally. Twenty one curved specimens and seven plane specimens are studied in the paper, in which curved specimens with bonded CFRP sheets can simulate the concrete spalling in tunnel, culvert, arch bridge etc., whereas plane specimens with bonded CFRP sheets can simulate the concrete spalling in beam bridge, slab bridge and pedestrian bridge. Three kinds of curved specimens with different radii of curvature are chosen by referring to practical tunnel structures, and plane specimens are used for comparison with curved ones. A peeling load is applied on the FRP sheet by loading a circular steel tube placed into the central notch of beam to debond CFRP sheets from the bent concrete surface, meanwhile full-range load-deflection curves are recorded by a MTS 831.10 Elastomer Test System. Based on the experimental results, a theoretical analysis is also conducted for the specimens. Both theoretical and experimental results show that only two material parameters, the interfacial fracture energy of CFRP-concrete interface and the tensile stiffness of CFRP sheets, are needed for describing the interfacial spalling behavior. It is found that the radius of curvature has remarkable influence on peeling load-deflection curves. The test methods and test results given in the paper are helpful and available for reference to the designer of tunnel strengthening.

  12. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  13. The Test of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Reports the results of an unobtrusive study, from a user's viewpoint, of reference services available in the Suffolk Cooperative Library System. The study raises questions of policy centering around user expectations of library reference services. (RAA)

  14. A digital elevation model of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from combined laser and radar altimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Smith, Ben; Sørensen, Louise S.; Forsberg, René

    2014-05-01

    When estimating elevation changes of ice-covered surfaces from radar altimetry, it is important to correct for slope-induced errors. They cause the reflecting point of the pulse to move up-slope and thus return estimates in the wrong coordinates. Slope-induced errors can be corrected for by introducing a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this work, such a DEM is developed for the Greenland Ice Sheet using a combination of Envisat radar and ICESat laser altimetry. If time permits, CryoSat radar altimetry will be included as well. The reference year is 2010 and the spatial resolution 2.5 x 2.5 km. This is in accordance with the results obtained in the ESA Ice Sheets CCI project showing that a 5 x 5 km grid spacing is reasonable for ice sheet-wide change detection (Levinsen et al., 2013). Separate DEMs will be created for the given data sets, and the geostatistical spatial interpolation method collocation will be used to merge them, thus adjusting for potential inter-satellite biases. The final DEM is validated with temporally and spatially agreeing airborne lidar data acquired in the NASA IceBridge and ESA CryoVex campaigns. The motivation for developing a new DEM is based on 1) large surface changes presently being observed, and mainly in margin regions, hence necessitating updated topography maps for accurately deriving and correcting surface elevation changes, and 2) although radar altimetry is subject to surface penetration of the signal into the snowpack, data is acquired continuously in time. This is not the case with e.g. ICESat, where laser altimetry data were obtained in periods of active lasers, i.e. three times a year with a 35-day repeat track. Previous DEMs e.g. have 2007 as the nominal reference year, or they are built merely from ICESat data. These have elevation errors as small as 10 cm, which is lower than for Envisat and CryoSat. The advantage of an updated DEM consisting of combined radar and laser altimetry therefore is the possibility of

  15. Assessment of Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Seggern, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of materials dealing with the evaluation of library reference services is arranged by category including literature success, quality, and accuracy of answers; cost and task analysis; interviews and communication; classification of reference questions; reference collections; staff availability; use and nonuse of…

  16. Academic Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Fred

    This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

  17. Formation and separation of merged liquid sheets developed from the mixing of coaxial swirling liquid sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, D.; Raghunandan, B. N.

    2003-11-01

    Liquid-liquid coaxial swirl atomizers are used in liquid rocket engines to achieve an efficient mixing between the fuel and oxidizer sprays. The characteristics of the mixed spray are mainly controlled by the flow behavior of merged liquid sheet originating at the contact point of inner and outer swirling liquid sheets. With an intention of identifying various flow regimes of merged liquid sheet at different conditions of inner and outer liquid sheets, we report here a fundamental experimental investigation on the characteristics of merged liquid sheets using water as the experimental liquid. The physical processes involved in the formation and separation of a merged liquid sheet are described from the experimental measurements. For a given outer liquid sheet condition, the merged liquid sheet forms and separates at specific inner liquid sheet flow conditions. At low outer liquid sheet flow conditions with Weber number less than 50, the merged liquid sheet exhibits a self-sustaining periodic separation process, whose frequency increases with increasing inner liquid sheet Weber number for a given outer liquid sheet Weber number. Experimental measurements are presented to show that the dynamics of the contact point plays a major role in governing the characteristics of merged liquid sheets.

  18. Current Sheet Formation and Reconnection Dynamics in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Justin K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2009-05-01

    Current sheet formation is a necessary consequence of the evolution of the multi-polar magnetic field topologies that are ubiquitous throughout the solar corona. We present a very high-resolution study of 3D MHD current sheet formation and the resulting reconnection dynamics in an environment appropriate for the corona. The initial field consists of a translationally invariant, potential field with a null-point topology (i.e., 4-flux systems) and a low-beta plasma. A finite-extent, 3D Syrovatskii-type current sheet forms as a result of stressing of this system by a uniform, incompressible flow applied at the line-tied photospheric boundary. The system is assumed to be ideal, except for the presence of numerical resistivity. The fully 3-D evolution is calculated with very high resolution (9x and 10x refinement across the full extent of the current sheet) using the Adaptively Refined MHD Solver (ARMS). The initial evolution of this computationally-intensive simulation results in a current sheet with a nearly 30-to-1 aspect ratio, a significant fraction of the system characteristic length, that unexpectedly appears to be stable. In addition, up to this point in the evolution any magnetic reconnection that we observe is of the slow Sweet-Parker type. We expect, however, that as we continue stressing the field, the current sheet will become unstable and develop explosive dynamics. We discuss the implications of our results on coronal structure and activity, such as heating and eruptions. This work has been supported, in part, by the NASA HTP and SR&T programs.

  19. Magnetic Reconnection Onset and Energy Release at Current Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2015-04-01

    Reconnection and energy release at current sheets are important at the Sun (coronal heating, coronal mass ejections, flares, and jets) and at the Earth (magnetopause flux transfer events and magnetotail substorms) and other magnetized planets, and occur also at the interface between the Heliosphere and the interstellar medium, the heliopause. The consequences range from relatively quiescent heating of the ambient plasma to highly explosive releases of energy and accelerated particles. We use the Adaptively Refined Magnetohydrodynamics Solver (ARMS) model to investigate the self-consistent formation and reconnection of current sheets in an initially potential 2D magnetic field containing a magnetic null point. Unequal stresses applied to the four quadrants bounded by the X-line separatrix distort the potential null into a double-Y-type current sheet. We find that this distortion eventually leads to onset of fast magnetic reconnection across the sheet, with copious production, merging, and ejection of magnetic islands due to plasmoid instability. In the absence of a mechanism for ideal instability or loss of equilibrium of the global structure, however, this reconnection leads to minimal energy release. Essentially, the current sheet oscillates about its force-free equilibrium configuration. When the structure is susceptible to a large-scale rearrangement of the magnetic field, on the other hand, the energy release becomes explosive. We identify the conditions required for reconnection to transform rapidly a large fraction of the magnetic free energy into kinetic and other forms of plasma energy, and to restructure the current sheet and its surrounding magnetic field dramatically. We discuss the implications of our results for understanding heliophysical activity, particularly eruptions, flares, and jets in the corona.Our research was supported by NASA’s Heliophysics Supporting Research and Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology programs.

  20. Solar America Cities Awards, Solar Energy Technologies Program, Fact Sheet, March 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-03-01

    This publication represents an ongoing effort to support outreach activities through the Solar America Cities program. The two-page fact sheet offers an overview of the SAC program and lists specific resources for more information on developing solar programs.

  1. Keratinocyte cytoskeletal roles in cell sheet engineering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing need to understand cell-cell interactions for cell and tissue engineering purposes, such as optimizing cell sheet constructs, as well as for examining adhesion defect diseases. For cell-sheet engineering, one major obstacle to sheet function is that cell sheets in suspension are fragile and, over time, will contract. While the role of the cytoskeleton in maintaining the structure and adhesion of cells cultured on a rigid substrate is well-characterized, a systematic examination of the role played by different components of the cytoskeleton in regulating cell sheet contraction and cohesion in the absence of a substrate has been lacking. Results In this study, keratinocytes were cultured until confluent and cell sheets were generated using dispase to remove the influence of the substrate. The effects of disrupting actin, microtubules or intermediate filaments on cell-cell interactions were assessed by measuring cell sheet cohesion and contraction. Keratin intermediate filament disruption caused comparable effects on cell sheet cohesion and contraction, when compared to actin or microtubule disruption. Interfering with actomyosin contraction demonstrated that interfering with cell contraction can also diminish cell cohesion. Conclusions All components of the cytoskeleton are involved in maintaining cell sheet cohesion and contraction, although not to the same extent. These findings demonstrate that substrate-free cell sheet biomechanical properties are dependent on the integrity of the cytoskeleton network. PMID:23442760

  2. Magma rheology variation in sheet intrusions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, C.; O'Driscoll, B.; Petronis, M. S.; Stevenson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The rheology of magma fundamentally controls igneous intrusion style as well as the explosivity and type of volcanic eruptions. Importantly, the dynamic interplay between the viscosity of magma and other processes active during intrusion (e.g., crystallisation, magma mixing, assimilation of crystal mushes and/or xenolith entrainment) will likely bear an influence on the temporal variation of magma rheology. Constraining the timing of rheological changes during magma transit therefore plays an important role in understanding the nuances of volcanic systems. However, the rheological evolution of actively emplacing igneous intrusions cannot be directly studied. While significant advances have been made via experimental modelling and analysis of lava flows, how these findings relate to intruding magma remains unclear. This has led to an increasing number of studies that analyse various characteristics of fully crystallised intrusions in an attempt to ';back-out' the rheological conditions governing emplacement. For example, it has long been known that crystallinity affects the rheology and, consequently, the velocity of intruding magma. This means that quantitative textural analysis of crystal populations (e.g., crystal size distribution; CSD) used to elucidate crystallinity at different stages of emplacement can provide insights into magma rheology. Similarly, methods that measure flow-related fabrics (e.g., anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility; AMS) can be used to discern velocity profiles, a potential proxy for the magma rheology. To illustrate these ideas, we present an integrated AMS and petrological study of several sheet intrusions located within the Ardnamurchan Central Complex, NW Scotland. We focus on the entrainment and transport dynamics of gabbroic inclusions that were infiltrated by the host magma upon entrainment. Importantly, groundmass magnetic fabrics within and external to these inclusions are coaxial. This implies that a deviatoric stress was

  3. Casimir interactions between graphene sheets and metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Drosdoff, D.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2011-12-15

    The Casimir force between graphene sheets and metamaterials is studied. Theoretical results based on the Lifshitz theory for layered, planar, two-dimensional systems in media are presented. We consider graphene-graphene, graphene-metamaterial, and metal-graphene-metamaterial configurations. We find that quantum effects of the temperature-dependent force are not apparent until the submicron range. In contrast to results with bulk dielectric and bulk metallic materials, no Casimir repulsion is found when graphene is placed on top of a magnetically active metamaterial substrate, regardless of the strength of the low-frequency magnetic response. In the case of the metal-graphene-metamaterial setting, repulsion between the metamaterial and the metal-graphene system is possible only when the dielectric response from the metal contributes significantly.

  4. NUCLEAR SCIENCE REFERENCES CODING MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    WINCHELL,D.F.

    2007-04-01

    This manual is intended as a guide for Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. The NSR database originated at the Nuclear Data Project (NDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of a project for systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data.1 Each entry in this computer file corresponds to a bibliographic reference that is uniquely identified by a Keynumber and is describable by a Topic and Keywords. It has been used since 1969 to produce bibliographic citations for evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. Periodic additions to the file were published as the ''Recent References'' issues of Nuclear Data Sheets prior to 2005. In October 1980, the maintenance and updating of the NSR file became the responsibility of the NNDC at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The basic structure and contents of the NSR file remained unchanged during the transfer. In Chapter 2, the elements of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, and text fields are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file and assignment of a keynumber are also given in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the format for keyword abstracts is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Chapter 3. The scope of 1See W.B.Ewbank, ORNL-5397 (1978). the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Chapter 4. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is

  5. Analogies between Jovian magnetodisk and heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislov, Roman; Khabarova, Olga; Malova, Helmi

    Recently due to the development of spatial missions the famous model by E. Parker [1] faced with some problems, such as the effect of magnetic flux excess and the existence of latitude component of magnetic field [2]. Thus the incomplete knowledge about large scale current system of heliospheric current sheet (HCS) motivated us to construct and investigate the self-consistent axisymmetric stationary MHD model of HCS and to compare it with earlier presented model of Jupiterian magnetodisk [3]. Both HCS and magnetodisk have inner plasma sources (i.e. the Sun in case of HCS and satellite Io in case of Jupiter); also they depend on the centrifugal force at small distances and on corotation processes. They both have strong radial component of current density, thin elongated structure etc. Thus in the frame of the MHD model we have calculated for HCS the parallel currents (analogous to Jovian Birkeland currents) and we obtained the latitude component of the magnetic field. The results of the model allowed us to explain the magnetic flux excess by the existence of the self-consistent HCS magnetic field. The decrease of radial magnetic field from the distance from the Sun as the power -5/3 obtained by numerical calculations is in good agreement with experimental data. Generally this model can be applied for the quiet period of the low solar activity when the perturbation of HCS structure named “ballerina skirt” does not play any role. References: 1. Parker E. N., Astrophys. J., V. 128, 664, pp. 664-676, 1958. 2. Khabarova O. V., Астрономический журнал, V. 90, №11, pp. 919-935, 2013. 3. Kislov R.A. et al., Bull. MSU, Physics and Astron., 2013

  6. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker; Sitzman, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet.

  7. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.; Sitzman, G.W.

    1998-10-27

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet is disclosed including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet. 2 figs.

  8. Immobilization of TiO2 nanofibers on reduced graphene sheets: Novel strategy in electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Pant, Hem Raj; Adhikari, Surya Prasad; Pant, Bishweshwar; Joshi, Mahesh K; Kim, Han Joo; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2015-11-01

    A simple and efficient approach is developed to immobilize TiO2 nanofibers onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. Here, TiO2 nanofiber-intercalated RGO sheets are readily produced by two-step procedure involving the use of electrospinning process to fabricate TiO2 precursor containing polymeric fibers on the surface of GO sheets, followed by simultaneous TiO2 nanofibers formation and GO reduction by calcinations. GO sheets deposited on the collector during electrospinning/electrospray can act as substrate on to which TiO2 precursor containing polymer nanofibers can be deposited which give TiO2 NFs doped RGO sheets on calcinations. Formation of corrugated structure cavities of graphene sheets decorated with TiO2 nanofibers on their surface demonstrates that our method constitutes an alternative top-down strategy toward fabricating verities of nanofiber-decorated graphene sheets. It was found that the synthesized TiO2/RGO composite revealed a remarkable increased in photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO2 nanofibers. Therefore, engineering of TiO2 nanofiber-intercalated RGO sheets using proposed facile technique can be considered a promising method for catalytic and other applications. PMID:26164250

  9. ISMIP6 - initMIP: Greenland ice sheet model initialisation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelzer, Heiko; Nowicki, Sophie; Payne, Tony; Larour, Eric; Abe Ouchi, Ayako; Gregory, Jonathan; Lipscomb, William; Seroussi, Helene; Shepherd, Andrew; Edwards, Tamsin

    2016-04-01

    Earlier large-scale Greenland ice sheet sea-level projections e.g. those run during ice2sea and SeaRISE initiatives have shown that ice sheet initialisation can have a large effect on the projections and gives rise to important uncertainties. This intercomparison exercise (initMIP) aims at comparing, evaluating and improving the initialization techniques used in the ice sheet modeling community and to estimate the associated uncertainties. It is the first in a series of ice sheet model intercomparison activities within ISMIP6 (Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6). The experiments are conceived for the large-scale Greenland ice sheet and are designed to allow intercomparison between participating models of 1) the initial present-day state of the ice sheet and 2) the response in two schematic forward experiments. The latter experiments serve to evaluate the initialisation in terms of model drift (forward run without any forcing) and response to a large perturbation (prescribed surface mass balance anomaly). We present and discuss first results of the intercomparison and highlight important uncertainties with respect to projections of the Greenland ice sheet sea-level contribution.

  10. Infused polymers for cell sheet release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juthani, Nidhi; Howell, Caitlin; Ledoux, Haylea; Sotiri, Irini; Kelso, Susan; Kovalenko, Yevgen; Tajik, Amanda; Vu, Thy L.; Lin, Jennifer J.; Sutton, Amy; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    Tissue engineering using whole, intact cell sheets has shown promise in many cell-based therapies. However, current systems for the growth and release of these sheets can be expensive to purchase or difficult to fabricate, hindering their widespread use. Here, we describe a new approach to cell sheet release surfaces based on silicone oil-infused polydimethylsiloxane. By coating the surfaces with a layer of fibronectin (FN), we were able to grow mesenchymal stem cells to densities comparable to those of tissue culture polystyrene controls (TCPS). Simple introduction of oil underneath an edge of the sheet caused it to separate from the substrate. Characterization of sheets post-transfer showed that they retain their FN layer and morphology, remain highly viable, and are able to grow and proliferate normally after transfer. We expect that this method of cell sheet growth and detachment may be useful for low-cost, flexible, and customizable production of cellular layers for tissue engineering.

  11. Drying apparatus for photographic sheet material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, P.; Donovan, G.; Lawhite, E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An elongated drying chamber is provided with transport means for carrying photographic sheet material edgewise with the sheets in end-to-end relationship past a plurality of tubes that issue drying air streams. The tubes are slotted a distance equal to substantially the full width of the sheet material for complete, gentle drying by sheets of air. A common plenum supplies the tubes with heated air; the air is directed from the tube slots at a pronounced angle to the sheet surface to provide for arraying the tubes close to the surface for maximum drying effect while minimizing the danger of mechanical interference between the edges of the sheets and the slots in the tubes. The driver for the transport is housed in an enclosure between the plenum and the drying chamber; an air return duct is provided along another side to complete insulation of the drying chamber from ambient conditions.

  12. Thin sheets achieve optimal wrapping of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Joseph; Démery, Vincent; Davidovitch, Benny; Santangelo, Christian; Russell, Thomas; Menon, Narayanan

    2015-03-01

    A liquid drop can wrap itself in a sheet using capillary forces [Py et al., PRL 98, 2007]. However, the efficiency of ``capillary origami'' at covering the surface of a drop is hampered by the mechanical cost of bending the sheet. Thinner sheets deform more readily by forming small-scale wrinkles and stress-focussing patterns, but it is unclear how coverage efficiency competes with mechanical cost as thickness is decreased, and what wrapping shapes will emerge. We place a thin (~ 100 nm) polymer film on a drop whose volume is gradually decreased so that the sheet covers an increasing fraction of its surface. The sheet exhibits a complex sequence of axisymmetric and polygonal partially- and fully- wrapped shapes. Remarkably, the progression appears independent of mechanical properties. The gross shape, which neglects small-scale features, is correctly predicted by a simple geometric approach wherein the exposed area is minimized. Thus, simply using a thin enough sheet results in maximal coverage.

  13. Infused polymers for cell sheet release

    PubMed Central

    Juthani, Nidhi; Howell, Caitlin; Ledoux, Haylea; Sotiri, Irini; Kelso, Susan; Kovalenko, Yevgen; Tajik, Amanda; Vu, Thy L.; Lin, Jennifer J.; Sutton, Amy; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering using whole, intact cell sheets has shown promise in many cell-based therapies. However, current systems for the growth and release of these sheets can be expensive to purchase or difficult to fabricate, hindering their widespread use. Here, we describe a new approach to cell sheet release surfaces based on silicone oil-infused polydimethylsiloxane. By coating the surfaces with a layer of fibronectin (FN), we were able to grow mesenchymal stem cells to densities comparable to those of tissue culture polystyrene controls (TCPS). Simple introduction of oil underneath an edge of the sheet caused it to separate from the substrate. Characterization of sheets post-transfer showed that they retain their FN layer and morphology, remain highly viable, and are able to grow and proliferate normally after transfer. We expect that this method of cell sheet growth and detachment may be useful for low-cost, flexible, and customizable production of cellular layers for tissue engineering. PMID:27189419

  14. Infused polymers for cell sheet release.

    PubMed

    Juthani, Nidhi; Howell, Caitlin; Ledoux, Haylea; Sotiri, Irini; Kelso, Susan; Kovalenko, Yevgen; Tajik, Amanda; Vu, Thy L; Lin, Jennifer J; Sutton, Amy; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering using whole, intact cell sheets has shown promise in many cell-based therapies. However, current systems for the growth and release of these sheets can be expensive to purchase or difficult to fabricate, hindering their widespread use. Here, we describe a new approach to cell sheet release surfaces based on silicone oil-infused polydimethylsiloxane. By coating the surfaces with a layer of fibronectin (FN), we were able to grow mesenchymal stem cells to densities comparable to those of tissue culture polystyrene controls (TCPS). Simple introduction of oil underneath an edge of the sheet caused it to separate from the substrate. Characterization of sheets post-transfer showed that they retain their FN layer and morphology, remain highly viable, and are able to grow and proliferate normally after transfer. We expect that this method of cell sheet growth and detachment may be useful for low-cost, flexible, and customizable production of cellular layers for tissue engineering. PMID:27189419

  15. Marine & Hydrokinetic Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-04-01

    This fact sheet describes the U.S. Department of Energy's Water Power Program. The program supports the development of advanced water power devices that capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, rivers, streams, and ocean thermal gradients. The program works to promote the development and deployment of these new technologies, known as marine and hydrokinetic technologies, to assess the potential extractable energy from rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters, and to help industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity.

  16. Optical Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Optical Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Optical Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) conducts optical characterization of large solar concentration devices. Concentration solar power (CSP) mirror panels and concentrating solar systems are tested with an emphasis is on measurement of parabolic trough mirror panels. The Optical Characterization Laboratory provides state-of-the-art characterization and testing capabilities for assessing the optical surface quality and optical performance for various CSP technologies including parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel, dishes, and heliostats.

  17. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 221

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Jain, Ashok; Singh, Sukhjeet; Kumar, Suresh; Tuli, Jagdish K.

    2007-04-15

    The 1990 Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 221 mass chain (1990Ak05) have been updated on the basis of the experimental results from various reaction and decay studies leading to nuclides in the A = 221 (Z = 85 to 92) since July 1990 (cutoff date of the last evaluation). The results obtained from various theoretical studies are given as comments. The updated level schemes and decay schemes, and experimental decay and reaction data on which they are based, are summarized and presented for all nuclides with mass number A = 221. The adopted values of level energies, level spins and parities are given, and {gamma}-ray energies, {gamma}-ray intensities, as well as other nuclear properties are presented. The references, J{pi} arguments, and necessary comments are given in the text. New measurements have been reported in Rn,Fr,Ra, and Ac and one new nuclide ({sup 221}U) has been given. All Q values have been adopted from 2003Au03.

  18. Application of atelocollagen sheet for sellar reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yuko; Oshino, Satoru; Shimizu, Takeshi; Saitoh, Youichi

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to evaluate combined use of atelocollagen sheet and fibrin glue for sellar reconstruction. Experiment 1: A plastic chamber was prepared with a hydroxyapatite lid with a hole of 10mm in diameter at its center, covered with a Gore-Tex sheet (W.L. Gore & Associates, Tokyo, Japan) 15mm in diameter and sealed with a combination of fibrin glue sealant and either atelocollagen sheet or polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet. Air was injected into the chamber and the pressure at which air leakage occurred was measured under each situation. Mean (±standard deviation) leakage pressure was 816±162mmH2O for atelocollagen sheet (n=5), significantly higher than the 557±130mmH2O for PGA sheet (n=5, p<0.05, Wilcoxon test). Experiment 2: Bilateral 5mm bone windows were made in the temporal bone in eight rats. The surgical cavities were filled with one of four materials (fibrin glue only; fibrin glue and atelocollagen sheet; PGA sheet; or autologous fat tissue). Histological changes including the status of implanted materials and inflammatory responses were investigated 2 and 5weeks after the procedures. Both atelocollagen and PGA sheets remained at 5weeks after implantation, whereas fibrin glue and fat tissue were absorbed and undetectable at 2weeks. Inflammatory cell accumulation was less around the atelocollagen sheet compared to the PGA sheet. The combination of atelocollagen sheet and fibrin glue sealant showed sufficient adhesion force and favorable tissue affinity, suggesting this combination as a feasible material in sellar reconstruction. PMID:26778360

  19. Failure prediction of thin beryllium sheets used in spacecraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschke, Paul N.; Papados, Photios; Mascorro, Edward

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to predict failure for cross-rolled beryllium sheet structures, high order macroscopic failure criteria are used. These require the knowledge of in-plane uniaxial and shear strengths. Test results are included for in-plane biaxial tension, uniaxial compression for two different material orientations, and shear. All beryllium specimens have the same chemical composition. In addition, all experimental work was performed in a controlled laboratory environment. Numerical simulation complements these tests. A brief bibliography supplements references listed in a previous report.

  20. Energetic O+ and H+ Ions in the Plasma Sheet: Implications for the Transport of Ionospheric Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohtani, S.; Nose, M.; Christon, S. P.; Lui, A. T.

    2011-01-01

    The present study statistically examines the characteristics of energetic ions in the plasma sheet using the Geotail/Energetic Particle and Ion Composition data. An emphasis is placed on the O+ ions, and the characteristics of the H+ ions are used as references. The following is a summary of the results. (1) The average O+ energy is lower during solar maximum and higher during solar minimum. A similar tendency is also found for the average H+ energy, but only for geomagnetically active times; (2) The O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities are several times higher during solar maximum than during solar minimum; (3) The average H+ and O+ energies and the O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities all increase with geomagnetic activity. The differences among different solar phases not only persist but also increase with increasing geomagnetic activity; (4) Whereas the average H+ energy increases toward Earth, the average O+ energy decreases toward Earth. The average energy increases toward dusk for both the H+ and O+ ions; (5) The O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities increase toward Earth during all solar phases, but most clearly during solar maximum. These results suggest that the solar illumination enhances the ionospheric outflow more effectively with increasing geomagnetic activity and that a significant portion of the O+ ions is transported directly from the ionosphere to the near ]Earth region rather than through the distant tail.

  1. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  2. Growth of silicon sheets for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Surek, T.

    1980-12-01

    The status of silicon sheet development for photovoltaic applications is critically reviewed. Silicon sheet growth processes are classified according to their linear growth rates. The fast growth processes, which include edge-defined film-fed growth, silicon on ceramic, dendritic-web growth, and ribbon-to-ribbon growth, are comparatively ranked subject to criteria involving growth stability, sheet productivity, impurity effects, crystallinity, and solar cell results. The status of more rapid silicon ribbon growth techniques, such as horizontal ribbon growth and melt quenching, is also reviewed. The emphasis of the discussions is on examining the viability of these sheet materials as solar cell substrates for low-cost silicon photovoltaic systems.

  3. Imaging with parallel ray-rotation sheets.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Alasdair C; Courtial, Johannes

    2008-12-01

    A ray-rotation sheet consists of miniaturized optical components that function--ray optically--as a homogeneous medium that rotates the local direction of transmitted light rays around the sheet normal by an arbitrary angle [A. C. Hamilton et al., arXiv:0809.2646 (2008)]. Here we show that two or more parallel ray-rotation sheets perform imaging between two planes. The image is unscaled and un-rotated. No other planes are imaged. When seen through parallel ray-rotation sheets, planes that are not imaged appear rotated. PMID:19065221

  4. Advanced Reflector and Absorber Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of advanced reflector and absorber materials: evaluating performance, determining degradation rates and lifetime, and developing new coatings.

  5. "Tales from the Brazilian Jungle": Antonio Rocha, Storyteller. Cue Sheet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Elizabeth

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Tales from the Brazilian Jungle" with storyteller Antonio Rocha. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains four sheets for use in class. The first, "About the Performance," prepares students for understanding references to the Amazon rainforest,…

  6. Backscatter for Ice Sheet 2 Growth Phase in the Winter 1994 Winter Sea Ice Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    None. This is raw data from a data set taken during the CRRELEX94 experiment. The data are polarimetric C-band radar measurements of a saline ice sheet grown in the outdoor Geophysical Research Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. See references for other descriptions of data.

  7. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, Richard; Kotter, Dale

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  8. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  9. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  10. Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM)

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael W.; Loftus, Andrew F.; Dunn, Sarah E.; Joens, Matthew S.; Fitzpatrick, James A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of confocal microscopy techniques introduced the ability to optically section fluorescent samples in the axial dimension, perpendicular to the image plane. These approaches, via the placement of a pinhole in the conjugate image plane, provided superior resolution in the axial (z) dimension resulting in nearly isotropic optical sections. However, increased axial resolution, via pinhole optics, comes at the cost of both speed and excitation efficiency. Light Sheet Fluorescent Microscopy (LSFM), a century old idea (Siedentopf and Zsigmondy, 1902) made possible with modern developments in both excitation and detection optics, provides sub-cellular resolution and optical sectioning capabilities without compromising speed or excitation efficiency. Over the past decade, several variations of LSFM have been implemented each with its own benefits and deficiencies. Here we discuss LSFM fundamentals and outline the basic principles of several major light sheet based imaging modalities (SPIM, inverted SPIM, multi-view SPIM, Bessel beam SPIM, and stimulated emission depletion SPIM while considering their biological relevance in terms of intrusiveness, temporal resolution, and sample requirements. PMID:25559221

  11. Finding the best swimming sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Tom; Morozov, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Many microorganisms propel through fluid environments by undulating their bodies or long thin organelles (flagella). The particular waveform of the undulations can often be changed by the organism to adapt to particular environmental conditions. It has been proposed in the literature that this adaptation is driven by the desire to optimise the swimming efficiency. However, it remains an open question as to whether this is indeed the optimised quantity for microorganisms. We study propulsion in Newtonian fluids at zero inertia for a model organism, the so-called Taylor waving sheet. We develop a numerical method that allows us to calculate flow fields for sheets of arbitrary waverforms in the bulk and next to a wall. We perform optimisations of various quantities that can potentially be optimised by a swimming microorganisms (efficiency, speed, etc.) and present the optimal waveforms. We also present a simple analytical model that yields similar results. We conclude that various optimal waveforms are very similar, both in the bulk and next to a boundary, and one cannot claim that optimising the swimming efficiency is the strategy adopted by undulating microorganisms. SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, UK.

  12. Shape Optimization of Swimming Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2005-03-01

    The swimming behavior of a flexible sheet which moves by propagating deformation waves along its body was first studied by G. I. Taylor in 1951. In addition to being of theoretical interest, this problem serves as a useful model of the locomotion of gastropods and various micro-organisms. Although the mechanics of swimming via wave propagation has been studied extensively, relatively little work has been done to define or describe optimal swimming by this mechanism.We carry out this objective for a sheet that is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous Newtonian fluid. Using a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics, we derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to optimize swimming speed and efficiency. The optimization equations are solved numerically using two different schemes: a limited memory BFGS method that uses cubic splines to represent the wave profile, and a multi-shooting Runge-Kutta approach that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method to vary the parameters of the equations until the constraints are satisfied. The former approach is less efficient but generalizes nicely to the non-lubrication setting. For each optimization problem we obtain a one parameter family of solutions that becomes singular in a self-similar fashion as the parameter approaches a critical value. We explore the validity of the lubrication approximation near this singular limit by monitoring higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and by comparing the results with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations.

  13. On the 'delta-equations' for vortex sheet evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rottman, James W.; Stansby, Peter K.

    1993-01-01

    We use a set of equations, sometimes referred to as the 'delta-equations', to approximate the two-dimensional inviscid motion of an initially circular vortex sheet released from rest in a cross-flow. We present numerical solutions of these equations for the case with delta-square = 0 (for which the equations are exact) and for delta-square greater than 0. For small values of the smoothing parameter delta, a spectral filter must be used to eliminate spurious instabilities due to round-off error. Two singularities appear simultaneously in the vortex sheet when delta-square = 0 at a critical time t(c). After t(c), the solutions do not converge as the computational mesh is refined. With delta-square greater than 0, converged solutions were found for all values of delta-square when t is less than t(c), and for all but the two smallest values of delta-square used when t is greater than t(c). Our results show that, when delta-square is greater than 0, the vortex sheet deforms into two doubly branched spirals some time after t(c). The limiting solution as delta approaching 0 clearly exists and equals the delta = 0 solution when t is less than t(c).

  14. Dynamics and development of the last North Sea ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygård, A.; Sejrup, H. P.; Haflidason, H.

    2008-12-01

    The last decade there has been an increasing attention on the dynamics and history of the marine based parts of the large Pleistocene ice sheets. This interest has grown both from the potential influence the stability of these features could have on ocean circulation through rapid meltwater delivery and from the understanding of the critical role these parts have in terms of the dynamics of the large ice sheets. During the last glacial stage the northern North Sea has experienced a number of glacial advances of ice from UK and Fennoscandia. Acoustic data and core data from two contrasting areas are presented. The Norwegian Channel represents the highly dynamic ice stream system draining large parts of the southern Fennoscandian ice sheet. The adjacent Witch Ground basin shows in contrast evidence of smaller scale tidewater glaciers active in a shallow environment, which constituted the eastern limit of the north-eastern British Ice sheet during the deglaciation. Seabed imagery (Olex data) reveals fresh glacial morphology inside (west of) the interpreted ice limits, while the seabed outside (east of) the interpreted ice limits shows very few features, due to a thick cover of glacimarine sediments. The seabed imprint of these systems as well as geometry, genesis and chronology of the sediments from this region will be discussed and their implications for our understanding of the glacial development of the region will be explored.

  15. Aircraft Sheet Metal Practices, Blueprint Reading, Sheet Metal Forming and Heat Treating; Sheet Metal Work 2: 9855.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course is designed to familiarize vocational students with construction in sheet metal layout. The document outlines goals, specific block objectives, layout practices, blueprint reading, sheet metal forming (by hand and by machine), and heat treatment of metals, and includes posttest samples. Layout techniques and air foil developing are…

  16. Accurate determination of chlorine, bromine, and iodine in sedimentary rock reference samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and a detailed comparison with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry literature data.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Shun; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2013-07-01

    Trace amounts of three halogens (chlorine, bromine, and iodine) were determined using radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) for nine sedimentary rocks and three rhyolite samples. To obtain high-quality analytical data, the radiochemical procedure of RNAA was improved by lowering the background in gamma-ray spectrometry and completing the chemical procedure more rapidly than in conventional procedures. A comparison of the RNAA data of Br and I with corresponding inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) literature data revealed that the values obtained by ICPMS coupled with pyrohydrolysis preconcentration were systematically lower than the RNAA data for some reference samples, suggesting that the quantitative collection of Br and I cannot always be achieved by the pyrohydrolysis for some solid samples. The RNAA data of three halogens can classify sedimentary rock reference samples into two groups (the samples from inland water and those from seawater), implying the geochemical significance of halogen data. PMID:23710630

  17. Effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with reference to heme biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Arun J; Bhagwat, Vinod R; Patil, Jyotsna A; Dongre, Nilima N; Ambekar, Jeevan G; Jailkhani, Rama; Das, Kusal K

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in erythrocytes and malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma of battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) who were occupationally exposed to lead (Pb) over a long period of time (about 15 years). This study was also aimed to determine the Pb intoxication resulted in a disturbance of heme biosynthesis in BMW group. The blood Pb level of BMW group (n = 28) was found to be in the range of 25.8 - 78.0 microg/dL (mean + SD, 53.63 + 16.98) whereas in Pb unexposed control group (n = 35) the range was 2.8 - 22.0 microg/dL (mean + SD, 12.52 + 4.08). The blood level (Pb-B) and urinary lead level (Pb-U) were significantly increased in BMW group as compared to unexposed control. Though activated d- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities in BMW group did not show any significant change when compared to control group but activated / non activated erythrocyte - ALAD activities in BMW group showed a significant increase. Erythrocyte- zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), urinary daminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and porphobilinogen (PBG-U) of BMW groups elevated significantly as compared to control. A positive correlation (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) between Pb-B and ALA-U were found in BMW group but no such significant correlation (r = 0.02, p> 1.0) were observed in control group. Hematological study revealed a significant decrease of hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (%) and other blood indices and a significant increase of total leucocytes count in BMW group in comparison to control group. The serum MDA content was significantly increased (p < 0.001) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as erythrocyte- SOD (p < 0.001) and erythrocytecatalase (p < 0.001) were significantly reduced in BMW group as compared to control group. A positive correlation (r = 0.45, p < 0.02) between Pb-B and serum MDA level was observed in BMW group (Pb-B range 25.8 - 78.0 microg / d

  18. The GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Anderson, K. R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.; Clinton, J. F.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Ekstrom, G.; Giardini, D.; Hanka, W.; Kanao, M.; McCormack, D.; Mykkelveit, S.; Nettles, M.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Tsuboi, S.; Voss, P.

    2010-05-01

    The GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN) is a new, international, broadband seismic capability for Greenland, being installed and implemented through the joint collaboration of USA, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany, Canada, Italy, Japan and Norway. GLISN is a real-time sensor array consisting of more than 20 broad band stations. The purpose of the project is to enhance and upgrade the performance of the scarce existing Greenland seismic infrastructure for detecting, locating, and characterizing both tectonic and in particular glacial earthquakes and other cryo-seismic phenomena. Complementing data from satellites, geodesy, and other sources, and in concert with these technologies, GLISN will provide a powerful tool for detecting change, and will advance new frontiers of research in the glacial systems as well as in the underlying geological and geophysical processes affecting the Greenland Ice Sheet. The glacial processes that induce seismic events are all integral to the overall dynamics of glaciers, and seismic observations of glaciers therefore provide a quantitative means for monitoring changes in their behaviour over time. Long-term seismic monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet will contribute to identifying possible unsuspected mechanisms, and also detect if the areas of cryo-seismic events change and expand in the coming decades. GLISN will provide a new reference network in and around Greenland for monitoring these phenomena in real-time, and for the broad seismological study of Earth and earthquakes. The GLISN development takes its starting point in the existing permanent and long-time stations in and around Greenland operated by members of GLISN. These stations will be upgraded to a common standard with real-time telemetry. The network will be expanded by installing new, telemetered, broadband seismic stations on Greenland's perimeter and ice sheet. An open virtual network is established were all GLISN data can be downloaded. In collaboration with

  19. Ethics and Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Elena S.

    1997-01-01

    While revised ethical codes provide helpful guidelines, reference archivists face many ethical questions raised by rapidly evolving technology, changing expectations, and inconsistent privacy laws that have no clear answers. Discusses issues related to reference searching, codification of ethics, cultural property and the responsibility of…

  20. Creating a Reference Toolbox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jane

    1997-01-01

    To help students understand that references are tools used to locate specific information, one librarian has her third-grade students create their own reference toolboxes as she introduces dictionaries, atlases, encyclopedias, and thesauri. Presents a lesson plan to introduce print and nonprint thesauri to third and fourth graders and includes a…

  1. Reference Service Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, John; Young, William

    This manual is primarily designed as an orientation program for librarians new to the Reference Services Division at the State University of New York at Albany University Libraries. It contains practical information and some of the procedures necessary for providing service at the reference desk in these libraries. The appendices provide samples…

  2. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  3. Rethinking Virtual Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

  4. Automated Periodical Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, David

    1985-01-01

    Describes public library reference service which allows patrons to type out search instructions on a computer terminal, review and select references, and receive, by high-speed printer, facsimile copy of selected periodical articles. Development of periodicals center at main county library and use of self-coaching SEARCH HELPER system are…

  5. An Online Reference System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisman, Janet; Treat, William

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer aid developed to assist in academic library reference service using the DataPhase Circulation System, an automated system that features full cataloging records in database and permits local programing. Access points (subject, type of reference work, course) and database structure and user screens are highlighted. (EJS)

  6. Leading Education Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Michael D.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on, but is not limited to, reference sources on education found in the library at St. Bonaventure University, New York. The ERIC database leads the list of leading education reference sources. Also mentioned are the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors" and the Academic Index (InfoTrak) computer system. Other…

  7. A common structural motif incorporating a cystine knot and a triple-stranded beta-sheet in toxic and inhibitory polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Pallaghy, P. K.; Nielsen, K. J.; Craik, D. J.; Norton, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    A common structural motif consisting of a cystine knot and a small triple-stranded beta-sheet has been defined from comparison of the 3-dimensional structures of the polypeptides omega-conotoxin GVIA (Conus geographus), kalata BI (Oldenlandia affinis DC), and CMTI-I (Curcurbita maxima). These 3 polypeptides have diverse biological activities and negligible amino acid sequence identity, but each contains 3 disulfide bonds that give rise to a cystine knot. This knot consists of a ring formed by the first 2 bonds (1-4 and 2-5) and the intervening polypeptide backbone, through which the third disulfide (3-6) passes. The other component of this motif is a triple-stranded, anti-parallel beta-sheet containing a minimum of 10 residues, XXC2, XC5X, XXC6X (where the numbers on the half-cysteine residues refer to their positions in the disulfide pattern). The presence in these polypeptides of both the cysteine knot and antiparallel beta-sheet suggests that both structural features are required for the stability of the motif. This structural motif is also present in other protease inhibitors and a spider toxin. It appears to be one of the smallest stable globular domains found in proteins and is commonly used in toxins and inhibitors that act by blocking the function of larger protein receptors such as ion channels or proteases. PMID:7849598

  8. Experimental investigation of possible geomagnetic feedback from energetic (0.1 to 16 keV) terrestrial O(+) ions in the magnetotail current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.; Klumpar, D. M.; Shelley, E. G.; Quinn, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Data from energetic ion mass spectrometers on the ISEE 1 and AMPTE/CCE spacecraft are combined with geomagnetic and solar indices to investigate, in a statistical fashion, whether energized O(+) ions of terrestrial origin constitute a source of feedback which triggers or amplifies geomagnetic activity as has been suggested in the literature, by contributing a destabilizing mass increase in the magnetotail current sheet. The ISEE 1 data (0.1-16 keV/e) provide in situ observations of the O(+) concentration in the central plasma sheet, inside of 23 R(sub E), during the rising and maximum phases of solar cycle 21, as well as inner magnetosphere data from same period. The CCE data (0.1-17 keV/e) taken during the subsequent solar minimum all within 9 R(sub E). provide a reference for long-term variations in the magnetosphere O(+) content. Statistical correlations between the ion data and the indices, and between different indices. all point in the same direction: there is probably no feedback specific to the O(+) ions, in spite of the fact that they often contribute most of the ion mass density in the tail current sheet.

  9. Microbial abundance in surface ice on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Stibal, Marek; Gözdereliler, Erkin; Cameron, Karen A.; Box, Jason E.; Stevens, Ian T.; Gokul, Jarishma K.; Schostag, Morten; Zarsky, Jakub D.; Edwards, Arwyn; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring microbial abundance in glacier ice and identifying its controls is essential for a better understanding and quantification of biogeochemical processes in glacial ecosystems. However, cell enumeration of glacier ice samples is challenging due to typically low cell numbers and the presence of interfering mineral particles. We quantified for the first time the abundance of microbial cells in surface ice from geographically distinct sites on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), using three enumeration methods: epifluorescence microscopy (EFM), flow cytometry (FCM), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In addition, we reviewed published data on microbial abundance in glacier ice and tested the three methods on artificial ice samples of realistic cell (102–107 cells ml−1) and mineral particle (0.1–100 mg ml−1) concentrations, simulating a range of glacial ice types, from clean subsurface ice to surface ice to sediment-laden basal ice. We then used multivariate statistical analysis to identify factors responsible for the variation in microbial abundance on the ice sheet. EFM gave the most accurate and reproducible results of the tested methodologies, and was therefore selected as the most suitable technique for cell enumeration of ice containing dust. Cell numbers in surface ice samples, determined by EFM, ranged from ~ 2 × 103 to ~ 2 × 106 cells ml−1 while dust concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 2 mg ml−1. The lowest abundances were found in ice sampled from the accumulation area of the ice sheet and in samples affected by fresh snow; these samples may be considered as a reference point of the cell abundance of precipitants that are deposited on the ice sheet surface. Dust content was the most significant variable to explain the variation in the abundance data, which suggests a direct association between deposited dust particles and cells and/or by their provision of limited nutrients to microbial communities on the GrIS. PMID:25852678

  10. ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larour, Eric; Schiermeier, John E.; Seroussi, Helene; Morlinghem, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    In order to have the capability to use satellite data from its own missions to inform future sea-level rise projections, JPL needed a full-fledged ice-sheet/iceshelf flow model, capable of modeling the mass balance of Antarctica and Greenland into the near future. ISSM was developed with such a goal in mind, as a massively parallelized, multi-purpose finite-element framework dedicated to ice-sheet modeling. ISSM features unstructured meshes (Tria in 2D, and Penta in 3D) along with corresponding finite elements for both types of meshes. Each finite element can carry out diagnostic, prognostic, transient, thermal 3D, surface, and bed slope simulations. Anisotropic meshing enables adaptation of meshes to a certain metric, and the 2D Shelfy-Stream, 3D Blatter/Pattyn, and 3D Full-Stokes formulations capture the bulk of the ice-flow physics. These elements can be coupled together, based on the Arlequin method, so that on a large scale model such as Antarctica, each type of finite element is used in the most efficient manner. For each finite element referenced above, ISSM implements an adjoint. This adjoint can be used to carry out model inversions of unknown model parameters, typically ice rheology and basal drag at the ice/bedrock interface, using a metric such as the observed InSAR surface velocity. This data assimilation capability is crucial to allow spinning up of ice flow models using available satellite data. ISSM relies on the PETSc library for its vectors, matrices, and solvers. This allows ISSM to run efficiently on any parallel platform, whether shared or distrib- ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California uted. It can run on the largest clusters, and is fully scalable. This allows ISSM to tackle models the size of continents. ISSM is embedded into MATLAB and Python, both open scientific platforms. This improves its outreach within the science community. It is entirely written in C/C++, which gives it flexibility in its

  11. Origins of the plasma in the distant plasma sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.D.; Lennartsson, W.; Peterson, W.K.; Shelley, E.G.

    1982-12-01

    A statistical study of the composition of the plasma sheet at geocentric radial distances between 10 and 23 R/sub E/ has been conducted utilizing data from the energetic ion mass spectrometer experiment on ISEE 1. The composition of the ions in the energy per charge range 0.1< or =Elq< or =16 keV/e was found to be dependent on substorm activity. The O/sup +//H/sup +/ and He/sup +//H/sup +/ ratios of the ions increased and the He/sup + +//H/sup +/ ratio decreased with increasing AE. O/sup +//H/sup +/ exhibited the largest changes, varying from about 2% during periods of extended quiet to about 40% shortly after a major substorm. H/sup +/ was typically the major constituent, but on some occasions O/sup +/ was dominant. Assuming that the composition of the ionospheric and solar wind supplied ions to the plasma sheet does not vary systematically from quiet to active times, inferences are drawn as to the relative importance of the ionosphere and solar wind as sources of the plasma sheet ions. The results suggest that during quiet times the plasma sheet is almost entirely of solar wind origin while during active times the ionosphere is of comparable importance to the solar wind. The average energies of the ions of solar wind origin appear to be significantly increased in association with substorm activity, while the average energies of the ions of ionospheric origin show little or no effect. The solar H/sup +/ component appears to be more strongly energized than does He/sup + +/.

  12. Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.

  13. Learning Related Visual Problems. ERIC Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This fact sheet defines vision, outlines the visual skills needed for school achievement (ocular motility, binocularity, eye-hand coordination skills, and visual form perception), and describes how visual problems are evaluated and treated. The fact sheet also lists clues to look for when a visual problem is suspected, including the appearance of…

  14. 40 CFR 124.56 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Fact sheets. 124.56 Section 124.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING Specific Procedures Applicable to NPDES Permits § 124.56 Fact sheets. (Applicable to State programs, see § 123.25 (NPDES).) In addition...

  15. Looking for a Job. Clip Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center, Geneseo, NY.

    These bilingual sheets assist migrant farmworkers to develop job readiness skills; however, they would be applicable to any job seeker. The collection contains sheets with the following titles: (1) Decide Where To Look; (2) Extra Steps for Success; (3) Fill Out Applications; (4) Introducing Yourself; (5) Keeping a Job Depends upon You; (6) Learn…

  16. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws--2002 Update: A Review…

  17. Reinforcement for Stretch Formed Sheet Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, J. B.; Baxter, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Tearing of aluminum sheet metal durinng stretch forming prevented by flame spraying layer of aluminum on edges held in stretch-forming machine. Technique improves grip of machine on metal and reinforced sheet better able to with stand concentration of force in vicinity of grips.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EIMS) FACT SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the fact sheet is to provide information about the US EPA Office of Research and Developments Environmental Information Management System. The fact sheet indicates the type of records that are in EIMS, systems that are integrated with EIMS as well as some highligh...

  19. Dual circuit embossed sheet heat transfer panel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Grover D.

    1984-01-01

    A heat transfer panel provides redundant cooling for fusion reactors or the like environment requiring low-mass construction. Redundant cooling is provided by two independent cooling circuits, each circuit consisting of a series of channels joined to inlet and outlet headers. The panel comprises a welded joinder of two full-size and two much smaller partial-size sheets. The first full-size sheet is embossed to form first portions of channels for the first and second circuits, as well as a header for the first circuit. The second full-sized sheet is then laid over and welded to the first full-size sheet. The first and second partial-size sheets are then overlaid on separate portions of the second full-sized sheet, and are welded thereto. The first and second partial-sized sheets are embossed to form inlet and outlet headers, which communicate with channels of the second circuit through apertures formed in the second full-sized sheet.

  20. Dual circuit embossed sheet heat transfer panel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, G.D.

    1984-02-21

    A heat transfer panel provides redundant cooling for fusion reactors or the like environment requiring low-mass construction. Redundant cooling is provided by two independent cooling circuits, each circuit consisting of a series of channels joined to inlet and outlet headers. The panel comprises a welded joinder of two full-size and two much smaller partial-size sheets. The first full-size sheet is embossed to form first portions of channels for the first and second circuits, as well as a header for the first circuit. The second full-sized sheet is then laid over and welded to the first full-size sheet. The first and second partial-size sheets are then overlaid on separate portions of the second full-sized sheet, and are welded thereto. The first and second partial-sized sheets are embossed to form inlet and outlet headers, which communicate with channels of the second circuit through apertures formed in the second full-sized sheet. 6 figs.

  1. 21 CFR 878.4025 - Silicone sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Silicone sheeting. 878.4025 Section 878.4025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4025 Silicone sheeting....

  2. 21 CFR 878.4025 - Silicone sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Silicone sheeting. 878.4025 Section 878.4025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4025 Silicone sheeting....

  3. 21 CFR 878.4025 - Silicone sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Silicone sheeting. 878.4025 Section 878.4025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4025 Silicone sheeting....

  4. 21 CFR 878.4025 - Silicone sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Silicone sheeting. 878.4025 Section 878.4025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4025 Silicone sheeting....

  5. 21 CFR 878.4025 - Silicone sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Silicone sheeting. 878.4025 Section 878.4025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4025 Silicone sheeting....

  6. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 201

    SciTech Connect

    Kondev, F.G.

    2007-02-15

    Evaluated nuclear structure and decay data for all nuclei within the A = 201 mass chain are presented. This work supersedes the earlier full evaluation by M. Schmorak (1986Sc31) published in Nuclear Data Sheets 49, 733 (1986) and the update by S. Rab (1994Ra12), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 71, 421 (1994)

  7. Potential emissions of radiatively active gases from soil to atmosphere with special reference to methane: Development of a global database (WISE)

    SciTech Connect

    Batjes, N.H.; Bridges, E.M.

    1994-08-01

    The role of soil in controlling production and fluxes of biotic greenhouse gases is the focus of research in progress at the International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC). There are two main goals in this project on World Inventory of Soil Emission Potentials (WISE). The first is to assemble a global soil database in association with the Land and Water Division of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), using a 1/2 deg x 1/2 deg grid of geographic soil data (1:5 M scale). This `area` data will be linked to a database of soil profile `attribute` data using a geographical information system. The foundations for this work have now been put in place and, providing the soil profile collection programme proceeds satisfactorily, it is anticipated that a preliminary database should begin to emerge by the end of 1993. When the soil database is complete, the second thrust will be to make an inventory of the world`s poorly drained soils, providing the geographical framework for an improved estimate of methane production potentials. To do this, controlled long-term field experiments are required and modeling techniques must be developed and tested. ISRIC is cooperating with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines for these aspects of the work. An important corollary to the development of a global soil database is that many requests are being received for soil information relevant for studies of `global change.` At present, much of this information does not exist in an adequate format, so ISRIC is proceeding as rapidly as possible to implement the WISE digital database in a format which is compatible and user-friendly, for ultimate distribution in the public domain.

  8. Potential emissions of radiatively active gases from soil to atmosphere with special reference to methane: Development of a global database (WISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batjes, Niels H.; Bridges, E. M.

    1994-08-01

    The role of soil in controlling production and fluxes of biotic greenhouse gases is the focus of research in progress at the International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC). There are two main goals in this project on World Inventory of Soil Emission Potentials (WISE). The first is to assemble a global soil database in association with the Land and Water Division of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), using a ½° × ½° grid of geographic soil data (1:5 M scale). This "area" data will be linked to a database of soil profile "attribute" data using a geographical information system. The foundations for this work have now been put in place and, providing the soil profile collection programme proceeds satisfactorily, it is anticipated that a preliminary database should begin to emerge by the end of 1993. When the soil database is complete, the second thrust will be to make an inventory of the world's poorly drained soils, providing the geographical framework for an improved estimate of methane production potentials. To do this, controlled long-term field experiments are required and modeling techniques must be developed and tested. ISRIC is cooperating with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines for these aspects of the work. An important corollary to the development of a global soil database is that many requests are being received for soil information relevant for studies of "global change." At present, much of this information does not exist in an adequate format, so ISRIC is proceeding as rapidly as possible to implement the WISE digital database in a format which is compatible and user-friendly, for ultimate distribution in the public domain.

  9. Assessment of physical activity - a review of methodologies with reference to epidemiological research: a report of the exercise physiology section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Warren, Janet M; Ekelund, Ulf; Besson, Herve; Mezzani, Alessandro; Geladas, Nickos; Vanhees, Luc

    2010-04-01

    Physical activity has a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. The precise measurement of physical activity is key to many surveillance and epidemiological studies investigating trends and associations with disease. Public health initiatives aimed at increasing physical activity rely on the measurement of physical activity to monitor their effectiveness. Physical activity is multidimensional, and a complex behaviour to measure; its various domains are often misunderstood. Inappropriate or crude measures of physical activity have serious implications, and are likely to lead to misleading results and underestimate effect size. In this review, key definitions and theoretical aspects, which underpin the measurement of physical activity, are briefly discussed. Methodologies particularly suited for use in epidemiological research are reviewed, with particular reference to their validity, primary outcome measure and considerations when using each in the field. It is acknowledged that the choice of method may be a compromise between accuracy level and feasibility, but the ultimate choice of tool must suit the stated aim of the research. A framework is presented to guide researchers on the selection of the most suitable tool for use in a specific study. PMID:20215971

  10. Biomedical potential of actinobacterially synthesized selenium nanoparticles with special reference to anti-biofilm, anti-oxidant, wound healing, cytotoxic and anti-viral activities.

    PubMed

    Ramya, Suseenthar; Shanmugasundaram, Thangavel; Balagurunathan, Ramasamy

    2015-10-01

    Currently, there is an ever-increasing need to develop environmentally benign processes in place of synthetic protocols. As a result, researchers in the field of nanoparticle synthesis are focusing their attention on microbes from rare biological ecosystems. One potential actinobacterium, Streptomyces minutiscleroticus M10A62 isolated from a magnesite mine had the ability to synthesize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), extracellularly. Actinobacteria mediated SeNP synthesis were characterized by UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis. The UV-spectral analysis of SeNPs indicated the maximum absorption at 510nm, FT-IR spectral analysis confirms the presence of capping protein, peptide, amine and amide groups. The selenium signals confirm the presence of SeNPs. All the diffraction peaks in the XRD pattern and HR-TEM confirm the size of SeNPs in the range of 10-250nm. Further, the anti-biofilm and antioxidant activity of the SeNPs increased proportionally with rise in concentration, and the test strains reduced to 75% at concentration of 3.2μg. Selenium showed significant anti-proliferative activity against HeLa and HepG2 cell lines. The wound healing activity of SeNPs reveals that 5% selenium oinment heals the excision wound of Wistar rats up to 85% within 18 days compared to the standard ointment. The biosynthesized SeNPs exhibited good antiviral activity against Dengue virus. The present study concludes that extremophilic actinobacterial strain was a novel source for SeNPs with versatile biomedical applications and larger studies are needed to quantify these observed effects of SeNPs. PMID:26302909

  11. Compartment resolved reference proteome map from highly purified naïve, activated, effector, and memory CD8⁺ murine immune cells.

    PubMed

    Zanker, Damien; Otto, Wolfgang; Chen, Weisan; von Bergen, Martin; Tomm, Janina M

    2015-06-01

    Differentiation of CD8(+) T lymphocytes into effector and memory cells is key for an adequate immune response and relies on complex interplay of pathways that convey signals from the cell surface to the nucleus. In this study, we investigated the proteome of four cytotoxic T-cell subtypes; naïve, recently activated effector, effector, and memory cells. Cells were fractionated into membrane, cytosol, soluble nuclear, chromatin-bound, and cytoskeletal compartments. Following LC-MS/MS analysis, identified peptides were analyzed via MaxQuant. Compartment fractionation and gel-LC-MS separation resulted in 2399 proteins identified in total. Comparison between the different subsets resulted in 146 significantly regulated proteins for naïve and effector cells, followed by 116 for activated, and 55 for memory cells. Besides Granzyme B signaling (for activated and/ or effector cells vs. naïve cells), the most prominent changes occurred in the TCA cycle and aspartate degradation. These changes suggest that correct balancing of metabolism is key for differentiation processes. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001065 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001065). PMID:25643623

  12. eduSPIM: Light Sheet Microscopy in the Museum

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Benjamin; Weber, Michael; Huisken, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Light Sheet Microscopy in the Museum Light sheet microscopy (or selective plane illumination microscopy) is an important imaging technique in the life sciences. At the same time, this technique is also ideally suited for community outreach projects, because it produces visually appealing, highly dynamic images of living organisms and its working principle can be understood with basic optics knowledge. Still, the underlying concepts are widely unknown to the non-scientific public. On the occasion of the UNESCO International Year of Light, a technical museum in Dresden, Germany, launched a special, interactive exhibition. We built a fully functional, educational selective plane illumination microscope (eduSPIM) to demonstrate how developments in microscopy promote discoveries in biology. Design Principles of an Educational Light Sheet Microscope To maximize educational impact, we radically reduced a standard light sheet microscope to its essential components without compromising functionality and incorporated stringent safety concepts beyond those needed in the lab. Our eduSPIM system features one illumination and one detection path and a sealed sample chamber. We image fixed zebrafish embryos with fluorescent vasculature, because the structure is meaningful to laymen and visualises the optical principles of light sheet microscopy. Via a simplified interface, visitors acquire fluorescence and transmission data simultaneously. The eduSPIM Design Is Tailored Easily to Fit Numerous Applications The universal concepts presented here may also apply to other scientific approaches that are communicated to laymen in interactive settings. The specific eduSPIM design is adapted easily for various outreach and teaching activities. eduSPIM may even prove useful for labs needing a simple SPIM. A detailed parts list and schematics to rebuild eduSPIM are provided. PMID:27560188

  13. The Elementary Marine Ice Sheet Model (EMISM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Ice sheet models become more and more components of global climate system modelling instead of stand-alone features to study cryospheric processes. Full coupling of ice sheet models to atmospheric and ocean models requires a standard for ice sheet models, and more precisely for marine ice sheet models, where complex feedbacks between ice and ocean, such as marine ice sheet instability, and the atmosphere, such as the elevation-mass balance feedback, operate at different time scales. Recent model intercomparisons (e.g., SeaRISE, MISMIP) have shown that basic requirements for marine ice sheet models are still lacking and that the complexity of many ice sheet models is focused on processes that are either not well captured numerically (spatial resolution issue) or are of secondary importance compared to the essential features of marine ice sheet dynamics. Here, we propose a new and fast computing ice sheet model, devoid of most complexity, but capturing the essential feedbacks when coupled to ocean or atmospheric models. Its computational efficiency guarantees to easily tests its advantages as well as limits through ensemble modelling. EMISM (Elementary Marine Ice Sheet Model) is a vertically integrated ice sheet model based on the Shallow-Ice Approximation extended a Weertman sliding law. Although vertically integrated, thermomechanical coupling is ensured through a simplified representation of ice sheet thermodynamics based on an analytical solution of the vertical temperature profile, enhanced with strain heating. The marine boundary is represented by a parameterized flux condition similar to Pollard & Deconto (2012), based on Schoof (2007). A simplified ice shelf is added to account for buttressing of ice shelves in this parameterization. The ice sheet model is solved on a finite difference grid and special care is taken to its numerical efficiency and stability. While such model has a series of (known) deficiencies with respect to short time effects, its overall

  14. Thinning of current sheets and magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N.; Deverapalli, C.

    Using three-dimensional particle-in-cell (3DPIC) simulations, we study the formation of a thin current sheet. The processes associated with thin current sheets reported here include its thinning, associated potential well in its central part, ion acceleration into the well, current-driven ion mode instabilities, electron and ion heating, current sheet re- broadening, current disruption in the central part of the current sheet and magnetic reconnection. It is shown that current driven instabilities become explosive when the preferential heating of electrons by the ions make electron temperature higher than that of the ions. This explosive stage is associated with high plasma resistivity, current disruption and bifurcated current sheets. The current disruption is linked to the magnetic reconnection.

  15. A flexible vertical sheet in waves

    SciTech Connect

    Meylan, M.

    1994-12-31

    The problem of a vertical elastic sheet subjected to a train of ocean waves in infinitely deep water is solved. The sheet is assumed to be thin and governed by the Bernoulli-Euler equations, and to extend from the water surface to a finite depth. The solution utilizes the Green`s function for water waves and the transformation of the Bernoulli-Euler equation to an integral equation. The model predicts that there will be substantial reflection when the sheet is held rigidly at the top end and penetrates the water to a significant fraction of the wavelength. Resonances at which the reflection is reduced, or is zero, also exist for certain values of the stiffness, mass and frequency. A sheet which is free at both ends does not reflect significantly for any values of mass, stiffness or depth of the sheet.

  16. A study of thin liquid sheet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1993-01-01

    This study was a theoretical and experimental investigation of thin liquid sheet flows in vacuum. A sheet flow created by a narrow slit of width, W, coalesces to a point at a distance, L, as a result of surface tension forces acting at the sheet edges. As the flow coalesces, the fluid accumulates in the sheet edges. The observed triangular shape of the sheet agrees with the calculated triangular result. Experimental results for L/W as a function of Weber number, We, agree with the calculated result, L/W = the sq. root of 8We. The edge cross sectional shape is found to oscillate from elliptic to 'cigar' like to 'peanut' like and then back to elliptic in the flow direction. A theoretical one-dimensional model was developed that yielded only elliptic solutions for the edge cross section. At the points where the elliptic shapes occur, there is agreement between theory and experiment.

  17. Uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

  18. Critical tests in equids with fenbendazole alone or combined with piperazine: particular reference to activity on benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Drudge, J H

    1983-02-01

    Seven critical tests in equids were conducted with single doses of fenbendazole (5 mg kg-1) alone (Panacur--American Hoechst, Somerville, NJ); (2 tests with paste and 1 with suspension formulation) or in combination with piperazine (American Hoechst); (40 mg base kg-1); (4 tests with paste formulation). The main purpose of the tests was evaluation of activity against benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles (Cyathostomum catinatum, Cyathostomum coronatum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, and Cylicostephanus longibursatus). Natural infections of 2 populations of benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles were evaluated; 1 was population B in 2 horses and the other was population S in 5 ponies. Removal of the 5 species of population B was 49-91% in the animal treated with fenbendazole paste alone and 100% (4 of these species present) in the animal treated with the combination. For population S, 2 of the 5 resistant species were present in small numbers in 1 animal treated with fenbendazole paste alone and all were removed; the 1 animal receiving fenbendazole suspension alone had removals of 0-70% for the 5 benzimidazole-resistant species. Also for population S, the 5 resistant species were present in 2 animals treated with the paste combination and removal was 98-100% and of 4 of the 5 resistant species in 1 animal, removal was 76-99%. Removal of large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris and Strongylus edentatus) was 92-100% for fenbendazole paste alone or in combination with piperazine in the 5 infected animals. For Oxyuris equi, present in 1 animal treated with the combination, there was 91% removal of immature and 100% removal of mature specimens. There probHably was no activity by fenbendazole alone or the combination against bots, tapeworms, and parenteral stages of S. vulgaris and S. edentatus. The combination may have had some activity against immature Habronema spp. and mature abronema muscae. PMID:6683041

  19. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1997-08-12

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration. 5 figs.

  20. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker

    1997-01-01

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration.