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Sample records for activity significant differences

  1. Paraoxonase-1 activity determination via paraoxon substrate yields no significant difference in mild hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Türkeli, Hatice; Caycı, Tuncer; Akgül, Emin Özgür; Macit, Enis; Yaman, Halil; Aydın, Ibrahim; Demirin, Hilmi; Alacam, Hasan; Ozkan, Esin; Cakır, Erdinç; Deren, Ozgür; Erbil, Mehmet Kemal; Kunak, Z Ilker; Burat, Kutlay; Akman, Serif

    2010-11-01

    Elevated plasma homocystein (Hcy) level has been recognized as an important risk factor for a number of cardiovascular diseases, peripheral arterial occlusive disease and venous thrombosis. A part of Hcy in the organism is turned to homocysteine thiolactone (HcyT) via a ring closure reaction, which gains rate in hyperhomocysteinemia, and in turn undergoes a hydrolytic reaction back to Hcy by paraoxonase enzyme (PON). Since this is a protective reflex action enzyme against hyperhomocysteinemia, we investigated how a mild hyperhomocysteinemic nutritional habit affected serum PON activity in a population-based study. The difference detected via enzymatic activity using the paraoxon substrate was statistically non-significant (p=0.19), suggesting a defective performance to reflect the expected significance. Determination of serum PON activity via substrate paraoxon yielded no significant difference in an acute mild hyperhomocysteinemic diet model in humans. PMID:19419786

  2. The significance of different health institutions and their respective contributions of active pharmaceutical ingredients to wastewater.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Manuel; Olsson, Oliver; Fiehn, Rainer; Herrel, Markus; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have been frequently found in the environment. It is, however, still not quite clear who is mainly responsible for API emissions. Hospitals have been considered to be the main contributing point sources for wastewater (WW) discharge of APIs. However, recent studies have shown that the contribution of hospitals to the input of APIs into the aquatic environment is quite low. Due to demographic change and the increase of psychiatric diseases, health institutions (HIs) such as psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes are likely to be important sources as well, but no data is available in this respect. This study aims to assess the impact of HIs and to provide a methodology to measure their respective contributions. Drawing on pharmaceutical consumption data for the years 2010, 2011, and 2012, this study identified API usage patterns for a psychiatric hospital (146 beds), a nursing home (286 inhabitants), and a general hospital (741 beds), the latter of which comprises three separate locations. All the HIs are located in two sub-regions of a county district with about 400,000 citizens in southwestern Germany. A selection of neurological drugs was quantified in the sewer of these facilities to evaluate the correlation between consumption and emission. The API contribution of HIs was assessed by comparing the specific consumption in the facilities with the consumption in households, expressed as the emission potential (IEP). The study shows that the usage patterns of APIs in the psychiatric hospital and the nursing home were different from the general hospital. Neurological drugs such as anticonvulsants, psycholeptics, and psychoanaleptics were mainly consumed in the psychiatric hospital and the nursing home (74% and 65%, respectively). Predicted and average measured concentrations in the effluent of the investigated HIs differed mostly by less than one order of magnitude. Therefore, the consumption-based approach is a useful method

  3. Significance of different carbon forms and carbonic anhydrase activity in monitoring and prediction of algal blooms in the urban section of Jialing River, Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yudong; Zhang, Zhi; Shen, Qian; Gao, Wenjin; Li, Yingfan

    2016-05-18

    The Three Gorges Dam is one of the largest hydroelectric power plants worldwide; its reservoir was preliminarily impounded in 2003 and finally impounded to 175 m in 2012. The impoundment caused some environmental problems, such as algal blooms. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an important biocatalyst in the carbon utilization by algae and plays an important role in algal blooms. CA has received considerable attention for its role in red tides in oceans, but less investigation has been focused on its role in algal blooms in fresh water. In this study, the seasonal variation of water quality parameters, different carbon forms, carbonic anhydrase activity (CAA), and the algal cell density of four sampling sites in the urban section of the Jialing River were investigated from November 1, 2013 to October 31, 2014. Results indicated that CAA exhibited a positive correlation with dissoluble organic carbon (DOC), pH, and temperature, but a negative correlation with CO2 and dissoluble inorganic carbon (DIC). Algal cell density exhibited a positive correlation with flow velocity (V), pH, particulate organic carbon (POC), and CAA, a negative correlation with CO2, and a negative partial correlation with DIC. The relationship between CAA and algal cell density for the entire year can be described as cells = 23.278CAA - 42.666POC + 139.547pH - 1057.106. The algal bloom prediction model for the key control period can be described as cells = -45.895CAA + 776.103V- 29.523DOC + 14.219PIC + 35.060POC + 19.181 (2 weeks in advance) and cells = 69.200CAA + 203.213V + 4.184CO2 + 38.911DOC + 40.770POC - 189.567 (4 weeks in advance). The findings in this study demonstrate that the carbon utilization by algae is conducted by CA and provide a new method of monitoring algal cell density and predicting algal blooms. PMID:27142237

  4. Significant Quantum Effects in Hydrogen Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kyriakou, Georgios; Davidson, Erlend R.; Peng, Guowen; Roling, Luke T.; Singh, Suyash; Boucher, Matthew B.; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2014-03-31

    Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to 190 K and for D2 up to 140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation.

  5. Significant Quantum Effects in Hydrogen Activation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to ∼190 K and for D2 up to ∼140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation. PMID:24684530

  6. Cytochrome bd Displays Significant Quinol Peroxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Sinan; Yu, Yuanjie; Pinkse, Martijn; Hoeser, Jo; Friedrich, Thorsten; Bald, Dirk; de Vries, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome bd is a prokaryotic terminal oxidase that catalyses the electrogenic reduction of oxygen to water using ubiquinol as electron donor. Cytochrome bd is a tri-haem integral membrane enzyme carrying a low-spin haem b558, and two high-spin haems: b595 and d. Here we show that besides its oxidase activity, cytochrome bd from Escherichia coli is a genuine quinol peroxidase (QPO) that reduces hydrogen peroxide to water. The highly active and pure enzyme preparation used in this study did not display the catalase activity recently reported for E. coli cytochrome bd. To our knowledge, cytochrome bd is the first membrane-bound quinol peroxidase detected in E. coli. The observation that cytochrome bd is a quinol peroxidase, can provide a biochemical basis for its role in detoxification of hydrogen peroxide and may explain the frequent findings reported in the literature that indicate increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and decreased virulence in mutants that lack the enzyme. PMID:27279363

  7. Testing the Difference of Correlated Agreement Coefficients for Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwet, Kilem L.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of testing the difference between two correlated agreement coefficients for statistical significance. A number of authors have proposed methods for testing the difference between two correlated kappa coefficients, which require either the use of resampling methods or the use of advanced statistical modeling…

  8. Difference, significant difference and clinically meaningful difference: The meaning of change in rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Dvir, Zeevi

    2015-01-01

    The valid confirmation of a positive change (improvement) in a patient’s health status due to intervention has been at the core of medicine and rehabilitation since their very inception as clinicians always aspired to ensure that treating their patients had led to successful outcomes both in acute and chronic conditions. However what is change: either improvement or worsening (aggravation), is a complicated issue which involves clinical as well as statistical considerations. Change invariably relates to a difference in some measurable entity and almost always it relates to a time span. The confirmation of clinical change is important both for varying the treatment course (if necessary) and for the termination of treatment when the latter has reached wither its prescribed objective or a plateau. Since in the context of rehabilitation, the outcome measures (OM) are strongly linked to performance, determination of change in the latter is confounded by many factors, collectively known as the error of measurement, which render a decision regarding clinically meaningful change, highly involved. This is further complicated by the stability of the observed OM, the so-called reproducibility of the OM, and the accuracy of the measurement instrument. The higher the reproducibility the lower is the error. Moreover, in order to proclaim change, in most cases a positive one, it is necessary for the difference in outcome scores (i.e. the change) to surpass the error of measurement, in varying degree of rigor. This paper describes selected methods associated with determination of change and focuses predominantly on the difference between a simple difference in scores (‘simple change’), a significant difference in scores and the so-called clinically meaningful change in scores which is considered today as the benchmark for confirmation of a real change. PMID:25960978

  9. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    PubMed

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned. PMID:22897089

  10. Pediatricians' and psychologists' implicit personality theory: significance of sibling differences.

    PubMed

    Schachter, F F; Stone, R K

    1985-10-01

    Pediatricians' and psychologists' implicit theories of how personality develops are compared to recent behavioral-genetic analyses based on twin and adoption studies. Results show that both practitioner groups--less so the psychologists--underestimate differences between children in the same family, over-estimate the influence of their shared environmental experiences, and underestimate those not shared. Findings mirror the bias of traditional personality research, pointing out the need to investigate environmental variables with differential impacts on children in the same family, e.g., sibling deidentification; one child extrovert, one introvert; one saint, one sinner. PMID:4066965

  11. Comparison and Significance of Two Different Organic Paleotemperature Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Zhang, H.; He, J.; Ruan, Y.; Dong, L.; Wang, H.; Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature is a basic parameter in the study of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography. In the present study, two organic geochemical proxies, UK'37 and TEX86 were used for the sea surface temperature reconstruction in the site MD123434 (18°49.84'N,116°18.89'E, water depth 2995m) in northern South China Sea. On the whole, the two reconstructed temperature correlated well with each other, reflecting low temperature in the last glacial and high in the Holocene. Nevertheless, detailed comparison illustrated relatively higher reconstructed temperature by the UK'37 method than that in TEX86 proxy, with a range of 23.0℃ to 27.8℃ and 18.9℃to 29.5℃ for UK'37 and TEX86 proxy respectively. The average temperature discrepancy (ΔT) between the two temperature proxies is ~3℃ during the last glacial and ~0℃ during the Holocene, which cannot be fully attributed to calculation errors. The offset between these two proxies may be caused by the different living water depths of the source organisms: haptophyte and Thaumarchaeota for the UK'37 and TEX86 respectively. The terrestrial GDGTs input and the different calibration equations on the TEX86 may possibly also contribute to the discrepancy. Meanwhile, growth seasonalities between the two source organisms cannot be ignored either.

  12. Conventions of Courtship: Gender and Race Differences in the Significance of Dating Rituals

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Pamela Braboy; Kleiner, Sibyl; Geist, Claudia; Cebulko, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Dating rituals include dating-courtship methods that are regularly enacted. We explored gender and race differences in the relative importance placed on certain symbolic activities previously identified by the dating literature as constituting such rituals. Using information collected from a racially diverse sample of college students (N = 680), we find that some traditional gender differences persist, but that these are also cross-cut by racial contrasts. Men, overall, place more emphasis on gifting, as well as sexual activity. Gender differences, however, are significantly greater among African Americans1 as compared to Whites in our sample. African American respondents are also significantly more likely than White respondents to associate meeting the family with a more serious dating relationship. Our findings highlight the need for greater efforts to uncover and account for racial differences in dating, relationships, and courtship. PMID:23049154

  13. No significant difference in antigenicity or tissue transglutaminase substrate specificity of Irish and US wheat gliadins.

    PubMed

    Keaveny, A P; Offner, G D; Bootle, E; Nunes, D P

    2000-04-01

    The prevalence of clinical celiac disease has been shown to vary both across time and between genetically similar populations. Differences in wheat antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate properties are a possible explanation for these differences. This study assessed the antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate specificities of gliadins from regions of high and low celiac disease prevalence. Gliadin was extracted from three commercial US wheat sources and two Irish sources. SDS-PAGE and western blotting revealed minor, but significant variations in the gliadin extracts. However, ELISA showed no difference in the antigenicity of these gliadins. Transglutaminase pretreatment of gliadin resulted in no significant change in gliadin antigenicity and kinetic studies showed that the Kms of the various gliadins were very similar. Purified IgA and IgG had no effect on transglutaminase activity. In summary, minor variations in wheat gliadins are unlikely to explain the observed differences in disease expression across genetically similar populations. PMID:10759247

  14. Antioxidant activities from different rosemary clonal lines.

    PubMed

    Ban, Lan; Narasimhamoorthy, Brindha; Zhao, Liuqing; Greaves, John A; Schroeder, William D

    2016-06-15

    Rosemary extract is widely used in food industry and carnosic acid is reported to be the major component that is responsible for its antioxidant activities. However, it is unclear how the numerous plant metabolites interact and contribute to the overall antioxidant activity. In this study, with poultry fat as the model food system, rosemary extract from six clonal lines were evaluated that each represented a different genetic variant. As expected, rosemary extract with higher carnosic acid content had higher antioxidant activity. However, rosemary extract which had carnosic acid removed retained a significant amount of activity. Furthermore, when the individual contributions of carnosic acid and the portion without carnosic acid were evaluated separately, neither was shown to be responsible for the overall level of its stabilization effect from rosemary extract as a whole entity. The interactions among different plant metabolites have a major impact on the overall antioxidant capabilities of rosemary extract. PMID:26868574

  15. The Significance of Ras Activity in Pancreatic Cancer Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Craig D.; Lu, Weiqin

    2016-01-01

    The genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer shows nearly ubiquitous mutations of K-RAS. However, oncogenic K-Rasmt alone is not sufficient to lead to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in either human or in genetically modified adult mouse models. Many stimulants, such as high fat diet, CCK, LPS, PGE2 and others, have physiological effects at low concentrations that are mediated in part through modest increases in K-Ras activity. However, at high concentrations, they induce inflammation that, in the presence of oncogenic K-Ras expression, substantially accelerates PDAC formation. The mechanism involves increased activity of oncogenic K-Rasmt. Unlike what has been proposed in the standard paradigm for the role of Ras in oncogenesis, oncogenic K-Rasmt is now known to not be constitutively active. Rather, it can be activated by standard mechanisms similar to wild-type K-Ras, but its activity is sustained for a prolonged period. Furthermore, if the level of K-Ras activity exceeds a threshold at which it begins to generate its own activators, then a feed-forward loop is formed between K-Ras activity and inflammation and pathological processes including oncogenesis are initiated. Oncogenic K-Rasmt activation, a key event in PDAC initiation and development, is subject to complex regulatory mechanisms. Reagents which inhibit inflammation, such as the Cox2 inhibitor celecoxib, block the feed-forward loop and prevent induction of PDAC in models with endogenous oncogenic K-Rasmt. Increased understanding of the role of activating and inhibitory mechanisms on oncogenic K-Rasmt activity is of paramount importance for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies to fight against this lethal disease. PMID:26929740

  16. Adaptive significance of right hemisphere activation in aphasic language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Jed A; Wagage, Suraji; Ryder, Jennifer; Solomon, Beth; Braun, Allen R

    2013-06-01

    Aphasic patients often exhibit increased right hemisphere activity during language tasks. This may represent takeover of function by regions homologous to the left-hemisphere language networks, maladaptive interference, or adaptation of alternate compensatory strategies. To distinguish between these accounts, we tested language comprehension in 25 aphasic patients using an online sentence-picture matching paradigm while measuring brain activation with MEG. Linguistic conditions included semantically irreversible ("The boy is eating the apple") and reversible ("The boy is pushing the girl") sentences at three levels of syntactic complexity. As expected, patients performed well above chance on irreversible sentences, and at chance on reversible sentences of high complexity. Comprehension of reversible non-complex sentences ranged from nearly perfect to chance, and was highly correlated with offline measures of language comprehension. Lesion analysis revealed that comprehension deficits for reversible sentences were predicted by damage to the left temporal lobe. Although aphasic patients activated homologous areas in the right temporal lobe, such activation was not correlated with comprehension performance. Rather, patients with better comprehension exhibited increased activity in dorsal fronto-parietal regions. Correlations between performance and dorsal network activity occurred bilaterally during perception of sentences, and in the right hemisphere during a post-sentence memory delay. These results suggest that effortful reprocessing of perceived sentences in short-term memory can support improved comprehension in aphasia, and that strategic recruitment of alternative networks, rather than homologous takeover, may account for some findings of right hemisphere language activation in aphasia. PMID:23566891

  17. Rural Enterprises, Incorporated report of significant activities and accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The ongoing activities of Rural Enterprises, Inc. are presented. The function of Rural Enterprises is to bring innovation from its rudimentary conceptual stages to useful and productive ends by means of cooperation with government, business, and educational institutions.

  18. Distribution and significance of heterotrophic marine bacteria with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, S; Simidu, U

    1987-01-01

    Bacteria with antibacterial activity were isolated from seawater, sediments, phytoplankton, and zooplankton of Suruga, Sagami, and Tokyo Bays and from soft corals and sponges collected from the Taiwan coast. Of the 726 strains isolated, 37 showed antibacterial activity against either Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 17802) or Staphylococcus aureus (P209). Sediment harbored the lowest number of these forms of bacteria, and those from Tokyo Bay did not show any activity. Attached isolates showed greater activity compared with free-living forms. Relatively high numbers of strains with antibacterial activity were associated with phytoplankton. Among the zooplankton isolates, cladocerans harbored the maximum number of antibacterial strains. Isolates were more inhibitory to gram-positive test cultures. Autoinhibition was observed only among 8% of the isolates. Marine nonproducers were more susceptible. Pseudomonas/Alteromonas species made up 81.0% of isolates, of which 30% were pigmented strains. The absence or reduction in number of bacteria with antibacterial activity in Tokyo Bay is attributed to its eutrophic nature, which may tend to moderate the production of antibacterial compounds. PMID:3435149

  19. Routine activities and victimization at school: the significance of gender.

    PubMed

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A

    2011-08-01

    Routine activities theory has not fully considered the role of gender in shaping victimization and yet, the research literature clearly demonstrates that gender is associated with an individual's risk of victimization. In addition to the pervasive effect of gender on victimization, gender shapes an individual's daily routines and thus may create a gender-specific relationship with victimization. This article explores the importance of gender in understanding the relationship between student's participation in extracurricular routine activities (e.g., student government, clubs, sports, and etc.) and the risk of victimization. From the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, a sample of 10th-grade students was drawn for analyses. Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling was employed to explore the role of gender in the relationship between extracurricular routine activities and victimization at school. The results reveal that students' gender indeed interacts with several of the extracurricular routine activities creating gender-specific risks of victimization. This article highlights the importance of gender in explaining victimization and suggests researchers should consider how gender may interact with other routine activities and victimization. PMID:20956442

  20. Solar activity over different timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obridko, Vladimir; Nagovitsyn, Yuri

    The report deals with the “General History of the Sun” (multi-scale description of the long-term behavior of solar activity): the possibility of reconstruction. Time scales: • 100-150 years - the Solar Service. • 400 - instrumental observations. • 1000-2000 years - indirect data (polar auroras, sunspots seen with the naked eye). • Over-millennial scale (Holocene) -14С (10Be) Overview and comparison of data sets. General approaches to the problem of reconstruction of solar activity indices on a large timescale. North-South asymmetry of the sunspot formation activity. 200-year cycle over the “evolution timescales”.The relative contribution of the large-scale and low-latitude. components of the solar magnetic field to the general geomagnetic activity. “Large-scale” and low-latitude sources of geomagnetic disturbances.

  1. Routine Activities and Victimization at School: The Significance of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Routine activities theory has not fully considered the role of gender in shaping victimization and yet, the research literature clearly demonstrates that gender is associated with an individual's risk of victimization. In addition to the pervasive effect of gender on victimization, gender shapes an individual's daily routines and thus may create a…

  2. Identification of Statistically Significant Differences between Standard Scores on the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert G.

    1981-01-01

    Occasionally, differences in test scores seem to indicate that a student performs much better in one reading area than in another when, in reality, the differences may not be statistically significant. The author presents a table in which statistically significant differences between Woodcock test standard scores are identified. (Author)

  3. Finding Significant Correlates of Conscious Activity in Rhythmic EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durka, Piotr J.

    2005-12-01

    One of the important issues in designing an EEG-based brain-computer interface is an exact delineation of the rhythms, related to the intended or performed action. Traditionally, related bands were found by trial and error procedures seeking maximum reactivity. Even then, large values of ERD/ERS did not imply the statistical significance of the results. This paper presents complete methodology, allowing for a high-resolution presentation of the whole time-frequency picture of event-related changes in the energy density of signals, revealing the microstructure of rhythms, and determination of the time-frequency regions of energy changes, which are related to the intentions in a statistically significant way.

  4. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  5. [Significance of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activity in human lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Márk, Ágnes

    2014-06-01

    Neoplastic processes, tumor growth, and tumor cell proliferation and survival are often due to the altered activation of different signaling pathways. The increased activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling has been shown to be an important regulator of tumor growth in several solid tumors and in mantle cell lymphomas. The active form of mTOR kinase (mammalian target of rapamycin) is a key signaling molecule, and it exists in two different complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. In the present work, mTOR activity was investigated in different lymphoma types, in parallel with clinical data. We also examined in Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) the role of mTOR activity in survival mechanisms such as antiapoptotic protein expression and alterations in the microenvironment. We determined which lymphoma types display characteristic high mTOR activity in our TMA (tissue microarray) study. We observed that mTOR activity is increased in mitotic lymphoid cells compared to interphasic cells. The number of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and HL cases was extended in a further set of TMA. We observed significantly higher mTOR activity in the non-centrum germinativum derived subtype of DLBCL than in the centrum germinativum derived subtype, which was a prognostic marker; 63% of mTOR active cases showed Rictor overexpression, indicating mTORC2 activity. High mTOR activity was also established in 92% of HL cases, which was linked to mTORC1. This finding was not a prognostic marker, however, it can be useful in targeted therapy. We observed the overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL-xL and NFκB-p50 in the majority of mTOR active HLs. HLs showed high numbers of regulatory T cells in the microenvironment and high expression of galectin-1 in tumor cells and in the extracellular matrix, when compared to reactive lymph nodes. We confirmed that mTOR inhibition had significant antiproliferative and antiapoptotic effects in lymphoma cell lines and in lymphoma xenografts (HL, DLBCL, Burkitt lymphoma

  6. Biographical Narratives of Encounter: The Significance of Mobility and Emplacement in Shaping Attitudes towards Difference

    PubMed Central

    Sadgrove, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper is located within work in urban studies about the significance of contact with difference as a means for reducing prejudice and achieving social change. Recent approaches, influenced by theories of affect, have emphasised non-conscious everyday negotiations of difference in the city. In this paper it is argued that such approaches lose sight of the significance of the subject: of the reflective judgements of ‘others’ made by individuals; of our ability to make decisions around the control of our feelings and identifications; and of the significance of personal pasts and collective histories in shaping the ways we perceive and react to encounters. Rather, this paper uses a biographical approach focusing on interviewees’ narratives of encounter. Through its attention to processes of mobility and emplacement, it contributes to debates about when contact with difference matters by highlighting the importance of everyday social normativities in the production of moral dispositions. PMID:26300566

  7. An Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain Significantly Decreases Physical Activity across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia; Wikstrom, Erik A.; Guderian, Sophie; Turner, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    We do not know the impact an ankle sprain has on physical activity levels across the lifespan. With the negative consequences of physical inactivity well established, understanding the effect of an ankle sprain on this outcome is critical. The objective of this study was to measure physical activity across the lifespan after a single ankle sprain in an animal model. Thirty male mice (CBA/J) were randomly placed into one of three groups: the transected calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) group, the transected anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL)/CFL group, and a SHAM group. Three days after surgery, all of the mice were individually housed in a cage containing a solid surface running wheel. Physical activity levels were recorded and averaged every week across the mouse’s lifespan. The SHAM mice ran significantly more distance each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p = 0.011). Daily duration was different between the three running groups (p = 0.048). The SHAM mice ran significantly more minutes each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p=0.046) while the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly less minutes each day (post hoc p = 0.028) compared to both the SHAM and CFL only group. The SHAM mice ran at a faster daily speed versus the remaining two groups of mice (post hoc p = 0.019) and the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly slower each day compared to the SHAM and CFL group (post hoc p = 0.005). The results of this study indicate that a single ankle sprain significantly decreases physical activity across the lifespan in mice. This decrease in physical activity can potentially lead to the development of numerous chronic diseases. An ankle sprain thus has the potential to lead to significant long term health risks if not treated appropriately. Key points A single ankle significantly decreased physical activity levels in mice across the lifespan. Decreased physical activity could significantly negatively impact overall health if not

  8. Significance probability mapping: an aid in the topographic analysis of brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Duffy, F H; Bartels, P H; Burchfiel, J L

    1981-05-01

    We illustrate the application of significance probability mapping (SPM) to the analysis of topographic maps of spectral analyzed EEG and visual evoked potential (VEP) activity from patients with brain tumors, boys with dyslexia, and control subjects. When the VEP topographic plots of tumor patients were displayed as number of standard deviations from a reference mean, more subjects were correctly identified than by inspection of the underlying raw data. When topographic plots of EEG alpha activity obtained while listening to speech or music were compared by t statistic to plots of resting alpha activity, regions of cortex presumably activated by speech or music were delineated. DIfferent regions were defined in dyslexic boys and controls. We propose that SPM will prove valuable in the regional localization of normal and abnormal functions in other clinical situations. PMID:6165544

  9. Conventions of Courtship: Gender and Race Differences in the Significance of Dating Rituals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Pamela Braboy; Kleiner, Sibyl; Geist, Claudia; Cebulko, Kara

    2011-01-01

    Dating rituals include dating--courtship methods that are regularly enacted. This study explores gender and race differences in the relative importance placed on certain symbolic activities previously identified by the dating literature as constituting such rituals. Using information collected from a racially diverse sample of college students (N…

  10. Statistical significance of trends and trend differences in layer-average atmospheric temperature time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, B. D.; Wigley, T. M. L.; Boyle, J. S.; Gaffen, D. J.; Hnilo, J. J.; Nychka, D.; Parker, D. E.; Taylor, K. E.

    2000-03-01

    This paper examines trend uncertainties in layer-average free atmosphere temperatures arising from the use of different trend estimation methods. It also considers statistical issues that arise in assessing the significance of individual trends and of trend differences between data sets. Possible causes of these trends are not addressed. We use data from satellite and radiosonde measurements and from two reanalysis projects. To facilitate intercomparison, we compute from reanalyses and radiosonde data temperatures equivalent to those from the satellite-based Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU). We compare linear trends based on minimization of absolute deviations (LA) and minimization of squared deviations (LS). Differences are generally less than 0.05°C/decade over 1959-1996. Over 1979-1993, they exceed 0.10°C/decade for lower tropospheric time series and 0.15°C/decade for the lower stratosphere. Trend fitting by the LA method can degrade the lower-tropospheric trend agreement of 0.03°C/decade (over 1979-1996) previously reported for the MSU and radiosonde data. In assessing trend significance we employ two methods to account for temporal autocorrelation effects. With our preferred method, virtually none of the individual 1979-1993 trends in deep-layer temperatures are significantly different from zero. To examine trend differences between data sets we compute 95% confidence intervals for individual trends and show that these overlap for almost all data sets considered. Confidence intervals for lower-tropospheric trends encompass both zero and the model-projected trends due to anthropogenic effects. We also test the significance of a trend in d(t), the time series of differences between a pair of data sets. Use of d(t) removes variability common to both time series and facilitates identification of small trend differences. This more discerning test reveals that roughly 30% of the data set comparisons have significant differences in lower-tropospheric trends

  11. Patient-Specific Simulations Reveal Significant Differences in Mechanical Stimuli in Venous and Arterial Coronary Grafts.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Abhay B; Kahn, Andrew M; Marsden, Alison L

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical stimuli are key to understanding disease progression and clinically observed differences in failure rates between arterial and venous grafts following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. We quantify biologically relevant mechanical stimuli, not available from standard imaging, in patient-specific simulations incorporating non-invasive clinical data. We couple CFD with closed-loop circulatory physiology models to quantify biologically relevant indices, including wall shear, oscillatory shear, and wall strain. We account for vessel-specific material properties in simulating vessel wall deformation. Wall shear was significantly lower (p = 0.014*) and atheroprone area significantly higher (p = 0.040*) in venous compared to arterial grafts. Wall strain in venous grafts was significantly lower (p = 0.003*) than in arterial grafts while no significant difference was observed in oscillatory shear index. Simulations demonstrate significant differences in mechanical stimuli acting on venous vs. arterial grafts, in line with clinically observed graft failure rates, offering a promising avenue for stratifying patients at risk for graft failure. PMID:27447176

  12. Different Degrees of Plant Invasion Significantly Affect the Richness of the Soil Fungal Community

    PubMed Central

    Si, Chuncan; Liu, Xueyan; Wang, Congyan; Wang, Lei; Dai, Zhicong; Qi, Shanshan; Du, Daolin

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that soil microorganisms play a key role in the success of plant invasion. Thus, ecologists have become increasingly interested in understanding the ecological effects of biological invasion on soil microbial communities given continuing increase in the effects of invasive plants on native ecosystems. This paper aims to provide a relatively complete depiction of the characteristics of soil microbial communities under different degrees of plant invasion. Rhizospheric soils of the notorious invasive plant Wedelia trilobata with different degrees of invasion (uninvaded, low-degree, and high-degree using its coverage in the invaded ecosystems) were collected from five discrete areas in Hainan Province, P. R. China. Soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microorganisms were assessed. Low degrees of W. trilobata invasion significantly increased soil pH values whereas high degrees of invasion did not significantly affected soil pH values. Moreover, the degree of W. trilobata invasion exerted significant effects on soil Ca concentration but did not significantly change other indices of soil physicochemical properties. Low and high degrees of W. trilobata invasion increased the richness of the soil fungal community but did not pose obvious effects on the soil bacterial community. W. trilobata invasion also exerted obvious effects on the community structure of soil microorganisms that take part in soil nitrogen cycling. These changes in soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microbial communities mediated by different degrees of W. trilobata invasion may present significant functions in further facilitating the invasion process. PMID:24392015

  13. Significant differences in pediatric psychotropic side effects: Implications for school performance.

    PubMed

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-03-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication monitoring, data-based decision-making, and inform mitigation efforts. SE data from Full Prescribing Information (PI) on the FDA website for ADHD drugs, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants with pediatric indications were analyzed. Risk ratios (RR) are reported for each drug within a category compared with placebo. RR tables and graphs inform the reader about SE incidence differences for each drug and provide clear evidence of the wide variability in SE incidence in the FDA data. Breslow-Day and Cochran Mantel-Haenszel methods were used to test for drug-placebo SE differences and to test for significance across drugs within each category based on odds ratios (ORs). Significant drug-placebo differences were found for each drug compared with placebo, when odds were pooled across all drugs in a category compared with placebo, and between some drugs within categories. Unexpectedly, many large RR differences did not reach significance. Potential explanations are offered, including limitations of the FDA data sets and statistical and methodological issues. Future research directions are offered. The potential impact of certain SEs on school performance, mitigation strategies, and the potential role of the school psychologist is discussed, with consideration for ethical and legal limitations. PMID:22582933

  14. Exoemissive noise activity of different metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichevin, V.; Käämbre, H.; Sammelselg, V.; Kelle, H.; Asari, E.; Saks, O.

    1996-11-01

    A method is proposed for testing the exoemission activity of different metals, used as materials in high sensitivity electrometry (attoammetry). The presented test results allow us to select materials with weaker exoelectron spurious currents.

  15. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  16. Are secular correlations between sunspots, geomagnetic activity, and global temperature significant?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.; Mursula, K.; Tsai, V.C.; Perkins, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have led to speculation that solar-terrestrial interaction, measured by sunspot number and geomagnetic activity, has played an important role in global temperature change over the past century or so. We treat this possibility as an hypothesis for testing. We examine the statistical significance of cross-correlations between sunspot number, geomagnetic activity, and global surface temperature for the years 1868-2008, solar cycles 11-23. The data contain substantial autocorrelation and nonstationarity, properties that are incompatible with standard measures of cross-correlational significance, but which can be largely removed by averaging over solar cycles and first-difference detrending. Treated data show an expected statistically- significant correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity, Pearson p < 10-4, but correlations between global temperature and sunspot number (geomagnetic activity) are not significant, p = 0.9954, (p = 0.8171). In other words, straightforward analysis does not support widely-cited suggestions that these data record a prominent role for solar-terrestrial interaction in global climate change. With respect to the sunspot-number, geomagnetic-activity, and global-temperature data, three alternative hypotheses remain difficult to reject: (1) the role of solar-terrestrial interaction in recent climate change is contained wholly in long-term trends and not in any shorter-term secular variation, or, (2) an anthropogenic signal is hiding correlation between solar-terrestrial variables and global temperature, or, (3) the null hypothesis, recent climate change has not been influenced by solar-terrestrial interaction. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Is there significant variation in the material properties of four different allografts implanted for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Penn, David; Willet, Thomas L; Glazebrook, Mark; Snow, Martyn; Stanish, William D

    2009-03-01

    The aims of our study were to: (1) determine if there are differences in the material properties of tendon obtained from implanted tibialis anterior, achilles, bone-patella- bone and tibialis posterior allografts; (2) determine the variability in material properties between the implanted specimens. A total of 60 specimens were collected from fresh frozen allografts implanted at ACL reconstruction. Specimens collected included 15 tibialis anterior, 15 tibialis posterior, 15 achilles and 15 bone-patella-bone tendons. Each specimen was mounted in a custom made cryogrip. The mounted specimens were loaded onto a MTS Testline servo-hydraulic testing machine in a uni-axial tensile test configuration. Specimens were subjected to a strain rate of 5% per second until the ultimate tensile stress (UTS), failure strain and high strain modulus was calculated for each specimen after being normalized for specimen dimensions. Individual material properties were tested using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey's B test with a P value of <0.05 considered significant. Homogeneity of variance was assessed using the Levene's test. As a result, no significant difference was found between all four grafts with regards to UTS, failure strain or high strain linear modulus. The UTS was plotted against the modulus demonstrating a linear relationship which is typical of soft tissues. Significant variability in the results were observed. In conclusion, there was no significant statistical difference between the material properties of the four tendon allografts tested. But significant variability in results was observed within groups and between groups, which may provide one explanation for the range of results in allograft ACL reconstruction reported in the literature. PMID:19039574

  18. Significance of different microalgal species for growth of moon jellyfish ephyrae, Aurelia sp.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shan; Sun, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yantao; Sun, Song

    2015-10-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) sp. l., is a cosmopolitan species-complex which blooms seasonally in a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. The effects of different microalgal species on the growth of newly-released Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were studied under laboratory conditions. We fed ephyrae with four different microalgal species (diatom, autotrophic dinoflagellate, heterotrophic dinoflagellate, and chlorophyta) plus Artemia nauplii for 12-24 d at 18°C. Results showed that the growth rate diverged significantly for Artemia nauplii compared to other food types. In addition, there was no significant variation between the growth rates for Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense, and no significant variation was found in the growth rates for N. scintillans and P. subcordiformis. Artemia nauplii could support the energy requirement for the newly-released ephyrae to develop to meduase, and the ephyrae with Artemia nauplii showed a significant average growth rate of 25.85% d-1. Newly-released ephyrae could grow slightly with some species of microalgae in the earliest development stage. Chain diatom Skeletonema costatum and autotrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense, could not support the growth of the ephyrae, while heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and chlorophyta Platymonas subcordiformis could support the growth of the ephyrae. However, none of the ephyrae fed with the tested phytoplankton could mature to medusae.

  19. Evaluation of different criteria for significant threshold shift in occupational hearing conservation programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Royster, J.D.

    1992-12-09

    A comparison was undertaken of six different criteria for determinig significant hearing threshold shift. Each criterion was applied to the first eight audiograms for males participating in 15 different industrial hearing conservation programs. Of the different criteria used, the OSHA STS criterion produced the lowest overall percentage of employees tagged as having suffered a threshold shift. The 15-dB SHIFT and NIOSH SHIFT criteria produced the highest percentages. The mean percentages of employees tagged on an annual basis generally were small, less than 10 percent in referent data bases and 20 percent or less in the noncontrol data bases. The 15-dB SHIFT and NIOSH SHIFT criteria tagged 37 percent and 51 percent of employees in noncontrol data bases on the first test comparison and averaged 14 percent and 24 percent of employees even in referent data bases. The purpose of the significant threshold shift criterion was to tag employees with temporary threshold shifts (TTS) before they develop hearing loss. Therefore, the purpose of the threshold shift criterion selected was not to act as a recordable occupational illness but rather to reflect a significant amount of persistent hearing change.

  20. Significant interarm blood pressure difference predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: CoCoNet study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Jang Young; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-06-01

    There has been a rising interest in interarm blood pressure difference (IAD), due to its relationship with peripheral arterial disease and its possible relationship with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to characterize hypertensive patients with a significant IAD in relation to cardiovascular risk. A total of 3699 patients (mean age, 61 ± 11 years) were prospectively enrolled in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was measured simultaneously in both arms 3 times using an automated cuff-oscillometric device. IAD was defined as the absolute difference in averaged BPs between the left and right arm, and an IAD ≥ 10 mm Hg was considered to be significant. The Framingham risk score was used to calculate the 10-year cardiovascular risk. The mean systolic IAD (sIAD) was 4.3 ± 4.1 mm Hg, and 285 (7.7%) patients showed significant sIAD. Patients with significant sIAD showed larger body mass index (P < 0.001), greater systolic BP (P = 0.050), more coronary artery disease (relative risk = 1.356, P = 0.034), and more cerebrovascular disease (relative risk = 1.521, P = 0.072). The mean 10-year cardiovascular risk was 9.3 ± 7.7%. By multiple regression, sIAD was significantly but weakly correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular risk (β = 0.135, P = 0.008). Patients with significant sIAD showed a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, as well as an increase in 10-year cardiovascular risk. Therefore, accurate measurements of sIAD may serve as a simple and cost-effective tool for predicting cardiovascular risk in clinical settings. PMID:27310982

  1. Asymmetric signal amplification for simultaneous SERS detection of multiple cancer markers with significantly different levels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Sujuan; Wu, Yanying; Zhai, Xiaomo; Tang, Bo

    2015-08-18

    Simultaneous detection of cancer biomarkers holds great promise for the early diagnosis of different cancers. However, in the presence of high-concentration biomarkers, the signals of lower-expression biomarkers are overlapped. Existing techniques are not suitable for simultaneously detecting multiple biomarkers at concentrations with significantly different orders of magnitude. Here, we propose an asymmetric signal amplification method for simultaneously detecting multiple biomarkers with significantly different levels. Using the bifunctional probe, a linear amplification mode responds to high-concentration markers, and quadratic amplification mode responds to low-concentration markers. With the combined biobarcode probe and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) amplification method, the detection limits of microRNA (miRNA) and ATP via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection are 0.15 fM and 20 nM, respectively, with a breakthrough of detection concentration difference over 11 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, successful determination of miRNA and ATP in cancer cells supports the practicability of the assay. This methodology promises to open an exciting new avenue for the detection of various types of biomolecules. PMID:26218034

  2. Differences in associations between active transportation and built environmental exposures when expressed using different components of individual activity spaces.

    PubMed

    van Heeswijck, Torbjorn; Paquet, Catherine; Kestens, Yan; Thierry, Benoit; Morency, Catherine; Daniel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed relationships between built environmental exposures measured within components of individual activity spaces (i.e., travel origins, destinations and paths in-between), and use of active transportation in a metropolitan setting. Individuals (n=37,165) were categorised as using active or sedentary transportation based on travel survey data. Generalised Estimating Equations analysis was used to test relationships with active transportation. Strength and significance of relationships between exposures and active transportation varied for different components of the activity space. Associations were strongest when including travel paths in expression of the built environment. Land use mix and greenness were negatively related to active transportation. PMID:25862996

  3. Women who know their place : sex-based differences in spatial abilities and their evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ariane; Kandler, Anne; Good, David

    2012-06-01

    Differences between men and women in the performance of tests designed to measure spatial abilities are explained by evolutionary psychologists in terms of adaptive design. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Ability suggests that the adoption of a hunter-gatherer lifestyle (assuming a sexual division of labor) created differential selective pressure on the development of spatial skills in men and women and, therefore, cognitive differences between the sexes. Here, we examine a basic spatial skill-wayfinding (the ability to plan routes and navigate a landscape)-in men and women in a natural, real-world setting as a means of testing the proposition that sex-based differences in spatial ability exist outside of the laboratory. Our results indicate that when physical differences are accounted for, men and women with equivalent experience perform equally well at complex navigation tasks in a real-world setting. We conclude that experience, gendered patterns of activity, and self-assessment are contributing factors in producing previously reported differences in spatial ability. PMID:22648664

  4. Using the Bootstrap Method for a Statistical Significance Test of Differences between Summary Histograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2006-01-01

    A new method is proposed to compare statistical differences between summary histograms, which are the histograms summed over a large ensemble of individual histograms. It consists of choosing a distance statistic for measuring the difference between summary histograms and using a bootstrap procedure to calculate the statistical significance level. Bootstrapping is an approach to statistical inference that makes few assumptions about the underlying probability distribution that describes the data. Three distance statistics are compared in this study. They are the Euclidean distance, the Jeffries-Matusita distance and the Kuiper distance. The data used in testing the bootstrap method are satellite measurements of cloud systems called cloud objects. Each cloud object is defined as a contiguous region/patch composed of individual footprints or fields of view. A histogram of measured values over footprints is generated for each parameter of each cloud object and then summary histograms are accumulated over all individual histograms in a given cloud-object size category. The results of statistical hypothesis tests using all three distances as test statistics are generally similar, indicating the validity of the proposed method. The Euclidean distance is determined to be most suitable after comparing the statistical tests of several parameters with distinct probability distributions among three cloud-object size categories. Impacts on the statistical significance levels resulting from differences in the total lengths of satellite footprint data between two size categories are also discussed.

  5. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Rashin, Alexander A; Domagalski, Marcin J; Zimmermann, Michael T; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Jernigan, Robert L

    2014-02-01

    Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific `unusual' ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty thresholds. The binding of unusual ligands by myoglobin, leading to crystal-induced distortions, suggests that some of the conformational differences between the apo and holo structures might not be `functionally important' but rather artifacts caused by the binding of `unusual' substrate analogs. The causes of P6 symmetry in myoglobin crystals and the relationship between crystal and

  6. Pleasantness, activation, and sex differences in advertising.

    PubMed

    Whissell, C; McCall, L

    1997-10-01

    Advertisements in men's, women's, girls', and boys' magazines (n = 38,195 words) were scored objectively in terms of 15 measures of linguistic style, e.g., use of common words, use of long words, use of specific words and emotional tone (pleasantness and activation, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect). There were several sex- and age-related differences among advertisements from different sources. Advertisements from boys' magazines were extremely active, those from women's and girls' magazines were shorter and unusually pleasant. In two follow-up studies (N = 122 volunteers), objective emotional measures of advertising text proved to be related to ratings of persuasion and of success of appeal for individual advertisements. The most preferred advertisement for women was pleasant and active, that for men unpleasant and active. When men and women created advertisements, women's were shorter and more pleasant. PMID:9354085

  7. Significant differences in biogeochemical processes between a glaciated and a permafrost dominated catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindshaw, Ruth; Heaton, Tim; Boyd, Eric; Lang, Susan; Tipper, Ed

    2014-05-01

    It is increasingly recognised that microbially mediated processes have a significant impact on chemical fluxes from glaciated catchments. One important reaction is the oxidation of pyrite since the production of sulphuric acid facilitates the dissolution of minerals without the need for acidity generated by dissolved atmospheric CO2. Thus weathering processes can still continue even when isolated from the atmosphere, as is thought to occur under large ice masses. However, as a glacier melts, it is expected that the microbial community will change with knock-on effects on the stream water chemistry. Understanding the difference in solute generation processes between glaciated and un-glaciated terrain is key to understanding how glacial-interglacial cycles affect atmospheric CO2 consumption by chemical weathering. In order to investigate whether biogeochemical processes differ between glaciated and un-glaciated terrain we collected stream water samples from two small catchments (each approximately 3 km2) in Svalbard. One catchment is glaciated and the other catchment is un-glaciated but is affected by permafrost and a seasonal snow-pack. The two catchments are situated next to each other with identical bedrock (shale with minor siltstone and sandstone). The proximity of the catchments to each other ensures that meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation are very similar. Sampling was conducted early in the melt-season when there was still significant snow-cover and in mid-summer when most of the seasonal snow-pack had melted. The water samples were analysed for δ34S-SO4, δ18O-SO4, δ18O-H2O, δ13C-DIC and δ13C-DOC, together with major anions and cations. Despite the nominally identical lithology, there were significant differences in the stream water chemistry between the two catchments. For example, sulphate was the dominant anion in the un-glaciated catchment whereas bicarbonate was the dominant anion in the glaciated catchment. Pyrite

  8. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Rashin, Alexander A.; Domagalski, Marcin J.; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Jernigan, Robert L.

    2014-02-01

    Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty

  9. Active Hemovigilance Significantly Improves Reporting of Acute Non-infectious Adverse Reactions to Blood Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Naveen; Agnihotri, Ajju

    2016-09-01

    One of the key purposes of a hemovigilance program is to improve reporting of transfusion related adverse events and subsequent data-driven improvement in blood transfusion (BT) practices. We conducted a study over 3 years to assess the impact of healthcare worker training and an active feedback programme on reporting of adverse reactions to BTs. All hospitalized patients who required a BT were included in the study. Healthcare workers involved in BT to patients were sensitized and trained in adverse reaction reporting by conducting training sessions and meetings. All the transfused patients were 'actively' monitored for any acute adverse reaction by using a uniquely coded blood issue form. A total of 18,914 blood components transfused to 5785 different patients resulted in 61 adverse reaction episodes. This incidence of 0.32 % in our study was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.005) than that reported from the same region in the past. Red blood cell units were the most frequently transfused component and thus most commonly involved in an adverse reaction (42.6 %), however apheresis platelets had the highest chance of reaction per unit transfused (0.66 %). There was no mortality associated with the BT during the study period. An active surveillance program significantly improves reporting and management of adverse reactions to BTs. PMID:27429527

  10. The temporal structures and functional significance of scale-free brain activity

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.; Zempel, John M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Scale-free dynamics, with a power spectrum following P ∝ f-β, are an intrinsic feature of many complex processes in nature. In neural systems, scale-free activity is often neglected in electrophysiological research. Here, we investigate scale-free dynamics in human brain and show that it contains extensive nested frequencies, with the phase of lower frequencies modulating the amplitude of higher frequencies in an upward progression across the frequency spectrum. The functional significance of scale-free brain activity is indicated by task performance modulation and regional variation, with β being larger in default network and visual cortex and smaller in hippocampus and cerebellum. The precise patterns of nested frequencies in the brain differ from other scale-free dynamics in nature, such as earth seismic waves and stock market fluctuations, suggesting system-specific generative mechanisms. Our findings reveal robust temporal structures and behavioral significance of scale-free brain activity and should motivate future study on its physiological mechanisms and cognitive implications. PMID:20471349

  11. The temporal structures and functional significance of scale-free brain activity.

    PubMed

    He, Biyu J; Zempel, John M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E

    2010-05-13

    Scale-free dynamics, with a power spectrum following P proportional to f(-beta), are an intrinsic feature of many complex processes in nature. In neural systems, scale-free activity is often neglected in electrophysiological research. Here, we investigate scale-free dynamics in human brain and show that it contains extensive nested frequencies, with the phase of lower frequencies modulating the amplitude of higher frequencies in an upward progression across the frequency spectrum. The functional significance of scale-free brain activity is indicated by task performance modulation and regional variation, with beta being larger in default network and visual cortex and smaller in hippocampus and cerebellum. The precise patterns of nested frequencies in the brain differ from other scale-free dynamics in nature, such as earth seismic waves and stock market fluctuations, suggesting system-specific generative mechanisms. Our findings reveal robust temporal structures and behavioral significance of scale-free brain activity and should motivate future study on its physiological mechanisms and cognitive implications. PMID:20471349

  12. Subgroups of Paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Might Differ Significantly in Genetic Predisposition to Asparaginase Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kutszegi, Nóra; Semsei, Ágnes F; Gézsi, András; Sági, Judit C; Nagy, Viktória; Csordás, Katalin; Jakab, Zsuzsanna; Lautner-Csorba, Orsolya; Gábor, Krisztina Míta; Kovács, Gábor T; Erdélyi, Dániel J; Szalai, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    L-asparaginase (ASP) is a key element in the treatment of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to ASP are major challenges in paediatric patients. Our aim was to investigate genetic variants that may influence the risk to Escherichia coli-derived ASP hypersensitivity. Sample and clinical data collection was carried out from 576 paediatric ALL patients who were treated according to protocols from the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GRIA1 and GALNT10 genes were genotyped. Patients with GRIA1 rs4958351 AA/AG genotype showed significantly reduced risk to ASP hypersensitivity compared to patients with GG genotype in the T-cell ALL subgroup (OR = 0.05 (0.01-0.26); p = 4.70E-04), while no such association was found in pre-B-cell ALL. In the medium risk group two SNPs of GRIA1 (rs2055083 and rs707176) were associated significantly with the occurrence of ASP hypersensitivity (OR = 0.21 (0.09-0.53); p = 8.48E-04 and OR = 3.02 (1.36-6.73); p = 6.76E-03, respectively). Evaluating the genders separately, however, the association of rs707176 with ASP HSRs was confined only to females. Our results suggest that genetic variants of GRIA1 might influence the risk to ASP hypersensitivity, but subgroups of patients can differ significantly in this respect. PMID:26457809

  13. Comparison of improved operating parameters of five different wavelength LEDs for significantly brighter illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Eduard K.; Lee, Susanne M.; Van de Workeen, Brian C.; Mueller, Otward M.

    2001-05-01

    Although light-emitting diodes exhibit much higher efficiencies and greatly reduced power consumption compared to incandescent light sources, the use of LEDs in lighting applications is limited by their smaller size and subsequently lower light output. However, it has been found that these parameters can be increased significantly by cooling the diodes to cryogenic temperatures. This may make their use feasible for several applications requiring more efficient and brighter illumination for much less cost. In this paper, we compare the temperature-dependent behavior of five commercially available LEDs of different wavelengths down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. It was found that three AlInGaP diodes (red, yellow, and green) demonstrated significant operating improvements. The performance of InGaN-based blue LEDs declined at low temperatures, and because most white LEDs are simply blue LEDs coated with YAG, these exhibited similar behavior. However, the three AlInGaP LEDs demonstrated at least an order of magnitude improvement in illuminance, absolute intensity, and maximum operating current. The green LEDs showed the largest improvement factors, while the yellow LEDs produced the brightest illumination at low temperatures. The emissions of all five LEDs shifted to shorter wavelengths at low temperatures. This is significant in terms of lighting applications since the low-temperature AlInGaP diodes emitted more visible spectra.

  14. Trends in space activities in 2014: The significance of the space activities of governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paikowsky, Deganit; Baram, Gil; Ben-Israel, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the principal events of 2014 in the field of space activities, and extrapolates from them the primary trends that can be identified in governmental space activities. In 2014, global space activities centered on two vectors. The first was geopolitical, and the second relates to the matrix between increasing commercial space activities and traditional governmental space activities. In light of these two vectors, the article outlines and analyzes trends of space exploration, human spaceflights, industry and technology, cooperation versus self-reliance, and space security and sustainability. It also reviews the space activities of the leading space-faring nations.

  15. Antioxidants significantly affect the formation of different classes of isoprostanes and neuroprostanes in rat cerebral synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Montine, Thomas J; Montine, Kathleen S; Reich, Erin E; Terry, Erin S; Porter, Ned A; Morrow, Jason D

    2003-02-15

    Lipid peroxidation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence that antioxidants can affect the clinical course of neurodegenerative diseases is limited. In the present study, we examined the ability of five common antioxidants or antioxidant combinations, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, GSH ethyl ester, and a combination of ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol, to modulate lipid peroxidation in peroxidizing rat cerebral synaptosomes, a well-characterized model of oxidant injury. In these studies, we quantified isoprostanes (IsoPs) derived from arachidonic acid as an index of whole tissue oxidation and neuroprostanes (NeuroPs) formed from docosahexaenoic acid as a marker of selective neuronal peroxidation. We report that these various antioxidants displayed markedly different capacities to inhibit IsoP and NeuroP formation with the most potent effects on IsoPs observed for ascorbate, GSH ethyl ester, and the alpha-tocopherol-ascorbate combination. alpha-Tocopherol was slightly less potent and gamma-tocopherol significantly less effective. The concentration-response relationships were significantly different for NeuroP formation with the antioxidants being significantly less potent than for IsoP generation. In particular, alpha-tocopherol did not inhibit NeuroP formation at concentrations up to 100 microM. We also determined that tocopherols, in particular alpha-tocopherol, act in vitro as reducing agents to convert IsoP and NeuroP endoperoxides to reduced F-ring compounds, a finding we have observed previously in vivo in brain. These studies are of importance because they have further defined the role of antioxidants to modulate the formation of lipid peroxidation products in peroxidizing brain tissue. In addition, they suggest that alpha-tocopherol may not be a particularly effective agent to inhibit oxidant stress in the terminal compartment of neurons in the central nervous system

  16. Is There Any Significant Difference in Stent Thrombosis Between Sirolimus and Paclitaxel Eluting Stents?

    PubMed Central

    Bundhun, Pravesh Kumar; Wu, Zi Jia; Chen, Meng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several meta-analyses have shown no significant difference in stent thrombosis (ST) between sirolimus eluting stents (SES) and paclitaxel eluting stents (PES). However, other meta-analyses have found SES to be superior to PES. Therefore, to solve this issue, we aim to compare the clinical outcomes between SES and PES during a follow-up period of about 1 or more years. We have searched Medline and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SES with PES. These RCTs have been carefully analyzed and then different types of ST including ST defined by the Academic Research Consortium (ARC), acute ST, late and very late ST have all been considered as the clinical endpoints in this study. A follow-up period of about 1 year, between 1 and 2 years as well as a longer follow-up period between 1 and 5 years have been considered. Data were retrieved and combined by means of a fixed-effect model because of a lower heterogeneity observed among the results. Odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and the pooled analyses were performed with RevMan 5.3 software. Twenty-nine studies from 19 RCTs comprising of 16,724 patients (8115 patients in the SES group and 8609 patients in the PES group) satisfied the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. No significant differences in ST have been observed between SES and PES. Results were as follow: definite ST with OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.64–1.18, P = 0.36; probable ST with OR:0.72; 95% CI: 0.42–1.21, P = 0.21; definite, probable and/or possible ST with OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.75–1.17, P = 0.57; acute ST with OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.38–2.56, P = 0.98; subacute ST with OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.41–1.25, P = 0.25; early ST with OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.53–1.25, P = 0.34; late ST with OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.39–1.34, P = 0.30; very late ST with OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.72–1.44, P = 0.92; and any ST with OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.69–1.07, P = 0.18. Long-term ST

  17. Spore populations among bulk tank raw milk and dairy powders are significantly different.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rachel A; Kent, David J; Watterson, Matthew J; Boor, Kathryn J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    To accommodate stringent spore limits mandated for the export of dairy powders, a more thorough understanding of the spore species present will be necessary to develop prospective strategies to identify and reduce sources (i.e., raw materials or in-plant) of contamination. We characterized 1,523 spore isolates obtained from bulk tank raw milk (n=33 farms) and samples collected from 4 different dairy powder-processing plants producing acid whey, nonfat dry milk, sweet whey, or whey protein concentrate 80. The spores isolated comprised 12 genera, at least 44 species, and 216 rpoB allelic types. Bacillus and Geobacillus represented the most commonly isolated spore genera (approximately 68.9 and 12.1%, respectively, of all spore isolates). Whereas Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from samples collected from all plants and farms, Geobacillus spp. were isolated from samples from 3 out of 4 plants and just 1 out of 33 farms. We found significant differences between the spore population isolated from bulk tank raw milk and those isolated from dairy powder plant samples, except samples from the plant producing acid whey. A comparison of spore species isolated from raw materials and finished powders showed that although certain species, such as B. licheniformis, were found in both raw and finished product samples, other species, such as Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus spp., were more frequently isolated from finished powders. Importantly, we found that 8 out of 12 genera were isolated from at least 2 different spore count methods, suggesting that some spore count methods may provide redundant information if used in parallel. Together, our results suggest that (1) Bacillus and Geobacillus are the predominant spore contaminants in a variety of dairy powders, implying that future research efforts targeted at elucidating approaches to reduce levels of spores in dairy powders should focus on controlling levels of spore isolates from these genera; and (2) the spore

  18. [The significance of sex-linked differences for the assessment of somatosensory evoked potentials (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H; Hedderich, J; Tackmann, W

    1981-09-01

    In 45 healthy volunteers (22 males and 23 females with the same age structure) the peak latencies and inter-peak differences of the cervical and early cortical components of the somatosensory evoked potential were measured. The distribution of the values of the variables and their relationship with arm length were investigated both for the sample as a whole and for each sex separately. Significantly higher average values of the latencies and arm lengths were found in men. The correlations between arm length and latency had consistently higher values for the female sample. On the basis of these results it is concluded that a sufficient assessment of the latencies is only possible with the help of sex-specific normal values. PMID:6795015

  19. A graph of dark energy significance on different spatial and mass scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerikorpi, P.; Heinämäki, P.; Nurmi, P.; Chernin, A. D.; Einasto, M.; Valtonen, M.; Byrd, G.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The current cosmological paradigm sees the formation and evolution of the cosmic large-scale structure as governed by the gravitational attraction of dark matter (DM) and the repulsion of dark energy (DE). Aims: We characterize the relative importance of uniform and constant dark energy, as given by the Λ term in the standard ΛCDM cosmology, in galaxy systems of different scales from groups to superclusters. Methods: An instructive "Λ significance graph" is introduced where the matter-DE density ratio ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ for different galaxy systems is plotted against the radius R. This presents gravitation- and DE-dominated regions and directly shows the zero velocity radius, the zero-gravity radius, and the Einstein-Straus radius for any fixed value of mass. Results: Example galaxy groups and clusters from the local universe illustrate the use of the Λ significance graph. These are generally located deep in the gravity-dominated region ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ> 2, and are virialized. Extended clusters and the main bodies of superclusters can reach down near the borderline between gravity-dominated and DE-dominated regions ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ = 2. The scale-mass relation from the standard two-point correlation function intersects this balance line near the correlation length. Conclusions: The log ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ vs. log R diagram is a useful and versatile way to characterize the dynamical state of systems of galaxies within the Λ-dominated expanding universe.

  20. Detection of significant differences between absorption spectra of neutral helium and low temperature photoionized helium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Fok, T.; Jarocki, R.; Szczurek, M.

    2013-11-15

    In this work, spectral investigations of photoionized He plasmas were performed. The photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of helium stream, with intense pulses from laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The EUV source was based on a double-stream Xe/Ne gas-puff target irradiated with 10 ns/10 J Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region below 20 nm, however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV radiation was focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulse. The long-wavelength part of the EUV radiation was used for backlighting of the photoionized plasmas to obtain absorption spectra. Both emission and absorption spectra in the EUV range were investigated. Significant differences between absorption spectra acquired for neutral helium and low temperature photoionized plasmas were demonstrated for the first time. Strong increase of intensities and spectral widths of absorption lines, together with a red shift of the K-edge, was shown.

  1. The effect of different solar wind parameters upon significant relativistic electron flux dropouts in the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xinliang; Li, Wen; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard M.; Lu, Quanming; Ma, Qianli; Tao, Xin; Wang, Shui

    2015-06-01

    Superposed epoch analyses were performed on 193 significant relativistic electron flux dropout events, in order to study the roles of different solar wind parameters in driving the depletion of relativistic electrons, using ~16 years of data from the POES and GOES missions, and the OMNIWEB solar wind database. We find that the solar wind dynamic pressure and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz play key roles in causing the relativistic electron flux dropouts, but also that either large solar wind dynamic pressure or strong southward IMF Bz by itself is capable of producing the significant depletion of relativistic electrons. The relativistic electron flux dropouts occur not only when the magnetopause is compressed closer to the Earth but also when the magnetopause is located very far (> ~10 RE). Importantly, our results show that in addition to the large solar wind dynamic pressure, which pushes the magnetopause inward strongly and causes the electrons to escape from the magnetosphere, relativistic electrons can also be scattered into the loss cone and precipitate into the Earth's atmosphere during periods of strong southward IMF Bz, which preferentially provides a source of free energy for electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave excitation. This is supported by the fact that the strongest electron precipitation into the atmosphere is found in the dusk sector, where EMIC waves are typically observed in the high-density plasmasphere or plume and cause efficient electron precipitation down to ~1 MeV.

  2. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. PMID:24942044

  3. Different Ecological Niches for Ticks of Public Health Significance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Arsenault, Julie; Badcock, Jacqueline; Cheng, Angela; Edsall, Jim; Goltz, Jim; Kennedy, Joe; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Pelcat, Yann; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a growing public health concern as their incidence and range have increased in recent decades. Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease in Canada due to northward expansion of the geographic range of Ixodes scapularis, the principal tick vector for the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi, into central and eastern Canada. In this study the geographical distributions of Ixodid ticks, including I. scapularis, and environmental factors associated with their occurrence were investigated in New Brunswick, Canada, where few I. scapularis populations have been found to date. Density of host-seeking ticks was evaluated by drag sampling of woodland habitats in a total of 159 sites. Ixodes scapularis ticks (n = 5) were found on four sites, Ixodes muris (n = 1) on one site and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (n = 243) on 41 sites. One of four adult I. scapularis ticks collected was PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi. No environmental variables were significantly associated with the presence of I. scapularis although comparisons with surveillance data in neighbouring provinces (Québec and Nova Scotia) suggested that temperature conditions may be too cold for I. scapularis (< 2800 annual degree days above 0°C [DD > 0°C]) across much of New Brunswick. In contrast, the presence of H. leporispalustris, which is a competent vector of tularaemia, was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with specific ranges of mean DD > 0°C, mean annual precipitation, percentage of clay in site soil, elevation and season in a multivariable logistic regression model. With the exception of some localized areas, temperature conditions and deer density may be too low for the establishment of I. scapularis and Lyme disease risk areas in New Brunswick, while environmental conditions were suitable for H. leporispalustris at many sites. These findings indicate differing ecological niches for two tick species of public health significance. PMID:26131550

  4. Subgroups of Paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Might Differ Significantly in Genetic Predisposition to Asparaginase Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kutszegi, Nóra; Semsei, Ágnes F.; Gézsi, András; Sági, Judit C.; Nagy, Viktória; Csordás, Katalin; Jakab, Zsuzsanna; Lautner-Csorba, Orsolya; Gábor, Krisztina Míta; Kovács, Gábor T.; Erdélyi, Dániel J.; Szalai, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    L-asparaginase (ASP) is a key element in the treatment of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to ASP are major challenges in paediatric patients. Our aim was to investigate genetic variants that may influence the risk to Escherichia coli-derived ASP hypersensitivity. Sample and clinical data collection was carried out from 576 paediatric ALL patients who were treated according to protocols from the Berlin—Frankfurt—Münster Study Group. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GRIA1 and GALNT10 genes were genotyped. Patients with GRIA1 rs4958351 AA/AG genotype showed significantly reduced risk to ASP hypersensitivity compared to patients with GG genotype in the T-cell ALL subgroup (OR = 0.05 (0.01–0.26); p = 4.70E-04), while no such association was found in pre-B-cell ALL. In the medium risk group two SNPs of GRIA1 (rs2055083 and rs707176) were associated significantly with the occurrence of ASP hypersensitivity (OR = 0.21 (0.09–0.53); p = 8.48E-04 and OR = 3.02 (1.36–6.73); p = 6.76E-03, respectively). Evaluating the genders separately, however, the association of rs707176 with ASP HSRs was confined only to females. Our results suggest that genetic variants of GRIA1 might influence the risk to ASP hypersensitivity, but subgroups of patients can differ significantly in this respect. PMID:26457809

  5. Manifestation of optical activity in different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinova, A. F.; Golovina, T. G.; Konstantinov, K. K.

    2014-07-01

    Various manifestations of optical activity (OA) in crystals and organic materials are considered. Examples of optically active enantiomorphic and nonenantiomorphic crystals of 18 symmetry classes are presented. The OA of enantiomorphic organic materials as components of living nature (amino acids, sugars, and proteins) is analyzed. Questions related to the origin of life on earth are considered. Examples of differences in the enantiomers of drugs are shown. The consequences of replacing conventional left-handed amino acids with additionally right-handed amino acids for living organisms are indicated.

  6. Postexercise Glycogen Recovery and Exercise Performance is Not Significantly Different Between Fast Food and Sport Supplements.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Michael J; Dumke, Charles L; Hailes, Walter S; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

    2015-10-01

    A variety of dietary choices are marketed to enhance glycogen recovery after physical activity. Past research informs recommendations regarding the timing, dose, and nutrient compositions to facilitate glycogen recovery. This study examined the effects of isoenergetic sport supplements (SS) vs. fast food (FF) on glycogen recovery and exercise performance. Eleven males completed two experimental trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen depletion ride followed by a 4-hr recovery period. Absolute amounts of macronutrients (1.54 ± 0.27 g·kg-1 carbohydrate, 0.24 ± 0.04 g·kg fat-1, and 0.18 ±0.03g·kg protein-1) as either SS or FF were provided at 0 and 2 hr. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis at 0 and 4 hr post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min post exercise for insulin and glucose, with blood lipids analyzed at 0 and 240 min. A 20k time-trial (TT) was completed following the final muscle biopsy. There were no differences in the blood glucose and insulin responses. Similarly, rates of glycogen recovery were not different across the diets (6.9 ± 1.7 and 7.9 ± 2.4 mmol·kg wet weight- 1·hr-1 for SS and FF, respectively). There was also no difference across the diets for TT performance (34.1 ± 1.8 and 34.3 ± 1.7 min for SS and FF, respectively. These data indicate that short-term food options to initiate glycogen resynthesis can include dietary options not typically marketed as sports nutrition products such as fast food menu items. PMID:25811308

  7. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  8. Visualization of significant differences in somatotopic maps: a distributed t-test.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Millecchia, R

    1997-11-01

    In order to test for differences in the properties of two populations of cells within a somatotopic map we need to be able to compare data sets in which sampled cells are randomly scattered throughout the map, and the variable being compared varies with location in the map. We can describe cell properties as exponentially smoothed surfaces fitted to data in the plane of the map, where all data contribute to the computation of the value of each grid point on the surface, with weights which decline exponentially with distance from the grid point. Means, variances and Student's t values can be computed at all grid points, keeping in mind the fact that grid points' t values are not independent of each other. We used Monte Carlo methods to demonstrate that two random samples of 500 values from two populations of 100,000 values at 4000 grid can provide a very useful picture of regions with significant differences. We recommended this procedure, or analogous approaches using other statistical tests, for any analysis where it is necessary to compare values of dependent variables when matched locations on the independent axis or plane cannot be sampled in the two populations. PMID:9402552

  9. Significant Difference in Hydrogen Isotope Composition Between Xylem and Tissue Water in Populus Euphratica.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liangju; Wang, Lixin; Cernusak, Lucas A; Liu, Xiaohong; Xiao, Honglang; Zhou, Maoxian; Zhang, Shiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Deuterium depletions between stem water and source water have been observed in coastal halophyte plants and in multiple species under greenhouse conditions. However, the location(s) of the isotope fractionation is not clear yet and it is uncertain whether deuterium fractionation appears in other natural environments. In this study, through two extensive field campaigns utilizing a common dryland riparian tree species Populus euphratica Oliv., we showed that no significant δ(18) O differences were found between water source and various plant components, in accord with previous studies. We also found that no deuterium fractionation occurred during P. euphratica water uptake by comparing the deuterium composition (δD) of groundwater and xylem sap. However, remarkable δD differences (up to 26.4‰) between xylem sap and twig water, root water and core water provided direct evidence that deuterium fractionation occurred between xylem sap and root or stem tissue water. This study indicates that deuterium fractionation could be a common phenomenon in drylands, which has important implications in plant water source identification, palaeoclimate reconstruction based on wood cellulose and evapotranspiration partitioning using δD of stem water. PMID:27061571

  10. Illness perceptions in the context of differing work participation outcomes: exploring the influence of significant others in persistent back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated that the significant others of individuals with persistent back pain may have important influences on work participation outcomes. The aim of this study was to extend previous research by including individuals who have remained in work despite persistent back pain in addition to those who had become incapacitated for work, along with their significant others. The purpose of this research was to explore whether the illness beliefs of significant others differed depending on their relative’s working status, and to make some preliminary identification of how significant others may facilitate or hinder work participation for those with persistent back pain. Methods Interviews structured around the Illness Perception Questionnaire (chronic pain version) were conducted with back pain patients recruited from a hospital pain management clinic along with their significant others. Some patients had remained in work despite their back pain; others had ceased employment. Data were analysed using template analysis. Results There were clear differences between beliefs about, and reported responses to, back pain symptoms amongst the significant others of individuals who had remained in employment compared with the significant others of those who had ceased work. Three overarching themes emerged: perceived consequences of back pain, specific nature of employment and the impact of back pain on patient identity. Conclusions Significant others of employed individuals with back pain focused on the extent to which activity could still be undertaken despite back pain symptoms. Individuals out of work due to persistent back pain apparently self-limited their activity and were supported in their beliefs and behaviours by their significant others. To justify incapacity due to back pain, this group had seemingly become entrenched in a position whereby it was crucial that the individual with back pain was perceived as completely disabled. We

  11. Active loading into extracellular vesicles significantly improves the cellular uptake and photodynamic effect of porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Gregor; Serio, Andrea; Mazo, Manuel; Nair, Rekha; Stevens, Molly M

    2015-05-10

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are phospholipid-based particles endogenously produced by cells. Their natural composition and selective cell interactions make them promising drug carriers. However, in order to harness their properties, efficient exogenous drug encapsulation methods need to be investigated. Here, EVs from various cellular origins (endothelial, cancer and stem cells) were produced and characterised for size and composition. Porphyrins of different hydrophobicities were employed as model drugs and encapsulated into EVs using various passive and active methods (electroporation, saponin, extrusion and dialysis). Hydrophobic compounds loaded very efficiently into EVs and at significantly higher amounts than into standard liposomes composed of phosphocholine and cholesterol using passive incubation. Moreover, loading into EVs significantly increased the cellular uptake by >60% and the photodynamic effect of hydrophobic porphyrins in vitro compared to free or liposome encapsulated drug. The active encapsulation techniques, with the saponin-assisted method in particular, allowed an up to 11 fold higher drug loading of hydrophilic porphyrins compared to passive methods. EVs loaded with hydrophilic porphyrins induced a stronger phototoxic effect than free drug in a cancer cell model. Our findings create a firm basis for the development of EVs as smart drug carriers based on straightforward and transferable methods. PMID:25483424

  12. Clinical significance of serum protease-activated receptor-1 levels in gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    TAS, FARUK; KARABULUT, SENEM; TASTEKIN, DIDEM; DURANYILDIZ, DERYA

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) has a significant role in the pathogenesis of various malignancies and its expression mainly affects the survivals of cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum concentrations of PAR-1 in patients with gastric carcinoma. A total of 63 pathologically confirmed gastric cancer patients were enrolled in this study, with a median age of 62 years. Serum PAR-1 concentrations were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and no significant difference in the baseline serum PAR-1 concentrations was found between patients and normal controls (P=0.5). The investigated clinical variables, including patient age, gender, localization of lesion, histology, grade of pathology, disease stage and serum tumor markers (lactate dehydrogenase, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9) were not correlated with serum PAR-1 levels (P>0.05). Furthermore, no association was identified between the serum PAR-1 level and chemotherapy responsiveness (P=0.43). Serum PAR-1 level also had no prognostic role for survival (P=0.27). In conclusion, the serum PAR-1 concentration has no diagnostic, predictive and prognostic values in gastric cancer patients. PMID:27073639

  13. Effort required to finish shotgun-generated genome sequences differs significantly among vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The approaches for shotgun-based sequencing of vertebrate genomes are now well-established, and have resulted in the generation of numerous draft whole-genome sequence assemblies. In contrast, the process of refining those assemblies to improve contiguity and increase accuracy (known as 'sequence finishing') remains tedious, labor-intensive, and expensive. As a result, the vast majority of vertebrate genome sequences generated to date remain at a draft stage. Results To date, our genome sequencing efforts have focused on comparative studies of targeted genomic regions, requiring sequence finishing of large blocks of orthologous sequence (average size 0.5-2 Mb) from various subsets of 75 vertebrates. This experience has provided a unique opportunity to compare the relative effort required to finish shotgun-generated genome sequence assemblies from different species, which we report here. Importantly, we found that the sequence assemblies generated for the same orthologous regions from various vertebrates show substantial variation with respect to misassemblies and, in particular, the frequency and characteristics of sequence gaps. As a consequence, the work required to finish different species' sequences varied greatly. Application of the same standardized methods for finishing provided a novel opportunity to "assay" characteristics of genome sequences among many vertebrate species. It is important to note that many of the problems we have encountered during sequence finishing reflect unique architectural features of a particular vertebrate's genome, which in some cases may have important functional and/or evolutionary implications. Finally, based on our analyses, we have been able to improve our procedures to overcome some of these problems and to increase the overall efficiency of the sequence-finishing process, although significant challenges still remain. Conclusion Our findings have important implications for the eventual finishing of the draft whole

  14. Significant pharmacokinetic differences of berberine are attributable to variations in gut microbiota between Africans and Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Alolga, Raphael N.; Fan, Yong; Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Li-Wei; Zhao, Yi-Jing; Li, Jin; Chen, Yan; Lai, Mao-De; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of gut microbiotal metabolism on the pharmacokinetics of berberine in healthy male Africans and Chinese. The Cmax and AUC in the Africans were 2.67-fold and 2.0-fold higher than the Chinese, respectively. Microbiotal compositions by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing showed higher abundance of the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Megamonas (34.22, 13.88, and 10.68%, respectively) in the Chinese than the Africans (30.08, 9.43, and 0.48%, respectively). Scatter plot showed a strong negative correlation between the microbiotal abundance and the berberine AUC, especially for the genus Prevotella (r = −0.813) and its species. A more extensive metabolism was observed in Chinese with 1.83-fold higher metabolites, possibly contributing to the lower AUC than the Africans. In conclusion, significant PK differences of berberine were observed between Africans and Chinese, which is partly attributable to variations in gut microbiota and its corresponding metabolic capacity. PMID:27283523

  15. Significant pharmacokinetic differences of berberine are attributable to variations in gut microbiota between Africans and Chinese.

    PubMed

    Alolga, Raphael N; Fan, Yong; Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Li-Wei; Zhao, Yi-Jing; Li, Jin; Chen, Yan; Lai, Mao-De; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of gut microbiotal metabolism on the pharmacokinetics of berberine in healthy male Africans and Chinese. The Cmax and AUC in the Africans were 2.67-fold and 2.0-fold higher than the Chinese, respectively. Microbiotal compositions by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing showed higher abundance of the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Megamonas (34.22, 13.88, and 10.68%, respectively) in the Chinese than the Africans (30.08, 9.43, and 0.48%, respectively). Scatter plot showed a strong negative correlation between the microbiotal abundance and the berberine AUC, especially for the genus Prevotella (r = -0.813) and its species. A more extensive metabolism was observed in Chinese with 1.83-fold higher metabolites, possibly contributing to the lower AUC than the Africans. In conclusion, significant PK differences of berberine were observed between Africans and Chinese, which is partly attributable to variations in gut microbiota and its corresponding metabolic capacity. PMID:27283523

  16. Comparison of Far-Field Noise for Three Significantly Different Model Turbofans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Far-field noise sound power level (PWL) spectra and overall sound pressure level (OASPL) directivities were compared for three significantly different model fan stages which were tested in the NASA Glenn 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The test fans included the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Fan1, the baseline Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) fan, and the Quiet High Speed Fan2 (QHSF2) These fans had design rotor tangential tip speeds from 840 to 1474 ft/s and stage pressure ratios from 1.29 to 1.82. Additional parameters included rotor-stator spacing, stator sweep, and downstream support struts. Acoustic comparison points were selected on the basis of stage thrust. Acoustic results for the low tip speed/low pressure ratio fan (ADP Fan1) were thrust-adjusted to show how a geometrically-scaled version of this fan might compare at the higher design thrust levels of the other two fans. Lowest noise levels were typically observed for ADP Fan1 (which had a radial stator) and for the intermediate tip speed fan (Source Diagnostics Test, SDT, R4 rotor) with a swept stator. Projected noise levels for the ADP fan to the SDT swept stator configuration at design point conditions showed the fans to have similar noise levels. However, it is possible that the ADP fan could be 2 to 3 dB quieter with incorporation of a swept stator. Benefits of a scaled ADP fan include avoidance of multiple pure tones associated with transonic and higher blade tip speeds. Penalties of a larger size ADP fan would include increased nacelle size and drag.

  17. Comparison of Far-field Noise for Three Significantly Different Model Turbofans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Far-field noise sound power level (PWL) spectra and overall sound pressure level (OASPL) directivities were compared for three significantly different model fan stages which were tested in the NASA Glenn 9 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The test fans included the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Fan1, the baseline Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) fan, and the Quiet High Speed Fan2 (QHSF2). These fans had design rotor tangential tip speeds from 840 to 1474 ft/s and stage pressure ratios from 1.29 to 1.82. Additional parameters included rotor-stator spacing, stator sweep, and downstream support struts. Acoustic comparison points were selected on the basis of stage thrust. Acoustic results for the low tip speed/low pressure ratio fan (ADP Fan1) were thrust-adjusted to show how a geometrically-scaled version of this fan might compare at the higher design thrust levels of the other two fans. Lowest noise levels were typically observed for ADP Fan1 (which had a radial stator) and for the intermediate tip speed fan (Source Diagnostics Test, SDT, R4 rotor) with a swept stator. Projected noise levels for the ADP fan to the SDT swept stator configuration at design point conditions showed the fans to have similar noise levels. However, it is possible that the ADP fan could be 2 to 3 dB quieter with incorporation of a swept stator. Benefits of a scaled ADP fan include avoidance of multiple pure tones associated with transonic and higher blade tip speeds. Penalties of a larger size ADP fan would include increased nacelle size and drag.

  18. Proliferative activity is a significant prognostic factor in male breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Pich, A.; Margaria, E.; Chiusa, L.

    1994-01-01

    The proliferative activity of male breast carcinoma has been investigated using the staining of the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), the monoclonal antibody against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PC10) and the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from 27 primary male breast carcinomas at diagnosis. A significant correlation was found between survival and AgNOR counts (median of survival 77 months for cases with AgNOR/cell < or = 7.27 but 37 months only for cases with > 7.27 AgNOR/cell; P = 0.001), proliferating cell nuclear antigen scores (median of survival 73 months for cases with proliferating cell nuclear antigen < or = 18.25% versus 41 for cases with proliferating cell nuclear antigen > 18.25%; P = 0.013) and MIB-1 scores (median of survival 73 months for cases with MIB-1 scores < or = 23.5% versus 37 months for cases with MIB-1 scores > 23.5%; P = 0.01). Tumor histological grade was also correlated with prognosis (median of survival 72 months for grade 2 versus 33 months for grade 3 tumors; P = 0.01). Estrogen and progesterone receptors, immunohistochemically detected on paraffin-embedded sections, had no prognostic value. In the multivariate survival analysis, only AgNOR counts (P = 0.007) and tumor size (P = 0.003) had an independent prognostic significance. Our results indicate that methods for assessing the cell proliferation in routinely processed specimens offer significant prognostic information in male breast carcinoma. The finding, together with the lack of prognostic significance for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors, suggests that male breast carcinoma is biologically different from female breast cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7519830

  19. Nutritional significance of a rice bran concentrate with trypsin inhibitor activity.

    PubMed

    Maki, Z; Tashiro, M

    1983-06-01

    A rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was prepared from de-fatted rice bran by extraction with a 1% sodium chloride solution and by acetone-precipitation. This protein concentrate contained 45% protein, which was as good as casein in terms of protein quality being judged from the results of amino acid analysis. On the other hand, RBPC possessed the trypsin inhibitor activity corresponding to the complete inhibition of about 6 mg of bovine trypsin per 1 g of dry material. The activity was, however, completely destroyed by autoclaving RBPC for 30 min at 121 degrees C. In vitro digestion tests showed that RBPC was easily digested by pepsin but was resistant to the attack by trypsin, compared with autoclaved RBPC. Concerning in vivo digestion, however, there was no significant difference in apparent nitrogen digestibility between RBPC and the heated RBPC. In growth experiments with weanling rats fed a 10% level of protein diet, growth depression and the tendency of slight pancreatic hypertrophy were observed in rats receiving a RBPC diet. It is presumed that one of the reasons which explains these phenomena is the presence of trypsin inhibitor in RBPC. PMID:6619992

  20. Lack of significant promoting activity by benzene in the rat liver model of carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Taningher, M.; Perrotta, A.; Malacarne, D.

    1995-08-01

    The promoting activity of benzene on rat liver carcinogenesis was investigated. The chemical was tested for its ability to enhance the growth of preneoplastic foci, as detected by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) staining in diethylnitrosamine (DENA) initiated hepatocytes. Two weeks after receiving a single ip dose of 200 mg/kg DENA, F344 rats were given daily oral doses of 400 mg/kg benzene (5 d/wk) for 6 wk. At wk 3 after the experiment began, all animals underwent partial hepatectomy, and at wk 8 were sacrificed. Following benzene treatment, no variation in the liver/body weight ratio was observed. After scoring of foci in liver slides, no significant difference in foci number and area could be observed between rats treated with DENA plus benzene and rats treated with DENA alone. Practically no foci were observed in the liver of rats treated only with benzene. The lack of benzene promoting activity in the liver model is discussed. 28 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Different pathways of macrophage activation and polarization.

    PubMed

    Juhas, Ulana; Ryba-Stanisławowska, Monika; Szargiej, Patryk; Myśliwska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are short-lived cells and undergo spontaneous apoptosis every day. Inflammatory responses may induce dramatic up-regulation of monocyte survival and differentiation. When monocytes are recruited to an area of infection they may differentiate into macrophages. In different microenvironments macrophages polarize into two types. The M1 or classically activated macrophages are characterized by the high ability to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and the production of NO through the induced synthesis of iNOS. The M2 or alternatively activated macrophages are divided into 3 subtypes, M2 a, b and c, and they have anti-inflammatory properties. Mediators of M1 macrophage TLR-dependent polarization include transcription factors such as NF-κB, AP-1, PU.1, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBP-α), STAT1 as well as interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), while the transcription factors which promote M2 activation include IRF4, C/EBP-β, Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), STAT6 and PPARγ receptor. PMID:25983288

  2. Are Gender Differences in Perceived and Demonstrated Technology Literacy Significant? It Depends on the Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender differences related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy using two valid and internally consistent measures with eighth grade students (N = 1,513) from Florida public schools. The results of t test statistical analyses, which examined only gender differences in demonstrated and perceived ICT skills,…

  3. Residential Differences in Family Formation: The Significance of Co-Habitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Anastasia R.; Brown, Susan L.; Condo, Erin P.

    2004-01-01

    We update and extend prior research on residential differences in women's family formation experiences using data from the 1995 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth. Residential differences in the timing of family formation behaviors are examined, including first birth, first cohabitation, and first marriage. Our study emphasizes the…

  4. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  5. Significant bone microarchitecture impairment in premenopausal women with active celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, María Belén; Costa, Florencia; Longobardi, Vanesa; Longarini, Gabriela; Mazure, Roberto Martín; Moreno, María Laura; Vázquez, Horacio; Silveira, Fernando; Niveloni, Sonia; Smecuol, Edgardo; Temprano, María de la Paz; Hwang, Hui Jer; González, Andrea; Mauriño, Eduardo César; Bogado, Cesar; Zanchetta, Jose R; Bai, Julio César

    2015-07-01

    Patients with active celiac disease (CD) are more likely to have osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) permits three-dimensional exploration of bone microarchitectural characteristics measuring separately cortical and trabecular compartments, and giving a more profound insight into bone disease pathophysiology and fracture. We aimed to determine the volumetric and microarchitectural characteristics of peripheral bones-distal radius and tibia-in an adult premenopausal cohort with active CD assessed at diagnosis. We prospectively enrolled 31 consecutive premenopausal women with newly diagnosed CD (median age 29 years, range: 18-49) and 22 healthy women of similar age (median age 30 years, range 21-41) and body mass index. Compared with controls, peripheral bones of CD patients were significantly lower in terms of total volumetric density mg/cm(3) (mean ± SD: 274.7 ± 51.7 vs. 324.7 ± 45.8, p 0.0006 at the radius; 264.4 ± 48.7 vs. 307 ± 40.7, p 0.002 at the tibia), trabecular density mg/cm(3) (118.6 ± 31.5 vs. 161.9 ± 33.6, p<0.0001 at the radius; 127.9 ± 28.7 vs. 157.6 ± 15.6, p < 0.0001 at the tibia); bone volume/trabecular volume ratio % (9.9 ± 2.6 vs. 13.5 ± 2.8, p<0.0001 at the radius; 10.6 ± 2.4 vs. 13.1 ± 1.3, p < 0.0001 at the tibia); number of trabeculae 1/mm (1.69 ± 0.27 vs. 1.89 ± 0.26, p 0.009 at the radius; 1.53 ± 0.32 vs. 1.80 ± 0.26, p 0.002 at the tibia); and trabecular thickness mm (0.058 ± 0.010 vs. 0.071 ± 0.008, p < 0.0001 at the radius with no significant difference at the tibia). Cortical density was significantly lower in both regions (D comp mg/cm(3) 860 ± 57.2 vs. 893.9 ± 43, p 0.02; 902.7 ± 48.7 vs. 932.6 ± 32.6, p 0.01 in radius and tibia respectively). Although cortical thickness was lower in CD patients, it failed to show any significant inter-group difference (a-8% decay with p 0.11 in both bones). Patients with symptomatic CD (n = 22) had

  6. Multiple Comparisons of Observation Means--Are the Means Significantly Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahidy, T. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Several currently popular methods of ascertaining which treatment (population) means are different, via random samples obtained under each treatment, are briefly described and illustrated by evaluating catalyst performance in a chemical reactor.

  7. Significant Differences in Pediatric Psychotropic Side Effects: Implications for School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-01-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication…

  8. Disciplinary Difference in Academic Leadership and Management and Its Development: A Significant Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The influence of disciplinary identity remains significant in understanding academic practice, although its nature and extent has been debated. A framework of organisational, cognitive and social perspectives is commonly used as a means of structuring investigation. A limited amount of empirical research on academic roles, attitudes, beliefs and…

  9. Weighing the costs of different errors when determining statistical significant during monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selecting appropriate significance levels when constructing confidence intervals and performing statistical analyses with rangeland monitoring data is not a straightforward process. This process is burdened by the conventional selection of “95% confidence” (i.e., Type I error rate, a =0.05) as the d...

  10. Pathogenic significance of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity found in the hemagglutinin of influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Urade, Masahiro

    2005-04-01

    Serum vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The precursor activity of serum Gc protein was reduced in all influenza virus-infected patients. These patient sera contained alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) that deglycosylates Gc protein. Deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to MAF, thus it loses the MAF precursor activity, leading to immunosuppression. An influenza virus stock contained a large amount of Nagalase activity. A sucrose gradient centrifugation analysis of the virus stock showed that the profile of Nagalase activity corresponds to that of hemagglutinating activity. When these gradient fractions were treated with 0.01% trypsin for 30 min, the Nagalase activity of each fraction increased significantly, suggesting that the Nagalase activity resides on an outer envelope protein of the influenza virion and is enhanced by the proteolytic process. After disruption of influenza virions with sodium deoxycholate, fractionation of the envelope proteins with mannose-specific lectin affinity column along with electrophoretic analysis of the Nagalase peak fraction revealed that Nagalase is the intrinsic component of the hemagglutinin (HA). Cloned HA protein exhibited Nagalase activity only if treated with trypsin. Since both fusion capacity and Nagalase activity of HA protein are expressed by proteolytic cleavage, Nagalase activity appears to be an enzymatic basis for the fusion process. Thus, Nagalase plays dual roles in regulating both infectivity and immunosuppression. PMID:15848273

  11. Methylamphetamine synthesized from cold medication as precursor source via two different routes show significantly different stable isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, S.; Daeid, N. Nic; Kerr, W. J.; Kemp, H. F.; Meier-Augenstein, W.

    2012-04-01

    This work exposes the variation in light element stable isotopic abundance values of 13C, 2H and 15N) derived from the analysis of methylamphetamine synthesized via 2 different synthetic routes popular with clandestine laboraties, the Hypophosphorous and the Moscow route. We repeatedly prepared the final product using known clandestine synthetic methods where the precursors, catalysts and reducing agents have themselves been derived from house hold products and commonly available cold medications. Methylamphetamine was prepared from both lab grade pseudoephedrine and pseudoephedrine extracted (using three different solvent systems) from Sudafed®, an over-the-counter cold medication widely available in the United Kingdom. Six repetitive batches of the final product were produced in each case to provide within and between batch variations thus yielding a total of 48 samples (24 for each route). We have demonstrated that stable isotope analysis by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is potentially useful in the comparison and discrimination of batches of methylamphetamine produced for each route and for each precursor depending on the solvent used for extracting the pseudoephedrine starting material. To our knowledge this is the first time multivariate stable isotope analysis has been applied to methylamphetamine samples synthesized from pseudoephedrine extracted from over-the-counter cold medications.

  12. Activities vs. Outcomes: The Difference Makes All the Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Janice; Munger, Linda; Hord, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    This article is a follow-up to "Focus first on outcomes" (Bradley, Munger, & Hord, 2015), published in the August 2015 issue of "JSD" ["Journal of Staff Development"]. That article set the stage by creating awareness of the need and purpose for thinking first about outcomes, not activities, when starting a change…

  13. Brief Report: Significant Differences in Perceived Odor Pleasantness Found in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrdlicka, Michal; Vodicka, Jan; Havlovicova, Marketa; Urbanek, Tomas; Blatny, Marek; Dudova, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore possible differences in estimation of odor pleasantness in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to controls. Thirty-five patients with Asperger's syndrome and high functioning autism (mean age 10.8 [plus or minus] 3.6 years; 31 boys) were compared with 35 healthy control subjects (mean age 10.4…

  14. Latent myostatin has significant activity and this activity is controlled more efficiently by WFIKKN1 than by WFIKKN2.

    PubMed

    Szláma, György; Trexler, Mária; Patthy, László

    2013-08-01

    Myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, is produced from myostatin precursor by multiple steps of proteolytic processing. After cleavage by a furin-type protease, the propeptide and growth factor domains remain associated, forming a noncovalent complex, the latent myostatin complex. Mature myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases. Here, we show that, in reporter assays, latent myostatin preparations have significant myostatin activity, as the noncovalent complex dissociates at an appreciable rate, and both mature and semilatent myostatin (a complex in which the dimeric growth factor domain interacts with only one molecule of myostatin propeptide) bind to myostatin receptor. The interaction of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin is efficiently blocked by WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 1 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 2 (WFIKKN1), a large extracellular multidomain protein that binds both mature myostatin and myostatin propeptide [Kondás et al. (2008) J Biol Chem 283, 23677-23684]. Interestingly, the paralogous protein WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 2 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 1 (WFIKKN2) was less efficient than WFIKKN1 as an antagonist of the interactions of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin. Our studies have shown that this difference is attributable to the fact that only WFIKKN1 has affinity for the propeptide domain, and this interaction increases its potency in suppressing the receptor-binding activity of semilatent myostatin. As the interaction of WFIKKN1 with various forms of myostatin permits tighter control of myostatin activity until myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases, WFIKKN1 may have greater potential as an antimyostatic agent than WFIKKN2. PMID:23829672

  15. The Significance of Different Diacylgycerol Synthesis Pathways on Plant Oil Composition and Bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Browse, John

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties of vegetable oils from different plants utilized for food, industrial feedstocks, and fuel is dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of triacylglycerol (TAG). Plants can use two main pathways to produce diacylglycerol (DAG), the immediate precursor molecule to TAG synthesis: (1) De novo DAG synthesis, and (2) conversion of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) to DAG. The FA esterified to PC are also the substrate for FA modification (e.g., desaturation, hydroxylation, etc.), such that the FA composition of PC-derived DAG can be substantially different than that of de novo DAG. Since DAG provides two of the three FA in TAG, the relative flux of TAG synthesis from de novo DAG or PC-derived DAG can greatly affect the final oil FA composition. Here we review how the fluxes through these two alternate pathways of DAG/TAG synthesis are determined and present evidence that suggests which pathway is utilized in different plants. Additionally, we present examples of how the endogenous DAG synthesis pathway in a transgenic host plant can produce bottlenecks for engineering of plant oil FA composition, and discuss alternative strategies to overcome these bottlenecks to produce crop plants with designer vegetable oil compositions. PMID:22783267

  16. Significant Differences Characterise the Correlation Coefficients between Biocide and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Oggioni, Marco R; Coelho, Joana Rosado; Furi, Leonardo; Knight, Daniel R; Viti, Carlo; Orefici, Graziella; Martinez, Jose-Luis; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Coque, Teresa M; Morrissey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern by regulatory authorities for the selection of antibiotic resistance caused by the use of biocidal products. We aimed to complete the detailed information on large surveys by investigating the relationship between biocide and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of a large number of Staphylococcus aureus isolates using four biocides and antibiotics commonly used in clinical practice. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most clinically-relevant antibiotics was determined according to the standardized methodology for over 1600 clinical S. aureus isolates and compared to susceptibility profiles of benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. The relationship between antibiotic and biocide susceptibility profiles was evaluated using non-linear correlations. The main outcome evidenced was an absence of any strong or moderate statistically significant correlation when susceptibilities of either triclosan or sodium hypochlorite were compared for any of the tested antibiotics. On the other hand, correlation coefficients for MICs of benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine were calculated above 0.4 for susceptibility to quinolones, beta-lactams, and also macrolides. Our data do not support any selective pressure for association between biocides and antibiotics resistance and furthermore do not allow for a defined risk evaluation for some of the compounds. Importantly, our data clearly indicate that there does not involve any risk of selection for antibiotic resistance for the compounds triclosan and sodium hypochlorite. These data hence infer that biocide selection for antibiotic resistance has had so far a less significant impact than feared. PMID:25760337

  17. Combustion and gasification characteristics of chars from four commercially significant coals of different rank. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala, N.Y.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1982-09-01

    The combustion and gasification kinetics of four size graded coal chars were investigated experimentally in Combustion Engineering's Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). The chars were prepared in the DTFS from commercially significant coals representing a wide range of rank; these included a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam hvAb coal, an Illinois No. 6 Seam hvCb coal, a Wyoming Sub C, and a Texas Lignite A. Additionally, a number of standard ASTM and special bench scale tests were performed on the coals and chars to characterize their physicochemical properties. Results showed that the lower rank coal chars were more reactive than the higher rank coal chars and that combustion reactions of chars were much faster than the corresponding gasification reactions. Fuel properties, temperature, and reactant gas partial pressure had a significant influence on both combustion and gasification, and particle size had a mild but discernible influence on gasification. Fuel reactivities were closely related to pore structure. Computer simulation of the combustion and gasification performances of the subject samples in the DTFS supported the experimental findings.

  18. Significant Differences Characterise the Correlation Coefficients between Biocide and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Oggioni, Marco R; Rosado Coelho, Joana; Furi, Leonardo; Knight, Daniel R; Viti, Carlo; Orefici, Graziella; Martinez, Jose-Luis; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Coque, Teresa M; Morrissey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern by regulatory authorities for the selection of antibiotic resistance caused by the use of biocidal products. We aimed to complete the detailed information on large surveys by investigating the relationship between biocide and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of a large number of Staphylococcus aureus isolates using four biocides and antibiotics commonly used in clinical practice. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most clinically-relevant antibiotics was determined according to the standardized methodology for over 1600 clinical S. aureus isolates and compared to susceptibility profiles of benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. The relationship between antibiotic and biocide susceptibility profiles was evaluated using non-linear correlations. The main outcome evidenced was an absence of any strong or moderate statistically significant correlation when susceptibilities of either triclosan or sodium hypochlorite were compared for any of the tested antibiotics. On the other hand, correlation coefficients for MICs of benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine were calculated above 0.4 for susceptibility to quinolones, beta-lactams, and also macrolides. Our data do not support any selective pressure for association between biocides and antibiotics resistance and furthermore do not allow for a defined risk evaluation for some of the compounds. Importantly, our data clearly indicate that there does not involve any risk of selection for antibiotic resistance for the compounds triclosan and sodium hypochlorite. These data hence infer that biocide selection for antibiotic resistance has had so far a less significant impact than feared. PMID:25760337

  19. The acute inflammatory response to intranigral α-synuclein differs significantly from intranigral lipopolysaccharide and is exacerbated by peripheral inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Activated microglia are a feature of the host response to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are thought to contribute to disease progression. Recent evidence suggests that extracellular α-synuclein (eSNCA) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD and that this may be mediated by a microglial response. Methods We wished to discover whether the host response to eSNCA would be sufficient to induce significant cytokine production. In vitro cultured BV-2 microglia were used to determine the basic inflammatory response to eSNCA. In vivo, 8-week old Biozzi mice were subjected to a single intranigral injection of either 3 μg SNCA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or serum protein (BSA) and allowed to recover for 24 hours. A second cohort of animals were peripherally challenged with LPS (0.5 mg/kg) 6 hours prior to tissue collection. Inflammation was studied by quantitative real-time PCR for a number of pro-inflammatory genes and immunohistochemistry for microglial activation, endothelial activation and cell death. Results In vitro data showed a robust microglial response to SNCA, including a positive NFĸB response and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Direct injection of SNCA into the substantia nigra resulted in the upregulation of mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, the expression of endothelial markers of inflammation and microglial activation. However, these results were significantly different to those obtained after direct injection of LPS. By contrast, when the animals were injected intracerebrally with SNCA and subsequently challenged with systemic LPS, the level of production of IL-1β in the substantia nigra became comparable to that induced by the direct injection of LPS into the brain. The injection of albumin into the nigra with a peripheral LPS challenge did not provoke the production of a significant inflammatory response. Direct injection of LPS into the substantia nigra also induces cell death in a

  20. The formation of the polyploid hybrids from different subfamily fish crossings and its evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaojun; Qin, Qinbo; Xiao, Jun; Lu, Wenting; Shen, Jiamin; Li, Wei; Liu, Jifang; Duan, Wei; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Yun

    2007-06-01

    This study provides genetic evidences at the chromosome, DNA content, DNA fragment and sequence, and morphological levels to support the successful establishment of the polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp x blunt snout bream, which belonged to a different subfamily of fish (Cyprininae subfamily and Cultrinae subfamily) in the catalog. We successfully obtained the sterile triploid hybrids and bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (RCC) (female symbol) x blunt snout bream (BSB) (male symbol) as well as their pentaploid hybrids. The triploid hybrids possessed 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from BSB; the tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from BSB. The females of tetraploid hybrids produced unreduced tetraploid eggs that were fertilized with the haploid sperm of BSB to generate pentaploid hybrids with 172 chromosomes with three sets from BSB and two sets from RCC. The ploidy levels of triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids were confirmed by counting chromosomal number, forming chromosomal karyotype, and measuring DNA content and erythrocyte nuclear volume. The similar and different DNA fragments were PCR amplified and sequenced in triploid, tetraploid hybrids, and their parents, indicating their molecular genetic relationship and genetic markers. In addition, this study also presents results about the phenotypes and feeding habits of polyploid hybrids and discusses the formation mechanism of the polyploid hybrids. It is the first report on the formation of the triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids by crossing parents with a different chromosome number in vertebrates. The formation of the polyploid hybrids is potentially interesting in both evolution and fish genetic breeding. PMID:17507678

  1. Risk Factors for Clinically Significant Intimate Partner Violence among Active-Duty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith Slep, Amy M.; Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesized risk factors for men's and women's clinically significant intimate partner violence (CS-IPV) from four ecological levels (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) were tested in a representative sample of active-duty U.S. Air Force members (N = 42,744). When considered together, we expected only individual and family factors to…

  2. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  3. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  4. Antiviral Regulation in Porcine Monocytic Cells at Different Activation States

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Raymond R. R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Monocytic cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, exist in different activation states that are critical to the regulation of antimicrobial immunity. Many pandemic viruses are monocytotropic, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which directly infects subsets of monocytic cells and interferes with antiviral responses. To study antiviral responses in PRRSV-infected monocytic cells, we characterized inflammatory cytokine responses and genome-wide profiled signature genes to investigate response pathways in uninfected and PRRSV-infected monocytic cells at different activation states. Our findings showed suppressed interferon (IFN) production in macrophages in non-antiviral states and an arrest of lipid metabolic pathways in macrophages at antiviral states. Importantly, porcine monocytic cells at different activation states were susceptible to PRRSV and responded differently to viral infection. Based on Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, two approaches were used to potentiate antiviral activity: (i) pharmaceutical modulation of cellular lipid metabolism and (ii) in situ PRRSV replication-competent expression of interferon alpha (IFN-α). Both approaches significantly suppressed exogenous viral infection in monocytic cells. In particular, the engineered IFN-expressing PRRSV strain eliminated exogenous virus infection and sustained cell viability at 4 days postinfection in macrophages. These findings suggest an intricate interaction of viral infection with the activation status of porcine monocytic cells. An understanding and integration of antiviral infection with activation status of monocytic cells may provide a means of potentiating antiviral immunity. IMPORTANCE Activation statuses of monocytic cells, including monocytes, macrophages (Mϕs), and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. Unfortunately, the activation status of porcine monocytic cells or how cell activation status

  5. ama1 Genes of Sympatric Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum from Venezuela Differ Significantly in Genetic Diversity and Recombination Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Ord, Rosalynn L.; Tami, Adriana; Sutherland, Colin J.

    2008-01-01

    Background We present the first population genetic analysis of homologous loci from two sympatric human malaria parasite populations sharing the same human hosts, using full-length sequences of ama1 genes from Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum collected in the Venezuelan Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings Significant differences between the two species were found in genetic diversity at the ama1 locus, with 18 distinct haplotypes identified among the 73 Pvama1 sequences obtained, compared to 6 unique haplotypes from 30 Pfama1 sequences, giving overall diversity estimates of h = 0.9091, and h = 0.538 respectively. Levels of recombination were also found to differ between the species, with P. falciparum exhibiting very little recombination across the 1.77kb sequence. In contrast, analysis of patterns of nucleotide substitutions provided evidence that polymorphisms in the ama1 gene of both species are maintained by balancing selection, particularly in domain I. The two distinct population structures observed are unlikely to result from different selective forces acting upon the two species, which share both human and mosquito hosts in this setting. Rather, the highly structured P. falciparum population appears to be the result of a population bottleneck, while the much less structured P. vivax population is likely to be derived from an ancient pool of diversity, as reflected in a larger estimate of effective population size for this species. Greatly reduced mosquito transmission in 1997, due to low rainfall prior to the second survey, was associated with far fewer P. falciparum infections, but an increase in P. vivax infections, probably due to hypnozoite activation. Conclusions/Significance The relevance of these findings to putative competitive interactions between these two important human pathogen species is discussed. These results highlight the need for future control interventions to employ strategies targeting each of the parasite species present

  6. The significance of Chlamydia trachomatis in urethritis and prostatitis - differences in therapeutic approach - Croatian experience.

    PubMed

    Skerk, Visnja; Markovinovic, L; Zekan, S; Jaksic, J; Zidovec Lepej, S; Markotic, A; Skerk, Vedrana; Radosevic, V; Cvitkovic, L; Begovac, J

    2009-02-01

    We examined a total of 1014 patients over 18 years of age; 252 with urethritis and 762 with chronic prostatitis syndrome. the mean age of patients with urethritis was 32.7 and with prostatitis syndrome 37.6 years. Clinical symptoms of urethritis were present from a few days to several months. in patients with chronic prostatitis syndrome, symptoms were present for at least 3 months. Chlamydia trachomatis alone was confirmed in 26 (10%) and in combination with Ureaplasma urealyticum in 6 (2%) patients with urethritis. in 171 (68%) patients with urethritis neither C. trachomatis nor U. urealyticum or Mycoplasma hominis were found. C. trachomatis alone was confirmed in 70 (9%), and in combination with other microorganisms in 7 (1%) patients with chronic prostatitis syndrome. in Croatia, the frequency of chronic chlamydial prostatitis has not significantly changed in the last 10 years, while the frequency of infections among adolescents decreased. the recommended regimen for acute chlamydial urethritis in Croatia is azithromycin 1.0 g as a single dose, and a total dose of 4-4.5 g azithromycin for chronic chlamydial prostatitis. PMID:19297275

  7. Different ways to active optical frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Duo; Xue, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaogang; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-06-01

    Active optical frequency standard, or active optical clock, is a new concept of optical frequency standard, where a weak feedback with phase coherence information in optical bad-cavity limitation is formed, and the continuous self-sustained coherent stimulated emission between two atomic transition levels with population inversion is realized. Through ten years of both theoretical and experimental exploration, the narrow linewidth and suppression of cavity pulling effect of active optical frequency standard have been initially proved. In this paper, after a simple review, we will mainly present the most recent experimental progresses of active optical frequency standards in Peking University, including 4-level cesium active optical frequency standards and active Faraday optical frequency standards. The future development of active optical frequency standards is also discussed.

  8. Percutaneous Valve Replacement: Significance of Different Delivery Systems In Vitro and In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Attmann, Tim; Lutter, Georg Quaden, Rene; Jahnke, Thomas; Rumberg, Kristin; Cremer, Jochen; Muller-Hulsbeck, Stefan

    2006-06-15

    Background and purpose. Percutaneous heart valve replacement is an exciting growing field in cardiovascular medicine yet still with some major problems. Only sophisticated improvement of the instruments could make it a real alternative to conventional surgery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate different delivery devices for percutaneous heart valve replacement in vitro and in vivo. Methods. A catheter prototype designed by our group, and two commercially available devices for the delivery of esophageal stents and aortic endoprostheses, were tested. After in vitro experiments, an ovine animal model of transfemoral pulmonary valve implantation was established using biological valved self-expanding stents. Only the delivery device for aortic endografts (Medtronic, Talent, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) allowed fast in vitro procedures without material fatigue. This device was chosen for the in vivo tests. Results. Technical success was achieved in 9 of 10 animals (90%). One animal died after perforation of the ventricular wall. Orthotopic pulmonary placement was performed in 6 animals and intentional supravalvular valved stent placement in 3 animals. Conclusions. An adequate in vitro model for this evolving field of interventional heart valve replacement is presented. Furthermore, the present study pinpoints the key characteristics that are mandatory for a delivery system in percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation. With regard to the delivery device's ductility observed during this 'venous' study, an approach to transfemoral aortic valve implantation seems feasible.

  9. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Umatilla Army Depot (Lagoons), Hermiston, OR, September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document presents an Explanation of Significant Difference (ESD) from the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) Explosives Washout Lagoons Soils Operable Unit issued September 25, 1992 (PB93-964610). This ESD documents the significant differences to the selected remedy outlined in the ROD. In summary, the significant difference from the selected remedy in the ROD is the utilization of the treated soil as the organic component in the re-vegetation of several designated sites on the installation rather than backfilling the former Explosive Washout Lagoons with the compost.

  10. Limiting prothrombin activation to meizothrombin is compatible with survival but significantly alters hemostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Maureen A; Kombrinck, Keith W; McElhinney, Kathryn E; Sweet, David R; Flick, Matthew J; Palumbo, Joseph S; Cheng, Mei; Esmon, Naomi L; Esmon, Charles T; Brill, Alexander; Wagner, Denisa D; Degen, Jay L; Mullins, Eric S

    2016-08-01

    Thrombin-mediated proteolysis is central to hemostatic function but also plays a prominent role in multiple disease processes. The proteolytic conversion of fII to α-thrombin (fIIa) by the prothrombinase complex occurs through 2 parallel pathways: (1) the inactive intermediate, prethrombin; or (2) the proteolytically active intermediate, meizothrombin (fIIa(MZ)). FIIa(MZ) has distinct catalytic properties relative to fIIa, including diminished fibrinogen cleavage and increased protein C activation. Thus, fII activation may differentially influence hemostasis and disease depending on the pathway of activation. To determine the in vivo physiologic and pathologic consequences of restricting thrombin generation to fIIa(MZ), mutations were introduced into the endogenous fII gene, resulting in expression of prothrombin carrying 3 amino acid substitutions (R157A, R268A, and K281A) to limit activation events to yield only fIIa(MZ) Homozygous fII(MZ) mice are viable, express fII levels comparable with fII(WT) mice, and have reproductive success. Although in vitro studies revealed delayed generation of fIIa(MZ) enzyme activity, platelet aggregation by fII(MZ) is similar to fII(WT) Consistent with prior analyses of human fIIa(MZ), significant prolongation of clotting times was observed for fII(MZ) plasma. Adult fII(MZ) animals displayed significantly compromised hemostasis in tail bleeding assays, but did not demonstrate overt bleeding. More notably, fII(MZ) mice had 2 significant phenotypic advantages over fII(WT) animals: protection from occlusive thrombosis after arterial injury and markedly diminished metastatic potential in a setting of experimental tumor metastasis to the lung. Thus, these novel animals will provide a valuable tool to assess the role of both fIIa and fIIa(MZ) in vivo. PMID:27252233

  11. Pinelliae rhizoma, a toxic chinese herb, can significantly inhibit CYP3A activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinjun; Cheng, Zaixing; He, Shugui; Shi, Jian; Liu, Shuqiang; Zhang, Guiyu; Zhu, Lijun; Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhongqiu; Lin, Na; Lu, Linlin

    2015-01-01

    Raw Pinelliae Rhizoma (RPR) is a representative toxic herb that is widely used for eliminating phlegm or treating cough and vomiting. Given its irritant toxicity, its processed products, including Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum (PRP) and Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum cum Zingibere et Alumine (PRPZA), are more commonly applied and administered concomitantly with other chemical drugs, such as cough medications. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RPR, PRP, and PRPZA on CYP3A activity. Testosterone (Tes) and buspirone (BP) were used as specific probe substrates ex vivo and in vivo, respectively. CYP3A activity was determined by the metabolite formation ratios from the substrates. Ex vivo results show that the metabolite formation ratios from Tes significantly decreased, indicating that RPR, PRP, and PRPZA could inhibit CYP3A activity in rats. CYP3A protein and mRNA levels were determined to explore the underlying mechanism. These levels showed marked and consistent down-regulation with CYP3A activity. A significant decrease in metabolite formation ratios from BP was also found in PRPZA group in vivo, implying that PRPZA could inhibit CYP3A activity. Conclusively, co-administration of PR with other CYP3A-metabolizing drugs may cause drug-drug interactions. Clinical use of PR-related formulae should be monitored carefully to avoid adverse interactions. PMID:25574821

  12. Antimicrobial activity of different tea varieties available in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zakir, Muhammad; Sultan, Khush Bakht; Khan, Haroon; Ihsaanullah; Khan, Murad Ali; Fazal, Hina; Rauf, Abdur

    2015-11-01

    In this antimicrobial study, various extracts of Green and Black tea (Camellia sinensis) and Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citrates) were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against six bacterial strains including both human pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi) and plant pathogenic bacteria (Erwinia carotovora, Agro bacterium tumifaciens) and one fungal strain Candida albicans by disc diffusion susceptibility method. Of human pathogens, P. aeruginosa was most susceptible to all three different tea varieties; though rest of the strains also demonstrated prominent sensitivity. In comparison, black tea extracts were less activities than green tea and lemon grass. However, all the three tea varieties illustrated profound activity against plant pathogenic bacteria. Similarly, when extracts of tea were tested against C. albicans, green tea and lemon grass exhibited significant activity while black tea was mostly inactive. PMID:26639502

  13. In vitro antibacterial activity of different pulp capping materials

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Ceci, Matteo; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct pulp capping involves the application of a dental material to seal communications between the exposed pulp and the oral cavity (mechanical and carious pulp exposures) in an attempt to act as a barrier, protect the dental pulp complex and preserve its vitality. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare, by the agar disc diffusion test, the antimicrobial activity of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), Biodentine (Septodont). Material and Methods Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans strains were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by the agar disc diffusion test of different pulp capping materials. Paper disks were impregnated whit each pulp capping materials and placed onto culture agar-plates pre-adsorbed with bacterial cells and further incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The growth inhibition zones around each pulp capping materials were recorded and compared for each bacterial strain. Results For the investigation of the antibacterial properties the ANOVA showed the presence of significant differences among the various materials. Tukey test showed that MTA-based materials induced lower growth inhibition zones. Conclusions MTA-based products show a discrete antibacterial activity varying from calcium hydroxide-based materials which present an higher antibacterial activity. Key words:Agar disc diffusion test, antimicrobial activity, calcium hydroxide, MTA, pulp capping materials. PMID:26644833

  14. [Clinical significance of telomerase activity in precancerous lesion of the liver (adenomatous hyperplasia)].

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, A; Miura, N; Oshimura, M

    1998-05-01

    To understand the role of telomere dynamics in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, we examined the lengths of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and surrounding tissues with chronic active hepatitis (CAH), liver cirrhosis (LC) and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH). The peak TRFs in all HCCs were significantly shorter than those of the surrounding tissues (CAH, LC). TRF in AAH was shortened and similar to that of HCC. Telomerase was examined in CAH, LC, AH, and HCC, and detected in high levels almost exclusively in HCCs. Interestingly, the intensity of telomerase activity in the AH was similar to that of HCC. Thus, the progressive shortening of telomere and the activation of telomerase may be a useful marker for the early detection of malignant progression in liver disease. PMID:9613131

  15. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. PMID:24837477

  16. The evolution of magnetic activity on V711 Tauri and evidence for a significant facular contribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorren, J. D.; Guinan, E. F.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the long-term evolution of magnetic activity in the RS CVn binary V711 Tauri is investigated using the complete set of available archival IUE SWP low-dispersion spectra of V711 Tau for the period covering August 1978 - December 1984. An analysis of the spectra confirmed the pattern of a long-term smooth variation of chromospheric and transition region emission found previosly by Dorren et al. (1986). An explanation of the relationship between the different facets of the magnetic activity on V711 Tau is presented.

  17. Different Methods Yielded Two-Fold Difference in Compliance with Physical Activity Guidelines on School Days

    PubMed Central

    Riso, Eva-Maria; Hannus, Aave; Mooses, Martin; Kaasik, Priit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim was to compare the average and the days method in exploring the compliance of children with physical activity guidelines and describe their physical activity patterns in different school day segments. Methods Physical activity was objectively measured in 472 children aged 6–13 for one school week. Children were compliant when fulfilling PA recommendations 1) on average over all measured days (average method) or 2) on at least four measured days (days method). To explore the difference in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes between compliant and non-complaint children (using both the average and days method) in various day segments, linear mixed models was used. Results Compliance with physical activity guidelines was significantly higher with the average compared to the days method (51.7% and 23.7%, respectively). In segmented-day analysis, compliant children accrued more MVPA minutes in all day segments, especially during after-school. Gender differences appeared only during the in-school segments, where girls spent less time in MVPA (average method: -4.39 min, 95% CI = -5.36,-3.42, days method: -4.45 min, 95%CI = -5.46,-3.44). Older children accrued more MVPA minutes during physical education classes, but less during breaks, compared to younger children. Conclusions The used methods yielded remarkably different prevalence estimates for compliance to physical activity recommendations. To ensure comparability between studies, interventions and reports, there is a need for internationally agreed operationalization and assessment methods of physical activity guidelines. As non-compliant children had lower MVPA during all day segments, greater efforts should be made to provide physical activity opportunities both during and after school. PMID:27015099

  18. The neurological significance of abnormal natural killer cell activity in chronic toxigenic mold exposures.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Ebere; Campbell, Andrew W; Jones, Joseph; Ehiri, John E; Akpan, Akpan I

    2003-11-13

    Toxigenic mold activities produce metabolites that are either broad-spectrum antibiotics or mycotoxins that are cytotoxic. Indoor environmental exposure to these toxigenic molds leads to adverse health conditions with the main outcome measure of frequent neuroimmunologic and behavioral consequences. One of the immune system disorders found in patients presenting with toxigenic mold exposure is an abnormal natural killer cell activity. This paper presents an overview of the neurological significance of abnormal natural killer cell (NKC) activity in chronic toxigenic mold exposure. A comprehensive review of the literature was carried out to evaluate and assess the conditions under which the immune system could be dysfunctionally interfered with leading to abnormal NKC activity and the involvement of mycotoxins in these processes. The functions, mechanism, the factors that influence NKC activities, and the roles of mycotoxins in NKCs were cited wherever necessary. The major presentations are headache, general debilitating pains, nose bleeding, fevers with body temperatures up to 40 degrees C (104 degrees F), cough, memory loss, depression, mood swings, sleep disturbances, anxiety, chronic fatigue, vertigo/dizziness, and in some cases, seizures. Although sleep is commonly considered a restorative process that is important for the proper functioning of the immune system, it could be disturbed by mycotoxins. Most likely, mycotoxins exert some rigorous effects on the circadian rhythmic processes resulting in sleep deprivation to which an acute and transient increase in NKC activity is observed. Depression, psychological stress, tissue injuries, malignancies, carcinogenesis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis could be induced at very low physiological concentrations by mycotoxin-induced NKC activity. In the light of this review, it is concluded that chronic exposures to toxigenic mold could lead to abnormal NKC activity with a wide range

  19. Significant Enhancement of Water Splitting Activity of N-Carbon Electrocatalyst by Trace Level Co Doping.

    PubMed

    Bayatsarmadi, Bita; Zheng, Yao; Tang, Youhong; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Replacement of precious metal electrocatalysts with highly active and cost efficient alternatives for complete water splitting at low voltage has attracted a growing attention in recent years. Here, this study reports a carbon-based composite co-doped with nitrogen and trace amount of metallic cobalt (1 at%) as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for water splitting at low overpotential and high current density. An excellent electrochemical activity of the newly developed electrocatalyst originates from its graphitic nanostructure and highly active Co-Nx sites. In the case of carefully optimized sample of this electrocatalyst, 10 mA cm(-2) current density can be achieved for two half reactions in alkaline solutions-hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction-at low overpotentials of 220 and 350 mV, respectively, which are smaller than those previously reported for nonprecious metal and metal-free counterparts. Based on the spectroscopic and electrochemical investigations, the newly identified Co-Nx sites in the carbon framework are responsible for high electrocatalytic activity of the Co,N-doped carbon. This study indicates that a trace level of the introduced Co into N-doped carbon can significantly enhance its electrocatalytic activity toward water splitting. PMID:27246288

  20. Increased expression of β-glucosidase A in Clostridium thermocellum 27405 significantly increases cellulase activity

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Miranda L.; Armstrong, Lachlan; Leung, Kam Tin; Qin, Wensheng

    2013-01-01

    β-glucosidase A (bglA) in Clostridium thermocellum 27405 was increased by expression from shuttle vector pIBglA in attempts to increase cellulase activity and ethanol titer by lowering the end product inhibition of cellulase. Through a modified electrotransformation protocol C. thermocellum transformant (+MCbglA) harbouring pIBglA was produced. The β-glucosidase activity of +MCbglA was 2.3- and 1.6-fold greater than wild-type (WT) during late log and stationary phases of growth. Similarly, total cellulase activity of +MCbglA was shown to be 1.7-, 2.3- and 1.6-fold greater than WT during, log, late log and stationary phases of growth. However, there was no significant correlation found between increased cellulase activity and increased ethanol titers for +MCbglA compared with the WT. C. thermocellum has industrial potential for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) to make a more cost effective production of biofuels; however, the hydrolysis rate of the strain is still hindered by end product inhibition. We successfully increased total cellulase activity by increased expression of bglA and thereby increased the productivity of C. thermocellum during the hydrolysis stage in CBP. Our work also lends insights into the complex metabolism of C. thermocellum for future improvement of this strain. PMID:22922214

  1. [Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon

  2. Primary School Children's Health-Enhancing Physical Activity Patterns: The School as a Significant Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairclough, S. J.; Butcher, Z. H.; Stratton, G.

    2008-01-01

    The moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of 70 children (age 8.6 years; 40 boys) was measured and gender and age differences were compared. Boys spent 28 minutes per day more than girls in MVPA (p=0.02, d=0.54), and younger children accumulated 24 minutes more MVPA than older peers (p=0.0001, d=0.91). Similar gender and age-related trends…

  3. Antisecretory and antimotility activity of Aconitum heterophyllum and its significance in treatment of diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Satyendra K.; Jain, Divya; Patel, Dinesh K.; Sahu, Alakh N.; Hemalatha, Siva

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The roots of the plant Aconitum heterophyllum (EAH) are traditionally used for curing hysteria, throat infection, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, diabetes, and diarrhea. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the mechanism involved in the anti-diarrheal activity of roots of A. heterophyllum. Materials and Methods: Ant-diarrheal activity of ethanol extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg p.o. was evaluated using fecal excretion and castor oil-induced diarrhea models, while optimized dose, that is, 100 mg/kg p.o. was further subjected to small intestinal transit, intestinal fluids accumulation, PGE2-induced enteropooling and gastric emptying test. To elucidate the probable mechanism, various biochemical parameters and Na+, K+ concentration in intestinal fluids were also determined. Further, antibacterial activity of extract along with its standardization using aconitine as a marker with the help of HPLC was carried out. Results: The results depicted a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in normal fecal output at 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. of extract after 5th and 7th h of treatment. Castor oil-induced diarrhea model demonstrated a ceiling effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. with a protection of 60.185% from diarrhea. EAH at 100 mg/kg p.o. also showed significant activity in small intestinal transit, fluid accumulation, and PGE2-induced enteropooling models, which also restored the altered biochemical parameters and prevented Na+ and K+ loss. The extract with 0.0833% w/w of aconitine depicted a potential antibacterial activity of extract against microbes implicated in diarrhea. Conclusion: The study concluded antisecretory and antimotility effect of A. heterophyllum, which mediates through nitric oxide path way. PMID:24550590

  4. Children's Engagement in Different Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom Kjellin, Margareta; Granlund, Mats

    2006-01-01

    A multiple case study is reported aiming at identifying the degree of taking part and of being engaged in classroom activities for children with and without reading and writing difficulties/dyslexia. The aim was also to investigate the accordance between "effective literacy teaching" and children's expressed interest and observed taking part and…

  5. Sex differences, gamma activity and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Slewa-Younan, S; Gordon, E; Williams, L; Haig, A R; Goldberg, E

    2001-03-01

    This study explores the possibility that the more favourable clinical prognosis in females with schizophrenia may be associated with their greater network interconnectedness, which is possibly reflected in enhanced "Gamma" (40 Hz) electrical brain activity. An auditory "oddball" task was administered to 35 patients with schizophrenia and 35 age and sex matched controls (25 males and 10 females). Peak Gamma amplitude (from a time series of Gamma activity averaged for 40 target stimuli, as well as the immediately preceding 40 background tones) was examined across 19 sites. Peak Gamma activity occurred 250 to 450 ms in targets and 350 to 550 ms in backgrounds. Multiple within and between group MANOVAs were undertaken analysing both Peak Gamma amplitude (microvolts) and latency (milliseconds). Within-group, the control males showed a pattern of earlier Gamma latency in the right compared with the left hemisphere (F(1, 33)=3.70, p<.06), while control females exhibited delayed latency frontally compared with the posterior region (F(1, 33)=6.25, p<.04). This male lateralization finding and the anterior/posterior gradient in females is consistent with Goldberg's model. The patient group however, failed to show this male lateralized and female frontal-posterior pattern of Gamma activity, suggesting suboptimal network integration in the patient group, in both males and females. PMID:11328687

  6. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of different parts of Leucas aspera

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Ai Lan; Jessica, Jeyanthi James Antony; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different parts (root, flower, leaf and stem) of Leucas aspera (L. aspera) (Labiatae). Methods Different parts of L. aspera were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol. The methanol extracts were subjected to antioxidant, antimicrobial and brine shrimp lethality assay. Results All the extracts showed moderate to potent antioxidant activity, among which the root extract demonstrated the strongest antioxidant activity with the IC50 value of 6.552 µg/mL. Methanol extract of root possessed antioxidant activity near the range of vitamin E and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of root, flower, leaf and stem showed notable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. The root extract showed the highest mean zone of inhibition ranging from 9.0–11.0 mm against tested microorganisms, at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, it was evident that the methanol root extract did not show significant toxicity. The LC50 value for 12 h and 24 h observation was 2.890 mg/mL and 1.417 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions The present finding suggests that the methanol root extract of L. aspera could be developed as pharmaceutical products. PMID:23569893

  7. The crowded sea: incorporating multiple marine activities in conservation plans can significantly alter spatial priorities.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Tessa; Possingham, Hugh P; Edelist, Dori; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit

    2014-01-01

    Successful implementation of marine conservation plans is largely inhibited by inadequate consideration of the broader social and economic context within which conservation operates. Marine waters and their biodiversity are shared by a host of stakeholders, such as commercial fishers, recreational users and offshore developers. Hence, to improve implementation success of conservation plans, we must incorporate other marine activities while explicitly examining trade-offs that may be required. In this study, we test how the inclusion of multiple marine activities can shape conservation plans. We used the entire Mediterranean territorial waters of Israel as a case study to compare four planning scenarios with increasing levels of complexity, where additional zones, threats and activities were added (e.g., commercial fisheries, hydrocarbon exploration interests, aquaculture, and shipping lanes). We applied the marine zoning decision support tool Marxan to each planning scenario and tested a) the ability of each scenario to reach biodiversity targets, b) the change in opportunity cost and c) the alteration of spatial conservation priorities. We found that by including increasing numbers of marine activities and zones in the planning process, greater compromises are required to reach conservation objectives. Complex plans with more activities incurred greater opportunity cost and did not reach biodiversity targets as easily as simplified plans with less marine activities. We discovered that including hydrocarbon data in the planning process significantly alters spatial priorities. For the territorial waters of Israel we found that in order to protect at least 10% of the range of 166 marine biodiversity features there would be a loss of ∼15% of annual commercial fishery revenue and ∼5% of prospective hydrocarbon revenue. This case study follows an illustrated framework for adopting a transparent systematic process to balance biodiversity goals and economic

  8. The Crowded Sea: Incorporating Multiple Marine Activities in Conservation Plans Can Significantly Alter Spatial Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Mazor, Tessa; Possingham, Hugh P.; Edelist, Dori; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit

    2014-01-01

    Successful implementation of marine conservation plans is largely inhibited by inadequate consideration of the broader social and economic context within which conservation operates. Marine waters and their biodiversity are shared by a host of stakeholders, such as commercial fishers, recreational users and offshore developers. Hence, to improve implementation success of conservation plans, we must incorporate other marine activities while explicitly examining trade-offs that may be required. In this study, we test how the inclusion of multiple marine activities can shape conservation plans. We used the entire Mediterranean territorial waters of Israel as a case study to compare four planning scenarios with increasing levels of complexity, where additional zones, threats and activities were added (e.g., commercial fisheries, hydrocarbon exploration interests, aquaculture, and shipping lanes). We applied the marine zoning decision support tool Marxan to each planning scenario and tested a) the ability of each scenario to reach biodiversity targets, b) the change in opportunity cost and c) the alteration of spatial conservation priorities. We found that by including increasing numbers of marine activities and zones in the planning process, greater compromises are required to reach conservation objectives. Complex plans with more activities incurred greater opportunity cost and did not reach biodiversity targets as easily as simplified plans with less marine activities. We discovered that including hydrocarbon data in the planning process significantly alters spatial priorities. For the territorial waters of Israel we found that in order to protect at least 10% of the range of 166 marine biodiversity features there would be a loss of ∼15% of annual commercial fishery revenue and ∼5% of prospective hydrocarbon revenue. This case study follows an illustrated framework for adopting a transparent systematic process to balance biodiversity goals and economic

  9. Significant correlation between refractive index and activity of mitochondria: single mitochondrion study

    PubMed Central

    Haseda, Keisuke; Kanematsu, Keita; Noguchi, Keiichi; Saito, Hiromu; Umeda, Norihiro; Ohta, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of refractive indices (RIs) of intracellular components can provide useful information on the structure and function of cells. The present study reports, for the first time, determination of the RI of an isolated mitochondrion in isotonic solution using retardation-modulated differential interference contrast microscopy. The value was 1.41 ± 0.01, indicating that mitochondria are densely packed with molecules having high RIs. Further, the RIs of each mitochondrion were significantly correlated with the mitochondrial membrane potential, an index of mitochondrial activity. These results will provide useful information on the structures and functions of cells based on the intracellular distribution of RIs. PMID:25798310

  10. Systems of meaning and transference: Implicit significant-other activation evokes shared reality.

    PubMed

    Przybylinski, Elizabeth; Andersen, Susan M

    2015-10-01

    Evidence shows that representations of significant others (SOs) are used in interpersonal relations-for example, in the social-cognitive process of transference (see Andersen & Chen, 2002), a process that is assumed to serve meaning-making functions (Glassman & Andersen, 1999b). Five studies tested the more specific notion that implicit activation of an SO representation in transference should indirectly activate the worldview shared with the SO, leading to its active pursuit, validation, and protection. Shared worldviews were assessed beforehand, both idiographically, as values (Studies 1 and 4), and nomothetically, as political ideology or religious beliefs (Studies 2, 3, and 5). In each experiment, participants learned about new persons, one subtly resembling their own SO. Transference was assessed (memory bias; positive evaluation; see Andersen, Reznik, & Manzella, 1996) and, crucially, as predicted, when considering the new person resembling their SO (vs. the control persons), participants showed faster response latencies in a lexical decision task to words reflecting the worldview shared with the SO (vs. held only personally, Studies 1-3, or only by the SO, Study 3). With this person, they also anticipated a more meaningful interaction and actively socially tuned to the SO-shared worldview, selecting conversation topics reflecting the SO-shared worldview (vs. personally held or SO-held topics, Studies 1-3). Finally, threatening the SO-shared worldview with this person (vs. threatening personally held, SO-held, or irrelevant worldviews) prompted goal activation to restore the disrupted meaning (Studies 4 and 5), assessed by response latency in a lexical decision task. Transference thus evokes shared meaning systems and serves epistemic functions. PMID:26414844

  11. Numerical study of the butterfly effect on the solutions of the logistic difference equation using arbitrary significant digits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Nunez, Jesus; Castillo, Jesus; Molinar-Tabares, Martin

    The solutions of the logistic difference equation when they are under the influence of the chaotic regime are very sensitive to initial conditions due to the butterfly effect. In this study we used arbitrary significant digits to generate solutions of the logistic difference equation under the influence of chaos, and a follow of its effects along each digit of the solutions was made. A large amount of significant digits to generate the solutions is necessary since it is the only way of naturally appreciating the implications of chaos on these solutions. We compared digit by digit the numerical solutions that were generated by several different initial conditions that contain modifications in a very far significant digit, with respect to the solution of another initial condition that was selected for a control solution. The results shown that it is possible to track the butterfly effect and easily predict the moment on which its effects will be noticeable.

  12. Shortened cecropin A-melittin hybrids. Significant size reduction retains potent antibiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Andreu, D; Ubach, J; Boman, A; Wåhlin, B; Wade, D; Merrifield, R B; Boman, H G

    1992-01-20

    We have earlier reported two 26-residue antibacterial peptides made up from different segments of cecropin A (CA) and melittin (M). We now report a substantial reduction in size at the C-terminal section of the highly active hybrid CA(1-8)M(1-18), leading to a series of 20-, 18- and 15-residue analogs with antibiotic properties similar to the larger molecule. In particular, the 15-residue hybrids CA(1-7)M(2-9), CA(1-7)M(4-11) and CA(1-7)M(5-12) are the shortest cecropin-based peptide antibiotics described so far, with antibacterial activity and spectra similar or better than cecropin A and a 60% reduction in size. Their reduced size and highly alpha-helical structure require an alternative mechanism for their interaction with bacterial membranes. PMID:1733777

  13. Aspects of igneous activity significant to a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Krier, D. J.; Perry, F. V.

    2004-01-01

    Location, timing, volume, and eruptive style of post-Miocene volcanoes have defined the volcanic hazard significant to a proposed high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a low-probability, high-consequence event. Examination of eruptive centers in the region that may be analogueues to possible future volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining and evaluating the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption above a repository. The probability of a future event intersecting a repository at Yucca Mountain has a mean value of 1.7 x 10{sup -8} per year. This probability comes from the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) completed in 1996 and updated to reflect change in repository layout. Since that time, magnetic anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified fiom magnetic surveys; however these potential buried centers only slightly increase the probability of an event intersecting the repository. The proposed repository will be located in its central portion of Yucca Mountain at approximately 300m depth. The process for assessing performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain has identified two scenarios for igneous activity that, although having a very low probability of occurrence, could have a significant consequence should an igneous event occur. Either a dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, or a volcanic eruption through the repository could result in release of radioactive material to the accessible environment. Ongoing investigations are assessing the mechanisms and significance of the consequence scenarios. Lathrop Wells Cone ({approx}80,000 yrs), a key analogue for estimating potential future volcanic activity, is the youngest surface expression of apparent waning basaltic volcanism in the region. Cone internal structure, lavas, and ash-fall tephra have been examined to estimate eruptive volume

  14. Sex Differences in Monocyte Activation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Lumin; Lang, Ren; Li, Zihai; Gilkeson, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction TLR7/8 and TLR9 signaling pathways have been extensively studied in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as possible mediators of disease. Monocytes are a major source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and are understudied in SLE. In the current project, we investigated sex differences in monocyte activation and its implications in SLE disease pathogenesis. Methods Human blood samples from 27 healthy male controls, 32 healthy female controls, and 25 female patients with SLE matched for age and race were studied. Monocyte activation was tested by flow cytometry and ELISA, including subset proportions, CD14, CD80 and CD86 expression, the percentage of IL-6-producing monocytes, plasma levels of sCD14 and IL-6, and urine levels of creatinine. Results Monocytes were significantly more activated in women compared to men and in patients with SLE compared to controls in vivo. We observed increased proportions of non-classic monocytes, decreased proportions of classic monocytes, elevated levels of plasma sCD14 as well as reduced surface expression of CD14 on monocytes comparing women to men and lupus patients to controls. Plasma levels of IL-6 were positively related to sCD14 and serum creatinine. Conclusion Monocyte activation and TLR4 responsiveness are altered in women compared to men and in patients with SLE compared to controls. These sex differences may allow persistent systemic inflammation and resultant enhanced SLE susceptibility. PMID:25485543

  15. Modeling prograde TiO2 activity and its significance for Ti-in-quartz thermobarometry of pelitic metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Kyle T.; Law, Richard D.

    2015-02-01

    Since its calibration, the Ti-in-quartz thermobarometer has been applied to a wide variety of geologic scenarios. The abundance of quartz in the continental crust and the involvement of silica in metamorphic reactions, deformation, and fluid flux processes make it a particularly powerful tool for constraining the pressure and temperature evolution of rocks, which is essential for developing tectonic models. Being able to quantitatively determine the solubility of Ti in quartz, however, is dependent upon being able to determine the activity of TiO2 in the rock during quartz growth or re-equilibration. Here we calculate TiO2 chemical potentials of the system relative to that of rutile (as a standard state), projected in P- T space for an average sub-aluminous pelite composition. Titania activities are calculated from these dependent potentials, with resultant activities used to correct for Ti isopleth projection in the Thomas et al. (2010) solubility equation. The modeling results are in good agreement with previous studies that suggest ilmenite-bearing assemblages buffer high TiO2 activities and titanite-bearing assemblages have much lower activities (≥0.5). At elevated temperatures, however, significant deviation from an assumed average pelite activity of 1.0 occurs, where the projected Ti concentration in quartz is up to 400 % different when assuming a dynamic system activity. This is due, in part, to the sequestering of Ti in biotite during heating and the destabilization of Ti-oxides at higher temperatures. With quartz-producing reactions, deformation-driven solution-transfer processes and other Si-mobilization events occur during the prograde and retrograde history of metapelites, and assuming TiO2 activities associated with the peak metamorphic paragenesis may be misleading and result in significant errors in P- T calculations.

  16. Freezing activities of flavonoids in solutions containing different ice nucleators.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Wang, Donghui; Kasuga, Jun; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita; Koyama, Toshie; Inada, Takaaki; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we examined the effects on freezing of 26 kinds of flavonoid compounds, which were randomly selected as compounds with structures similar to those of flavonoid compounds existing in deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in trees, in solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators, including the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, INB Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide, phloroglucinol and unidentified airborne impurities in buffered Milli-Q water (BMQW). Cumulative freezing spectra were obtained in each solution by cooling 2 μL droplets at 0.2 °C/min by a droplet freezing assay. Freezing temperature of 50% droplets (FT(50)) was obtained from each spectra in a separate analysis with more than 20 droplets and mean FT(50) were obtained from more than five separate analyses using more than 100 droplets in total in each flavonoid. Supercooling-promoting activities (SCA) or ice nucleation-enhancing activities (INA) of these flavonoids were determined by the difference in FT(50) between control solutions without flavonoids and experimental solutions with flavonoids. In mean values, most of the compounds examined exhibited SCA in solutions containing the INB E. ananas, INB X. campestris, silver iodide, and phloroglucinol although the magnitudes of their activities were different depending on the ice nucleator. In solutions containing the INB E. ananas, 10 compounds exhibited SCAs with significant differences (p<0.05) in the range of 1.4-4.2 °C. In solutions containing silver iodide, 23 compounds exhibited SCAs with significant differences in the range of 2.0-7.1 °C. In solutions containing phloroglucinol, six compounds exhibited SCAs with significant differences in the range of 2.4-3.5 °C. In solutions containing the INB X. campestris, only three compounds exhibited SCAs with significant differences in the range of 0.9-2.3 °C. In solutions containing unidentified airborne impurities (BMQW alone), on the other hand, many

  17. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yanming; Wang, Lianxin; Zhang, Yingying; Gu, Hao; Chai, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin's related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71) and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed. PMID:27069488

  18. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Lianxin; Zhang, Yingying; Gu, Hao; Chai, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin's related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71) and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed. PMID:27069488

  19. Gender differences and regionalization of the cultural significance of wild mushrooms around La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, A; Torres-García, E A; Kong, A; Estrada-Torres, A; Caballero, J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cultural significance of wild mushrooms in 10 communities on the slopes of La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala. The frequency and order of mention of each mushroom species in interviews of 200 individuals were used as indicators of the relative cultural significance of each species. A X(2) analysis was used to compare the frequency of mention of each species between males and females, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference in the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender. Traditional names for mushroom species were documented and frequency of mention assessed through multivariate statistics. The fungi with highest frequency of mention were Amanita basii, Lyophyllum decastes, Boletus pinophilus, Gomphus floccosus and Cantharellus cibarius complex. We found significant differences in the frequency of mention of different fungi by males and females but no significant difference was found for the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender. Principal component analysis suggested a cultural regionalization of La Malinche volcano communities based on preferences for consumption and use of traditional names. We observed two groups: one formed by communities on the eastern part of the volcano (with mixed cultures) and the other including communities on the western slope (ethnic Nahua towns). San Isidro Buensuceso is the most distinct community, according to the criteria in this study. PMID:22466796

  20. Interdomain communications in bifunctional enzymes: how are different activities coordinated?

    PubMed

    Nagradova, Natalya

    2003-08-01

    Although bifunctional enzymes containing two different active centers located within separate domains are quite common in living systems, the significance of this bifunctionality is not always clear, and the molecular mechanisms of site-site interactions in such complex systems have come under the scrutiny of science only in recent years. This review summarizes recent data on the mechanisms of communication between active centers in bifunctional enzymes. Three types of enzymes are considered: (1) those catalyzing consecutive reactions of a metabolic pathway and exhibiting substrate channeling (glutamate synthase and imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase), (2) those catalyzing consecutive reactions without substrate channeling (lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase), and (3) those catalyzing opposed reactions (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase). The functional role of interdomain communications is briefly discussed. PMID:14609201

  1. Functional significance of complex fluctuations in brain activity: from resting state to cognitive neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Papo, David

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral studies have shown that human cognition is characterized by properties such as temporal scale invariance, heavy-tailed non-Gaussian distributions, and long-range correlations at long time scales, suggesting models of how (non observable) components of cognition interact. On the other hand, results from functional neuroimaging studies show that complex scaling and intermittency may be generic spatio-temporal properties of the brain at rest. Somehow surprisingly, though, hardly ever have the neural correlates of cognition been studied at time scales comparable to those at which cognition shows scaling properties. Here, we analyze the meanings of scaling properties and the significance of their task-related modulations for cognitive neuroscience. It is proposed that cognitive processes can be framed in terms of complex generic properties of brain activity at rest and, ultimately, of functional equations, limiting distributions, symmetries, and possibly universality classes characterizing them. PMID:24966818

  2. Muscular activity of different shooting distances, different release techniques, and different performance levels, with and without stabilizers, in target archery.

    PubMed

    Clarys, J P; Cabri, J; Bollens, E; Sleeckx, R; Taeymans, J; Vermeiren, M; Van Reeth, G; Voss, G

    1990-01-01

    The quadruple approach in the title refers to four different studies over a period of 3 years. The common factor in these studies is the methodology of the (Brussels) Electromyographic Signal Processing and Analysis System (ESPAS), a hardware and software EMG data acquisition system that has constantly been improved. Therefore, the ESPAS methodology is described extensively (i.e. the electrodes, amplifier, tape-recorder and processing hardware). Experiment 1 investigated muscular behaviour in target shooting, both indoors (18 and 25 m) and outdoors (50, 70 and 90 m). It was found (via iEMG) that a significant increase in activity only exists between 25 and 50 m, and that there is no linear increase of activity with increased distance. No differences in muscular pattern (IDANCO system: Clarys and Cabri, 1988) or activity between the indoor distances and between the outdoor distances were found. Experiment 2 investigated the muscular economy of four string grips: the three-finger grip, two-finger grip, thumb grip and reversed grip. The largest variations in activity were found for the two most unfamiliar grips, i.e. the thumb and reversed grips; however, low iEMG and the rapid precision improvement (over a limited number of shots) suggest that the thumb grip, if practised long enough, might be the most economical technique. Experiment 3 attempted to differentiate muscular activity and a number of performance variables in three different populations of archers--Olympic athletes, National competitors and beginners--in order to obtain feedback regarding improved performance. Apparently, overall muscle pattern, intensities and arrow speed were not discriminatory. The differences found between the groups (or levels of skill) were affected by the ability to reproduce identical patterns and arrow velocities in consecutive shots and by the constancy of neuromuscular control of the M. trapezius, M. biceps brachii and M. extensor digitorum. Finally, Experiment 4 investigated

  3. Activity landscape modeling of PPAR ligands with dual-activity difference maps.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Castillo, Rafael; Medina-Franco, José L

    2012-06-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes offers a promising strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and metabolic diseases. Selective and dual PPAR agonists have been developed and the systematic characterization of their structure-activity relationships (SAR) is of major significance. Herein, we report a systematic description of the SAR of 168 compounds screened against the three PPAR subtypes using the principles of activity landscape modeling. As part of our effort to develop and apply chemoinformatic tools to navigate through activity landscapes, we employed consensus dual-activity difference maps recently reported. The analysis is based on pairwise relationships of potency difference and structure-similarity which were calculated from the combination of four different 2D and 3D structure representations. Dual-activity difference maps uncovered regions in the landscape with similar SAR for two or three receptor subtypes as well as regions with inverse SAR, that is, changes in structure that increase activity for one subtype but decrease activity for the other subtype. Analysis of pairs of compounds with high structure similarity revealed the presence of single-, dual-, and 'pan-receptor' activity cliffs, that is, small changes in structure with high changes in potency for one, two, or three receptor subtypes, respectively. Single-, dual-, and pan-receptor scaffold hops are also discussed. The analysis of the chemical structures of selected data points reported in this paper points to specific structural features that are helpful for the design of new PPAR agonists. The approach presented in this work is general and can be extended to analyze larger data sets. PMID:22564380

  4. Comparison of the activities of the lantibiotics nisin and lacticin 3147 against clinically significant mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Carroll, James; Draper, Lorraine A; O'Connor, Paula M; Coffey, Aidan; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D; O'Mahony, Jim

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to use the microtitre alamarBlue assay to investigate and compare the antimycobacterial potential of the lantibiotics nisin and lacticin 3147 against a representative cohort of clinically significant mycobacteria, i.e. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) ATCC 19698 and Mycobacterium kansasii CIT11/06. Lacticin 3147 displayed potent activity against all strains of mycobacteria, with MIC(90) values (lowest concentration of lantibiotic that prevented growth of >90% of the bacterial population) of 60 mg/L and 15 mg/L for M. kansasii and MAP, respectively. Lacticin 3147 was particularly effective against M. tuberculosis H37Ra, with a MIC(90) value of 7.5mg/L. Nisin, although inhibitory, was generally less potent against all strains of mycobacteria, with MIC(90) values of 60 mg/L for M. kansasii and >60 mg/L for MAP and M. tuberculosis H37Ra. Thus, lacticin 3147 is a potent antimycobacterial peptide that shows superior activity compared with nisin at physiological pH. PMID:20547041

  5. Preparation and characterization of quaternary ammonium chitosan hydrogel with significant antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lihong; Yang, Jing; Wu, Huan; Hu, Zhihai; Yi, Jiayan; Tong, Jun; Zhu, Xiaoming

    2015-08-01

    Quaternary ammonium chitosan (HACC)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) hydrogels were prepared using gamma radiation. The chemical structure of the hydrogels was characterized using FT-IR. The results revealed that HACC, PVA and PEO were perfectly compatible and interacted via the hydrogen bonds. As revealed by SEM, scaffolds with a homogeneous interconnected pore structure were obtained after lyophilizing the hydrogels. The influence of different radiation doses and weight ratios on properties including gel content, swelling ability, water evaporation rate and mechanical properties were investigated. It indicated that the hydrogels had the good swelling ability, water evaporation rate and mechanical properties. In vitro antibacterial activity assessment, the hydrogels exhibited a pronounced inhibitory effect against two bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). Therefore, the hydrogels showed a promising potential to be applied as wound dressing. PMID:25895959

  6. UNESCO active learning approach in optics and photonics leads to significant change in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrada, K.; Channa, R.; Outzourhit, A.; Azizan, M.; Oueriagli, A.

    2014-07-01

    There are many difficulties in teaching science and technology in developing countries. Several different teaching strategies have to be applied in these cases. More specifically, for developing countries competencies in teaching science in the introductory classroom has attracted much attention. As a specific example we will consider the Moroccan system. In most developing countries everything is moving so slowly that the progress stays static for development. Also, any change needs time, effort and engagement. In our case we discovered that many teachers feel uncomfortable when introducing new teaching methods and evaluation in classes at introductory physics. However, the introduction of an Active Learning in our curricula showed difficulties that students have in understanding physics and especially concepts. Students were interested in having Active Learning courses much more than passive and traditional ones. Changing believes on physical phenomena and reality of the world students become more attractive and their way of thinking Science changed. The main philosophy of fostering modern hands-on learning techniques -adapted to local needs and availability of teaching resources- is elaborated. The Active Learning program provides the teachers with a conceptual evaluation instrument, drawn from relevant physics education research, giving teachers an important tool to measure student learning. We will try to describe the UNESCO Chair project in physics created in 2010 at Cadi Ayyad University since our first experience with UNESCO ALOP program. Many efforts have been done so far and the project helps now to develop more national and international collaborations between universities and Regional Academies of Education and Training. As a new result of these actions and according to our local needs, the translation of the ALOP program into Arabic is now available under the auspice of UNESCO and encouragement of international partners SPIE, ICTP, ICO and OSA.

  7. The Case for Use of Simple Difference Scores to Test the Significance of Differences in Mean Rates of Change in Controlled Repeated Measurements Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overall, John E.; Tonidandel, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A previous Monte Carlo study examined the relative powers of several simple and more complex procedures for testing the significance of difference in mean rates of change in a controlled, longitudinal, treatment evaluation study. Results revealed that the relative powers depended on the correlation structure of the simulated repeated measurements.…

  8. Functional activity maps based on significance measures and Independent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Murcia, F J; Górriz, J M; Ramírez, J; Puntonet, C G; Illán, I A

    2013-07-01

    The use of functional imaging has been proven very helpful for the process of diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In many cases, the analysis of these images is performed by manual reorientation and visual interpretation. Therefore, new statistical techniques to perform a more quantitative analysis are needed. In this work, a new statistical approximation to the analysis of functional images, based on significance measures and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is presented. After the images preprocessing, voxels that allow better separation of the two classes are extracted, using significance measures such as the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon U-Test (MWW) and Relative Entropy (RE). After this feature selection step, the voxels vector is modelled by means of ICA, extracting a few independent components which will be used as an input to the classifier. Naive Bayes and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers are used in this work. The proposed system has been applied to two different databases. A 96-subjects Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) database from the "Virgen de las Nieves" Hospital in Granada, Spain, and a 196-subjects Positron Emission Tomography (PET) database from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Values of accuracy up to 96.9% and 91.3% for SPECT and PET databases are achieved by the proposed system, which has yielded many benefits over methods proposed on recent works. PMID:23660005

  9. Paired galaxies with different activity levels and their supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaryan, T. A.; Petrosian, A. R.; Hakobyan, A. A.; Adibekyan, V. Z.; Kunth, D.; Mamon, G. A.; Turatto, M.; Aramyan, L. S.

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The statistical study of SN hosts shows that there is no significant difference between morphologies of hosts in our sample and the larger general sample of SN hosts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. The distributions and mean distances of SNe are consistent with previous results compiled with the larger sample. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies. SN types are not correlated with the luminosity ratio of host and neighbor galaxies in pairs. The orientation of SNe with respect to the preferred direction toward neighbor galaxy is found to be isotropic and independent of kinematical properties of the galaxy pair.

  10. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brunelle, Brian W; Greenlee, Justin J; Seabury, Christopher M; Brown, Charles E; Nicholson, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular indel region and

  11. No Significant Acute and Subacute Differences between Blast and Blunt Concussions across Multiple Neurocognitive Measures and Symptoms in Deployed Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Dretsch, Michael N; Kelly, Mark P; Coldren, Rodney L; Parish, Robert V; Russell, Michael L

    2015-08-15

    Seventy-one deployed U.S. Army soldiers who presented for concussion care due to either blast or blunt mechanisms within 72 h of injury were assessed using the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), traditional neuropsychological tests, and health status questionnaires. Follow-up ANAM testing was performed 10 d after initial testing (±5 d). Twenty-one soldiers were excluded: two for poor effort and 19 who had combined blast/blunt injuries. Of the remaining 50 male participants, 34 had blast injuries and 16 had blunt injuries. There were no statistically significant differences between blast injury and blunt injury participants in demographic, physical, or psychological health factors, concussive symptoms, or automated and traditional neurocognitive testing scores within 72 h post-injury. In addition, follow-up ANAM scores up to 15 d post-injury were not significantly different (available on 21 blast-injured and 13 blunt-injured subjects). Pre-injury baseline ANAM scores were compared where available, and revealed no statistically significant differences between 22 blast injury and eight blunt injury participants. These findings suggest there are no significant differences between mechanisms of injury during both the acute and subacute periods in neurobehavioral concussion sequelae while deployed in a combat environment. The current study supports the use of sports/mechanical concussion models for early concussion management in the deployed setting and exploration of variability in potential long-term outcomes. PMID:25367048

  12. Renal adenylate cyclase assay for biologically active parathyroid hormone: clinical utility and physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Auf'mkolk, B; Hesch, R D

    1986-01-01

    The stimulation of cyclic AMP production by human renal cortical membranes in the presence of the GTP analogue 5'-guanylimidodiphosphate and a calcium chelator represents a homologous assay system for the evaluation of biologically active parathyroid hormone (bioPTH) in human serum. Bioactive PTH was raised above normal (normal range: undetectable to 4.6 pmol human PTH(1-34) per 1) in 13/17 (76%) patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, in 5/6 (83%) patients with surgically proven hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic renal failure, in 4/5 (80%) patients with hyperparathyroidism secondary to hypocalcaemia, in all three patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism, in 5/17 (29%) patients with osteoporosis and in 1/9 (11%) patients with renal stones and/or hypercalciuria. Bioactive PTH correlated positively with immunoreactive PTH (iPTH) measured with a radioimmunoassay predominantly recognizing the middle- and carboxyl-terminal region of the PTH molecule (r = 0.503, P less than 0.001). A positive correlation (r = 0.572, P less than 0.05) was found between values of serum calcium and bioPTH in the group with primary hyperparathyroidism. Immunoreactive PTH did not correlate significantly with calcium in this group. In the other patients except those who had chronic renal failure, a negative correlation between serum calcium and both bioPTH and iPTH was observed (P less than 0.01). When alkaline phosphatase was compared with bioPTH in all patients, the correlation was positive (r = 0.390, P less than 0.01); no significant correlation existed between iPTH and alkaline phosphatase in the patients studied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3944539

  13. Significantly reduced cytochrome P450 3A4 expression and activity in liver from humans with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dostalek, Miroslav; Court, Michael H; Yan, Bingfang; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Patients with diabetes mellitus require pharmacotherapy with numerous medications. However, the effect of diabetes on drug biotransformation is not well understood. Our goal was to investigate the effect of diabetes on liver cytochrome P450 3As, the most abundant phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Human liver microsomal fractions (HLMs) were prepared from diabetic (n = 12) and demographically matched nondiabetic (n = 12) donors, genotyped for CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms. Cytochrome P450 3A4, 3A5 and 2E1 mRNA expression, protein level and enzymatic activity were compared between the two groups. KEY RESULTS Midazolam 1′- or 4-hydroxylation and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, catalyzed by P450 3A, were markedly reduced in diabetic HLMs, irrespective of genotype. Significantly lower P450 3A4 protein and comparable mRNA levels were observed in diabetic HLMs. In contrast, neither P450 3A5 protein level nor mRNA expression differed significantly between the two groups. Concurrently, we have observed increased P450 2E1 protein level and higher chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation activity in diabetic HLMs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These studies indicate that diabetes is associated with a significant decrease in hepatic P450 3A4 enzymatic activity and protein level. This finding could be clinically relevant for diabetic patients who have additional comorbidities and are receiving multiple medications. To further characterize the effect of diabetes on P450 3A4 activity, a well-controlled clinical study in diabetic patients is warranted. PMID:21323901

  14. Quercetin phospholipid complex significantly protects against oxidative injury in ARPE-19 cells associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Rong; Yu, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yan; Hang, Li; Yang, Xue-Wen; Ding, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of dry AMD. Quercetin has potent anti-oxidative activities, but poor bioavailability limits its therapeutic application. Herein, we prepared the phospholipid complex of quercetin (quercetin-PC), characterized its structure by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectrum and x-ray diffraction. Quercetin-PC had equilibrium solubility of 38.36 and 1351.27μg/ml in water and chloroform, respectively, which was remarkably higher than those of quercetin alone. Then we established hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury model in human ARPE-19 cells to examine the effects of quercetin-PC. Quercetin-PC, stronger than quercetin, promoted cell proliferation, and the proliferation rate was increased to be 78.89% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 400μM. Moreover, quercetin-PC effectively prevented ARPE-19 cells from apoptosis, and the apoptotic rate was reduced to be 3.1% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 200μM. In addition, quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly increased the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX, and reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species and MDA in H2O2-treated ARPE-19 cells, but quercetin at 200μM failed to do so. Molecular examinations revealed that quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly activated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and significantly enhanced the expression of target genes HO-1, NQO-1 and GCL by different folds at both mRNA and protein levels. Our current data collectively indicated that quercetin-PC had stronger protective effects against oxidative-induced damages in ARPE-19 cells, which was associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway and its target genes implicated in antioxidant defense. PMID:26643168

  15. Diversity and Activity of Methanotrophic Bacteria in Different Upland Soils

    PubMed Central

    Knief, Claudia; Lipski, André; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Samples from diverse upland soils that oxidize atmospheric methane were characterized with regard to methane oxidation activity and the community composition of methanotrophic bacteria (MB). MB were identified on the basis of the detection and comparative sequence analysis of the pmoA gene, which encodes a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase. MB commonly detected in soils were closely related to Methylocaldum spp., Methylosinus spp., Methylocystis spp., or the “forest sequence cluster” (USC α), which has previously been detected in upland soils and is related to pmoA sequences of type II MB (Alphaproteobacteria). As well, a novel group of sequences distantly related (<75% derived amino acid identity) to those of known type I MB (Gammaproteobacteria) was often detected. This novel “upland soil cluster γ” (USC γ) was significantly more likely to be detected in soils with pH values of greater than 6.0 than in more acidic soils. To identify active MB, four selected soils were incubated with 13CH4 at low mixing ratios (<50 ppm of volume), and extracted methylated phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were analyzed by gas chromatography-online combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Incorporation of 13C into PLFAs characteristic for methanotrophic Gammaproteobacteria was observed in all soils in which USC γ sequences were detected, suggesting that the bacteria possessing these sequences were active methanotrophs. A pattern of labeled PLFAs typical for methanotrophic Alphaproteobacteria was obtained for a sample in which only USC α sequences were detected. The data indicate that different MB are present and active in different soils that oxidize atmospheric methane. PMID:14602631

  16. Disease progression in systemic sclerosis-overlap syndrome is significantly different from limited and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Moinzadeh, Pia; Aberer, Elisabeth; Ahmadi-Simab, Keihan; Blank, Norbert; Distler, Joerg H W; Fierlbeck, Gerhard; Genth, Ekkehard; Guenther, Claudia; Hein, Ruediger; Henes, Joerg; Herich, Lena; Herrgott, Ilka; Koetter, Ina; Kreuter, Alexander; Krieg, Thomas; Kuhr, Kathrin; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Meier, Florian; Melchers, Inga; Mensing, Hartwig; Mueller-Ladner, Ulf; Pfeiffer, Christiane; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Sárdy, Miklós; Schmalzing, Marc; Sunderkoetter, Cord; Susok, Laura; Tarner, Ingo H; Vaith, Peter; Worm, Margitta; Wozel, Gottfried; Zeidler, Gabriele; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Ahrazoglu, Nil Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc)-overlap syndromes are a very heterogeneous and remarkable subgroup of SSc-patients, who present at least two connective tissue diseases (CTD) at the same time, usually with a specific autoantibody status. Objectives To determine whether patients, classified as overlap syndromes, show a disease course different from patients with limited SSc (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). Methods The data of 3240 prospectively included patients, registered in the database of the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma and followed between 2003 and 2013, were analysed. Results Among 3240 registered patients, 10% were diagnosed as SSc-overlap syndrome. Of these, 82.5% were female. SSc-overlap patients had a mean age of 48±1.2 years and carried significantly more often ‘other antibodies’ (68.0%; p<0.0001), including anti-U1RNP, -PmScl, -Ro, -La, as well as anti-Jo-1 and -Ku antibodies. These patients developed musculoskeletal involvement earlier and more frequently (62.5%) than patients diagnosed as lcSSc (32.2%) or dcSSc (43.3%) (p<0.0001). The onset of lung fibrosis and heart involvement in SSc-overlap patients was significantly earlier than in patients with lcSSc and occurred later than in patients with dcSSc. Oesophagus, kidney and PH progression was similar to lcSSc patients, whereas dcSSc patients had a significantly earlier onset. Conclusions These data support the concept that SSc-overlap syndromes should be regarded as a separate SSc subset, distinct from lcSSc and dcSSc, due to a different progression of the disease, different proportional distribution of specific autoantibodies, and of different organ involvement. PMID:24389298

  17. Significance of redox-active cysteines in human FAD synthase isoform 2.

    PubMed

    Miccolis, Angelica; Galluccio, Michele; Nitride, Chiara; Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Ferranti, Pasquale; Iametti, Stefania; Indiveri, Cesare; Bonomi, Francesco; Barile, Maria

    2014-12-01

    FAD synthase (FMN:ATP adenylyl transferase, FMNAT or FADS, EC 2.7.7.2) is the last enzyme in the pathway converting riboflavin into FAD. In humans, FADS is localized in different subcellular compartments and exists in different isoforms. Isoform 2 (490-amino acids) is organized in two domains: the 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase domain, that is the FAD-forming catalytic domain, and one resembling a molybdopterin-binding (MPTb) domain, with a hypothetical regulatory role. hFADS2 contains ten Cys residues, seven of which located in the PAPS reductase domain, with a possible involvement either in FAD synthesis or in FAD delivery to cognate apo-flavoproteins. A homology model of the PAPS reductase domain of hFADS2 revealed a co-ordinated network among the Cys residues in this domain. In this model, C312 and C303 are very close to the flavin substrate, consistent with a significantly lowered FAD synthesis rate in C303A and C312A mutants. FAD synthesis is also inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents, suggesting the involvement of free cysteines in the hFADS2 catalytic cycle. Mass spectrometry measurements and titration with thiol reagents on wt hFADS2 and on several individual cysteine/alanine mutants allowed us to detect two stably reduced cysteines (C139 and C241, one for each protein domain), two stable disulfide bridges (C399-C402, C303-C312, both in the PAPS domain), and two unstable disulfides (C39-C50; C440-C464). Whereas the C39-C50 unstable disulfide is located in the MPTb domain and appears to have no catalytic relevance, a cysteine-based redox switch may involve formation and breakdown of a disulfide between C440 and C464 in the PAPS domain. PMID:25135855

  18. How different modes of child delivery influence abdominal muscle activities in the active straight leg raise.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yu-Jeong; Hyung, Eun-Ju; Yang, Kyung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ok

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the activities of the abdominal muscles of women who had experienced vaginal delivery in comparison with those who had experienced Cesarean childbirth. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 subjects (7 vaginal delivery, 7 Cesarean section) performed an active straight leg raise to 20 cm above the ground, and we measured the activities of the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the external oblique abdominal muscle, and the rectus abdominal muscle on both sides using electromyography. The effort required to raise the leg was scored on a Likert scale. Then, the subjects conducted maximum isometric contraction for hip joint flexion with the leg raised at 20 cm, and maximum torque and abdominal muscle activities were measured using electromyography. [Results] During the active straight leg raise, abdominal muscle activities were higher in the Cesarean section subjects. The Likert scale did not show a significant difference. The activities of the abdominal muscles and the maximum torque of the hip joint flexion at maximum isometric contraction were higher in the vaginal delivery subjects. [Conclusion] The abdominal muscles of Cesarean section subjects showed greater recruitment for maintaining pelvic stability during the active straight leg raising, but were relatively weaker when powerful force was required. Therefore, we consider that more abdominal muscle training is necessary for maintaining pelvic stability of Cesarean section subjects. PMID:25202194

  19. The antiviral activity, mechanism of action, clinical significance and resistance of abacavir in the treatment of pediatric AIDS.

    PubMed

    Melroy, Joel; Nair, Vasu

    2005-01-01

    The novel carbocyclic nucleoside, abacavir, is metabolized in cells to carbovir triphosphate which is a potent inhibitor of HIV reverse transcriptase (K(i) 0.021 microM with calf thymus DNA template primer). Abacavir exhibits potent in vitro antiviral activity against wild-type HIV-1 (IC(50) 4.0 microM, MT-4 cells) but this activity is lower than the activity of AZT (IC(50) 0.040 microM, MT-4 cells). However, there is no significant difference between the levels of activity of abacavir (IC(50) 0.26 microM) and AZT (IC(50) 0.23 microM) against clinical isolates of HIV-1. The in vitro toxicity data (CC(50)) of abacavir were: 160 microM (CEM cells); 140 microM (CD4+ CEM cells) and 110 microM (normal bone progenitor cells, BFU-E). Abacavir has been approved in the United States for the treatment of pediatric and adult HIV infection and current recommendations consist of combination therapy in children with HIV infection. Resistance to abacavir develops relatively slowly, with most of the mutations conferring minimal resistance. The M184V mutation appears to be the cornerstone of higher level resistance in regimens containing abacavir, imparting a 2-4 fold reduction in the susceptibility of HIV to abacavir. PMID:16305515

  20. Pomaglumetad methionil: no significant difference as an adjunctive treatment for patients with prominent negative symptoms of schizophrenia compared to placebo.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Virginia L; Millen, Brian A; Andersen, Scott; Kinon, Bruce J; Lagrandeur, Lisa; Lindenmayer, J P; Gomez, Juan Carlos

    2013-11-01

    This study tested whether treatment with pomaglumetad methionil (LY2140023 monohydrate), a metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 agonist compared with placebo (PBO), when added to a fixed-dose second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) demonstrated significantly greater reduction of negative symptoms, as assessed by the 16-item Negative Symptom Assessment scale (NSA-16), in patients with schizophrenia. This parallel-group, 16-week study enrolled adults with schizophrenia who were receiving standard of care (SOC) therapy, which included ≥3months treatment with one of four SGAs: aripiprazole, olanzapine, risperidone, or quetiapine. Patients received either 20mg of twice daily LY2140023 monohydrate (LY2140023) or concurrent PBO SGA. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to final visit in NSA-16 total score. Secondary measures included additional measures of efficacy, cognition, and assessments of safety. Of 352 patients screened, 167 were randomly assigned to treatment, and 110 patients completed the study. Patients treated with LY2140023 and SOC failed to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement over patients treated with PBO and SOC on NSA-16 total score at endpoint or at any point during the study (all p>0.131). Changes in secondary efficacy measures were not significantly different between groups at endpoint. With the exception of vomiting which was greater in the LY2140023 group, there were no statistically significant differences in safety and tolerability measures. This study found no benefit of adjunctive LY2140023 versus PBO for negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia receiving treatment with SOC. LY2140023 was generally well-tolerated in these patients. PMID:24035403

  1. Specific activities of antioxidative enzymes in the cochlea of guinea pigs at different stages of development.

    PubMed

    Zelck, U; Nowak, R; Karnstedt, U; Koitschev, A; Käcker, N

    1993-01-01

    Significant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were found in the cochleas of guinea pigs of different ages. The specific activities of SOD and GSH-Px (expressed as units/mg protein) increased significantly from fetal animals to animals 2 days old and then to 6-month-old animals. PMID:8369116

  2. Comparisons between Murine Polyomavirus and Simian Virus 40 Show Significant Differences in Small T Antigen Function ▿

    PubMed Central

    Andrabi, Shaida; Hwang, Justin H.; Choe, Jennifer Kean; Roberts, Thomas M.; Schaffhausen, Brian S.

    2011-01-01

    Although members of a virus family produce similar gene products, those products may have quite different functions. Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT), for example, targets p53 directly, but murine polyomavirus LT does not. SV40 small T antigen (SVST) has received considerable attention because of its ability to contribute to transformation of human cells. Here, we show that there are major differences between SVST and polyomavirus small T antigen (POLST) in their effects on differentiation, transformation, and cell survival. Both SVST and POLST induce cell cycle progression. However, POLST also inhibits differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and C2C12 myoblasts. Additionally, POLST induces apoptosis of mouse embryo fibroblasts. SVST reduces the proapoptotic transcriptional activity of FOXO1 through phosphorylation. On the other hand, SVST complements large T antigen and Ras for the transformation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs), but POLST does not. Mechanistically, the differences between SVST and POLST may lie in utilization of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). POLST binds both Aα and Aβ scaffolding subunits of PP2A while SVST binds only Aα. Knockdown of Aβ could mimic POLST-induced apoptosis. The two small T antigens can target different proteins for dephosphorylation. POLST binds and dephosphorylates substrates, such as lipins, that SVST does not. PMID:21835797

  3. Global Genomic Analysis of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas Reveals Significant Molecular Differences Compared to Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Stefan; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Crippa, Stefano; Deshpande, Vikram; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Warshaw, Andrew L.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Iafrate, A. John

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs) have a different genetic background compared with ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Summary Background Data The biologic and clinical behavior of IPMNs and IPMN-associated adenocarcinomas is different from PDAC in having a less aggressive tumor growth and significantly improved survival. Up to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical behavior of IPMNs are incompletely understood. Methods 128 cystic pancreatic lesions were prospectively identified during the course of 2 years. From the corresponding surgical specimens, 57 IPMNs were separated and subdivided by histologic criteria into those with low-grade dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and invasive cancer. Twenty specimens were suitable for DNA isolation and subsequent performance of array CGH. Results While none of the IPMNs with low-grade dysplasia displayed detectable chromosomal aberrations, IPMNs with moderate and high-grade dysplasia showed frequent copy number alterations. Commonly lost regions were located on chromosome 5q, 6q, 10q, 11q, 13q, 18q, and 22q. The incidence of loss of chromosome 5q, 6q, and 11q was significantly higher in IPMNs with high-grade dysplasia or invasion compared with PDAC. Ten of 13 IPMNs with moderate dysplasia or malignancy had loss of part or all of chromosome 6q, with a minimal deleted region between linear positions 78.0 and 130.0. Conclusions This study is the first to use array CGH to characterize IPMNs. Recurrent cytogenetic alterations were identified and were different than those described in PDAC. Array CGH may help distinguish between these 2 entities and give insight into the differences in their biology and prognosis. PMID:19247032

  4. Significance of Plasma Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Activity as an Index of Sympathetic Neuronal Function

    PubMed Central

    Reid, John L.; Kopin, Irwin J.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma norepinephrine and dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) activity were measured in rats. Adrenergic neuron blockade with bretylium for 4 hr and ganglion blockade with chlorisondamine for 72 hr lowered plasma norepinephrine. Neither treatment altered plasma dopamine β-hydroxylase activity. Phenoxybenzamine for up to 48 hr markedly raised plasma norepinephrine and transiently lowered plasma dopamine β-hydroxylase at 24 hr. Prolonged pharmacological modification of sympathetic nervous activity and plasma norepinephrine were not attended by parallel changes in circulating dopamine β-hydroxylase activity. Plasma dopamine β-hydroxylase activity does not appear to be a sensitive index of prolonged alterations in sympathetic neural activity. Norepinephrine in plasma, however, appears to reflect sensitively and accurately the rate of release of the neurotransmitter. PMID:4530990

  5. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth. PMID:26788316

  6. Hydrogenase activity in aged, nonviable Desulfovibrio vulgaris cultures and its significance in anaerobic biocorrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Chatelus, C.; Carrier, P.; Saignes, P.; Libert, M.F.; Berlier, Y.; Lespinat, P.A.; Fauque, G.; Legall, J.

    1987-07-01

    Batch cultures of Desulfovibrio vulgaris stored at 32 degrees C for 10 months have been found to retain 50% of the hydrogenase activity of a 1-day culture. The hydrogenase found in old cultures needs reducing conditions for its activation. Viable cell counts are negative after 6 months, showing that the hydrogenase activity does not depend on the presence of viable cells. These observations are of importance in the understanding of anaerobic biocorrosion of metals caused by depolarization phenomena. (Refs. 16).

  7. Gender difference in electrical brain activity during presentation of various film excerpts with different emotional content.

    PubMed

    Dimpfel, W; Wedekind, W; Keplinger, I

    2003-05-30

    Electrical activity of the human brain has been monitored using socalled charge mode (Laplacian estimates) during the exposure with short video film excerpts of 7 min duration. Eighty subjects (50% male and female) watched 5 different film excerpts (disney, animal, comedy, erotic and sex scenes) separated by 3 min pause. Comparison to a reference period of 7 min without video exposure revealed strong decreases in alpha and beta power starting from the electrode position T6 (right temporal) and spread to other brain areas with stronger attentional stimuli e.g. during the erotic and sex films. Highly statistically significant differences were observed between male and female in temporal areas, who in general developed stronger decreases than males. Females on the other hand produced significant increases in fronto-central delta and theta power which could be interpreted as expression of higher appreciation, whereas the decreases in alpha power in general are understood as signs of higher attention. The data are further proof that recording the computer aided quantitative EEG is a very fruitful and promising approach in psychophysiology. PMID:12844473

  8. Breadth and Intensity: Salient, Separable, and Developmentally Significant Dimensions of Structured Youth Activity Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, an impressive volume of evidence has accumulated demonstrating that youth involvement in structured, organized activities (e.g. school sports, community clubs) may facilitate positive youth development. We present a theory-based framework for studying structured activity involvement (SAI) as a context for positive youth…

  9. Analyzing Relationship Between Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) with Different Types of Neuropathy: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Shahzaib; Kahlon, Pushpinderdeep; Bozorgnia, Farshid; Arshad, Adeel; Saleem, Akmam; Kuriakose, Philip

    2016-06-01

    To analyze multiple variables, including immunoglobulin subtypes in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and different types of neuropathy. This was a retrospective, single center study done in a tertiary care hospital in the United States. The data was collected for years 2001-2011. Inclusion criteria were the presence of MGUS and neuropathy. Exclusion criteria were the presence of other factors such as diabetes, vitamin B12 deficiency, alcoholism etc. which can cause neuropathy. Patients with IgM MGUS were compared with patients having Non-IgM MGUS. A total of 281 patients were analyzed in this study. The average age at the time of diagnosis of MGUS and neuropathy was 68 years. The most common type of neuropathy was sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy (46 %). The most common location of neuropathy was the lower extremities (68 %). Among our patients, 52 % had their neuropathy symptoms for 1-5 years before presenting to the clinic. When IgM MGUS was compared with Non-IgM MGUS, a statistically significant difference was found in terms of race (White vs. Others, OR 4.43, 95 % CI 2.13, 9.19, p < 0.001) and survival status (OR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.01, 3.90, p = 0.046). Patients with MGUS are prone to develop different types of neuropathies. Caucasians are more likely to have IgM MGUS as compared to other races. IgM MGUS is generally related to worse outcomes as compared to Non-IgM MGUS. Medical therapies, including gabapentin and pregabalin are effective treatments and the response rate can be as high as 80-90 % with these medications. PMID:27065581

  10. Sex differences in social cognitive factors and physical activity in Korean college students

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Yi; Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Eun-Ju

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined sex differences in physical activity and social cognitive theory factors in Korean college students. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional survey of 688 college students (285 men and 403 women) in Korea was conducted using a self-reported questionnaire. [Results] There was a significant difference in the level of physical activity between male and female students. The significant predictors of physical activity for male students were physical activity goals, physical activity self-efficacy, and sitting time. Meanwhile, those for female students were perceived weight, physical activity goal, physical activity outcome expectations, and sitting time. [Conclusion] Sex differences should be considered when developing interventions to increase physical activity. PMID:26180293

  11. Expression of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli map is significantly different than that of other type III secreted effectors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mai; Rizvi, Jason; Hecht, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded effectors EspF and Map are multifunctional and have an impact on the tight junction barrier while the non-LEE-encoded proteins NleH1 and NleH2 possess significant anti-inflammatory activity. In order to address the temporal expression of these important genes in vivo, their promoters were cloned upstream of the luxCDABE operon, and luciferase expression was measured in EPEC-infected mice by bioluminescence using an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). Bioluminescent images of living mice, of excised whole intestines, and of whole intestines longitudinally opened and washed were assessed. The majority of bioluminescent bacteria localized in the cecum by 3 h postinfection, indicating that the cecum is not only a major colonization site of EPEC but also a site of EPEC effector gene expression in mice. espF, nleH1, and nleH2 were abundantly expressed over the course of infection. In contrast, map expression was suppressed at 2 days postinfection, and at 4 days postinfection it was totally abolished. After 2 to 4 days postinfection, when map is suppressed, EPEC colonization is significantly reduced, indicating that map may be one of the factors required to maintain EPEC colonization. This was confirmed in a competitive colonization study and in two models of chronic infection, repeated exposure to ketamine and Citrobacter rodentium infection. Our data suggest that map expression contributes to the maintenance of EPEC colonization. PMID:25312947

  12. Straightforward conversion of decoquinate into inexpensive tractable new derivatives with significant antimalarial activities.

    PubMed

    Beteck, Richard M; Coertzen, Dina; Smit, Frans J; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Haynes, Richard K; N'Da, David D

    2016-07-01

    As part of a programme aimed at identifying rational new triple drug combinations for treatment of malaria, tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis, we have selected quinolones as one component, given that selected examples exhibit exceptionally good activities against the causative pathogens of the foregoing diseases. The quinolone decoquinate (DQ), an old and inexpensive coccidiostat, displays anti-malarial activity in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). However, because of its exceedingly poor solubility in water or organic solvents, development of DQ as a drug is problematical. We have therefore converted DQ in straightforward fashion into tractable new derivatives that display good activities in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive NF54 and multidrug-resistant K1 and W2 Pf, and relatively low toxicities against human fibroblast cells. The most active compound, the N-acetyl derivative 30, is 5-fold more active than DQ against NF54 and K1 and equipotent with DQ against W2. It possesses an activity profile against all strains comparable with that of the artemisinin derivative artesunate. Overall, this compound and the other accessible and active derivatives serve as an attractive template for development of new and economic lead quinolones. PMID:27210430

  13. Ranking of stimuli that evoked memories in significant others after exposure to circumcerebral magnetic fields: correlations with ambient geomagnetic activity.

    PubMed

    Booth, J N; Charette, J C; Persinger, M A

    2002-10-01

    To identify means to enhance the laboratory production of alleged paranormal phenomena, 15 pairs of men and women involved emotionally were tested by male and female experimenters who were not familiar with the hypothesis that ambient (geomagnetic) activity could modulate this production. While the female of the pair was exposed to six different patterns of complex magnetic fields designed to affect states of consciousness, the male wrote his reminiscences about shared experiences evoked by a postcard randomly selected from a collection of five. Increased global geomagnetic activity (k values between 0 and 5) at the time of the experiments was significantly and moderately correlated with the more accurate ranking of the stimulus cards. These results were similar to those of a previous study. We suggest that alleged paranormal phenomena involve processes that might be produced by experimentally altering the electroencephalographic correlates of consciousness with circumcerebral applications of counterclockwise weak magnetic fields. However, these processes may be enhanced if global geomagnetic activity is increasing during the periods of exposure. PMID:12434850

  14. The Significance of Turning Passive Into Active in Control Mastery Theory

    PubMed Central

    FOREMAN, STEVEN A.

    1996-01-01

    Turning passive into active was first described by Freud but was later given expanded importance by Weiss. This new conceptualization of turning passive into active as an interpersonal communication and test has made a major contribution to the clinical treatment of difficult patients. This article reviews "control mastery" theory and puts its notion of passive-into-active testing into perspective with regard to Freud’s original conception as well as other conceptions, such as identification with the aggressor and projective identification. Formulation and the treatment of patients are illustrated with clinical examples. PMID:22700271

  15. Activities of N-mineralization enzymes associated with soil aggregates in three different tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil enzymes released by microorganisms play a significant role in N mineralization process that determines N availability for plant growth. Soil aggregates of different sizes provide diverse microhabitats for microorganisms and therefore influence soil enzyme activities. We hypothesize that enzyme ...

  16. Increase of electrodermal activity of heart meridian during physical exercise: the significance of electrical values in acupuncture and diagnostic importance.

    PubMed

    Pontarollo, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Bellavite, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Electric field measurements of skin potential and electrical currents are physiological indicators of electrodermal activity (EDA) and have been associated with a variety of sensory, cognitive and emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the EDA at some hand acupoints before, during and after a physical exercise. EDA of eight points located at the corner of fingernails of hands was measured in 10 healthy young volunteers before, during and after a 14-min acute exercise in a bicycle ergometer. In pre-exercise resting state the parameters were stable and similar between the 8 different tested points, while during exercise a significant increase of current (from 1000-2000 to 4000-8000 nA) was observed, with the maximal values related to the point located on the ulnar side of the little finger, at the base of the nail, corresponding to the Shao chong (HT9) of heart meridian. PMID:20621275

  17. Rotation, locomotor activity and individual differences in voluntary ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, D M; Crosley, K J; Keller, R W; Glick, S D; Carlson, J N

    1999-03-27

    Spontaneous turning behavior and locomotor activity were evaluated for their ability to predict differences in the voluntary consumption of ethanol in male Long-Evans rats. Animals were assessed for their preferred direction of turning behavior and for high vs. low levels of spontaneous locomotor activity, as determined during nocturnal testing in a rotometer. Subsequently, preference for a 10% ethanol solution vs. water was determined in a 24-h two-bottle home-cage free-choice paradigm. Rats exhibiting a right-turning preference consumed more ethanol than rats showing a left-turning preference. While locomotor activity alone did not predict differences in drinking, turning and locomotor activity together predicted differences in ethanol consumption. Low-activity right-turning rats consumed more ethanol than all the other groups of rats. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that individual differences in turning behavior are accompanied by different asymmetries in dopamine (DA) function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Individual differences in locomotor activity are associated with differences in nucleus accumbens (NAS) DA function. The present data suggest that variations in mPFC DA asymmetry and NAS DA function may underlie differences in the voluntary consumption of ethanol. PMID:10095014

  18. Significant geomagnetic differences in both phase and amplitude observed at "conjugate" polar latitudes near the December 1903 Solstice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Alv; Deehr, Charles

    2014-05-01

    During Roald Amundsen's exploration of the Northwest Passage (1903-1906) he conducted systematic measurements of diurnal and seasonal variations of the north magnetic dip pole (NMDP) at Gjøahavn (~ 68 N, 95 E). The NMDP variations have been largely interpreted as indicating control by the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF); the Svalgard-Mansurov (S-M) effect. In Sir Robert Scott's Discovery expedition, geomagnetic observations were made in 1903 from Cape Armitage, Antarctica (~78 S, 168 E). Unwittingly, the measurements of Amundsen and Scott were acquired near conjugate ends of the same magnetic field lines. While their separation in solar local time is ~ 5 hours, they differ in magnetic local time less than 1/2 hour. However, up to this time no direct comparison of the two sets of magnetic observations has ever been made. This presentation contains an analysis of magnetic perturbations observed at both locations for comparison with contemporary and present day monthly-averaged diurnal variations, even if the overlap in data among these expeditions is somewhat limited. The near magnetic conjugacy of Gjøahavn- Cape Armitage locations makes these measurements valuable. Our analysis shows: (1) While similar variations appeared at both ends of the joining magnetic field they manifest significant differences in both phase and amplitude, (2) present day NMDP variations appear consistent with the S-M effect analyses when compared with satellite measurements of solar wind/IMF measurements, (3) differences at the "conjugate" locations cannot be explained in terms of the S-M effect alone. The roles of lobe cell and ionospheric conductance at polar magnetically "conjugate" locations are used to explain the observed phase and amplitude differences.

  19. Differences in Water Vapor Radiative Transfer among 1D Models Can Significantly Affect the Inner Edge of the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Leconte, Jérémy; Wolf, Eric T.; Goldblatt, Colin; Feldl, Nicole; Merlis, Timothy; Wang, Yuwei; Koll, Daniel D. B.; Ding, Feng; Forget, François; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2016-08-01

    An accurate estimate of the inner edge of the habitable zone is critical for determining which exoplanets are potentially habitable and for designing future telescopes to observe them. Here, we explore differences in estimating the inner edge among seven one-dimensional radiative transfer models: two line-by-line codes (SMART and LBLRTM) as well as five band codes (CAM3, CAM4_Wolf, LMDG, SBDART, and AM2) that are currently being used in global climate models. We compare radiative fluxes and spectra in clear-sky conditions around G and M stars, with fixed moist adiabatic profiles for surface temperatures from 250 to 360 K. We find that divergences among the models arise mainly from large uncertainties in water vapor absorption in the window region (10 μm) and in the region between 0.2 and 1.5 μm. Differences in outgoing longwave radiation increase with surface temperature and reach 10–20 W m‑2 differences in shortwave reach up to 60 W m‑2, especially at the surface and in the troposphere, and are larger for an M-dwarf spectrum than a solar spectrum. Differences between the two line-by-line models are significant, although smaller than among the band models. Our results imply that the uncertainty in estimating the insolation threshold of the inner edge (the runaway greenhouse limit) due only to clear-sky radiative transfer is ≈10% of modern Earth’s solar constant (i.e., ≈34 W m‑2 in global mean) among band models and ≈3% between the two line-by-line models. These comparisons show that future work is needed that focuses on improving water vapor absorption coefficients in both shortwave and longwave, as well as on increasing the resolution of stellar spectra in broadband models.

  20. Biological Significance of Local TGF-β Activation in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Sakai, Takao

    2012-01-01

    The cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a pivotal role in a diverse range of cellular responses, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion, angiogenesis, stimulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis, and downregulation of ECM degradation. TGF-β and its receptors are ubiquitously expressed by most cell types and tissues in vivo. In intact adult tissues and organs, TGF-β is secreted in a biologically inactive (latent) form associated in a non-covalent complex with the ECM. In response to injury, local latent TGF-β complexes are converted into active TGF-β according to a tissue- and injury type-specific activation mechanism. Such a well and tightly orchestrated regulation in TGF-β activity enables an immediate, highly localized response to type-specific tissue injury. In the pathological process of liver fibrosis, TGF-β plays as a master profibrogenic cytokine in promoting activation and myofibroblastic differentiation of hepatic stellate cells, a central event in liver fibrogenesis. Continuous and/or persistent TGF-β signaling induces sustained production of ECM components and of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase synthesis. Therefore, the regulation of locally activated TGF-β levels is increasingly recognized as a therapeutic target for liver fibrogenesis. This review summarizes our present knowledge of the activation mechanisms and bioavailability of latent TGF-β in biological and pathological processes in the liver. PMID:22363291

  1. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle. PMID:26319996

  2. [Plasminogen activator system and its clinical significance in patients with a malignant disease].

    PubMed

    Halámková, J; Kiss, I; Tomásek, J; Pavlovský, Z; Cech, Z; Tutek, S; Hanáková, L; Moulis, M; Penka, M

    2011-01-01

    Urokinase (uPA) plays an essential role in the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, a serine protease participating in the activation of matrixmetaloproteinases, latent elastases, growth factors and cytokines involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix elements. Together with its receptor (uPAR), tissue activator (tPA) and urokinase inhibitors (PAI-1, PAI-2, PAI-3 and protease nexin), it forms the plasminogen activator system (PAS), a component of metastatic cascade importantly contributing to the invasive growth and angiogenesis of malignant tumours. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 inhibits uPA-dependent invasiveness of some cancer cell lines. The vitronectin-PAI-1 complex inhibits migration of smooth muscle cells by binding alpha(v)beta3 integrin to vitronectin. PAI-1 or its deficiency interferes with signalling pathways such as PI3K/Akt and JAK/STAT and it is included in the processes of maintaining the integrity of the endothelial cells and thereby regulation of cell death. PAI-1 affects apoptosis by reducing cell adhesion and functioning of intracellular signalling pathways. The individual components of PAS undoubtedly play an important role in angiogenesis and metastasising of malignant tumours. In the near future, results of published studies with various types of cancer could be reflected in diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms and, at the same time, could serve as the goal for targeted therapies. PMID:22257230

  3. Significant role of climatic trends on hydrothermal activity Coso Hot Springs, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lofgren, B.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The hydrothermal features of Coso Hot Springs have attracted visitors for 130 yr and scientific investigators for two decades. In 1978, anticipating effects of major geothermal developments nearby, the Naval Weapons Center (NWC) initiated a comprehensive monitoring program at a dozen hydrothermal sites in the Coso Hot Springs area. Nine years of monitoring preceded power production in the nearby Coso geothermal field in July 1987. During this period, steam was rising from numerous vents and gently boiling mud pots. Local rainfall caused increased boiling activity in several mud pots, with some overflowing during wet periods. Then in August 1988, a year after geothermal power production began major changes in hot spring activity commenced. Small mud pots and steamers started to grow and coalesce. In March 1989, mud-pot activity became more violent. Many buried wells failed causing surface activity in other areas to diminish. During ensuing months, large mud cones developed and much of the steam and boiling water occurred in a few major pots. Because the abrupt changes in hydrothermal activity followed so closely after nearby geothermal production began, the obvious cause has been attributed to geothermal developments. Studies of NWC baseline monitoring data indicate, however, that no effects of geothermal developments have been felt in the hot springs area. Rainfall and barometric effects account for most of the fluctuations in records of the past decade. Early accounts and field evidence suggest similar changes have occurred in the past.

  4. Protopanaxadiol, an Active Ginseng Metabolite, Significantly Enhances the Effects of Fluorouracil on Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Zhiyu; Wan, Jin-Yi; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Anderson, Samantha; He, Xin; Yu, Chunhao; He, Tong-Chuan; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of protopanaxadiol (PPD), a gut microbiome induced ginseng metabolite, in increasing the anticancer effects of a chemotherapeutic agent fluorouracil (5-FU) on colorectal cancer. An in vitro HCT-116 colorectal cancer cell proliferation test was conducted to observe the effects of PPD, 5-FU and their co-administration and the related mechanisms of action. Then, an in vivo xenografted athymic mouse model was used to confirm the in vitro data. Our results showed that the human gut microbiome converted ginsenoside compound K to PPD as a metabolite. PPD and 5-FU significantly inhibited HCT-116 cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner (both p < 0.01), and the effects of 5-FU were very significantly enhanced by combined treatment with PPD (p < 0.01). Cell cycle evaluation demonstrated that 5-FU markedly induced the cancer cell S phase arrest, while PPD increased arrest in G1 phase. Compared to the control, 5-FU and PPD increased apoptosis, and their co-administration significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells (p < 0.01). Using bioluminescence imaging, in vivo data revealed that 5-FU significantly reduced the tumor growth up to Day 20 (p < 0.05). PPD and 5-FU co-administration very significantly reduced the tumor size in a dose-related manner (p < 0.01 compared to the 5-FU alone). The quantification of the tumor size and weight changes for 43 days supported the in vivo imaging data. Our results demonstrated that the co-administration of PPD and 5-FU significantly inhibited the tumor growth, indicating that PPD significantly enhanced the anticancer action of 5-FU, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. PPD may have a clinical value in 5-FU’s cancer therapeutics. PMID:25625815

  5. A single residue substitution accounts for the significant difference in thermostability between two isoforms of human cytosolic creatine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huihui; Gao, Yan-Song; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Chen, Zhe; Zhou, Hai-Meng; Yan, Yong-Bin; Gong, Haipeng

    2016-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) helps maintain homeostasis of intracellular ATP level by catalyzing the reversible phosphotransfer between ATP and phosphocreatine. In humans, there are two cytosolic CK isoforms, the muscle-type (M) and the brain-type (B), which frequently function as homodimers (hMMCK and hBBCK). Interestingly, these isoenzymes exhibit significantly different thermostabilities, despite high similarity in amino acid sequences and tertiary structures. In order to investigate the mechanism of this phenomenon, in this work, we first used domain swapping and site-directed mutagenesis to search for the key residues responsible for the isoenzyme-specific thermostability. Strikingly, the difference in thermostability was found to principally arise from one single residue substitution at position 36 (Pro in hBBCK vs. Leu in hMMCK). We then engaged the molecular dynamics simulations to study the molecular mechanism. The calculations imply that the P36L substitution introduces additional local interactions around residue 36 and thus further stabilizes the dimer interface through a complex interaction network, which rationalizes the observation that hMMCK is more resistant to thermal inactivation than hBBCK. We finally confirmed this molecular explanation through thermal inactivation assays on Asp36 mutants that were proposed to devastate the local interactions and thus the dimer associations in both isoenzymes. PMID:26879258

  6. Bedroom design and decoration: gender differences in preference and activity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Randall M; Taylor, Denise E; Dick, Andrew J; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social institutions. Gender differences were identified for preference, activity, and influence in bedroom design and decoration. Girls and boys differed in the type of items contained in their bedrooms. Girls' rooms contained stuffed animals and pictures of people, including themselves, more frequently than the boys' rooms. In contrast, boys' rooms contained sports-related items, and things for building or that they had built themselves. Although bedroom design activity for both boys and girls was influenced by older teens, friends, media, and popular culture, boys (but not girls) were also influenced by their mothers, fathers, girlfriends, and activities such as sports, Boy or Girl Scouts, and music lessons. PMID:18047237

  7. Differences in Muscle Activity between Natural Forefoot and Rearfoot Strikers during Running

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Jennifer R.; Silder, Amy; Delp, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Running research has focused on reducing injuries by changing running technique. One proposed method is to change from rearfoot striking (RFS) to forefoot striking (FFS) because FFS is thought to be a more natural running pattern that may reduce loading and injury risk. Muscle activity affects loading and influences running patterns; however, the differences in muscle activity between natural FFS runners and natural RFS runners are unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure muscle activity in natural FFS runners and natural RFS runners. We tested the hypotheses that tibialis anterior activity would be significantly lower while activity of the plantarflexors would be significantly greater in FFS runners, compared to RFS runners, during late swing phase and early stance phase. Gait kinematics, ground reaction forces and electromyographic patterns of ten muscles were collected from twelve natural RFS runners and ten natural FFS runners. The root mean square (RMS) of each muscle’s activity was calculated during terminal swing phase and early stance phase. We found significantly lower RMS activity in the tibialis anterior in FFS runners during terminal swing phase, compared to RFS runners. In contrast, the medial and lateral gastrocnemius showed significantly greater RMS activity in terminal swing phase in FFS runners. No significant differences were found during early stance phase for the tibialis anterior or the plantarflexors. Recognizing the differences in muscle activity between FFS and RFS runners is an important step toward understanding how foot strike patterns may contribute to different types of injury. PMID:25458201

  8. Metal Toxicity Affects Fungal and Bacterial Activities in Soil Differently

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, R. M. C. P.; Tobor-Kapłon, M. A; Bååth, E.

    2004-01-01

    Although the toxic effect of heavy metals on soil microorganism activity is well known, little is known about the effects on different organism groups. The influence of heavy metal addition on total, bacterial, and fungal activities was therefore studied for up to 60 days in a laboratory experiment using forest soil contaminated with different concentrations of Zn or Cu. The effects of the metals differed between the different activity measurements. During the first week after metal addition, the total activity (respiration rate) decreased by 30% at the highest level of contamination and then remained stable during the 60 days of incubation. The bacterial activity (thymidine incorporation rate) decreased during the first days with the level of metal contamination, resulting in a 90% decrease at the highest level of contamination. Bacterial activity then slowly recovered to values similar to those of the control soil. The recovery was faster when soil pH, which had decreased due to metal addition, was restored to control values by liming. Fungal activity (acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation rate) initially increased with the level of metal contamination, being up to 3 and 7 times higher than that in the control samples during the first week at the highest levels of Zn and Cu addition, respectively. The positive effect of metal addition on fungal activity then decreased, but fungal activity was still higher in contaminated than in control soil after 35 days. This is the first direct evidence that fungal and bacterial activities in soil are differently affected by heavy metals. The different responses of bacteria and fungi to heavy metals were reflected in an increase in the relative fungal/bacterial ratio (estimated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis) with increased metal load. PMID:15128558

  9. Metal toxicity affects fungal and bacterial activities in soil differently.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, R M C P; Tobor-Kapłon, M A; Bååth, E

    2004-05-01

    Although the toxic effect of heavy metals on soil microorganism activity is well known, little is known about the effects on different organism groups. The influence of heavy metal addition on total, bacterial, and fungal activities was therefore studied for up to 60 days in a laboratory experiment using forest soil contaminated with different concentrations of Zn or Cu. The effects of the metals differed between the different activity measurements. During the first week after metal addition, the total activity (respiration rate) decreased by 30% at the highest level of contamination and then remained stable during the 60 days of incubation. The bacterial activity (thymidine incorporation rate) decreased during the first days with the level of metal contamination, resulting in a 90% decrease at the highest level of contamination. Bacterial activity then slowly recovered to values similar to those of the control soil. The recovery was faster when soil pH, which had decreased due to metal addition, was restored to control values by liming. Fungal activity (acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation rate) initially increased with the level of metal contamination, being up to 3 and 7 times higher than that in the control samples during the first week at the highest levels of Zn and Cu addition, respectively. The positive effect of metal addition on fungal activity then decreased, but fungal activity was still higher in contaminated than in control soil after 35 days. This is the first direct evidence that fungal and bacterial activities in soil are differently affected by heavy metals. The different responses of bacteria and fungi to heavy metals were reflected in an increase in the relative fungal/bacterial ratio (estimated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis) with increased metal load. PMID:15128558

  10. The Social and Economic Significance of Recreation Activities in the Marine Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditton, Robert B.

    Although the data obtained by an Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission in 1960 indicated that 44 percent of participants in outdoor recreation prefer water-based activities, the potential demand for recreation within the coastal zone is much greater than that study indicates, because the unfulfilled recreational demands of the urban…

  11. The Measurement of Brain Electrical Activity and Its Significance to the Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torello, Michael W.

    The article discusses the measurement of brain electrical activity and, in particular, the examination of electroencephalographic (EEG) data, as providing useful information in the diagnosis of dyslexia and other learning disabilities. Topographic imaging of EEG (TIE) is described as a procedure which provides functional data at comparatively low…

  12. Significant Centers of Tectonic Activity as Identified by Wrinkle Ridges for the Western Hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R.C.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Golombek, M. P.; Franklin, B. J.; Dohm, J. M.; Lias, J.

    2000-01-01

    The western hemisphere region of Mars has been the site of numerous scientific investigations regarding its tectonic evolution. For this region of Mars, the dominant tectonic region is the Tharsis province. Tharsis is characterized by an enormous system of radiating grabens and a circumferential system of wrinkle ridges. Past investigations of grabens associated with Tharsis have identified specific centers of tectonic activity. A recent structural analysis of the western hemisphere region of Mars which includes the Tharsis region, utilized 25,000 structures to determine the history of local and regional centers of tectonic activity based primarily on the spatial and temporal relationships of extensional features. This investigation revealed that Tharsis is more structurally complex (heterogeneous) than has been previously identified: it consists of numerous regional and local centers of tectonic activity (some are more dominant and/or more long lived than others). Here we use the same approach as Anderson et al. to determine whether the centers of tectonic activity that formed the extensional features also contributed to wrinkle ridge (compressional) formation.

  13. Using the Significant Learning Taxonomy and Active Learning to Improve Accounting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Larita J.; Brandon, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Like other members of the academy, accounting professors are challenged to improve student learning. We must help students move beyond the "bean counter" role and develop higher-level skills such as analysis, synthesis, and problem-solving. The Significant Learning Taxonomy was used as a template to improve learning in an introductory accounting…

  14. Race and Sex Differences in College Student Physical Activity Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Laura H.; Raedeke, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess sex/race differences on psychosocial correlates of physical activity among college students. Methods: Survey research protocol. Results: Students (n = 636) exercised an average of 3.5 days per week, with black females being the least active. Across subgroups, health/fitness was rated as the most important motive for exercise,…

  15. Developing Intercultural Competencies Using Activities with Different Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana; Ciascai, Liliana; Saial, Joaquim

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present some activities with multimedia, which can be used in intercultural education. The first part of the article presents those intercultural competencies, which have to be developed by the teacher. The second part presents some activities using different types of media for intercultural education purposes. All of…

  16. Bedroom Design and Decoration: Gender Differences in Preference and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.; Taylor, Denise E.; Dick, Andrew J.; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social…

  17. Significantly enhancing supercapacitive performance of nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheet electrodes by phosphoric acid activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Jin, Yongdong

    2014-02-12

    In this work, we present a new method to synthesize the phosphorus, nitrogen contained graphene nanosheets, which uses dicyandiamide to prevent the aggregation of graphene oxide and act as the nitrogen precursor, and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) as the activation reagent. We have found that through the H3PO4 activation, the samples exhibit the remarkably enhanced supercapacitive performance, and depending on the amount of H3PO4 introduced, the specific capacitance of the samples is gradually increased from 7.6 to 244.6 F g(-1). Meanwhile, the samples also exhibit the good rate capability and excellent stability (up to 10 000 cycles). Through the transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses, H3PO4 treatment induced large pore volume and phosphorus related function groups in the product are assumed to response for the enhancement. PMID:24456232

  18. Molecular and functional significance of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Abigail S.; Ayon, Ramon J.; Wiwchar, Michael; Angermann, Jeff E.; Pritchard, Harry A. T.; Singer, Cherie A.; Valencik, Maria L.; Britton, Fiona; Greenwood, Iain A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased peripheral resistance of small distal pulmonary arteries is a hallmark signature of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and is believed to be the consequence of enhanced vasoconstriction to agonists, thickening of the arterial wall due to remodeling, and increased thrombosis. The elevation in arterial tone in PH is attributable, at least in part, to smooth muscle cells of PH patients being more depolarized and displaying higher intracellular Ca2+ levels than cells from normal subjects. It is now clear that downregulation of voltage-dependent K+ channels (e.g., Kv1.5) and increased expression and activity of voltage-dependent (Cav1.2) and voltage-independent (e.g., canonical and vanilloid transient receptor potential [TRPC and TRPV]) Ca2+ channels play an important role in the functional remodeling of pulmonary arteries in PH. This review focuses on an anion-permeable channel that is now considered a novel excitatory mechanism in the systemic and pulmonary circulations. It is permeable to Cl− and is activated by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+-activated Cl− channel, or CaCC). The first section outlines the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the channel and ends with a description of the molecular candidate genes postulated to encode for CaCCs, with particular emphasis on the bestrophin and the newly discovered TMEM16 and anoctamin families of genes. The second section provides a review of the various sources of Ca2+ activating CaCCs, which include stimulation by mobilization from intracellular Ca2+ stores and Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent and voltage-independent Ca2+ channels. The third and final section summarizes recent findings that suggest a potentially important role for CaCCs and the gene TMEM16A in PH. PMID:26064450

  19. Therapeutic significance and pharmacological activities of antidiarrheal medicinal plants mention in Ayurveda: A review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ashish; Seth, Ankit; Maurya, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is a serious problem affecting 3-5 billion people per year around the world, especially children of below 5 years. 70% of the world population uses traditional and indigenous medicine for their primary health care. The facts of these indigenous remedies are passed verbally and sometimes as documents. Since ancient time, Ayurveda is the main system of healing in South East Asian countries. Indian literature from ayurvedic texts and other books claim the potency of several plants in the treatment of diarrhea. As the global prospective of ayurvedic medicine is increasing, interest regarding the scientific basis of their action is parallely increasing. Researchers are doing experiments to establish the relation between the claimed action and observed pharmacological activities. In the present article, an attempt was made to compile the scientific basis of medicinal plants used to cure diarrhea in Ayurveda. Literature was collected via electronic search (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Medline, and Google Scholar) from published articles that reports antidiarrheal activity of plants that were mentioned in Ayurveda classics. A total of 109 plant species belonging to 58 families were reported for their antidiarrheal activity. Several Indian medicinal plants have demonstrated promising antidiarrheal effects, but the studies on the antidiarrheal potentials of these plants are not taken beyond proof of concept stage. It is hoped that the article would stimulate future clinical studies because of the paucity of knowledge in this area. PMID:27366356

  20. Therapeutic significance and pharmacological activities of antidiarrheal medicinal plants mention in Ayurveda: A review

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ashish; Seth, Ankit; Maurya, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is a serious problem affecting 3-5 billion people per year around the world, especially children of below 5 years. 70% of the world population uses traditional and indigenous medicine for their primary health care. The facts of these indigenous remedies are passed verbally and sometimes as documents. Since ancient time, Ayurveda is the main system of healing in South East Asian countries. Indian literature from ayurvedic texts and other books claim the potency of several plants in the treatment of diarrhea. As the global prospective of ayurvedic medicine is increasing, interest regarding the scientific basis of their action is parallely increasing. Researchers are doing experiments to establish the relation between the claimed action and observed pharmacological activities. In the present article, an attempt was made to compile the scientific basis of medicinal plants used to cure diarrhea in Ayurveda. Literature was collected via electronic search (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Medline, and Google Scholar) from published articles that reports antidiarrheal activity of plants that were mentioned in Ayurveda classics. A total of 109 plant species belonging to 58 families were reported for their antidiarrheal activity. Several Indian medicinal plants have demonstrated promising antidiarrheal effects, but the studies on the antidiarrheal potentials of these plants are not taken beyond proof of concept stage. It is hoped that the article would stimulate future clinical studies because of the paucity of knowledge in this area. PMID:27366356

  1. Posterior parietal cortex activity reflects the significance of others' actions during natural viewing.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Juha; Glerean, Enrico; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Lahnakoski, Juha M; Kettunen, Juho; Lampinen, Jouko; Tikka, Pia; Sams, Mikko

    2014-09-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has been associated with multiple stimulus-driven (e.g., processing stimulus movements, providing visual signals for the motor system), goal-directed (e.g., directing visual attention to a target, processing behavioral priority of intentions), and action-related functions in previous studies with non-naturalistic paradigms. Here, we examined how these functions reflect PPC activity during natural viewing. Fourteen healthy volunteers watched a re-edited movie during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants separately annotated behavioral priority (accounting for percepts, thoughts, and emotions) they had experienced during movie episodes. Movements in the movie were quantified with computer vision and eye movements were recorded from a separate group of subjects. Our results show that while overlapping dorsomedial PPC areas respond to episodes with multiple types of stimulus content, ventrolateral PPC areas exhibit enhanced activity when viewing goal-directed human hand actions. Furthermore, PPC activity related to viewing goal-directed human hand actions was more accurately explained by behavioral priority than by movements of the stimulus or eye movements. Taken together, our results suggest that PPC participates in perception of goal-directed human hand actions, supporting the view that PPC has a special role in providing visual signals for the motor system ("how"), in addition to processing visual spatial movements ("where"). PMID:24706557

  2. Sulfur Use Efficiency Is a Significant Determinant of Drought Stress Tolerance in Relation to Photosynthetic Activity in Brassica napus Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bok-Rye; Zaman, Rashed; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Ourry, Alain; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the varietal difference in sulfur use efficiency (SUE) and drought stress tolerance, Brassica napus 'Mosa' and 'Saturnin' were exposed to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced drought stress for 72 h. Direct quantification of S uptake, de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins was performed by tracing (34)S. The responses of photosynthetic activity in relation to SUE were also examined. The total amount of newly absorbed S decreased with drought stress in both cultivars but the decrease rate was significantly higher in Mosa (-64%) than in Saturnin (-41%). Drought stress also decreased the amount of S assimilated into amino acids ((34)S-amino acids) and proteins ((34)S-proteins). The total amount of S incorporated into amino acids and proteins was generally higher in Saturnin (663.7 μg S per plant) than in Mosa (337.3 μg S per plant). The estimation of SUE based on S uptake (SUpE) and S assimilation (SUaE) showed that SUE was much higher in Saturnin than in Mosa. The inhibition of photosynthetic activity including Rubisco protein degradation caused by drought stress was much lower in the cultivar with higher SUE (Saturnin). The present study clearly indicates that the genotype with higher SUE is more tolerant to PEG-induced drought stress. PMID:27092167

  3. Sulfur Use Efficiency Is a Significant Determinant of Drought Stress Tolerance in Relation to Photosynthetic Activity in Brassica napus Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bok-Rye; Zaman, Rashed; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Ourry, Alain; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the varietal difference in sulfur use efficiency (SUE) and drought stress tolerance, Brassica napus ‘Mosa’ and ‘Saturnin’ were exposed to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced drought stress for 72 h. Direct quantification of S uptake, de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins was performed by tracing 34S. The responses of photosynthetic activity in relation to SUE were also examined. The total amount of newly absorbed S decreased with drought stress in both cultivars but the decrease rate was significantly higher in Mosa (-64%) than in Saturnin (-41%). Drought stress also decreased the amount of S assimilated into amino acids (34S-amino acids) and proteins (34S-proteins). The total amount of S incorporated into amino acids and proteins was generally higher in Saturnin (663.7 μg S per plant) than in Mosa (337.3 μg S per plant). The estimation of SUE based on S uptake (SUpE) and S assimilation (SUaE) showed that SUE was much higher in Saturnin than in Mosa. The inhibition of photosynthetic activity including Rubisco protein degradation caused by drought stress was much lower in the cultivar with higher SUE (Saturnin). The present study clearly indicates that the genotype with higher SUE is more tolerant to PEG-induced drought stress. PMID:27092167

  4. Bacterial-resistance among outpatients of county hospitals in China: significant geographic distinctions and minor differences between central cities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yonghong; Wei, Zeqing; Shen, Ping; Ji, Jinru; Sun, Ziyong; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Tiantuo; Ji, Ping; Ni, Yuxing; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey antibacterial resistance in outpatients of Chinese county hospitals. A total of 31 county hospitals were selected and samples continuously collected from August 2010 to August 2011. Drug sensitivity testing was conducted in a central laboratory. A total of 2946 unique isolates were collected, including 634 strains of Escherichia coli, 606 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 476 Staphylococcus aureus, 308 Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 160 Haemophilus influenzae. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases were detected in E. coli (42.3% strains), K. pneumoniae (31.7%), and Proteus mirabilis (39.0%). Ciprofloxacin-resistance was detected in 51.0% of E. coli strains. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were sensitive to most antibacterial agents. Less than 8.0% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to carbapenem. For S. aureus strains, 15.3% were resistant to methicillin, and some strains of S. pneumoniae showed resistance to penicillin (1.6%), ceftriaxone (13.0%), and erythromycin (96.4%). β-lactamase was produced by 96.5% of Moraxella catarrhalis strains, and 36.2% of H. influenzae isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Azithromycin-resistant H. influenzae, imipenem-resistant but meropenem-sensitive Proteus, and ceftriaxone- and carbapenem non-sensitive M. catarrhalis were recorded. In conclusion, cephalosporin- and quinolone-resistant strains of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia and macrolide-resistant Gram-positive cocci were relatively prominent in county hospitals. The antibacterial resistance profiles of isolates from different geographical locations varied significantly, with proportions in county hospitals lower than those in their tertiary counterparts in the central cities, although the difference is diminishing. PMID:25708671

  5. Significant Differences in Sympathetic Nerve Fiber Density Among the Facial Skin Nerves: A Histologic Study Using Human Cadaveric Specimens.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Tadatoshi; Cho, Kwang Ho; Jang, Hyung Suk; Murakami, Gen; Yamamoto, Masahito; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Sympathetic nerve fibers in the skin nerves are connected with vasomotor, thermoregulatory, sensory input modulatory, and immunologic events; however, to our knowledge, no histological information is available for skin nerves in the human face. Using specimens from 17 donated cadavers (mean age, 86 years), we measured a sectional area of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive fibers in (1) the frontal nerve (V1), (2) the infraorbital nerve (V2), (3) the mental nerve (V3), (4) the greater auricular nerve (C2), (5) the auriculotemporal nerve (ATN), and (6) the zygomatic branch of the facial nerve (VII). The V1, V2, and V3 were obtained at their entrances to the subcutaneous tissue from the bony canal or notch. The V1, C2, ATN, and/or VII usually contained abundant TH-positive fibers (almost 3%-8% of the nerve sectional area), whereas the V2 and V3 consistently carried few TH-positive fibers (<1%). The difference between these two groups was quite significant (P < 0.001). Thus, from the superior cervical ganglion, the sympathetic nerve fibers reached the forehead through the frontal nerve trunk, whereas artery-bounded fibers came to the cheek, nose, and mouth. The sympathetic palsy caused by trigeminal nerve involvement is mainly characterized by the symptoms seen in the distribution of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, such as in Horner's syndrome. It suggests that the forehead and the other facial areas are representative parts of those different sympathetic innervations that could be useful for evaluating the sympathetic function of the face in various diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1054-1059, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072367

  6. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in different maturation stages of broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica) biofortified with selenium.

    PubMed

    Bachiega, Patricia; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Schwarz, Kélin; Tezotto, Tiago; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    In this work, three different broccoli maturity stages subjected to biofortification with selenium were evaluated for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Antioxidant trials have shown that the maturation stages biofortified with selenium had significantly higher amounts of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, especially seedlings. Although non-polar extracts of all samples show antiproliferative activity, the extract of broccoli seedlings biofortified with selenium stood out, presenting cytocidal activity for a glioma line (U251, GI50 28.5 mg L(-1)). PMID:26213037

  7. Racial Differences in Congregation-Based Political Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Khari

    2006-01-01

    This study employs a resource mobilization model to explain racial differences in congregation-based political activism. The fewer resources (i.e., members, income, clergy leadership, civic ties) that black congregations possess relative to white congregations largely accounts for racial differences in congregation-based lobbying and protest…

  8. Nonexercise Activity Thermogenesis is Significantly Lower in Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Mental Disorders Than in Those Without Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Ezaki, Osamu; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity improves health in patients with mental disorders. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) represents energy expenditure due to daily physical activities other than volitional exercise. We aimed to evaluate NEAT in type 2 diabetic patients with and without accompanying mental disorders. Between September 2010 and September 2014, we studied 150 patients with type 2 diabetes, 50 of whom also had a diagnosis of mental disorder, such as schizophrenia or mood disorder. We evaluated their NEAT in structured interviews using a validated questionnaire, and investigated differences in NEAT score and metabolic parameters between patients with and without mental disorders. The NEAT score was significantly lower in patients with mental disorders than in those without (56.3 ± 9.9 vs 61.9 ± 12.1; P = 0.005). Patients with mental disorders had significantly higher triglyceride (184.5 ± 116.3 vs 146.4 ± 78.4 mg/dL; P = 0.02) and insulin levels (18.7 ± 20.1 vs 11.2 ± 8.5 μU/mL; P = 0.006), and significantly lower B-type natriuretic peptide (12.1 ± 13.3 vs 26.3 ± 24.8 pg/mL; P < 0.001) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity levels (1501 ± 371 vs 1699 ± 367 cm/s; P = 0.003) than patients without mental disorders. In patients with schizophrenia, specifically, NEAT showed a negative correlation with hemoglobin A1c levels (β = −0.493, P = 0.031), and a positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.519, P = 0.023) and B-type natriuretic peptide levels (β = 0.583, P = 0.02). Our results suggest that NEAT may be beneficial for the management of obesity, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles in patients with mental disorders. Incorporating NEAT into interventions for type 2 diabetes in patients with mental disorders, especially schizophrenia, shows promise and warrants further investigation. PMID:26765475

  9. Significant differences in the use of healthcare resources of native-born and foreign born in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Barrera, Valentin Hernández; de Andrés, Ana López; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last decade, the number of foreign residents in Spain has doubled and it has become one of the countries in the European Union with the highest number of immigrants There is no doubt that the health of the immigrant population has become a relevant subject from the point of view of public healthcare. Our study aimed at describing the potential inequalities in the use of healthcare resources and in the lifestyles of the resident immigrant population of Spain. Methods Cross-sectional, epidemiological study from the Spanish National Health Survey (NHS) in 2006, from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. We have worked with individualized secondary data, collected in the Spanish National Health Survey carried out in 2006 and 2007 (SNHS-06), from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. The format of the SNHS-06 has been adapted to the requirements of the European project for the carrying out of health surveys. Results The economic immigrant population resident in Spain, present diseases that are similar to those of the indigenous population. The immigrant population shows significantly lower values in the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and physical activity (OR = 0.76; CI 95%: 0.65–0.89, they nonetheless perceive their health condition as worse than that reported by the autochthonous population (OR = 1.63, CI 95%: 1.34–1.97). The probability of the immigrant population using emergency services in the last 12 months was significantly greater than that of the autochthonous population (OR = 1.31, CI 95%: 1.12–1.54). This situation repeats itself when analyzing hospitalization data, with values of probability of being hospitalized greater among immigrants (OR = 1.39, CI 95%: 1.07–1.81). Conclusion The economic immigrants have better parameters in relation to lifestyles, but they have a poor perception of their health. Despite the fact that immigrant population shows higher percentages of emergency attendance and hospitalization than

  10. Dissociated functional significance of decision-related activity in the primate dorsal stream.

    PubMed

    Katz, Leor N; Yates, Jacob L; Pillow, Jonathan W; Huk, Alexander C

    2016-07-14

    During decision making, neurons in multiple brain regions exhibit responses that are correlated with decisions. However, it remains uncertain whether or not various forms of decision-related activity are causally related to decision making. Here we address this question by recording and reversibly inactivating the lateral intraparietal (LIP) and middle temporal (MT) areas of rhesus macaques performing a motion direction discrimination task. Neurons in area LIP exhibited firing rate patterns that directly resembled the evidence accumulation process posited to govern decision making, with strong correlations between their response fluctuations and the animal's choices. Neurons in area MT, in contrast, exhibited weak correlations between their response fluctuations and choices, and had firing rate patterns consistent with their sensory role in motion encoding. The behavioural impact of pharmacological inactivation of each area was inversely related to their degree of decision-related activity: while inactivation of neurons in MT profoundly impaired psychophysical performance, inactivation in LIP had no measurable impact on decision-making performance, despite having silenced the very clusters that exhibited strong decision-related activity. Although LIP inactivation did not impair psychophysical behaviour, it did influence spatial selection and oculomotor metrics in a free-choice control task. The absence of an effect on perceptual decision making was stable over trials and sessions and was robust to changes in stimulus type and task geometry, arguing against several forms of compensation. Thus, decision-related signals in LIP do not appear to be critical for computing perceptual decisions, and may instead reflect secondary processes. Our findings highlight a dissociation between decision correlation and causation, showing that strong neuron-decision correlations do not necessarily offer direct access to the neural computations underlying decisions. PMID:27376476

  11. The time-dependent clearance of virulent Treponema pallidum in susceptible and resistant strains of guinea pigs is significantly different.

    PubMed

    Wicher, V; Wicher, K; Abbruscato, F; Auger, I; Rudofsky, U

    1999-04-01

    The kinetics of clearance of Treponema pallidum spp. pallidum Nichols from skin and testes of susceptible C4-deficient (C4D) and -resistant Albany (Alb) strains of guinea pigs (gps) was evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the rabbit infectivity test (RIT). For each strain there were two groups of animals, one infected with virulent T. pallidum (TP) and one control injected with heat-killed treponemes (HKTP). The kinetic studies and their statistical analysis showed that in the C4D strain the microbial clearance in both tissues was significantly slower (p < 0.005) and still incomplete at 3 months after infection. In the Alb strain the clearance was faster and apparently completed within a month. A greater permissiveness in bacterial growth in C4D compared to Alb appears to be one critical factor determining the different rate of local elimination after primary infection. In both strains there was some correlation between the severity and duration of cutaneous lesions and the local persistence of viable organisms. This correlation was not observed in testes. These studies suggest a genetic basis for the strain-specific susceptibility and resistance phenotypes in the pathogenesis of syphilis. PMID:10219257

  12. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d−1 compared to 0.118 d−1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment. PMID:25644239

  13. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d-1 compared to 0.118 d-1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment.

  14. Modest Activity of Pomalidomide in Patients with Myelofibrosis and Significant Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Daver, Naval; Shastri, Aditi; Kadia, Tapan; Quintas-Cardama, Alfonso; Jabbour, Elias; Konopleva, Marina; O’Brien, Susan; Pierce, Sherry; Zhou, Lingsha; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated single agent pomalidomide for myelofibrosis-associated anemia. First, 21 patients received pomalidomide 3.0mg/day on 21-day-on/7-day-off schedule. Due to poor tolerance the study was quickly suspended. Second, 29 patients received pomalidomide 0.5mg/day continuously. Three patients (10%) experienced clinical improvement in hemoglobin per International-Working-Group criteria (median time to response 1.6 months; median response duration 6.7 months). Ten patients were RBC-transfusion-dependent per Delphi criteria; 2 (20%) achieved RBC-transfusion-independence (time to response 0.9 months in both; response duration of 8.3 and 15 months). One grade 3/4 toxicity (neutropenia) occurred. Pomalidomide at low dose is well tolerated but has modest clinical activity in myelofibrosis. PMID:23890523

  15. Significance and function of different spinal collateral compartments following thoracic aortic surgery: immediate versus long-term flow compensation.

    PubMed

    Meffert, Philipp; Bischoff, Moritz S; Brenner, Robert; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Kari, Fabian A

    2014-05-01

    Iatrogenic paraplegia has been accompanying cardiovascular surgery since its beginning. As a result, surgeons have been developing many theories about the exact mechanisms of this devastating complication. Thus, the impact of single arteries that contribute to the spinal perfusion is one of the most discussed subjects in modern surgery. The subsequent decision of reattachment or the permanent disconnection of these intercostal arteries divides the surgical community. On the one hand, the anatomical or vascular approach pleads for the immediate reimplantation to reconstruct the anatomical situation. On the other hand, the decision of the permanent disconnection aims at avoiding stealing phenomenon away from the spinal vascular network. This spinal collateral network can be described as consisting of three components-the intraspinal and two paraspinal compartments-that feed the nutrient arteries of the spinal cord. The exact functional impact of the different compartments of the collateral network remains poorly understood. In this review, the function of the intraspinal compartment in the context of collateral network principle as an immediate emergency backup system is described. The exact structure and architectural principles of the intraspinal compartment are described. The critical parameters with regard to the risk of postoperative spinal cord ischaemia are the number of anterior radiculomedullary arteries (ARMAs) and the distance between them in relation to the longitudinal extent of aortic disease. The paraspinal network as a sleeping reserve is proposed as the long-term backup system. This sleeping reserve has to be activated by arteriogenic stimuli. These are presented briefly, and prior findings regarding arteriogenesis are discussed in the light of the collateral network concept. Finally, the role of preoperative visualization of the ARMAs in order to evaluate the risk of postoperative paraplegia is emphasized. PMID:24078102

  16. Evidence for the different physiological significance of the 6- and 2-minute walk tests in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Researchers have recently advocated for the 2-minute walk (2MW) as an alternative for the 6-minute walk (6MW) to assess long distance ambulation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). This recommendation has not been based on physiological considerations such as the rate of oxygen consumption (V·O2) over the 6MW range. Objective This study examined the pattern of change in V·O2 over the range of the 6MW in a large sample of persons with MS who varied as a function of disability status. Method Ninety-five persons with clinically-definite MS underwent a neurological examination for generating an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, and then completion of the 6MW protocol while wearing a portable metabolic unit and an accelerometer. Results There was a time main effect on V·O2 during the 6MW (p = .0001) such that V·O2 increased significantly every 30 seconds over the first 3 minutes of the 6MW, and then remained stable over the second 3 minutes of the 6MW. This occurred despite no change in cadence across the 6MW (p = .84). Conclusions The pattern of change in V·O2 indicates that there are different metabolic systems providing energy for ambulation during the 6MW in MS subjects and steady state aerobic metabolism is reached during the last 3 minutes of the 6MW. By extension, the first 3 minutes would represent a test of mixed aerobic and anaerobic work, whereas the second 3 minutes would represent a test of aerobic work during walking. PMID:22380843

  17. Relict landscapes in active mountain belts: their age, interpretation and geodynamic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Planar topographic markers have been widely used to infer the topographic and erosional history of mountain belts. During the last two decades, attention has focused on high-elevation low-relief surfaces in orogenic belts, the interpretation of which has generated considerable controversy regarding their age, mechanism of formation and tectonic or climatic significance. I will review three case studies to illustrate these issues. In the Pyrenees, high-elevation, low-relief surfaces have been mapped throughout the mountain belt and were suggested to have developed at high elevations due to significant base-level rise as a result of backfilling of the southern foreland basin, which developed under endorheic conditions between Late Eocene and Late Miocene times. Isolation of these surface remnants has been suggested to result from a more erosive climate since the Pliocene. However, an alternative study suggests that such relict landscape elements are restricted to the Eastern Pyrenees, developed at low elevations during the Miocene and were subsequently tectonically uplifted. This second hypothesis appears to be comforted by a suite of thermochronological, stratigraphic and geophysical data from the Eastern Pyrenees. We have used a thermo-kinematic model integrating the existing thermochronometry data from the central Pyrenees to constrain the amount and timing of base-level change in that area and find that, while significant filling and re-excavation of the southern flank must have occurred, the timing of exhumation is Late Miocene rather than Pliocene-Quaternary and the relationship with hypothetical relict landscape elements in the high chain remains unclear. In the western European Alps, widespread high-elevation low-relief surfaces develop close to the interface between crystalline basement and sedimentary cover in the "external crystalline massifs" (e.g., Pelvoux-Ecrins, Belledonne, Aar). These surfaces clearly appear to be lithologically controlled and to have

  18. Activation of Big Grain1 significantly improves grain size by regulating auxin transport in rice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Linchuan; Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Che, Ronghui; Xu, Fan; Hu, Bin; Liang, Chengzhen; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Jiayang; Chu, Chengcai

    2015-01-01

    Grain size is one of the key factors determining grain yield. However, it remains largely unknown how grain size is regulated by developmental signals. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a dominant mutant big grain1 (Bg1-D) that shows an extra-large grain phenotype from our rice T-DNA insertion population. Overexpression of BG1 leads to significantly increased grain size, and the severe lines exhibit obviously perturbed gravitropism. In addition, the mutant has increased sensitivities to both auxin and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an auxin transport inhibitor, whereas knockdown of BG1 results in decreased sensitivities and smaller grains. Moreover, BG1 is specifically induced by auxin treatment, preferentially expresses in the vascular tissue of culms and young panicles, and encodes a novel membrane-localized protein, strongly suggesting its role in regulating auxin transport. Consistent with this finding, the mutant has increased auxin basipetal transport and altered auxin distribution, whereas the knockdown plants have decreased auxin transport. Manipulation of BG1 in both rice and Arabidopsis can enhance plant biomass, seed weight, and yield. Taking these data together, we identify a novel positive regulator of auxin response and transport in a crop plant and demonstrate its role in regulating grain size, thus illuminating a new strategy to improve plant productivity. PMID:26283354

  19. [The significance of free radicals and antioxidants due to the load induced by sport activity].

    PubMed

    Holecek, V; Liska, J; Racek, J; Rokyta, R

    2004-01-01

    Sport performance is followed by a high production of free radicals. The main reasons are reperfusion after the previous imbalance between the increased need of the organism and the ability of blood supply by oxygen, increased production of ATP, decomposition of the cells particularly white blood cells, oxidation of the purin basis from DNA, stress, output of epinephrine release of free iron, increased temperature in the muscle and its inflammation, and the reception of free radicals from external environment. Peroxidation of lipids, proteins, DNA and other compounds follows the previous biochemical steps. Antioxidants are consumed by free radicals, antioxidative enzymes are released into blood plasma, intracellular calcium is increased, the production of nitric oxide rises, the levels of hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid increase. These penetrate through the membranes and oxidatively damage the tissues. Training improves the ability of the organism to balance the increased load of free radicals. The damage can be lowered by the application of a mixture of antioxidants, the most important are vitamin C, A, E, glutathione, selenium, carnosine, eventually bioflavonoids and ginkgo biloba. The lack of antioxidants can significantly diminish the sport performance and therefore the supplementation with antioxidants is for top sportsmen but also for aged people advisable. PMID:15709642

  20. Activation of Big Grain1 significantly improves grain size by regulating auxin transport in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linchuan; Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Che, Ronghui; Xu, Fan; Hu, Bin; Liang, Chengzhen; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Jiayang; Chu, Chengcai

    2015-09-01

    Grain size is one of the key factors determining grain yield. However, it remains largely unknown how grain size is regulated by developmental signals. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a dominant mutant big grain1 (Bg1-D) that shows an extra-large grain phenotype from our rice T-DNA insertion population. Overexpression of BG1 leads to significantly increased grain size, and the severe lines exhibit obviously perturbed gravitropism. In addition, the mutant has increased sensitivities to both auxin and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an auxin transport inhibitor, whereas knockdown of BG1 results in decreased sensitivities and smaller grains. Moreover, BG1 is specifically induced by auxin treatment, preferentially expresses in the vascular tissue of culms and young panicles, and encodes a novel membrane-localized protein, strongly suggesting its role in regulating auxin transport. Consistent with this finding, the mutant has increased auxin basipetal transport and altered auxin distribution, whereas the knockdown plants have decreased auxin transport. Manipulation of BG1 in both rice and Arabidopsis can enhance plant biomass, seed weight, and yield. Taking these data together, we identify a novel positive regulator of auxin response and transport in a crop plant and demonstrate its role in regulating grain size, thus illuminating a new strategy to improve plant productivity. PMID:26283354

  1. Individual differences in FFA activity suggest independent processing at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Isabel; Curby, Kim M; Skudlarski, Pawel; Epstein, Russell A

    2005-06-01

    The brain processes images at different spatial scales, but it is unclear how far into the visual stream different scales remain segregated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found evidence that BOLD activity in the fusiform face area (FFA) reflects computations based on separate spatial frequency inputs. When subjects perform different tasks (attend location vs. identity; attend whole vs. parts) or the same task with different stimuli (upright or inverted) with high- and low-pass images of cars and faces, individual differences in the FFA in one condition are correlated with those in the other condition. However, FFA activity in response to low-pass stimuli is independent of its response to high-pass stimuli. These results suggest that spatial scales are not integrated before the FFA and that processing in this area could support the flexible use of different sources of information present in broad-pass images. PMID:16180628

  2. Muscle Activation Differs between Three Different Knee Joint-Angle Positions during a Maximal Isometric Back Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jarbas da Silva, Josinaldo; Jon Schoenfeld, Brad; Nardi, Priscyla Silva Monteiro; Pecoraro, Silvio Luis; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria; Hartigan, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the lower limb muscles when performing a maximal isometric back squat exercise over three different positions. Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men performed an isometric back squat at three knee joint angles (20°, 90°, and 140°) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), and gluteus maximus (GM). In general, muscle activity was the highest at 90° for the three quadriceps muscles, yet differences in muscle activation between knee angles were muscle specific. Activity of the GM was significantly greater at 20° and 90° compared to 140°. The BF and ST displayed similar activation at all joint angles. In conclusion, knee position alters muscles activation of the quadriceps and gluteus maximus muscles. An isometric back squat at 90° generates the highest overall muscle activation, yet an isometric back squat at 140° generates the lowest overall muscle activation of the VL and GM only. PMID:27504484

  3. The Lipid Portion of Activated Platelet-Rich Plasma Significantly Contributes to Its Wound Healing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Hoeferlin, Lauren Alexis; Huynh, Quoc K.; Mietla, Jennifer A.; Sell, Scott A.; Tucker, Jason; Chalfant, Charles Edward; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan Shanaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a popular choice for the treatment of chronic wounds. Current dogma attributes these healing properties to the peptide growth factors of PRP. However, PRP is also rich in bioactive lipids whose contribution to healing has not been characterized and warrants investigation due to the protease-rich environment of chronic wounds. Approach: The lipid fraction of PRP was tested with respect to proliferation and migration of primary adult human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa)±exposure to chronic wound fluid (CWF). This fraction was also characterized via LC-MS/MS for bioactive lipids. A synthetic formulation of the bioactive lipid composition was developed and tested for the ability to overcome proliferative growth arrest induced by CWF. Results: The data demonstrate the ability of the lipid fraction of PRP to significantly enhance the migration and proliferation of HDFa, and to overcome the proliferative growth arrest induced by CWF. Furthermore, the synthetic lipid formulation generated following characterization of the PRP lipidome demonstrated a similar ability to overcome proliferative arrest of HDFa in the presence of CWF. Innovation: For the first time, we demonstrate the relevance of the lipid fraction of PRP toward the biology of wound healing. These studies open the possibility of altering the lipid profile of PRP via diet or exogenous pathway manipulation to obtain a better healing outcome. Conclusion: The lipid fraction of PRP is under investigated and yet relevant component in wound healing. The current study demonstrates the relevance of this fraction in wound healing by PRP. PMID:25713752

  4. The Antimicrobial Activity of Different Mouthwashes in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mat Ludin, C.M.; Md Radzi, J.

    2001-01-01

    Seven different brands of mouthwashes were assessed for the inhibition of growth of oral micro-organisms. The results showed wide variations in their effectiveness: Those containing cationic surfactants and complex organic nitrogenous compounds were more active than the older formulations based on phenols. A list was compiled ranking the mouthwashes according to their antimicrobial activity, which did not always agree with the manufacturer’s claims or indication for use. PMID:22893755

  5. Drug and food-deprivation modulation of activity in rats given chronic dietary lead: significance of type of activity measure.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, B K; Kutscher, C L

    1981-09-01

    In Experiment 1, rats were given a 1% lead acetate diet from Day 100 of life to the termination of the experiment. After 82 days of lead feeding behavioral tests were started. Lead exposure increased wheel-turning hyperactivity produced by food deprivation and phenylethylamine injection. Lead produced no activity change in the unchallenged condition. In the open field, lead-exposure rats were less responsive to the stimulating action of PEA and amphetamine and to the sedating action of pentobarbital. In Experiment 2, the interaction of lead with food deprivation of PEA on wheel-turning was replicated in naive animals given only a 32-day exposure. Chemical analysis was made of tissues. Ingested lead entered the brain. Regional steady-state levels of brain norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin were not altered by lead treatment when measured following four days of starvation at a time when lead-induced behavioral change was distinct. It was concluded that pharmacological challenges on activity may be sensitive indicators of lead exposure, but the type of activity measure is critical. PMID:7291253

  6. Significance of an Active Volcanic Front in the Far Western Aleutian Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Hoernle, K.

    2015-12-01

    Discovery of a volcanic front west of Buldir Volcano, the western-most emergent Aleutian volcano, demonstrates that the surface expression of Aleutian volcanism falls below sea level just west of 175.9° E longitude, but is otherwise continuous from mainland Alaska to Kamchatka. The newly discovered sites of western Aleutian seafloor volcanism are the Ingenstrem Depression, a 60 km-long structural depression just west of Buldir, and an unnamed area 300 km further west, referred to as the Western Cones. These locations fall along a volcanic front that stretches from Buldir to Piip Seamount near the Komandorsky Islands. Western Aleutian seafloor volcanic rocks include large quantities of high-silica andesite and dacite, which define a highly calc-alkaline igneous series and carry trace element signatures that are unmistakably subduction-related. This indicates that subducting oceanic lithosphere is present beneath the westernmost Aleutian arc. The rarity of earthquakes below depths of 200 km indicates that the subducting plate is unusually hot. Some seafloor volcanoes are 6-8 km wide at the base, and so are as large as many emergent Aleutian volcanoes. The seafloor volcanoes are submerged in water depths >3000 m because they sit on oceanic lithosphere of the Bering Sea. The volcanic front is thus displaced to the north of the ridge of arc crust that underlies the western Aleutian Islands. This displacement, which developed since approximately 6 Ma when volcanism was last active on the islands, must be a consequence of oblique convergence in a system where the subducting plate and large blocks of arc crust are both moving primarily in an arc-parallel sense. The result is a hot-slab system where low subduction rates probably limit advection of hot mantle to the subarc, and produce a relatively cool and perhaps stagnant mantle wedge. The oceanic setting and highly oblique subduction geometry also severely limit rates of sediment subduction, so the volcanic rocks, which

  7. Child—Adult Differences in Muscle Activation — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dotan, Raffy; Mitchell, Cameron; Cohen, Rotem; Klentrou, Panagiota; Gabriel, David; Falk, Bareket

    2013-01-01

    Children differ from adults in many muscular performance attributes such as size-normalized strength and power, endurance, fatigability and the recovery from exhaustive exercise, to name just a few. Metabolic attributes, such as glycolytic capacity, substrate utilization, and VO2 kinetics also differ markedly between children and adults. Various factors, such as dimensionality, intramuscular synchronization, agonist-antagonist coactivation, level of volitional activation, or muscle composition, can explain some, but not all of the observed differences. It is hypothesized that, compared with adults, children are substantially less capable of recruiting or fully employing their higher-threshold, type-II motor units. The review presents and evaluates the wealth of information and possible alternative factors in explaining the observations. Although conclusive evidence is still lacking, only this hypothesis of differential motor-unit activation in children and adults, appears capable of accounting for all observed child—adult differences, whether on its own or in conjunction with other factors. PMID:22433260

  8. Zero Valent Iron Significantly Enhances Methane Production from Waste Activated Sludge by Improving Biochemical Methane Potential Rather Than Hydrolysis Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. However, methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS is usually limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor biochemical methane potential of WAS. This work systematically studied the effects of three different types of zero valent iron (i.e., iron powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap) on methane production from WAS in anaerobic digestion, by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The results demonstrated that both the clean and the rusty iron scrap were more effective than the iron powder for improving methane production from WAS. Model-based analysis showed that ZVI addition significantly enhanced methane production from WAS through improving the biochemical methane potential of WAS rather than its hydrolysis rate. Economic analysis indicated that the ZVI-based technology for enhancing methane production from WAS is economically attractive, particularly considering that iron scrap can be freely acquired from industrial waste. Based on these results, the ZVI-based anaerobic digestion process of this work could be easily integrated with the conventional chemical phosphorus removal process in wastewater treatment plant to form a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, enabling maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving enhanced methane production in wastewater treatment system. PMID:25652244

  9. Zero Valent Iron Significantly Enhances Methane Production from Waste Activated Sludge by Improving Biochemical Methane Potential Rather Than Hydrolysis Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. However, methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS is usually limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor biochemical methane potential of WAS. This work systematically studied the effects of three different types of zero valent iron (i.e., iron powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap) on methane production from WAS in anaerobic digestion, by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The results demonstrated that both the clean and the rusty iron scrap were more effective than the iron powder for improving methane production from WAS. Model-based analysis showed that ZVI addition significantly enhanced methane production from WAS through improving the biochemical methane potential of WAS rather than its hydrolysis rate. Economic analysis indicated that the ZVI-based technology for enhancing methane production from WAS is economically attractive, particularly considering that iron scrap can be freely acquired from industrial waste. Based on these results, the ZVI-based anaerobic digestion process of this work could be easily integrated with the conventional chemical phosphorus removal process in wastewater treatment plant to form a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, enabling maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving enhanced methane production in wastewater treatment system.

  10. Gene Expression Analysis of the 26S Proteasome Subunit PSMB4 Reveals Significant Upregulation, Different Expression and Association with Proliferation in Human Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Mairinger, Fabian Dominik; Walter, Robert Fred Henry; Theegarten, Dirk; Hager, Thomas; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Christoph, Daniel Christian; Worm, Karl; Ting, Saskia; Werner, Robert; Stamatis, Georgios; Mairinger, Thomas; Baba, Hideo; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias

    2014-01-01

    Background: Proteasomal subunit PSMB4 was suggested to be a survival gene in an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma and in glioblastoma cell lines. In pulmonary adenocarcinoma, a high expression of these genes was found to be associated with poor differentiation and survival. This study investigates the gene expression levels of 26S proteasome subunits in human pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours including typical (TC) and atypical (AC) carcinoid tumours as well as small cell (SCLC) and large cell (LCNEC) neuroendocrine carcinomas. Material and methods: Gene expression levels of proteasomal subunits (PSMA1, PSMA5, PSMB4, PSMB5 and PSMD1) were investigated in 80 neuroendocrine pulmonary tumours (each 20 TC, AC, LCNLC and SCLC) and compared to controls. mRNA levels were determined by using TaqMan assays. Immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays (TMA) was performed to determine the expression of ki67, cleaved caspase 3 and PSMB4. Results: All proteasomal subunit gene expressions were significantly upregulated in TC, AC, SCLC and LCNEC compared to controls. PSMB4 mRNA is differently expressed between all neuroendocrine tumour subtypes demonstrating the highest expression and greatest range in LCNEC (p=0.043), and is significantly associated with proliferative activity (p=0.039). Conclusion: In line with other 26S proteasomal subunits PSMB4 is significantly increased, but differently expressed between pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours and is associated with the proliferative activity. Unlike in pulmonary adenocarcinomas, no association with biological behaviour was observed, suggesting that increased proteasomal subunit gene expression is a common and probably early event in the tumorigenesis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours regardless of their differentiation. PMID:25157275

  11. Rev-RRE Functional Activity Differs Substantially Among Primary HIV-1 Isolates.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Patrick E; Tebit, Denis M; Rekosh, David; Hammarskjold, Marie-Louise

    2016-09-01

    The HIV-1 replication cycle requires the nucleocytoplasmic export of intron-containing viral RNAs, a process that is ordinarily restricted. HIV overcomes this by means of the viral Rev protein, which binds to an RNA secondary structure called the Rev response element (RRE) present in all unspliced or incompletely spliced viral RNA transcripts. The resulting mRNP complex is exported through interaction with cellular factors. The Rev-RRE binding interaction is increasingly understood to display remarkable structural plasticity, but little is known about how Rev-RRE sequence differences affect functional activity. To study this issue, we utilized a lentiviral vector assay in which vector titer is dependent on the activity of selected Rev-RRE pairs. We found that Rev-RRE functional activity varies significantly (up to 24-fold) between naturally occurring viral isolates. The activity differences of the Rev-RRE cognate pairs track closely with Rev, but not with RRE activity. This variation in Rev activity is not correlated with differences in Rev steady state protein levels. These data suggest that Rev sequence differences drive substantial variation in Rev-RRE functional activity between patients. Such variation may play a role in viral adaptation to different immune milieus within and between patients and may be significant in the establishment of latency. The identification of differences in Rev-RRE functional activity in naturally occurring isolates may also permit more efficient production of lentiviral vectors. PMID:27147495

  12. Small difference in international normalized ratio may yield a significant impact on prioritizing patients listed for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sarvary, E; Seregely, Zs; Fazakas, J; Kovacs, F; Gaal, I; Beko, G; Varga, J; Kobori, L; Nemes, B; Gorog, D; Varga, M; Langer, R M; Monostory, K; Jaray, J; Gerlei, Zs

    2010-01-01

    Priority for liver transplantation is currently based on the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. The aim of our study was to assess in detail the contribution of international normalized ratio (INR) differences for MELD scores because of interlaboratory variability. The samples from 92 cirrhotic patients were measured on different systems combining three coagulometers and three thromboplastin products to determine variations in INR and MELD score. The INR differences among the first four systems varied between 0 and 0.2, resulting in MELD differences of 0 to 2. The MELD scores of 92 patients changed only among 10 possible integers so that normally 2 to 10 patients shared the same MELD value. In some cases, one MELD score difference resulted in a 10 superpositioning on the waiting list. Including one more system (mechanical vs optical) into our investigations achieved a five MELD difference. Supposing an extreme situation where one patient competes with his or her lowest, all the other with their highest possible score (and visa versa), the difference may be even 20 positions, overturning the complete waiting list. In conclusion substantial interlaboratory differences in MELD score have profound clinical consequences. PMID:20692471

  13. Active synchronization between two different chaotic dynamical system

    SciTech Connect

    Maheri, M.; Arifin, N. Md; Ismail, F.

    2015-05-15

    In this paper we investigate on the synchronization problem between two different chaotic dynamical system based on the Lyapunov stability theorem by using nonlinear control functions. Active control schemes are used for synchronization Liu system as drive and Rossler system as response. Numerical simulation by using Maple software are used to show effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  14. Active synchronization between two different chaotic dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheri, M.; Arifin, N. Md; Ismail, F.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we investigate on the synchronization problem between two different chaotic dynamical system based on the Lyapunov stability theorem by using nonlinear control functions. Active control schemes are used for synchronization Liu system as drive and Rossler system as response. Numerical simulation by using Maple software are used to show effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  15. Complement profile and activation mechanisms by different LDL apheresis systems.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Anders; Hardersen, Randolf; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Enebakk, Terje; Christiansen, Dorte; Ludviksen, Judith Krey; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Lappegård, Knut Tore

    2012-07-01

    Extracorporeal removal of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by means of selective LDL apheresis is indicated in otherwise uncontrolled familial hypercholesterolemia. During blood-biomaterial interaction other constituents than the LDL particles are affected, including the complement system. We set up an ex vivo model in which human whole blood was passed through an LDL apheresis system with one of three different apheresis columns: whole blood adsorption, plasma adsorption and plasma filtration. The concentrations of complement activation products revealed distinctly different patterns of activation and adsorption by the different systems. Evaluated as the final common terminal complement complex (TCC) the whole blood system was inert, in contrast to the plasma systems, which generated substantial and equal amounts of TCC. Initial classical pathway activation was revealed equally for both plasma systems as increases in the C1rs-C1inh complex and C4d. Alternative pathway activation (Bb) was most pronounced for the plasma adsorption system. Although the anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) were equally generated by the two plasma separation systems, they were efficiently adsorbed to the plasma adsorption column before the "outlet", whereas they were left free in the plasma in the filtration system. Consequently, during blood-biomaterial interaction in LDL apheresis the complement system is modulated in different manners depending on the device composition. PMID:22373816

  16. Pomalidomide Shows Significant Therapeutic Activity against CNS Lymphoma with a Major Impact on the Tumor Microenvironment in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhimin; Qiu, Yushi; Personett, David; Huang, Peng; Edenfield, Brandy; Katz, Jason; Babusis, Darius; Tang, Yang; Shirely, Michael A.; Moghaddam, Mehran F.; Copland, John A.; Tun, Han W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma carries a poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Pomalidomide (POM) is a novel immunomodulatory drug with anti-lymphoma activity. CNS pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in rats to assess the CNS penetration of POM. Preclinical evaluation of POM was performed in two murine models to assess its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. The impact of POM on the CNS lymphoma immune microenvironment was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. In vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to further investigate the impact of POM on the biology of macrophages. POM crosses the blood brain barrier with CNS penetration of ~ 39%. Preclinical evaluations showed that it had significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with significant reduction in tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival, that it had a major impact on the tumor microenvironment with an increase in macrophages and natural killer cells, and that it decreased M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages and increased M1-polarized macrophages when macrophages were evaluated based on polarization status. In vitro studies using various macrophage models showed that POM converted the polarization status of IL4-stimulated macrophages from M2 to M1, that M2 to M1 conversion by POM in the polarization status of lymphoma-associated macrophages is dependent on the presence of NK cells, that POM induced M2 to M1 conversion in the polarization of macrophages by inactivating STAT6 signaling and activating STAT1 signaling, and that POM functionally increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Based on our findings, POM is a promising therapeutic agent for CNS lymphoma with excellent CNS penetration, significant preclinical therapeutic activity, and a major impact on the tumor microenvironment. It can induce significant biological changes in tumor-associated macrophages, which likely play a major role in its therapeutic activity against CNS

  17. Brain activation underlying threat detection to targets of different races.

    PubMed

    Senholzi, Keith B; Depue, Brendan E; Correll, Joshua; Banich, Marie T; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined blood oxygen level-dependent signal underlying racial differences in threat detection. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants determined whether pictures of Black or White individuals held weapons. They were instructed to make shoot responses when the picture showed armed individuals but don't shoot responses to unarmed individuals, with the cost of not shooting armed individuals being greater than that of shooting unarmed individuals. Participants were faster to shoot armed Blacks than Whites, but faster in making don't shoot responses to unarmed Whites than Blacks. Brain activity differed to armed versus unarmed targets depending on target race, suggesting different mechanisms underlying threat versus safety decisions. Anterior cingulate cortex was preferentially engaged for unarmed Whites than Blacks. Parietal and visual cortical regions exhibited greater activity for armed Blacks than Whites. Seed-based functional connectivity of the amygdala revealed greater coherence with parietal and visual cortices for armed Blacks than Whites. Furthermore, greater implicit Black-danger associations were associated with increased amygdala activation to armed Blacks, compared to armed Whites. Our results suggest that different neural mechanisms may underlie racial differences in responses to armed versus unarmed targets. PMID:26357911

  18. Effects of nanomaterials on luciferase with significant protection and increased enzyme activity observed for zinc oxide nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Barber, S; Abdelhakiem, M; Ghosh, K; Mitchell, L; Spidle, R; Jacobs, B; Washington, L; Li, J; Wanekaya, A; Glaspell, G; DeLong, R K

    2011-12-01

    This principle goal of this research was to examine the effects of various nanomaterials on the activity and behavior of the firefly enzyme luciferase. Nanomaterials have been found to stabilize, and in some instances, shown to increase the activity of enzymes. In this study gold, manganese oxide (MnO), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials were utilized in order to test their effects on enzyme activity. Luciferase was used because its activity is easy to analyze, as it typically produces a large amount of bioluminescence easily detected by a Microtiter plate reader. Following incubation with the various nanomaterials, luciferase was subjected to degradation by several protein denaturing agents, such as heat, SDS, urea, ethanol, protease, hydrogen peroxide, and pH changes. Results indicated that luciferase activity is indeed affected when combined with nanomaterials, accompanied by both increases and decreases in enzyme activity depending on the type of nanomaterial and denaturing agent used. In most of the experiments, when incubated with ZnO nanomaterials, luciferase depicted significant increases in activity and bioluminescence. Additional experiments, in which human A375 cells were treated with luciferase-nanomaterial mixtures, also depicted increased enzyme activity and bioluminescence for luciferase incubated with ZnO nanomaterials. Ultimately, our findings indicated that when luciferase was subjected to multiple types of denaturation, zinc oxide nanomaterials dramatically preserved and increased enzyme activity and bioluminescence. PMID:22408903

  19. Significance of the changes occurring in the levels of interleukins, SOD and MDA in rat pulmonary tissue following exposure to different altitudes and exposure times

    PubMed Central

    YUHAI, GU; ZHEN, ZHAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes occurring in the levels of interleukin, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat lung tissue at different altitudes and times, and to determine the significance of such changes. A total of 88 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: the control group [low altitude (LA), 1,500 m; n=8], the moderate altitude group (MA group, 2,260 m; n=40) and the high altitude group (HA group, 5,000 m; n=40). The moderate and high altitude groups were subdivided into the 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 day groups (MA1, 3, 7, 15, 30 and HA1, 3, 7, 15, 30; n=8). The levels of interleukins (IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) in the rat lung tissue were determined by ELISA. The WST-1 Cell Proliferation Assay kit and total bile acids assay were used to determine the activity levels of SOD and the content of MDA, respectively. Compared to the control group, the levels of IL-6/IL-8/IL-10 were higher in the MA1 group; however, no significant differences were observed between the other MA subgroups. In addition, no significant differences were detected in SOD activity and the MDA content in the MA subgroups. The levels of IL-6/IL-8 in all the HA subgroups were higher compared to those of the control group, and with the passing of time, the levels of IL-6/IL-8 decreased, but were still higher than those of the control group. However, the level of IL-10 decreased with the passing of time, and was lower in all the HA subgroups compared to the control group. With the passing of time, SOD activity decreased, and the MDA content gradually increased. On the whole, the findings of this study indicate that hypoxia due to high altitude induces lung inflammation and oxidative damage, which subsequently causes severe damage to lung tissue. PMID:26622414

  20. Tropical Malaysians and temperate Koreans exhibit significant differences in sweating sensitivity in response to iontophoretically administered acetylcholine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Bae, Jun-Sang; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Yang, Hun-Mo; Min, Young-Ki

    2009-03-01

    Natives of the tropics are able to tolerate high ambient temperatures. This results from their long-term residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. This study was designed to compare the peripheral mechanisms of thermal sweating in tropical natives with that of their temperate counterparts. Fifty-five healthy male subjects including 20 native Koreans who live in the temperate Korean climate (Temperate-N) and 35 native tropical Malaysian men that have lived all of their lives in Malaysia (Tropical-N) were enrolled in this study after providing written informed consent to participate. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with 10% acetylcholine (ACh) was used to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, and oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The sweat onset time of AXR (nicotinic-receptor-mediated) was 56 s shorter in the Temperate-N than in the Tropical-N subjects ( P < 0.0001). The nicotinic-receptor-mediated sweating activity AXR (1), and the muscarinic-receptor-mediated sweating activity DIR, in terms of sweat volume, were 103% and 59% higher in the Temperate-N compared to the Tropical-N subjects ( P < 0.0001). The Temperate-N group also had a 17.8% ( P < 0.0001) higher active sweat gland density, 35.4% higher sweat output per gland, 0.24°C higher resting oral temperature, and 0.62°C higher resting forearm skin temperature compared to the Tropical-N subjects ( P < 0.01). ACh iontophoresis did not influence oral temperature, but increased skin temperature near where the ACh was administered, in both groups. These results suggest that suppressed thermal sweating in the Tropical-N subjects was, at least in part, due to suppressed sweat gland sensitivity to ACh through both recruitment of active sweat glands and the sweat gland output per each gland

  1. The Active Human Gut Microbiota Differs from the Total Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Peris-Bondia, Francesc; Latorre, Amparo; Artacho, Alejandro; Moya, Andrés; D'Auria, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is considered one of the most fascinating reservoirs of microbial diversity hosting between 400 to 1000 bacterial species distributed among nine phyla with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria representing around of the diversity. One of the most intriguing issues relates to understanding which microbial groups are active players in the maintenance of the microbiota homeostasis. Here, we describe the diversity of active microbial fractions compared with the whole community from raw human fecal samples. We studied four healthy volunteers by 16S rDNA gene pyrosequencing. The fractions were obtained by cell sorting based on bacterial RNA concentration. Bacterial families were observed to appear or disappear on applying a cell sorting method in which flow cytometry was used to evaluate the active cells by pyronin-Y staining of RNA. This method was able to detect active bacteria, indicating that the active players differed from that observed in raw fecal material. Generally, observations showed that in the active fractions, the number of reads related to Bacteroidetes decreased whereas several families from Clostridiales (Firmicutes) were more highly represented. Moreover, a huge number of families appeared as part of the active fraction when cell sorting was applied, indicating reads that are simply statistically hidden by the total reads. PMID:21829462

  2. Efficacious gene silencing in serum and significant apoptotic activity induction by survivin downregulation mediated by new cationic gemini tocopheryl lipids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishan; Maiti, Bappa; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-02-01

    Nonviral gene delivery offers cationic liposomes as promising instruments for the delivery of double-stranded RNA (ds RNA) molecules for successful sequence-specific gene silencing (RNA interference). The efficient delivery of siRNA (small interfering RNA) to cells while avoiding unexpected side effects is an important prerequisite for the exploitation of the power of this excellent tool. We present here six new tocopherol based cationic gemini lipids, which induce substantial gene knockdown without any obvious cytotoxicity. All the efficient coliposomal formulations derived from each of these geminis and a helper lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), were well characterized using physical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Zeta potential measurements were conducted to estimate the surface charge of these formulations. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the optimized coliposomal formulations could transfect anti-GFP siRNA efficiently in three different GFP expressing cell lines, viz., HEK 293T, HeLa, and Caco-2, significantly better than a potent commercial standard Lipofectamine 2000 (L2K) both in the absence and in the presence of serum (FBS). Notably, the knockdown activity of coliposomes of gemini lipids was not affected even in the presence of serum (10% and 50% FBS) while it dropped down for L2K significantly. Observations under a fluorescence microscope, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis substantiated the flow cytometry results. The efficient cellular entry of labeled siRNA in GFP expressing cells as evidenced from confocal microscopy put forward these gemini lipids among the potent lipidic carriers for siRNA. The efficient transfection capabilities were also profiled in a more relevant fashion while performing siRNA transfections against survivin (an anti-apoptotic protein) which induced substantial apoptosis. Furthermore, the survivin downregulation improved the therapeutic efficacy levels of an

  3. Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems: Differences in Substance Use Expectancy Organization and Activation in Memory

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    We used multidimensional scaling to model the semantic network of alcohol and marijuana expectancies (N = 897). Preference mapping was used to estimate vectors representing patterns of activation through the network as a function of levels of behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral activation (BAS). Individuals with low BIS combined with high BAS levels exhibited patterns of activation emphasizing behavioral activation similar to heavier drug users in previous research. High BIS, low BAS individuals exhibited activation patterns with greater emphasis on inhibitory expectancies similar to low-level users. Differences in expectancy activation patterns were maintained after controlling for substance use and gender. Individual differences in BIS/BAS are associated with the organization of semantic networks and patterns of activation of expectancies contributing to differences in substance use behavior. PMID:19586148

  4. Antibiofilm activity of Dendrophthoe falcata against different bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Rameshkumar, Ramakrishnan; Sivakumar, Nallusamy; Al Amri, Issa S; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah; Ramesh, Manikandan

    2012-12-01

    Dendrophthoe falcata is a hemiparasitic plant commonly used for ailments such as ulcers, asthma, impotence, paralysis, skin diseases, menstrual troubles, pulmonary tuberculosis, and wounds. In this context, the validations of the traditional claim that the leaf extract of D. falcata possesses antibiofilm and anti-quorum sensing activity against different bacterial pathogens were assessed. The bacterial biofilms were quantified by crystal violet staining. Among the 17 bacterial pathogens screened, the methanolic fraction of the leaf extract clearly demonstrated antibiofilm activity for Proteus mirabilis, Vibrio vulnificus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Shigella sonnei, Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, and Proteus vulgaris. At biofilm inhibitory concentrations, biofilm formation was reduced by up to 70-90 %. Furthermore, the potential quorum-sensing activity of the leaf extract was tested by agar well diffusion using Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12472 & CV O26) reporter strains. The inhibition of violacein production may be due to direct or indirect interference on QS by active constituents or the interactive effect of different phytocompounds present in the extracts. This is the first report on antibiofilm and QS activity of D. falcata leaf extracts, signifying the scope for development of complementary medicine for biofilm-associated infections. PMID:23115018

  5. Proteomic analysis of seedling roots of two maize inbred lines that differ significantly in the salt stress response.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dezhou; Wu, Dandan; Liu, Jie; Li, Detao; Xu, Chunyan; Li, Song; Li, Peng; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Xu; Jiang, Chuan; Wang, Liwen; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Huabang; Zhao, Li

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant productivity and quality throughout the world. Roots are the sites of salt uptake. To better understand salt stress responses in maize, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling roots from the salt-tolerant genotype F63 and the salt-sensitive genotype F35 under 160 mM NaCl treatment for 2 days. Under salinity conditions, the shoot fresh weight and relative water content were significantly higher in F63 than in F35, while the osmotic potential was significantly lower and the reduction of the K+/Na+ ratio was significantly less pronounced in F63 than in F35. Using an iTRAQ approach, twenty-eight proteins showed more than 2.0- fold changes in abundance and were regarded as salt-responsive proteins. Among them, twenty-two were specifically regulated in F63 but remained constant in F35. These proteins were mainly involved in signal processing, water conservation, protein synthesis and biotic cross-tolerance, and could be the major contributors to the tolerant genotype of F63. Functional analysis of a salt-responsive protein was performed in yeast as a case study to confirm the salt-related functions of detected proteins. Taken together, the results of this study may be helpful for further elucidating salt tolerance mechanisms in maize. PMID:25659111

  6. Antioxidant enzyme activities in different genders and tissues of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ran; Zhang, Shicui; Wang, Changfa; Pang, Qiuxiang

    2007-01-01

    Information regarding antioxidant enzymes in amphioxus remains lacking, and this study was carried out to examine the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in different genders and tissues of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense. Results show that (1) CuZn-SOD, CAT and GPX activities in the whole amphioxus B. belcheri tsingtauense were basically at the same levels in male and female amphioxus, whereas both T-SOD and Mn-SOD activities in male amphioxus were significantly higher than that in the female ( P<0.05); (2) The testis had significantly higher T-SOD and CuZn-SOD activities than the ovary ( P<0.05); (3) CuZn-SOD activity was undetectable in the guts of male and female amphioxus; (4) For both male and female amphioxus, the activities of CAT and GPX in the gonads including testis and ovary were the lowest ( P<0.05) among the tissues examined; (5) The gut and gill had the same level GPX activities while the gut had a higher CAT activity; (6) There was no clear difference in CAT and GPX activities in the corresponding tissues between male and female amphioxus. The study on SOD, CAT and GPX activities in different genders and tissues of the protochordate provides data for future comparison of amphioxus antioxidant enzymes with those of invertebrates and vertebrates.

  7. Significant others and contingencies of self-worth: activation and consequences of relationship-specific contingencies of self-worth.

    PubMed

    Horberg, E J; Chen, Serena

    2010-01-01

    Three studies tested the activation and consequences of contingencies of self-worth associated with specific significant others, that is, relationship-specific contingencies of self-worth. The results showed that activating the mental representation of a significant other with whom one strongly desires closeness led participants to stake their self-esteem in domains in which the significant other wanted them to excel. This was shown in terms of self-reported contingencies of self-worth (Study 1), in terms of self-worth after receiving feedback on a successful or unsatisfactory performance in a relationship-specific contingency domain (Study 2), and in terms of feelings of reduced self-worth after thinking about a failure in a relationship-specific contingency domain (Study 3). Across studies, a variety of contingency domains were examined. Furthermore, Study 3 showed that failing in an activated relationship-specific contingency domain had negative implications for current feelings of closeness and acceptance in the significant-other relationship. Overall, the findings suggest that people's contingencies of self-worth depend on the social situation and that performance in relationship-specific contingency domains can influence people's perceptions of their relationships. PMID:20053033

  8. Women Have Significantly Greater Difference Between Central and Peripheral Arterial Pressure Compared to Men: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Rebecca Clark; Sander, Gary; Fernandez, Camilo; Chen, Wei; Berenson, Gerald; Giles, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender differences in the relationship between central and peripheral BP are not well described. We sought to investigate gender differences between central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) and peripheral systolic blood pressure (pSBP) in adults in the Bogalusa study population. Methods This study enrolled adults in a cross sectional survey conducted in 2007–2010. BP was measured with a standard cuff and Omron applanation tonometer. Data were available from 876 participants. Results Participants were 57.9% female and 42.1% male (mean age 43.5 years ± 4.4). Mean (SD) for cSBP-pSBP was 1.0 (6.9) for males and 7.4 (5.2) for females (p<0.001). Augmentation index (AI) was higher in women (men: 70.8±14 vs. women: 85.5±13; p<0.01), as well as augmentation index standardized to heart rate (HR) of 75 (AI@75) (men: 68.5±13 vs. women: 84.4±11.8; p<0.01). Conclusions Female participants had greater difference between cSBP and pSBP than males. This suggests that given similar peripheral BP females might be at higher risk for developing target organ damage. Women in this study had higher AI, which may contribute to the difference found between cSBP and pSBP. These findings may explain why women have more age-related left ventricular hypertrophy, and poorer prognosis following myocardial infarction compared to males. PMID:23850194

  9. Different metabolic activity in placental and reflected regions of the human amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Asmita; Weidinger, Adelheid; Hofer, Martin; Steinborn, Ralf; Lindenmair, Andrea; Hennerbichler-Lugscheider, Simone; Eibl, Johann; Redl, Heinz; Kozlov, Andrey V; Wolbank, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Cells of the human amniotic membrane (hAM) have stem cell characteristics with low immunogenicity and anti-inflammatory properties. While hAM is an excellent source for tissue engineering, so far, its sub-regions have not been taken into account. We show that placental and reflected hAM differ distinctly in morphology and functional activity, as the placental region has significantly higher mitochondrial activity, however significantly less reactive oxygen species. Since mitochondria may participate in processes such as cell rescue, we speculate that amniotic sub-regions may have different potential for tissue regeneration, which may be crucial for clinical applications. PMID:26386652

  10. Significant contribution of stacking faults to the strain hardening behavior of Cu-15%Al alloy with different grain sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y. Z.; Zhao, L. J.; Chen, S.; Shibata, A.; Zhang, Z. F.; Tsuji, N.

    2015-11-01

    It is commonly accepted that twinning can induce an increase of strain-hardening rate during the tensile process of face-centered cubic (FCC) metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy (SFE). In this study, we explored the grain size effect on the strain-hardening behavior of a Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with low SFE. Instead of twinning, we detected a significant contribution of stacking faults (SFs) irrespective of the grain size even in the initial stage of tensile process. In contrast, twinning was more sensitive to the grain size, and the onset of deformation twins might be postponed to a higher strain with increasing the grain size. In the Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with a mean grain size of 47 μm, there was a stage where the strain-hardening rate increases with strain, and this was mainly induced by the SFs instead of twinning. Thus in parallel with the TWIP effect, we proposed that SFs also contribute significantly to the plasticity of FCC alloys with low SFE.

  11. Significant contribution of stacking faults to the strain hardening behavior of Cu-15%Al alloy with different grain sizes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Y. Z.; Zhao, L. J.; Chen, S.; Shibata, A.; Zhang, Z. F.; Tsuji, N.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that twinning can induce an increase of strain-hardening rate during the tensile process of face-centered cubic (FCC) metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy (SFE). In this study, we explored the grain size effect on the strain-hardening behavior of a Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with low SFE. Instead of twinning, we detected a significant contribution of stacking faults (SFs) irrespective of the grain size even in the initial stage of tensile process. In contrast, twinning was more sensitive to the grain size, and the onset of deformation twins might be postponed to a higher strain with increasing the grain size. In the Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with a mean grain size of 47 μm, there was a stage where the strain-hardening rate increases with strain, and this was mainly induced by the SFs instead of twinning. Thus in parallel with the TWIP effect, we proposed that SFs also contribute significantly to the plasticity of FCC alloys with low SFE. PMID:26582568

  12. Study of prognostic significance of antenatal ultrasonography and renin angiotensin system activation in predicting disease severity in posterior urethral valves

    PubMed Central

    Bhadoo, Divya; Bajpai, M.; Abid, Ali; Sukanya, Gayan; Agarwala, Sandeep; Srinivas, M.; Deka, Deepika; Agarwal, Nutan; Agarwal, Ramesh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Study on prognostic significance of antenatal ultrasonography and renin angiotensin system activation in predicting disease severity in posterior urethral valves. Materials and Methods: Antenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis patients were included. Postnatally, they were divided into two groups, posterior urethral valve (PUV) and non-PUV. The studied parameters were: Gestational age at detection, surgical intervention, ultrasound findings, cord blood and follow up plasma renin activity (PRA) values, vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR), renal scars, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Results: A total of 25 patients were included, 10 PUV and 15 non-PUV. All infants with PUV underwent primary valve incision. GFR was less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 body surface area in 4 patients at last follow-up. Keyhole sign, oligoamnios, absent bladder cycling, and cortical cysts were not consistent findings on antenatal ultrasound in PUV. Cord blood PRA was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in PUV compared to non-PUV patients. Gestational age at detection of hydronephrosis, cortical cysts, bladder wall thickness, and amniotic fluid index were not significantly correlated with GFR while PRA could differentiate between poor and better prognosis cases with PUV. Conclusions: Ultrasound was neither uniformly useful in diagnosing PUV antenatally, nor differentiating it from cases with non-PUV hydronephrosis. In congenital hydronephrosis, cord blood PRA was significantly higher in cases with PUV compared to non-PUV cases and fell significantly after valve ablation. Cord blood PRA could distinguish between poor and better prognosis cases with PUV. PMID:25829668

  13. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and phenotypic difference in hepatoprotective plant (Silybum marianum L.).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Anwar, Shazma; Basir, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Silybum marianum L. is medicinally important for its active principle component silymarin. Silymarin regenerates damaged hepatic tissues. On the basis of such regenerative properties, the radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)) of different tissues and the phenotypic difference of the hepatoprotective species, S. marianum L. were evaluated. There was less phenotypic difference in purple and white varieties of S. marianum. Assay of the antioxidant potential of different parts of the plant revealed that significantly higher activity (78.2%) was observed in seeds of the purple flowering plant than seeds of white flowering plant (49%) after different time intervals. Young leaves collected from white flowering plant exhibit 64.8% activity, which is higher than the purple flowering plant (55.1%). Significantly, same activity was observed in mature leaves of white (52%) and purple flowering plants (50%). The main stem collected from both the varieties exhibits similar activity from 50 to 52%. A 67.2% activity was recorded for mature roots of white flowering plant followed by roots of the purple variety (65%). The present study revealed that seeds and roots of both the varieties scavenge and detoxify more DPPH free radicals than other plant parts and can be used as a source of natural antioxidants and food additives. PMID:22362017

  14. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 3): Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant, Gettysburg, PA, August 3, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The document explains significant differences to the remedy selected in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Site signed by the Regional Administrator on June 30, 1992 (PB93-963911) for Operable Unit 1. The Significant Difference between the remedy presented in the June 30, 1992 ROD and the changes to the ROD that will be implemented are explained.

  15. Diuretic activity of different extracts of Biophytum sensitivum (Linn.) DC

    PubMed Central

    Chandavarkar, Sachin K.; Mamle Desai, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Drugs that induce diuresis are known as diuretics. Diuretic drugs act either by increasing the glomerular filtration rate (or) by decreasing the rate of reabsorption of fluid from the tubules. In recent years, interest in herbal agents as therapeutic treatment option has increased due to their limited side effects. Aim: To evaluate the diuretic activity of various extracts of whole plant of Biophytum sensitivum (Linn.) DC. in Wistar strain albino rats. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected animals were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each). First group served as a control group. Group 2 served as standard control in which furosemide was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Groups 3–5 as test drug groups, in which chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of B. sensitivum were administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. Results: Methanol and aqueous extracts significantly increased the urinary output and excretion of electrolyte concentrations of sodium and potassium comparatively better than the standard control, and chloroform extract showed insignificant effect. Conclusion: The study concluded that B. sensitivum possess moderate to significant diuretic activity. PMID:27313427

  16. Antidiabetic Activity of Differently Regioselective Chitosan Sulfates in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Ronge; He, Xiaofei; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Qin, Yukun; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Kecheng; Li, Rongfeng; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated and compared the hypoglycemic activity of differently regioselective chitosan sulfates in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Compared with the normal control rats, significantly higher blood glucose levels were observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The differently regioselective chitosan sulfates exhibited hypoglycemic activities at different doses and intervals, especially 3-O-sulfochitosan (3-S). The major results are as follows. First, 3,6-di-O-sulfochitosan and 3-O-sulfochitosan exhibited more significant hypoglycemic activities than 2-N-3, 6-di-O-sulfochitosan and 6-O-sulfochitosan. Moreover, 3-S-treated rats showed a more significant reduction of blood glucose levels than those treated by 3,6-di-O-sulfochitosan. These results indicated that –OSO3− at the C3-position of chitosan is a key active site. Second, 3-S significantly reduced the blood glucose levels and regulated the glucose tolerance effect in the experimental rats. Third, treatment with 3-S significantly increased the plasma insulin levels in the experimental diabetic rats. A noticeable hypoglycemic activity of 3-S in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats was shown. Clinical trials are required in the future to confirm the utility of 3-S. PMID:25988523

  17. Impacts of anthropogenic activities on different hydrological drought characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijdeman, Erik; Stahl, Kerstin; Bachmair, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The natural hazard drought can have severe impacts on a variety of sectors and at a variety of scales. Droughts, here defined as below average water availability, occur everywhere. However, the impact of a drought event is not only influenced by its severity but also by the vulnerability of an area to droughts. Research in catchments with natural flow conditions is crucial to gain process understanding about hydrological droughts. However, the locations of catchments with natural flow are often not representative for regions with a socioeconomic sector that is highly vulnerable to droughts. In these more vulnerable areas, human activities like groundwater extraction can intensify hydrological droughts. On the other hand, human activities can also mitigate or limit the magnitude of drought events. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of different anthropogenic influences on streamflow droughts by comparing hydrological drought characteristics between catchments with natural streamflow and with regulated or otherwise altered streamflow. The study is based on a large set of streamflow records from catchments in Germany, the UK and the USA with either known anthropogenic influences or natural streamflow conditions. Different drought characteristics (duration, deficit, frequency and timing of drought events) are computed for the selected stations. The drought characteristics in catchments influenced by various anthropogenic activities are stratified by the characteristics of anthropogenic influence, but also by similar physical and climatological properties. These stratified groups are then compared to drought characteristics in natural catchments with similar properties. Results show both negative and positive impacts of different human activities on droughts. For example, urbanized areas with low flow regulations show hydrological droughts with shorter durations and lower deficit volumes compared to nearby natural catchments, while records downstream of

  18. The Electrical Characteristics and Clinical Significance of the Effect of Adenosine on Dissociated Activity after Circumferential Venous Isolation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ya-Lei; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Feng; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Tsao, Hsuan-Ming; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background Dissociated activity can occur after circumferential thoracic vein isolation for treating atrial fibrillation (AF). However, its clinical significance and response to adenosine remain unclear. Methods Fifty-three patients (10 women, 11 with non-paroxysmal AF, with mean age 54.4 ± 11.2 years) with slow dissociated activity after thoracic vein isolation for AF ablation were analyzed. Adenosine (12 mg) was injected intravenously into 30 patients, and the responses of the dissociated activities were recorded. Results The clinical characteristics and the rate of recurrence did not differ between patients with and without dissociated activity. Dissociated activity was most frequently observed at the right superior pulmonary vein (PV) (61%), left superior PV (26%), right inferior PV (5%), left inferior PV (4%), and non-PV sites (4%). The locations of dissociated activities were associated with the AF trigger sites (p = 0.004). Adenosine injection decreased the cycle length of dissociated activity in 13 patients (group 1) and increased it in 17 patients (group 2). Dissociated activity disappeared in 7 patients (41%) (group 2) after adenosine injection. During the mean 33 ± 17 months of follow-up, group 2 patients had a lower AF recurrence rate (24%) than group 1 patients (62%) (p = 0.035). Conclusions The locations of dissociated activity were closely associated with the AF trigger sites. The responses to adenosine may predict AF recurrence in patients with dissociated activity. PMID:27122888

  19. Risk of significant cytopenias after treatment with tocilizumab in systemic juvenile arthritis patients with a history of macrophage activation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tocilizumab (TCZ) is the first FDA- approved treatment for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). We report 3 cases of cytopenias in children with sJIA treated with TCZ. Two of the children who developed significant cytopenias shortly after initiation of TCZ had a history of macrophage activation syndrome. We raise the possibility that patients with a tendency towards MAS have an increased risk of developing cytopenias when treated with tocilizumab. PMID:22931129

  20. Significant differences in fecal microbiota are associated with various stages of glucose tolerance in African American male veterans.

    PubMed

    Ciubotaru, Irina; Green, Stefan J; Kukreja, Subhash; Barengolts, Elena

    2015-11-01

    The importance of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of diabetes remains unknown. This study investigated the relationship between microbiota and metabolic markers in African American men (AAM) with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D. The study was ancillary to a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation with weekly ergocalciferol (50,000 IU) conducted in AAM veterans over 12 months (D Intervention in Veterans Affairs). Glycemic groups (Gr) were characterized based on changes in oral glucose tolerance between baseline and exit. Subjects with stable normal glucose tolerance were assigned to Gr-1 and those with stable prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose) to Gr-2. Microbiota composition was analyzed in stool collected at the exit (n = 115) and compared between Gr-1 and Gr-2, as well as between the lowest and highest quartiles of dietary intake of energy and fat, hemoglobin A1c, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level. Differences between Gr-1 and Gr-2 included the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes and Bacteroidales/Clostridia ratios and differences in genera such as Ruminococcus and Dialister. Changes in specific taxa associated with the lowest and highest quartiles of 25(OH)D (eg, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Blautia, Dorea) were clearly distinct from those of dietary intake (eg, Bacteroides, Bacteroides/Prevotella ratio) or A1c (eg, Faecalibacterium, Catenibacterium, Streptococcus). These findings suggest a novel interaction between microbiota and vitamin D and a role for microbiota in early stages of diabetes development. Although results suggest that specific taxa are associated with glycemic stability over time, a causative relationship between microbiota makeup and dysglycemia is still to be demonstrated. PMID:26209747

  1. No Significant Difference in Depression Rate in Employed and Unemployed in a Pair-Matched Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, Adriana; Ricean, Alina; Voidazan, Septimiu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the differences of depression rate in employed and unemployed persons in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, in a pair-matched study design. Method: The cross-sectional study uses a pair match design (395 pairs) of two groups of employed and unemployed persons. Other socio-demographic risk factors of depression (gender, age, marital status, residence, ethnicity, educational level, and profession) were controlled. The study was done in a historical period of economic crisis, 2009–2010. For the screening of depression we used the patient health questionnaire-9. Results: There were no statistical differences (p = 0.054) between the depression rates in the employed (17.98%) and unemployed (23.80%) samples. The depression rate in both groups was higher in females, age (51–55), marital status (divorced), living in the rural area, with a low level of education and poverty. Suicidal ideas are more frequent in men, employed persons with low level of education and in unemployed persons with medium level of education. Conclusion: The exposure to short term unemployment status was not associated with change in depression rate in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, comparing with controls pair-matched. Unemployment status increases the depression rate only in vulnerable groups such as single or divorced women; and suicidal ideas were associated with the unemployment status (longer than 8 months) in men from rural area with medium level of education. PMID:25105113

  2. Significant Differences in Markers of Oxidant Injury between Idiopathic and Bronchopulmonary-Dysplasia-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension in Children

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Kimberly B.; Moore, Donald; Flack, English; Liske, Michael; Summar, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    While oxidant stress is elevated in adult forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH), levels of oxidant stress in pediatric PH are unknown. The objective of this study is to measure F2-isoprostanes, a marker of oxidant stress, in children with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPH) and PH due to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We hypothesized that F2-isoprostanes in pediatric IPH and PH associated with BPD will be higher than in controls. Plasma F2-isoprostanes were measured in pediatric PH patients during clinically indicated cardiac catheterization and compared with controls. F2-Isoprostane levels were compared between IPH, PH due to BD, and controls. Five patients with IPH, 12 with PH due to BPD, and 20 control subjects were studied. Patients with IPH had statistically higher isoprostanes than controls 62 pg/mL (37–210) versus 20 pg/mL (16–27), P < 0.01). The patients with PH and BPD had significantly lower isoprostanes than controls 15 pg/mL (8–17) versus 20 pg/ml (16–27), P < 0.02. F2-isoprostanes are elevated in children with IPH compared to both controls and patients with PH secondary to BPD. Furthermore, F2-isoprostanes in PH secondary to BPD are lower than control levels. These findings suggest that IPH and PH secondary to BPD have distinct mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. PMID:22848815

  3. Gender Similarities and Differences in Factors Associated with Adolescent Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wenthe, Phyllis J.; Janz, Kathleen F; Levy, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors conceptualized within the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model (YPAP) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescent males and females. Specifically, self-efficacy to overcome barriers, enjoyment of physical activity; family support, peer support, perceived school climate, neighborhood safety and access to physical activity were examined. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) and the Actigraph 7164 were used to obtain three different measures of MVPA in 205 adolescents (102 males, 103 females). Family support emerged as the most significant and consistent factor associated with the MVPA of both adolescent males and females. This relationship was noted even when different methods of measuring MVPA were employed. These findings should increase the confidence of public health officials that family support has the potential to positively alter the physical activity behavior of adolescents. PMID:19827453

  4. Treatment of acquired von Willebrand syndrome in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance: comparison of three different therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Federici, A B; Stabile, F; Castaman, G; Canciani, M T; Mannucci, P M

    1998-10-15

    Patients with monoclonal gammopathies of uncertain significance (MGUS) may develop an acquired bleeding disorder similar to congenital von Willebrand disease, called acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS). In these patients, measures to improve hemostasis are required to prevent or treat bleeding episodes. We diagnosed 10 patients with MGUS and AvWS: 8 had IgGkappa (3) or lambda (5) MGUS and 2 IgM-kappa MGUS. Three therapeutic approaches were compared in them: (1) desmopressin (DDAVP), (2) factor VIII/von Willebrand factor (FVIII/vWF) concentrate, and (3) high-dose (1 g/kg/d for 2 days) intravenous Ig (IVIg). In patients with IgG-MGUS, DDAVP and FVIII/vWF concentrate increased factor VIII and von Willebrand factor in plasma, but only transiently. IVIg determined a more sustained improvement of the laboratory abnormalities and prevented bleeding during surgery (short-term therapy). In addition to the standard 2-day infusion protocol, a long-term IVIg therapy was performed in 2 patients with IgG-MGUS: repeated (every 21 days) single infusions of IVIg did improve laboratory abnormalities and stopped chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. On the other hand, IVIg failed to correct laboratories abnormalities in patients with IgM-MGUS. These comparative data obtained in a relative large and homogeneous group of patients with AvWS and MGUS confirm that DDAVP and FVIII/vWF concentrates improve the bleeding time (BT) and FVIII/vWF measurements only transiently, whereas IVIg provides a sustained treatment of AvWS associated with IgG-MGUS, but not with IgM-MGUS. PMID:9763553

  5. Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  6. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    PubMed

    Bates, Adam J; Sadler, Jon P; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  7. HIV-1 Structural Proteins Serve as PAMPs for TLR2 Heterodimers Significantly Increasing Infection and Innate Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Henrick, Bethany M.; Yao, Xiao-Dan; Rosenthal, Kenneth Lee

    2015-01-01

    Immune activation is critical to HIV infection and pathogenesis; however, our understanding of HIV innate immune activation remains incomplete. Recently we demonstrated that soluble TLR2 (sTLR2) physically inhibited HIV-induced NFκB activation and inflammation, as well as HIV-1 infection. In light of these findings, we hypothesized that HIV-1 structural proteins may serve as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for cellular TLR2 heterodimers. These studies made use of primary human T cells and TZMbl cells stably transformed to express TLR2 (TZMbl-2). Our results demonstrated that cells expressing TLR2 showed significantly increased proviral DNA compared to cells lacking TLR2, and mechanistically this may be due to a TLR2-mediated increased CCR5 expression. Importantly, we show that HIV-1 structural proteins, p17, p24, and gp41, act as viral PAMPs signaling through TLR2 and its heterodimers leading to significantly increased immune activation via the NFκB signaling pathway. Using co-immunoprecipitation and a dot blot method, we demonstrated direct protein interactions between these viral PAMPs and TLR2, while only p17 and gp41 bound to TLR1. Specifically, TLR2/1 heterodimer recognized p17 and gp41, while p24 lead to immune activation through TLR2/6. These results were confirmed using TLR2/1 siRNA knock down assays which ablated p17 and gp41-induced cellular activation and through studies of HEK293 cells expressing selected TLRs. Interestingly, our results show in the absence of TLR6, p24 bound to TLR2 and blocked p17 and gp41-induced activation, thus providing a novel mechanism by which HIV-1 can manipulate innate sensing. Taken together, our results identified, for the first time, novel HIV-1 PAMPs that play a role in TLR2-mediated cellular activation and increased proviral DNA. These findings have important implications for our fundamental understanding of HIV-1 immune activation and pathogenesis, as well as HIV-1 vaccine development. PMID:26347747

  8. Comparative analysis of trunk muscle activities in climbing of during upright climbing at different inclination angles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung-Joon; Kim, Joong-Hwi; Kim, Jang-Hwan; Choi, Byeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to provide evidence for the therapeutic exercise approach through a compative analysis of muscle activities according to climbing wall inclination. [Subjects and Methods] Twentyfour healthy adult subjects without climbing experience performed static exercises at a therapeutic climbing at with various inclination angles (0°, 10°, 20°), and the activities of the trunk muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, erector spinae) were measured using surface electromyography (EMG) for 7 seconds. [Results] Significant differences were found between the inclination angles of 10° and 0°, as well as 20° in the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, right obliquus externus abdominis, and right erector spinae. [Conclusion] Based on measurements of trunk muscle activity in a static climbing standing position at different angles, significant changes in muscle activity appear to be induced at 10 degrees. Therefore, the results appear to provide clinically relevant evidence. PMID:26644661

  9. Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener.

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K W; Oberndorfer, Tyson A; Simmons, Alan N; Paulus, Martin P; Fudge, Julie L; Yang, Tony T; Kaye, Walter H

    2008-02-15

    Animal models suggest that sucrose activates taste afferents differently than non-caloric sweeteners. Little information exists how artificial sweeteners engage central taste pathways in the human brain. We assessed sucrose and sucralose taste pleasantness across a concentration gradient in 12 healthy control women and applied 10% sucrose and matched sucralose during functional magnet resonance imaging. The results indicate that (1) both sucrose and sucralose activate functionally connected primary taste pathways; (2) taste pleasantness predicts left insula response; (3) sucrose elicits a stronger brain response in the anterior insula, frontal operculum, striatum and anterior cingulate, compared to sucralose; (4) only sucrose, but not sucralose, stimulation engages dopaminergic midbrain areas in relation to the behavioral pleasantness response. Thus, brain response distinguishes the caloric from the non-caloric sweetener, although the conscious mind could not. This could have important implications on how effective artificial sweeteners are in their ability to substitute sugar intake. PMID:18096409

  10. Capsules from Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Cryptococcus spp. Manifest Significant Differences in Structure and Ability to Protect against Phagocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Glauber de S.; Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Pontes, Bruno; Torres, Andre; Cordero, Radames J. B.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Casadevall, Arturo; Viana, Nathan B.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Garcia, Eloi S.; de Souza, Wanderley; Frases, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Capsule production is common among bacterial species, but relatively rare in eukaryotic microorganisms. Members of the fungal Cryptococcus genus are known to produce capsules, which are major determinants of virulence in the highly pathogenic species Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Although the lack of virulence of many species of the Cryptococcus genus can be explained solely by the lack of mammalian thermotolerance, it is uncertain whether the capsules from these organisms are comparable to those of the pathogenic cryptococci. In this study, we compared the characteristic of the capsule from the non-pathogenic environmental yeast Cryptococcus liquefaciens with that of C. neoformans. Microscopic observations revealed that C. liquefaciens has a capsule visible in India ink preparations that was also efficiently labeled by three antibodies generated to specific C. neoformans capsular antigens. Capsular polysaccharides of C. liquefaciens were incorporated onto the cell surface of acapsular C. neoformans mutant cells. Polysaccharide composition determinations in combination with confocal microscopy revealed that C. liquefaciens capsule consisted of mannose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, galactose and N-acetylglucosamine. Physical chemical analysis of the C. liquefaciens polysaccharides in comparison with C. neoformans samples revealed significant differences in viscosity, elastic properties and macromolecular structure parameters of polysaccharide solutions such as rigidity, effective diameter, zeta potential and molecular mass, which nevertheless appeared to be characteristics of linear polysaccharides that also comprise capsular polysaccharide of C. neoformans. The environmental yeast, however, showed enhanced susceptibility to the antimicrobial activity of the environmental phagocytes, suggesting that the C. liquefaciens capsular components are insufficient in protecting yeast cells against killing by amoeba. These results suggest that capsular

  11. A Magnetoencephalographic Study of Sensorimotor Activity Differences during Unilateral and Bilateral Forearm Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Kei

    2010-01-01

    This study compared activation of the sensorimotor area using magnetoencephalography after unilateral and bilateral movements. Thirteen healthy individuals and a patient with mild hemiplegia performed unilateral and bilateral forearm pronation movements. Among healthy participants, there were no significant differences in motor-evoked field during…

  12. Differences in the Correlates of Physical Activity between Urban and Rural Canadian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bercovitz, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA), a significant proportion of youth remains inactive. Studies assessing differences in the correlates of PA among urban and rural youth are scarce, and such investigations can help identify subgroups of the population that may need to be targeted for special intervention programs. The…

  13. Different respiratory activities of mitochondria isolated from the subendocardium and subepicardium of the canine heart.

    PubMed

    Camici, P; Ursini, F; Galiazzo, F; Bellitto, L; Pelosi, G; Marzilli, M; L'Abbate, A; Barsacchi, R

    1984-01-01

    Mitochondria were prepared from the subendocardial and subepicardial layers of the canine left ventricle. The oxidation rates of palmitate, palmitoyl carnitine and pyruvate of the mitochondria obtained from the two cardiac layers were measured. The cytochrome content and the specific activities of different beta oxidation and Krebs cycle enzymes were also measured in the two mitochondrial populations. Mitochondria isolated from the ENDO layer showed significantly higher oxidation rates than mitochondria from the EPI layer for all the three substrates. No statistically significant differences in cytochrome c+c1 and a+a3 content were found in mitochondria isolated from the two regions. No significant transmural differences were found in fatty acyl CoA, L-3-hydroxy fatty acyl CoA, succinic and malic dehydrogenase specific activities, whilst isocitric dehydrogenase (NADP) specific activity was significantly higher in mitochondria isolated from the inner layer. In conclusion, the mitochondria isolated from the inner left ventricular layer of the canine heart show a higher oxidative capacity than subepicardial mitochondria. This difference could partly be explained by the higher specific activity of isocitric dehydrogenase in this layer. These properties of subendocardial mitochondria could represent a metabolic support for the greater contractile performance of this layer. PMID:6487238

  14. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Ajay G.; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Nema, Sushma; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cell free modified tryptone soya broth (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for 14 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100 μg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule. PMID:26696963

  15. Beta and gamma oscillatory activities associated with olfactory memory tasks: different rhythms for different functional networks?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Claire; Ravel, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory processing in behaving animals, even at early stages, is inextricable from top down influences associated with odor perception. The anatomy of the olfactory network (olfactory bulb, piriform, and entorhinal cortices) and its unique direct access to the limbic system makes it particularly attractive to study how sensory processing could be modulated by learning and memory. Moreover, olfactory structures have been early reported to exhibit oscillatory population activities easy to capture through local field potential recordings. An attractive hypothesis is that neuronal oscillations would serve to “bind” distant structures to reach a unified and coherent perception. In relation to this hypothesis, we will assess the functional relevance of different types of oscillatory activity observed in the olfactory system of behaving animals. This review will focus primarily on two types of oscillatory activities: beta (15–40 Hz) and gamma (60–100 Hz). While gamma oscillations are dominant in the olfactory system in the absence of odorant, both beta and gamma rhythms have been reported to be modulated depending on the nature of the olfactory task. Studies from the authors of the present review and other groups brought evidence for a link between these oscillations and behavioral changes induced by olfactory learning. However, differences in studies led to divergent interpretations concerning the respective role of these oscillations in olfactory processing. Based on a critical reexamination of those data, we propose hypotheses on the functional involvement of beta and gamma oscillations for odor perception and memory. PMID:25002840

  16. Sex differences in the prognostic significance of KRAS codons 12 and 13, and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Activating KRAS and BRAF mutations predict unresponsiveness to EGFR-targeting therapies in colorectal cancer (CRC), but their prognostic value needs further validation. In this study, we investigated the impact of KRAS codons 12 and 13, and BRAF mutations on survival from CRC, overall and stratified by sex, in a large prospective cohort study. Methods KRAS codons 12 and 13, and BRAF mutations were analysed by pyrosequencing of tumours from 525 and 524 incident CRC cases in The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Associations with cancer-specific survival (CSS) were explored by Cox proportional hazards regression, unadjusted and adjusted for age, TNM stage, differentiation grade, vascular invasion and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. Results KRAS and BRAF mutations were mutually exclusive. KRAS mutations were found in 191/ 525 (36.4%) cases, 82.2% of these mutations were in codon 12, 17.3% were in codon 13, and 0.5% cases had mutations in both codons. BRAF mutations were found in 78/524 (14.9%) cases. Overall, mutation in KRAS codon 13, but not codon 12, was associated with a significantly reduced CSS in unadjusted, but not in adjusted analysis, and BRAF mutation did not significantly affect survival. However, in microsatellite stable (MSS), but not in MSI tumours, an adverse prognostic impact of BRAF mutation was observed in unadjusted, but not in adjusted analysis. While KRAS mutation status was not significantly associated with sex, BRAF mutations were more common in women. BRAF mutation was not prognostic in women; but in men, BRAF mutation was associated with a significantly reduced CSS in overall adjusted analysis (HR = 3.50; 95% CI = 1.41–8.70), but not in unadjusted analysis. In men with MSS tumours, BRAF mutation was an independent factor of poor prognosis (HR = 4.91; 95% CI = 1.99–12.12). KRAS codon 13 mutation was associated with a significantly reduced CSS in women, but not in men in unadjusted, but not in adjusted analysis. Conclusions

  17. Variation in contents of main active components and antioxidant activity in leaves of different pigeon pea cultivars during growth.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zuo-Fu; Jin, Shuang; Luo, Meng; Pan, You-Zhi; Li, Ting-Ting; Qi, Xiao-Lin; Efferth, Thomas; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2013-10-23

    Pigeon pea is an important and multiuse grain legume crop, and its leaves are a very valuable natural resource. To obtain a high-quality biological resource, it is necessary to choose the excellent cultivar and determine the appropriate harvest time. In this study, the variation in contents of main active components and antioxidant activity in leaves of six pigeon pea cultivars during growth were investigated. The level of each individual active component significantly varied during growth, but with a different pattern, and this variation was different among cultivars. Flavonoid glycosides orientin, vitexin, and apigenin-6,8-di-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside showed two peak values at mid-late and final stages of growth in most cases. Pinostrobin chalcone, longistyline C, and cajaninstilbene acid showed remarkablely higher values at the mid-late stage of growth than at other stages. Pinostrobin had an extremely different variation pattern compared to other active components. Its content was the highest at the earlier stage of growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that vitexin and apigenin-6,8-di-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside were mainly responsible for distinguishing cultivars analyzed. In a comprehensive consideration, the leaves should preferentially be harvested at the 135th day after sowing when the level of active components and antioxidant activity reached higher values. Cultivars ICP 13092, ICPL 87091, and ICPL 96053 were considered to be excellent cultivars with high antioxidant activity. Our findings can provide valuable information for producing a high-quality pigeon pea resource. PMID:24066714

  18. Addressing Different Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures from Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2009-10-01

    In a continuing effort to examine portable methods for implementing active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded fissionable material research is underway to investigate the utility of analyzing multiple time-correlated signatures. Time correlation refers here to the existence of unique characteristics of the fission interrogation signature related to the start and end of an irradiation, as well as signatures present in between individual pulses of an irradiating source. Traditional measurement approaches in this area have typically worked to detect die-away neutrons after the end of each pulse, neutrons in between pulses related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products, or neutrons or gamma rays related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products after the end of an irradiation exposure. In this paper we discus the potential weaknesses of assessing only one signature versus multiple signatures and make the assertion that multiple complimentary and orthogonal measurements should be used to bolster the performance of active interrogation systems, helping to minimize susceptibility to the weaknesses of individual signatures on their own. Recognizing that the problem of detection is a problem of low count rates, we are exploring methods to integrate commonly used signatures with rarely used signatures to improve detection capabilities for these measurements. In this paper we will discuss initial activity in this area with this approach together with observations of some of the strengths and weaknesses of using these different signatures.

  19. Distinct TFIID complexes mediate the effect of different transcriptional activators.

    PubMed Central

    Brou, C; Chaudhary, S; Davidson, I; Lutz, Y; Wu, J; Egly, J M; Tora, L; Chambon, P

    1993-01-01

    Multiple chromatographically separable complexes containing the TATA binding protein (TBP), which exhibit different functional properties, exist in HeLa cells. At least three distinct subpopulations of such complexes can be functionally defined as TFIID since they function with RNA polymerase II. Using a partially reconstituted HeLa cell in vitro transcription system and immunoprecipitation with a monoclonal antibody directed against TBP, we show that stimulation of transcription by the chimeric activators GAL-VP16, GAL-TEF-1 and GAL-ER(EF) requires the presence of factors which are tightly associated with these TFIID complexes. Moreover, the activity of GAL-TEF-1 appears to be mediated by at least two chromatographically distinct populations of TFIID. The factor(s) associated with one of these populations is also required for the activity of GAL-ER (EF) and GAL-VP16, while the factor(s) associated with the other population functions selectively with GAL-TEF-1. These two TFIID populations are composed of both common and unique TBP associated factors (TAFs). Images PMID:8440239

  20. Differences between the activity size distributions of the different natural radionuclide aerosols in outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gründel, M.; Porstendörfer, J.

    The results of the activity size distribution of the short-lived ( 218Po, 214Bi/ 214Po) and long-lived ( 210Pb, 210Po) radon decay product aerosols, the thoron decay product aerosols ( 212Pb, 212Po) and 7Be of the outdoor atmosphere are presented. The results were obtained from measurements averaged over an extended period (4 weeks) and were carried out with a low-pressure On-Line Alpha Cascade Impactor (OLACI). The size distributions of the radionuclides were obtained from the same measurement run with the OLACI, so that the size classification technique and the atmospheric and weather conditions for all radionuclides were identical. This measurement technique made it possible to measure the correct differences between the size distributions of the different natural radionuclides in the environmental air. The differences between the activity size distributions of the long- and short-lived radionuclides could be explained by coagulation with aerosol particles of the atmosphere as for instance 210Pb was shown.

  1. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Emily M; Yoshida, Miya C; Candelario, Tara Lynne T; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2015-03-15

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders. PMID:25568077

  2. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Emily M.; Yoshida, Miya C.; Candelario, Tara Lynne T.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders. PMID:25568077

  3. The effect of different inter-pad distances on the determination of active drag using the Measuring Active Drag system.

    PubMed

    Schreven, S; Toussaint, H M; Smeets, J B J; Beek, P J

    2013-07-26

    The Measuring Active Drag (MAD) system was developed to determine active drag in swimming by measuring the push-off force exerted at fixed pads placed below the waterline. The imposed inter-pad distance, which to date has been kept constant while using the MAD system, could affect the active drag because it requires the use of different stroke frequencies. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the effect of inter-pad distance on active drag at a given speed. In particular, drag-velocity curves at three different inter-pad distances (1.25m, 1.35m and 1.45m) were determined using the MAD system for eleven competitive swimmers. Variation of 16% in inter-pad distance (14% change in stroke frequency) revealed no significant difference in calculated active drag between different inter-pad distances and a low (<5%) average coefficient of variation over different inter-pad distances was found. In addition, inter-test reliability, which was determined for the two 1.35m conditions only, was high (ICC>0.90) for measurements on two consecutive days. The results suggest that it may not be necessary to adapt the inter-pad distance of the MAD system based on anthropometric characteristics of the subject or the velocity-related stroke length in free swimming. PMID:23791187

  4. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods. PMID:26396332

  5. Clinical significance of the plasminogen activator system in relation to grade of tumor and treatment response in colorectal carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Halamkova, J; Kiss, I; Pavlovsky, Z; Tomasek, J; Jarkovsky, J; Cech, Z; Tucek, S; Hanakova, L; Moulis, M; Zavrelova, J; Man, M; Benda, P; Robek, O; Kala, Z; Penka, M

    2011-01-01

    Urokinase (uPA) plays an essential role in the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, and together with its receptor (uPAR), tissue activator (tPA) and urokinase inhibitors (PAI 1, PAI 2, PAI 3 and protease nexin) forms the plasminogen activator system (PAS), a component of metastatic cascade importantly contributing to the invasive growth and angiogenesis of malignant tumours. In our project we examined the expression of uPA, uPAR, PAI 1 and PAI 2 in tumor tissue and we also studied the plasma levels of PAI 1 before and after the initiation of therapy in patients with colorectal carcinoma in relationship to grade of tumor and the treatment response. In our prospective evaluation we included 80 patients treated for adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum. Analysis of collected data revealed statistically significant evidence of a relationship between the level of PAI 1 in plasma before treatment and grade of the tumor, which increases with tumor grade (p=0.025). We demonstrated that there exists a statistically significant relationship between the expression of PAI 2 (p<0.001) and uPAR (p=0.031) and grade of tumor. We also confirmed a statistically significant relationship between soluble levels of PAI 1 before treatment and therapeutic response (p=0.021). In our group of patients the expression of uPA, uPAR, PAI 1 and 2 in tumor tissue in relation to response to treatment was also assessed. Our results suggest that the greater expression of these parameters in tumor tissue is linked to a worse response to therapy. In conclusion, PAS factors help as a prognostic indicators and could also act as a predictive factor in colorectal carcinoma. PMID:21744990

  6. Gender differences in the immune system activities of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Arizza, Vincenzo; Vazzana, Mirella; Schillaci, Domenico; Russo, Debora; Giaramita, Francesca Tiziana; Parrinello, Nicolò

    2013-03-01

    In the immune system of vertebrates, gender-specific differences in individual immune competence are well known. In general, females possess more powerful immune response than males. In invertebrates, the situation is much less clear. For this purpose we have chosen to study the immune response of the two sexes of the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus in pre- and post-spawning phases. The coelomic fluid from the echinoderms contains several coelomocyte types and molecules involved in innate immune defenses. In this article we report that the degree of immune responses in the P. lividus differs according to sex in both pre- and post-spawning phases. We found in all tests that females were more active than males. The results indicate that females possess a significant higher number of immunocytes consisting of phagocytes and uncolored spherulocytes. Since the immunological activity is mainly based on immunocytes, it was not surprising that females possessed the highest values of cytotoxicity and hemolysis activity and showed a greater ability to uptake neutral red and phagocyte yeasts cells, while the average number of ingested particles per active phagocyte was not significantly different. Furthermore, agglutinating activity was more evident in the coelomocyte lysate and coelomic fluid of females than in those of males. Finally we found that the acidic extract of female gonads possessed greater antimicrobial activity than that of male gonads. These results make it very likely that gender differences in the immune response are not restricted to vertebrates; rather, they are a general evolutionary phenomenon. PMID:23220062

  7. Clinical prognostic significance and pro-metastatic activity of RANK/RANKL via the AKT pathway in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Yao; Wang, Lihua; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yudong

    2016-02-01

    RANK/RANKL plays a key role in metastasis of certain malignant tumors, which makes it a promising target for developing novel therapeutic strategies for cancer. However, the prognostic value and pro-metastatic activity of RANK in endometrial cancer (EC) remain to be determined. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of RANK on the prognosis of EC patients, as well as the pro-metastatic activity of EC cells. The results indicated that those with high expression of RANK showed decreased overall survival and progression-free survival. Statistical analysis revealed the positive correlations between RANK/RANKL expression and metastasis-related factors. Additionally, RANK/RANKL significantly promoted cell migration/invasion via activating AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway in vitro. However, RANK/RANKL-induced AKT activation could be suppressed after osteoprotegerin (OPG) treatment. Furthermore, the combination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and RANKL could in turn attenuate the effect of RANKL alone. Similarly, MPA could partially inhibit the RANK-induced metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model via suppressing AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway. Therefore, therapeutic inhibition of MPA in RANK/RANKL-induced metastasis was mediated by AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential target of RANK for gene-based therapy for EC. PMID:26734994

  8. Significant activity of ecdysteroids on the resistance to doxorubicin in mammalian cancer cells expressing the human ABCB1 transporter.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ana; Tóth, Noémi; Ványolós, Attila; Béni, Zoltán; Zupkó, István; Molnár, József; Báthori, Mária; Hunyadi, Attila

    2012-06-14

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of failure of cancer chemotherapy. Fifty-eight ecdysteroids, herbal analogues of the insect molting hormone and their semisynthetic derivatives, were tested for their activity against L5178 mouse T-cell lymphoma cells (non-MDR) and their subcell line transfected with pHa MDR1/A retrovirus overexpressing the human ABCB1 efflux pump (MDR cell line). The compounds showed very low antiproliferative activities but modulated the efflux of rhodamine 123 mediated by the ABCB1 transporter. Roughly depending on the polarity, mild to strong synergism or antagonism was observed by combining ecdysteroids with doxorubicin, and specific structure-activity relationships were also found. Our results show the effect of ecdysteroids on MDR cancer cells for the first time. Less polar derivatives may serve as valuable leads toward a potent and safe resistance modulator. Biological significance of the resistance-increasing activity of the most abundant phytoecdysteroids including 20-hydroxyecdysone is yet to be clarified. PMID:22578055

  9. Clinical prognostic significance and pro-metastatic activity of RANK/RANKL via the AKT pathway in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Yao; Wang, Lihua; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    RANK/RANKL plays a key role in metastasis of certain malignant tumors, which makes it a promising target for developing novel therapeutic strategies for cancer. However, the prognostic value and pro-metastatic activity of RANK in endometrial cancer (EC) remain to be determined. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of RANK on the prognosis of EC patients, as well as the pro-metastatic activity of EC cells. The results indicated that those with high expression of RANK showed decreased overall survival and progression-free survival. Statistical analysis revealed the positive correlations between RANK/RANKL expression and metastasis-related factors. Additionally, RANK/RANKL significantly promoted cell migration/invasion via activating AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway in vitro. However, RANK/RANKL-induced AKT activation could be suppressed after osteoprotegerin (OPG) treatment. Furthermore, the combination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and RANKL could in turn attenuate the effect of RANKL alone. Similarly, MPA could partially inhibit the RANK-induced metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model via suppressing AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway. Therefore, therapeutic inhibition of MPA in RANK/RANKL-induced metastasis was mediated by AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential target of RANK for gene-based therapy for EC. PMID:26734994

  10. Marine organism sulfated polysaccharides exhibiting significant antimalarial activity and inhibition of red blood cell invasion by Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Marques, Joana; Vilanova, Eduardo; Mourão, Paulo A S; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The antimalarial activity of heparin, against which there are no resistances known, has not been therapeutically exploited due to its potent anticoagulating activity. Here, we have explored the antiplasmodial capacity of heparin-like sulfated polysaccharides from the sea cucumbers Ludwigothurea grisea and Isostichopus badionotus, from the red alga Botryocladia occidentalis, and from the marine sponge Desmapsamma anchorata. In vitro experiments demonstrated for most compounds significant inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth at low-anticoagulant concentrations. This activity was found to operate through inhibition of erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium, likely mediated by a coating of the parasite similar to that observed for heparin. In vivo four-day suppressive tests showed that several of the sulfated polysaccharides improved the survival of Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice. In one animal treated with I. badionotus fucan parasitemia was reduced from 10.4% to undetectable levels, and Western blot analysis revealed the presence of antibodies against P. yoelii antigens in its plasma. The retarded invasion mediated by sulfated polysaccharides, and the ensuing prolonged exposure of Plasmodium to the immune system, can be explored for the design of new therapeutic approaches against malaria where heparin-related polysaccharides of low anticoagulating activity could play a dual role as drugs and as potentiators of immune responses. PMID:27071342

  11. Marine organism sulfated polysaccharides exhibiting significant antimalarial activity and inhibition of red blood cell invasion by Plasmodium

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Joana; Vilanova, Eduardo; Mourão, Paulo A. S.; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The antimalarial activity of heparin, against which there are no resistances known, has not been therapeutically exploited due to its potent anticoagulating activity. Here, we have explored the antiplasmodial capacity of heparin-like sulfated polysaccharides from the sea cucumbers Ludwigothurea grisea and Isostichopus badionotus, from the red alga Botryocladia occidentalis, and from the marine sponge Desmapsamma anchorata. In vitro experiments demonstrated for most compounds significant inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth at low-anticoagulant concentrations. This activity was found to operate through inhibition of erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium, likely mediated by a coating of the parasite similar to that observed for heparin. In vivo four-day suppressive tests showed that several of the sulfated polysaccharides improved the survival of Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice. In one animal treated with I. badionotus fucan parasitemia was reduced from 10.4% to undetectable levels, and Western blot analysis revealed the presence of antibodies against P. yoelii antigens in its plasma. The retarded invasion mediated by sulfated polysaccharides, and the ensuing prolonged exposure of Plasmodium to the immune system, can be explored for the design of new therapeutic approaches against malaria where heparin-related polysaccharides of low anticoagulating activity could play a dual role as drugs and as potentiators of immune responses. PMID:27071342

  12. Cloud condensation nucleus activity comparison of dry- and wet-generated mineral dust aerosol: the significance of soluble material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, S.; Huang, Y.-w.; Seewald, J. S.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2013-11-01

    This study examines the interaction of clay mineral particles and water vapor to determine the conditions required for cloud droplet formation. Droplet formation conditions are investigated for three clay minerals: illite, sodium-rich montmorillonite, and Arizona Test Dust. Using wet and dry particle generation coupled to a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and cloud condensation nuclei counter, the critical activation of the clay mineral particles as cloud condensation nuclei is characterized. Electron microscopy (EM) is used to determine non-sphericity in particle shape. EM is also used to determine particle surface area and account for transmission of multiply charged particles by the DMA. Single particle mass spectrometry and ion chromatography are used to investigate soluble material in wet-generated samples and demonstrate that wet and dry generation yield compositionally different particles. Activation results are analyzed in the context of both κ-Köhler theory and Frenkel, Halsey, and Hill (FHH) adsorption activation theory. This study has two main results: (1) κ-Köhler is a suitable framework, less complex than FHH theory, to describe clay mineral nucleation activity despite apparent differences in κ with respect to size. For dry-generated particles the size dependence is likely an artifact of the shape of the size distribution: there is a sharp drop-off in particle concentration at ~300 nm, and a large fraction of particles classified with a mobility diameter less than ~300 nm are actually multiply charged, resulting in a much lower critical supersaturation for droplet activation than expected. For wet-generated particles, deviation from κ-Köhler theory is likely a result of the dissolution and redistribution of soluble material. (2) Wet-generation is found to be unsuitable for simulating the lofting of fresh dry dust because it changes the size-dependent critical supersaturations by fractionating and re-partitioning soluble material.

  13. Dietary analysis of Late Cenozoic Mexican equids from three different geographic/geologic settings using stable carbon isotopes: Coincidences, differences and paleobiologic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Crespo, Víctor Adrian; Ferrusquía-Villafranca, Ismael; Bravo-Cuevas, Víctor Manuel; Morales-Puente, Pedro; Ruiz-González, José E.

    2016-03-01

    The development of Vertebrate Paleontology in Mexico is uneven, so that there is a strong bias in favor of Neogene/Quaternary mammals largely collected in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB hereafter) and Central Plateau (CeP hereafter) Morphotectonic Provinces [MP hereafter]; however, the time is ripe for pursuing research in other than taxonomic areas. Here we investigate C3/C4 plant consumption in the equid lineage in three such provinces, which provide different geographic/geologic and paleoecologic scenarios during the Barstovian, Hemphillian and Rancholabrean times. Our results show that the Barstovian equids from Oaxaca, Sierra Madre del Sur MP Cormohipparion aff. C. quinni, Merychippus cf. M. sejunctus and Pliohippus sp. largely fed on C3 plants, which were the chief food stuff of horses in Mexico, particularly in the Southeast. On the other hand, the Hemphillian equid from Guanajuato, CeP Astrohippus stocki, was an unbalanced C3/C4 mixed feeders in favor of C4 plants, a fact that indicates a profound plant diversification due to the inception and rapid diversification of C4 plants that occurred there at this time, as it occurred in temperate North America, resulting in the differential consumption of C4 plants over that of C3 plants. Such trend prevailed until the Rancholabrean, as born out by the inferred diet for Equus conversidens and Equus sp. from Hidalgo, TMVB. Clearly then, the coeval diet change observed in Mexico and temperate North America implies a correlative vegetation change resulting in the appearance and rapid diversification of C4 plants, which largely formed the preferred food stuff of equids since the Hemphillian, although some C3 plant consumption was maintained till the Rancholabrean. It should be noted that the development of hypsodonty in equids and many artiodactyls, has long been interpreted as the adaptive mammalian response to the new feeding conditions.

  14. Plasma Thrombin Generation and Sensitivity to Activated Protein C Among Patients With Myeloma and Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Maeve P; Kevane, Barry; O'Shea, Susan I; Quinn, Shane; Egan, Karl; Gilligan, Oonagh M; Ní Áinle, Fionnuala

    2016-09-01

    The etiology of the prothrombotic state in myeloma has yet to be definitively characterized. Similarly, while recent evidence suggests that patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) may also be at increased risk of thrombosis, the magnitude and the etiology of this risk have also yet to be defined. The present study aims to characterize patterns of plasma thrombin generation and sensitivity to the anticoagulant activity of activated protein C (APC) at the time of initial diagnosis of myeloma and in response to therapy in comparison to that observed among patients with MGUS and matched, healthy volunteers. Patients presenting with newly diagnosed/newly relapsed myeloma (n = 8), MGUS (n = 8), and matched healthy volunteers (n = 8) were recruited. Plasma thrombin generation was determined by calibrated automated thrombography. Peak thrombin generation was significantly higher in patients with myeloma (383.4 ± 33.4 nmol/L) and MGUS (353.4 ± 16.5 nmol/L) compared to healthy volunteers (276.7 ± 20.8 nmol/L; P < .05). In the presence of APC, endogenous thrombin potential was significantly lower in control plasma (228.6 ± 44.5 nmol/L × min) than in either myeloma (866.2 ± 241.3 nmol/L × min, P = .01) or MGUS plasma (627 ± 91.5 nmol/L × min, P = .003). Within the myeloma cohort, peak thrombin generation was significantly higher at diagnosis (353.2 ± 15.9 nmol/L) than following completion of the third cycle of therapy (282.1 ± 15.2 nmol/L; P < .005). Moreover, sensitivity to APC increased progressively with each cycle of chemotherapy. Further study of the etiology and evolving patterns of hypercoagulability among patients with these conditions is warranted and may have future implications for thromboprophylaxis strategies. PMID:26759370

  15. Activation Energy of Extracellular Enzymes in Soils from Different Biomes

    PubMed Central

    Steinweg, J. Megan; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Frerichs, Joshua; Mayes, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme dynamics are being incorporated into soil carbon cycling models and accurate representation of enzyme kinetics is an important step in predicting belowground nutrient dynamics. A scarce number of studies have measured activation energy (Ea) in soils and fewer studies have measured Ea in arctic and tropical soils, or in subsurface soils. We determined the Ea for four typical lignocellulose degrading enzymes in the A and B horizons of seven soils covering six different soil orders. We also elucidated which soil properties predicted any measurable differences in Ea. β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, phenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were measured at five temperatures, 4, 21, 30, 40, and 60°C. Ea was calculated using the Arrhenius equation. β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase Ea values for both A and B horizons in this study were similar to previously reported values, however we could not make a direct comparison for B horizon soils because of the lack of data. There was no consistent relationship between hydrolase enzyme Ea and the environmental variables we measured. Phenol oxidase was the only enzyme that had a consistent positive relationship between Ea and pH in both horizons. The Ea in the arctic and subarctic zones for peroxidase was lower than the hydrolases and phenol oxidase values, indicating peroxidase may be a rate limited enzyme in environments under warming conditions. By including these six soil types we have increased the number of soil oxidative enzyme Ea values reported in the literature by 50%. This study is a step towards better quantifying enzyme kinetics in different climate zones. PMID:23536898

  16. Physical activity in patients with heart failure: barriers and motivations with special focus on sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Klompstra, Leonie; Jaarsma, Tiny; Strömberg, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence to recommendations for physical activity is low in both male and female patients with heart failure (HF). Men are more physically active than women. In order to successfully promote physical activity, it is therefore essential to explore how much and why HF patients are physically active and if this is related to sex. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate physical activity in HF patients, to describe the factors related to physical activity, and to examine potential barriers and motivations to physical activity with special focus on sex differences. Methods The study had a cross-sectional survey design. HF patients living at home received a questionnaire during May–July 2014, with questions on physical activity (from the Short Form-International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and potential barriers and motivations to physical activity. Results A total of 154 HF patients, 27% women, with a mean age of 70±10 were included. In total, 23% of the patients reported a high level of physical activity, 46% a moderate level, and 34% a low level. Higher education, self-efficacy, and motivation were significantly associated with a higher amount of physical activity. Symptoms or severity of the disease were not related to physical activity. All the potential barriers to exercise were reported to be of importance. Psychological motivations were most frequently rated as being the most important motivation (41%) to be physically active. Physical motivations (33%) and social motivations were rated as the least important ones (22%). Women had significantly higher total motivation to be physically active. These differences were found in social, physical, and psychological motivations. Discussion One-third of the HF patients had a low level of physical activity in their daily life. Severity of the disease or symptoms were not related, whereas level of education, exercise self-efficacy, and motivation were important factors to take into account when

  17. Differences in wearer response to garments for outdoor activity.

    PubMed

    Laing, R M; Sims, S T; Wilson, C A; Niven, B E; Cruthers, N M

    2008-04-01

    The performance of garments for outdoor activity was compared. Three fabrics, each in garments for the upper body, matched garment/wearer dimensions, were worn by 10 athletically 'well-trained' males under controlled conditions (hot 32 +/- 2 degrees C, 20 +/- 2% relative humidity (RH); cold 8 +/- 2 degrees C, 40 +/- 2% RH) with physical (instrumental) and sensory responses obtained during the trials. Differences in human responses to the fabrics/garments included heart rate, core temperature during run (hot, cold), rest (hot) and walk (cold), heat content of the body, humidity under garments during rest and run and time to onset of sweating. No such differences were identified for change in body mass, core temperature during walk (hot) and rest (cold), skin temperature, temperature of skin covered by the garment, humidity under the garments during walk or for any perceptions (thermal sensations, thermal comfort of torso, exertion, wetness). The garment in single jersey wool fabric performed best in both hot and cold conditions. Effects of garments on wearers are often related to properties of the fabrics from which the garments are made. This study shows that only some differences in fabric properties result in measurable thermophysiological and perceptual responses of the garment wearers and underlines the difficulty in predicting performance of garments/persons from laboratory tests on fabrics. PMID:18357537

  18. Do quality of life, participation and environment of older adults differ according to level of activity?

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background Activity limitation is one of the most frequent geriatric clinical syndromes that have significant individual and societal impacts. People living with activity limitations might have fewer opportunities to be satisfied with life or experience happiness, which can have a negative effect on their quality of life. Participation and environment are also important modifiable variables that influence community living and are targeted by health interventions. However, little is known about how quality of life, participation and environment differ according to activity level. This study examines if quality of life, participation (level and satisfaction) and perceived quality of the environment (facilitators or obstacles in the physical or social environment) of community-dwelling older adults differ according to level of activity. Methods A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 156 older adults (mean age = 73.7; 76.9% women), living at home and having good cognitive functions, recruited according to three levels of activity limitations (none, slight to moderate and moderate to severe). Quality of life was estimated with the Quality of Life Index, participation with the Assessment of Life Habits and environment with the Measure of the Quality of the Environment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Welch F-ratio indicated if the main variables differed according to activity level. Results Quality of life and satisfaction with participation were greater with a higher activity level (p < 0.001). However, these differences were clinically significant only between participants without activity limitations and those with moderate to severe activity limitations. When activity level was more limited, participation level was further restricted (p < 0.001) and the physical environment was perceived as having more obstacles (p < 0.001). No differences were observed for facilitators in the physical and social environment or for obstacles in the social

  19. The distribution and gender difference of CYP3A activity in Chinese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bing; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Chen, Guo-Lin; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Ou-Yang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Lian-Sheng; Huang, Song-Lin; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2003-01-01

    Aims To investigate the distribution of CYP3A activity in the Chinese population, and to test for gender-related differences in CYP3A activity. Methods Using midazolam as a probe drug, CYP3A activity in 202 Chinese healthy subjects (104 men) was measured by plasma 1′-hydroxymidazolam:midazolam (1′-OH-MDZ:MDZ) ratio at 1 h after oral administration of 7.5 mg midazolam. The different phases of the menstrual cycle including preovulatory, ovulatory and luteal phases of 66 women phenotyped with midazolam were recorded. The concentrations of 1′-OH-MDZ and MDZ in plasma were measured by HPLC Results A 13-fold variation of CYP3A activity (log1′-OH-MDZ:MDZ: range −0.949–0.203) was shown. The CYP3A activity was normally distributed as indicated by the frequency distribution histogram, the probit plot and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (P > 0.05). The CYP3A activity of women was higher than that of men (median: −0.36 vs −0.43, P < 0.05; 95% CI for difference: −0.127, −0.012). There was a significant difference in CYP3A activity between the three phases of the menstrual cycle. The activity was highest in the preovulatory phase and decreased sequentially in the ovulatory and luteal phases (P < 0.05). Conclusions A normal distribution of CYP3A activity was observed in the Chinese population. The CYP3A activity is higher in female subjects than in males. CYP3A activity differed across the phases of the menstrual cycle. PMID:12630976

  20. Different Contributions of Physical Activity on Arterial Stiffness between Diabetics and Non-Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Jiro; Watanabe, Masafumi; Murasawa, Takahide; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Background We compared the contribution of physical activity to the change in arterial stiffness between patients with and without diabetes in ischemic heart disease. Methods We studied 96 (diabetes) and 109 (without diabetes) patients with ischemic heart disease treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Arterial stiffness was assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) at the first diagnosis of significant coronary ischemia and 6 months after PCI and optimal medical therapy. Physical activity was evaluated using the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results CAVI values increased more for diabetic patients than for non-diabetic. The IPAQ scores did not differ between the two groups. During follow-up, CAVI values did not significantly change in either group. In diabetic patients, the CAVI score for 48 patients did not change (NC-group) and 48 patients improved (Improved-group). Physical activity scores were 937.9 ± 923.2 and 1524.6 ± 1166.2 in the NC- and Improved-groups, respectively. IPAQ scores and uric acid levels significantly affect CAVI improvement after adjusting for age, sex, baseline CAVI, total cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Conclusion Determining factors influencing CAVI improvement during follow-up were significantly different between patients with and without diabetes. IPAQ scores and uric acid levels were significantly correlated with CAVI changes. PMID:27508936

  1. Effects of different types of exercise on muscle activity and balance control

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Gim, Min-A; Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the effects of isotonic, isokinetic, and isometric exercises of ankle joint muscles on lower extremity muscle activity and balance control. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 healthy adults (15 males) in their 20s who were randomly assigned to three different exercise method groups of 10 people each. The isokinetic exercise group performed three sets at an angular velocity of 60°/sec, including a single rest period after every set of 10 repetitions. The isometric exercise group performed three sets consisting of three 15 repetitions of a 15-second exercise followed by a 5-second rest. [Results] Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that depending on the exercise method, the non-dominant tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius muscle, and peroneus longus showed significant differences in muscle activity for weight-bearing non-dominant sides; when the dominant side was weight-bearing, the dominant gastrocnemius and peroneus longus showed significant differences in muscle activity; and the non-dominant and dominant sides showed significant differences in balance control depending on the duration of support in the area. [Conclusion] Muscle fatigue from the three exercise methods produced a decline in muscle activity and balance control; due to the fatigue before exercise, the side that did not perform the exercises was affected. PMID:26180340

  2. Evaluation of the Therapeutic Potential of Anti-TLR4-Antibody MTS510 in Experimental Stroke and Significance of Different Routes of Application

    PubMed Central

    Czech-Zechmeister, Bozena; Könnecke, Birte; Lühder, Fred; Trendelenburg, George

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are central sensors for the inflammatory response in ischemia-reperfusion injury. We therefore investigated whether TLR4 inhibition could be used to treat stroke in a standard model of focal cerebral ischemia. Anti-TLR4/MD2-antibody (mAb clone MTS510) blocked TLR4-induced cell activation in vitro, as reported previously. Here, different routes of MTS510 application in vivo were used to study the effects on stroke outcome up to 2d after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 45min in adult male C57Bl/6 wild-type mice. Improved neurological performance, reduced infarct volumes, and reduced brain swelling showed that intravascular application of MTS510 had a protective effect in the model of 45min MCAO. Evaluation of potential long-term adverse effects of anti-TLR4-mAb-treament revealed no significant deleterious effect on infarct volumes nor neurological deficit after 14d of reperfusion in a mild model of stroke (15min MCAO). Interestingly, inhibition of TLR4 resulted in an altered adaptive immune response at 48 hours after reperfusion. We conclude that blocking TLR4 by the use of specific mAb is a promising strategy for stroke therapy. However, long-term studies with increased functional sensitivity, larger sampling sizes and use of other species are required before a clinical use could be envisaged. PMID:26849209

  3. Physiological Sleep Propensity Might Be Unaffected by Significant Variations in Self-Reported Well-Being, Activity, and Mood.

    PubMed

    Putilov, Arcady A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Depressive state is often associated with such physical symptoms as general weakness, fatigue, tiredness, slowness, reduced activity, low energy, and sleepiness. The involvement of the sleep-wake regulating mechanisms has been proposed as one of the plausible explanations of this association. Both physical depressive symptoms and increased physiological sleep propensity can result from disordered and insufficient sleep. In order to avoid the influence of disordered and insufficient sleep, daytime and nighttime sleepiness were tested in winter depression characterized by normal night sleep duration and architecture. Materials and Methods. A total sample consisted of 6 healthy controls and 9 patients suffered from depression in the previous winter season. Sleep latency was determined across 5 daytime and 4 nighttime 20-min attempts to nap in summer as well as in winter before and after a week of 2-hour evening treatment with bright light. Results and Conclusions. Patients self-reported abnormally lowered well-being, activity, and mood only in winter before the treatment. Physiological sleep propensity was neither abnormal nor linked to significant changes in well-being, activity, and mood following the treatment and change in season. It seems unlikely that the mechanisms regulating the sleep-wake cycle contributed to the development of the physical depressive symptoms. PMID:26294978

  4. Physiological Sleep Propensity Might Be Unaffected by Significant Variations in Self-Reported Well-Being, Activity, and Mood

    PubMed Central

    Putilov, Arcady A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Depressive state is often associated with such physical symptoms as general weakness, fatigue, tiredness, slowness, reduced activity, low energy, and sleepiness. The involvement of the sleep-wake regulating mechanisms has been proposed as one of the plausible explanations of this association. Both physical depressive symptoms and increased physiological sleep propensity can result from disordered and insufficient sleep. In order to avoid the influence of disordered and insufficient sleep, daytime and nighttime sleepiness were tested in winter depression characterized by normal night sleep duration and architecture. Materials and Methods. A total sample consisted of 6 healthy controls and 9 patients suffered from depression in the previous winter season. Sleep latency was determined across 5 daytime and 4 nighttime 20-min attempts to nap in summer as well as in winter before and after a week of 2-hour evening treatment with bright light. Results and Conclusions. Patients self-reported abnormally lowered well-being, activity, and mood only in winter before the treatment. Physiological sleep propensity was neither abnormal nor linked to significant changes in well-being, activity, and mood following the treatment and change in season. It seems unlikely that the mechanisms regulating the sleep-wake cycle contributed to the development of the physical depressive symptoms. PMID:26294978

  5. Sleep Loss Activates Cellular Markers of Inflammation: Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Carrillo, Carmen; Olmstead, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is associated with inflammation and related disorders including cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. Given sex differences in the prevalence of inflammatory disorders with stronger associations in females, this study was undertaken to test the effects of sleep loss on cellular mechanisms that contribute to proinflammatory cytokine activity. In 26 healthy adults (11 females; 15 males), monocyte intracellular proinflammatory cytokine production was repeatedly assessed at 08:00, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00, and 23:00 h during a baseline period and after partial sleep deprivation (awake from 11 PM to 3 AM). In the morning after a night of sleep loss, monocyte production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor- α differentially changed between the two sexes. Whereas both females and males showed a marked increase in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the morning immediately after PSD, production of these cytokines during the early- and late evening was increased in the females as compared to decreases in the males. Sleep loss induces a functional alteration of monocyte proinflammatory cytokine responses with females showing greater cellular immune activation as compared to changes in males. These results have implications for understanding the role of sleep disturbance in the differential risk profile for inflammatory disorders between the sexes. PMID:19520155

  6. Differences in active commuting among younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Der Ananian, Cheryl; Campbell, Matthew E

    2014-04-01

    The demonstrated health benefits of active commuting (AC) and low participation rates among older adults indicate a need to examine the socioecological correlates of AC by age category. An online survey of employed U.S. adults examined AC participation and individual, employment-related, community, and environmental variables. Participants were dichotomized by age (younger: 18-49 yr; n = 638, 64% and older: ≥ 50 yr; n = 359, 36%). Logistic-regression analyses examined differences in AC correlates by age. Older adults were less likely to be active commuters (13.4%) than younger adults (27.9%; p < .001) For older adults, analyses yielded a Nagelkerke R2 = .76, with perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, household cars, and walking distance as predictors. Analyses for younger adults resulted in a Nagelkerke R2 = .79, with perceived behavioral control, coworker normative beliefs, parking problems at work, greater employer and community support for AC, and bad weather as predictors. Findings suggest age should be considered when examining and targeting AC behaviors. PMID:23689245

  7. Shear bond strength to enamel after power bleaching activated by different sources.

    PubMed

    Can-Karabulut, Deniz C; Karabulut, Baris

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate enamel bond strength of a composite resin material after hydrogen peroxide bleaching, activated by a diode laser (LaserSmile), an ozone device (HealOzone), a light-emitting diode (BT Cool whitening system), and a quartz-Plus. Fifty extracted caries-free permanent incisors were used in this study. Thirty-eight percent hydrogen peroxidegel was applied to sound, flattened labial enamel surfaces and activated by different sources. Enamel surfaces that had received no treatment were used as control samples. Bonding agent was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions and the adhesion test was performed according to ISO/TS 11405. Statistical analysis showed significant influence of the different activation technique of hydrogen peroxide on shear bond strength to enamel (ANOVA, LSD, P < 0.05). The data in this vitro explorative study suggest the activation of hydrogen peroxide by different sources may further affect the shear bond strength of subsequent composite resin restoration to enamel. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, further studies examining the structural changes of activated hydrogen peroxide-treated enamel are needed. Due to the different activation methods; duration of light irradiation effects, longer time periods may be needed before application of adhesive restorations to enamel, compared with non-activated bleaching. PMID:21069109

  8. Evaluation of Radical Scavenging Activity of Sempervivum tectorum and Corylus avellana Extracts with Different Phenolic Composition.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Ágnes; Riethmüller, Eszter; Béni, Szabolcs; Kéry, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    Semnpervivum tectorum L. and Corylus avellana L. are traditional herbal remedies exhibiting antioxidant activity and representing diverse phenolic composition. The aim of this study was to reveal the contribution of certain compounds to total radical scavenging activity by studying S. tectorum and C. avellana extracts prepared with solvents of different selectivity for diverse classes of phenolics. Antioxidant activity of S. tectorum and C. avellana samples was determined in the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays, and phenolic composition was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Correlations between antioxidant activity and phenolic content of houseleek extracts have been revealed. Significant differences regarding antioxidant activity have been shown between S. tectorum 80% (v/v) methanol extract and its fractions. Additionally, synergism among the constituents present together in the whole extract was assumed. Significantly higher radical scavenging activity of hazel extracts has been attributed to the differences in phenolic composition compared with houseleek extracts. PMID:27396195

  9. Gender Differences in the Routine Activities Associated With Risks for Larceny in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; Jeong, SeokJin; Yoon, Hae-Sung

    2016-08-01

    The present research uses data from the 2010 Korean National Criminal Victimization Survey to examine gender differences in larceny victimization and in predictors of victimization (i.e., target attractiveness, exposure to potential offenders, target hardening, guardianship, and proximity to crime and social disorder) identified by routine activity theory. The findings show no significant gender difference in general larceny victimization, suggesting that Korean females are just as likely to be victims of theft of personal belongings as males. Consistent with the theory, physical proximity to crime and social disorder are significant predictors of larceny victimization for both males and females. However, public transportation appears to have unexpected protective influences for both gender groups, showing the importance of differences in national context. Overall, the current research provides partial support for routine activity theory's applicability in explaining larceny victimization across gender groups outside of the Western context. It also raises questions about reasons for women's increasing larceny victimization rates in Korea. PMID:25943364

  10. Differences in neural activation for object-directed grasping in chimpanzees and humans.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Erin E; Murphy, Lauren E; Gutman, David A; Votaw, John R; Schuster, David M; Preuss, Todd M; Orban, Guy A; Stout, Dietrich; Parr, Lisa A

    2013-08-28

    The human faculty for object-mediated action, including tool use and imitation, exceeds that of even our closest primate relatives and is a key foundation of human cognitive and cultural uniqueness. In humans and macaques, observing object-directed grasping actions activates a network of frontal, parietal, and occipitotemporal brain regions, but differences in human and macaque activation suggest that this system has been a focus of selection in the primate lineage. To study the evolution of this system, we performed functional neuroimaging in humans' closest living relatives, chimpanzees. We compare activations during performance of an object-directed manual grasping action, observation of the same action, and observation of a mimed version of the action that consisted of only movements without results. Performance and observation of the same action activated a distributed frontoparietal network similar to that reported in macaques and humans. Like humans and unlike macaques, these regions were also activated by observing movements without results. However, in a direct chimpanzee/human comparison, we also identified unique aspects of human neural responses to observed grasping. Chimpanzee activation showed a prefrontal bias, including significantly more activity in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas human activation was more evenly distributed across more posterior regions, including significantly more activation in ventral premotor cortex, inferior parietal cortex, and inferotemporal cortex. This indicates a more "bottom-up" representation of observed action in the human brain and suggests that the evolution of tool use, social learning, and cumulative culture may have involved modifications of frontoparietal interactions. PMID:23986247

  11. Correlates of college students' physical activity: cross-cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R; Jiang, Nan; Fernandez-Rojas, Xinia; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-10-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in personal and behavioral determinants of vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) among college students living in distinctly different cultures, that is, the United States, Costa Rica, India, and South Korea. Participants of this study were recruited from randomly chosen public universities in the 4 countries during the 2006-2007 academic year. A total of 4685 students participated in the study (response rate 90%). Vigorous-intensity PA was measured by asking on how many of the past 7 days the participants participated in PA for at least 20 minutes that made them sweat or breathe hard. For moderate-intensity PA, participants were asked on how many of the past 7 days they participated in PA for at least 30 minutes that did not make them sweat or breathe hard. Findings indicate that whereas perceived overweight and fruit and vegetable consumption are relatively culture-free predictors of PA, gender and TV/video watching are culture-specific predictors. Binge drinking was not predictive of meeting the vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity PA guidelines in any of the 4 countries. PMID:19661101

  12. Electrogastrography in Adults and Children: The Strength, Pitfalls, and Clinical Significance of the Cutaneous Recording of the Gastric Electrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Indrio, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive technique to record gastric myoelectrical activity from the abdominal surface. Although the recent rapid increase in the development of electrocardiography, EGG still suffers from several limitations. Currently, computer analysis of EGG provides few reliable parameters, such as frequency and the percentage of normal and altered slow wave activity (bradygastria and tachygastria). New EGG hardware and software, along with an appropriate arrangement of abdominal electrodes, could detect the coupling of the gastric slow wave from the EGG. At present, EGG does not diagnose a specific disease, but it puts in evidence stomach motor dysfunctions in different pathological conditions as gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Despite the current pitfalls of EGG, a multitasking diagnostic protocol could involve the EGG and the 13C-breath testing for the evaluation of the gastric emptying time—along with validated gastrointestinal questionnaires and biochemical evaluations of the main gastrointestinal peptides—to identify dyspeptic subgroups. The present review tries to report the state of the art about the pathophysiological background of the gastric electrical activity, the recording and processing methodology of the EGG with particular attention to multichannel recording, and the possible clinical application of the EGG in adult and children. PMID:23762836

  13. Cloud condensation nucleus activity comparison of dry- and wet-generated mineral dust aerosol: the significance of soluble material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, S.; Huang, Y.-W.; Seewald, J. S.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the interaction of clay mineral particles and water vapor for determining the conditions required for cloud droplet formation. Droplet formation conditions are investigated for two common clay minerals, illite and sodium-rich montmorillonite, and an industrially derived sample, Arizona Test Dust. Using wet and dry particle generation coupled to a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and cloud condensation nuclei counter, the critical activation of the clay mineral particles as cloud condensation nuclei is characterized. Electron microscopy (EM) is used in order to determine non-sphericity in particle shape. It is also used in order to determine particle surface area and account for transmission of multiply charged particles by the DMA. Single particle mass spectrometry and ion chromatography are used to investigate soluble material in wet-generated samples and demonstrate that wet and dry generation yield compositionally different particles. Activation results are analyzed in the context of both κ-Köhler theory (κ-KT) and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption activation theory. This study has two main results: (1) κ-KT is the suitable framework to describe clay mineral nucleation activity. Apparent differences in κ with respect to size arise from an artifact introduced by improper size-selection methodology. For dust particles with mobility sizes larger than ~300 nm, i.e., ones that are within an atmospherically relevant size range, both κ-KT and FHH theory yield similar critical supersaturations. However, the former requires a single hygroscopicity parameter instead of the two adjustable parameters required by the latter. For dry-generated particles, the size dependence of κ is likely an artifact of the shape of the size distribution: there is a sharp drop-off in particle concentration at ~300 nm, and a large fraction of particles classified with a mobility diameter less than ~300 nm are actually multiply charged, resulting in a much

  14. Do perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differ between male and female adolescents?

    PubMed

    Tergerson, Jennifer L; King, Keith A

    2002-11-01

    A four-page survey was administered to 535 adolescents at two single-sex (one male, one female) high schools in Cincinnati, Ohio, to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. More specifically, the survey assessed perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to exercising. Results indicated that the most helpful cue to physical activity for both female and male students was "having a friend to exercise with." The most commonly reported benefit of exercising among females was "to stay in shape," whereas the most commonly reported benefit to exercising among males was "to become strong." Among females, the most common barrier to exercising was "having no time to exercise," whereas males were most likely to report "wanting to do other things with my time." Multivariate analyses of covariance revealed that perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differed significantly based on gender. Recommendations on specific strategies to increasing male and female adolescent physical activity levels are offered. PMID:12557633

  15. Genome-wide analysis of antiviral signature genes in porcine macrophages at different activation statuses.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yongming; Brichalli, Wyatt; Rowland, Raymond R R; Blecha, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages (MФs) can be polarized to various activation statuses, including classical (M1), alternative (M2), and antiviral states. To study the antiviral activation status of porcine MФs during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, we used RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) for transcriptomic analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation showed that our RNA-Seq data met the criteria for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. Comparisons of any two activation statuses revealed more than 20,000 DEGs that were normalized to filter out 153-5,303 significant DEGs [false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.001, fold change ≥2] in each comparison. The highest 5,303 significant DEGs were found between lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) and interferon (IFN)γ-stimulated M1 cells, whereas only 153 significant DEGs were detected between interleukin (IL)-10-polarized M2 cells and control mock-activated cells. To identify signature genes for antiviral regulation pertaining to each activation status, we identified a set of DEGs that showed significant up-regulation in only one activation state. In addition, pathway analyses defined the top 20-50 significantly regulated pathways at each activation status, and we further analyzed DEGs pertinent to pathways mediated by AMP kinase (AMPK) and epigenetic mechanisms. For the first time in porcine macrophages, our transcriptomic analyses not only compared family-wide differential expression of most known immune genes at different activation statuses, but also revealed transcription evidence of multiple gene families. These findings show that using RNA-Seq transcriptomic analyses in virus-infected and status-synchronized macrophages effectively profiled signature genes and gene response pathways for antiviral regulation, which may provide a framework for optimizing antiviral immunity and immune homeostasis. PMID:24505295

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of Antiviral Signature Genes in Porcine Macrophages at Different Activation Statuses

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Yongming; Brichalli, Wyatt; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Blecha, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages (MФs) can be polarized to various activation statuses, including classical (M1), alternative (M2), and antiviral states. To study the antiviral activation status of porcine MФs during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, we used RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) for transcriptomic analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation showed that our RNA-Seq data met the criteria for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. Comparisons of any two activation statuses revealed more than 20,000 DEGs that were normalized to filter out 153–5,303 significant DEGs [false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.001, fold change ≥2] in each comparison. The highest 5,303 significant DEGs were found between lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) and interferon (IFN)γ-stimulated M1 cells, whereas only 153 significant DEGs were detected between interleukin (IL)-10-polarized M2 cells and control mock-activated cells. To identify signature genes for antiviral regulation pertaining to each activation status, we identified a set of DEGs that showed significant up-regulation in only one activation state. In addition, pathway analyses defined the top 20–50 significantly regulated pathways at each activation status, and we further analyzed DEGs pertinent to pathways mediated by AMP kinase (AMPK) and epigenetic mechanisms. For the first time in porcine macrophages, our transcriptomic analyses not only compared family-wide differential expression of most known immune genes at different activation statuses, but also revealed transcription evidence of multiple gene families. These findings show that using RNA-Seq transcriptomic analyses in virus-infected and status-synchronized macrophages effectively profiled signature genes and gene response pathways for antiviral regulation, which may provide a framework for optimizing antiviral immunity and immune homeostasis. PMID:24505295

  17. Chronic methylphenidate alters locomotor activity and dopamine transporters differently from cocaine.

    PubMed

    Izenwasser, S; Coy, A E; Ladenheim, B; Loeloff, R J; Cadet, J L; French, D

    1999-06-01

    Continuous infusion of cocaine produces partial behavioral tolerance to its locomotor activating effects, while daily injections produce sensitization. Methylphenidate binds with a similar affinity to cocaine at the dopamine transporter, but has a much lower affinity for the serotonin transporter than does cocaine. This study was done to compare the effects of chronic methylphenidate with chronic cocaine. The pattern of locomotor activity over a 7 day treatment period was significantly different from cocaine. Methylphenidate elevated activity on each day, compared to saline, yet neither tolerance to a continuous infusion of the drug, nor sensitization to repeated daily injections was produced. We have previously shown that neither of these treatments with cocaine produces significant alterations in dopamine transporter density 1 day after the end of treatment. In contrast, methylphenidate injections significantly decreased dopamine transporters in rostral caudate putamen, with no change in nucleus accumbens. Continuous infusion of methylphenidate had no effect on dopamine transporters in either brain region. These findings provide further evidence that different classes of dopamine uptake inhibitors may interact with the dopamine transporter in qualitatively different manners. Furthermore, it is possible that the inhibition of serotonin uptake by cocaine may contribute to the adaptations in behavioral activity that are seen during chronic treatment. PMID:10414438

  18. Electromyographic Activity of Soleus and Tibialis Anterior Muscles during Ascending and Descending Stairs of Different Heights

    PubMed Central

    Eteraf Oskouei, Ali; Ferdosrad, Nehzat; Dianat, Iman; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohamad; Nazari, Jalil

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the two leg muscles (Tibialis anterior [TA] and Soleus [SOL]) during ascending and descending stairs with different heights (10 cm, 15.5 cm and 18 cm). Methods: Eighteen female university students aged between 20 and 36 yr participated in the study. Data were collected using a ME6000 Biomonitor EMG System (revision MT-M6T16-0) and surface electrodes. Results: The EMG activity of the SOL muscle was significantly higher than the TA muscle activity (P = 0.001). Besides, the muscle activity level of the SOL muscle was significantly higher when ascending compared to descending condi-tion (P = 0.001). The stair height had no significant effect of the EMG activity of the two muscles. Conclusion: These findings highlight that the two muscles are not equally affected by the stair height during ascending and descending condition. The results also indicate that there is no preference between different stair heights in terms of muscular effort. PMID:25648248

  19. Angiotensin II activates different calcium signaling pathways in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Dolgacheva, Lyudmila P; Turovskaya, Maria V; Dynnik, Vladimir V; Zinchenko, Valery P; Goncharov, Nikolay V; Davletov, Bazbek; Turovsky, Egor A

    2016-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is an important mammalian neurohormone involved in reninangiotensin system. Ang II is produced both constitutively and locally by RAS systems, including white fat adipocytes. The influence of Ang II on adipocytes is complex, affecting different systems of signal transduction from early Са(2+) responses to cell proliferation and differentiation, triglyceride accumulation, expression of adipokine-encoding genes and adipokine secretion. It is known that white fat adipocytes express all RAS components and Ang II receptors (АТ1 and АТ2). The current work was carried out with the primary white adipocytes culture, and Са(2+) signaling pathways activated by Ang II were investigated using fluorescent microscopy. Са(2+)-oscillations and transient responses of differentiated adipocytes to Ang II were registered in cells with both small and multiple lipid inclusions. Using inhibitory analysis and selective antagonists, we now show that Ang II initiates periodic Са(2+)-oscillations and transient responses by activating АТ1 and АТ2 receptors and involving branched signaling cascades: 1) Ang II → Gq → PLC → IP3 → IP3Rs → Ca(2+) 2) Gβγ → PI3Kγ → PKB 3) PKB → eNOS → NO → PKG 4) CD38 → cADPR → RyRs → Ca(2+) In these cascades, AT1 receptors play the leading role. The results of the present work open a perspective of using Ang II for correction of signal resistance of adipocytes often observed during obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26850364

  20. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested. PMID:21882663

  1. Small molecule agonists of integrin CD11b/CD18 do not induce global conformational changes and are significantly better than activating antibodies in reducing vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Altintas, Mehmet M.; Gomez, Camilo; Duque, Juan Camilo; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I.; Gupta, Vineet

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CD11b/CD18 is a key adhesion receptor that mediates leukocyte adhesion, migration and immune functions. We recently identified novel compounds, leukadherins, that allosterically enhance CD11b/CD18-dependent cell adhesion and reduce inflammation in vivo, suggesting integrin activation to be a novel mechanism of action for the development of anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Since a number of well-characterized anti-CD11b/CD18 activating antibodies are currently available, we wondered if such biological agonists could also become therapeutic leads following this mechanism of action. METHODS We compared the two types of agonists using in vitro cell adhesion and wound-healing assays and using animal model systems. We also studied effects of the two types of agonists on outside-in signaling in treated cells. RESULTS Both types of agonists similarly enhanced integrin-mediated cell adhesion and decreased cell migration. However, unlike leukadherins, the activating antibodies produced significant CD11b/CD18 macro clustering and induced phosphorylation of key proteins involved in outside-in signaling. Studies using conformation reporter antibodies showed that leukadherins did not induce global conformational changes in CD11b/CD18 explaining the reason behind their lack of ligand-mimetic outside-in signaling. In vivo, leukadherins reduced vascular injury in a dose-dependent fashion, but, surprisingly, the anti-CD11b activating antibody ED7 was ineffective. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that small molecule allosteric agonists of CD11b/CD18 have clear advantages over the biologic activating antibodies and provide a mechanistic basis for the difference. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE CD11b/CD18 activation represents a novel strategy for reducing inflammatory injury. Our study establishes small molecule leukadherins as preferred agonists over activating antibodies for future development as novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:23454649

  2. Cry1Ac Transgenic Sugarcane Does Not Affect the Diversity of Microbial Communities and Has No Significant Effect on Enzyme Activities in Rhizosphere Soil within One Crop Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dinggang; Xu, Liping; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Luo, Jun; You, Qian; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane provides a promising way to control stem-borer pests. Biosafety assessment of soil ecosystem for cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane is urgently needed because of the important role of soil microorganisms in nutrient transformations and element cycling, however little is known. This study aimed to explore the potential impact of cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane on rhizosphere soil enzyme activities and microbial community diversity, and also to investigate whether the gene flow occurs through horizontal gene transfer. We found no horizontal gene flow from cry1Ac sugarcane to soil. No significant difference in the population of culturable microorganisms between the non-GM and cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane was observed, and there were no significant interactions between the sugarcane lines and the growth stages. A relatively consistent trend at community-level, represented by the functional diversity index, was found between the cry1Ac sugarcane and the non-transgenic lines. Most soil samples showed no significant difference in the activities of four soil enzymes: urease, protease, sucrose, and acid phosphate monoester between the non-transgenic and cry1Ac sugarcane lines. We conclude, based on one crop season, that the cry1Ac sugarcane lines may not affect the microbial community structure and functional diversity of the rhizosphere soil and have few negative effects on soil enzymes. PMID:27014291

  3. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Aroma Compounds Analysis from Different Kinds of Tartary Buckwheat Tea.

    PubMed

    Peng, L X; Zou, L; Wang, J B; Zhao, J L; Xiang, D B; Zhao, G

    2015-01-01

    The rutin, quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity, and aroma compounds in different commercial tartary buckwheat tea were analyzed in our study. Results revealed that the materials and the processing protocol affected the chemical composition and activity of tartary buckwheat tea. Rutin and quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity were significantly different in various kinds of tartary buckwheat tea, where the whole bran tea and the whole plant tea had the lower rutin, but higher quercetin concentrations and higher antioxidant activity. The whole embryo tea had the converse results. There was strong correlation between quercetin concentration and antioxidant activity (r>0.98, P<0.05). Meanwhile, Twenty eight different aroma compounds in tartary buckwheat tea were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Those compounds were mainly composed of pyrazine, aldehydes, fatty acids and ketones. The main type of aroma compounds in different tartary buckwheat tea were similar, but their relative contents were different. The implications to the quality control of buckwheat tea were extensively discussed. PMID:26997692

  4. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Aroma Compounds Analysis from Different Kinds of Tartary Buckwheat Tea

    PubMed Central

    Peng, L. X.; Zou, L.; Wang, J. B.; Zhao, J. L.; Xiang, D. B.; Zhao, G.

    2015-01-01

    The rutin, quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity, and aroma compounds in different commercial tartary buckwheat tea were analyzed in our study. Results revealed that the materials and the processing protocol affected the chemical composition and activity of tartary buckwheat tea. Rutin and quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity were significantly different in various kinds of tartary buckwheat tea, where the whole bran tea and the whole plant tea had the lower rutin, but higher quercetin concentrations and higher antioxidant activity. The whole embryo tea had the converse results. There was strong correlation between quercetin concentration and antioxidant activity (r>0.98, P<0.05). Meanwhile, Twenty eight different aroma compounds in tartary buckwheat tea were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Those compounds were mainly composed of pyrazine, aldehydes, fatty acids and ketones. The main type of aroma compounds in different tartary buckwheat tea were similar, but their relative contents were different. The implications to the quality control of buckwheat tea were extensively discussed. PMID:26997692

  5. Antimicrobial activity of different filling pastes for deciduous tooth treatment.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, Bruna Feltrin; Pires, Carine Weber; Bresolin, Carmela Rampazzo; Weiss, Rita Niederauer; Praetzel, Juliana Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Guedes-Pinto paste is the filling material most employed in Brazil for endodontic treatment of deciduous teeth; however, the Rifocort® ointment has been removed. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of filling pastes, by proposing three new pharmacological associations to replace Rifocort® ointment with drugs of already established antimicrobial power: Nebacetin® ointment, 2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate gel, and Maxitrol® ointment. A paste composed of Iodoform, Rifocort® ointment and Camphorated Paramonochlorophenol (CPC) was employed as the gold standard (G1). The other associations were: Iodoform, Nebacetin® ointment and CPC (G2); Iodoform, 2% Chlorhexidine Digluconate gel and CPC (G3); Iodoform, Maxitrol® ointment and CPC (G4). The associations were tested for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Streptococcus oralis (S. oralis), Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), using the methods of dilution on solid medium - orifice agar - and broth dilution. The results were tested using statistical analysis ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis. They showed that all the pastes had a bacteriostatic effect on all the microorganisms, without any statistically significant difference, compared with G1. S. aureus was statistically significant (multiple comparison test of Tukey), insofar as G2 and G3 presented the worst and the best performance, respectively. All associations were bactericidal for E. coli, S. aureus, S. mutans and S. oralis. Only G3 and G4 were bactericidal for E. faecalis, whereas no product was bactericidal for B. subtilis. Thus, the tested pastes have antimicrobial potential and have proved acceptable for endodontic treatment of primary teeth. PMID:25466327

  6. Brain activation patterns at exhaustion in rats that differ in inherent exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Foley, Teresa E; Brooks, Leah R; Gilligan, Lori J; Burghardt, Paul R; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Fleshner, Monika

    2012-01-01

    In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained) exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively). The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA) levels of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in the brains of HCR and LCR rats after a single bout of acute treadmill running (7.5-15 minutes, 15° slope, 10 m/min) or after treadmill running to exhaustion (15-51 minutes, 15° slope, initial velocity 10 m/min). During verification of trait differences, HCR rats ran six times farther and three times longer prior to exhaustion than LCR rats. Running to exhaustion significantly increased c-Fos mRNA activation of several brain areas in HCR, but LCR failed to show significant elevations of c-Fos mRNA at exhaustion in the majority of areas examined compared to acutely run controls. Results from these studies suggest that there are differences in central c-Fos mRNA expression, and potential brain activation patterns, between HCR and LCR rats during treadmill running to exhaustion and these differences could be involved in the variation in inherent running capacity between lines. PMID:23028992

  7. Synaptic activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through different recycling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ning; Jeyifous, Okunola; Munro, Charlotte; Montgomery, Johanna M; Green, William N

    2015-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in brain are dependent on AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) recycling, which is assumed to occur through a single local pathway. In this study, we present evidence that AMPAR recycling occurs through different pathways regulated by synaptic activity. Without synaptic stimulation, most AMPARs recycled in dynamin-independent endosomes containing the GTPase, Arf6. Few AMPARs recycled in dynamin-dependent endosomes labeled by transferrin receptors (TfRs). AMPAR recycling was blocked by alterations in the GTPase, TC10, which co-localized with Arf6 endosomes. TC10 mutants that reduced AMPAR recycling had no effect on increased AMPAR levels with long-term potentiation (LTP) and little effect on decreased AMPAR levels with long-term depression. However, internalized AMPAR levels in TfR-containing recycling endosomes increased after LTP, indicating increased AMPAR recycling through the dynamin-dependent pathway with synaptic plasticity. LTP-induced AMPAR endocytosis is inconsistent with local recycling as a source of increased surface receptors, suggesting AMPARs are trafficked from other sites. PMID:25970033

  8. Purification and variability in thrombin-like activity of Bothrops atrox venom from different geographic regions.

    PubMed

    Cavinato, R A; Remold, H; Kipnis, T L

    1998-02-01

    Bothrops atrox snake venoms from two different Amazon regions, i.e., Manaus, AM (3 degrees 0.6'40"S; 60 degrees 0.1'6.0"W) and Tucurui, PA (3 degrees 0.42'30"S; 49 degrees 0.41'45"W), were analyzed with respect to the thrombin-like activity component by elution profile on gel-filtration and reverse phase HPLC chromatography, electrophoretic mobility on SDS-PAGE, and enzymatic activity on fibrinogen. Despite some individual discrepancies among venom specimens, the thrombin-like activity present in the Manaus pool was eluted earlier compared with the Tucurui pool but its enzymatic specific activity on thrombin was lower (s.a. = 6.0) than that observed in the Tucurui pool (s.a. = 134.0). However, the electrophoretic mobilities of the pools were similar, with most protein bands being concentrated around three main regions, i.e., protein bands with an apparent mr of 100 kDa, of 38-37 kDa and 30 kDa. However, no significant differences were observed in amidolytic activity on the synthetic substrate Tos-Gly-Pro-Arg-pNa, and there was no correlation between thrombin-like and amidolytic activities. A 32 kDa protein endowed with thrombin-like activity and specific activity of 2444 recognized and neutralized by horse anti-B. atrox antivenom, was purified by the successive use of gel filtration, electrofocusing and reverse phase HPLC. PMID:9620574

  9. Drug-Metabolizing Activity, Protein and Gene Expression of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases Are Significantly Altered in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Linlin; Zhou, Juan; Shi, Jian; Peng, Xiao-juan; Qi, Xiao-xiao; Wang, Ying; Li, Fang-yuan; Zhou, Fu-Yuan; Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhong-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), the most important enzymes in body detoxification and homeostasis maintaining, govern the glucuronidation reaction of various endogenous and environmental carcinogens. The metabolic function of UGTs can be severely influenced by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the fifth prevalent and third malignant cancer worldwide. Particularly in China, HBV-positive HCC account for approximately 80% of HCC patients. But rare papers addressed the alteration on the metabolism of UGTs specific substrates, translational and transcriptional activity of UGTs in HBV-positive HCC patients. In present study, we choose the main UGT isoforms, UGT1As, UGT1A1, UGT1A9, UGT1A4 and UGT2B7, to determine the alterations of metabolic activity, protein and gene expression of UGTs in HBV-positive HCC. The corresponding specific substrates such as genistein, SN-38, tamoxifen, propofol and zidovudine were utilized respectively in UGTs metabolic activity determination. Furthermore, the plausible mechanism responsible for UGTs alterations was addressed by analyzing the protein and gene expressions in tumor and the adjacent normal tissues in HBV-positive HCC. The results revealed that in the tumor human liver microsomes (HLMs), either Vmax (maximum reaction rate, Rmax for UGT1A1) or the clearance rates (Vmax/Km, Clint) of UGT1A, UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 were significant lower than those of in the adjacent normal HLMs. Subsequently, the relative protein and gene expressions of these isoforms were notably decreased in most of tumor tissues comparing with the adjacent normal tissues. More interestingly, in tumor tissues, the metabolic activity reduction ratio of each UGT isoform was closely related to its protein reduction ratio, indicating that decreasing protein level would contribute to the reduced metabolic function of UGTs in HBV-positive HCC. In summary, our study firstly determined the alteration of UGT function in HBV-positive HCC patients, which would

  10. Drug-Metabolizing Activity, Protein and Gene Expression of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases Are Significantly Altered in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Lu, Linlin; Zhou, Juan; Shi, Jian; Peng, Xiao-juan; Qi, Xiao-xiao; Wang, Ying; Li, Fang-Yuan; Zhou, Fu-Yuan; Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhong-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), the most important enzymes in body detoxification and homeostasis maintaining, govern the glucuronidation reaction of various endogenous and environmental carcinogens. The metabolic function of UGTs can be severely influenced by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the fifth prevalent and third malignant cancer worldwide. Particularly in China, HBV-positive HCC account for approximately 80% of HCC patients. But rare papers addressed the alteration on the metabolism of UGTs specific substrates, translational and transcriptional activity of UGTs in HBV-positive HCC patients. In present study, we choose the main UGT isoforms, UGT1As, UGT1A1, UGT1A9, UGT1A4 and UGT2B7, to determine the alterations of metabolic activity, protein and gene expression of UGTs in HBV-positive HCC. The corresponding specific substrates such as genistein, SN-38, tamoxifen, propofol and zidovudine were utilized respectively in UGTs metabolic activity determination. Furthermore, the plausible mechanism responsible for UGTs alterations was addressed by analyzing the protein and gene expressions in tumor and the adjacent normal tissues in HBV-positive HCC. The results revealed that in the tumor human liver microsomes (HLMs), either V(max) (maximum reaction rate, R(max) for UGT1A1) or the clearance rates (V(max)/K(m), Clint) of UGT1A, UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 were significant lower than those of in the adjacent normal HLMs. Subsequently, the relative protein and gene expressions of these isoforms were notably decreased in most of tumor tissues comparing with the adjacent normal tissues. More interestingly, in tumor tissues, the metabolic activity reduction ratio of each UGT isoform was closely related to its protein reduction ratio, indicating that decreasing protein level would contribute to the reduced metabolic function of UGTs in HBV-positive HCC. In summary, our study firstly determined the alteration of UGT function in HBV-positive HCC patients, which

  11. Valued Life Activity Disability Played a Significant Role in Self-Rated Health among Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia; Morris, Anne; Gregorich, Steve; Yazdany, Jinoos; Eisner, Mark; Yelin, Edward; Blanc, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objective Because self-rated health (SRH) is strongly associated with health outcomes, it is important to identify factors that individuals take into account when they assess their health. We examined the role of valued life activities (VLAs), the wide range of activities deemed to be important to individuals, in SRH assessments. Study Design and Setting Data were from 3 cohort studies of individuals with different chronic conditions – rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Each cohort’s data were collected through structured telephone interviews. Logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with ratings of fair/poor SRH. All analyses included sociodemographic characteristics, general and disease-specific health-related factors, and general measures of physical functioning. Results Substantial portions of each group rated their health as fair/poor (RA 37%, SLE 47%, COPD 40%). In each group, VLA disability was strongly associated with fair/poor health (RA: OR=4.44 [1.86,10.62]; SLE: OR=3.60 [2.10,6.16]; COPD: OR=2.76 [1.30,5.85], even after accounting for covariates. Conclusion VLA disability appears to play a substantial role in individual perceptions of health, over and above other measures of health status, disease symptoms, and general physical functioning. PMID:18722089

  12. Black tea is not significantly different from water in the maintenance of normal hydration in human subjects: results from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, Carrie H; Hart, Valerie A

    2011-08-01

    There is a belief that caffeinated drinks, such as tea, may adversely affect hydration. This was investigated in a randomised controlled trial. Healthy resting males (n 21) were recruited from the general population. Following 24 h of abstention from caffeine, alcohol and vigorous physical activity, including a 10 h overnight fast, all men underwent four separate test days in a counter-balanced order with a 5 d washout in between. The test beverages, provided at regular intervals, were 4 × 240 ml black (i.e. regular) tea and 6 × 240 ml black tea, providing 168 or 252 mg of caffeine. The controls were identical amounts of boiled water. The tea was prepared in a standardised way from tea bags and included 20 ml of semi-skimmed milk. All food taken during the 12 h intervention period was controlled, and subjects remained at rest. No other beverages were offered. Blood was sampled at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h, and a 24 h urine sample was collected. Outcome variables were whole blood cell count, Na, K, bicarbonate, total protein, urea, creatinine and osmolality for blood; and total volume, colour, Na, K, creatinine and osmolality for urine. Although data for all twenty-one participants were included in the analysis (mean age 36 years and mean BMI 25·8 kg/m(2)), nineteen men completed all conditions. Statistical analysis, using a factorial ANOVA approach within PROC MIXED, revealed no significant differences between tea and water for any of the mean blood or urine measurements. It was concluded that black tea, in the amounts studied, offered similar hydrating properties to water. PMID:21450118

  13. Real-time DNA binding measurements of the ETS1 recombinant oncoproteins reveal significant kinetic differences between the p42 and p51 isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, R. J.; Fivash, M.; Casas-Finet, J.; Erickson, J. W.; Kondoh, A.; Bladen, S. V.; Fisher, C.; Watson, D. K.; Papas, T.

    1994-01-01

    The sequence-specific DNA binding of recombinant p42 and p51 ETS1 oncoprotein was examined quantitatively to determine whether the loss of the Exon VII phosphorylation domain in p42 ETS1 or the phosphorylation of expressed Exon VII in p51 ETS1 had an effect on DNA binding activity. The kinetics of sequence-specific DNA binding was measured using real-time changes in surface plasmon resonance with BIAcore (registered trademark, Pharmacia Biosensor) technology. The real-time binding of p42 and p51 ETS1 displayed significant differences in kinetic behavior. p51 ETS1 is characterized by a fast initial binding and conversion to a stable complex, whereas p42 ETS1 exhibits a slow initial binding and conversion to a stable complex. All of the p51 ETS1 DNA binding states are characterized by rapid turnover, whereas the p42 ETS1 DNA binding states are 4-20 times more stable. A model describing these kinetic steps is presented. Stoichiometric titrations of either p42 or p51 ETS1 with specific oligonucleotides show 1:1 complex formation. The DNA sequence specificity of the p42 and p51 ETS1 as determined by mutational analysis was similar. The in vitro phosphorylation of p51 ETS1 by CAM kinase II obliterates its binding to specific DNA, suggesting that the regulation of p51 ETS1 sequence-specific DNA binding occurs through phosphorylation by a calcium-dependent second messenger. The p42 ETS1 lacks this regulatory domain (Exon VII), and binding to its specific DNA sequence is not sensitive to calcium signaling. PMID:8003962

  14. Transcription activation at class II CRP-dependent promoters: the role of different activating regions.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodius, V A; West, D M; Webster, C L; Busby, S J; Savery, N J

    1997-01-01

    Transcription activation by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) at Class II promoters is dependent on direct interactions between two surface-exposed activating regions (AR1 and AR2) and two contact sites in RNA polymerase. The effects on transcription activation of disrupting either AR1 or AR2 have been measured at different Class II promoters. AR2 but not AR1 is essential for activation at all the Class II promoters that were tested. The effects of single positive control substitutions in AR1 and AR2 vary from one promoter to another: the effects of the different substitutions are contingent on the -35 hexamer sequence. Abortive initiation assays have been used to quantify the effects of positive control substitutions in each activating region on the kinetics of transcription initiation at the Class II CRP- dependent promoter pmelRcon. At this promoter, the HL159 substitution in AR1 results in a defect in the initial binding of RNA polymerase whilst the KE101 substitution in AR2 reduces the rate of isomerization from the closed to the open complex. PMID:9016561

  15. Perceived neighborhood environment and physical activity in 11 countries: Do associations differ by country?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing empirical evidence supports associations between neighborhood environments and physical activity. However, since most studies were conducted in a single country, particularly western countries, the generalizability of associations in an international setting is not well understood. The current study examined whether associations between perceived attributes of neighborhood environments and physical activity differed by country. Methods Population representative samples from 11 countries on five continents were surveyed using comparable methodologies and measurement instruments. Neighborhood environment × country interactions were tested in logistic regression models with meeting physical activity recommendations as the outcome, adjusted for demographic characteristics. Country-specific associations were reported. Results Significant neighborhood environment attribute × country interactions implied some differences across countries in the association of each neighborhood attribute with meeting physical activity recommendations. Across the 11 countries, land-use mix and sidewalks had the most consistent associations with physical activity. Access to public transit, bicycle facilities, and low-cost recreation facilities had some associations with physical activity, but with less consistency across countries. There was little evidence supporting the associations of residential density and crime-related safety with physical activity in most countries. Conclusion There is evidence of generalizability for the associations of land use mix, and presence of sidewalks with physical activity. Associations of other neighborhood characteristics with physical activity tended to differ by country. Future studies should include objective measures of neighborhood environments, compare psychometric properties of reports across countries, and use better specified models to further understand the similarities and differences in associations across countries

  16. North-south asymmetry of different solar activity features during solar cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankoti, Neeraj Singh; Joshi, Navin Chandra; Pande, Seema; Pande, Bimal; Pandey, Kavita

    2010-08-01

    A study on north-south (N-S) asymmetry of different solar activity features (DSAF) such as solar proton events, solar active prominences [total, low (⩽40°) and high (⩾50°) latitudes], H α flare indices, soft X-ray flares, monthly mean sunspot areas and monthly mean sunspot numbers carried out from May 1996 to October 2008. Study shows a southern dominance of DSAF during this period. During the rising phase of the cycle 23 the number of DSAF approximately equals on both, the northern and the southern hemispheres. But these activities tend to shift from northern to southern hemisphere during the period 1998-1999. The statistical significance of the asymmetry time series using a χ2-test of goodness of fit indicates that in most of the cases the asymmetry is highly significant, meaning thereby that the asymmetry is a real feature in the N-S distribution of DSAF.

  17. Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.

    PubMed

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Vukovič, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vatľák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 μL.mL(-1)-0.39 μL.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 μL.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties

  18. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

  19. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 4): Wrigley Charcoal Plant, Wrigley, TN, October 20, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing this Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) for the Wrigley Charcoal Superfund site (``the Site``) in Wrigley, Hickman County, Tenn. The purpose of this fact sheet is to modify the Interim Action Record of Decision (IAROD) issued on September 30, 1991, and to inform the public of current site conditions and future actions.

  20. Gender Differences of Brain Activity in the Conflicts Based on Implicit Self-Esteem

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Reiko; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    There are gender differences in global and domain-specific self-esteem and the incidence of some psychiatric disorders related to self-esteem, suggesting that there are gender differences in the neural basis underlying one's own self-esteem. We investigated gender differences in the brain activity while subjects (14 males and 12 females) performed an implicit self-esteem task, using fMRI. While ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was significantly activated in females, medial and dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) were activated in males in the incongruent condition (self = negative) compared with the congruent condition (self = positive). Additionally, scores on the explicit self-esteem test were negatively correlated with vmPFC activity in females and positively correlated with dmPFC activity in males. Furthermore, the functional relationships among the regions found by direct gender comparisons were discussed based on the somatic-marker model. These showed that, compared to males, females more firmly store even the incongruent associations as part of their schematic self-knowledge, and such associations automatically activate the neural networks for emotional response and control, in which vmPFC plays a central role. This may explain female cognitive/behavioral traits; females have more tendency to ruminate more often than males, which sometimes results in a prolonged negative affect. PMID:22666409

  1. Impact of different tillage treatments on soil respiration and microbial activity for different agricultural used soils in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klik, Andreas; Scholl, Gerlinde; Baatar, Undrakh-Od

    2015-04-01

    CT and RT, but usually higher than for NT. Minimum values occurred under cold and dry, maximum values under hot and moist conditions. Focusing on the soil texture, higher fluxes were observed for sandy silt thank for loamy clay. During the investigated growing seasons carbon releases from the sandy silt ranged between 7.0 and 11.1, 6.6 and 10.4, and 5.4 and 8.4 t CO2-C.ha-1 for CT, RT and NT, respectively. Corresponding values for the loamy clay ranged from 2.8-7.0, 3.4-7.4, and 4.7-6.6 t CO2-C.ha-1 for CT, RT and NT, respectively. Microbial activity at 0-10 cm depth differed significantly between the five investigated sites. SIR and DHY showed significantly higher values in spring and summer, respectively, than in other seasons. The impact of tillage is demonstrated by significantly higher values of all investigated biological activity parameters for RT and NT.

  2. Calcium Activities During Different Ion Exchange Separation Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhu, H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Zhang, C.; Sun, W.

    2014-12-01

    Calcium is a major element and participates in many geological processes. Investigations on stable calcium isotopic compositions of natural geological samples provide a great powerful tool to understand all kinds of those geological processes from a view of the field of isotope geochemistry. With the development of modern instruments and chemical separation techniques, calcium isotopic compositions could be determined even more precisely if the column chemistry brings no deviation. Usually, Calcium is separated from matrix elements using cation resin columns and the related chemical separation techniques seem to be robust. However, more detailed work still need to be done on matrix effects and calcium isotopic fractionations on column chemistry or during elution processes. If calcium is run on TIMS instruments, the interference effect could be lower and easier controlled, thus, the requirement to the chemistry is relatively not critic, but calcium fractionation on filaments could be much difficult to monitor. If calcium is run on MC-ICP-MS instruments, the interference effect could be huge and is really difficult to be recognized and subtracted, the requirement to the chemistry is much more critical in order to get a real result of the sample, but the instrument fractionation could be easier to monitor. Here we investigate calcium activities on several kinds of cation resins under different column/acid conditions. We seek to find a good balance between recovery and interference effect on column chemistry and are intend to set up a better chemical separation procedure to satisfy the instrument requirements for calcium. In addition, Calcium isotopic fractionation on column will also be discussed further here based on our previous and ongoing results.

  3. Ultrastrong Chemiluminescence Activity of Nanocarbon Materials after Ozonation and Their Effects on Different Chemiluminescent Systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; He, Duhong; Wang, Meina; Zheng, Baozhan; Wu, Li; Xiao, Dan; Guo, Yong

    2016-06-20

    Ozonized nanocarbon materials with different dimensionalities, structures, and components exhibited significantly different chemiluminescence (CL) activities. The ozonation time and the weight ratio of hydroxyl carbon nanotubes (d≈8 nm, hyCNTs-8) and graphene oxide (GO) strongly affected the CL activity of ozonized hybrids. Among GO, hyCNTs-8, and GO/hyCNTs-8, the GO/hyCNTs-8 hybrids exhibited the strongest CL-enhancing properties toward the luminol/H2 O2 system, in contrast to previous reports. This study provides new understanding of the CL activity and CL-enhancing properties of nanocarbon materials in signal-enhanced analytical and biomedical fields. PMID:27144483

  4. Bromelain enzyme from pineapple: in vitro activity study under different micropropagation conditions.

    PubMed

    Vilanova Neta, Jaci Lima; da Silva Lédo, Ana; Lima, Aloisio André Bonfim; Santana, José Carlos Curvelo; Leite, Nadjma Souza; Ruzene, Denise Santos; Silva, Daniel Pereira; de Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the activity of bromelain in pineapple plants (Ananas comosus var. Comosus), Pérola cultivar, produced in vitro in different culture conditions. This enzyme, besides its pharmacological effects, is also employed in food industries, such as breweries and meat processing. In this work, the enzymatic activity was evaluated in the tissues of leaves and stems of plants grown in culture medium without plant growth regulator. The most significant levels of bromelain were observed in leaf tissue after 4 months of culture in vitro in medium with a filter paper bridge, followed by medium gelled by the agar. The results of this study, regarding the different structures of the pineapple (leaves and stems) in vitro showed that the activity of bromelain varied depending on the culture conditions, the time and structure of which was quantified, ensuring a viable strategy in the production of seedlings with high levels of bromelain in subsequent phases of micropropagation. PMID:22736274

  5. Active Aging: Exploration into Self-Ratings of "Being Active," Out-of-Home Physical Activity, and Participation among Older Australian Adults Living in Four Different Settings.

    PubMed

    Aird, Rosemary L; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether self-ratings of "being active" among older people living in four different settings (major city high and lower density suburbs, a regional city, and a rural area) were associated with out-of-home participation and outdoor physical activity. A mixed-methods approach (survey, travel diary, and GPS tracking over a one-week period) was used to gather data from 48 individuals aged over 55 years. Self-ratings of "being active" were found to be positively correlated with the number of days older people spent time away from home but unrelated to time traveled by active means (walking and biking). No significant differences in active travel were found between the four study locations, despite differences in their respective built environments. The findings suggest that additional strategies to the creation of "age-friendly" environments are needed if older people are to increase their levels of outdoor physical activity. "Active aging" promotion campaigns may need to explicitly identify the benefits of walking outdoors to ambulatory older people as a means of maintaining their overall health, functional ability, and participation within society in the long-term and also encourage the development of community-based programs in order to facilitate regular walking for this group. PMID:26346381

  6. TEC variability over Havana for different solar activity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazo, B.; Alazo, K.; Rodríguez, M.; Calzadilla, A.

    2004-01-01

    The variability of total electron content measured over Havana using ATS-6, SMS-1 and GOES-3 geosynchronous satellite signals has been investigated for low, middle and high solar activity periods from 1974 to 1982. The results show that the standard deviation is smooth during the nighttime hours and maximal at the noon or postnoon hours. A strong solar activity dependence of the standard deviation has been found with maximum values during periods of high solar activity.

  7. The comparison of abdominal muscle activation on unstable surface according to the different trunk stability exercises

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-seok; Kim, Da-yeon; Kim, Tae-ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of abdominal muscle activities and the activation ratio related to trunk stabilization to compare the effects between the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and lumbar stabilization exercises on an unstable base of support. [Subjects and Methods] Study subjects were 20 male and 10 female adults in their 20s without lumbar pain, who were equally and randomly assigned to either the abdominal drawing-in maneuver group and the lumbar stabilization exercise group. Abdominal muscle activation and ratio was measured using a wireless TeleMyo DTS during right leg raise exercises while sitting on a Swiss ball. [Results] Differences in rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominis, and internal oblique abdominis muscle activation were observed before and after treatment. Significant differences were observed between the groups in the muscle activation of the external oblique abdominis and internal oblique abdominis, and the muscle activation ratio of external oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis and internal oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis. [Conclusion] Consequently trunk stability exercise enhances internal oblique abdominis activity and increases trunk stabilization. In addition, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver facilitates the deep muscle more than LSE in abdominal muscle. Therefore, abdominal drawing-in maneuver is more effective than lumbar stabilization exercises in facilitating trunk stabilization. PMID:27134401

  8. Phylogenetic and experimental characterization of an acyl-ACP thioesterase family reveals significant diversity in enzymatic specificity and activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids. Results To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acyl-ACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were selected from public databases on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid profile knowledge of their source organisms; and 2) seven TEs were molecularly cloned from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Cuphea viscosissima, organisms that produce medium-chain and short-chain fatty acids in their seeds. The in vivo substrate specificities of the acyl-ACP TEs were determined in E. coli. Based on their specificities, these enzymes were clustered into three classes: 1) Class I acyl-ACP TEs act primarily on 14- and 16-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; 2) Class II acyl-ACP TEs have broad substrate specificities, with major activities toward 8- and 14-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; and 3) Class III acyl-ACP TEs act predominantly on 8-carbon acyl-ACPs. Several novel acyl-ACP TEs act on short-chain and unsaturated acyl-ACP or 3-ketoacyl-ACP substrates, indicating the diversity of enzymatic specificity in this enzyme family. Conclusion These acyl-ACP TEs can potentially be used to diversify the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway to produce novel fatty acids. PMID:21831316

  9. Muscle activation of paraspinal muscles in different types of high heels during standing

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dongwook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study researched the effects of different types of high heels on the muscles surrounding the cervical spine, the thoracic spine, and the lumbar spine by analyzing muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles during standing while wearing high heels. The high heels were all of the same height: 8 cm. [Subjects and Methods] The 28 subjects in this experiment were females in their 20s with a foot size of 225–230 mm and a normal gait pattern. To measure the muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles, EMG electrodes were attached on the paraspinal muscles around C6, T7, and L5. The muscle activation during standing while wearing 8-cm-high wedge heels, setback heels, and French heels was then measured. The measurements were performed 3 times each, and the mean value was used for analysis. [Results] The levels of muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles induced by standing on wedge heels, setback heels, and French heels in the cervical and lumbar areas were significantly higher than those induced by standing on bare feet. But there was no significant difference according to the heel types. [Conclusion] The height of the heels presented a greater variable than the width of the heels on the muscle activation of paraspinal muscles. Therefore, wearing high heels is not recommended for those who have pain or functional problems in the cervical and/or lumbar spine. PMID:25642040

  10. Brain activity during observation and motor imagery of different balance tasks: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Taube, Wolfgang; Mouthon, Michael; Leukel, Christian; Hoogewoud, Henri-Marcel; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Keller, Martin

    2015-03-01

    After immobilization, patients show impaired postural control and increased risk of falling. Therefore, loss of balance control should already be counteracted during immobilization. Previously, studies have demonstrated that both motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) can improve motor performance. The current study elaborated how the brain is activated during imagination and observation of different postural tasks to provide recommendations about the conception of non-physical balance training. For this purpose, participants were tested in a within-subject design in an fMRI-scanner in three different conditions: (a) AO + MI, (b) AO, and (c) MI. In (a) participants were instructed to imagine themselves as the person pictured in the video whereas in (b) they were instructed simply to watch the video. In (c) subjects closed their eyes and kinesthetically imagined the task displayed in the video. Two tasks were evaluated in each condition: (i) static standing balance and (ii) dynamic standing balance (medio-lateral perturbation). In all conditions the start of a new trial was indicated every 2 sec by a sound. During AO + MI of the dynamic task, participants activated motor centers including the putamen, cerebellum, supplementary motor area, premotor cortices (PMv/d) and primary motor cortex (M1). MI showed a similar pattern but no activity in M1 and PMv/d. In the SMA and cerebellum, activity was generally higher in the dynamic than in the static condition. AO did not significantly activate any of these brain areas. Our results showed that (I) mainly AO + MI, but also MI, activate brain regions important for balance control; (II) participants display higher levels of brain activation in the more demanding balance task; (III) there is a significant difference between AO + MI and AO. Consequently, best training effects should be expected when participants apply MI during AO (AO + MI) of challenging postural tasks. PMID:25461711

  11. Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Asha, A; Manjunatha, M; Rekha, R M; Surendranath, B; Heartwin, P; Rao, J; Magdaline, E; Sinha, Chitranayak

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and orange peel powder extract in ghee stored at different storage temperatures (T1:6 ± 2 °C; T2: 32 ± 2 °C; T3:60 ± 2 °C) were evaluated during storage period of 21 days. Peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), radical scavenging activity (RSA) and free fatty acids (FFA) of ghee samples were analyzed during the study. PV, TBA and FFA of ghee samples increased significantly while radical scavenging activity (RSA) of ghee samples decreased significantly at accelerated temperature (T3) as compared to the temperatures at T1 and T2. Effect of storage temperature on development of peroxides and TBA of ghee samples was significantly higher than the effect of treatment and storage period while treatment had more significant effect on the change in FFA and RSA as compared to storage temperature and storage period. Ghee incorporated with orange peel extract (OPE) showed stronger activity in quenching DPPH radicals and least development of PV, TBA and FFA than ghee incorporated with BHA and control. The study revealed that orange peel could be a good natural source of antioxidants which can be used in fat rich food products like ghee to retard oxidative deterioration. PMID:26604397

  12. Gender differences in French GPs' activity: the contribution of quantile regressions.

    PubMed

    Dumontet, Magali; Franc, Carine

    2015-05-01

    In any fee-for-service system, doctors may be encouraged to increase the number of services (private activity) they provide to receive a higher income. Studying private activity determinants helps to predict doctors' provision of care. In the context of strong feminization and heterogeneity in general practitioners' (GP) behavior, we first aim to measure the effects of the determinants of private activity. Second, we study the evolution of these effects along the private activity distribution. Third, we examine the differences between male and female GPs. From an exhaustive database of French GPs working in private practice in 2008, we performed an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regressions (QR) on the GPs' private activity. Among other determinants, we examined the trade-offs within the GPs' household considering his/her marital status, spousal income, and children. While the OLS results showed that female GPs had less private activity than male GPs (-13%), the QR results emphasized a private activity gender gap that increased significantly in the upper tail of the distribution. We also find gender differences in the private activity determinants, including family structure, practice characteristics, and case-mix variables. For instance, having a youngest child under 12 years old had a positive effect on the level of private activity for male GPs and a negative effect for female GPs. The results allow us to understand to what extent the supply of care differs between male and female GPs. In the context of strong feminization, this is essential to consider for organizing and forecasting the GPs' supply of care. PMID:24700186

  13. Evaluation of Techniques to Detect Significant Network Performance Problems using End-to-End Active Network Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, R.Les; Logg, Connie; Chhaparia, Mahesh; Grigoriev, Maxim; Haro, Felipe; Nazir, Fawad; Sandford, Mark

    2006-01-25

    End-to-End fault and performance problems detection in wide area production networks is becoming increasingly hard as the complexity of the paths, the diversity of the performance, and dependency on the network increase. Several monitoring infrastructures are built to monitor different network metrics and collect monitoring information from thousands of hosts around the globe. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of time-series plots of network metrics which need to be looked at to identify network performance problems or anomalous variations in the traffic. Furthermore, most commercial products rely on a comparison with user configured static thresholds and often require access to SNMP-MIB information, to which a typical end-user does not usually have access. In our paper we propose new techniques to detect network performance problems proactively in close to realtime and we do not rely on static thresholds and SNMP-MIB information. We describe and compare the use of several different algorithms that we have implemented to detect persistent network problems using anomalous variations analysis in real end-to-end Internet performance measurements. We also provide methods and/or guidance for how to set the user settable parameters. The measurements are based on active probes running on 40 production network paths with bottlenecks varying from 0.5Mbits/s to 1000Mbit/s. For well behaved data (no missed measurements and no very large outliers) with small seasonal changes most algorithms identify similar events. We compare the algorithms' robustness with respect to false positives and missed events especially when there are large seasonal effects in the data. Our proposed techniques cover a wide variety of network paths and traffic patterns. We also discuss the applicability of the algorithms in terms of their intuitiveness, their speed of execution as implemented, and areas of applicability. Our encouraging results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our detection

  14. Differences in neural activity when processing emotional arousal and valence in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Angela; Wang, Zhishun; Huo, Yuankai; Goh, Suzanne; Russell, James A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have difficulty recognizing and interpreting facial expressions of emotion, which may impair their ability to navigate and communicate successfully in their social, interpersonal environments. Characterizing specific differences between individuals with ASD and their typically developing (TD) counterparts in the neural activity subserving their experience of emotional faces may provide distinct targets for ASD interventions. Thus we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a parametric experimental design to identify brain regions in which neural activity correlated with ratings of arousal and valence for a broad range of emotional faces. Participants (51 ASD, 84 TD) were group-matched by age, sex, IQ, race, and socioeconomic status. Using task-related change in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal as a measure, and covarying for age, sex, FSIQ, and ADOS scores, we detected significant differences across diagnostic groups in the neural activity subserving the dimension of arousal but not valence. BOLD-signal in TD participants correlated inversely with ratings of arousal in regions associated primarily with attentional functions, whereas BOLD-signal in ASD participants correlated positively with arousal ratings in regions commonly associated with impulse control and default-mode activity. Only minor differences were detected between groups in the BOLD signal correlates of valence ratings. Our findings provide unique insight into the emotional experiences of individuals with ASD. Although behavioral responses to face-stimuli were comparable across diagnostic groups, the corresponding neural activity for our ASD and TD groups differed dramatically. The near absence of group differences for valence correlates and the presence of strong group differences for arousal correlates suggest that individuals with ASD are not atypical in all aspects of emotion-processing. Studying these similarities

  15. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for Interim Actions in Zone 1, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2011-02-01

    Zone 1 is a 1400-acre area outside the fence of the main plant at The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Record of Decision for Interim Actions in Zone, ETTP (Zone 1 Interim ROD) (DOE 2002) identifies the remedial actions for contaminated soil, buried waste, and subsurface infrastructure necessary to protect human health and to limit further contamination of groundwater. Since the Zone 1 Interim Record of Decision (ROD) was signed, new information has been obtained that requires the remedy to be modified as follows: (1) Change the end use in Contractor's Spoil Area (CSA) from unrestricted industrial to recreational; (2) Remove Exposure Units (EU5) ZI-50, 51, and 52 from the scope of the Zone I Interim ROD; (3) Change the end use of the duct bank corridor from unrestricted industrial to restricted industrial; and (4) Remove restriction for the disturbance of soils below 10 feet in Exposure Unit (EU) Z1-04. In accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300.435, these scope modifications are a 'significant' change to the Zone 1 Interim ROD. In accordance with CERCLA Sect. 117 (c) and 40 CFR 300.435 (c)(2)(i), such a significant change is documented with an Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD). The purpose of this ESD is to make the changes listed above. This ESD is part of the Administrative Record file, and it, and other information supporting the selected remedy, can be found at the DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. The ORR is located in Roane and Anderson counties, within and adjacent to the corporate city limits of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ETTP is located in Roane County near the northwest corner of the ORR. ETTP began operation during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project. The original mission of ETTP was to produce enriched uranium for use in atomic weapons. The plant produced enriched uranium from 1945 until 1985

  16. Liquid-Phase Adsorption of Phenol onto Activated Carbons Prepared with Different Activation Levels.

    PubMed

    Hsieh; Teng

    2000-10-01

    The influence of the pore size distribution of activated carbon on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions was explored. Activated carbons with different porous structures were prepared by gasifying a bituminous coal char to different extents of burn-off. The results of adsorption experiments show that the phenol capacity of these carbons does not proportionally increase with their BET surface area. This reflects the heterogeneity of the carbon surface for adsorption. The pore size distributions of these carbons, determined according to the Dubinin-Stoeckli equation, were found to vary with the burn-off level. By incorporating the distribution with the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation using an inverse proportionality between the micropore size and the adsorption energy, the isotherms for the adsorption of phenol onto these carbons can be well predicted. The present study has demonstrated that the heterogeneity of carbon surface for the phenol adsorption can be attributed to the different energies required for adsorption in different-size micropores. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10998301

  17. [Effects of Different Altitudes on Soil Microbial PLFA and Enzyme Activity in Two Kinds of Forests].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing-ping; He, Bing-hui; Mao, Qiao-zhi; Wu, Yao-peng; Huang, Qi; Li, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The soil microbial community is an important part in soil ecosystem, and it is sensitive to the ecological environment. Phospholipid-derived fatty acids ( PLFA ) analysis was used to examine variations in soil microbial community diversity and its influencing factors. The results showed that: there existed 48 PLFAs that were significant in the soil samples from six altitudes. The PLFAs of six altitudes with the highest contents were i16:0, 10Me17:0, 10Me18:0 TBSA. The citrus forest exhibited richer soil PLFAs distribution both in type and amount than those in masson pine. The microbial activity and functional diversity of masson pine were increased with increasing altitudes, and citrus forest gradually decreased, the PLFA content of different microbial groups in each altitude were significantly different. The richness index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index of masson pine in low elevation were holistically higher than those in high elevation. However, the highest richness index of citrus forest was in low altitude, the highest Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index were in high altitude. The PLFAs content of different microbial groups were closely correlated to the soil enzyme activities and environmental factors. The PLFAs of bacteria, actinomycetes, G⁻ (Gram- positive), G⁺ (Gram-negative) were positively correlated with Ure(urease) , Ive(invertase) , CAT( catalase activity) and forest type, the PLFAs of fungi was significantly correlated with Ure, Ive, CAT, the PLFAs of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, G⁻ , G⁺ were significantly negatively or less correlated with elevation. Ure, Ive, CAT, forest type and elevation are the pivotal factors controlling the soil microbial biomass and activities. PMID:27012007

  18. [Study of Antioxidant and Membranotropic Activities of Quinazoline Alkaloid Tryptanthrin Using Different Model Systems].

    PubMed

    Popov, A M; Osipov, A N; Korepanova, E A; Krivoshapko, O N; Shtoda, Yu P; Klimovich, A A

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study of antioxidant (radical-interceptor) properties of tryptanthrin (quinazoline alkaloid shows a high anti-inflammatory activity and it is found in many types of different families of higher plants and microorganisms, including the human microbiome) in the systems of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-methylpropionamidin)dihydrochloride-luminol and hemoglobin-hydrogen peroxide-luminol has been conducted and the influence on the permeability of planar bilayer lipid membranes is evaluated. Trolox was used as a reference antioxidant, and ascorbic acid and dihydroquercetin were taken as standards. Tryptanthrin exhibits very weak antioxidant activity, being markedly inferior to the reference standard and antioxidants while testing antioxidant activity in both studied systems. By the efficacy of antioxidative action the substrates in the systems studied can be arranged in the following order: dihydroquercetin > trolox > ascorbic acid > tryptanthrin. Antioxidant potential of tryptanthrin is approximately 1000 and 3000 times lower than that of trolox and bioflavonoid dihydroquercetine, respectively. Tryptanthrin causes no significant changes in the permeability of planar bilayer membranes in a dose range of 0.5 to. 10 μg/ml. Our data show that tryptanthrin displays no significant radical-interceptor and membranotropic activities. It can be assumed that the observed high anti-inflammatory activity of tryptanthrin is not related to the neutralizing effect against reactive oxygen species and the influence on the permeability of cell membranes. The anticipated mechanisms of biological activity of tryptanthrin are discussed. PMID:26394469

  19. Regulatory and Structural Differences in the Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutases of Salmonella enterica and Their Significance for Virulence*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ammendola, Serena; Pasquali, Paolo; Pacello, Francesca; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Castor, Margaret; Libby, Stephen J.; Figueroa-Bossi, Nara; Bossi, Lionello; Fang, Ferric C.; Battistoni, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Many of the most virulent strains of Salmonella enterica produce two distinct Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutases (SodCI and SodCII). The bacteriophage-encoded SodCI enzyme makes the greater contribution to Salmonella virulence. We have performed a detailed comparison of the functional, structural, and regulatory properties of the Salmonella SodC enzymes. Here we demonstrate that SodCI and SodCII differ with regard to specific activity, protease resistance, metal affinity, and peroxidative activity, with dimeric SodCI exhibiting superior stability and activity. In particular, monomeric SodCII is unable to retain its catalytic copper ion in the absence of zinc. We have also found that SodCI and SodCII are differentially affected by oxygen, zinc availability, and the transcriptional regulator FNR. SodCII is strongly down-regulated under anaerobic conditions and dependent on the high affinity ZnuABC zinc transport system, whereas SodCI accumulation in vitro and within macrophages is FNR-dependent. We have confirmed earlier findings that SodCII accumulation in intracellular Salmonella is negligible, whereas SodCI is strongly up-regulated in macrophages. Our observations demonstrate that differences in expression, activity, and stability help to account for the unique contribution of the bacteriophage-encoded SodCI enzyme to Salmonella virulence. PMID:18362154

  20. AAV-Delivered Antibody Mediates Significant Protective Effects against SIVmac239 Challenge in the Absence of Neutralizing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Sebastian P.; Martinez-Navio, José M.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Gao, Guangping; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term delivery of potent broadly-neutralizing antibodies is a promising approach for the prevention of HIV-1 infection. We used AAV vector intramuscularly to deliver anti-SIV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in IgG1 form to rhesus monkeys. Persisting levels of delivered mAb as high as 270 μg/ml were achieved. However, host antibody responses to the delivered antibody were observed in 9 of the 12 monkeys and these appeared to limit the concentration of delivered antibody that could be achieved. This is reflected in the wide range of delivered mAb concentrations that were achieved: 1–270 μg/ml. Following repeated, marginal dose, intravenous challenge with the difficult-to-neutralize SIVmac239, the six monkeys in the AAV-5L7 IgG1 mAb group showed clear protective effects despite the absence of detectable neutralizing activity against the challenge virus. The protective effects included: lowering of viral load at peak height; lowering of viral load at set point; delay in the time to peak viral load from the time of the infectious virus exposure. All of these effects were statistically significant. In addition, the monkey with the highest level of delivered 5L7 mAb completely resisted six successive SIVmac239 i.v. challenges, including a final challenge with a dose of 10 i.v. infectious units. Our results demonstrate the continued promise of this approach for the prevention of HIV-1 infection in people. However, the problem of anti-antibody responses will need to be understood and overcome for the promise of this approach to be effectively realized. PMID:26248318

  1. Rice proteins, extracted by alkali and α-amylase, differently affect in vitro antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengxuan; Liu, Ye; Li, Hui; Yang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation are different processes for rice protein (RP) isolation. The major aim of this study was to determine the influence of two different extraction methods on the antioxidant capacities of RPA, extracted by alkaline (0.2% NaOH), and RPE, extracted by α-amylase, during in vitro digestion for 2h with pepsin and for 3h with pancreatin. Upon pepsin-pancreatin digestion, the protein hydrolysates (RPA-S, RPE-S), which were the supernatants in the absence of undigested residue, and the whole protein digests (RPA, RPE), in which undigested residue remained, were measured. RPE exhibited the stronger antioxidant responses to free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and reducing power, whereas the weakest antioxidant capacities were produced by RPE-S. In contrast, no significant differences in antioxidant activity were observed between RPA and RPA-S. The present study demonstrated that the in vitro antioxidant responses induced by the hydrolysates and the protein digests of RPs could be affected differently by alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation, suggesting that the extraction is a vital processing step to modify the antioxidant capacities of RPs. The results of the current study indicated that the protein digests, in which undigested residues remained, could exhibit more efficacious antioxidant activity compared to the hydrolysates. PMID:27041309

  2. [Antioxidant activity of different types of red grape wines].

    PubMed

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Avidzba, A M; Ogay, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    This article represented the data about antioxidant activity in the red table and liqueurfaults, prepared from the types of grapes of Cabernet, Merlot and Saperavi. The antioxidant activity of faults in the conversion to TROLOX, the synthetic analog of gallic acid, was determined by voltammetric method. The determination of antioxidant activity was conducted in the young faults (through 2 month after the completion of fermentation) and through half a year the storage without the air inlet. It has been established that the value of antioxidant activity depended on the type of grapes and technology of the production of wine. It was shown that the addition of ethyl alcohol in the production of wines such as Cahors ensured an increase in the extraction of phenol connections from the skin of grapes. This lead to an increase of the antioxidant activity in the Cahors wines in the comparison with the table wine. During the storage of faults the value of antioxidant activity decreased. In the fault cahors wine it remained at the higher level. PMID:27228712

  3. Catalytic Ethanol Dehydration over Different Acid-activated Montmorillonite Clays.

    PubMed

    Krutpijit, Chadaporn; Jongsomjit, Bunjerd

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the catalytic dehydration of ethanol to obtain ethylene over montmorillonite clays (MMT) with mineral acid activation including H2SO4 (SA-MMT), HCl (HA-MMT) and HNO3 (NA-MMT) was investigated at temperature range of 200 to 400°C. It revealed that HA-MMT exhibited the highest catalytic activity. Ethanol conversion and ethylene selectivity were found to increase with increased reaction temperature. At 400°C, the HA-MMT yielded 82% of ethanol conversion having 78% of ethylene yield. At lower temperature (i.e. 200 to 300°C), diethyl ether (DEE) was a major product. The highest activity obtained from HA-MMT can be attributed to an increase of weak acid sites and acid density by the activation of MMT with HCl. It can be also proven by various characterization techniques that in most case, the main structure of MMT did not alter by acid activation (excepted for NA-MMT). Upon the stability test for 72 h during the reaction, the MMT and HA-MMT showed only slight deactivation due to carbon deposition. Hence, the acid activation of MMT by HCl is promising to enhance the catalytic dehydration of ethanol. PMID:27041515

  4. Volatile profiling of aromatic traditional medicinal plant, Polygonum minus in different tissues and its biological activities.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rafidah; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain; Bunawan, Hamidun; Lee, Minki; Mohd Noor, Normah; Rohani, Emelda Roseleena; Ilias, Norashikin; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots) of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) and hydrodistillation coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Approximately, 77 metabolites have been identified and aliphatic compounds contribute significantly towards the aroma and flavour of this plant. Two main aliphatic compounds: decanal and dodecanal were found to be the major contributor. Terpenoid metabolites were identified abundantly in leaves but not in the stem and root of this plant. Further studies on antioxidant, total phenolic content, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were determined in the essential oil and five different extracts. The plant showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity in polar (ethanol) extract for all the tissues tested. For anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, leaf in aqueous extract and methanol extract showed the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. However, in microbial activity, the non-polar extracts (n-hexane) showed high antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared to polar extracts. This study could provide the first step in the phytochemical profiles of volatile compounds and explore the additional value of pharmacology properties of this essential oil producing crop Polygonum minus. PMID:25420073

  5. Geometric differences of the mitral apparatus between ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy with significant mitral regurgitation: real-time three-dimensional echocardiography study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Jun; Shiota, Takahiro; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Qin, Jian Xin; Gillinov, Marc A.; Stewart, William J.; Cosgrove, Delos M.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the geometric differences of the mitral apparatus in patients with significant mitral regurgitation caused by ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM-MR) and by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM-MR) by use of real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with ICM-MR caused by posterior infarction, 18 patients with DCM-MR, and 8 control subjects were studied. With the 3D software, commissure-commissure plane and 3 perpendicular anteroposterior (AP) planes were generated for imaging the medial, central, and lateral sides of the mitral valve (MV) during mid systole. In 3 AP planes, the angles between the annular plane and each leaflet (anterior, Aalpha; posterior, Palpha) were measured. In ICM-MR, Aalpha measured in the medial and central planes was significantly larger than that in the lateral plane (39+/-5 degrees, 34+/-6 degrees, and 27+/-5 degrees, respectively; P<0.01), whereas Palpha showed no significant difference in any of the 3 AP planes (61+/-7 degrees, 57+/-7 degrees, and 56+/-7 degrees, P>0.05). In DCM-MR, both Aalpha (38+/-8 degrees, 37+/-9 degrees, and 36+/-7 degrees, P>0.05) and Palpha (59+/-6 degrees, 58+/-5 degrees, and 57+/-6 degrees, P>0.05) revealed no significant differences in the 3 planes. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of MV deformation from the medial to the lateral side was asymmetrical in ICM-MR, whereas it was symmetrical in DCM-MR. RT3DE is a helpful tool for differentiating the geometry of the mitral apparatus between these 2 different types of functional mitral regurgitation.

  6. Effects of different dietary lipid contents on growth and lipase activity of Eriocheir sinensis larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Debin; Pan, Luqing; Fang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    The effects of different dietary lipid content on the growth and lipase activity of Eriocheir sinensis larvae were studied in the paper. The results showed that the survival, metamorphic rate and weight gain of E. sinensis larvae at different stages of growth all varied significantly with lipid content ( P<0.05). Further, the survival and metamorphosis rates were the highest during the larval phases Z3 to Z4, and the weight gain was the highest during the larval phases Z5 to M. During the first 20 h after metamorphosis of every larval stage, the lipase activity increased over time at Z1, Z2, Z3 and M and declined at Z4 and Z5, and was influenced significantly by lipid content ( P<0.05). In addition, lipase activity at each larval stage began to respond to dietary lipid contents 4 h after the larvae were fed, and tended to be stable after 12 h. The diets with higher lipase activity and lower lipid content were selected to give the suitable recipe of lipid requirements at each larval stage. It was concluded that the suitable lipid requirements at Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and M were 6%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 8% and 10%, respectively.

  7. Parents' dietary patterns are significantly correlated: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; Campbell, Karen J

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify dietary patterns independently in first-time mothers and fathers, and to examine whether these patterns were correlated within families. Dietary intakes were collected at baseline in the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program using a validated FFQ in 454 pairs of first-time mothers and fathers. Education level was reported in associated questionnaires. Principal components analyses included frequencies of fifty-five food groups and were performed independently in mothers and fathers. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to assess associations between dietary pattern scores. A total of four dietary patterns were identified in mothers and fathers. Of these, three dietary patterns had similar characteristics between these two populations, namely 'Fruits and vegetables', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in mothers; and 'Fruits', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in fathers. The following two additional patterns were identified: 'Cereals and sweet foods' in mothers and 'Potatoes and vegetables' in fathers. Patterns incorporating healthier food items were found to be positively associated with parent education. An inverse association with education was found for the 'High-fat foods' and 'High-energy snack and processed foods' dietary patterns. Qualitatively similar patterns between corresponding mothers and fathers were the most strongly correlated (ρ = 0·34-0·45, P < 0·001). There were some differences in dietary patterns between mothers and fathers, suggesting that it is worth deriving patterns separately when considering couples, and more generally between men and women. Exploring how these various patterns correlate within households provides important insights to guide the development and implementation of family-based interventions. PMID:22040598

  8. Sex differences in feeding behavior in rats: the relationship with neuronal activation in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Fujioka, Hitomi; Kimura, Fukuko; Akema, Tatsuo; Funabashi, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement that the central nervous system in rodents differs between sexes due to the presence of gonadal steroid hormone during differentiation. Sex differences in feeding seem to occur among species, and responses to fasting (i.e., starvation), gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone and estradiol), and diet (i.e., western-style diet) vary significantly between sexes. The hypothalamus is the center for controlling feeding behavior. We examined the activation of feeding-related peptides in neurons in the hypothalamus. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a good marker for neural activation, as is the Fos antigen. Therefore, we predicted that sex differences in the activity of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons would be associated with feeding behavior. We determined the response of MCH neurons to glucose in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and our results suggested MCH neurons play an important role in sex differences in feeding behavior. In addition, fasting increased the number of orexin neurons harboring phosphorylated CREB in female rats (regardless of the estrous day), but not male rats. Glucose injection decreased the number of these neurons with phosphorylated CREB in fasted female rats. Finally, under normal spontaneous food intake, MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed phosphorylated CREB. These sex differences in response to fasting and glucose, as well as under normal conditions, suggest a vulnerability to metabolic challenges in females. PMID:25870535

  9. Cisplatin-induced Casepase-3 activation in different tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hua; Li, Xiao; Su, Ting; Zhang, Yu-Hai

    2008-12-01

    Apoptosis plays an essential role in normal organism development which is one of the main types of programmed cell death to help tissues maintain homeostasis. Defective apoptosis can result in cell accumulation and therefore effects on tumor pathogenesis, progression and therapy resistance. A family of proteins, known as caspases, is typically activated in the early stages of apoptosis. Therefore, studying the kinetics of activation of caspases induced by antitumor drugs can contribute to antitumor drug discovery and explanation of the molecular mechanisms. This paper detected the Caspase-3 activity induced by cisplatin in human adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line (ACC-M), human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and human epithelial carcinoma cell line (Hela) with stably expressing ECFP-DEVDDsRed (CD3) probe, a fluorescent probe consisting of Enhanced Cyan Fluorescent Protein (ECFP), red fluorescent protein (DsRed) and a linker with a recognition site of Caspase-3, by using the capillary electrophoresis (CE) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging system. Under the same concentration of cisplatin, ACC-M cells responded the most rapidly, and then HepG2 cells and Hela cells, respectively, in the early 30 hours. Later, HepG2 cells represented acceleration in the Caspase-3 activation speed and reached full activation the earliest comparing to other two cell types. The results demonstrated that ACC-M cell is more sensitive than the other two cell types under the treatment of cisplatin.

  10. Generation of parthenogenetic goat blastocysts: effects of different activation methods and culture media.

    PubMed

    Malik, Hruda Nanda; Singhal, Dinesh Kumar; Saugandhika, Shrabani; Dubey, Amit; Mukherjee, Ayan; Singhal, Raxita; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai Kumar; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bikash Chandra; Bag, Sadhan; Bhanja, Subrata Kumar; Malakar, Dhruba

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of different activation methods and culture media on the in vitro development of parthenogenetic goat blastocysts. Calcium (Ca2+) ionophore, ethanol or a combination of the two, used as activating reagents, and embryo development medium (EDM), modified Charles Rosenkrans (mCR2a) medium and research vitro cleave (RVCL) medium were used to evaluate the developmental competence of goat blastocysts. Quantitative expression of apoptosis, stress and developmental competence-related genes were analysed in different stages of embryos. In RVCL medium, the cleavage rate of Ca2+ ionophore-treated oocytes (79.61 ± 0.86) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in ethanol (74.90 ± 1.51) or in the combination of both Ca2+ ionophore and ethanol. In mCR2a or EDM, hatched blastocyst production rate of Ca2+ ionophore-treated oocytes (8.33 ± 1.44) was significantly higher than in ethanol (6.46 ± 0.11) or in the combined treatment (6.70 ± 0.24). In ethanol, the cleavage, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst production rates in RVCL medium (74.90 ± 1.51, 18.30 ± 1.52 and 8.24 ± 0.15, respectively) were significantly higher than in EDM (67.81 ± 3.21, 14.59 ± 0.27 and 5.59 ± 0.42) or mCR2a medium (65.09 ± 1.57, 15.36 ± 0.52 and 6.46 ± 0.11). The expression of BAX, Oct-4 and GlUT1 transcripts increased gradually from 2-cell stage to blastocyst-stage embryos, whereas the transcript levels of Bcl-2 and MnSOD were significantly lower in blastocysts. In addition, different activation methods and culture media had little effect on the pattern of variation and relative abundance of the above genes in different stages of parthenogenetic activated goat embryos. In conclusion, Ca2+ ionophore as the activating agent, and RVCL as the culture medium are better than other tested options for development of parthenogenetic activated goat blastocysts. PMID:24405529

  11. Significant Differences in the Development of Acquired Resistance to the MDM2 Inhibitor SAR405838 between In Vitro and In Vivo Drug Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman-Luca, C. Gianna; Yang, Chao-Yie; Lu, Jianfeng; Ziazadeh, Daniel; McEachern, Donna; Debussche, Laurent; Wang, Shaomeng

    2015-01-01

    405838 is 3–5 times less effective in all the in vivo derived sublines containing a single heterozygous C176F p53 mutation than in the SJSA-1 parental cell line in assays of cell growth and apoptosis. Computational modeling suggested that a p53 tetramer containing two wild-type p53 molecules and two C176F mutated molecules can maintain the structural stability and interactions with DNA by formation of additional hydrophobic and cation-π interactions which compensate for the loss of sulphur-zinc coordination. Our data thus show that SJSA-1 tumor cells acquire very different levels of resistance in vitro and in vivo to the MDM2 inhibitor SAR405838. Our present study may have a significant implication for the investigation of resistant mechanisms for other classes of anticancer drugs. PMID:26070072

  12. Brain electrical activities of dancers and fast ball sports athletes are different.

    PubMed

    Ermutlu, Numan; Yücesir, Ilker; Eskikurt, Gökçer; Temel, Tan; İşoğlu-Alkaç, Ümmühan

    2015-04-01

    Exercise training has been shown not only to influence physical fitness positively but also cognition in healthy and impaired populations. However, some particular exercise types, even though comparable based on physical efforts, have distinct cognitive and sensorimotor features. In this study, the effects of different types of exercise, such as fast ball sports and dance training, on brain electrical activity were investigated. Electroencephalography (EEG) scans were recorded in professional dancer, professional fast ball sports athlete (FBSA) and healthy control volunteer groups consisting of twelve subjects each. In FBSA, power of delta and theta frequency activities of EEG was significantly higher than those of the dancers and the controls. Conversely, dancers had significantly higher amplitudes in alpha and beta bands compared to FBSA and significantly higher amplitudes in the alpha band in comparison with controls. The results suggest that cognitive features of physical training can be reflected in resting brain electrical oscillations. The differences in resting brain electrical oscillations between the dancers and the FBSA can be the result of innate network differences determining the talents and/or plastic changes induced by physical training. PMID:25834650

  13. Comparative study between two different active flutter suppression systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1978-01-01

    An activated leading-edge (LE)-tailing-edge (TE) control system is applied to a drone aircraft with the objective of enabling the drone to fly subsonically at dynamic pressures which are 44% above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. The control synthesis approach is based on the aerodynamic energy concept and it incorporates recent developments in this area. A comparison is made between the performance of the activated LE-TE control system and the performance of a TE control system, analyzed in a previous work. The results obtained indicate that although all the control systems achieve the flutter suppression objectives, the TE control system appears to be somewhat superior to the LE-TE control system, in this specific application. This superiority is manifested through reduced values of control surface activity over a wide range of flight conditions.

  14. Expert-novice differences in SMR activity during dart throwing.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming-Yang; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chang, Yu-Kai; Lo, Li-Chuan; Shen, Cheng; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Previous evidence suggests that augmented sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity is related to the superior regulation of processing cognitive-motor information in motor performance. However, no published studies have examined the relationship between SMR and performance in precision sports; thus, this study examined the relationship between SMR activity and the level of skilled performance in tasks requiring high levels of attention (e.g., dart throwing). We hypothesized that skilled performance would be associated with higher SMR activity. Fourteen dart-throwing experts and eleven novices were recruited. Participants were requested to perform 60 dart throws while EEG was recorded. The 2(Group: Expert, Novice)×2(Time window: -2000 ms to -1000 ms, -1000 ms to 0 ms) ANOVA showed that the dart-throwing experts maintained a relatively higher SMR power than the novices before dart release. These results suggest that SMR might reflect the adaptive regulation of cognitive-motor processing during the preparatory period. PMID:26277266

  15. Differences in Muscle Activity During Cable Resistance Training Are Influenced by Variations in Handle Types.

    PubMed

    Rendos, Nicole K; Heredia Vargas, Héctor M; Alipio, Taislaine C; Regis, Rebeca C; Romero, Matthew A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-07-01

    Rendos, NK, Heredia Vargas, HM, Alipio, TC, Regis, RC, Romero, MA, and Signorile, JF. Differences in muscle activity during cable resistance training are influenced by variations in handle types. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2001-2009, 2016-There has been a recent resurgence in the use of cable machines for resistance training allowing movements that more effectively simulate daily activities and sports-specific movements. By necessity, these devices require a machine/human interface through some type of handle. Considerable data from material handling, industrial engineering, and exercise training studies indicate that handle qualities, especially size and shape, can significantly influence force production and muscular activity, particularly of the forearm muscles, which affect the critical link in activities that require object manipulation. The purpose for this study was to examine the influence of three different handle conditions: standard handle (StandH), ball handle with the cable between the index and middle fingers (BallIM), and ball handle with the cable between the middle and ring fingers (BallMR), on activity levels (rmsEMG) of the triceps brachii lateral and long heads (TriHLat, TriHLong), brachioradialis (BR), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum (ED) during eight repetitions of standing triceps pushdown performed from 90° to 0° elbow flexion at 1.5 s per contractile stage. Handle order was randomized. No significant differences were seen for triceps or BR rmsEMG across handle conditions; however, relative patterns of activation did vary for the forearm muscles by handle condition, with more coordinated activation levels for the FCR and ED during the ball handle conditions. In addition, the rmsEMG for the ED was significantly higher during the BallIM than any other condition and during the BallMR than the StandH. These results indicate that the use of ball handles with the cable passing between different fingers

  16. Antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging capacity of Gynura divaricata leaf extracts at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Chunpeng; Yu, Yanying; Zhou, Shouran; Liu, Wei; Tian, Shuge; Cao, Shuwen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Extraction temperature influences the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) of medicinal plant extracts to a great extend. TPC and TFC are the principle activity constituents present in the plant. The effects of extraction temperature on TPC, TFC and free radical-scavenging capacity of Gynura divaricata leaf extracts are worth to study. Materials and Methods: Folin–Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay were used to determine the TPC and TFC of Gynura divaricata leaf extracts at different temperatures. The antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activity were measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and phosphomolybdenum methods. Results: TPC and TFC were significantly elevated with increasing extraction temperature (from 40°C to 100°C). However, TPC and TFC were not significantly different (P > 0.05) at the extraction temperatures 90°C and 100°C. Also, the extracts obtained at a higher temperature exhibited a significant free radical-scavenging activity compared with extraction at lower temperatures (P < 0.05). The TPCs (13.95-36.68 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry material) were highly correlated with DPPH (R2 = 0.9229), ABTS (R2 = 0.9951) free radical-scavenging capacity, and total antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.9872) evaluated by phosphomolybdenum method. Conclusion: The TPC and TFC of G. divaricata leaf was significantly influenced by the extraction temperatures, which were the main antioxidant constituents present in the G. divaricata plant. PMID:21472078

  17. Activity Variation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium under Nanosilver Exposure by Controlling of Different Sulfide Sources.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi; Chen, Guiqiu; Liu, Lingzhi; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Anwei; Hu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the particular activation and inhibition behavior of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on microbes at various concentrations, it's crucial to exploit the special concentration effect in environment. Here, we studied the viability variation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) under exposure to citrate-coated AgNPs (Citrate-AgNPs) in the presence of different sulfide sources (an inorganic sulfide, NaHS and an organic sulfide, thioacetamide (TAA)). The results indicated that both NaHS and TAA can promote activation of P. chrysosporium by Citrate-AgNPs at a higher concentration, which was initial at toxic level. Treatment with various concentrations of Citrate-AgNPs (0-9 mg/L) demonstrated a maximum activation concentration (MAC) at 3 mg/L. With the increase in sulfide concentration, MAC transferred to higher concentration significantly, indicating the obvious "toxicity to activation" transformation at a higher concentration. Ag(+) testing exhibited that variations in sulfide-induced Ag(+) concentration (3-7 μg/L Ag(+)) accounted for the "toxicity to activation" transformation. In addition, the similar results were observed on antibacterial application using Escherichia coli as the model species. Based on the research results, the application of this transformation in improving antibacterial activity was proposed. Therefore, the antibacterial activity of AgNPs can be controlled, even at concentration, via adjusting for the sulfide concentration. PMID:26864597

  18. Macrophages require different nucleoside transport systems for proliferation and activation.

    PubMed

    Soler, C; García-Manteiga, J; Valdés, R; Xaus, J; Comalada, M; Casado, F J; Pastor-Anglada, M; Celada, A; Felipe, A

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms involved in macrophage proliferation and activation, we studied the regulation of the nucleoside transport systems. In murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, the nucleosides required for DNA and RNA synthesis are recruited from the extracellular medium. M-CSF induced macrophage proliferation and DNA and RNA synthesis, whereas interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) led to activation, blocked proliferation, and induced only RNA synthesis. Macrophages express at least the concentrative systems N1 and N2 (CNT2 and CNT1 genes, respectively) and the equilibrative systems es and ei (ENT1 and ENT2 genes, respectively). Incubation with M-CSF only up-regulated the equilibrative system es. Inhibition of this transport system blocked M-CSF-dependent proliferation. Treatment with IFN-gamma only induced the concentrative N1 and N2 systems. IFN-gamma also down-regulated the increased expression of the es equilibrative system induced by M-CSF. Thus, macrophage proliferation and activation require selective regulation of nucleoside transporters and may respond to specific requirements for DNA and RNA synthesis. This report also shows that the nucleoside transporters are critical for macrophage proliferation and activation. PMID:11532978

  19. Gender differences in familial aggregation of objectively measured physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of health-risk factors have been shown to cluster within families. However, there have been few studies that have assessed the degree of correlation between parent and child physical activity levels. It is also unclear if gender of parent or child influences this relationship. PURPOSE: To d...

  20. Antibacterial activity of different natural honeys from Transylvania, Romania.

    PubMed

    Vica, Mihaela Laura; Glevitzky, Mirel; Dumitrel, Gabriela-Alina; Junie, Lia Monica; Popa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Honey is used in food industry and medicine due to its nutritive, therapeutic and dietetic qualities. The microbiological characteristics of 10 unpasteurized honey samples of known origin, collected from Transylvania beekeepers (Romania) were determined. The antibacterial activity of these types of honey against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii and Listeria monocytogenes strains was studied. The most sensitive to the antibacterial activity were the two staphylococus strains (the largest diameter of inhibition zone was 18 mm) and B. subtilis strains (13.5 mm). The strains of B. cereus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were found to present resistance to some of the honey samples. Manna, sunflower and polyfloral honeys presented high antibacterial activity while acacia and linden honeys had a lower activity in terms of the number of sensible strains. Statistical analysis shows that the type of strains and the type of honey have influence on the diameter of inhibition. PMID:24380618

  1. Difference Between Latent TB Infection and Active TB Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray, or positive sputum smear or culture • • Has active TB bacteria in his/her body • • Usually feels sick and may have symptoms such as coughing, fever, and weight loss • • May spread TB bacteria to others • • Needs treatment to treat ...

  2. Kids Can Make a Difference! Environmental Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dashefsky, H. Steven

    This book of more than 160 environmental science activities is designed to help students understand environmental issues, ask questions, and find solutions to the problems. Introductory sections address: (1) the nature of major global problems and a history of environmental concern; (2) basic environmental science terminology and scientific study…

  3. A Comparative Study of Active Play on Differently Designed Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchs, Antje; Fikus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The physical and social environment of children in cities is continuously changing. Knowledge about the positive effects of natural play experiences within the child's development is becoming widely known. Affordances of diverse landscape elements and especially loose parts for play in natural environments influence play activities. New…

  4. [Study of antioxidant and membrane activity of rosmarinic acid using different model systems].

    PubMed

    Popov, A M; Osipov, A N; Korepanova, E A; Krivoshapko, O N; Artiukov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid is found in many species of different families of higher plants and its chemical structure is phenol propanoid with various biological activity. In this paper, we conducted a comparative study of antioxidant (radical-scavenging) properties of rosmarinic acid in systems of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-methylpropionamidin)dihydrochloride-luminol and hemoglobin-hydrogen peroxide-lu- minol, determined its protective potential in preventing peroxidation of linoleic acid, and evaluated the effect on the permeability of planar bilayer lipid membranes. Linoleic acid peroxidation was assessed by iron-thiocyanate method. In these studies, trolox was used as a reference antioxidant, and ascorbic acid, and dihydroquercetin were taken as standards. Rosmarinic acid is significantly superior to trolox, ascorbic acid and dihydroquercetin in the tests for antioxidant activity in the systems studied, as well as in inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. According to their activity the investigated substances can be arranged in the following order: rosmarinic acid > dihydroquercetin trolox > ascorbic acid. Rosmarinic acid does not cause significant changes in the permeability of planar bilayer membranes in a dose range of 0.5 to 10 mkg/mL. Antioxidant activity of rosmarinic acid is due to the neutralization of reactive oxygen species and/or luminol radicals generated in model systems. The observed features of the antioxidant and membrane activity of rosmarinic acid, which may underlie the previously mentioned pharmacological effects are discussed. PMID:25481945

  5. [Study of antioxidant and membrane activity of rosmarinic acid using different model systems].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid is found in many species of different families of higher plants and its chemical structure is phenol propanoid with various biological activity. In this paper, we conducted a comparative study of antioxidant (radical-scavenging) properties of rosmarinic acid in systems of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-methylpropionamidin)dihydrochloride-luminol and hemoglobin-hydrogen peroxide-lu- minol, determined its protective potential in preventing peroxidation of linoleic acid, and evaluated the effect on the permeability of planar bilayer lipid membranes. Linoleic acid peroxidation was assessed by iron-thiocyanate method. In these studies, trolox was used as a reference antioxidant, and ascorbic acid, and dihydroquercetin were taken as standards. Rosmarinic acid is significantly superior to trolox, ascorbic acid and dihydroquercetin in the tests for antioxidant activity in the systems studied, as well as in inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. According to their activity the investigated substances can be arranged in the following order: rosmarinic acid > dihydroquercetin trolox > ascorbic acid. Rosmarinic acid does not cause significant changes in the permeability of planar bilayer membranes in a dose range of 0.5 to 10 mkg/mL. Antioxidant activity of rosmarinic acid is due to the neutralization of reactive oxygen species and/or luminol radicals generated in model systems. The observed features of the antioxidant and membrane activity of rosmarinic acid, which may underlie the previously mentioned pharmacological effects are discussed. PMID:25508797

  6. Factors that Influence Physical Activity in Long-Term Care: Perspectives of Residents, Staff, and Significant Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Kathleen; Edwards, Nancy; Guitard, Paulette; Murray, Mary Ann; Caswell, Wenda; Perrier, Marie Josee

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity has been linked to positive health outcomes for frail seniors. However, our understanding of factors that influence the physical activity of residents in the long-term care (LTC) setting is limited. This article describes our work with focus groups, one component of a multi-component study that examined factors influencing the…

  7. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-03-01

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner. PMID:24577283

  8. Effect of different dental articulating papers on SEMG activity during maximum clenching.

    PubMed

    Augusti, Davide; Augusti, Gabriele; Re, Dino; Dellavia, Claudia; Giannì, Aldo Bruno

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the influence of two different occlusal indicators (articulating papers of 40μm and 200μm) on muscular activity of the temporalis anterior (TA) and superficial masseter (MS) during maximum voluntary clenches (MVC), using surface electromyography (SEMG). It was hypothesized that an articulating paper positioned between dental arches during MVC elicits a different muscular activity compared with the occlusion on natural dentition (without the occlusal indicator). 30 healthy adult subjects with a complete, natural dentition were recruited; SEMG activity was recorded in the following experimental conditions: MVC with cotton rolls for standardization purposes; MVC on natural dentition; MVC onto the 40μm or 200μm paper indicator positioned on right or left side of the dental arch. Percentage Overlapping Coefficient (POC; separate values obtained for TA and MS), antero-posterior coefficient (APC) and total muscle activities (IMP) were the analyzed SEMG parameters. The use of an occlusal indicator statistically changed POC_TA, POC_MS and IMP median values (p<0.05). Both 40μm and 200μm occlusal papers did not significantly affect APC values (P=0.86). A pronounced asymmetric muscular activity has been recorded with the introduction of an interocclusal media. All indices of muscular activity did not differ between sexes (Kruskal Wallis test, P>0.05). In conclusion, the examined articulating papers affected two specific SEMG parameters (POC and IMP); the recorded muscular activity with the occlusal indicator varied regardless left or right side positioning, and independently from tested paper thicknesses. PMID:25956545

  9. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P < 0.05) movements in fetuses of Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. PMID:26341422

  10. Comparing activated carbon of different particle sizes on enhancing methane generation in upflow anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Xu, Suyun; He, Chuanqiu; Luo, Liwen; Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing; Cui, Lifeng

    2015-11-01

    Two sizes of conductive particles, i.e. 10-20 mesh granulated activated carbon (GAC) and 80-100 mesh powdered activated carbon (PAC) were added into lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors, respectively, to testify their enhancement on the syntrophic metabolism of alcohols and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in 95days operation. When OLR increased to more than 5.8gCOD/L/d, the differences between GAC/PAC supplemented reactors and the control reactor became more significant. The introduction of activated carbon could facilitate the enrichment of methanogens and accelerate the startup of methanogenesis, as indicated by enhanced methane yield and substrate degradation. High-throughput pyrosequencing analysis showed that syntrophic bacteria and Methanosarcina sp. with versatile metabolic capability increased in the tightly absorbed fraction on the PAC surface, leading to the promoted syntrophic associations. Thus PAC prevails over than GAC for methanogenic reactor with heavy load. PMID:26298405

  11. Cytochromes P450 and species differences in xenobiotic metabolism and activation of carcinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D F; Ioannides, C; Parke, D V

    1998-01-01

    The importance of cytochrome P450 isoforms to species differences in the metabolism of foreign compounds and activation of procarcinogens has been identified. The possible range of P450 isozymes in significant variations in toxicity exhibited by experimental rodent species may have a relevance to chemical risk assessment, especially as human P450s are likely to show changes in the way they metabolize xenobiotics. Consequently, in the safety evaluation of chemicals, we should be cautious in extrapolating results from experimental animal models to humans. This paper focuses on examples in which species differences in P450s lead to significant alterations in carcinogenic response, and includes a discussion of the current procedures for toxicity screening, with an emphasis on short-term tests. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9755138

  12. Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

  13. Juice, pulp and seeds fractionated from dry climate primocane raspberry cultivars (Rubus idaeus) have significantly different antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin content and color.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Shannon M; Low, Richard M; Stocks, Janet C; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2012-12-01

    Raspberries contain flavonoid antioxidants whose relative concentrations may vary between the juice, pulp, and seed fractions. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total anthocyanin content, and berry color were determined for six cultivars of primocane raspberries grown in a dry climate (Utah, USA). Significant ORAC differences were found between juice (18.4 ± 0.39 μmol TE/g), pulp (24.45 ± 0.43), and seeds (273.27 ± 11.15) with all Utah cultivars combined. A significantly higher concentration of anthocyanins was present in Utah raspberry juice (20.86 ± 0.35 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside eq./100 g), compared to pulp (13.96 ± 0.35). Anthocyanin content of juice and pulp were significantly positively correlated with dark color (L*). This is the first report of fractional differences in dry climate raspberries, and has implications for the juice and supplement industries. PMID:23132011

  14. Influence of different anoxic time exposures on active biomass, protozoa and filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Perez, S; Fermoso, F G; Arnaiz, C

    2016-01-01

    Medium-sized wastewater treatment plants are considered too small to implement anaerobic digestion technologies and too large for extensive treatments. A promising option as a sewage sludge reduction method is the inclusion of anoxic time exposures. In the present study, three different anoxic time exposures of 12, 6 and 4 hours have been studied to reduce sewage sludge production. The best anoxic time exposure was observed under anoxic/oxic cycles of 6 hours, which reduced 29.63% of the biomass production compared with the oxic control conditions. The sludge under different anoxic time exposures, even with a lower active biomass concentration than the oxic control conditions, showed a much higher metabolic activity than the oxic control conditions. Microbiological results suggested that both protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria decrease under anoxic time exposures compared to oxic control conditions. The anoxic time exposures 6/6 showed the highest reduction in both protozoa density, 37.5%, and abundance of filamentous bacteria, 41.1%, in comparison to the oxic control conditions. The groups of crawling ciliates, carnivorous ciliates and filamentous bacteria were highly influenced by the anoxic time exposures. Protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria have been shown as promising bioindicators of biomass production reduction. PMID:27508364

  15. Triterpenoids and Polysaccharide Fractions of Ganoderma tsugae Exert Different Effects on Antiallergic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Miaw-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Lin, Bi-Fong

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate antiallergic effects of triterpenoids (Gt-TRE) and polysaccharide (Gt-PS) extracts from Ganoderma tsugae, using mast cell line RBL-2H3, T cell line EL4, primary T cells, and transfected RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The results showed that histamine secreted from activated RBL-2H3 mast cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Interleukin- (IL-) 4 secreted from activated EL4 cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Further primary CD4+ T cells cultures also confirmed that Gt-TRE (5 ~ 50 µg/mL) significantly suppressed Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 secretions but had no effect on Th1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ. Gt-PS did not affect IL-4 and IL-5 secretions until higher doses (400, 500 µg/mL) and significantly suppressed IFNγ secretions but enhanced IL-2 at these high doses. The reporter gene assay indicated that Gt-TRE inhibited but Gt-PS enhanced the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in activated transfected RAW264.7 cells and transfected EL4 cells. IL-4 secreted by this transfected EL-4 cells was also significantly decreased by Gt-TRE but not by Gt-PS, suggesting that these two fractions may exert different effects on NF-κB related cytokines expression. These data suggested that triterpenoids fraction of Ganoderma tsugae might be the main constituents to alleviate allergic asthma. PMID:25960757

  16. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. Since 2012, in an effort coordinated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UFD has advanced active collaboration with several international geologic disposal programs in Europe and Asia. Such collaboration allows the UFD Campaign to benefit from a deep knowledge base with regards to alternative repository environments developed over decades, and to utilize international investments in research facilities (such as underground research laboratories), saving millions of R&D dollars that have been and are being provided by other countries. To date, UFD’s International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several international partners, and national lab scientists associated with UFD have conducted specific collaborative R&D activities that align well with its R&D priorities.

  17. Effects of different types of N deposition on the fungal decomposition activities of temperate forest soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Shushan; Du, Yuhan; Guo, Peng; Guo, Lida; Qu, Kaiyue; He, Jianping

    2014-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition significantly affects soil microbial activities and litter decomposition processes in forest ecosystems. However, the changes in soil fungi during litter decomposition remain unclear. In this study, ammonium nitrate was selected as inorganic N (IN), whereas urea and glycine were selected as organic N (ON). N fertilizer with different IN-to-ON ratios (1:4, 2:3, 3:2, 4:1, and 5:0) was mixed in equal amounts and then added to temperate forest soils. Half of each treatment was simultaneously added with streptomycin to inhibit soil bacteria. The activities of enzymes involved in litter decomposition (invertase, β-glucosidase, cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and phosphatase) were assayed after a three-year field experiment. The results showed that enzymatic activities were inhibited by IN addition but accelerated by ON addition in the non-antibiotic addition treatments. An increase in ON in the mixed N fertilizer also shifted enzymatic activities from N inhibition to N stimulation. Similarly, in the antibiotic addition treatments, fungal activities revealed the same trends, but they were seriously inhibited by IN and significantly accelerated by ON. These results indicated that soil fungi were more sensitive to N deposition, particularly to ON. A large amount of ON may convert soil microbial communities into a fungi-dominated system. However, excessive ON deposition (20% IN+80% ON) caused N saturation and repressed fungal activities. These results suggested that soil fungi were sensitive to N type and that different IN-to-ON ratios may induce diverse ecological effects on soil fungi. PMID:25127443

  18. Insights into properties of activated carbons prepared from different raw precursors by pyrophosphoric acid activation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2016-03-01

    Low-cost activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from four kinds of solid wastes: petroleum coke, Enteromorpha prolifera, lignin from papermaking black liquid and hair, by pyrophosphoric acid (H4P2O7) activation. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the pyrolysis of H4P2O7-precursor mixtures implied that H4P2O7 had different influences on the pyrolysis behavior of the four raw materials. N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and adsorption capacities for dyes were used to characterize the prepared activated carbons. AC derived from E. prolifera exhibited the highest surface area (1094m(2)/g) and maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for malachite green (1250mg/g). Kinetic studies showed that the experimental data were in agreement with the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, indicating the adsorption of dye onto the ACs proceeded by monolayers. PMID:26969070

  19. Psychoacoustic Tinnitus Loudness and Tinnitus-Related Distress Show Different Associations with Oscillatory Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Balkenhol, Tobias; Wallhäusser-Franke, Elisabeth; Delb, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background The phantom auditory perception of subjective tinnitus is associated with aberrant brain activity as evidenced by magneto- and electroencephalographic studies. We tested the hypotheses (1) that psychoacoustically measured tinnitus loudness is related to gamma oscillatory band power, and (2) that tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress are related to distinct brain activity patterns as suggested by the distinction between loudness and distress experienced by tinnitus patients. Furthermore, we explored (3) how hearing impairment, minimum masking level, and (4) psychological comorbidities are related to spontaneous oscillatory brain activity in tinnitus patients. Methods and Findings Resting state oscillatory brain activity recorded electroencephalographically from 46 male tinnitus patients showed a positive correlation between gamma band oscillations and psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness determined with the reconstructed tinnitus sound, but not with the other psychoacoustic loudness measures that were used. Tinnitus-related distress did also correlate with delta band activity, but at electrode positions different from those associated with tinnitus loudness. Furthermore, highly distressed tinnitus patients exhibited a higher level of theta band activity. Moreover, mean hearing loss between 0.125 kHz and 16 kHz was associated with a decrease in gamma activity, whereas minimum masking levels correlated positively with delta band power. In contrast, psychological comorbidities did not express significant correlations with oscillatory brain activity. Conclusion Different clinically relevant tinnitus characteristics show distinctive associations with spontaneous brain oscillatory power. Results support hypothesis (1), but exclusively for the tinnitus loudness derived from matching to the reconstructed tinnitus sound. This suggests to preferably use the reconstructed tinnitus spectrum to determine psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness. Results also support

  20. Lower trunk kinematics and muscle activity during different types of tennis serves

    PubMed Central

    Chow, John W; Park, Soo-An; Tillman, Mark D

    2009-01-01

    Background To better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in trunk motion during a tennis serve, this study aimed to examine the (1) relative motion of the middle and lower trunk and (2) lower trunk muscle activity during three different types of tennis serves - flat, topspin, and slice. Methods Tennis serves performed by 11 advanced (AV) and 8 advanced intermediate (AI) male tennis players were videorecorded with markers placed on the back of the subject used to estimate the anatomical joint (AJ) angles between the middle and lower trunk for four trunk motions (extension, left lateral flexion, and left and right twisting). Surface electromyographic (EMG) techniques were used to monitor the left and right rectus abdominis (LRA and RRA), external oblique (LEO and REO), internal oblique (LIO and RIO), and erector spinae (LES and RES). The maximal AJ angles for different trunk motions during a serve and the average EMG levels for different muscles during different phases (ascending and descending windup, acceleration, and follow-through) of a tennis serve were evaluated. Results The repeated measures Skill × Serve Type × Trunk Motion ANOVA for maximal AJ angle indicated no significant main effects for serve type or skill level. However, the AV group had significantly smaller extension (p = 0.018) and greater left lateral flexion (p = 0.038) angles than the AI group. The repeated measures Skill × Serve Type × Phase MANOVA revealed significant phase main effects in all muscles (p < 0.001) and the average EMG of the AV group for LRA was significantly higher than that of the AI group (p = 0.008). All muscles showed their highest EMG values during the acceleration phase. LRA and LEO muscles also exhibited high activations during the descending windup phase, and RES muscle was very active during the follow-through phase. Conclusion Subjects in the AI group may be more susceptible to back injury than the AV group because of the significantly greater trunk

  1. Effect of heavy metals on soil enzyme activity at different field conditions in Middle Spis mining area (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Angelovičová, Lenka; Lodenius, Martin; Tulisalo, Esa; Fazekašová, Danica

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals concentrations were measured in the former mining area located in Hornad river valley (Slovakia). Soil samples were taken in 2012 from 20 sites at two field types (grasslands, heaps of waste material) and two different areas. Total content of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg), urease (URE), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), soil reaction (pH) were changing depending on the field/area type. The tailing pond and processing plants have been found as the biggest sources of pollution. URE, ACP and ALP activities significantly decreased while the heavy metal contents increased. Significant differences were found among area types in the heavy metal contents and activity of URE. No statistical differences in the content of heavy metals but significant statistical differences for soil pH were found for field types (grassland and heaps). Significant negative correlation was found for URE-Pb, URE-Zn and also between soil reaction and ACP and ALP. PMID:25293393

  2. Spatial learning-related changes in metabolic activity of limbic structures at different posttask delays.

    PubMed

    Méndez-López, M; Méndez, M; Sampedro-Piquero, P; Arias, J L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the functional contribution of brain limbic system regions at different moments after the acquisition of a short-term spatial memory task performed in the Morris water maze. Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to a matching-to-sample procedure with a hidden platform. The trials were made up of two daily identical visits to the platform, sample (swim-1) and retention (swim-2). To study oxidative metabolic activity, we applied cytochrome oxidase (COx) histochemistry. Densitometric measurements were taken at 1.5, 6, 24, and 48 hr posttask. An untrained group was added to explore the COx changes not specific to the learning process. The brain regions studied showed a different pattern of metabolic activity at different time points after the spatial memory task. Specifically, a significant increase of COx was found in the septal dentate gyrus, anteromedial thalamus, medial mammillary nucleus, and entorhinal cortex at early moments after learning. The entorhinal cortex maintained an increase of COx at later stages of the posttask period. In addition, an increase of COx activity was found in the supramammillary nucleus and the retrosplenial, perirhinal, and parietal cortices a long time after learning. These findings suggest that diencephalic and cortical regions are involved in this spatial learning and contribute at different moments to process this information. PMID:23073928

  3. Chloroplast protrusions in leaves of Ranunculus glacialis L. respond significantly to different ambient conditions, but are not related to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Moser, Tim; Holzinger, Andreas; Buchner, Othmar

    2015-07-01

    The occurrence of chloroplast protrusions (CPs) in leaves of Ranunculus glacialis L. in response to different environmental conditions was assessed. CPs occur highly dynamically. They do not contain thylakoids and their physiological function is still largely unknown. Controlled in situ sampling showed that CP formation follows a pronounced diurnal rhythm. Between 2 and 27 °C the relative proportion of chloroplasts with CPs (rCP) showed a significant positive correlation to leaf temperature (TL; 0.793, P < 0.01), while irradiation intensity had a minor effect on rCP. In situ shading and controlled laboratory experiments confirmed the significant influence of TL. Under moderate irradiation intensity, an increase of TL up to 25 °C significantly promoted CP formation, while a further increase to 37 °C led to a decrease. Furthermore, rCP values were lower in darkness and under high irradiation intensity. Gas treatment at 2000 ppm CO2/2% O2 led to a significant decrease of rCP, suggesting a possible involvement of photorespiration in CP formation. Our findings demonstrate that in R. glacialis, CPs are neither a rare phenomenon nor a result of heat or light stress; on the contrary, they seem to be most abundant under moderate temperature and non-stress irradiation conditions. PMID:25393014

  4. Superfund Explanation of Significant Difference for the Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Middleton, WI, September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-03-01

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) is for the Refuse Hideaway Landfill Superfund site in Middleton, Wisconsin. The June 28, 1995 ROD required groundwater extraction and treatment of the most highly contaminated groundwater (greater than 200 ppb total volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), treatment of groundwater to discharge standards and injection of the treated water into the aquifer upgradient of the landfill to stimulate in-situ biodegradation of the degradable components of the contamination. This ESD documents that US EPA, in consultation with WDNR, has determined, based on the 1998 groundwater data, that it is not necessary to implement the groundwater extraction and treatment component of the selected remedy. The significant decrease of total VOCs in groundwater over a short period of time indicates that groundwater should meet the remedial action objective of NR 140 PALs within a reasonable period of time if source control measures continue to be operated and maintained.

  5. Do Differences in Brain Activation Challenge Universal Theories of Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2006-01-01

    It has been commonly agreed that developmental dyslexia in different languages has a common biological origin: a dysfunction of left posterior temporal brain regions dealing with phonological processes. Siok, Perfetti, Jin, and Tan (2004, "Nature," 431, 71-76) challenge this biological unity theory of dyslexia: Chinese dyslexics show no deficits…

  6. Gender Differences in Barriers to Physical Activity among College Students Reporting Varying Levels of Regular Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munford, Shawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the primary determinants of physical activity in an effort to enhance health promotion initiatives nationwide. These physical activity determinants have been observed to differ among various segments of the population, suggesting a further examination of physical activity barriers among differing populations. Little…

  7. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 3): Fairchild, Intel, and Raytheon Sites, (Mew Study Area), Mountain View, CA, September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of the document is to explain the significant differences between the Record of Decision (ROD) signed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on June 9, 1989 (PB90-118225) and the remedy that will be implemented at the Middlefield/Ellis/Whisman Study Area (MEW Site). The document provides a brief background on the MEW Site, describes the change to the ROD that EPA is now making and explains the ways in which this change affects implementation of the remedy selected by EPA in June of 1989.

  8. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA region 2): Love Canal, Niagara Falls, NY, September 5, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) announce this Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) to explain modifications to the selected remedy for the final destruction and disposal of Love Canal dioxin-contaminated sewer and creek sediments. These modifications are embodied in proposed changes to a partial consent decree between the United States and the State of New York and the Occidental Chemical Corporation (OCC) in the United States District Court for the Western District of New York.

  9. Differences in angiogenic potential of classically vs alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kodelja, V; Müller, C; Tenorio, S; Schebesch, C; Orfanos, C E; Goerdt, S

    1997-11-01

    Macrophages (M phi) are important for angiogenesis during inflammation, wound repair, and tumor growth. However, well-characterized M phi subsets such as IFN-gamma-induced, classically activated (ca) M phi or IL-4/glucocorticoid-induced, alternatively activated (aa) M phi have not been thoroughly examined for a positive or negative association with angiogenesis. While caM phi populate early inflammatory reactions and high-turnover granulomas, aaM phi occur in healing wounds and chronic inflammation. In contrast to caM phi-dominated lesions, aaM phi-rich lesions are highly vascularized. In order to determine their angiogenic potential in vitro, these M phi subsets as well as unstimulated control macrophages (coM phi) were analyzed by RT-PCR for mRNA expression of 10 angiogenic factors after 3 and 6 days of culture. Early during activation, caM phi and coM phi expressed equal levels of 8 of 10 angiogenic factors (PDGF-A, MK, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta 1, PDGF-B, HGF, TGF-alpha, IGF-1), while aaM phi showed expression of only 4 of these factors (TGF-beta 1, PDGF-B, HGF, GF-1). After maturation, TGF-alpha and IGF-1 showed a shift in mRNA expression from caM phi to aaM phi resulting in a considerably enhanced expression of these factors in day-6 aaM phi as compared to day-6 caM phi and coM phi while PDGF-A, MK, and TNF-alpha remained suppressed in day 6 aaM phi. In all M phi subsets including controls, mRNA expression of aFGF and bFGF was minimal or absent while TGFG-beta 1, HGF, and ODGF-B were constitutively expressed. In order to functionally integrate angiogenic factor mRNA expression profiles, mitogenic activity of M phi subsets towards microvascular endothelium was assessed by cocultivation. Coculture experiments revealed that endothelial proliferation induced by aaM phi was 3.0-3.5x higher than induced by caM phi. In conclusion, mature aaM phi are well equipped to play an important role in protracted M phi-associated angiogenic processes. Presumably due to expression of

  10. A preliminary study of sex differences in brain activation during a spatial navigation task in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Sava, Simona; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2011-10-01

    The hippocampus plays a significant role in spatial memory processing, with sex differences being prominent on various spatial tasks. This study examined sex differences in healthy adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in areas implicated in spatial processing during navigation of a virtual analogue of the Morris water-maze. There were three conditions: learning, hidden, and visible control. There were no significant differences in performance measures. However, sex differences were found in regional brain activation during learning in the right hippocampus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex. During the hidden condition, the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate cortex were activated in both men and women. Additional brain areas involved in spatial processing may be recruited in women when learning information about the environment, by utilizing external cues (landmarks) more than do men, contributing to the observed sex differences in brain activation. PMID:22185061

  11. Developmental Differences in Prefrontal Activation during Working Memory Maintenance and Manipulation for Different Memory Loads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolles, Dietsje D.; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep information active in working memory is one of the cornerstones of cognitive development. Prior studies have demonstrated that regions which are important for working memory performance in adults, such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), and superior parietal cortex, become…

  12. Dependence of Sunspot Properties on Flare Productivity in Different Magnetic Types of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ya-Hui; Hsieh, Min-Shiu; Yu, Hsiu-Shan; Tsai, Tsung-Che

    2016-05-01

    There is a general trend that intense flares preferentially originate from the large-size active regions (ARs) with strong magnetic fields and complex magnetic configurations. Based on two categories of daily sunspot and flare information, GOES soft X-ray measurements, and HMI vector magnetograms, we attempt to address the dependence of flare activity on AR properties and to clarify the significance of magnetic parameters on flare productivity statistically. Our results show that the long-duration and short-duration βγδ-type ARs have different behaviors of flare activity, indicating that the evolution profiles of ARs should be considered. In addition, a significant difference in source field strength, which can be regarded as the proxy of photospheric magnetic free energy, between flaring and flare-quiet βγδ-type ARs is found in this study. We also notice that the large flares from flaring βγδ-type ARs tend to occur at the regions of strong source field together with small field-weighted shear angle. It implies that the magnetic free energy provided by a complex AR is high enough to trigger a flare event even with weak magnetic shear on the photosphere. We thus propose that the magnetic free energy represented by the source field strength rather than the photospheric magnetic complexity would be a better quantity to characterize the flare productivity of an AR, especially for the occurrence of intense flares.

  13. [Effect of different nitrogen forms and ratio on growth and active ingredient content of Platycodon grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Duan, Yun-jing; Wang, Kang-cai; Niu, Ling-hui; Li, Ke; Su, Yun-yun

    2015-10-01

    To providing evidence about nitrogen adequate application of Platycodon grandiflorum, the pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen on the growth, physiological metabolism and the quality of P. grandiflorum. The activity of NR, GS and SOD, POD and CAT were determined. And the nitrate and ammonium nitrogen content, photosynthetic characteristics, active components of P. grandiflorum were determined. The results showed that the nitrate nitrogen content and P. biomass reached its maximum value, when NH4(+)-N/NO3(-) -N was 0: 100, the activity of NR. The activity of GS was the highest at the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25:75 and ammonium nitrogen content was the highest at 75:25. The activity of SOD decreased and then increased with the increasing of NO3(-) -N. At the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25: 75, the activity of CAT had its maximum value and the content of MDA had the minimum value. At the same time, the content of platycodon D was the highest at this treatment. The studies had shown that different nitrogen forms and ratio had a significant effect on the characteristics of photosynthetic physiology, nitrogen metabolism and resistance adjustment, growth and the quality of P. grandiflorum. The NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25: 75 was a suitable ratio of nitrogen forms for the growth of P. Grandiflorum and accumulating the content of platycodon D. PMID:26975097

  14. Effect of different irrigant activation protocols on push-out bond strength.

    PubMed

    Akyuz Ekim, Sefika Nur; Erdemir, Ali

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of various final irrigant activation protocols on push-out bond strength of fiber post. Thirty-two single-rooted human maxillar central teeth were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction, instrumented and obturated. Post-space preparation was performed, and roots were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 4) according to the final irrigant activation protocols; distilled water was used as an irrigant in group 1. The other groups were treated with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Conventional syringe irrigation (CSI, no activation) was used in group 2. Irrigation solutions were activated using passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, group 3), EndoVac apical negative pressure (ANP, group 4), diode laser (group 5), neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (group 6), erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser (group 7), and Er:YAG laser using with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS™) technique (group 8). In all groups, fiber posts (White Post DC, FGM) were luted using Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray, Osaka, Japan). The specimens were transversally sectioned, and all slices from coronal and apical regions were subjected to push-out tests. The data were calculated as megapascals and analyzed by using two-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) tests. Removing the smear layer increased the bond strength to dentine when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The highest bond strength was obtained in the PIPS laser-activated irrigation group (p < 0.05). Coronal root region presented significantly higher bond strength than the apical region (p < 0.05). PIPS laser-activated irrigation showed higher efficiency as a final irrigant activation protocol on push-out bond strength of fiber post. PMID:26022731

  15. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  16. Promoters maintain their relative activity levels under different growth conditions

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Leeat; Zackay, Ora; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Barenholz, Uri; Dekel, Erez; Sasson, Vered; Aidelberg, Guy; Bren, Anat; Zeevi, Danny; Weinberger, Adina; Alon, Uri; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Most genes change expression levels across conditions, but it is unclear which of these changes represents specific regulation and what determines their quantitative degree. Here, we accurately measured activities of ∼900 S. cerevisiae and ∼1800 E. coli promoters using fluorescent reporters. We show that in both organisms 60–90% of promoters change their expression between conditions by a constant global scaling factor that depends only on the conditions and not on the promoter's identity. Quantifying such global effects allows precise characterization of specific regulation—promoters deviating from the global scale line. These are organized into few functionally related groups that also adhere to scale lines and preserve their relative activities across conditions. Thus, only several scaling factors suffice to accurately describe genome-wide expression profiles across conditions. We present a parameter-free passive resource allocation model that quantitatively accounts for the global scaling factors. It suggests that many changes in expression across conditions result from global effects and not specific regulation, and provides means for quantitative interpretation of expression profiles. PMID:24169404

  17. Promoters maintain their relative activity levels under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Keren, Leeat; Zackay, Ora; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Barenholz, Uri; Dekel, Erez; Sasson, Vered; Aidelberg, Guy; Bren, Anat; Zeevi, Danny; Weinberger, Adina; Alon, Uri; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Most genes change expression levels across conditions, but it is unclear which of these changes represents specific regulation and what determines their quantitative degree. Here, we accurately measured activities of ~900 S. cerevisiae and ~1800 E. coli promoters using fluorescent reporters. We show that in both organisms 60-90% of promoters change their expression between conditions by a constant global scaling factor that depends only on the conditions and not on the promoter's identity. Quantifying such global effects allows precise characterization of specific regulation-promoters deviating from the global scale line. These are organized into few functionally related groups that also adhere to scale lines and preserve their relative activities across conditions. Thus, only several scaling factors suffice to accurately describe genome-wide expression profiles across conditions. We present a parameter-free passive resource allocation model that quantitatively accounts for the global scaling factors. It suggests that many changes in expression across conditions result from global effects and not specific regulation, and provides means for quantitative interpretation of expression profiles. PMID:24169404

  18. Constitutive Lck Activity Drives Sensitivity Differences between CD8+ Memory T Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Moogk, Duane; Zhong, Shi; Yu, Zhiya; Liadi, Ivan; Rittase, William; Fang, Victoria; Dougherty, Janna; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Osman, Iman; Zhu, Cheng; Varadarajan, Navin; Restifo, Nicholas P; Frey, Alan B; Krogsgaard, Michelle

    2016-07-15

    CD8(+) T cells develop increased sensitivity following Ag experience, and differences in sensitivity exist between T cell memory subsets. How differential TCR signaling between memory subsets contributes to sensitivity differences is unclear. We show in mouse effector memory T cells (TEM) that >50% of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) exists in a constitutively active conformation, compared with <20% in central memory T cells (TCM). Immediately proximal to Lck signaling, we observed enhanced Zap-70 phosphorylation in TEM following TCR ligation compared with TCM Furthermore, we observed superior cytotoxic effector function in TEM compared with TCM, and we provide evidence that this results from a lower probability of TCM reaching threshold signaling owing to the decreased magnitude of TCR-proximal signaling. We provide evidence that the differences in Lck constitutive activity between CD8(+) TCM and TEM are due to differential regulation by SH2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (Shp-1) and C-terminal Src kinase, and we use modeling of early TCR signaling to reveal the significance of these differences. We show that inhibition of Shp-1 results in increased constitutive Lck activity in TCM to levels similar to TEM, as well as increased cytotoxic effector function in TCM Collectively, this work demonstrates a role for constitutive Lck activity in controlling Ag sensitivity, and it suggests that differential activities of TCR-proximal signaling components may contribute to establishing the divergent effector properties of TCM and TEM. This work also identifies Shp-1 as a potential target to improve the cytotoxic effector functions of TCM for adoptive cell therapy applications. PMID:27271569

  19. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among older adults: do the relationships differ by driving status?

    PubMed

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Norman, Gregory J; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; King, Abby C

    2014-07-01

    Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N = 880, mean age = 75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver's license, car ownership, and feeling comfortable to drive. Outcome variables included accelerometer-based physical activity and self-reported transport and leisure walking. Multilevel generalized linear regression was used. There was no significant Neighborhood Attribute × Driving Status interaction with objective physical activity or reported transport walking. For leisure walking, almost all environmental attributes were positive and significant among driving older adults but not among nondriving older adults (five significant interactions at p < .05). The findings suggest that driving status is likely to moderate the association between neighborhood environments and older adults' leisure walking. PMID:24084049

  20. Rest and stress transluminal attenuation gradient and contrast opacification difference for detection of hemodynamically significant stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ko, Brian S; Seneviratne, Sujith; Cameron, James D; Gutman, Sarah; Crossett, Marcus; Munnur, Kiran; Meredith, Ian T; Wong, Dennis T L

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of stress 320 detector CT coronary angiography (CTA) derived transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG320) and contrast opacification (CO) difference to detect hemodynamically significant stenoses as determined by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR ≤ 0.80). Twenty-seven patients, including 51 vessels on rest CTA were studied. 16 (31 %) vessels were not interpretable on stress CTA largely secondary to motion artefacts. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a comparable area under the curve (AUC) for rest and stress TAG320 (0.78 and 0.75) which was higher than CTA alone (0.68), and rest and stress CO difference (0.76 and 0.67). Compared with rest CTA, stress CTA demonstrated inferior image quality (Median Likert score 4 vs. 3, P < 0.0001) and required a higher mean radiation exposure (3.2 vs. 5.1 mSv, P < 0.0001). Stress TAG320 and CO difference is less feasible and was not superior in diagnostic performance when compared with rest TAG320 and CO difference. PMID:26951537

  1. Carbonization of self-assembled nanoporous hemin with a significantly enhanced activity for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Tang, Chizhou; Hao, Zhiqiang; Lv, Yang; Yang, Ruixia; Wei, Xuming; Deng, Weiqiao; Wang, Anjie; Yi, Baolian; Song, Yujiang

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity and high cost of Pt-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) hinder the practical application of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). It is critical to replace platinum with non-noble metal electrocatalysts (NNMEs). Carbonized metalloporphyrins represent an important class of NNMEs, but most metalloporphyrins are costly and the corresponding NNMEs do not possess a high ORR activity. Herein, we report that the self-assembly of inexpensive hemin leads to porous nanomaterials in water under ambient conditions and subsequent heat-treatment of the unprecedented nanoporous hemin results in a magnetic NNME with a much enhanced ORR activity compared with directly carbonized hemin without self-assembly. The improvement of the ORR activity likely originates from the exposure of more ORR active sites, caused by the surface area increase of the nanoporous hemin after carbonization over that of micro-scale pristine hemin crystals. Moreover, the ORR activity of heat-treated nanoporous hemin is actually comparable to that of commercial Pt/C in alkaline solution. Additionally, the carbonized nanoporous hemin is much better than commercial Pt/C in terms of durability and tolerance to methanol. This study opens up a new avenue to the production of inexpensive metalloporphyrin-based NNMEs with a high ORR performance by using a self-assembly method in combination with traditional pyrolysis. PMID:25406677

  2. Reversing HOXA9 Oncogene Activation by PI3K Inhibition: Epigenetic Mechanism and Prognostic Significance in Human Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Bruno M.; Smith, Justin S.; Chen, Ying; Chen, Justin; Phillips, Heidi S.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Zardo, Giuseppe; Nigro, Janice; James, C. David; Fridlyand, Jane; Reis, Rui M.; Costello, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    HOXA genes encode critical transcriptional regulators of embryonic development that have been implicated in cancer. In this study, we documented functional relevance and mechanism of activation of HOXA9 in glioblastoma (GBM), the most common malignant brain tumor. Expression of HOXA genes was investigated using RT-PCR in primary gliomas and glioblastoma cell lines and was validated in two sets of expression array data. In a subset of GBM, HOXA genes are aberrantly activated within confined chromosomal domains. Transcriptional activation of the HOXA cluster was reversible by a PI3K inhibitor through an epigenetic mechanism involving histone H3K27 trimethylation. Functional studies of HOXA9 showed its capacity to decrease apoptosis and increase cellular proliferation along with TRAIL resistance. Notably, aberrant expression of HOXA9 was independently predictive of shorter overall and progression-free survival in two GBM patient sets, and improved survival prediction by MGMT promoter methylation. Thus, HOXA9 activation is a novel, independent and negative prognostic marker in GBM that is reversible through a PI3K-associated epigenetic mechanism. Our findings suggest a transcriptional pathway through which PI3K activates oncogenic HOXA expression with implications for mTOR or PI3K targeted therapies. PMID:20068170

  3. Reversing HOXA9 oncogene activation by PI3K inhibition: epigenetic mechanism and prognostic significance in human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Costa, Bruno M; Smith, Justin S; Chen, Ying; Chen, Justin; Phillips, Heidi S; Aldape, Kenneth D; Zardo, Giuseppe; Nigro, Janice; James, C David; Fridlyand, Jane; Reis, Rui M; Costello, Joseph F

    2010-01-15

    HOXA genes encode critical transcriptional regulators of embryonic development that have been implicated in cancer. In this study, we documented functional relevance and mechanism of activation of HOXA9 in glioblastoma (GBM), the most common malignant brain tumor. Expression of HOXA genes was investigated using reverse transcription-PCR in primary gliomas and glioblastoma cell lines and was validated in two sets of expression array data. In a subset of GBM, HOXA genes are aberrently activated within confined chromosomal domains. Transcriptional activation of the HOXA cluster was reversible by a phosphoinostide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor through an epigenetic mechanism involving histone H3K27 trimethylation. Functional studies of HOXA9 showed its capacity to decrease apoptosis and increase cellular proliferation along with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-including ligand resistance. Notably, aberrant expression of HOXA9 was independently predictive of shorter overall and progression-free survival in two GBM patient sets and improved survival prediction by MGMT promoter methylation. Thus, HOXA9 activation is a novel, independent, and negative prognostic marker in GBM that is reversible through a PI3K-associated epigenetic mechanism. Our findings suggest a transcriptional pathway through which PI3K activates oncogenic HOXA expression with implications for mTOR or PI3K targeted therapies. PMID:20068170

  4. Differences in home food and activity environments between obese and healthy weight families of preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting Family homes. Participants Thirty-five obese children with at least one obese caregiver were compared to forty-seven healthy weight children with no obese caregivers. Main Outcome Measures Home observation assessments were conducted to evaluate the availability of devices supporting activity behaviors and foods based on availability, accessibility, and readiness to be eaten. Analysis Agreement statistics were conducted to analyze psychometrics and MANOVAs were conducted to assess group differences, significance, P < .05. Results Home observations showed acceptable agreement statistics between independent coders across food and activity items. Families of obese preschoolers were significantly less likely to have fresh vegetables available or accessible in the home, were more likely to have a TV in the obese child’s bedroom and had fewer physical activity devices compared to healthy weight preschoolers. Conclusions and Implications Families of young children live in home environments that were discriminatively characterized based on home observations. Future tool refinement will further clarify the impact of the home environment on early growth. PMID:23380192

  5. Lipoxygenase activity in different species of sweet lupin (Lupinus L.) seeds and flakes.

    PubMed

    Stephany, Michael; Bader-Mittermaier, Stephanie; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-05-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalysed degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids is supposed to be a major cause of undesirable off-flavour development in legumes. In the present study, a photometric LOX assay including adequate sample workup was adapted to lupin seeds, kernels and flakes, respectively. Optimum reaction conditions were at pH 7.5 using a phosphate buffer concentration of 150 mmol l(-1) without the addition of sodium chloride. The LOX activities of different lupin species and varieties were compared. Significant variations among the species and varieties ranging from 50 to 1004 units mg(-1) protein were determined, being significantly lower than soybean LOX activity. Hulling and flaking of the seeds resulted in a 15% increase of LOX activity. In contrast to soy and other legumes, LOX from lupin only converted free fatty acids, whereas trilinolein and β-carotene were not oxidised. Consequently, according to the established classification, lupin LOX activity may be assigned to the LOX type-1, which, to the best of our knowledge, was demonstrated for the first time. PMID:25529698

  6. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity.

    PubMed

    Polich, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle. PMID:27293763

  7. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity

    PubMed Central

    Polich, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle. PMID:27293763

  8. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict the Physical Activity of Children: Probing Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The primary objective of this study was to use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to examine the association between TPB variables and the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of children in Shanghai, China. Gender differences were also explored. Methods. The participants were 353 children (180 boys and 173 girls) aged 9 to 13 years from three primary schools in Shanghai. Accelerometers were used to measure the MVPA duration of the children. Questionnaires that focused on attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) related to MVPA engagement were completed by the participants. Results. Regression analyses revealed that intention, and not PBC, accounted for 9% of the variance in MVPA. Meanwhile, attitude and PBC explained 33% of the variance in intentions to engage in MVPA. In terms of gender differences, TPB performed better in the physical activity (PA) domain for boys than for girls. Furthermore, attitude and PBC were significantly associated with intention among boys, whereas only PBC was significantly related to intention among girls. Conclusion. Practitioners should consider tailoring intervention to address gender differences to increase leisure-time PA participation of children. PMID:26649307

  9. Online sexual activity experience of heterosexual students: gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Krystelle; Byers, E Sandra; Walsh, Lindsay

    2011-04-01

    This study compared male and female university students' experiences with online sexual activity (OSA) and tested a model explaining gender differences in OSA. OSAs were categorized as non-arousal (e.g., seeking sexuality information), solitary-arousal (e.g., viewing sexually explicit materials), or partnered-arousal (e.g., sharing sexual fantasies). Participants (N = 217) completed measures of OSA experience, sexual attitudes, and sexual experience. Significantly more men than women reported engaging in solitary-arousal and partnered-arousal OSA and doing so more often. However, the men and women who reported having engaged in partnered-arousal activities reported equal frequencies of experience. There were no significant gender differences for engaging in non-arousal OSA experience. These results support the importance of grouping OSAs in terms of the proposed non-arousal, solitary-arousal, and partnered-arousal categories. Attitude toward OSA but not general attitudes toward or experiences with sexuality partially mediated the relationship between gender and frequency of engaging in arousal-oriented OSA (solitary and partnered OSA). This suggests that attitude toward OSA specifically and not gender socialization more generally account for gender differences in OSA experience. PMID:20467798

  10. Comparison of different irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Akyuz Ekim, Sefika Nur; Erdemir, Ali

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal. About 80 single-rooted human maxillary central teeth were decoronated to a standardized length.The samples were prepared by using ProTaper system to size F4 and divided into eight equal groups (n = 10) according to the final irrigation activation technique; distilled water was used as an irrigant in Group 1. The other groups were treated with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, respectively. Conventional syringe irrigation (CSI) was used in Group 2. Irrigation solutions were activated using passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, Group 3), EndoVac apical negative pressure (ANP, Group 4), diode laser (Group 5), Nd:YAG laser (Group 6), Er:YAG laser (Group 7), and Er:YAG laser using with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS™, Group 8). Teeth were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM). PIPS showed the best removal of smear layer when compared with PUI, ANP, Nd:YAG, and Er:YAG, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Smear layer scores obtained with PIPS technique were statistically significant different from those of obtained with control, CSI and diode laser groups (P < 0.05). All experimental irrigation techniques except ANP and diode laser removed smear layer more effectively at the coronal and middle levels compared to the apical level (P < 0.05). Irrigation activated/delivered techniques except diode laser have a positive effect on removing of smear layer. PMID:25582378

  11. Gender differences in association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and resting-state EEG activity.

    PubMed

    Volf, N V; Belousova, L V; Knyazev, G G; Kulikov, A V

    2015-01-22

    Human brain oscillations represent important features of information processing and are highly heritable. Gender has been observed to affect association between the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) polymorphism and various endophenotypes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-HTTLPR on the spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) activity in healthy male and female subjects. DNA samples extracted from buccal swabs and resting EEG recorded at 60 standard leads were collected from 210 (101 men and 109 women) volunteers. Spectral EEG power estimates and cortical sources of EEG activity were investigated. It was shown that effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on electrical activity of the brain vary as a function of gender. Women with the S/L genotype had greater global EEG power compared to men with the same genotype. In men, current source density was markedly different among genotype groups in only alpha 2 and alpha 3 frequency ranges: S/S allele carriers had higher current source density estimates in the left inferior parietal lobule in comparison with the L/L group. In women, genotype difference in global power asymmetry was found in the central-temporal region. Contrasting L/L and S/L genotype carriers also yielded significant effects in the right hemisphere inferior parietal lobule and the right postcentral gyrus with L/L genotype carriers showing lower current source density estimates than S/L genotype carriers in all but gamma bands. So, in women, the effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were associated with modulation of the EEG activity in a wide range of EEG frequencies. The significance of the results lies in the demonstration of gene by sex interaction with resting EEG that has implications for understanding sex-related differences in affective states, emotion and cognition. PMID:25450956

  12. Comparative analysis of immunoglobulin A1 protease activity among bacteria representing different genera, species, and strains.

    PubMed Central

    Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    1997-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving human IgA1 in the hinge region are produced constitutively by a number of pathogens, including Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as by some members of the resident oropharyngeal flora. Whereas IgA1 proteases have been shown to interfere with the functions of IgA antibodies in vitro, the exact role of these enzymes in the relationship of bacteria to a human host capable of responding with enzyme-neutralizing antibodies is not clear. Conceivably, the role of IgA1 proteases may depend on the quantity of IgA1 protease generated as well as on the balance between secreted and cell-associated forms of the enzyme. Therefore, we have compared levels of IgA1 protease activity in cultures of 38 bacterial strains representing different genera and species as well as strains of different pathogenic potential. Wide variation in activity generation rate was found overall and within some species. High activity was not an exclusive property of bacteria with documented pathogenicity. Almost all activity of H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, and N. gonorrhoeae strains was present in the supernatant. In contrast, large proportions of the activity in Streptococcus, Prevotella, and Capnocytophaga species was cell associated at early stationary phase, suggesting that the enzyme may play the role of a surface antigen. Partial release of cell-associated activity occurred during stationary phase. Within some taxa, the degree of activity variation correlated with degree of antigenic diversity of the enzyme as determined previously. This finding may indicate that the variation observed is of biological significance. PMID:9353019

  13. Two different interictal spike patterns anticipate ictal activity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Avoli, Massimo; Panuccio, Gabriella; Herrington, Rochelle; D’Antuono, Margherita; de Guzman, Philip; Lévesque, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    4-Aminopyridine (4AP, 50 μM) induces interictal- and ictal-like discharges in brain slices including parahippocampal areas such as the entorhinal cortex (EC) but the relation between these two types of epileptiform activity remains undifined. Here, by employing field potential recordings in rat EC slices during 4AP application, we found that: (i) interictal events have a wide range of duration (0.4–3.3 s) and interval of occurrence (1.4–84 s); (ii) ictal discharges are either preceded by an isolated “slow” interictal discharge (ISID; duration=1.5±0.1 s, interval of occurrence=33.8±1.8 s) or suddenly initiate from a pattern of frequent polispike interictal discharge (FPID; duration=0.8±0.1 s; interval of occurrence=2.7±0.2 s); and (iii) ISID-triggered ictal events have longer duration (116±7.3 s) and interval of occurrence (425.8±42.3 s) than those initiating suddenly during FPID (58.3±7.8 s and 202.1±21.8 s, respectively). Glutamatergic receptor antagonists abolished ictal discharges in all experiments, markedly reduced FPIDs but did not influence ISIDs. We also discovered that high-frequency oscillations (HFOs, 80–500 Hz) occur more frequently during ISIDs as compared to FPIDs, and mainly coincide with the onset of ISID-triggered ictal discharges. These findings indicate that interictal events may define ictal onset features resembling those seen in vivo in low-voltage fast activity onset seizures. We propose a similar condition to occur in vivo in temporal lobe epileptic patients and animal models. PMID:23270790

  14. Effect of different activators on development of activated in vitro matured caprine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, J. R.; Agarwal, S.; Kharche, S. D.; Goel, A. K.; Jindal, S. K.; Agarwal, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of different activation treatments for activation of in vitro matured oocytes and their developmental potency in mCR2aa medium so as to obtain maximum number of embryos. A total of 1090 cumulus oocyte complexes (COC’s) were collected from 480 ovaries. In vitro matured oocytes were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 in vitro matured oocytes (n=226) were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP for 4 h in mCR2aa medium. Group 2 in vitro matured oocytes (n=294) were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 10 µg/ml CHX for 4 h in mCR2aa medium. Group 3 in vitro matured oocytes (n=325) were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP and 10 µg/ml CHX for 4 h in mCR2aa medium. Group 4 in vitro matured oocytes (n=108) were cultured for 4 h without any chemical treatment in mCR2aa medium (control). The cleavage rate in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 54.42%, 44.55%, 51.69% and 0.00%, respectively. The percentage of morula and blastocyst production in group 1, group 2 and group 3 was 26.01%, 29.77% and 29.76% and 2.43%, 1.52% and 1.78%, respectively. These results suggest that the activation of in vitro matured oocytes by 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP for 4 h in mCR2aa is most favorable for parthenogenetic caprine embryos production. PMID:27175149

  15. N- and C-terminal truncations of a GH10 xylanase significantly increase its activity and thermostability but decrease its SDS resistance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fei; Huang, Jingxuan; Liu, Xingchen; Hu, Hang; Long, Liangkun; Chen, Kaixiang; Ding, Shaojun

    2016-04-01

    XynII from Volvariella volvacea has high sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistance, with the potential for industrial applications under harsh conditions. It consists of a single glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) catalytic domain but contains an additional unique 10 and 4 amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminus, respectively. In this study, five XynII derivatives with N- and/or C-terminus deletions were constructed to determine the effects of these regions on enzyme activity, substrate specificity, thermostability, and SDS resistance. Our results revealed that N- and/or C-terminal truncations significantly increased enzyme activity and thermostability, but reduced SDS resistance. Specifically, the XynIIΔNC4 mutant had 2.53-fold more catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) towards beechwood xylan than wild-type and 3.0-fold more thermostability (t 1/2 [55°C]). XynIIΔNC4 displayed 3.33-, 4.38-, 1.37-, and 1.98-fold more activity against xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose, and xylohexaose, respectively, than XynII did. However, its half-life (t 1/2) in 4 % SDS was only 1.72 h, while that of XynII was 4.65 h. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that deletion of N- and C-terminal segments caused minor changes in secondary structure. Our observations suggest that the extra N- and C-terminal segments in wild-type XynII evolved to strengthen the interaction between these regions of the protein, making the local structure more rigid and reducing structural flexibility. In this way, N- and C-terminal truncations increased the thermostability and activity of XynII on different xylans and linear xylooligosaccharides, but reduced its resistance to SDS. PMID:26621803

  16. Hoarding disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder show different patterns of neural activity during response inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Tolin, David F.; Witt, Suzanne T.; Stevens, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Although hoarding disorder (HD) has been historically conceptualized as a subtype or dimension of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), preliminary evidence suggests that these two disorders have distinct neural underpinnings. The aim of the present study was to compare the hemodynamic responses of HD patients, OCD patients, and healthy controls (HC) during response inhibition on a high-conflict Go/NoGo task that has previously proved sensitive to OCD. Participants comprised 24 HD patients, 24 OCD patients, and 24 HCs who completed a Go/NoGo task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although behavioral data showed no difference among the groups in Go/NoGo task performance, significant differences in hemodynamic activity were noted. During correct rejects (successful response inhibition), HD patients showed greater right precentral gyrus activation, whereas OCD patients exhibited greater right orbitofrontal activation, as assessed using a region of interest approach. During errors of commission (response inhibition failures), OCD patients, but not HD patients, were characterized by excessive activity in left and right orbitofrontal gyrus. The present results lend further support to the biological distinction between HD and OCD, and they are consistent with previous research suggesting frontal hypoactivity in HD patients during hoarding-unrelated tasks. PMID:24389161

  17. Muscle activity, time to fatigue, and maximum task duration at different levels of production standard time

    PubMed Central

    Nur, Nurhayati Mohd; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Dahari, Mahidzal; Sanusi, Junedah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the variations in muscle fatigue, time to fatigue, and maximum task duration at different levels of production standard time. [Methods] Twenty subjects performed repetitive tasks at three different levels of production standard time corresponding to “normal”, “hard” and “very hard”. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activity. [Results] The results showed that muscle activity was significantly affected by the production standard time level. Muscle activity increased twice in percentage as the production standard time shifted from hard to very hard (6.9% vs. 12.9%). The muscle activity increased over time, indicating muscle fatigue. The muscle fatigue rate increased for the harder production standard time (Hard: 0.105; Very hard: 0.115), which indicated the associated higher risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Muscle fatigue was also found to occur earlier for hard and very hard production standard times. [Conclusion] It is recommended that the maximum task duration should not exceed 5.6, 2.9, and 2.2 hours for normal, hard, and very hard production standard times, respectively, in order to maintain work performance and minimize the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:26311974

  18. Elucidation of procoagulant mechanism and pathophysiological significance of a new prothrombin activating metalloprotease purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Rupamoni; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Ghosh, Siddharth S; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2015-06-15

    The procoagulant proteases present in Russell's Viper venom (RVV) are responsible for promoting consumption coagulopathy in victims. In this study, a procoagulant metalloprotease (Rusviprotease) possessing prothrombin activating and α-fibrinogenase properties has been purified and characterized from RVV. Rusviprotease is a 26.8 kDa glycoprotein which also exists in other multimeric forms. The peptide mass fingerprinting and secondary structure analyses of Rusviprotease revealed its similarity with snake venom prothrombin activators and metalloproteases. Similar to group A prothrombin activators, Rusviprotease cleaved prothrombin independent of any co-factor requirement generating meizothrombin which is further cleaved to form thrombin. The Km and Vmax values of Rusviprotease towards prothrombin were determined to be 1.73 μM, and 153.5 nM thrombin generated/min/μmoles of Rusviprotease, respectively. The Km and Vmax values of Rusviprotease towards fibrinogen were calculated to be 3.14 μM and 78.7 nmol/min, respectively. Spectrofluorometric study provided the evidence of interaction between Rusviprotease and factor Xa with a Kd value of 6.64 nM. This interaction augmented the prothrombin activating property of the factor Xa-prothrombinase-Rusviprotease complex by 2.5 fold. Intravenous injection of Rusviprotease to BALB/c mice (0.1 mg/kg) resulted in in vivo defibrinogenation rendering the blood incoagulable. In conclusion, Rusviprotease is the first example of a prothrombin activator with fibrinogenolytic property purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom. PMID:25817001

  19. Prognostic Significance of the Systemic Inflammatory and Immune Balance in Alcoholic Liver Disease with a Focus on Gender-Related Differences

    PubMed Central

    Kasztelan-Szczerbińska, Beata; Surdacka, Agata; Celiński, Krzysztof; Roliński, Jacek; Zwolak, Agnieszka; Miącz, Sławomir; Szczerbiński, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Mechanisms of immune regulation in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are still unclear. The aim of our study was to determine an impact of Th17 / regulatory T (Treg) cells balance and its corresponding cytokine profile on the ALD outcome. Possible gender-related differences in the alcohol-induced inflammatory response were also assessed. Materials and Methods 147 patients with ALD were prospectively recruited, assigned to subgroups based on their gender, severity of liver dysfunction and presence of ALD complications at admission, and followed for 90 days. Peripheral blood frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells together with IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-23, and TGF-beta1 levels were investigated. Flow cytometry was used to identify T cell phenotype and immunoenzymatic ELISAs for the corresponding cytokine concentrations assessment. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications. Results IL-17A, IL-1beta, IL-6 levels were significantly increased, while TGF-beta1 decreased in ALD patients. The imbalance with significantly higher Th17 and lower Treg frequencies was observed in non-survivors. IL-6 and TGF-beta1 levels differed in relation to patient gender in ALD group. Concentrations of IL-6 were associated with the severity of liver dysfunction, development of ALD complications, and turned out to be the only independent immune predictor of 90-day survival in the study cohort. Conclusions We conclude that IL-6 revealed the highest diagnostic and prognostic potential among studied biomarkers and was related to the fatal ALD course. Gender-related differences in immune regulation might influence the susceptibility to alcohol-associated liver injury. PMID:26107937

  20. Physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of polysaccharide fractions from Phellinus baumii cultured with different methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Zhou, Shuai; Yan, Meng Qiu; Wu, Di; Zhang, Jingsong; Tang, Chuanhong

    2015-11-01

    Nine polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the fruiting bodies, submerged mycelia, and solid state fermented products of Phellinus baumii using different concentrations of ethanol precipitation. The chemical characteristics and in vitro immunological activities of the nine polysaccharide fractions were compared and studied. Results indicated that the fractions precipitated with 50% ethanol had higher yields of polysaccharides and submerged mycelia contributed to high extraction yields of polysaccharides and possessed higher polysaccharide contents. HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis showed that the molecular weight (Mw) of polysaccharide fractions from these three materials decreased with the increasing of precipitated ethanol concentration. The Mw of fruiting body polysaccharide fractions ranged from 1.98×10(4)Da to 1.89×10(6)Da. Large-molecular-weight polysaccharides (from 2.11×10(6)Da to 2.01×10(7)Da) were found in submerged mycelia. Some lower-molecular-weight polysaccharide components were found in solid fermented products. Different culture methods contributed to significant differences in monosaccharide components and molar ratios. The 50% ethanol precipitated fractions exhibited more complexity on monosaccharide compositions comparing with fractions precipitated with 30% and 70% ethanol. Polysaccharide fractions derived from submerged mycelia exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities. Submerged culture was found to be a suitable method to prepare active polysaccharides because of its short culture span and reasonable cost. PMID:26344493

  1. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs

    PubMed Central

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved. PMID:25071508

  2. Differences in activation patterns between eccentric and concentric quadriceps contractions.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Malachy P; Tyler, Timothy F; Greenberg, Scott C; Gleim, Gilbert W

    2002-02-01

    Previous studies analysing electromyograms (EMGs) from indwelling electrodes have indicated that fast-twitch motor units are selectively recruited for low-intensity eccentric contractions. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency content of surface EMGs from quadriceps muscles during eccentric and concentric contractions at various contraction intensities. Electromyograms were recorded from the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles of 10 men during isokinetic (1.05 rad x s(-1)) eccentric and concentric knee extension contractions at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for each contraction mode. Additionally, isometric contractions (70 degrees) were performed at each intensity. The mean frequency and root mean square (RMS) of the surface EMG were computed. Mean frequency was higher for eccentric than concentric contractions at 25% (P < 0.01), 50% (P < 0.01) and 75% (P < 0.05) but not at 100% MVC. It increased with increasing contraction intensity for isometric (P < 0.001) and concentric (P < 0.01) contractions but not for eccentric contractions (P = 0.27). The EMG amplitude (RMS) increased with increasing contraction intensity similarly in each contraction mode (P < 0.0001). Higher mean frequencies for eccentric than concentric contractions at submaximal contraction intensities is consistent with more fast-twitch motor units being active during eccentric contractions. PMID:11811575

  3. Residual matrix from different separation techniques impacts exosome biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Paolini, Lucia; Zendrini, Andrea; Noto, Giuseppe Di; Busatto, Sara; Lottini, Elisabetta; Radeghieri, Annalisa; Dossi, Alessandra; Caneschi, Andrea; Ricotta, Doris; Bergese, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are gaining a prominent role in research due to their intriguing biology and several therapeutic opportunities. However, their accurate purification from body fluids and detailed physicochemical characterization remain open issues. We isolated exosomes from serum of patients with Multiple Myeloma by four of the most popular purification methods and assessed the presence of residual contaminants in the preparations through an ad hoc combination of biochemical and biophysical techniques - including Western Blot, colloidal nanoplasmonics, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning helium ion microscopy (HIM). The preparations obtained by iodixanol and sucrose gradients were highly pure. To the contrary, those achieved with limited processing (serial centrifugation or one step precipitation kit) resulted contaminated by a residual matrix, embedding the exosomes. The contaminated preparations showed lower ability to induce NfkB nuclear translocation in endothelial cells with respect to the pure ones, probably because the matrix prevents the interaction and fusion of the exosomes with the cell membrane. These findings suggest that exosome preparation purity must be carefully assessed since it may interfere with exosome biological activity. Contaminants can be reliably probed only by an integrated characterization approach aimed at both the molecular and the colloidal length scales. PMID:27009329

  4. Powerful Complex Immunoadjuvant Based on Synergistic Effect of Combined TLR4 and NOD2 Activation Significantly Enhances Magnitude of Humoral and Cellular Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dzharullaeva, Alina S.; Tukhvatulina, Natalia M.; Shcheblyakov, Dmitry V.; Shmarov, Maxim M.; Dolzhikova, Inna V.; Stanhope-Baker, Patricia; Naroditsky, Boris S.; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Logunov, Denis Y.; Gintsburg, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    Binding of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activates innate immune responses and contributes to development of adaptive immunity. Simultaneous stimulation of different types of PRRs can have synergistic immunostimulatory effects resulting in enhanced production of molecules that mediate innate immunity such as inflammatory cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, etc. Here, we evaluated the impact of combined stimulation of PRRs from different families on adaptive immunity by generating alum-based vaccine formulations with ovalbumin as a model antigen and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist MPLA and the Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) agonist MDP adsorbed individually or together on the alum-ovalbumin particles. Multiple in vitro and in vivo readouts of immune system activation all showed that while individual PRR agonists increased the immunogenicity of vaccines compared to alum alone, the combination of both PRR agonists was significantly more effective. Combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2 results in a stronger and broader transcriptional response in THP-1 cells compared to individual PRR stimulation. Immunostimulatory composition containing both PRR agonists (MPLA and MDP) in the context of the alum-based ovalbumin vaccine also enhanced uptake of vaccine particles by bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and promoted maturation (up-regulation of expression of CD80, CD86, MHCII) and activation (production of cytokines) of BMDCs. Finally, immunization of mice with vaccine particles containing both PRR agonists resulted in enhanced cellular immunity as indicated by increased proliferation and activation (IFN-γ production) of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following in vitro restimulation with ovalbumin and enhanced humoral immunity as indicated by higher titers of ovalbumin-specific IgG antibodies. These results indicate that combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2

  5. Impact of Different Body Positions on Bioelectrical Activity of the Pelvic Floor Muscles in Nulliparous Continent Women

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska, Daria; Stania, Magdalena; Sobota, Grzegorz; Kwaśna, Krystyna; Błaszczak, Edward; Taradaj, Jakub; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    We examined pelvic floor muscles (PFM) activity (%MVC) in twenty nulliparous women by body position during exercise as well as the activation of abdominal muscles and the gluteus maximus during voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during five experimental trials. Activation of transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis, and gluteus maximus during voluntary PFM contractions was also assessed. Significant differences in mean normalized amplitudes of baseline PFM activity were revealed between standing and lying (P < 0.00024) and lying and ball-sitting positions (P < 0.0053). Average peak, average time before peak, and average time after peak did not differ significantly during the voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Baseline PFM activity seemed to depend on the body position and was the highest in standing. Pelvic floor muscles activity during voluntary contractions did not differ by position in continent women. Statistically significant differences between the supine lying and sitting positions were only observed during a sustained 60-second contraction of the PFMs. PMID:25793212

  6. Aerobic-anaerobic transition intensity measured via EMG signals in athletes with different physical activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, Jaak; von Duvillard, Serge P; Mäestu, Jarek; Cicchella, Antonio; Purge, Priit; Ruosi, Sergio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Hamra, Jena

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of electromyographic signals (EMG), to determine the EMG threshold (EMGT) in four lower extremity muscles and to compare these thresholds with the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) in subjects participating in different sports and at different performance levels. Forty-nine subjects (23.8 +/- 5.7 years, 182.7 +/- 5.3 cm, 79.1 +/- 8.6 kg) including eleven cyclists, ten team-handball players, nine kayakers, eight power lifters and eleven controls were investigated utilizing a cycle ergometer. Respiratory gas exchange measures were collected and EMG activity was continuously recorded from four muscles (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius lateralis). The VO(2)max averaged 56.1 +/- 11.1 ml kg(-1) min(-1), the average aerobic power was 348.5 +/- 61.0 W and the corresponding VT2 occurred at 271.4 +/- 64.0 W. The EMGT ranged from 80 to 98% of power output for the different muscles. The VT2 and EMG thresholds from four different muscles were not different. When thresholds were analyzed among different groups of subjects, no significant difference was observed between VT2 and EMGT despite threshold differences between the groups. All four EMGT were significantly related to maximal aerobic power (r = 0.73-0.83) and were highly correlated to each other (r = 0.57-0.88). In conclusion, EMGT can be used to determine the VT2 for individuals independent of sport specificity or performance level. PMID:17624542

  7. Histone Deacetylase 6-Controlled Hsp90 Acetylation Significantly Alters Mineralocorticoid Receptor Subcellular Dynamics But Not its Transcriptional Activity.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Canino, Rubén; Lorenzo-Díaz, Fabián; Jaisser, Frederic; Farman, Nicolette; Giraldez, Teresa; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego

    2016-06-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that transduces the biological effects of corticosteroids. Its best-characterized role is to enhance transepithelial sodium reabsorption in response to increased aldosterone levels. In addition, MR participates in other aldosterone- or glucocorticoid-controlled processes such as cardiovascular homeostasis, adipocyte differentiation or neurogenesis, and regulation of neuronal activity in the hippocampus. Like other steroid receptors, MR forms cytosolic heterocomplexes with heat shock protein (Hsp) 90), Hsp70, and other proteins such as immunophilins. Interaction with Hsp90 is thought to maintain MR in a ligand-binding competent conformation and to regulate ligand-dependent and -independent nucleocytoplasmatic shuttling. It has previously been shown that acetylation of residue K295 in Hsp90 regulates its interaction with the androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In this work we hypothesized that Hsp90 acetylation provides a regulatory step to modulate MR cellular dynamics and activity. We used Hsp90 acetylation mimic mutant K295Q or nonacetylatable mutant K295R to examine whether MR nucleocytoplasmatic shuttling and gene transactivation are affected. Furthermore, we manipulated endogenous Hsp90 acetylation levels by controlling expression or activity of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), the enzyme responsible for deacetylation of Hsp90-K295. Our data demonstrates that HDAC6-mediated Hsp90 acetylation regulates MR cellular dynamics but it does not alter its function. This stands in contrast with the down-regulation of GR by HDAC6, suggesting that Hsp90 acetylation may play a role in balancing relative MR and GR activity when both factors are co-expressed in the same cell. PMID:27100623

  8. Significant Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a crossword puzzle with an answer key corresponding to the book entitled "Significant Treasures/Tresors Parlants" that is filled with color and black-and-white prints of paintings and artifacts from 131 museums and art galleries as a sampling of the 2,200 such Canadian institutions. (CMK)

  9. Activity Variation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium under Nanosilver Exposure by Controlling of Different Sulfide Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi; Chen, Guiqiu; Liu, Lingzhi; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Anwei; Hu, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Due to the particular activation and inhibition behavior of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on microbes at various concentrations, it’s crucial to exploit the special concentration effect in environment. Here, we studied the viability variation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) under exposure to citrate-coated AgNPs (Citrate-AgNPs) in the presence of different sulfide sources (an inorganic sulfide, NaHS and an organic sulfide, thioacetamide (TAA)). The results indicated that both NaHS and TAA can promote activation of P. chrysosporium by Citrate-AgNPs at a higher concentration, which was initial at toxic level. Treatment with various concentrations of Citrate-AgNPs (0-9 mg/L) demonstrated a maximum activation concentration (MAC) at 3 mg/L. With the increase in sulfide concentration, MAC transferred to higher concentration significantly, indicating the obvious “toxicity to activation” transformation at a higher concentration. Ag+ testing exhibited that variations in sulfide-induced Ag+ concentration (3-7 μg/L Ag+) accounted for the “toxicity to activation” transformation. In addition, the similar results were observed on antibacterial application using Escherichia coli as the model species. Based on the research results, the application of this transformation in improving antibacterial activity was proposed. Therefore, the antibacterial activity of AgNPs can be controlled, even at concentration, via adjusting for the sulfide concentration.

  10. Activity Variation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium under Nanosilver Exposure by Controlling of Different Sulfide Sources

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhi; Chen, Guiqiu; Liu, Lingzhi; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Anwei; Hu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the particular activation and inhibition behavior of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on microbes at various concentrations, it’s crucial to exploit the special concentration effect in environment. Here, we studied the viability variation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) under exposure to citrate-coated AgNPs (Citrate-AgNPs) in the presence of different sulfide sources (an inorganic sulfide, NaHS and an organic sulfide, thioacetamide (TAA)). The results indicated that both NaHS and TAA can promote activation of P. chrysosporium by Citrate-AgNPs at a higher concentration, which was initial at toxic level. Treatment with various concentrations of Citrate-AgNPs (0–9 mg/L) demonstrated a maximum activation concentration (MAC) at 3 mg/L. With the increase in sulfide concentration, MAC transferred to higher concentration significantly, indicating the obvious “toxicity to activation” transformation at a higher concentration. Ag+ testing exhibited that variations in sulfide-induced Ag+ concentration (3−7 μg/L Ag+) accounted for the “toxicity to activation” transformation. In addition, the similar results were observed on antibacterial application using Escherichia coli as the model species. Based on the research results, the application of this transformation in improving antibacterial activity was proposed. Therefore, the antibacterial activity of AgNPs can be controlled, even at concentration, via adjusting for the sulfide concentration. PMID:26864597

  11. [Effects of Different Reclaimed Scenarios on Soil Microbe and Enzyme Activities in Mining Areas].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-jian; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Xiao-mei

    2015-05-01

    Abstract: Ecological degradation in the mining areas is greatly aggravated in recent several decades, and ecological restoration has become the primary measure for the sustainable development. Soil microbe and enzyme activity are sensitive indices to evaluate soil quality. Ecological reconstruction was initiated in Antaibao mining area, and we tested soil physicochemical properties, microbial populations of azotobacteria, nitrifying-bacteria and denitrifying-bacteria, and enzyme activities (including sucrose, polyphenol oxidase, dehydrogenase and urease) under different regeneration scenarios. Regeneration scenarios had significant effects on soil physicochemical properties, microbial population and enzyme activities. Total nitrogen was strongly correlated with azotobacteria and nitrifying-bacteria, however, total nitrogen was not correlated with denitrifying-bacteria. Phenol oxidase activity was negatively correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, but other enzyme activities were positively correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Principal Component Analysis ( PCA) was applied to analyze the integrated fertility index (IFI). The highest and lowest IFIs were in Robinia pseudoacacia-Pinus tabuliformis mixed forests and un-reclaimed area, respectively. R. pseudoacacia-P. tabuliformis mixed forests were feasible for reclaimed mining areas in semi-arid region Northwest Shanxi. PMID:26314137

  12. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of different fractions of Gentiana asclepiadea L. roots extract

    PubMed Central

    Mihailovic, Vladimir; Matic, Sanja; Mišic, Danijela; Solujic, Slavica; Stanic, Snežana; Katanic, Jelena; Mladenovic, Milan; Stankovic, Nevena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions obtained from Gentiana asclepiadea L. roots methanolic extract. The main secondary metabolites sweroside, swertiamarin and gentiopicrine were quantified in G. asclepiadea root extracts using HPLC-DAD analysis. Amount of total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins was also determined. The antigenotoxic potential of extracts from roots of G. asclepiadea was assessed using the standard in vivo procedure for the detection of sex linked recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster males treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The results showed that the most abundant secoiridoid in G. asclepiadea roots was gentiopicrine and its content in the n-butanol fraction (442.89 mg/g) was the highest. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity, as well as total phenolics (146.64 GAE/g), flavonoids (44.62 RUE/g), flavonols (22.71 RUE/g) and gallotannins (0.99 mg GAE/g) content. All the fractions showed antioxidant activity using in vitro model systems and the results have been correlated with total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins content. In addition to antioxidant activity, G. asclepiadea root extract fractions possess an antigenotoxic effect against DNA damage induced by alkylation with EMS. The antioxidant activity exhibited by G. asclepiadea depended on the phenolic compounds content of the tested extracts, while there was no significant difference in the antigenotoxic potential between fractions. PMID:26622219

  13. Explaining sex differences in mental rotation: role of spatial activity experience.

    PubMed

    Nazareth, Alina; Herrera, Asiel; Pruden, Shannon M

    2013-05-01

    Males consistently outperform females on mental rotation tasks, such as the Vandenberg and Kuse (1978) Perceptual and Motor Skills, 47(2), 599-604, mental rotation test (MRT; e.g. Voyer et al. 1995) in Psychological Bulletin, 117, 250-265. The present study investigates whether these sex differences in MRT scores can be explained in part by early spatial activity experience, particularly those spatial activities that have been sex-typed as masculine/male-oriented. Utilizing an online survey, 571 ethnically diverse adult university students completed a brief demographic survey, an 81-item spatial activity survey, and the MRT. Results suggest that the significant relation between sex of the participant and MRT score is partially mediated by the number of masculine spatial activities participants had engaged in as youth. Closing the gap between males and females in spatial ability, a skill linked to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics success, may be accomplished in part by encouraging female youth to engage in more particular kinds of spatial activities. PMID:23381194

  14. Comparative bactericidal activities of lasers operating at seven different wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Ian A.; Ward, Glenn D.; Wang, RuiKang K.; Sharp, James H.; Budgett, David M.; Stewart-Tull, Duncan E.; Wardlaw, Alastair C.; Chatwin, Christopher R.

    1996-10-01

    Seven laser instruments, delivering radiation at a selection of wavelengths in the range of 0.355 to 118 micrometers , we investigated for their ability to kill Escherichia coli as a lawn of the bacteria on nutrient agar culture plates. Easily the most effective was a 600-W CO2 laser operating at 10.6 micrometers , which produced 1.2-cm2 circular zones of sterilization at energy densities of around 8 J cm-2 in a 30-msec exposure. Circular zones with an area of 0.7 cm2 were achieved with 200 W from a Nd:YAG laser delivering 8-ms, 10-J pulses of 1.06 micrometers radiation at 20 Hz. The exposure time, however, was 16 s and the energy density was more than 240 times higher than with the CO2 laser. This difference is believed to be partly due to the much higher absorption of radiation at 10.6 micrometers , by water in the bacterial cells and the surrounding medium. Sterilization was observed after exposure to frequency- tripled Nd:YAG laser radiation at 355 nm. Lasers that were totally ineffective in killing Escherichia coli were the far infrared laser, the laser diode array, and the argon ion laser. The speed at which laser sterilization can be achieved is particularly attractive to the medical and food industries.

  15. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Waste Disposition Activities at the Paducah Site Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-11-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1339), which is incorporated herein by reference, for proposed disposition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes, low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW), and transuranic (TRU) waste from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site (Paducah Site) in Paducah, Kentucky. All of the wastes would be transported for disposal at various locations in the United States. Based on the results of the impact analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment with in the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  16. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Physical Activity Guideline Attainment among Participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jing; Hochberg, Marc C.; Chang, Rowland W.; Hootman, Jennifer M.; Manheim, Larry M.; Lee, Jungwha; Semanik, Pamela A.; Sharma, Leena; Dunlop, Dorothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This cross-sectional study examined racial/ethnic differences in meeting the 2008 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Physical Activity Guidelines aerobic component (≥ 150 moderate-to-vigorous (MV) minutes/week in bouts ≥ 10 minutes) among persons with or at risk for radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA). Methods We evaluated African American versus White differences in Guideline attainment using multiple logistic regression adjusting for socio-demographic (age, gender, site, income, education) and health factors (comorbidity, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, knee pain). Our analyses included adults aged 49–84 who participated in accelerometer monitoring at the Osteoarthritis Initiative 48-month visit (1142 with and 747 at risk for RKOA). Results 2.0% of African Americans and 13.0% of Whites met Guidelines. For adults with and at risk for RKOA, significantly lower rates of Guideline attainment among African Americans compared to Whites were partially attenuated by health factor differences, particularly overweight/obesity and knee pain (RKOA: adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.08, 0.72]; at risk for RKOA: OR = 0.28, 95% CI = [0.07, 1.05]). Conclusion Despite known benefits from physical activity, attainment of Physical Activity Guidelines among persons with and at risk for RKOA was low. African Americans were 72–76% less likely than Whites to meet Guidelines. Culturally-relevant interventions and environmental strategies in the African American community targeting overweight/obesity and knee pain may reduce future racial/ethnic differences in physical activity and improve health outcomes. PMID:22807352

  17. Different categories of living and non-living sound-sources activate distinct cortical networks

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Lauren R.; Frum, Chris; Puce, Aina; Walker, Nathan A.; Lewis, James W.

    2009-01-01

    With regard to hearing perception, it remains unclear as to whether, or the extent to which, different conceptual categories of real-world sounds and related categorical knowledge are differentially represented in the brain. Semantic knowledge representations are reported to include the major divisions of living versus non-living things, plus more specific categories including animals, tools, biological motion, faces, and places—categories typically defined by their characteristic visual features. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions showing preferential activity to four categories of action sounds, which included non-vocal human and animal actions (living), plus mechanical and environmental sound-producing actions (non-living). The results showed a striking antero-posterior division in cortical representations for sounds produced by living versus non-living sources. Additionally, there were several significant differences by category, depending on whether the task was category-specific (e.g. human or not) versus non-specific (detect end-of-sound). In general, (1) human-produced sounds yielded robust activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci independent of task. Task demands modulated activation of left-lateralized fronto-parietal regions, bilateral insular cortices, and subcortical regions previously implicated in observation-execution matching, consistent with “embodied” and mirror-neuron network representations subserving recognition. (2) Animal action sounds preferentially activated the bilateral posterior insulae. (3) Mechanical sounds activated the anterior superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal cortices. (4) Environmental sounds preferentially activated dorsal occipital and medial parietal cortices. Overall, this multi-level dissociation of networks for preferentially representing distinct sound-source categories provides novel support for grounded cognition models that may

  18. Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments

    PubMed Central

    Cendrero-Mateo, M. Pilar; Moran, M. Susan; Papuga, Shirley A.; Thorp, K.R.; Alonso, L.; Moreno, J.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Rascher, U.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using active techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that active and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average scale. At the single-leaf scale, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of active and passive ChlF at the single-leaf scale are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management. PMID:26482242

  19. Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments.

    PubMed

    Cendrero-Mateo, M Pilar; Moran, M Susan; Papuga, Shirley A; Thorp, K R; Alonso, L; Moreno, J; Ponce-Campos, G; Rascher, U; Wang, G

    2016-01-01

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using active techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that active and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average scale. At the single-leaf scale, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of active and passive ChlF at the single-leaf scale are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management. PMID:26482242

  20. Protonation state of a single histidine residue contributes significantly to the kinetics of the reaction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 with tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Komissarov, Andrey A; Declerck, Paul J; Shore, Joseph D

    2004-05-28

    Stopped-flow fluorometry was used to study the kinetics of the reactive center loop insertion occurring during the reaction of N-((2-(iodoacetoxy)ethyl)-N-methyl)amino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-3-diazole (NBD) P9 plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with tissue-(tPA) and urokinase (uPA)-type plasminogen activators and human pancreatic elastase at pH 5.5-8.5. The limiting rate constants of reactive center loop insertion (k(lim)) and concentrations of proteinase at half-saturation (K(0.5)) for tPA and uPA and the specificity constants (k(lim)/K(0.5)) for elastase were determined. The pH dependences of k(lim)/K(0.5) reflected inactivation of each enzyme due to protonation of His57 of the catalytic triad. However, the specificity of the inhibitory reaction with tPA and uPA was notably higher than that for the substrate reaction catalyzed by elastase. pH dependences of k(lim) and K(0.5) obtained for tPA revealed an additional ionizable group (pKa, 6.0-6.2) affecting the reaction. Protonation of this group resulted in a significant increase in both k(lim) and K(0.5) and a 4.6-fold decrease in the specificity of the reaction of tPA with NBD P9 PAI-1. Binding of monoclonal antibody MA-55F4C12 to PAI-1 induced a decrease in k(lim) and K(0.5) at any pH but did not affect either the pKa of the group or an observed decrease in k(lim)/K(0.5) due to protonation of the group. In contrast to tPA, the k(lim) and K(0.5) for the reactions of uPA with NBD P9 PAI-1 or its complex with the monoclonal antibody were independent of pH in the 6.5-8.5 range. Since slightly acidic pH is a feature of a number of malignant tumors, alterations in PAI-1/tPA kinetics could play a role in the cancerogenesis. Changes in the protonation state of His(188), which is placed closely to the S1 site and is unique for tPA, has been proposed to contribute to the observed pH dependences of k(lim) and K(0.5). PMID:15033993

  1. Differences in abdominal muscle activation during coughing between smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Hyung; Lee, Dong-Rour; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the abdominal muscles during coughing between smokers and nonsmokers. [Subjects] A total of 30 healthy adults (15 smokers, 15 nonsmokers) participated. [Methods] The percentage maximal voluntary isometric contraction values (%MVIC) of the rectus abdominis (RA), external abdominal oblique (EO), and internal abdominal oblique (IO) and transversus abdominis (TrA) were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] The %MVIC of the IO and TrA statistically significantly differed and the %MVIC of IO and TrA was found to be higher during coughing in nonsmokers compared with during coughing in smokers. [Conclusion] The activity of the deep abdominal muscles in nonsmokers was also higher than that of smokers during coughing. PMID:27190443

  2. Cluster Analysis of the Rat Olfactory Bulb Activity in Response to Different Odorants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falasconi, M.; Gutierrez, A.; Auffarth, B.; Sberveglieri, G.; Marco, S.

    2009-05-01

    With the goal of deepen in the understanding of coding of chemical information in the olfactory system, a large data set consisting of rat's olfactory bulb activity values in response to several different volatile compounds has been analyzed by fuzzy c-means clustering methods. Clustering should help to discover groups of glomeruli that are similary activated according to their response profiles across the odorants. To investigate the significance of the achieved fuzzy partitions we developed and applied a novel validity approach based on cluster stability. Our results show certain level of glomerular clustering in the olfactory bulb and indicate that exist a main chemo-topic subdivision of the glomerular layer in few macro-area which are rather specific to particular functional groups of the volatile molecules.

  3. Gender differences in the expression of PTSD symptoms among active duty military personnel.

    PubMed

    Hourani, Laurel; Williams, Jason; Bray, Robert; Kandel, Denise

    2015-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and symptom factors in the total U.S. active duty force. Data were drawn from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel including 17,939 men and 6751 women from all services. The results indicated that women expressed more distress than men across almost all the symptoms on the PTSD Checklist except for hypervigilance. Women also scored significantly higher on all four factors examined: Re-experiencing, Avoidance, Emotionally Numb, Hyperarousal. More women than men were distressed by combat experiences that involved some type of violence, such as being wounded, witnessing or engaging in acts of cruelty, engaging in hand-to-hand combat, and, to a lesser extent, handling dead bodies. Men who had been sexually abused had a greater number of symptoms and were consistently more distressed than women on individual symptoms and symptom factors. PMID:25527902

  4. Differences in abdominal muscle activation during coughing between smokers and nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Min-Hyung; Lee, Dong-Rour; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the abdominal muscles during coughing between smokers and nonsmokers. [Subjects] A total of 30 healthy adults (15 smokers, 15 nonsmokers) participated. [Methods] The percentage maximal voluntary isometric contraction values (%MVIC) of the rectus abdominis (RA), external abdominal oblique (EO), and internal abdominal oblique (IO) and transversus abdominis (TrA) were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] The %MVIC of the IO and TrA statistically significantly differed and the %MVIC of IO and TrA was found to be higher during coughing in nonsmokers compared with during cou