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Sample records for activity similar effects

  1. Passive and active exercises are similarly effective in elderly nursing home residents

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Nicole L.; Rogers, Michael E.; Islam, Mohammod Monirul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of passive motion exercise and active motion exercise on functional fitness in elderly nursing home residents. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three (female 22 and male 1) nursing home residents (84.8±4.3 yr) volunteered for this study. They were divided into a passive motion exercise group (n=12) and an active motion exercise group (n=11) and performed 30-min sessions of training twice a week for 12 weeks. Functional fitness (Arm Curl, Chair Stand, Up & Go, Sit & Reach, Back Scratch, functional Reach, and 12-min Walk tests) was evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] No significant baseline difference was noted between the groups in measured variables. Following the 12 week intervention, no significant interaction (group × time) was noted in functional fitness variables between the groups, except for the functional reach scores (active motion exercise 40%, passive motion exercise 9%). Significant improvement over time was noted in passive motion exercise group in Arm Curl (19%), Chair Stand (15%), Up & Go (6%), and 12-min Walk (12%) scores; and in the active motion exercise group in Arm Curl (14%), Chair Stand (19%), Up & Go (11%), functional Reach (40%) and 12-min Walk (13%) scores. The adherence rates in the passive and active motion exercise groups were 95.8% and 93.1% respectively. [Conclusion] Passive motion exercise and active motion exercise were found to be similarly effective for improving the functional fitness of elderly nursing home residents. PMID:26504320

  2. Can "CANISO" Activate "CASINO"? Transposed-Letter Similarity Effects with Nonadjacent Letter Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Manuel; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Nonwords created by transposing two "adjacent" letters (i.e., transposed-letter (TL) nonwords like "jugde") are very effective at activating the lexical representation of their base words. This fact poses problems for most computational models of word recognition (e.g., the interactive-activation model and its extensions), which assume that exact…

  3. GIRK channel activation via adenosine or muscarinic receptors has similar effects on rat atrial electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Liang, Bo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K⁺ channels (GIRK) are important in the regulation of heart rate and atrial electrophysiology. GIRK channels are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic M₂ receptors and adenosine A₁ receptors. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the electrophysiological effects of acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine on GIRK channels in rat atria. Action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD₉₀), effective refractory period (ERP), and resting membrane potential (RMP) were investigated in isolated rat atria by intracellular recordings. Both the adenosine analog N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and ACh profoundly shortened APD₉₀ and ERP and hyperpolarized the RMP. No additive or synergistic effect of CPA and ACh coapplication was observed. To antagonize GIRK channel activation, the specific inhibitor rTertiapin Q (TTQ) was applied. The coapplication of TTQ reversed the CPA and ACh-induced effects. When TTQ was applied without exogenous receptor activator, both APD₉₀ and ERP were prolonged and RMP was depolarized, confirming a basal activity of the GIRK current. The results reveal that activation of A₁ and M₂ receptors has a profound and equal effect on the electrophysiology in rat atrium. This effect is to a major extent mediated through GIRK channels. Furthermore, these results support the notion that atrial GIRK currents from healthy hearts have a basal component and additional activation can be mediated via at least 2 different receptor mechanisms. PMID:23609329

  4. Active browsing using similarity pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jau-Yuen; Bouman, Charles A.; Dalton, John C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to managing large image databases, which we call active browsing. Active browsing integrates relevance feedback into the browsing environment, so that users can modify the database's organization to suit the desired task. Our method is based on a similarity pyramid data structure, which hierarchically organizes the database, so that it can be efficiently browsed. At coarse levels, the similarity pyramid allows users to view the database as large clusters of similar images. Alternatively, users can 'zoom into' finer levels to view individual images. We discuss relevance feedback for the browsing process, and argue that it is fundamentally different from relevance feedback for more traditional search-by-query tasks. We propose two fundamental operations for active browsing: pruning and reorganization. Both of these operations depend on a user-defined relevance set, which represents the image or set of images desired by the user. We present statistical methods for accurately pruning the database, and we propose a new 'worm hole' distance metric for reorganizing the database, so that members of the relevance set are grouped together.

  5. Effect of syntactic similarity on cortical activation during second language processing: a comparison of English and Japanese among native Korean trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Haji, Tomoki; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2007-03-01

    In this study of native Korean trilinguals we examined the effect of syntactic similarity between first (L1) and second (L2) languages on cortical activation during the processing of Japanese and English, which are, respectively, very similar to and different from Korean. Subjects had equivalent proficiency in Japanese and English. They performed auditory sentence comprehension tasks in Korean, Japanese, and English during functional MRI (fMRI). The bilateral superior temporal cortex was activated during the comprehension of three languages. The pars triangularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was additionally activated for L2 processing. Furthermore, the right cerebellum, the pars opercularis of the left IFG, and the posteriomedial part of the superior frontal gyrus were activated during the English tasks only. We observed significantly greater activation in the pars opercularis of the left IFG, the right cerebellum, and the right superior temporal cortex during the English than Japanese task; activation in these regions did not differ significantly between Korean and Japanese. Differential activation of the pars opercularis of the left IFG and the right cerebellum likely reflects syntactic distance and differential activation in the right superior temporal cortex may reflect the prosodic distance between English from Korean and Japanese. Furthermore, in the pars oparcularis of the left IFG and the right cerebellum, significant negative correlation between the activation and duration of exposure was observed for English, but not for Japanese. Our research supports the notion that linguistic similarity between L1 and L2 affects the cortical processing of second language.

  6. Visual similarity effects in categorical search.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Robert G; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2011-07-14

    We asked how visual similarity relationships affect search guidance to categorically defined targets (no visual preview). Experiment 1 used a web-based task to collect visual similarity rankings between two target categories, teddy bears and butterflies, and random-category objects, from which we created search displays in Experiment 2 having either high-similarity distractors, low-similarity distractors, or "mixed" displays with high-, medium-, and low-similarity distractors. Analysis of target-absent trials revealed faster manual responses and fewer fixated distractors on low-similarity displays compared to high-similarity displays. On mixed displays, first fixations were more frequent on high-similarity distractors (bear = 49%; butterfly = 58%) than on low-similarity distractors (bear = 9%; butterfly = 12%). Experiment 3 used the same high/low/mixed conditions, but now these conditions were created using similarity estimates from a computer vision model that ranked objects in terms of color, texture, and shape similarity. The same patterns were found, suggesting that categorical search can indeed be guided by purely visual similarity. Experiment 4 compared cases where the model and human rankings differed and when they agreed. We found that similarity effects were best predicted by cases where the two sets of rankings agreed, suggesting that both human visual similarity rankings and the computer vision model captured features important for guiding search to categorical targets.

  7. Bacterial Species-Specific Activity of a Fluoroquinolone against Two Closely Related Pasteurellaceae with Similar MICs: Differential In Vitro Inoculum Effects and In Vivo Efficacies

    PubMed Central

    Lhermie, Guillaume; El Garch, Farid; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A.; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial activity of a fluoroquinolone against two genetically close bacterial species belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Time-kill experiments were used to measure the in vitro activity of marbofloxacin against two strains of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida with similar MICs. We observed that marbofloxacin was equally potent against 105 CFU/mL inocula M. haemolytica and P. multocida. However, an inoculum effect was observed with P. multocida, meaning that marbofloxacin activity was decreased against a 108 CFU/mL inoculum, whereas no inoculum effect was observed with M. haemolytica. Marbofloxacin activity was also tested in a lung infection model with immunocompromised mice intratracheally infected with 109 CFU of each bacteria. At the same dose, the clinical and bacteriological outcomes were much better for mice infected with M. haemolytica than for those infected with P. multocida. Moreover, bacteriological eradication was obtained with a lower marbofloxacin dose for mice infected with M. haemolytica. Our results suggest that the differential in vivo marbofloxacin efficacy observed with the two bacterial species of similar MIC could be explained by a differential inoculum effect. Consequently, MICs determined on 105 CFU inocula were not predictive of the differences in antibiotic efficacies against high bacterial inocula of closely related bacterial strains. These results could stimulate further investigations on bacterial species-specific antibiotic doses in a clinical setting. PMID:26506096

  8. Activity-relevant similarity values for fingerprints and implications for similarity searching

    PubMed Central

    Jasial, Swarit; Hu, Ye; Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A largely unsolved problem in chemoinformatics is the issue of how calculated compound similarity relates to activity similarity, which is central to many applications. In general, activity relationships are predicted from calculated similarity values. However, there is no solid scientific foundation to bridge between calculated molecular and observed activity similarity. Accordingly, the success rate of identifying new active compounds by similarity searching is limited. Although various attempts have been made to establish relationships between calculated fingerprint similarity values and biological activities, none of these has yielded generally applicable rules for similarity searching. In this study, we have addressed the question of molecular versus activity similarity in a more fundamental way. First, we have evaluated if activity-relevant similarity value ranges could in principle be identified for standard fingerprints and distinguished from similarity resulting from random compound comparisons. Then, we have analyzed if activity-relevant similarity values could be used to guide typical similarity search calculations aiming to identify active compounds in databases. It was found that activity-relevant similarity values can be identified as a characteristic feature of fingerprints. However, it was also shown that such values cannot be reliably used as thresholds for practical similarity search calculations. In addition, the analysis presented herein helped to rationalize differences in fingerprint search performance. PMID:27127620

  9. Similarity of fMRI activity patterns in left perirhinal cortex reflects semantic similarity between words.

    PubMed

    Bruffaerts, Rose; Dupont, Patrick; Peeters, Ronald; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gerrit; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2013-11-20

    How verbal and nonverbal visuoperceptual input connects to semantic knowledge is a core question in visual and cognitive neuroscience, with significant clinical ramifications. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment we determined how cosine similarity between fMRI response patterns to concrete words and pictures reflects semantic clustering and semantic distances between the represented entities within a single category. Semantic clustering and semantic distances between 24 animate entities were derived from a concept-feature matrix based on feature generation by >1000 subjects. In the main fMRI study, 19 human subjects performed a property verification task with written words and pictures and a low-level control task. The univariate contrast between the semantic and the control task yielded extensive bilateral occipitotemporal activation from posterior cingulate to anteromedial temporal cortex. Entities belonging to a same semantic cluster elicited more similar fMRI activity patterns in left occipitotemporal cortex. When words and pictures were analyzed separately, the effect reached significance only for words. The semantic similarity effect for words was localized to left perirhinal cortex. According to a representational similarity analysis of left perirhinal responses, semantic distances between entities correlated inversely with cosine similarities between fMRI response patterns to written words. An independent replication study in 16 novel subjects confirmed these novel findings. Semantic similarity is reflected by similarity of functional topography at a fine-grained level in left perirhinal cortex. The word specificity excludes perceptually driven confounds as an explanation and is likely to be task dependent.

  10. Effects of similarity on environmental context cueing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven M; Handy, Justin D; Angello, Genna; Manzano, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the prediction that context cues which are similar to study contexts can facilitate episodic recall, even if those cues are never seen before the recall test. Environmental context cueing effects have typically produced such small effect sizes that influences of moderating factors, such as the similarity between encoding and retrieval contexts, would be difficult to observe experimentally. Videos of environmental contexts, however, can be used to produce powerful context-dependent memory effects, particularly when only one memory target is associated with each video context, intentional item-context encoding is encouraged, and free recall tests are used. Experiment 1 showed that a not previously viewed video of the study context provided an effective recall cue, although it was not as effective as the originally viewed video context. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that videos of environments that were conceptually similar to encoding contexts (e.g., both were videos of ball field games) also cued recall, but not as well if the encoding contexts were given specific labels (e.g., "home run") incompatible with test contexts (e.g., a soccer scene). A fourth experiment that used incidental item-context encoding showed that video context reinstatement has a robust effect on paired associate memory, indicating that the video context reinstatement effect does not depend on interactive item-context encoding or free recall testing.

  11. Effects of similarity on environmental context cueing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven M; Handy, Justin D; Angello, Genna; Manzano, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the prediction that context cues which are similar to study contexts can facilitate episodic recall, even if those cues are never seen before the recall test. Environmental context cueing effects have typically produced such small effect sizes that influences of moderating factors, such as the similarity between encoding and retrieval contexts, would be difficult to observe experimentally. Videos of environmental contexts, however, can be used to produce powerful context-dependent memory effects, particularly when only one memory target is associated with each video context, intentional item-context encoding is encouraged, and free recall tests are used. Experiment 1 showed that a not previously viewed video of the study context provided an effective recall cue, although it was not as effective as the originally viewed video context. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that videos of environments that were conceptually similar to encoding contexts (e.g., both were videos of ball field games) also cued recall, but not as well if the encoding contexts were given specific labels (e.g., "home run") incompatible with test contexts (e.g., a soccer scene). A fourth experiment that used incidental item-context encoding showed that video context reinstatement has a robust effect on paired associate memory, indicating that the video context reinstatement effect does not depend on interactive item-context encoding or free recall testing. PMID:23721293

  12. Ion pickup observed at comet 67P with the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) particle sensors: similarities with previous observations and AMPTE releases, and effects of increasing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Burch, J. L.; Goldstein, R.; Nilsson, H.; Stenberg Wieser, G.; Behar, E.; the RPC Team

    2015-09-01

    Rosetta's unique trajectory is allowing exciting measurements of the development of cometary activity between ˜3.6 and 1.2 AU for the first time. For a few months following Rosetta's arrival at comet 67P in August 2014, data from the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) particle instruments (the Ion and Electron Spectrometer (IES) and the Ion Composition Analyser (ICA)), have shown that the low activity cometary environment was initially dominated by the solar wind. This was expected in the early stages of the mission. In addition to the solar wind and related He+ populations, a low energy pickup ion population is seen intermittently in the early phase of the mission near the comet. The population is very time dependent, but at times reaches higher energy approaching the solar wind energy. During these intervals, ICA data indicate that the composition is mainly water group ions. The rising energy signatures of these ions observed at times indicate that they are in the early phases of the pickup process, initially accelerated by the electric field (‘early phase pickup’). Here, we compare these exciting pickup ion measurements with Giotto measurements at the relatively weak (compared to Halley) comet Grigg-Skjellerup, where early phase pickup was seen including non-gyrotropic cometary ions, and with the AMPTE lithium and barium releases. Our results reveal some striking similarities with the AMPTE releases, particularly the rising energy signature related to early pickup, and a momentum balance between the pickup ions and the deflected solar wind. There is also evidence for momentum transfer between the pickup ions and the solar wind, with less velocity change seen in the solar wind alpha particles compared to the protons; this was also observed in an AMPTE lithium release. We discuss the effects of increasing activity observed between 3.6 to 1.8 AU, including the increasing dominance and energisation of pickup ions, increasing ionospheric effects and the decreasing

  13. A motor similarity effect in object memory.

    PubMed

    Downing-Doucet, Frédéric; Guérard, Katherine

    2014-08-01

    In line with theories of embodied cognition (e.g., Versace et al. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 21, 522-560, 2009), several studies have suggested that the motor system used to interact with objects in our environment is involved in object recognition (e.g., Helbig, Graf, & Kiefer Experimental Brain Research, 174, 221-228, 2006). However, the role of the motor system in immediate memory for objects is more controversial. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of the motor system in object memory by manipulating the similarity between the actions associated to series of objects to be retained in memory. In Experiment 1, we showed that lists of objects associated to dissimilar actions were better recalled than lists associated to similar actions. We then showed that this effect was abolished when participants were required to perform a concurrent motor suppression task (Experiment 2) and when the objects to be memorized were unmanipulable (Experiment 3). The motor similarity effect provides evidence for the role of motor affordances in object memory.

  14. Some Effects of Similarity Self-Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin C.; Strong, Stanley R.

    1972-01-01

    College males were interviewed about how college had altered their friendships, values, and plans. The interviewers diclosed experiences and feelings similar to those revealed by the students. Results support Byrne's Law of Similarity in generating interpersonal attraction in the interview and suggest that the timing of self-disclosures is…

  15. The role of active assortment in spousal similarity.

    PubMed

    Watson, David; Beer, Andrew; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has established the existence of active assortment, that is, a preference for similarity in a potential mate. Few studies, however, have directly related mate preferences to dyadic similarity by examining them in the same participants. We collected both similarity and mate preference data in two studies: undergraduate students (N = 519) and newlyweds (N = 335). In both studies, women placed a higher value on desirable personality characteristics (e.g., higher Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, lower Neuroticism) than did men. Nevertheless, our data also provided strong evidence of consensual mate preferences: Men and women both desired partners who were agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, intelligent, and physically attractive; furthermore, participants desired partners who were better (e.g., more agreeable and attractive) than they were. In contrast, attitudinal variables such as religiousness and political orientation displayed much weaker consensus but showed significant dyadic similarity in both samples; similarity coefficients for personality tended to be positive, but lower. Finally, analyses revealed a direct link between actual and desired similarity: Couples displayed the strongest similarity on those variables for which participants expressed the strongest preference for similarity. Our findings strongly suggest that active assortment is partly responsible for dyadic similarity.

  16. Similar Hamiltonian Between Avalanche-effect & Sociophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, Ssi, Wh-

    2016-05-01

    Of similar Hamiltonian concerned in ``sociophysics'', there were RandomFieldIsingModel/RFIM in external field retrieved in S. Sabhapandit:``Hysteresis & Avalanche in RandomFieldIsingModel'',2002:'' ..in earthquake, it is an energy release and in case of ferromagnet, it is the size of the domain flips''. Following the extremes & compromises curve in Serge Galam: ``Sociophysics: a Review of Galam Model'', 2008 fig. 12, h 9 whereas it seems similar with ``heating curve''-Prof. Ir. Abdul Kadir: ``Mesin Arus Searah'', h 192 when the heat sources are continuous denote continuous opinion dynamics. Further, hysteresis as duties in ``Kajian Analisis Model Mikromagnetik dari Struktur Magnet Nanokomposit'', 2007 [ UI file no. S29286 ] also sought:'' calculate the probability that `one more site became unstable' causes an avalanche of the spin flips...'' usually found in Per Bak sand-pile fractal characters experiment exhibits. Great acknowledgment to HE. Mr. LieutGen-TNI[rtd]. H. TUK SETYOHADI, +62-21-7220385, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, Kebayoran Baru, South-Jakarta.

  17. Category-based induction from similarity of neural activation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Matthew J; Osherson, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The idea that similarity might be an engine of inductive inference dates back at least as far as David Hume. However, Hume's thesis is difficult to test without begging the question, since judgments of similarity may be infected by inferential processes. We present a one-parameter model of category-based induction that generates predictions about arbitrary statements of conditional probability over a predicate and a set of items. The prediction is based on the unconditional probabilities and similarities that characterize that predicate and those items. To test Hume's thesis, we collected brain activation from various regions of the ventral visual stream during a categorization task that did not invite comparison of categories. We then calculated the similarity of those activation patterns using a simple measure of vectorwise similarity and supplied those similarities to the model. The model's outputs correlated well with subjects' judgments of conditional probability. Our results represent a promising first step toward confirming Hume's thesis; similarity, assessed without reference to induction, may well drive inductive inference.

  18. Similarity of Cortical Activity Patterns Predicts generalization Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, Crystal T.; Perez, Claudia A.; Carraway, Ryan S.; Chang, Kevin Q.; Roland, Jarod L.; Sloan, Andrew M.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Humans and animals readily generalize previously learned knowledge to new situations. Determining similarity is critical for assigning category membership to a novel stimulus. We tested the hypothesis that category membership is initially encoded by the similarity of the activity pattern evoked by a novel stimulus to the patterns from known categories. We provide behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that activity patterns in primary auditory cortex contain sufficient information to explain behavioral categorization of novel speech sounds by rats. Our results suggest that category membership might be encoded by the similarity of the activity pattern evoked by a novel speech sound to the patterns evoked by known sounds. Categorization based on featureless pattern matching may represent a general neural mechanism for ensuring accurate generalization across sensory and cognitive systems. PMID:24147140

  19. An active metallic nanomatryushka with two similar super-resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D. J.; Cheng, Y.; Wu, X. W.; Liu, X. J.

    2014-07-01

    The optical properties of a simple metallic nanomatryushka (nanosphere-in-a-nanoshell) with gain have been investigated theoretically. The spaser (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) phenomena can be observed at two critical wavelengths in the active metallic nanomatryushkas. With increasing the gain coefficient of the middle layer, a similar super surface plasmon (SP) resonance is first found at the ω-+|1 mode of the active nanoparticles and then breaks down. With further increasing the gain coefficient, another similar super-resonance occurs at the ω--|1 mode. The near-field enhancements in the active nanomatryushkas also have been greatly amplified at the critical wavelengths for ω-+|1 and ω--|1 modes. It is further found that the amplifications of SPs in the active Ag-SiO2-Au nanoshell are strongest in four kinds of nanoshells and hence the largest near fields. The giant near-field enhancement can greatly enhance the Raman excitation and emission.

  20. The liking-similarity effect: perceptions of similarity as a function of liking.

    PubMed

    Collisson, Brian; Howell, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    In these two studies, we examined whether the inferences people make about likable and dislikable targets align with the predictions of balance theory. We hypothesized that people exhibit a liking-similarity effect by perceiving greater similarity with a likable person than a dislikable person. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the likability of a target person and then assessed participants' perceptions of similarity to that target person. In both studies, people rated likable others as more similar to themselves than dislikable others across a variety of domains (e.g., attitudes, personality characteristics, behaviors). In Study 2, individual differences in self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and preference for consistency moderated the liking-similarity effect. PMID:25175989

  1. An active metallic nanomatryushka with two similar super-resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D. J.; Cheng, Y.; Wu, X. W.; Liu, X. J.

    2014-07-07

    The optical properties of a simple metallic nanomatryushka (nanosphere-in-a-nanoshell) with gain have been investigated theoretically. The spaser (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) phenomena can be observed at two critical wavelengths in the active metallic nanomatryushkas. With increasing the gain coefficient of the middle layer, a similar super surface plasmon (SP) resonance is first found at the ω₋⁺|₁ mode of the active nanoparticles and then breaks down. With further increasing the gain coefficient, another similar super-resonance occurs at the ω₋⁻|₁ mode. The near-field enhancements in the active nanomatryushkas also have been greatly amplified at the critical wavelengths for ω₋⁺|₊ and ω₋⁻|₁ modes. It is further found that the amplifications of SPs in the active Ag–SiO₂–Au nanoshell are strongest in four kinds of nanoshells and hence the largest near fields. The giant near-field enhancement can greatly enhance the Raman excitation and emission.

  2. Modulating the phonological similarity effect: the contribution of interlist similarity and lexicality.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Paul Johan; Lian, Arild

    2005-04-01

    The classical phonological similarity effect (PSE) was studied with words and nonwords in two immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks. The relative contributions of intralist and interlist interference were compared, and differential effects on item and order memory were observed. PSE occurred with words and was reversed with nonwords. In addition, PSE was modulated by interlist similarity, which enhanced recall of rhyme items and impaired recall of distinct items. Finally, interlist similarity reduced item recall of words, whereas it improved serial recall of nonwords. The latter finding rules out the hypothesis that the reverse PSE for nonwords is due to interlist interference. It is concluded that two opposing effects of phonological intralist similarity cause the interaction between PSE and lexicality in ISR. With words, the positive effect on item recall is usually masked by a much more disruptive effect on position accuracy. With nonwords, however, the positive effect often masks the negative one. These findings are discussed in relation to current models of verbal short-term memory.

  3. Predicting activity approach based on new atoms similarity kernel function.

    PubMed

    Abu El-Atta, Ahmed H; Moussa, M I; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2015-07-01

    Drug design is a high cost and long term process. To reduce time and costs for drugs discoveries, new techniques are needed. Chemoinformatics field implements the informational techniques and computer science like machine learning and graph theory to discover the chemical compounds properties, such as toxicity or biological activity. This is done through analyzing their molecular structure (molecular graph). To overcome this problem there is an increasing need for algorithms to analyze and classify graph data to predict the activity of molecules. Kernels methods provide a powerful framework which combines machine learning with graph theory techniques. These kernels methods have led to impressive performance results in many several chemoinformatics problems like biological activity prediction. This paper presents a new approach based on kernel functions to solve activity prediction problem for chemical compounds. First we encode all atoms depending on their neighbors then we use these codes to find a relationship between those atoms each other. Then we use relation between different atoms to find similarity between chemical compounds. The proposed approach was compared with many other classification methods and the results show competitive accuracy with these methods.

  4. Observational Learning and the Effects of Model-Observer Similarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaksma, Martine A. H.; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; van den Bergh, Huub

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the effects of similarity in competence between model and observer on the effectiveness of observational learning in argumentative writing. Results are consistent with the similarity hypothesis: weak learners learn more from focusing their observations on weak models, whereas better learners learn more from focusing on good…

  5. Exploring the Effects of Similarity on Mapping Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Bowers, Edmond

    2010-01-01

    Solving a map task requires transferring information acquired in one spatial context to another context, an ability that marks an important step in cognitive development. This study investigated how preschoolers' mapping performance was affected by the extent of similarity between spaces. Whereas prior work examined effects of similarity in tasks…

  6. Similar barriers and facilitators to physical activity across different clinical groups experiencing lower limb spasticity.

    PubMed

    Hundza, Sandra; Quartly, Caroline; Kim, Jasmine M; Dunnett, James; Dobrinsky, Jill; Loots, Iris; Choy, Kim; Chow, Brayley; Hampshire, Alexis; Temple, Viviene A

    2016-07-01

    Purpose Given the importance of physical activity in maintaining health and wellness, an improved understanding of physical activity patterns across different clinical populations is required. This study examines the facilitators for, and barriers to, participation in physical activity across multiple contexts for three clinical groups with chronic lower limb spasticity (individuals with stroke, multiple sclerosis and incomplete spinal cord injury). Method This cross-sectional study employed quantitative measures for spasticity, ankle range of motion, pain, falls, cognition, mobility, and physical activity as well as qualitative semi-structured interviews. Results There were similar impairments in body functions and structures and limitations in activities across the clinical groups. These impairments and limitations negatively impacted participation in physical activity, which was low. Environmental and personal factors exacerbated or mitigated the limiting effects of body functions and structures and activities on physical activity in many areas of life. Conclusions In this population, participation in physical activity includes activities such as housework which are different than what is typically considered as physical activity. Further, the presence of similar barriers and facilitators across the groups suggests that support and services to promote valued forms of physical activity could be organised and delivered based on limitations in mobility and functioning rather than clinical diagnosis. Implications for rehabilitation Physical activity is of utmost importance in maintaining health and wellness in clinical populations. This research highlights the desired and actual physical activity for these populations can look different than what may traditionally be considered as physical activity (e.g. housework is not typically considered participation physical activity). Therefore, rehabilitation interventions need to be directly designed to enhance clients

  7. Assessing Activity Pattern Similarity with Multidimensional Sequence Alignment based on a Multiobjective Optimization Evolutionary Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Mei-Po; Xiao, Ningchuan; Ding, Guoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the complexity and multidimensional characteristics of human activities, assessing the similarity of human activity patterns and classifying individuals with similar patterns remains highly challenging. This paper presents a new and unique methodology for evaluating the similarity among individual activity patterns. It conceptualizes multidimensional sequence alignment (MDSA) as a multiobjective optimization problem, and solves this problem with an evolutionary algorithm. The study utilizes sequence alignment to code multiple facets of human activities into multidimensional sequences, and to treat similarity assessment as a multiobjective optimization problem that aims to minimize the alignment cost for all dimensions simultaneously. A multiobjective optimization evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) is used to generate a diverse set of optimal or near-optimal alignment solutions. Evolutionary operators are specifically designed for this problem, and a local search method also is incorporated to improve the search ability of the algorithm. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by comparing it with a popular existing method called ClustalG using a set of 50 sequences. The results indicate that our method outperforms the existing method for most of our selected cases. The multiobjective evolutionary algorithm presented in this paper provides an effective approach for assessing activity pattern similarity, and a foundation for identifying distinctive groups of individuals with similar activity patterns. PMID:26190858

  8. Representational similarity encoding for fMRI: Pattern-based synthesis to predict brain activity using stimulus-model-similarities.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Andrew James; Zinszer, Benjamin D; Raizada, Rajeev D S

    2016-03-01

    Patterns of neural activity are systematically elicited as the brain experiences categorical stimuli and a major challenge is to understand what these patterns represent. Two influential approaches, hitherto treated as separate analyses, have targeted this problem by using model-representations of stimuli to interpret the corresponding neural activity patterns. Stimulus-model-based-encoding synthesizes neural activity patterns by first training weights to map between stimulus-model features and voxels. This allows novel model-stimuli to be mapped into voxel space, and hence the strength of the model to be assessed by comparing predicted against observed neural activity. Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) assesses models by testing how well the grand structure of pattern-similarities measured between all pairs of model-stimuli aligns with the same structure computed from neural activity patterns. RSA does not require model fitting, but also does not allow synthesis of neural activity patterns, thereby limiting its applicability. We introduce a new approach, representational similarity-encoding, that builds on the strengths of RSA and robustly enables stimulus-model-based neural encoding without model fitting. The approach therefore sidesteps problems associated with overfitting that notoriously confront any approach requiring parameter estimation (and is consequently low cost computationally), and importantly enables encoding analyses to be incorporated within the wider Representational Similarity Analysis framework. We illustrate this new approach by using it to synthesize and decode fMRI patterns representing the meanings of words, and discuss its potential biological relevance to encoding in semantic memory. Our new similarity-based encoding approach unites the two previously disparate methods of encoding models and RSA, capturing the strengths of both, and enabling similarity-based synthesis of predicted fMRI patterns.

  9. Why does the phonological similarity effect reverse with nonwords?

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Paul Johan; Imenes, Anders Gravir; Johannessen, Kaja; Endestad, Tor; Lian, Arild

    2007-07-01

    The detrimental phonological similarity effect (PSE), a robust finding in serial recall of words, sometimes reverses with nonwords. The current study tested the hypothesis that nonwords benefit from phonological similarity because they are harder to retrieve. In two experiments serial recall and serial reconstruction of visually presented words and nonwords were compared. Phonological similarity is known to have a positive effect on item memory and a negative effect on position accuracy in serial recall, and the demands on item retrieval were greatly reduced in the latter task. PSE occurred for words in both tasks and was reversed for nonwords in serial recall, but not in serial reconstruction-a new finding in the literature. The following conclusions can be made: (1) the detrimental PSE on order retrieval occurs irrespective of lexicality, in accordance with prominent short-term memory models; and (2), the positive PSE on item retrieval is crucially affected by lexicality, a finding less well explained by the existing models.

  10. The Relationship of Cultural Similarity, Communication Effectiveness and Uncertainty Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koester, Jolene; Olebe, Margaret

    To investigate the relationship of cultural similarity/dissimilarity, communication effectiveness, and communication variables associated with uncertainty reduction theory, a study examined two groups of students--a multinational group living on an "international floor" in a dormitory at a state university and an unrelated group of U.S. students…

  11. The Moderating Role of Cultural Similarity in Leadership Training Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Qiumei Jane; Jiang, Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the moderating role of cultural similarity between leaders and followers on leadership training effectiveness in terms of followers' fairness perception and organizational citizenship behavior. Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experiment was conducted with 40 managers from international corporations as the…

  12. Similar Biological Activities of Two Isostructural Ruthenium and Osmium Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimoska,J.; Williams, D.; Atilla-Gokcumen, G.; Smalley, K.; Carroll, P.; Webster, R.; Filippakopoulos, P.; Knapp, S.; Herlyn, M.; Meggers, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we probe and verify the concept of designing unreactive bioactive metal complexes, in which the metal possesses a purely structural function, by investigating the consequences of replacing ruthenium in a bioactive half-sandwich kinase inhibitor scaffold by its heavier congener osmium. The two isostructural complexes are compared with respect to their anticancer properties in 1205?Lu melanoma cells, activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, IC50 values against the protein kinases GSK-3? and Pim-1, and binding modes to the protein kinase Pim-1 by protein crystallography. It was found that the two congeners display almost indistinguishable biological activities, which can be explained by their nearly identical three-dimensional structures and their identical mode of action as protein kinase inhibitors. This is a unique example in which the replacement of a metal in an anticancer scaffold by its heavier homologue does not alter its biological activity.

  13. Visual similarity effects in immediate verbal serial recall.

    PubMed

    Logie, R H; Della Sala, S; Wynn, V; Baddeley, A D

    2000-08-01

    The role of visual working memory in temporary serial retention of verbal information was examined in four experiments on immediate serial recall of words that varied in visual similarity and letters that varied in the visual consistency between upper and lower case. Experiments 1 and 2 involved words that were either visually similar (e.g. fly, cry, dry; hew, new, few) or were visually distinct (e.g. guy, sigh, lie; who, blue, ewe). Experiments 3 and 4 involved serial recall of both letter and case from sequences of letters chosen such that the upper- and lower-case versions were visually similar, for example Kk, Cc, Zz, Ww, or were visually dissimilar, for example Dd, Hh, Rr, Qq. Hence in the latter set, case information was encoded in terms of both the shape and the size of the letters. With both words and letters, the visually similar items resulted in poorer recall both with and without concurrent articulatory suppression. This visual similarity effect was robust and was replicated across the four experiments. The effect was not restricted to any particular serial position and was particularly salient in the recall of letter case. These data suggest the presence of a visual code for retention of visually presented verbal sequences in addition to a phonological code, and they are consistent with the use of a visual temporary memory, or visual "cache", in verbal serial recall tasks.

  14. Accurate similarity index based on activity and connectivity of node for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longjie; Qian, Lvjian; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Shishun; Chen, Xiaoyun

    2015-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the increasing of available network data; however, much of those data is incomplete. Link prediction, which can find the missing links of a network, plays an important role in the research and analysis of complex networks. Based on the assumption that two unconnected nodes which are highly similar are very likely to have an interaction, most of the existing algorithms solve the link prediction problem by computing nodes' similarities. The fundamental requirement of those algorithms is accurate and effective similarity indices. In this paper, we propose a new similarity index, namely similarity based on activity and connectivity (SAC), which performs link prediction more accurately. To compute the similarity between two nodes, this index employs the average activity of these two nodes in their common neighborhood and the connectivities between them and their common neighbors. The higher the average activity is and the stronger the connectivities are, the more similar the two nodes are. The proposed index not only commendably distinguishes the contributions of paths but also incorporates the influence of endpoints. Therefore, it can achieve a better predicting result. To verify the performance of SAC, we conduct experiments on 10 real-world networks. Experimental results demonstrate that SAC outperforms the compared baselines.

  15. Effects of Categorical Labels on Similarity Judgments: A Critical Analysis of Similarity-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal in the present study was to evaluate the claim that category labels affect children's judgments of visual similarity. We presented preschool children with discriminable and identical sets of animal pictures and asked them to make perceptual judgments in the presence or absence of labels. Our findings indicate that children who are asked…

  16. Effects of Spatial Frequency Similarity and Dissimilarity on Contour Integration.

    PubMed

    Persike, Malte; Meinhardt, Günter

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of spatial frequency similarity and dissimilarity on human contour integration under various conditions of uncertainty. Participants performed a temporal 2AFC contour detection task. Spatial frequency jitter up to 3.0 octaves was applied either to background elements, or to contour and background elements, or to none of both. Results converge on four major findings. (1) Contours defined by spatial frequency similarity alone are only scarcely visible, suggesting the absence of specialized cortical routines for shape detection based on spatial frequency similarity. (2) When orientation collinearity and spatial frequency similarity are combined along a contour, performance amplifies far beyond probability summation when compared to the fully heterogenous condition but only to a margin compatible with probability summation when compared to the fully homogenous case. (3) Psychometric functions are steeper but not shifted for homogenous contours in heterogenous backgrounds indicating an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. The additional similarity cue therefore not so much improves contour detection performance but primarily reduces observer uncertainty about whether a potential candidate is a contour or just a false positive. (4) Contour integration is a broadband mechanism which is only moderately impaired by spatial frequency dissimilarity.

  17. Structural similarity exerts opposing effects on perceptual differentiation and categorization: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Christian; Zhu, Xun; Joseph, Jane E

    2015-05-01

    We manipulated the degree of structural similarity between objects that had to be matched either according to whether they represented the same object (perceptual matching) or belonged to the same category (conceptual matching). Behaviorally, performance improved as a linear function of increased structural similarity during conceptual matching but deteriorated as a linear function of increased structural similarity during perceptual matching. These effects were mirrored in fMRI recordings where activation in several ventral posterior areas exhibited a similar interaction between match type and structural similarity. Our findings provide direct support for the notion that structural similarity exerts opposing effects on classification depending on whether objects are to be perceptually differentiated or categorized-a notion that has been based on rather circumstantial evidence. In particular, the finding that structural similarity plays a major role in categorization of instances according to taxonomy challenges the view that the organization of superordinate categories is not driven by shared structural features.

  18. The Time Course of Similarity Effects in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guest, Duncan; Lamberts, Koen

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that visual search becomes harder when the similarity between target and distractors is increased and the similarity between distractors is decreased. However, in models of visual search, similarity is typically treated as a static, time-invariant property of the relation between objects. Data from other perceptual tasks…

  19. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  20. Dynamics of activation of semantically similar concepts during spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S

    2009-10-01

    Semantic similarity effects provide critical insight into the organization of semantic knowledge and the nature of semantic processing. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of semantic similarity effects by using the visual world eyetracking paradigm. Four objects were shown on a computer monitor, and participants were instructed to click on a named object, during which time their gaze position was recorded. The likelihood of fixating competitor objects was predicted by the degree of semantic similarity to the target concept. We found reliable, graded competition that depended on degree of target-competitor similarity, even for distantly related items for which priming has not been found in previous priming studies. Time course measures revealed a consistently earlier fixation peak for near semantic neighbors relative to targets. Computational investigations with an attractor dynamical model, a spreading activation model, and a decision model revealed that a combination of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms is required to obtain such peak timing, providing new constraints on models of semantic processing. PMID:19744941

  1. Enhancing the effectiveness of virtual screening by fusing nearest neighbor lists: a comparison of similarity coefficients.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Martin; Gillet, Valerie J; Willett, Peter; Alex, Alexander; Loesel, Jens

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of various similarity coefficients for 2D similarity searching when multiple bioactive target structures are available. Similarity searches using several different activity classes within the MDL Drug Data Report and the Dictionary of Natural Products databases are performed using BCI 2D fingerprints. Using data fusion techniques to combine the resulting nearest neighbor lists we obtain group recall results which, in many cases, are a considerable improvement on standard average recall values obtained for individual structures. It is shown that the degree of improvement can be related to the structural diversity of the activity class that is searched for, the best results being found for the most diverse groups. The group recall of active compounds using subsets of the class is also investigated: for highly self-similar activity classes, the group recall improvement saturates well before the full activity class size is reached. A rough correlation is found between the relative improvement using the group recall and the square of the number of unique compounds available in all of the merged lists. The Tanimoto coefficient is found unambiguously to be the best coefficient to use for the recovery of active compounds using multiple targets. Furthermore, when using the Tanimoto coefficient, the "MAX" fusion rule is found to be more effective than the "SUM" rule for the combination of similarity searches from multiple targets. The use of group recall can lead to improved enrichment in database searches and virtual screening.

  2. Effect of Number and Similarity on Children's Plural Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanter, Jennifer A.; Basche, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    During the first years of language development, toddlers coordinate multiple cues in order to acquire the plural form. The aim of this study was to manipulate object similarity as well as set size in order to determine whether these variables impact children's comprehension of plurality. One-hundred-and-fifty children ranging in age from 22 to 36…

  3. Alphabetic letter identification: Effects of perceivability, similarity, and bias☆

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Shane T.; Weidemann, Christoph T.

    2012-01-01

    The legibility of the letters in the Latin alphabet has been measured numerous times since the beginning of experimental psychology. To identify the theoretical mechanisms attributed to letter identification, we report a comprehensive review of literature, spanning more than a century. This review revealed that identification accuracy has frequently been attributed to a subset of three common sources: perceivability, bias, and similarity. However, simultaneous estimates of these values have rarely (if ever) been performed. We present the results of two new experiments which allow for the simultaneous estimation of these factors, and examine how the shape of a visual mask impacts each of them, as inferred through a new statistical model. Results showed that the shape and identity of the mask impacted the inferred perceivability, bias, and similarity space of a letter set, but that there were aspects of similarity that were robust to the choice of mask. The results illustrate how the psychological concepts of perceivability, bias, and similarity can be estimated simultaneously, and how each make powerful contributions to visual letter identification. PMID:22036587

  4. Effect of Resources Similarity on Satisfaction with Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichman, Meir; Foa, Uriel G.

    1975-01-01

    It was predicted that the amount of satisfaction following an interpersonal exchange will be higher when the resource given is similar to the one reciprocated and lower when they are dissimilar. Interpersonal exchange situations were experimentally created in which two independent variables were manipulated. (Author)

  5. Homophily of Vocabulary Usage: Beneficial Effects of Vocabulary Similarity on Online Health Communities Participation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Albert; Hartzler, Andrea L.; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W.; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Online health communities provide popular platforms for individuals to exchange psychosocial support and form ties. Although regular active participation (i.e., posting to interact with other members) in online health communities can provide important benefits, sustained active participation remains challenging for these communities. Leveraging previous literature on homophily (i.e., “love of those who are like themselves”), we examined the relationship between vocabulary similarity (i.e., homophily of word usage) of thread posts and members’ future interaction in online health communities. We quantitatively measured vocabulary similarity by calculating, in a vector space model, cosine similarity between the original post and the first reply in 20,499 threads. Our findings across five online health communities suggest that vocabulary similarity is a significant predictor of members’ future interaction in online health communities. These findings carry practical implications for facilitating and sustaining online community participation through beneficial effects of homophily in the vocabulary of essential peer support. PMID:26958240

  6. Effect of similarity of ego identity status on interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J A; Rosenzweig, C M; Lutter, A D

    1980-04-01

    Similarity of ego identity status, assessed by Marcia's four-category classification system, was related to interpersonal attraction. Using male and female college students as subjects, this study found that (1) while all judges preferred targets who had or who are undergoing a crisis to those who have not had a crisis, (2) diffuse judges preferred targets with no commitments to those with commitments, and (3) judges with commitments preferred a foreclosure target more than judges without commitments. Differential evaluations of the targets' intelligence, knowledge of current events, adjustment, and morality were also found. Results are discussed both in terms of previous research positively relating personality similarity to attraction and Erikson's theory of the relationship between ego identity development and intimacy in interpersonal relations. PMID:24318017

  7. Effects of language and similarity on comparison processing

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Raman, Lakshmi; Gentner, Dedre

    2010-01-01

    What factors promote conceptual (deep) processing in young children? In this research we examine two factors that seem likely to invite a focus on important conceptual information. The first is comparison processing: comparisons (such as “cats are like dogs”) involve a structural alignment that highlights common relational structure as well as differences connected to that structure. The second factor is the use of generic language (such as “cats have sharp teeth”), which invites a construal organized around information that is relatively central to the represented item. We ask whether these two forces can combine to foster deep processing in four-year-olds, as well as in adults. Our secondary goal is to test whether the process of comparison operates in the same way in preschool children as in adults. In two studies (N = 132), we examined preschool children's and adults’ comparison processing, by asking participants to produce either commonalities or differences for pairs of items while varying similarity (high vs. low) and wording (generic vs. specific). As predicted, for both ages, (1) high-similarity pairs generated both more commonalities and more alignable differences than low-similarity pairs; (2) generic wording differed from specific language in relatively more deep properties for both ages; and (3) the combination of generic language and high similarity was especially favorable for producing deep properties. The detailed parallels between age groups suggest that the same comparison processes hold for children as for adults. Most importantly, the results show that two ways of highlighting deep conceptual structure—generic language and structural alignment—can be combined to provide a source of insight for both children and adults. PMID:20216912

  8. Classification of similar but differently paced activities in the KTH dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Shreeya; Wang, Hui; Ojha, Piyush; Blackburn, William

    2015-02-01

    The KTH video dataset [1] contains three activities - walking, jogging and running - which are very similar but are carried out at a different natural pace. We show that explicit inclusion of a feature which may be interpreted as a measure of the overall state of motion in a frame improves a classifier's ability to discriminate between these activities.

  9. Cost Effectiveness Ratio: Evaluation Tool for Comparing the Effectiveness of Similar Extension Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been challenged to be cost effective in their educational programming. The cost effectiveness ratio is a versatile evaluation indicator for Extension educators to compare the cost of achieving a unit of outcomes or educating a client in similar educational programs. This article describes the cost effectiveness ratio and…

  10. Mirror-image organometallic osmium arene iminopyridine halido complexes exhibit similar potent anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Soni, Rina; Romero, María J; Pizarro, Ana M; Salassa, Luca; Clarkson, Guy J; Hearn, Jessica M; Habtemariam, Abraha; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-11-01

    Four chiral Os(II) arene anticancer complexes have been isolated by fractional crystallization. The two iodido complexes, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 2, (S)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(S)-1-phenylethylamine) and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 4, (R)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(R)-1-phenylethylamine), showed higher anticancer activity (lower IC50 values) towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells than cisplatin and were more active than the two chlorido derivatives, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 1, and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 3. The two iodido complexes were evaluated in the National Cancer Institute 60-cell-line screen, by using the COMPARE algorithm. This showed that the two potent iodido complexes, 2 (NSC: D-758116/1) and 4 (NSC: D-758118/1), share surprisingly similar cancer cell selectivity patterns with the anti-microtubule drug, vinblastine sulfate. However, no direct effect on tubulin polymerization was found for 2 and 4, an observation that appears to indicate a novel mechanism of action. In addition, complexes 2 and 4 demonstrated potential as transfer-hydrogenation catalysts for imine reduction.

  11. 20 CFR 667.262 - Are employment generating activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I? (a) Under WIA section 181(e), WIA title I... employers for the purpose of placement of WIA participants; (2) Participation in business associations (such... enterprise zone vouchering services, (4) Active participation in local business resource centers...

  12. Similar Neural Activity during Fear and Disgust in the Rat Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Shabel, Steven J.; Schairer, Will; Donahue, Rachel J.; Powell, Victoria; Janak, Patricia H.

    2011-01-01

    Much research has focused on how the amygdala processes individual affects, yet little is known about how multiple types of positive and negative affects are encoded relative to one another at the single-cell level. In particular, it is unclear whether different negative affects, such as fear and disgust, are encoded more similarly than negative and positive affects, such as fear and pleasure. Here we test the hypothesis that the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), a region known to be important for learned fear and other affects, encodes affective valence by comparing neuronal activity in the BLA during a conditioned fear stimulus (fear CS) with activity during intraoral delivery of an aversive fluid that induces a disgust response and a rewarding fluid that induces a hedonic response. Consistent with the hypothesis, neuronal activity during the fear CS and aversive fluid infusion, but not during the fear CS and rewarding fluid infusion, was more similar than expected by chance. We also found that the greater similarity in activity during the fear- and disgust-eliciting stimuli was specific to a subpopulation of cells and a limited window of time. Our results suggest that a subpopulation of BLA neurons encodes affective valence during learned fear, and furthermore, within this subpopulation, different negative affects are encoded more similarly than negative and positive affects in a time-specific manner. PMID:22194792

  13. Similar neural activity during fear and disgust in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Shabel, Steven J; Schairer, Will; Donahue, Rachel J; Powell, Victoria; Janak, Patricia H

    2011-01-01

    Much research has focused on how the amygdala processes individual affects, yet little is known about how multiple types of positive and negative affects are encoded relative to one another at the single-cell level. In particular, it is unclear whether different negative affects, such as fear and disgust, are encoded more similarly than negative and positive affects, such as fear and pleasure. Here we test the hypothesis that the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), a region known to be important for learned fear and other affects, encodes affective valence by comparing neuronal activity in the BLA during a conditioned fear stimulus (fear CS) with activity during intraoral delivery of an aversive fluid that induces a disgust response and a rewarding fluid that induces a hedonic response. Consistent with the hypothesis, neuronal activity during the fear CS and aversive fluid infusion, but not during the fear CS and rewarding fluid infusion, was more similar than expected by chance. We also found that the greater similarity in activity during the fear- and disgust-eliciting stimuli was specific to a subpopulation of cells and a limited window of time. Our results suggest that a subpopulation of BLA neurons encodes affective valence during learned fear, and furthermore, within this subpopulation, different negative affects are encoded more similarly than negative and positive affects in a time-specific manner.

  14. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skeet, trap, target, and... FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.35 Skeet, trap, target, and... records, for skeet, trap, target, and similar organized activities shall be determined by the Director...

  15. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skeet, trap, target, and... FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.35 Skeet, trap, target, and... records, for skeet, trap, target, and similar organized activities shall be determined by the Director...

  16. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Skeet, trap, target, and... FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.35 Skeet, trap, target, and... records, for skeet, trap, target, and similar organized activities shall be determined by the Director...

  17. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skeet, trap, target, and... FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.35 Skeet, trap, target, and... records, for skeet, trap, target, and similar organized activities shall be determined by the Director...

  18. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Skeet, trap, target, and... FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.35 Skeet, trap, target, and... records, for skeet, trap, target, and similar organized activities shall be determined by the Director...

  19. Bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder show similar brain activation during depression

    PubMed Central

    Cerullo, Michael A; Eliassen, James C; Smith, Christopher T; Fleck, David E; Nelson, Erik B; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Lamy, Martine; DelBello, Melissa P; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Despite different treatments and course of illness, depressive symptoms appear similar in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar I disorder (BP-I). This similarity of depressive symptoms suggests significant overlap in brain pathways underlying neurovegetative, mood, and cognitive symptoms of depression. These shared brain regions might be expected to exhibit similar activation in individuals with MDD and BP-I during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods fMRI was used to compare regional brain activation in participants with BP-I (n = 25) and MDD (n = 25) during a depressive episode as well as 25 healthy comparison (HC) participants. During the scans, participants performed an attentional task that incorporated emotional pictures. Results During the viewing of emotional images, subjects with BP-I showed decreased activation in the middle occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared to both subjects with MDD and HC participants. During attentional processing, participants with MDD had increased activation in the parahippocampus, parietal lobe, and postcentral gyrus. However, among these regions, only the postcentral gyrus also showed differences between MDD and HC participants. Conclusions No differences in cortico-limbic regions were found between participants with BP-I and MDD during depression. Instead, the major differences occurred in primary and secondary visual processing regions with decreased activation in these regions in BP-I compared to major depression. These differences were driven by abnormal decreases in activation seen in the participants with BP-I. Posterior activation changes are a common finding in studies across mood states in participants with BP-I. PMID:24990479

  20. Oral EMG Activation Patterns for Speech Are Similar in Preschoolers Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Bridget; Smith, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We determined whether basic patterns of muscle activation for speech were similar in preschool children who stutter and their fluent peers. Method We recorded right and left lower lip muscle activity during conversational speech and sentence repetition in 64 preschool children (CWS) diagnosed as stuttering and in 40 children who do not stutter (CWNS). Measures of EMG amplitude, right/left asymmetry, and bilateral coordination were computed for fluent speech. The potential presence of tremor-like oscillations during disfluencies of CWS was assessed, and EMG amplitudes of fluent and disfluent speech were compared in CWS. Results Across both speaking tasks lip muscle activation was similar in CWS and CWNS in overall amplitude, bilateral synchrony, and degree of right/left asymmetry. EMG amplitude was reduced during disfluent compared to fluent conversational speech of CWS, and there was no evidence of tremor in the disfluencies of CWS. Conclusion These results support the assertion that stuttering in young children arises not from basic features of muscle contraction, but rather from the command signals that control the timing and amplitude of muscle activity. Our results indicate that no frank abnormality is present in muscle activation patterns in preschoolers who stutter. PMID:23838991

  1. TLR4/MD-2 activation by a synthetic agonist with no similarity to LPS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Su, Lijing; Morin, Matthew D.; Jones, Brian T.; Whitby, Landon R.; Surakattula, Murali M. R. P.; Huang, Hua; Shi, Hexin; Choi, Jin Huk; Wang, Kuan-wen; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; Berger, Michael; Zhan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong; Boger, Dale L.; Beutler, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Structurally disparate molecules reportedly engage and activate Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and other TLRs, yet the interactions that mediate binding and activation by dissimilar ligands remain unknown. We describe Neoseptins, chemically synthesized peptidomimetics that bear no structural similarity to the established TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but productively engage the mouse TLR4 (mTLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) complex. Neoseptin-3 activates mTLR4/MD-2 independently of CD14 and triggers canonical myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)- and Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-dependent signaling. The crystal structure mTLR4/MD-2/Neoseptin-3 at 2.57-Å resolution reveals that Neoseptin-3 binds as an asymmetrical dimer within the hydrophobic pocket of MD-2, inducing an active receptor complex similar to that induced by lipid A. However, Neoseptin-3 and lipid A form dissimilar molecular contacts to achieve receptor activation; hence strong TLR4/MD-2 agonists need not mimic LPS. PMID:26831104

  2. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Otsu, Elsbeth; Austin, Gregory L

    2015-11-01

    Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E.) 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01). There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09-2.90), but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use. PMID:26610562

  3. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Otsu, Elsbeth; Austin, Gregory L

    2015-11-20

    Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E.) 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01). There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09-2.90), but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  4. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Kinase in Tobacco Leaves Is Activated by Light in a Similar but Not Identical Way as in Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Li, B.; Zhang, X. Q.; Chollet, R.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously reported the partial purification of a Ca2+- independent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) protein-serine/threonine kinase (PEPC-PK) from illuminated leaves of N-sufficient tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants (Y.-H. Wang, R. Chollet [1993] FEBS Lett 328: 215-218). We now report that this C3 PEPC-kinase is reversibly light activated in vivo in a time-dependent manner. As the kinase becomes light activated, the activity and L-malate sensitivity of its target protein increases and decreases, respectively. The light activation of tobacco PEPC-PK is prevented by pretreatment of detached leaves with various photosynthesis and cytosolic protein-synthesis inhibitors. Similarly, specific inhibitors of glutamine synthetase block the light activation of tobacco leaf PEPC-kinase under both photorespiratory and nonphotorespiratory conditions. This striking effect is partially and specifically reversed by exogenous glutamine, whereas it has no apparent effect on the light activation of the maize (Zea mays L.) leaf kinase. Using an in situ "activity-gel" phosphorylation assay, we have identified two major Ca2+-independent PEPC-kinase catalytic polypeptides in illuminated tobacco leaves that have the same molecular masses (approximately 30 and 37 kD) as found in illuminated maize leaves. Collectively, these results indicate that the phosphorylation of PEPC in N-sufficient leaves of tobacco (C3) and maize (C4) is regulated through similar but not identical light-signal transduction pathways. PMID:12226305

  5. Activity of Earthquakes with Similar Waveforms Around Ontake Volcano, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamawaki, T.; Yamazaki, F.; Tadokoro, K.

    2005-12-01

    Ontake volcano area is known for its very high seismicity. Swarm activity has been repeatedly observed since 1976. The volcano erupted in 1979 and a large earthquake with a magnitude of 6.8 occurred in 1984 in the southeastern part of the volcano. A dense seismic network has been constructed for monitoring in this area. Recent studies using leveling survey reveal uplift above the swarm area. Earthquakes with similar waveforms (similar earthquakes) have been observed mainly at geothermal areas and plate boundaries. It is possible to use them to detect temporal change of crustal structure due to large earthquakes or volcanic eruptions using repeating similar earthquakes. With a view to use them as a monitoring tool, we search for similar earthquakes in Ontake area and examine temporal change of observed seismic waveforms. We use ~3300 events which occurred in this area from January 1999 to August 2000. First we pick up event pairs of which hypocenters are manually determined within 4 km. Then we calculate cross-correlation coefficients at each station from the waveform pairs band-pass-filtered at 4 to 8 Hz. The calculation uses 15-second time window that contains both P- and S-waves. We define similar earthquake pairs as event pairs with cross-correlation coefficients larger than 0.9 at more than 8 stations. Such event pairs are distributed mainly in earthquake clusters located to the east and southeastern flank of the volcano. The similar earthquakes have magnitude ranging from 1 to 2 and focal depths of 1 to 7 km. Occurrence intervals of the most pairs are very short, between a few hours and a few days. A few pairs have intervals of several months. But repeating groups with nearly the same interval have not been found due probably to the short data period. We will further analyze using expanded data period and area.

  6. Periplasmic nitrate reductase and formate dehydrogenase: similar molecular architectures with very different enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Nuno M F S A; Gonzalez, Pablo J; Fernandes, Pedro A; Moura, José J G; Ramos, Maria João

    2015-11-17

    It is remarkable how nature has been able to construct enzymes that, despite sharing many similarities, have simple but key differences that tune them for completely different functions in living cells. Periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) and formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) from the DMSOr family are representative examples of this. Both enzymes share almost identical three-dimensional protein foldings and active sites, in terms of coordination number, geometry and nature of the ligands. The substrates of both enzymes (nitrate and formate) are polyatomic anions that also share similar charge and stereochemistry. In terms of the catalytic mechanism, both enzymes have a common activation mechanism (the sulfur-shift mechanism) that ensures a constant coordination number around the metal ion during the catalytic cycle. In spite of these similarities, they catalyze very different reactions: Nap abstracts an oxygen atom from nitrate releasing nitrite, whereas FdH catalyzes a hydrogen atom transfer from formate and releases carbon dioxide. In this Account, a critical analysis of structure, function, and catalytic mechanism of the molybdenum enzymes periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) and formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) is presented. We conclude that the main structural driving force that dictates the type of reaction, catalyzed by each enzyme, is a key difference on one active site residue that is located in the top region of the active sites of both enzymes. In both enzymes, the active site is centered on the metal ion of the cofactor (Mo in Nap and Mo or W in Fdh) that is coordinated by four sulfur atoms from two pyranopterin guanosine dinucleotide (PGD) molecules and by a sulfido. However, while in Nap there is a Cys directly coordinated to the Mo ion, in FdH there is a SeCys instead. In Fdh there is also an important His that interacts very closely with the SeCys, whereas in Nap the same position is occupied by a Met. The role of Cys in Nap and SeCys in FdH is similar in both

  7. Structural similarity based kriging for quantitative structure activity and property relationship modeling.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ana L; Falcao, Andre O

    2014-07-28

    Structurally similar molecules tend to have similar properties, i.e. closer molecules in the molecular space are more likely to yield similar property values while distant molecules are more likely to yield different values. Based on this principle, we propose the use of a new method that takes into account the high dimensionality of the molecular space, predicting chemical, physical, or biological properties based on the most similar compounds with measured properties. This methodology uses ordinary kriging coupled with three different molecular similarity approaches (based on molecular descriptors, fingerprints, and atom matching) which creates an interpolation map over the molecular space that is capable of predicting properties/activities for diverse chemical data sets. The proposed method was tested in two data sets of diverse chemical compounds collected from the literature and preprocessed. One of the data sets contained dihydrofolate reductase inhibition activity data, and the second molecules for which aqueous solubility was known. The overall predictive results using kriging for both data sets comply with the results obtained in the literature using typical QSPR/QSAR approaches. However, the procedure did not involve any type of descriptor selection or even minimal information about each problem, suggesting that this approach is directly applicable to a large spectrum of problems in QSAR/QSPR. Furthermore, the predictive results improve significantly with the similarity threshold between the training and testing compounds, allowing the definition of a confidence threshold of similarity and error estimation for each case inferred. The use of kriging for interpolation over the molecular metric space is independent of the training data set size, and no reparametrizations are necessary when more compounds are added or removed from the set, and increasing the size of the database will consequentially improve the quality of the estimations. Finally it is shown

  8. Substantial similarity in amygdala neuronal activity during conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional arousal.

    PubMed

    Shabel, Steven J; Janak, Patricia H

    2009-09-01

    The amygdala is important for determining the emotional significance of environmental stimuli. However, the degree to which appetitive and aversive stimuli are processed by the same or different neuronal circuits within the amygdala remains unclear. Here we show that neuronal activity during the expression of classically conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional responses is more similar than expected by chance, despite the different sensory modalities of the eliciting stimuli. We also found that the activity of a large number of cells (> 43%) was correlated with blood pressure, a measure of emotional arousal. Together, our results suggest that a substantial proportion of neuronal circuits within the amygdala can contribute to both appetitive and aversive emotional arousal.

  9. Substantial similarity in amygdala neuronal activity during conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional arousal

    PubMed Central

    Shabel, Steven J.; Janak, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    The amygdala is important for determining the emotional significance of environmental stimuli. However, the degree to which appetitive and aversive stimuli are processed by the same or different neuronal circuits within the amygdala remains unclear. Here we show that neuronal activity during the expression of classically conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional responses is more similar than expected by chance, despite the different sensory modalities of the eliciting stimuli. We also found that the activity of a large number of cells (> 43%) was correlated with blood pressure, a measure of emotional arousal. Together, our results suggest that a substantial proportion of neuronal circuits within the amygdala can contribute to both appetitive and aversive emotional arousal. PMID:19706473

  10. Similar activation state of neutrophils in sputum of asthma patients irrespective of sputum eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Tak, T; Hilvering, B; Tesselaar, K; Koenderman, L

    2015-11-01

    Inflammatory phenotypes of asthma are associated with differences in disease characteristics. It is unknown whether these inflammatory phenotypes are reflected by the activation status of neutrophils in blood and sputum. We obtained peripheral blood and induced sputum from 21 asthma patients and stratified our samples based on sputum eosinophilia resulting in two groups (>3% eosinophils: n = 13, <3%: n = 8). Eosinophils and neutrophils from blood and sputum were analysed for expression of activation and degranulation markers by flow cytometry. Data were analysed by both classical, non-parametric statistics and a multi-dimensional approach, using principal component analysis (PCA). Patients with sputum eosinophilia were characterized by increased asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) scores and blood eosinophil counts. Both sputum neutrophils and eosinophils displayed an activated and degranulated phenotype compared to cells obtained from blood. Specifically, degranulation of all granule types was detected in sputum cells, combined with an increased expression of the activation markers (activated) Mac-1 (CD11b), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) (CD274) and a decreased expression of CD62L. CD69 expression was only increased on sputum eosinophils. Surface marker expression of neutrophils was similar in the presence or absence of eosinophilia, either by single or multi-dimensional analysis. Sputum neutrophils were highly activated and degranulated irrespective of sputum eosinophilia. Therefore, we conclude that differences in granulocyte activation in sputum and/or blood are not associated with clinical differences in the two groups of asthma patients. The finding of PD-L1 expression on sputum granulocytes suggests an immunomodulatory role of these cells in the tissue.

  11. Conceptual similarity effects on working memory in sentence contexts: testing a theory of anaphora.

    PubMed

    Cowles, H Wind; Garnham, Alan; Simner, Julia

    2010-06-01

    The degree of semantic similarity between an anaphoric noun phrase (e.g., the bird) and its antecedent (e.g., a robin) is known to affect the anaphor resolution process, but the mechanisms that underlie this effect are not known. One proposal (Almor, 1999) is that semantic similarity triggers interference effects in working memory and makes two crucial assumptions: First, semantic similarity impairs working memory just as phonological similarity does (e.g., Baddeley, 1992), and, second, this impairment interferes with processes of sentence comprehension. We tested these assumptions in two experiments that compared recall accuracy between phonologically similar, semantically similar, and control words in sentence contexts. Our results do not provide support for Almor's claims: Phonological overlap decreased recall accuracy in sentence contexts, but semantic similarity did not. These results shed doubt on the idea that semantic interference in working memory is an underlying mechanism in anaphor resolution. PMID:19890766

  12. Scale effects and a method for similarity evaluation in micro electrical discharge machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingyu; Zhang, Qinhe; Wang, Kan; Zhu, Guang; Fu, Xiuzhuo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-08-01

    Electrical discharge machining(EDM) is a promising non-traditional micro machining technology that offers a vast array of applications in the manufacturing industry. However, scale effects occur when machining at the micro-scale, which can make it difficult to predict and optimize the machining performances of micro EDM. A new concept of "scale effects" in micro EDM is proposed, the scale effects can reveal the difference in machining performances between micro EDM and conventional macro EDM. Similarity theory is presented to evaluate the scale effects in micro EDM. Single factor experiments are conducted and the experimental results are analyzed by discussing the similarity difference and similarity precision. The results show that the output results of scale effects in micro EDM do not change linearly with discharge parameters. The values of similarity precision of machining time significantly increase when scaling-down the capacitance or open-circuit voltage. It is indicated that the lower the scale of the discharge parameter, the greater the deviation of non-geometrical similarity degree over geometrical similarity degree, which means that the micro EDM system with lower discharge energy experiences more scale effects. The largest similarity difference is 5.34 while the largest similarity precision can be as high as 114.03. It is suggested that the similarity precision is more effective in reflecting the scale effects and their fluctuation than similarity difference. Consequently, similarity theory is suitable for evaluating the scale effects in micro EDM. This proposed research offers engineering values for optimizing the machining parameters and improving the machining performances of micro EDM.

  13. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) release by actively transported, structurally similar carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Sirinek, K R; Levine, B A; O'Dorisio, T M; Cataland, S

    1983-07-01

    Six awake adult dogs prepared with a duodenocutaneous fistula were infused intraduodenally with one of the following solutions: 3% saline, 10% glucose, 20% glucose, 20% galactose, 20% fructose, 20% mannose, 20% sorbitol, 20% maltose, 20% lactose, or 20% sucrose. Both 10 and 20% glucose stimulated GIP release, and the response appeared to be dose related. Actively transported galactose (C-4 epimer) stimulated GIP release, but less than glucose. Fructose (C-2 keto sugar) which is absorbed by facilitated transport did not stimulate GIP release. Mannose (C-2 epimer) which is passively absorbed by diffusion did not release GIP. Sorbitol (reduced alcohol of glucose) which is not absorbed did not release GIP. Of the disaccharides tested, only maltose stimulated the release of GIP. The results suggest that structural integrity of the glucose molecule from the C-1 to C-4 carbon atoms, a free aldehyde group on the C-1 carbon atom, and a cyclic structure are all necessary for both the active transport of glucose and the release of endogenous GIP. It would appear that structurally similar receptors exist for both the active transport of glucose and for the release of GIP. PMID:6867011

  14. The Stroop effect in English-Japanese bilinguals: the effect of phonological similarity.

    PubMed

    Sumiya, Hiromi; Healy, Alice F

    2008-01-01

    English-Japanese bilinguals performed a Stroop color-word interference task with both English and Japanese stimuli and responded in both English and Japanese. The Japanese stimuli were either the traditional color terms (TCTs) written in Hiragana or loanwords (LWs) from English written in Katakana. Both within-language and between-language interference were found for all combinations of stimuli and responses. The between-language interference was larger for Katakana LWs (phonologically similar to English) than for Hiragana TCTs, especially with Japanese responses. The magnitude of this phonological effect increased with self-rated reading fluency in Japanese. Overall responding was slower and the Stroop effect larger with English than with Japanese stimuli. These results suggest that unintentional lexical access elicits automatic phonological processing even with intermediate-level reading proficiency. PMID:18444519

  15. Tax-1 and Tax-2 similarities and differences: focus on post-translational modifications and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Shirinian, Margret; Kfoury, Youmna; Dassouki, Zeina; El-Hajj, Hiba; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) share similar genetic organization, they have major differences in their pathogenesis and disease manifestation. HTLV-1 is capable of transforming T lymphocytes in infected patients resulting in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma whereas HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Numerous studies have provided accumulating evidence on the involvement of the viral transactivators Tax-1 versus Tax-2 in T cell transformation. Tax-1 is a potent transcriptional activator of both viral and cellular genes. Tax-1 post-translational modifications and specifically ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been implicated in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation and may contribute to its transformation capacity. Although Tax-2 has similar protein structure compared to Tax-1, the two proteins display differences both in their protein-protein interaction and activation of signal transduction pathways. Recent studies on Tax-2 have suggested ubiquitylation and SUMOylation independent mechanisms of NF-κB activation. In this present review, structural and functional differences between Tax-1 and Tax-2 will be summarized. Specifically, we will address their subcellular localization, nuclear trafficking and their effect on cellular regulatory proteins. A special attention will be given to Tax-1/Tax-2 post-translational modification such as ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, NF-κB activation, and protein-protein interactions involved in oncogenecity both in vivo and in vitro.

  16. Phasic activation of ventral tegmental neurons increases response and pattern similarity in prefrontal cortex neurons

    PubMed Central

    Iwashita, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is critical for higher neural processes and modifying the activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, the mechanism of dopamine contribution to the modification of neural representation is unclear. Using in vivo two-photon population Ca2+ imaging in awake mice, this study investigated how neural representation of visual input to PFC neurons is regulated by dopamine. Phasic stimulation of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) evoked prolonged Ca2+ transients, lasting ∼30 s in layer 2/3 neurons of the PFC, which are regulated by a dopamine D1 receptor-dependent pathway. Furthermore, only a conditioning protocol with visual sensory input applied 0.5 s before the VTA dopaminergic input could evoke enhanced Ca2+ transients and increased pattern similarity (or establish a neural representation) of PFC neurons to the same sensory input. By increasing both the level of neuronal response and pattern similarity, dopaminergic input may establish robust and reliable cortical representation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02726.001 PMID:25269147

  17. Visual and Phonological Similarity Effects in Verbal Immediate Serial Recall: A Test with Kanji Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Satoru; Logie, Robert H.; Morita, Aiko; Law, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In a series of three experiments, native speakers of Japanese performed serial ordered written recall of visually presented Japanese kanji characters that varied systematically in visual and phonological similarity. Overall effects of phonological similarity were observed for retention of serial order under silent reading in Experiments 1 and 3…

  18. Structurally Similar Allosteric Modulators of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Exhibit Five Distinct Pharmacological Effects*

    PubMed Central

    Gill-Thind, JasKiran K.; Dhankher, Persis; D'Oyley, Jarryl M.; Sheppard, Tom D.; Millar, Neil S.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is associated with the binding of agonists such as acetylcholine to an extracellular site that is located at the interface between two adjacent receptor subunits. More recently, there has been considerable interest in compounds, such as positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs), that are able to modulate nAChR function by binding to distinct allosteric sites. Here we examined a series of compounds differing only in methyl substitution of a single aromatic ring. This series of compounds includes a previously described α7-selective allosteric agonist, cis-cis-4-p-tolyl-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline-8-sulfonamide (4MP-TQS), together with all other possible combinations of methyl substitution at a phenyl ring (18 additional compounds). Studies conducted with this series of compounds have revealed five distinct pharmacological effects on α7 nAChRs. These five effects can be summarized as: 1) nondesensitizing activation (allosteric agonists), 2) potentiation associated with minimal effects on receptor desensitization (type I PAMs), 3) potentiation associated with reduced desensitization (type II PAMs), 4) noncompetitive antagonism (NAMs), and 5) compounds that have no effect on orthosteric agonist responses but block allosteric modulation (silent allosteric modulators (SAMs)). Several lines of experimental evidence are consistent with all of these compounds acting at a common, transmembrane allosteric site. Notably, all of these chemically similar compounds that have been classified as nondesensitizing allosteric agonists or as nondesensitizing (type II) PAMs are cis-cis-diastereoisomers, whereas all of the NAMs, SAMs, and type I PAMs are cis-trans-diastereoisomers. Our data illustrate the remarkable pharmacological diversity of allosteric modulators acting on nAChRs. PMID:25516597

  19. [Elicitor activity of chitosan and arachidonic acid: their similarity and distinction].

    PubMed

    Vasiukova, N I; Gerasimova, N G; Chalenko, G I; Ozeretskovskaia, O L

    2012-01-01

    Two elicitors-chitosan and arachidonic acid-induced the same defense responses in potatoes, stimulating the processes of wound reparation and inducing the formation of phytoalexins, inhibitors of proteinase, and active forms of oxygen. However, chitosan induced the defense potential of plant tissues at concentrations higher than those of arachidonic acid. The protective action of chitosan was defined by two parameters, i.e., the ability to induce the immune responses in plant tissues and to exhibit a toxic effect on the pathogen development, causing late blight and seedling blight, whereas the elicitor effect of arachidonic acid depended on its ability to induce the defense potential of plant tissues only.

  20. Effect of Similarity-Based Guided Discovery Learning on Conceptual Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrin, Pierre-A; Preckel, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Analogies are known to foster concept learning, whereas discovery learning is effective for transfer. By combining discovery learning and analogies or similarities of concepts, attractive new arrangements emerge, but do they maintain both concept and transfer effects? Unfortunately, there is a lack of data confirming such combined effectiveness.…

  1. Reaction time signatures of discriminative processes: differential effects of stimulus similarity and incentive.

    PubMed

    Blough, Donald S

    2004-05-01

    In three experiments with pigeons, the similarity of unreinforced test stimuli to a reinforced stimulus and the frequency of reinforcement associated with a stimulus were varied. The stimulus on each trial was a small spot that appeared in different hues or, in Experiment 3, different forms. Differential response frequency and reaction time (RT) patterns emerged: Changes in similarity affected the percentage of stimuli responded to but left the shape of RT distributions about the same, whereas changes in reinforcement shifted RT distributions but had little effect on the percentage of responses. When the similarity and reinforcement variables were applied to the same stimuli (Experiment 2), their effects were largely independent. A generalization procedure (Experiment 3) replicated the similarity effects of the initial discrimination procedure. The RT distributions were modeled by a diffusion process, and implications for a memory-instance model were suggested.

  2. An Experimental Test of the Persuasive Effect of Source Similarity in Narrative and Nonnarrative Health Blogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Blogs, or websites containing online personal journals, are a form of popular personal communication with immense potential for health promotion. Objective Narratives are stories with a beginning, middle, and end that provide information about the characters and plot. Source similarity refers to the degree to which the message source and each recipient are alike with respect to certain attributes. Narratives and source similarity have seldom been examined in tandem as strategies for health persuasion. Personal health blogs provide a suitable platform for such an investigation. This study examined the persuasive effects of message type and source similarity on participants’ intentions to adopt a specific health behavior (running for exercise). Methods A total of 150 participants were randomly assigned to conditions (n=25 per condition) in a completely crossed, 2 (message type: narrative and nonnarrative) × 3 (source similarity: no similarity, non-health-related similarity, and health-related similarity) between-subjects experiment. First, in an online questionnaire, participants provided personal information in 42 categories and rated the relatedness of each category to running and then completed pretest measures of the dependent variables. Based on their responses, 150 personal health blogs were created. Two weeks later, the initial participants read the blog created with their personal characteristics and completed a questionnaire online. Results The source similarity effect was stronger in nonnarrative than narrative blogs. When the blogs were nonnarrative, those with health-related similarities were more persuasive than those with non-health-related similarities. Narrative blogs generated more positive thoughts and stronger blogger identification than nonnarrative blogs. Conclusions Health-related source similarity is key for persuasive health communication, especially when the messages are nonnarrative. PMID:23887135

  3. The susceptibility of young preschoolers to source similarity effects: confusing story or video events with reality.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Karen L; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen

    2009-04-01

    This study examined children's tendency to confuse events that varied in source similarity, which was manipulated using different media of event presentation. In Experiment 1, children in two age groups (3- and 4-year-olds and 5- and 6-year-olds) experienced a live presentation of an event, and another event was either heard from a story (low similarity group) or seen on a video (high similarity group). Immediately afterward, the children were asked to monitor the source of the events. The children in the low similarity group produced higher source discrimination scores than did the children in the high similarity group. Overall, the older children were better at source monitoring than were the younger children. In Experiment 2, the procedure was replicated except that the children's source monitoring was tested after a 4-day delay. When attributing the source of the story or video events, both 3- and 4-year-olds and 5- and 6-year-olds in the low similarity group produced more accurate story or video attributions than did their age mates in the high similarity group. However, when attributing the source of the live events, only the 3- and 4-year-olds evidenced this effect of source similarity. The 5- and 6-year-olds in both the low and high similarity groups performed at ceiling levels for live discriminations.

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus has similar effects on brain volumetrics and cognition in males and females.

    PubMed

    Behrman-Lay, Ashley M; Paul, Robert H; Heaps-Woodruff, Jodi; Baker, Laurie M; Usher, Christina; Ances, Beau M

    2016-02-01

    Most studies that have examined neuropsychological impairments associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have focused on males, yet females represent one of the largest groups of newly infected patients. Further, few studies have examined neuropsychological performance and neuroimaging outcomes among females compared to males in the modern era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The present study investigated neuropsychological performance and brain volumetrics among HIV+ males (n = 93) and females (n = 44) on stable HAART compared to HIV seronegative (HIV-) males (n = 42) and females (n = 49). Results revealed a significant effect of HIV on neuropsychological performance and neuroimaging measures. An effect of gender, independent of HIV status, was also observed for neuroimaging measures but not neuropsychological performance. Additionally, no significant differences in neuropsychological performance or brain volumetrics were seen between HIV+ males and females. No significant interaction was observed between HIV and gender on either neuropsychological or neuroimaging indices. Our results suggest that both HIV+ males and females treated with HAART experience similar outcomes in terms of brain integrity.

  5. LASSO-ligand activity by surface similarity order: a new tool for ligand based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Reid, Darryl; Sadjad, Bashir S; Zsoldos, Zsolt; Simon, Aniko

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Ligand Screening (VLS) has become an integral part of the drug discovery process for many pharmaceutical companies. Ligand similarity searches provide a very powerful method of screening large databases of ligands to identify possible hits. If these hits belong to new chemotypes the method is deemed even more successful. eHiTS LASSO uses a new interacting surface point types (ISPT) molecular descriptor that is generated from the 3D structure of the ligand, but unlike most 3D descriptors it is conformation independent. Combined with a neural network machine learning technique, LASSO screens molecular databases at an ultra fast speed of 1 million structures in under 1 min on a standard PC. The results obtained from eHiTS LASSO trained on relatively small training sets of just 2, 4 or 8 actives are presented using the diverse directory of useful decoys (DUD) dataset. It is shown that over a wide range of receptor families, eHiTS LASSO is consistently able to enrich screened databases and provides scaffold hopping ability.

  6. Target- and effect-directed actions towards temporal goals: similar mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Walter, Andrea M; Rieger, Martina

    2012-08-01

    The goal of an action can consist of generating a change in the environment (to produce an effect) or changing one's own situation in the environment (to move to a physical target). To investigate whether the mechanisms of effect-directed and target-directed action control are similar, participants performed continuous reversal movements. They either synchronized movement reversals with regularly presented tones (temporal targets) or produced tones at reversals isochronously (temporal effects). In both goal conditions an irrelevant goal characteristic was integrated into the goal representation (loudness, Experiment 1). When targets and effects were presented within the same reversal movement, similarities were enhanced (Experiment 2). When the task posed spatial demands in addition to temporal demands, target- and effect-directed movement kinematics changed equally with tempo (Experiment 3). Correlations between target-directed and effect-directed movements in temporal variability indicated similar timing mechanisms (Experiments 1 and 2). Only gradual differences between target- and effect-directed movements were observed. We conclude that the same mechanisms of action control, including the anticipation of upcoming events, underlie effect-directed and target-directed movements. Ideomotor theories of action control should incorporate action targets as goals similar to action effects. PMID:22686693

  7. Similarities and differences in signal transduction by interleukin 4 and interleukin 13: analysis of Janus kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Keegan, A D; Johnston, J A; Tortolani, P J; McReynolds, L J; Kinzer, C; O'Shea, J J; Paul, W E

    1995-08-15

    The cytokines interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-13 induce many of the same biological responses, including class switching to IgE and induction of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and CD23 on human B cells. It has recently been shown that IL-4 induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 170-kDa protein, a substrate called 4PS, and of the Janus kinase (JAK) family members JAK1 and JAK3. Because IL-13 has many functional effects similar to those of IL-4, we compared the ability of IL-4 and IL-13 to activate these signaling molecules in the human multifactor-dependent cell line TF-1. In this report we demonstrate that both IL-4 and IL-13 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS and JAK1. Interestingly, although IL-4 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK3, we did not detect JAK3 phosphorylation in response to IL-13. These data suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 signal in similar ways via the activation of JAK1 and 4PS. However, our data further indicate that there are significant differences because IL-13 does not activate JAK3.

  8. Investigating the Phonological Similarity Effect: Syllable Structure and the Position of Common Phonemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Lisa M.; Roodenrys, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine whether the effect that phonological similarity has on immediate serial recall is influenced by the consistency and position of phonemes within words. In comparison to phonologically dissimilar lists, when the stimulus lists rhyme there is a facilitative effect on the recall of item information and…

  9. Using Similarities and Differences: A Meta-Analysis of Its Effects and Emergent Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen S.; Igel, Charles; Dean, Ceri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to update previous meta-analytic findings on the effectiveness of using similarities and differences as an instructional strategy. The strategy includes facilitating student comparison, classification, use of analogies, and use of metaphors. Previously, Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock reported a mean effect size of…

  10. Target- and Effect-Directed Actions towards Temporal Goals: Similar Mechanisms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The goal of an action can consist of generating a change in the environment (to produce an effect) or changing one's own situation in the environment (to move to a physical target). To investigate whether the mechanisms of effect-directed and target-directed action control are similar, participants performed continuous reversal movements. They…

  11. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  12. The Effects of Word Frequency and Similarity on Recognition Judgments: The Role of Recollection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Heekyeong; Reder, Lynne M.; Dickison, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    K. J. Malmberg, J. Holden, and R. M. Shiffrin (2004) reported more false alarms for low- than high-frequency words when the foils were similar to the targets. According to the source of activation confusion (SAC) model of memory, that pattern is based on recollection of an underspecified episodic trace rather than the error-prone familiarity…

  13. [Contrast effects of background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction: a study of topic familiarity effect].

    PubMed

    Tajima, T

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. Mascaro and Graves (1973) argued that a contrast effect on perception of similarity mediated interpersonal attraction. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that topic familiarity moderated the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. One hundred twenty-two (122) female students were randomly assigned to four groups, formed by two levels of topic familiarity and two levels of similarity for the background stimulus person. They saw the attitudes of two stimulus persons together, and were asked to rate perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. Results showed that in familiar topic condition, contrast effect was not found for attitude similarity judgement, but it was found for interpersonal attraction. The finding suggested that presence of a background stimulus person immediately led to the contrast effect on interpersonal attraction. PMID:11140256

  14. [Contrast effects of background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction: a study of topic familiarity effect].

    PubMed

    Tajima, T

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. Mascaro and Graves (1973) argued that a contrast effect on perception of similarity mediated interpersonal attraction. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that topic familiarity moderated the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. One hundred twenty-two (122) female students were randomly assigned to four groups, formed by two levels of topic familiarity and two levels of similarity for the background stimulus person. They saw the attitudes of two stimulus persons together, and were asked to rate perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. Results showed that in familiar topic condition, contrast effect was not found for attitude similarity judgement, but it was found for interpersonal attraction. The finding suggested that presence of a background stimulus person immediately led to the contrast effect on interpersonal attraction.

  15. The influence of phoneme position overlap on the phonemic similarity effect in nonword recall.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, Lisa M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2006-03-01

    The current research examined the predictions that short-term memory models generate for the phonological similarity effect, when similarity was defined in different ways. Three serial recall experiments with consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonwords are reported, where the position of the phonemes that list items shared was manipulated (i.e., shared vowel and final consonant [_VC; Experiment 1], initial consonant and vowel [CV_; Experiment 2], or the two consonants [C_C; Experiment 3]. The results show that the position of common phonemes in nonwords has differential effects on order and item information. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research into the effect of phonemic similarity on nonword recall, and modifications to current short-term memory models are proposed.

  16. Therapeugenic factors in psychotherapy: the effect of attitude similarity on therapist credibility and attraction.

    PubMed

    Trautt, G M; Finer, W D; Calisher, S B

    1980-07-01

    Investigated the effect of attitude similarity upon perceived therapist credibility and attraction. Intially, Ss (N = 128) were given an attitude survey on topics of current interest. The second phase of the study had Ss supply an evaluation of a hypothetical therapist based upon a brief description of the therapist and a sample of the therapist's attitudes. The descriptions differed only in terms of the sex of the therapist, while the attitudes were constructed to be either 80% or 20% similar to the survey each S had completed. Results indicate that the therapist with similar attitudes was seen as more qualified, higher in interpersonal attraction, more likeable, and that Ss were more willing to recommend the therapist to a friend as well as seek therapy from the therapist. A significant interaction indicated that male Ss were more affected by the degree of attitude similarity than were female Ss. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:7410574

  17. Therapeugenic factors in psychotherapy: the effect of attitude similarity on therapist credibility and attraction.

    PubMed

    Trautt, G M; Finer, W D; Calisher, S B

    1980-07-01

    Investigated the effect of attitude similarity upon perceived therapist credibility and attraction. Intially, Ss (N = 128) were given an attitude survey on topics of current interest. The second phase of the study had Ss supply an evaluation of a hypothetical therapist based upon a brief description of the therapist and a sample of the therapist's attitudes. The descriptions differed only in terms of the sex of the therapist, while the attitudes were constructed to be either 80% or 20% similar to the survey each S had completed. Results indicate that the therapist with similar attitudes was seen as more qualified, higher in interpersonal attraction, more likeable, and that Ss were more willing to recommend the therapist to a friend as well as seek therapy from the therapist. A significant interaction indicated that male Ss were more affected by the degree of attitude similarity than were female Ss. Implications of the results are discussed.

  18. Competition and cooperation among similar representations: toward a unified account of facilitative and inhibitory effects of lexical neighbors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    One of the core principles of how the mind works is the graded, parallel activation of multiple related or similar representations. Parallel activation of multiple representations has been particularly important in the development of theories and models of language processing, where coactivated representations (neighbors) have been shown to exhibit both facilitative and inhibitory effects on word recognition and production. Researchers generally ascribe these effects to interactive activation and competition, but there is no unified explanation for why the effects are facilitative in some cases and inhibitory in others. We present a series of simulations of a simple domain-general interactive activation and competition model that is broadly consistent with more specialized domain-specific models of lexical processing. The results showed that interactive activation and competition can indeed account for the complex pattern of reversals. Critically, the simulations revealed a core computational principle that determines whether neighbor effects are facilitative or inhibitory: strongly active neighbors exert a net inhibitory effect, and weakly active neighbors exert a net facilitative effect.

  19. Differential effects of reciprocity and attitude similarity across long- versus short-term mating contexts.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Andrew T; Geher, Glenn

    2006-08-01

    Participants were 24 male and 32 female undergraduate and graduate students whom the authors recruited for an examination of the effects of attitude similarity and reciprocity on the degree of attraction toward potential mates. The authors examined the effects of these 2 variables on degree of liking in long-term and short-term contexts. The authors administered a vignette about a bogus stranger to each participant, varying the stranger's attitude similarity with and liking of the participant. The authors enclosed the vignette in a folder that described the stranger as having either very similar or very different attitudes from the participant and that included a passage that notified the participant that the stranger either likes or does not like him or her. The dependent variables included 4 indexes of the extent to which participants reported liking the bogus stranger: a scale that measured short-term mating items, a scale that measured long-term mating items, a degree-of-liking scale, and a behavioral-intention item. Across these 4 attraction-relevant dependent variables, the authors found significant main effects of the reciprocity variable. Also, the authors found a significant main effect of attitude similarity on the likability measure. The authors found significant main effects of reciprocity in a long-term mating context and a short-term mating context. PMID:16894702

  20. Differential effects of reciprocity and attitude similarity across long- versus short-term mating contexts.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Andrew T; Geher, Glenn

    2006-08-01

    Participants were 24 male and 32 female undergraduate and graduate students whom the authors recruited for an examination of the effects of attitude similarity and reciprocity on the degree of attraction toward potential mates. The authors examined the effects of these 2 variables on degree of liking in long-term and short-term contexts. The authors administered a vignette about a bogus stranger to each participant, varying the stranger's attitude similarity with and liking of the participant. The authors enclosed the vignette in a folder that described the stranger as having either very similar or very different attitudes from the participant and that included a passage that notified the participant that the stranger either likes or does not like him or her. The dependent variables included 4 indexes of the extent to which participants reported liking the bogus stranger: a scale that measured short-term mating items, a scale that measured long-term mating items, a degree-of-liking scale, and a behavioral-intention item. Across these 4 attraction-relevant dependent variables, the authors found significant main effects of the reciprocity variable. Also, the authors found a significant main effect of attitude similarity on the likability measure. The authors found significant main effects of reciprocity in a long-term mating context and a short-term mating context.

  1. Social comparison orientation moderates the effects of group membership on the similarity-attraction relationship.

    PubMed

    Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined how the similarity-attraction relationship is affected by a combination of the tendency to compare oneself to other people (Social Comparison Orientation, SCO) and group membership. We expected that high-SCO individuals would prefer similar to dissimilar others only when the target belonged to their in-group and was relevant for the evaluation of their self-concept. It was also expected that among low-SCO individuals who are more certain about the self and less concerned about "being evaluated," a main effect of attitude similarity would appear, regardless of the group membership of the target. Results partially support these predictions and suggest that further research should be carried out into the combined effects of individual and group variables in the attraction literature. PMID:22208112

  2. Social comparison orientation moderates the effects of group membership on the similarity-attraction relationship.

    PubMed

    Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined how the similarity-attraction relationship is affected by a combination of the tendency to compare oneself to other people (Social Comparison Orientation, SCO) and group membership. We expected that high-SCO individuals would prefer similar to dissimilar others only when the target belonged to their in-group and was relevant for the evaluation of their self-concept. It was also expected that among low-SCO individuals who are more certain about the self and less concerned about "being evaluated," a main effect of attitude similarity would appear, regardless of the group membership of the target. Results partially support these predictions and suggest that further research should be carried out into the combined effects of individual and group variables in the attraction literature.

  3. Explanation of non-additive effects in mixtures of similar mode of action chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Masashi; Yokomizo, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Many models have been developed to predict the combined effect of drugs and chemicals. Most models are classified into two additive models: independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA). It is generally considered if the modes of action of chemicals are similar then the combined effect obeys CA; however, many empirical studies report nonlinear effects deviating from the predictions by CA. Such deviations are termed synergism and antagonism. Synergism, which leads to a stronger toxicity, requires more careful management, and hence it is important to understand how and which combinations of chemicals lead to synergism. In this paper, three types of chemical reactions are mathematically modeled and the cause of the nonlinear effects among chemicals with similar modes of action was investigated. Our results show that combined effects obey CA only when the modes of action are exactly the same. Contrary to existing knowledge, combined effects are generally nonlinear even if the modes of action of the chemicals are similar. Our results further show that the nonlinear effects vanish out when the chemical concentrations are low, suggesting that the current management procedure of assuming CA is rarely inappropriate because environmental concentrations of chemicals are generally low.

  4. Perceiving others' personalities: examining the dimensionality, assumed similarity to the self, and stability of perceiver effects.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Guglielmo, Steve; Beer, Jennifer S

    2010-03-01

    In interpersonal perception, "perceiver effects" are tendencies of perceivers to see other people in a particular way. Two studies of naturalistic interactions examined perceiver effects for personality traits: seeing a typical other as sympathetic or quarrelsome, responsible or careless, and so forth. Several basic questions were addressed. First, are perceiver effects organized as a global evaluative halo, or do perceptions of different traits vary in distinct ways? Second, does assumed similarity (as evidenced by self-perceiver correlations) reflect broad evaluative consistency or trait-specific content? Third, are perceiver effects a manifestation of stable beliefs about the generalized other, or do they form in specific contexts as group-specific stereotypes? Findings indicated that perceiver effects were better described by a differentiated, multidimensional structure with both trait-specific content and a higher order global evaluation factor. Assumed similarity was at least partially attributable to trait-specific content, not just to broad evaluative similarity between self and others. Perceiver effects were correlated with gender and attachment style, but in newly formed groups, they became more stable over time, suggesting that they grew dynamically as group stereotypes. Implications for the interpretation of perceiver effects and for research on personality assessment and psychopathology are discussed. PMID:20175628

  5. Similarity and Reciprocity Effects on Friendship Preferences of Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewry, Debra L.; Clark, M. L.

    This study investigated the effect of similarity and reciprocity on dyadic friendship choices. Subjects were 34 third graders and 30 sixth graders. Reciprocal (mutual) and nonreciprocal (nonmutual) friendships were identified through use of the roster sociometric technique, whereby children choose their three best friends from an alphabetized list…

  6. Cross-language Similarity Modulates Effectiveness of Second Language Grammar Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolentino, Leida C.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of instruction method and cross-language similarity during second language (L2) grammar learning. English speakers learned a subset of Swedish using contrast and color highlighting (Salience Group), contrast and highlighting with grammatical explanations (Rule & Salience Group), or neither (Control Group with…

  7. Perceived Similarity With Gay Men Mediates the Effect of Antifemininity on Heterosexual Men's Antigay Prejudice.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.

  8. Identification with the retail organization and customer-perceived employee similarity: effects on customer spending.

    PubMed

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Heilman, Carrie M; Maxham, James G

    2012-09-01

    Two constructs important to academicians and managers are the degree to which employees and customers identify with an organization, employee organizational identification (employee OI) and customer-company identification (customer identification), respectively. This research examines the effects of these identification constructs and the related construct of customer perceived similarity to employees on customer spending. Via a 1-year multilevel study of 12,047 customers and 1,464 store employees (sales associates) covering 212 stores of a specialty apparel retailer, our study contributes to the literature in 2 critical ways. First, we expand the theoretical network of employee OI and customer identification by examining the related construct of a customer's perceived similarity to store employees. We examine the incremental (not fully mediated) main and interaction effects of customer-perceived similarity to employees and employee OI on customer spending. Second, we examine the effect of customer identification on customer spending relative to the effect of customer satisfaction on customer spending. Thus, our study also contributes by demonstrating a potential complementary route to achieve customer spending (customer identification), a route that may be more readily affected by management than the efforts required for a sustained increase in customer satisfaction. Implications for academics and managers are offered.

  9. A Novel Drug-Mouse Phenotypic Similarity Method Detects Molecular Determinants of Drug Effects

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Jeanette; Vogt, Ingo; Adornetto, Gianluca; Campillos, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that translate drug treatment into beneficial and unwanted effects are largely unknown. We present here a novel approach to detect gene-drug and gene-side effect associations based on the phenotypic similarity of drugs and single gene perturbations in mice that account for the polypharmacological property of drugs. We scored the phenotypic similarity of human side effect profiles of 1,667 small molecules and biologicals to profiles of phenotypic traits of 5,384 mouse genes. The benchmarking with known relationships revealed a strong enrichment of physical and indirect drug-target connections, causative drug target-side effect links as well as gene-drug links involved in pharmacogenetic associations among phenotypically similar gene-drug pairs. The validation by in vitro assays and the experimental verification of an unknown connection between oxandrolone and prokineticin receptor 2 reinforces the ability of this method to provide new molecular insights underlying drug treatment. Thus, this approach may aid in the proposal of novel and personalized treatments. PMID:27673331

  10. Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 have similar allergenic activity1 and are substantially redundant

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueni; Wang, Qian; El-Mezayen, Rabab; Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The moderately homologous (~60%) proteins, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, are the most potent peanut allergens. This study was designed to define the relative individual contributions of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 to the overall allergenic activity of a crude peanut extract (CPE). Methods Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 were removed from CPE by gel filtration chromatography. Ara h 2.01, Ara h 2.02, and Ara h 6 were further purified (>99%). The potency of each allergen and the ability of these allergens to reconstitute the allergenic activity of CPE depleted of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 was measured with RBL SX-38 cells sensitized with IgE from sensitized peanut allergic patients. Results The potency of the native proteins were significantly different (p<0.0001) although not dramatically so, with a rank order of Ara h 2.01 > Ara h 2.02 > Ara h 6. The addition of either purified Ara h 2 or Ara h 6 independently at their original concentration to CPE depleted of both Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 restored 80–100% of the original CPE allergenic activity. Addition of both Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 consistently completely restored the allergenic activity of CPE. Conclusions These studies indicate that either Ara h 2 or Ara h 6 independently can account for most of the allergenic activity in a CPE and demonstrate important redundancy in the allergenic activity of these related molecules. PMID:23075924

  11. Gene network activity in cultivated primary hepatocytes is highly similar to diseased mammalian liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Patricio; Widera, Agata; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Campos, Gisela; Meyer, Christoph; Cadenas, Cristina; Reif, Raymond; Stöber, Regina; Hammad, Seddik; Pütter, Larissa; Gianmoena, Kathrin; Marchan, Rosemarie; Ghallab, Ahmed; Edlund, Karolina; Nüssler, Andreas; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Weiss, Thomas S; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta; Gebhardt, Rolf; Chaudhari, Umesh; Meganathan, Kesavan; Sachinidis, Agapios; Kelm, Jens; Hofmann, Ute; Zahedi, René P; Guthke, Reinhard; Blüthgen, Nils; Dooley, Steven; Hengstler, Jan G

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that isolation and cultivation of primary hepatocytes cause major gene expression alterations. In the present genome-wide, time-resolved study of cultivated human and mouse hepatocytes, we made the observation that expression changes in culture strongly resemble alterations in liver diseases. Hepatocytes of both species were cultivated in collagen sandwich and in monolayer conditions. Genome-wide data were also obtained from human NAFLD, cirrhosis, HCC and hepatitis B virus-infected tissue as well as mouse livers after partial hepatectomy, CCl4 intoxication, obesity, HCC and LPS. A strong similarity between cultivation and disease-induced expression alterations was observed. For example, expression changes in hepatocytes induced by 1-day cultivation and 1-day CCl4 exposure in vivo correlated with R = 0.615 (p < 0.001). Interspecies comparison identified predominantly similar responses in human and mouse hepatocytes but also a set of genes that responded differently. Unsupervised clustering of altered genes identified three main clusters: (1) downregulated genes corresponding to mature liver functions, (2) upregulation of an inflammation/RNA processing cluster and (3) upregulated migration/cell cycle-associated genes. Gene regulatory network analysis highlights overrepresented and deregulated HNF4 and CAR (Cluster 1), Krüppel-like factors MafF and ELK1 (Cluster 2) as well as ETF (Cluster 3) among the interspecies conserved key regulators of expression changes. Interventions ameliorating but not abrogating cultivation-induced responses include removal of non-parenchymal cells, generation of the hepatocytes' own matrix in spheroids, supplementation with bile salts and siRNA-mediated suppression of key transcription factors. In conclusion, this study shows that gene regulatory network alterations of cultivated hepatocytes resemble those of inflammatory liver diseases and should therefore be considered and exploited as disease models. PMID:27339419

  12. Mnemonic discrimination of similar face stimuli and a potential mechanism for the "other race" effect.

    PubMed

    Chang, Allen; Murray, Elizabeth; Yassa, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Face recognition is an important component of successful social interactions in humans. A large literature in social psychology has focused on the phenomenon termed the "other race" (ORE) effect, the tendency to be more proficient with face recognition within one's own ethnic group compared with other ethnic groups. Several potential hypotheses have been proposed for this effect, including perceptual expertise, social grouping, and holistic face processing. Recent work on mnemonic discrimination (i.e., the ability to resolve mnemonic interference among similar experiences) may provide a mechanistic account for the ORE. In the current study, we examined how discrimination and generalization in the presence of mnemonic interference may contribute to the ORE. We developed a database of computerized faces divided evenly among ethnic origins (Black, Caucasian, East Asian, South Asian), as well as morphed face stimuli that varied in the amount of similarity to the original stimuli (30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% morphs). Participants first examined the original unmorphed stimuli during study, then during test were asked to judge the prior occurrence of repetitions (targets), morphed stimuli (lures), and new stimuli (foils). We examined participants' ability to correctly reject similar morphed lures and found that it increased linearly as a function of face dissimilarity. We additionally found that Caucasian participants' mnemonic discrimination-generalization functions were sharply tuned for Caucasian faces but considerably less tuned for East Asian and Black faces. These results suggest that expertise plays an important role in resolving mnemonic interference, which may offer a mechanistic account for the ORE.

  13. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: a boost from confidence.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Amar R; Ries, Anthony J; Lawhern, Vernon J; Lance, Brent J; Touryan, Jonathan; McDowell, Kaleb; Cecotti, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Brain computer interaction (BCI) technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in similar neural activity between the two classes. It is unknown how current neural-based target classification algorithms perform when qualitatively similar target and non-target images are presented. This study address this question by comparing behavioral and neural classification performance across two conditions: first, when targets were the only infrequent stimulus presented amongst frequent background distracters; and second when targets were presented together with infrequent non-targets containing similar visual features to the targets. The resulting findings show that behavior is slower and less accurate when targets are presented together with similar non-targets; moreover, single-trial classification yielded high levels of misclassification when infrequent non-targets are included. Furthermore, we present an approach to mitigate the image misclassification. We use confidence measures to assess the quality of single-trial classification, and demonstrate that a system in which low confidence trials are reclassified through a secondary process can result in improved performance.

  14. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: a boost from confidence

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, Amar R.; Ries, Anthony J.; Lawhern, Vernon J.; Lance, Brent J.; Touryan, Jonathan; McDowell, Kaleb; Cecotti, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Brain computer interaction (BCI) technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in similar neural activity between the two classes. It is unknown how current neural-based target classification algorithms perform when qualitatively similar target and non-target images are presented. This study address this question by comparing behavioral and neural classification performance across two conditions: first, when targets were the only infrequent stimulus presented amongst frequent background distracters; and second when targets were presented together with infrequent non-targets containing similar visual features to the targets. The resulting findings show that behavior is slower and less accurate when targets are presented together with similar non-targets; moreover, single-trial classification yielded high levels of misclassification when infrequent non-targets are included. Furthermore, we present an approach to mitigate the image misclassification. We use confidence measures to assess the quality of single-trial classification, and demonstrate that a system in which low confidence trials are reclassified through a secondary process can result in improved performance. PMID:26347597

  15. Reliance on small samples, the wavy recency effect, and similarity-based learning.

    PubMed

    Plonsky, Ori; Teodorescu, Kinneret; Erev, Ido

    2015-10-01

    Many behavioral phenomena, including underweighting of rare events and probability matching, can be the product of a tendency to rely on small samples of experiences. Why would small samples be used, and which experiences are likely to be included in these samples? Previous studies suggest that a cognitively efficient reliance on the most recent experiences can be very effective. We explore a very different and more cognitively demanding process explaining the tendency to rely on small samples: exploitation of environmental regularities. The first part of our study shows that across wide classes of dynamic binary choice environments, focusing only on experiences that followed the same sequence of outcomes preceding the current task is more effective than focusing on the most recent experiences. The second part of our study examines the psychological significance of these sequence-based rules. It shows that these tractable rules reproduce well-known indications of sensitivity to sequences and predict a nontrivial wavy recency effect of rare events. Analysis of published data supports this wavy recency prediction, but suggests an even wavier effect than these sequence-based rules predict. This pattern, and the main behavioral phenomena documented in basic decisions from experience and probability learning tasks, can be captured with a similarity-based model assuming that people follow sequences of outcomes most of the time but sometimes respond to trends. We conclude with theoretical notes on similarity-based learning. PMID:26075914

  16. Reliance on small samples, the wavy recency effect, and similarity-based learning.

    PubMed

    Plonsky, Ori; Teodorescu, Kinneret; Erev, Ido

    2015-10-01

    Many behavioral phenomena, including underweighting of rare events and probability matching, can be the product of a tendency to rely on small samples of experiences. Why would small samples be used, and which experiences are likely to be included in these samples? Previous studies suggest that a cognitively efficient reliance on the most recent experiences can be very effective. We explore a very different and more cognitively demanding process explaining the tendency to rely on small samples: exploitation of environmental regularities. The first part of our study shows that across wide classes of dynamic binary choice environments, focusing only on experiences that followed the same sequence of outcomes preceding the current task is more effective than focusing on the most recent experiences. The second part of our study examines the psychological significance of these sequence-based rules. It shows that these tractable rules reproduce well-known indications of sensitivity to sequences and predict a nontrivial wavy recency effect of rare events. Analysis of published data supports this wavy recency prediction, but suggests an even wavier effect than these sequence-based rules predict. This pattern, and the main behavioral phenomena documented in basic decisions from experience and probability learning tasks, can be captured with a similarity-based model assuming that people follow sequences of outcomes most of the time but sometimes respond to trends. We conclude with theoretical notes on similarity-based learning.

  17. Jordan, an active Volvox transposable element similar to higher plant transposons.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Schmitt, R; Kirk, D L

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated a 1595-bp transposable element from the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri following its insertion into the nitrate reductase (nitA) locus. This element, which we have named Jordan, has short (12-bp) terminal inverted repeats and creates a 3-bp target site duplication, like some higher plant transposons of the classic type. Contained within the first 200 bp of one end of the element are 55-bp inverted repeats, one of which begins with the terminal inverted repeat. Revertants of the transposon insertion into the nitA locus were obtained at a rate of approximately 10(-4) per Volvox embryo per generation. In each revertant examined, all transposon sequences were completely excised, but footprints containing both sets of duplicated bases, in addition to three to nine extra bases, were left behind. Jordan contains no significant open reading frames and so appears to be nonautonomous. DNA gel blot analysis indicates that Jordan is a member of a large family of homologous elements in the Volvox genome. We have isolated and characterized several of these homologs and found that they contain terminal very similar to those of Jordan. Efforts to utilize Jordan and its homologs as tools to tag and clone developmentally interesting genes of Volvox are discussed. PMID:8400878

  18. Interference between Maintenance and Processing in Working Memory: The Effect of Item-Distractor Similarity in Complex Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Farrell, Simon; Jarrold, Christopher; Pasiecznik, Kazimir; Greaves, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effect of phonological similarity between items and distractors on complex span performance. Item-distractor similarity benefited serial recall when distractors followed the items they were similar to, but not when distractors preceded the items they were similar to. These findings are predicted by C-SOB (contextual…

  19. Evaluation of the pharmacological similarities between phenylpropanolamine and amphetamine: effects on schedule-controlled behavior.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G C; Jarvis, M F

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to determine the degree to which the repeated administration of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) results in the development of tolerance to its disruptive effects on operant responding as well as cross-tolerance to the effects of acutely administered amphetamine, water-deprived rats were first trained on a fixed-ratio 5 (FR-5) schedule for water presentation. Dose-response curves for the effects of PPA and amphetamine (administered IP, 15 min presession) were then determined (ED50 = 35.0 and 2.6 mg/kg, respectively) followed by the chronic administration of 40.0 mg/kg PPA (administered IP, 15 min prior to each session). When responding returned to prechronic rates, the dose-response curves were redetermined for both PPA (ED50 = 220 mg/kg) and amphetamine (ED50 = 4.8 mg/kg). In a second set of rats, trained under similar conditions, it was observed that pretreatment with alpha-methyltyrosine (AMT, 100 mg/kg IP, 2 h presession) antagonized the disruptive effects of both PPA and amphetamine, whereas pretreatment with reserpine (0.31 mg/kg, IP, 12 h presession) antagonized the disruptive effects of PPA, but exacerbated the disruptive effects of amphetamine. In a separate experiment, the repeated administration of PPA 100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg IP resulted in no long-lasting depletions of rat striatal dopamine, serotonin, or 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) concentrations. These observations indicate that PPA and amphetamine share a similar mechanism of action to the degree that cross-tolerance develops, but which is nonetheless dissociable with respect to their differential sensitivity to antagonists and their neurotoxic efficacy.

  20. High doses of dextromethorphan, an NMDA antagonist, produce effects similar to classic hallucinogens

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Klinedinst, Margaret A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Although reports of dextromethorphan (DXM) abuse have increased recently, few studies have examined the effects of high doses of DXM. Objective This study in humans evaluated the effects of supratherapeutic doses of DXM and triazolam. Methods Single, acute, oral doses of DXM (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 mg/70 kg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5 mg/70kg), and placebo were administered to twelve healthy volunteers with histories of hallucinogen use, under double-blind conditions, using an ascending dose run-up design. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects were assessed repeatedly after drug administration for 6 hours. Results Triazolam produced dose-related increases in subject-rated sedation, observer-rated sedation, and behavioral impairment. DXM produced a profile of dose-related physiological and subjective effects differing from triazolam. DXM effects included increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and emesis, increases in observer-rated effects typical of classic hallucinogens (e.g. distance from reality, visual effects with eyes open and closed, joy, anxiety), and participant ratings of stimulation (e.g. jittery, nervous), somatic effects (e.g. tingling, headache), perceptual changes, end-of-session drug liking, and mystical-type experience. After 400 mg/70kg DXM, 11 of 12 participants indicated on a pharmacological class questionnaire that they thought they had received a classic hallucinogen (e.g. psilocybin). Drug effects resolved without significant adverse effects by the end of the session. In a 1-month follow up volunteers attributed increased spirituality and positive changes in attitudes, moods, and behavior to the session experiences. Conclusions High doses of DXM produced effects distinct from triazolam and had characteristics that were similar to the classic hallucinogen psilocybin. PMID:22526529

  1. Improving the In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group via approximate inclusion of three-body effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Titus; Bogner, Scott

    2015-10-01

    The In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group (IM-SRG) has been applied successfully not only to several closed shell finite nuclei, but has recently been used to produce effective shell model interactions that are competitive with phenomenological interactions in the SD shell. A recent alternative method for solving of the IM-SRG equations, called the Magnus expansion, not only provides a computationally feasible route to producing observables, but also allows for approximate handling of induced three-body forces. Promising results for several systems, including finite nuclei, will be presented and discussed.

  2. Effective algorithm for ray-tracing simulations of lobster eye and similar reflective optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichý, Vladimír; Hudec, René; Němcová, Šárka

    2016-06-01

    The algorithm presented is intended mainly for lobster eye optics. This type of optics (and some similar types) allows for a simplification of the classical ray-tracing procedure that requires great many rays to simulate. The method presented performs the simulation of a only few rays; therefore it is extremely effective. Moreover, to simplify the equations, a specific mathematical formalism is used. Only a few simple equations are used, therefore the program code can be simple as well. The paper also outlines how to apply the method to some other reflective optical systems.

  3. Filling Predictable and Unpredictable Gaps, with and without Similarity-Based Interference: Evidence for LIFG Effects of Dependency Processing.

    PubMed

    Leiken, Kimberly; McElree, Brian; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2015-01-01

    One of the most replicated findings in neurolinguistic literature on syntax is the increase of hemodynamic activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in response to object relative (OR) clauses compared to subject relative clauses. However, behavioral studies have shown that ORs are primarily only costly when similarity-based interference is involved and recently, Leiken and Pylkkänen (2014) showed with magnetoencephalography (MEG) that an LIFG increase at an OR gap is also dependent on such interference. However, since ORs always involve a cue indicating an upcoming dependency formation, OR dependencies could be processed already prior to the gap-site and thus show no sheer dependency effects at the gap itself. To investigate the role of gap predictability in LIFG dependency effects, this MEG study compared ORs to verb phrase ellipsis (VPE), which was used as an example of a non-predictable dependency. Additionally, we explored LIFG sensitivity to filler-gap order by including right node raising structures, in which the order of filler and gap is reverse to that of ORs and VPE. Half of the stimuli invoked similarity-based interference and half did not. Our results demonstrate that LIFG effects of dependency can be elicited regardless of whether the dependency is predictable, the stimulus materials evoke similarity-based interference, or the filler precedes the gap. Thus, contrary to our own prior data, the current findings suggest a highly general role for the LIFG in dependency interpretation that is not limited to environments involving similarity-based interference. Additionally, the millisecond time-resolution of MEG allowed for a detailed characterization of the temporal profiles of LIFG dependency effects across our three constructions, revealing that the timing of these effects is somewhat construction-specific. PMID:26635655

  4. Filling Predictable and Unpredictable Gaps, with and without Similarity-Based Interference: Evidence for LIFG Effects of Dependency Processing

    PubMed Central

    Leiken, Kimberly; McElree, Brian; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2015-01-01

    One of the most replicated findings in neurolinguistic literature on syntax is the increase of hemodynamic activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in response to object relative (OR) clauses compared to subject relative clauses. However, behavioral studies have shown that ORs are primarily only costly when similarity-based interference is involved and recently, Leiken and Pylkkänen (2014) showed with magnetoencephalography (MEG) that an LIFG increase at an OR gap is also dependent on such interference. However, since ORs always involve a cue indicating an upcoming dependency formation, OR dependencies could be processed already prior to the gap-site and thus show no sheer dependency effects at the gap itself. To investigate the role of gap predictability in LIFG dependency effects, this MEG study compared ORs to verb phrase ellipsis (VPE), which was used as an example of a non-predictable dependency. Additionally, we explored LIFG sensitivity to filler-gap order by including right node raising structures, in which the order of filler and gap is reverse to that of ORs and VPE. Half of the stimuli invoked similarity-based interference and half did not. Our results demonstrate that LIFG effects of dependency can be elicited regardless of whether the dependency is predictable, the stimulus materials evoke similarity-based interference, or the filler precedes the gap. Thus, contrary to our own prior data, the current findings suggest a highly general role for the LIFG in dependency interpretation that is not limited to environments involving similarity-based interference. Additionally, the millisecond time-resolution of MEG allowed for a detailed characterization of the temporal profiles of LIFG dependency effects across our three constructions, revealing that the timing of these effects is somewhat construction-specific. PMID:26635655

  5. Lesions in Guddesn's tegmental nuclei produce behavioral and 5-HT effects similar to those after raphe lesions.

    PubMed

    Lorens, S A; Köhler, C; Guldberg, H C

    1975-01-01

    Lesions largely restricted to the dorsal and ventral tegmental nuclei of Gudden (GTN) produced several effects similar to those seen after midbrain raphe lesions. GTN lesions significantly reduced the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration of the diencephalon (31 percent), hippocampus (59 percent), and remaining portion of the telencephalon (29 percent). Striatal 5-HT, however, was not affected. GTN lesions enhanced activity in an enclosed field and facilitated two-way avoidance acquisition. Pain sensitivity as measured by the flinch-jump method was not affected. These results suggest that the GTN may be the origin of ascending 5-HT fides and may be involved in the regulation of activity level and the adaptation of an animal to aversive situations. Thus, some of the behavioral and 5-HT effects of lesions in the midbrain raphe nuclei may be due to their involvement of the GTN and associated pathways. PMID:1187729

  6. Ageing and gonadectomy have similar effects on hypoglossal long-term facilitation in male Fischer rats

    PubMed Central

    Zabka, AG; Mitchell, GS; Behan, M

    2005-01-01

    Long-term facilitation (LTF), a form of serotonin-dependent respiratory plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia, decreases with increasing age or following gonadectomy in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Ageing is accompanied by decreasing levels of testosterone, which in turn influences serotonergic function. In addition, LTF in young male rats differs among strains. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that LTF is similar in middle-aged and gonadectomized young male rats of an inbred rat strain commonly used in studies on ageing (F344) by comparison with SD rats. We further tested whether the magnitude of LTF correlates with circulating serum levels of testosterone and/or progesterone. Young and middle-aged intact and young gonadectomized (GDX) male Fischer 344 rats were anaesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked and ventilated. Integrated phrenic and hypoglossal (XII) nerve activities were measured before, during and 60 min following three 5-min episodes of isocapnic hypoxia. LTF was observed in phrenic motor output in young and middle-aged intact and young GDX rats. In contrast, XII LTF was observed only in young intact rats. In middle-aged and young GDX rats, XII LTF was significantly lower than in young intact rats (P < 0.05). Furthermore, XII LTF was positively correlated with the testosterone/progesterone ratio. These data show that serotonin-dependent plasticity in upper airway respiratory output is similar in F344 and SD rat strains. Furthermore, LTF is similarly impaired in middle-aged and gonadectomized male rats, suggesting that gonadal hormones play an important role in modulating the capacity for neuroplasticity in upper airway motor control. PMID:15613371

  7. Masked priming by misspellings: Word frequency moderates the effects of SOA and prime-target similarity.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S

    2016-02-01

    University students made lexical decisions to eight- or nine-letter words preceded by masked primes that were the target, an unrelated word, or a typical misspelling of the target. At a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 47 ms, primes that were misspellings of the target produced a priming benefit for low-, medium-, and high-frequency words, even when the misspelled primes were changed to differ phonologically from their targets. At a longer SOA of 80 ms, misspelled primes facilitated lexical decisions only to medium- and low-frequency targets, and a phonological change attenuated the benefit for medium-frequency targets. The results indicate that orthographic similarity can be preserved over changes in letter position and word length, and that the priming effect of misspelled words at the shorter SOA is orthographically based. Orthographic-priming effects depend on the quality of the orthographic learning of the target word. PMID:26530310

  8. VERBAL AND SPATIAL WORKING MEMORY LOAD HAVE SIMILARLY MINIMAL EFFECTS ON SPEECH PRODUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ogyoung; Redford, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test the effects of working memory on speech production. Twenty American-English speaking adults produced syntactically complex sentences in tasks that taxed either verbal or spatial working memory. Sentences spoken under load were produced with more errors, fewer prosodic breaks, and at faster rates than sentence produced in the control conditions, but other acoustic correlates of rhythm and intonation did not change. Verbal and spatial working memory had very similar effects on production, suggesting that the different span tasks used to tax working memory merely shifted speakers’ attention away from the act of speaking. This finding runs contra the hypothesis of incremental phonological/phonetic encoding, which predicts the manipulation of information in verbal working memory during speech production. PMID:26448563

  9. Block-diagonal similarity renormalization group and effective nucleon-nucleon interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szpigel, S.; Timóteo, V. S.; Ruiz Arriola, E.

    2016-04-01

    We apply the block-diagonal similarity renormalization group to a simple toy-model for the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the 1 S 0 channel, aiming to analyze the complementarity between the explicit and the implicit renormalization approaches in nuclear physics. By explicit renormalization we mean the methods based on the wilsonian renormalization group in which high-energy modes above a given cutoff scale are integrated out while their effects are replaced by scale dependent effective interactions consistently generated in the process. We call implicit renormalization the usual procedure of cutoff effective theories in which the high-energy modes above the cutoff scale are simply removed and their effects are included through parametrized cutoff dependent counterterms whose strengths are fixed by fitting low-energy data. We compare the effective interactions obtained in both schemes and find a wide range of cutoff scales where they overlap. We further analyze the role played by the one-pion exchange (OPE) considering a δ-shell plus OPE representation for the NN interaction.

  10. Cascade amplification of self-similar frequency-modulated pulses in normal group velocity dispersion active fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, Igor' O; Okhotnikov, Oleg G; Sementsov, Dmitrii I; Sysolyatin, A A; Fotiadi, A A

    2012-09-30

    This paper examines the possibility of efficient amplification of self-similar frequency-modulated wave packets in longitudinally inhomogeneous active fibres. We analyse the dynamics of parabolic pulses with a constant frequency modulation rate and derive algorithms for optimising the group velocity dispersion profile in order to ensure self-similar propagation of such pulses. We demonstrate that the use of a cascade scheme can ensure efficient amplification of individual subpicosecond pulses of this type. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  11. Very similar spacing-effect patterns in very different learning/practice domains.

    PubMed

    Kornmeier, Jürgen; Spitzer, Manfred; Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka

    2014-01-01

    Temporally distributed ("spaced") learning can be twice as efficient as massed learning. This "spacing effect" occurs with a broad spectrum of learning materials, with humans of different ages, with non-human vertebrates and also invertebrates. This indicates, that very basic learning mechanisms are at work ("generality"). Although most studies so far focused on very narrow spacing interval ranges, there is some evidence for a non-monotonic behavior of this "spacing effect" ("nonlinearity") with optimal spacing intervals at different time scales. In the current study we focused both the nonlinearity aspect by using a broad range of spacing intervals and the generality aspect by using very different learning/practice domains: Participants learned German-Japanese word pairs and performed visual acuity tests. For each of six groups we used a different spacing interval between learning/practice units from 7 min to 24 h in logarithmic steps. Memory retention was studied in three consecutive final tests, one, seven and 28 days after the final learning unit. For both the vocabulary learning and visual acuity performance we found a highly significant effect of the factor spacing interval on the final test performance. In the 12 h-spacing-group about 85% of the learned words stayed in memory and nearly all of the visual acuity gain was preserved. In the 24 h-spacing-group, in contrast, only about 33% of the learned words were retained and the visual acuity gain dropped to zero. The very similar patterns of results from the two very different learning/practice domains point to similar underlying mechanisms. Further, our results indicate spacing in the range of 12 hours as optimal. A second peak may be around a spacing interval of 20 min but here the data are less clear. We discuss relations between our results and basic learning at the neuronal level.

  12. Suppression of glucocorticoid secretion and antipsychotic drugs have similar effects on the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Barrot, Michel; Rougé-Pont, Françoise; Marinelli, Michela; Maccari, Stefania; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Simon, Hervé; Le Moal, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Specific antagonists of central dopaminergic receptors constitute the major class of antipsychotic drugs (APD). Two principal effects of APD are used as criteria for the pre-clinical screening of their antipsychotic action: (i) inhibition of basal and depolarization-induced activity of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons; (ii) antagonism of the locomotor effects of dopaminergic agonists. Given that glucocorticoid hormones in animals increase dopamine release and dopamine-mediated behaviors and that high levels of glucocorticoids can induce psychotic symptoms in humans, these experiments examined whether inhibition of endogenous glucocorticoids might have APD-like effects on mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission in rats. It is shown that suppression of glucocorticoid secretion by adrenalectomy profoundly decreased (by greater than 50%): (i) basal dopaminergic release and the release of dopamine induced by a depolarizing stimulus such as morphine (2 mg/kg, s.c.), as measured in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving animals by microdialysis; (ii) the locomotor activity induced by the direct dopaminergic agonist apomorphine. The effects of adrenalectomy were glucocorticoid specific given that they were reversed by the administration of glucocorticoids at doses within the physiological range. Despite its profound diminution of dopaminergic neurotransmission, adrenalectomy neither modified the number of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons nor induced gliosis in the mesencephalon or in the nucleus accumbens, as shown by tyrosine hydroxylase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining. In conclusion, these findings suggest that blockade of central effects of glucocorticoids might open new therapeutic strategies of behavioral disturbances. PMID:8986831

  13. A negative semantic similarity effect on short-term order memory: evidence from recency judgements.

    PubMed

    Tse, Chi-Shing

    2010-08-01

    Speeded recency judgements were used to examine whether judgements concerning the relative temporal order in which two items were presented on a short eight-item, study list would be facilitated or hindered when the two items were from the same semantic category (related, R, items), relative to when they were from different categories (unrelated, U, items). Semantic similarity led to slower and less accurate recency judgements. To evaluate the extent that item memory contributes to recency judgement performance, I used speeded pair recognition and speeded two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) recognition trials, in which the stimuli and designs were the same as in the recency judgement test. The type of test trial was manipulated between subjects (recency judgement vs pair recognition) or within participants (recency judgement and 2AFC recognition). Regardless of the between- or within-participants manipulation of recognition vs order memory tests, the pattern of recognition performance was very different from the pattern of recency judgement performance, indicating that semantic similarity had a negative effect on order memory per se. The explanation of the current findings offered by position-based order memory theories is discussed.

  14. Similarities in Sexual Activity and Condom Use among Friends within Groups before and after a Risk-Reduction Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Xiaoyi; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Feigelman, Susan; Baldwin, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Studied the similarity of behaviors among group members and the effects of a risk-reduction intervention aimed at AIDS/HIV prevention with 76 groups of African-American urban adolescents (n=382 youth) studied over 18 months. Data support the usefulness of HIV prevention through groups of friends. (SLD)

  15. Bovine and porcine heparins: different drugs with similar effects on human haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heparins from porcine and bovine intestinal mucosa differ in their structure and also in their effects on coagulation, thrombosis and bleeding. However, they are used as undistinguishable drugs. Methods We compared bovine and porcine intestinal heparin administered to patients undergoing a particular protocol of haemodialysis. We compared plasma concentrations of these two drugs and also evaluated how they affect patients and the dialyzer used. Results Compared with porcine heparin, bovine heparin achieved only 76% of the maximum plasma concentration as IU mL-1. This observation is consistent with the activities observed in the respective pharmaceutical preparations. When the plasma concentrations were expressed on weight basis, bovine heparin achieved a maximum concentration 1.5 fold higher than porcine heparin. The reduced anticoagulant activity and higher concentration, on weight basis, achieved in the plasma of patients under dialysis using bovine instead of porcine heparin did not affect significantly the patients or the dialyzer used. The heparin dose is still in a range, which confers security and safety to the patients. Discussion Despite no apparent difference between bovine and porcine intestinal heparins in the haemodialysis practice, these two types of heparins should be used as distinct drugs due to their differences in structure and biological effects. Conclusions The reduced anticoagulant activity achieved in the plasma of patients under dialysis using bovine instead of porcine heparin did not affect significantly the patients or the dialyzer. PMID:23763719

  16. The Effects of Counselor-Client Predicate Use Similarity on Counselor Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Fred J.

    1983-01-01

    Counselor predicate use similarity in a social psychological context was considered in a study involving 180 college students. Results failed to support the hypothesis that clients perceive counselors with similar predicate preferences as more attractive or that predicate similarity in natural language is too subtle to detect. (JAC)

  17. A sycamore cell wall polysaccharide and a chemically related tomato leaf polysaccharide possess similar proteinase inhibitor-inducing activities.

    PubMed

    Ryan, C A; Bishop, P; Pearce, G

    1981-09-01

    A large pectic polysaccharide, called rhamnogalacturonan I, that is solubilized by a fungal endo-alpha-1,4-polygalacturonase from the purified walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells possesses proteinase inhibitor-inducing activity similar to that of the proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor, a pectic-like oligosaccharide fraction isolated from tomato leaves. This suggests that the proteinase inhibitor-inducing activity resides in particular polysaccharide fragments which can be released when plant cell walls are exposed to appropriate enzyme degradation as a result of either wounding or pest attack.

  18. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    PubMed

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly. PMID:27030628

  19. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    PubMed

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly.

  20. Similar effects of substance P on learning and memory function between hippocampus and striatal marginal division

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan; Zeng, Changchun; Shu, Siyun; Liu, Xuemei; Li, Chuhua

    2014-01-01

    Substance P is an endogenous neurokinin that is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The neuropeptide substance P and its high-affinity receptor neurokinin 1 receptor are known to play an important role in the central nervous system in inflammation, blood pressure, motor behavior and anxiety. The effects of substance P in the hippocampus and the marginal division of the striatum on memory remain poorly understood. Compared with the hippocampus as a control, immunofluorescence showed high expression of the substance P receptor, neurokinin 1, in the marginal division of the striatum of normal rats. Unilateral or bilateral injection of an antisense oligonucleotide against neurokinin 1 receptor mRNA in the rat hippocampus or marginal division of the striatum effectively reduced neurokinin 1 receptor expression. Independent of injection site, rats that received this antisense oligonucleotide showed obviously increased footshock times in a Y-maze test. These results indicate that the marginal division of the striatum plays a similar function in learning and memory to the hippocampus, which is a valuable addition to our mechanistic understanding of the learning and memory functions of the marginal division of the striatum. PMID:25206901

  1. Effects of counterion size on the attraction between similarly charged surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelko, Jasna; Iglič, Aleš; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Kumar, P. B. Sunil

    2010-11-01

    Interaction between similarly charged surfaces can be attractive at high electrostatic coupling constants Ξ = lBZ2/μGC, where lB is the Bjerrum length, μGC the Gouy-Chapman length, and Z the valency of counterions. While this effect has been studied previously in detail, as a function of surface charge density and valency of the pointlike counterions, much less is known about the effect of counterion size. We apply the Wang-Landau sampling Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method to compute the free energy F as a function of the scaled distance between the plates {widetilde{D}}=D/μ _GC for a range of Ξ and scaled counterion radii {widetilde{R}}=R/μ _GC. We find that for large Ξ and small ion radius, there is a global equilibrium distance {widetilde{D}}= {widetilde{D}}_eq =2(1+{widetilde{R}}), correctly giving the expected value at the point counterion limit. With increasing {widetilde{R}} the global minimum in F({widetilde{D}}) changes to a metastable state and finally this minimum vanishes when {widetilde{R}} reaches a critical value, which depends on Ξ. We present a state diagram indicating approximate boundaries between these three regimes. The Wang-Landau MC method, as it is applied here, offers a possibility to study a wide spectrum of extended problems, which cannot be treated by the use of contact value theorem.

  2. Tumorigenesis and Greenhouse-Effect System Dynamics: Phenomenally Diverse, but Noumenally Similar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Sai

    We present a physicochemical model of tumorigenesis leading to cancer invasion and metastasis. The continuum-theoretic model, congruent with recent experiments, analyzes the plausibility of oncogenic neoplasia-induced cavitation or tensile yielding (plasticity) of the tumoral basement membrane (BM) to activate stromal invasion. The model abstracts a spheroid of normal and cancer cells that grows radially via water and nutrient influx while constrained by a stiffer BM and cell adhesion molecules. It is based on coupled fluid-solid mechanics and ATP-fueled mechano-damped cell kinetics, and uses empirical data alone as parameters. The model predicts the dynamic force and exergy (ATP) fields, and tumor size among other variables, and generates the sigmoidal dynamics of far-from-equilibrium biota. Simulations show that the tumor-membrane system, on neoplastic perturbation, evolves from one homeostatic steady state to another over time. Integrated with system dynamics theory, the model renders a key, emergent tissue-level feedback control perspective of malignancy: neoplastic tumors coupled with pathologically-softened BMs appear to participate in altered autoregulatory behavior, and likely undergo BM cavitation and stress-localized ruptures to their adhesome, with or without invadopoiesis, thereby, initiating invasion. Serendipitously, the results also reveal a noumenal similarity of the tumor-membrane to the earth-atmosphere open reactive system as concerns self-regulation.

  3. Cortical activation during word processing in late bilinguals: similarities and differences as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Marian, Viorica; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Blumenfeld, Henrike K; Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Hirsch, Joy

    2007-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare cortical organization of the first (L1, Russian) and second (L2, English) languages. Six fluent Russian-English bilinguals who acquired their second language postpuberty were tested with words and nonwords presented either auditorily or visually. Results showed that both languages activated similar cortical networks, including the inferior frontal, middle frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, angular, and supramarginal gyri. Within the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), L2 activated a larger cortical volume than L1 during lexical and phonological processing. For both languages, the left IFG was more active than the right IFG during lexical processing. Within the left IFG, the distance between centers of activation associated with lexical processing of translation equivalents across languages was larger than the distance between centers of activation associated with lexical processing of different words in the same language. Results of phonological processing analyses revealed different centers of activation associated with the first versus the second language in the IFG, but not in the superior temporal gyrus (STG). These findings are discussed within the context of the current literature on cortical organization in bilinguals and suggest variation in bilingual cortical activation associated with lexical, phonological, and orthographic processing.

  4. Social networks of experientially similar others: Formation, activation, and consequences of network ties on the health care experience

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Research documents that interactions among experientially similar others (individuals facing a common stressor) shape health care behavior and ultimately health outcomes. However, we have little understanding of how ties among experientially similar others are formed, what resources and information flows through these networks, and how network embeddedness shapes health care behavior. This paper uses in-depth interviews with 76 parents of pediatric cancer patients to examine network ties among experientially similar others after a serious medical diagnosis. Interviews were conducted between August 2009 and May 2011. Findings demonstrate that many parents formed ties with other families experiencing pediatric cancer, and that information and resources were exchanged during the everyday activities associated with their child’s care. Network flows contained emotional support, caregiving strategies, information about second opinions, health-related knowledge, and strategies for navigating the health care system. Diffusion of information, resources, and support occurred through explicit processes (direct information and support exchanges) and implicit processes (parents learning through observing other families). Network flows among parents shaped parents’ perceptions of the health care experience and their role in their child’s care. These findings contribute to the social networks and social support literatures by elucidating the mechanisms through which network ties among experientially similar others influence health care behavior and experiences. PMID:22999229

  5. Social networks of experientially similar others: formation, activation, and consequences of network ties on the health care experience.

    PubMed

    Gage, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    Research documents that interactions among experientially similar others (individuals facing a common stressor) shape health care behavior and ultimately health outcomes. However, we have little understanding of how ties among experientially similar others are formed, what resources and information flows through these networks, and how network embeddedness shapes health care behavior. This paper uses in-depth interviews with 76 parents of pediatric cancer patients to examine network ties among experientially similar others after a serious medical diagnosis. Interviews were conducted between August 2009 and May 2011. Findings demonstrate that many parents formed ties with other families experiencing pediatric cancer, and that information and resources were exchanged during the everyday activities associated with their child's care. Network flows contained emotional support, caregiving strategies, information about second opinions, health-related knowledge, and strategies for navigating the health care system. Diffusion of information, resources, and support occurred through explicit processes (direct information and support exchanges) and implicit processes (parents learning through observing other families). Network flows among parents shaped parents' perceptions of the health care experience and their role in their child's care. These findings contribute to the social networks and social support literatures by elucidating the mechanisms through which network ties among experientially similar others influence health care behavior and experiences.

  6. Self-similar rogue waves and nonlinear tunneling effects in inhomogeneous nonlinear fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yu-Jie; Jiang, Dong-Yang

    2016-04-01

    Analytical first- and second-order rogue wave solutions of the inhomogeneous modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation are presented by using similarity transformation. Then, by the proper choices of the inhomogeneous coefficients and free parameters, the controllable behaviors of the optical rogue waves are graphically discussed in the nonlinear fiber optics context. It is found that the width of the rogue wave can be tuned by adjusting the parameter ? and the locations of the rogue waves are linearly controlled by the parameter ?. The intensities of the rogue waves are influenced by the inhomogeneous linear gain/loss coefficient ? and parameter ?. The dispersion management function ? has effects on the periods and trajectories of the rogue waves and can induce maintenance (or annihilation) along ? direction. Interestingly, the composite rogue waves are revealed, the location of which is manipulated through changing the dispersion management function ?. Additionally, the nonlinear tunneling of those rogue waves is investigated as they propagate through a dispersion barrier (or well) and nonlinear barrier (or well).

  7. Similar effectiveness of the open versus endoscopic technique for carpal tunnel syndrome: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Gümüştaş, Seyit Ali; Ekmekçi, Burcu; Tosun, Haci Bayram; Orak, Mehmet Müfit; Bekler, Halil İbrahim

    2015-12-01

    This prospective randomized study aims at evaluating the electrophysiological results of endoscopic and open carpal ligament release in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Included in the study were 41 patients diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome (21 hands in the endoscopic group and 20 hands in the open group). The Boston questionnaire was administered preoperatively and postoperatively to the patients, and their functional capacities and symptom severities were recorded. Physical examination was carried out preoperatively and in the postoperative sixth month. Demographic data and preoperative Boston symptomatic and functional scores were similar between both groups. A significant improvement was obtained in the Boston symptomatic and functional scores of both groups, but no significant difference was found between the groups in terms of improvement in the symptomatic and the functional scores. A significant shortening in median nerve motor distal latency and an increase in the velocity of sensory conductions were determined in both groups in the postoperative electromyography, but no difference was found between them in terms of improvement in the electromyography values. It was shown both clinically and electrophysiologically that endoscopic carpal tunnel surgery was as effective as open surgery as a treatment method for carpal tunnel syndrome.

  8. Effects of aluminium sulphate in the mouse liver: similarities to the aging process.

    PubMed

    Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Lavazza, Antonio; Ferroni, Matteo; Sberveglieri, Giorgio; Bianchi, Rossella; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio

    2008-04-01

    Aluminium (Al) is a ubiquitous metal that is potentially toxic to the brain. Its effects on other fundamental organs are not completely understood. This morphological in vivo study sought to compare sublethal hepatotoxic changes and Al deposition in adult mice that orally ingested Al sulphate daily for 10 months, in age matched control mice that drank tap water and in senescent mice (24 months old). Livers were examined for collagen deposition using Sirius red and Masson, for iron accumulation using Perls' stain. Light, electron microscopy and morphometry were used to assess fibrosis and vascular changes. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and EDX microanalysis were used to detect in situ elemental Al. Iron deposition, transferrin receptor expression were significantly altered following Al exposure and in the aged liver but were unaffected in age matched control mice. In Al treated mice as in senescent mice, endothelial thickness was increased and porosity was decreased like perisinusoidal actin. Furthermore, Al stimulated the deposition of collagen and laminin, mainly in acinar zones 1 and 3. Pseudocapillarization and periportal laminin in senescent mice were similar to Al treated adult liver. In conclusion, prolonged Al sulphate intake accelerates features of senescence in the adult mice liver.

  9. Assessment of similarity of HFBR (High Flux Beam Reactor) with separate effects test

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Slovik, G.C.

    1990-11-01

    A Separate Effects Test (SET) facility was constructed in 1963 to demonstrate the feasibility of the HFBR design and to determine the core power limits for a safe flow reversal event. The objective of the task reported here is to review the capability of the test to scale the dominant phenomena in the HFBR during a flow reversal event and the applicability of the range of the power level obtained from the test to the HFBR. The conclusion of this report was that the flow during the flow reversal event will not be similar in the two facilities. The causes of the dissimilarity are the differences in the core inlet friction, bypass path friction, the absence of the check valve in the test, and the materials used to represent the fuel plates. The impact of these differences is that the HFBR will undergo flow reversal sooner than the test and will have a higher flow rate in the final Natural Circulation Period. The shorter duration of the flow reversal event will allow less time for the plate to heat up and the larger flow in the Natural Circulation Period will lead to higher critical heat flux limits in the HFBR than in the test. Based on these observations, it was concluded that the HFBR can undergo flow reversal safely for heat fluxes up to 46,700 (BTU/hr ft{sup 2}), the heat flux limit obtained from the 1963 test.

  10. Early Visual Tagging: Effects of Target-Distractor Similarity and Old Age on Search, Subitization, and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Derrick G.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.; Allen, Gareth E. J.; Bruce, Lucy A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of target-distractor (T-D) similarity and old age on the efficiency of searching for single targets and enumerating multiple targets. Experiment 1 showed that increasing T-D similarity selectively reduced the efficiency of enumerating small (less than 4) numerosities (subitizing) but had little effect on…

  11. [Similarities, differences and agonisms of pleiotropic effects of statins and omega-3 fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Maria E; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Acín, Maria T; Vaquero, Maria P; Higueras, F J; Bastida, S

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the pleiotropic effects of statins and omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in treating and preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and deals with the possible interactions of those compounds. Statins represent one of the most important discoveries to have been made in the field of cardiovascular medicine in recent decades. Their beneficial cardiovascular effects, which have reduced the number of fatal events in patients with atherosclerosis, encompass more than their ability to lower cholesterol levels. The pleiotropic effects of statins involve their anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet properties and their ability to normalize endothelial function. In addition, these drugs may display antiarrhythmic activity, improve insulin sensitivity and counteract hypertension and obesity. The low rate of coronary disease documented in Eskimos corroborates the cardioprotective effects of the n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids beyond their hypolipemic effects. The reduction of CVD-related deaths attributable to the action of α-linolenic fatty acid appears to be related to its strong antiarrhythmic properties. In addition, as a precursor of EPA and this last fatty acid of thromboxane A3, prostacyclin I3, serie-3 prostaglandines and serie 5-leukotrines and inhibitor/modulator of thromboxane A2, prostacyclin I2, serie-2 prostaglandines and serie 4-leukotrienes formation, the α-linolenic acid may reduce inflammation and thrombogenesis. As results of some studies suggest that the combined use of statins and n-3 PUFA improves cardiovascular protection and reduces the CVD-related mortality rate; the paper also reviews the possible synergism between both groups of compounds on CVD treatment and concludes that clear benefits may be obtained.

  12. Consumption of honey, sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup produce similar metabolic effects in glucose tolerant and glucose intolerant individuals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Current public health recommendations call for reduction of added sugars; however, controversy exits over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Objective: To compare effects of chronic consumption of three nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructo...

  13. The Relationship Between Student/Teacher Attitude Similarity and Ratings of Instructional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizener, Deborah A.; Abrami, Philip C.

    The relationship between student/teacher attitude similarity and teacher evaluations was studied in a group of 222 students who completed a 24-item attitude scale, once for themselves and once for their instructors, and a 28-item teacher rating form (TRF). A significant, moderate-sized correlation between assumed similarity and TRF scores for…

  14. Therapeugenic Factors in Psychotherapy: The Effect of Attitude Similarity on Therapist Credibility and Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautt, Gregory M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The therapist with similar attitudes was seen as more qualified, higher in interpersonal attraction, and more likeable. Subjects were more willing to recommend or seek therapy from these therapists. Significant interaction indicated that male subjects were more affected by the degree of attitude similarity. (Author)

  15. Recognition of Phoneme Invariance by Beginning Readers: Confounding Effects of Global Similarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    1993-01-01

    Reports on the development of a test of phonemic awareness suitable for administration to young children. Compares kindergarteners' performance on a measure controlling for global similarity and another measure not controlled. Finds support for the importance of controlling for global similarity when attempting to measure phoneme invariance. (RS)

  16. Reinstatement of individual past events revealed by the similarity of distributed activation patterns during encoding and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Wing, Erik A; Ritchey, Maureen; Cabeza, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Neurobiological memory models assume memory traces are stored in neocortex, with pointers in the hippocampus, and are then reactivated during retrieval, yielding the experience of remembering. Whereas most prior neuroimaging studies on reactivation have focused on the reactivation of sets or categories of items, the current study sought to identify cortical patterns pertaining to memory for individual scenes. During encoding, participants viewed pictures of scenes paired with matching labels (e.g., "barn," "tunnel"), and, during retrieval, they recalled the scenes in response to the labels and rated the quality of their visual memories. Using representational similarity analyses, we interrogated the similarity between activation patterns during encoding and retrieval both at the item level (individual scenes) and the set level (all scenes). The study yielded four main findings. First, in occipitotemporal cortex, memory success increased with encoding-retrieval similarity (ERS) at the item level but not at the set level, indicating the reactivation of individual scenes. Second, in ventrolateral pFC, memory increased with ERS for both item and set levels, indicating the recapitulation of memory processes that benefit encoding and retrieval of all scenes. Third, in retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortex, ERS was sensitive to individual scene information irrespective of memory success, suggesting automatic activation of scene contexts. Finally, consistent with neurobiological models, hippocampal activity during encoding predicted the subsequent reactivation of individual items. These findings show the promise of studying memory with greater specificity by isolating individual mnemonic representations and determining their relationship to factors like the detail with which past events are remembered. PMID:25313659

  17. Left- and right-sided video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy exhibit similar effects on myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xuan; Gan, Xiangfeng; Chen, Baishen; Shen, Zhuojian; Wang, Minghui; Zhang, Huizhong; Xu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Background Unilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) thymectomy features less operative trauma, improved cosmesis, and similar efficiency compared with transsternal (TS) thymectomy for treatment of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Unilateral VATS thymectomy can be easily performed from either side of the thorax, because thymus is located in the middle of mediastinum. Nevertheless, the side that provides better outcomes remains controversial. This study presents our experience on treatments for MG and reveals the differences between the unilateral VATS thymectomy performed on each side. Methods Eighty-one consecutive patients with MG who underwent TS or VATS thymectomy on either side between January 2003 and December 2012 were enrolled in the study. Clinicopathologic data and surgical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed and compared among different surgical approaches. Results TS thymectomy was administered in 50 patients, whereas unilateral VATS approaches were performed on the remaining 31 patients, 15 on the left side and 16 on the right side. The VATS group exhibited a significantly shorter surgery duration (P<0.001), less intraoperative blood loss (P=0.009), shorter postoperative hospital stay (P=0.025), smaller thoracic drainage volume (P=0.033), shorter thoracic drainage duration (P=0.006), and less postoperative complications (P<0.001) compared with the TS group. However, disease remission rates did not significantly differ among the groups (P=0.988). The left-sided group exhibited considerably longer thoracic drainage duration than the right-sided group (P=0.041). Moreover, surgical time (P=0.736), intraoperative blood loss (P=0.281), postoperative hospital stay (P=0.599), thoracic drainage volume (P=0.571), postoperative complications (P=0.742) and therapeutic effect (P=1.000) did not significantly differ among the groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that the ocular type of MG is the only independent factor for clinical remission (P=0

  18. Some Effects of Attitudinal Similarity and Exposure on Attraction and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuntich, Richard J.

    1976-01-01

    Previous research investigating the relationship of attraction and aggression has yielded somewhat equivocal results. The present study investigated the influence of two variables, attitudinal similarity and exposure, on interpersonal attraction and physical aggression. (Editor)

  19. The Production and Perception of Emotionally Expressive Walking Sounds: Similarities between Musical Performance and Everyday Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Bruno L.; Egermann, Hauke; Bresin, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions. PMID:25551392

  20. Social Preference in Preschoolers: Effects of Morphological Self-Similarity and Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Nadja; Tiddeman, Bernard; Haun, Daniel B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Adults prefer to interact with others that are similar to themselves. Even slight facial self-resemblance can elicit trust towards strangers. Here we investigate if preschoolers at the age of 5 years already use facial self-resemblance when they make social judgments about others. We found that, in the absence of any additional knowledge about prospective peers, children preferred those who look subtly like themselves over complete strangers. Thus, subtle morphological similarities trigger social preferences well before adulthood. PMID:26727132

  1. Deep brain stimulation in rats: different targets induce similar antidepressant-like effects but influence different circuits.

    PubMed

    Hamani, Clement; Amorim, Beatriz O; Wheeler, Anne L; Diwan, Mustansir; Driesslein, Klaus; Covolan, Luciene; Butson, Christopher R; Nobrega, José N

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies in patients with treatment-resistant depression have shown similar results with the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG), ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) and nucleus accumbens (Acb). As these brain regions are interconnected, one hypothesis is that by stimulating these targets one would just be influencing different relays in the same circuitry. We investigate behavioral, immediate early gene expression, and functional connectivity changes in rats given DBS in homologous regions, namely the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), white matter fibers of the frontal region (WMF) and nucleus accumbens. We found that DBS delivered to the vmPFC, Acb but not WMF induced significant antidepressant-like effects in the FST (31%, 44%, and 17% reduction in immobility compared to controls). Despite these findings, stimulation applied to these three targets induced distinct patterns of regional activity and functional connectivity. While animals given vmPFC DBS had increased cortical zif268 expression, changes after Acb stimulation were primarily observed in subcortical structures. In animals receiving WMF DBS, both cortical and subcortical structures at a distance from the target were influenced by stimulation. In regard to functional connectivity, DBS in all targets decreased intercorrelations among cortical areas. This is in contrast to the clear differences observed in subcortical connectivity, which was reduced after vmPFC DBS but increased in rats receiving Acb or WMF stimulation. In conclusion, results from our study suggest that, despite similar antidepressant-like effects, stimulation of the vmPFC, WMF and Acb induces distinct changes in regional brain activity and functional connectivity.

  2. Bystander Effects Induced by Medium From Irradiated Cells: Similar Transcriptome Responses in Irradiated and Bystander K562 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Herok, Robert; Konopacka, Maria; Polanska, Joanna; Swierniak, Andrzej; Rogolinski, Jacek; Jaksik, Roman; Hancock, Ronald; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Cells exposed to ionizing radiation release factors that induce deoxyribonucleic acid damage, chromosomal instability, apoptosis, and changes in the proliferation rate of neighboring unexposed cells, phenomena known as bystander effects. This work analyzes and compares changes in global transcript levels induced by direct irradiation and by bystander effects in K562 (human erythroleukemia) cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were X-irradiated with 4 Gy or transferred into culture medium collected from cells 1 h after irradiation (irradiation-conditioned medium). Global transcript profiles were assessed after 36 h of growth by use of Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and the kinetics of change of selected transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The level of the majority (72%) of transcripts changed similarly (increase, decrease, or no change) in cells grown in irradiation-conditioned medium or irradiated, whereas only 0.6% showed an opposite response. Transcript level changes in bystander and irradiated cells were significantly different from those in untreated cells grown for the same amount of time and were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. Signaling pathways in which the highest number of transcripts changed in both conditions were found in the following groups: neuroactive ligand-receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Janus Kinase-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) In control cells more transcripts were downregulated than in irradiated and bystander cells with transcription factors YBX1 and STAT5B, heat shock protein HSPA1A, and ribonucleic acid helicase DDX3X as examples. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of cells grown in medium from X-irradiated cells or directly irradiated show very similar changes. Signals released by irradiated cells may cause

  3. Mosaic activity patterns and their relation to perceptual similarity: open discussions on the molecular basis and circuitry of odor recognition.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Fernando F; Rela, Lorena

    2014-12-01

    Enormous advances have been made in the recent years in regard to the mechanisms and neural circuits by which odors are sensed and perceived. Part of this understanding has been gained from parallel studies in insects and rodents that show striking similarity in the mechanisms they use to sense, encode, and perceive odors. In this review, we provide a short introduction to the functioning of olfactory systems from transduction of odorant stimuli into electrical signals in sensory neurons to the anatomical and functional organization of the networks involved in neural representation of odors in the central nervous system. We make emphasis on the functional and anatomical architecture of the first synaptic relay of the olfactory circuit, the olfactory bulb in vertebrates and the antennal lobe in insects. We discuss how the exquisite and conserved architecture of this structure is established and how different odors are encoded in mosaic activity patterns. Finally, we discuss the validity of methods used to compare activation patterns in relation to perceptual similarity.

  4. Indications for different types of brittle failure due to active coal mining using waveform similarities of induced seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehling-Benatelli, S.; Becker, D.; Bischoff, M.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2013-10-01

    Longwall mining activity in the Ruhr coal mining district leads to mining-induced seismicity. For detailed studies the seismicity of a single longwall panel beneath the town of Hamm-Herringen in the eastern Ruhr area was monitored between June 2006 and July 2007 with a dense temporary network of 15 seismic stations. More than 7000 seismic events with magnitudes between -1.7 ≤ ML ≤ 2.0 were detected and localized in this period. Most of the events occurred in the vicinity of the moving longwall face. In order to find possible differences in the brittle failure types of these events an association of the events to distinct clusters is performed based on their waveform characteristics. This task is carried out using a new clustering algorithm utilizing a network similarity matrix which is created by combining all available 3-component single station similarity matrices. The resultant network matrix is then sorted with respect to the similarity of its rows leading to a sorted matrix immediately indicating the clustering of the event catalogue. Finally, clusters of similar events are extracted by visual inspection. This approach results in the identification of several large clusters which are distinct with respect to their spatial and temporal characteristics as well as their frequency magnitude distributions. Comparable clusters are also found with a conventional single linkage approach, however, the new routine seems to be able to associate more events to specific clusters without merging the clusters. The nine largest observed clusters can be tentatively divided into three different groups that indicate different types of brittle failure. The first group consists of the two largest clusters which constitute more than half of all recorded events. Results of a relative relocation using cross-correlation data suggest that these events are confined to the extent of the mined out longwall and cluster close to the edges of the active longwall at the depth of active

  5. Indications for different types of brittle failure due to active coal mining using waveform similarities of induced seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehling-Benatelli, S.; Becker, D.; Bischoff, M.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2013-05-01

    Longwall mining activity in the Ruhr-coal mining district leads to mining-induced seismicity. For detailed studies seismicity of a single longwall panel beneath the town of Hamm-Herringen in the eastern Ruhr area was monitored between June 2006 and July 2007 with a dense temporary array of 15 seismic stations. More than 7000 seismic events with magnitudes between -1.7 ≤ ML ≤ 2.0 were detected and localized in this period. Most of the events occurred in the vicinity of the moving longwall face. In order to find possible differences in the brittle failure types of these events an association of the events to distinct clusters based on their waveform characteristics is performed. This task is carried out using a new clustering algorithm utilizing a network similarity matrix which is created by combining all available 3-component single station similarity matrices. The resultant network matrix is then sorted with respect to the similarity of its rows leading to a sorted matrix immediately indicating the clustering of the event catalogue. Finally, clusters of similar events are extracted by visual inspection. This approach results in the identification of several large clusters which are distinct with respect to their spatial and temporal characteristics as well as their frequency magnitude distributions. Comparable clusters are also found with a conventional single linkage approach, however, the new routine seems to be able to associate more events to specific clusters without merging the clusters. The nine largest observed clusters can be tentatively divided into three different groups that indicate different types of brittle failure. The first group consists of the two largest clusters which constitute more than half of all recorded events. Results of a relative relocation using cross correlation data suggest that these events are confined to the extent of the mined out longwall and cluster close to the edges of the active longwall at the depth of active

  6. FSH in vitro versus LH in vivo: similar genomic effects on the cumulus.

    PubMed

    Assidi, Mourad; Richard, François J; Sirard, Marc-André

    2013-01-01

    The use of gonadotropins to trigger oocyte maturation both in vivo and in vitro has provided precious and powerful knowledge that has significantly increased our understanding of the ovarian function. Moreover, the efficacy of most assisted reproductive technologies (ART) used in both humans and livestock species relies on gonadotropin input, mainly FSH and LH. Despite the significant progress achieved and the huge impact of gonadotropins, the exact molecular pathways of the two pituitary hormones, FSH and LH, still remain poorly understood. Moreover, these pathways may not be the same when moving from the in vivo to the in vitro context. This misunderstanding of the intricate synergy between these two hormones leads to a lack of consensus about their use mainly in vitro or in ovulation induction schedules in vivo. In order to optimize their use, additional work is thus required with a special focus on comparing the in vitro versus the in vivo effects. In this context, this overview will briefly summarize the downstream gene expression pathways induced by both FSH in vitro and LH in vivo in the cumulus compartment. Based on recent microarray comparative analysis, we are reporting that in vitro FSH stimulation on cumulus cells appears to achieve at least part of the gene expression activity after in vivo LH stimulation. We are then proposing that the in vitro FSH-response of cumulus cells have similitudes with the in vivo LH-response. PMID:24066945

  7. Effects of sex role attitudes and similarity on men's rejection of male homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Krulewitz, J E; Nash, J E

    1980-01-01

    The present study investigated reactions to homosexuals as a function of perceived attitude similarity and subjects' sex role attitudes. Male subjects, preselected on the basis of their profeminist, moderate, or antifeminist scores on the Attitude Toward Feminism Scale were assigned at random to one of the four experimental conditions. Using a standard attraction paradigm design, subjects rated a bogus "partner," who was represented as either homosexual or heterosexual and as having attitudes either similar or dissimilar to theirs. Consistent with predictions, similar partners were liked more than dissimilar partners, and heterosexual partners were liked more than homosexuals. Homosexuals were seen as more dissimilar to the subjects in all conditions. Further, liberals were more accepting of homosexuals and dissimilar partners than were traditionals. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between sex role attitudes and tolerance of dissimilarity. PMID:7373510

  8. Effects of sex role attitudes and similarity on men's rejection of male homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Krulewitz, J E; Nash, J E

    1980-01-01

    The present study investigated reactions to homosexuals as a function of perceived attitude similarity and subjects' sex role attitudes. Male subjects, preselected on the basis of their profeminist, moderate, or antifeminist scores on the Attitude Toward Feminism Scale were assigned at random to one of the four experimental conditions. Using a standard attraction paradigm design, subjects rated a bogus "partner," who was represented as either homosexual or heterosexual and as having attitudes either similar or dissimilar to theirs. Consistent with predictions, similar partners were liked more than dissimilar partners, and heterosexual partners were liked more than homosexuals. Homosexuals were seen as more dissimilar to the subjects in all conditions. Further, liberals were more accepting of homosexuals and dissimilar partners than were traditionals. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between sex role attitudes and tolerance of dissimilarity.

  9. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... person for water skiing or other similar activities? 3.12 Section 3.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? (a) The towing of a...

  10. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... person for water skiing or other similar activities? 3.12 Section 3.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? (a) The towing of a...

  11. Activation Patterns throughout the Word Processing Network of L1-dominant Bilinguals Reflect Language Similarity and Language Decisions.

    PubMed

    Oganian, Yulia; Conrad, Markus; Aryani, Arash; Spalek, Katharina; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2015-11-01

    A crucial aspect of bilingual communication is the ability to identify the language of an input. Yet, the neural and cognitive basis of this ability is largely unknown. Moreover, it cannot be easily incorporated into neuronal models of bilingualism, which posit that bilinguals rely on the same neural substrates for both languages and concurrently activate them even in monolingual settings. Here we hypothesized that bilinguals can employ language-specific sublexical (bigram frequency) and lexical (orthographic neighborhood size) statistics for language recognition. Moreover, we investigated the neural networks representing language-specific statistics and hypothesized that language identity is encoded in distributed activation patterns within these networks. To this end, German-English bilinguals made speeded language decisions on visually presented pseudowords during fMRI. Language attribution followed lexical neighborhood sizes both in first (L1) and second (L2) language. RTs revealed an overall tuning to L1 bigram statistics. Neuroimaging results demonstrated tuning to L1 statistics at sublexical (occipital lobe) and phonological (temporoparietal lobe) levels, whereas neural activation in the angular gyri reflected sensitivity to lexical similarity to both languages. Analysis of distributed activation patterns reflected language attribution as early as in the ventral stream of visual processing. We conclude that in language-ambiguous contexts visual word processing is dominated by L1 statistical structure at sublexical orthographic and phonological levels, whereas lexical search is determined by the structure of both languages. Moreover, our results demonstrate that language identity modulates distributed activation patterns throughout the reading network, providing a key to language identity representations within this shared network. PMID:26226076

  12. A Pilot Study: Dietary Energy Density is Similar between Active Women with and without Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Taryn M.; Howe, Stephanie; Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Hoffman, Charlotte P. Guebels; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Low energy availability (EA) (e.g., insufficient energy intake (EI) to match energy needs, including exercise energy expenditure) has been identified as a primary contributor to exercise-associated menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) in active women. For health reasons, active women may self-select diets lower in energy density (ED, kcal/g), which can inadvertently contribute to inadequate EI. Using data from two studies, we compared the ED of active women with ExMD (n = 9; 24 ± 6 years) to eumenorrheic (EU) active controls (EU: n = 18, 27 ± 6 years). ED was calculated from 6 to 7 days weighted food records using two methods: with/without beverages. ANOVA and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum were used to test group differences. ED was not different between groups, but there was a trend toward a lower median ED (10%) (p = 0.049 unadjusted; p = 0.098 adjusted) in the ExMD-group (Method 1—all beverages: ExMD = 1.01 kcal/g (range = 0.52–1.41), EU = 1.22 kcal/g (range = 0.72–1.72); Method 2—without beverages: ExMD = 1.51 kcal/g (range = 1.26–2.06), EU = 1.69 kcal/g (range = 1.42–2.54)). This lower ED represents a 9% decrease (~219 kcal/day) in EI (ExMD = 2237 ± 378 kcal/day; EU = 2456 ± 470 kcal/day; p > 0.05). EI and macro/micronutrient intakes were similar for groups. In the ExMD-group, low ED could contribute to lower EI and EA. Future research should examine the interaction of ED and exercise on appetite, EI, and EA in active women, especially those with ExMD. PMID:27104560

  13. A Pilot Study: Dietary Energy Density is Similar between Active Women with and without Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hand, Taryn M; Howe, Stephanie; Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Hoffman, Charlotte P Guebels; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Low energy availability (EA) (e.g., insufficient energy intake (EI) to match energy needs, including exercise energy expenditure) has been identified as a primary contributor to exercise-associated menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) in active women. For health reasons, active women may self-select diets lower in energy density (ED, kcal/g), which can inadvertently contribute to inadequate EI. Using data from two studies, we compared the ED of active women with ExMD (n = 9; 24 ± 6 years) to eumenorrheic (EU) active controls (EU: n = 18, 27 ± 6 years). ED was calculated from 6 to 7 days weighted food records using two methods: with/without beverages. ANOVA and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum were used to test group differences. ED was not different between groups, but there was a trend toward a lower median ED (10%) (p = 0.049 unadjusted; p = 0.098 adjusted) in the ExMD-group (Method 1-all beverages: ExMD = 1.01 kcal/g (range = 0.52-1.41), EU = 1.22 kcal/g (range = 0.72-1.72); Method 2-without beverages: ExMD = 1.51 kcal/g (range = 1.26-2.06), EU = 1.69 kcal/g (range = 1.42-2.54)). This lower ED represents a 9% decrease (~219 kcal/day) in EI (ExMD = 2237 ± 378 kcal/day; EU = 2456 ± 470 kcal/day; p > 0.05). EI and macro/micronutrient intakes were similar for groups. In the ExMD-group, low ED could contribute to lower EI and EA. Future research should examine the interaction of ED and exercise on appetite, EI, and EA in active women, especially those with ExMD. PMID:27104560

  14. Activation Patterns throughout the Word Processing Network of L1-dominant Bilinguals Reflect Language Similarity and Language Decisions.

    PubMed

    Oganian, Yulia; Conrad, Markus; Aryani, Arash; Spalek, Katharina; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2015-11-01

    A crucial aspect of bilingual communication is the ability to identify the language of an input. Yet, the neural and cognitive basis of this ability is largely unknown. Moreover, it cannot be easily incorporated into neuronal models of bilingualism, which posit that bilinguals rely on the same neural substrates for both languages and concurrently activate them even in monolingual settings. Here we hypothesized that bilinguals can employ language-specific sublexical (bigram frequency) and lexical (orthographic neighborhood size) statistics for language recognition. Moreover, we investigated the neural networks representing language-specific statistics and hypothesized that language identity is encoded in distributed activation patterns within these networks. To this end, German-English bilinguals made speeded language decisions on visually presented pseudowords during fMRI. Language attribution followed lexical neighborhood sizes both in first (L1) and second (L2) language. RTs revealed an overall tuning to L1 bigram statistics. Neuroimaging results demonstrated tuning to L1 statistics at sublexical (occipital lobe) and phonological (temporoparietal lobe) levels, whereas neural activation in the angular gyri reflected sensitivity to lexical similarity to both languages. Analysis of distributed activation patterns reflected language attribution as early as in the ventral stream of visual processing. We conclude that in language-ambiguous contexts visual word processing is dominated by L1 statistical structure at sublexical orthographic and phonological levels, whereas lexical search is determined by the structure of both languages. Moreover, our results demonstrate that language identity modulates distributed activation patterns throughout the reading network, providing a key to language identity representations within this shared network.

  15. Parental Involvement in Predicting School Motivation: Similar and Differential Effects across Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weihua; Williams, Cathy M.; Wolters, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how different dimensions of parental involvement similarly or differentially linked to various constructs of school motivation (academic self-efficacy in mathematics and English, intrinsic motivation toward mathematics and English, and engagement) across ethnic groups of Caucasian, African American, Asian American, and…

  16. The Effect of Perceived Similarity/Dissimilarity on Confirmation/Disconfirmation Behaviors: Reciprocity or Compensation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshitz, Paltiel; Shulman, Gary M.

    In an experiment studying the relationship between reciprocity and compensation in dyadic communication, 96 male college students were videotaped during hypothetical problem solving situations. An attitude scale was used to manipulate subjects' impressions of mutual similarity. Time was used to test development in the dependent variables…

  17. The Effects of Similarity, Evaluation, and Self-Esteem on Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Donald H.

    It was predicted that high self-esteem subjects would have higher attraction scores than low self-esteem subjects to similar strangers or to strangers who gave positive personal evaluations. It was also predicted that high self-esteem subjects would have lower attraction scores than low self-esteem subjects to dissimilar strangers or to subjects…

  18. The Effects of Sensation Seeking and Misattribution of Arousal on Attraction toward Similar or Dissimilar Strangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Tested the prediction that individual differences in sensation seeking moderate the relationship between attitudinal similarity and attraction. Results showed high sensation seekers were more attracted than low sensation seekers to dissimilar others, whereas low sensation seekers were more attracted than high sensation seekers to people with…

  19. Flight Instructor-Student Pilot Perceptive Similarity and Its Effect on Flight Training Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreienkamp, Ronald A.

    This study attempts to identify factors that may contribute to the learning process of the student pilot in order to lower flight costs while maintaining or increasing safety factors. Specifically, it tests the hypothesis that a significant relationship exists between the similarity of flight instructor and student pilot perceptive styles and the…

  20. Naming Action in Japanese: Effects of Semantic Similarity and Grammatical Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Noriko; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Watanabe, Masumi; Arciuli, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether the semantic similarity and grammatical class of distracter words affects the naming of pictured actions (verbs) in Japanese. Three experiments used the picture-word interference paradigm with participants naming picturable actions while ignoring distracters. In all three experiments, we manipulated the semantic…

  1. Contrasting Five Different Theories of Letter Position Coding: Evidence from Orthographic Similarity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Five theories of how letter position is coded are contrasted: position-specific slot-coding, Wickelcoding, open-bigram coding (discrete and continuous), and spatial coding. These theories make different predictions regarding the relative similarity of three different types of pairs of letter strings: substitution neighbors,…

  2. Dissociating the Effects of Angular Disparity and Image Similarity in Mental Rotation and Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Olivia S.; Hayward, William G.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Performance is often impaired linearly with increasing angular disparity between two objects in tasks that measure mental rotation or object recognition. But increased angular disparity is often accompanied by changes in the similarity between views of an object, confounding the impact of the two factors in these tasks. We examined separately the…

  3. Medical applications of in vivo neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation analysis: Technical similarities to detection of explosives and contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, J. J.

    2001-07-01

    Nutritional status of patients can be evaluated by monitoring changes in elemental body composition. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used in vivo to assess elements characteristic of specific body compartments. There are similarities between the body composition techniques and the detection of hidden explosives and narcotics. All samples have to be examined in depth and the ratio of elements provides a "signature" of the chemical of interest. The N/H and C/O ratios measure protein and fat content in the body. Similarly, a high C/O ratio is characteristic of narcotics and a low C/O together with a strong presence of N is a signature of some explosives. The available time for medical applications is about 20 min—compared to a few seconds for the detection of explosives—but the permitted radiation exposure is limited. In vivo neutron analysis is used to measure H, O, C, N, P, Na, Cl, and Ca for the study of the mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging and wasting diseases, and to investigate methods of preserving function and quality of life in the elderly.

  4. MICRO-SIGMOIDS AS PROGENITORS OF CORONAL JETS: IS ERUPTIVE ACTIVITY SELF-SIMILARLY MULTI-SCALED?

    SciTech Connect

    Raouafi, N.-E.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.; Georgoulis, M. K.

    2010-08-01

    Observations from the X-ray telescope (XRT) on Hinode are used to study the nature of X-ray-bright points, sources of coronal jets. Several jet events in the coronal holes are found to erupt from small-scale, S-shaped bright regions. This finding suggests that coronal micro-sigmoids may well be progenitors of coronal jets. Moreover, the presence of these structures may explain numerous observed characteristics of jets such as helical structures, apparent transverse motions, and shapes. Analogous to large-scale sigmoids giving rise to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), a promising future task would perhaps be to investigate whether solar eruptive activity, from coronal jets to CMEs, is self-similar in terms of properties and instability mechanisms.

  5. Spurious? Name similarity effects (implicit egotism) in marriage, job, and moving decisions.

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri

    2011-07-01

    Three articles published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology have shown that a disproportionate share of people choose spouses, places to live, and occupations with names similar to their own. These findings, interpreted as evidence of implicit egotism, are included in most modern social psychology textbooks and many university courses. The current article successfully replicates the original findings but shows that they are most likely caused by a combination of cohort, geographic, and ethnic confounds as well as reverse causality.

  6. Similar healthy osteoclast and osteoblast activity on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and nanoparticles of tri-calcium phosphate compared to natural bone.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Adam K; Lamberti, Francis V; Moulton, Julia N; Geilich, Benjamin M; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    While there have been numerous studies to determine osteoblast (bone forming cell) functions on nanocrystalline compared to micron crystalline ceramics, there have been few studies which have examined osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB [RANK]). This is despite the fact that osteoclasts are an important part of maintaining healthy bone since they resorb bone during the bone remodeling process. Moreover, while it is now well documented that bone formation is enhanced on nanoceramics compared to micron ceramics, some have pondered whether osteoblast functions (such as osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand [RANKL]) are normal (ie, non-diseased) on such materials compared to natural bone. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to determine various functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts on nanocrystalline and micron crystalline hydroxyapatite as well as tri-calcium phosphate materials and compare such results to cortical and cancellous bone. Results showed for the first time similar osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and RANK) and osteoblast activity (osteoprotegerin and RANKL) on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite compared to natural bone, whereas osteoclast and osteoblast functions on micron crystalline versions of these ceramics were much different than natural bone. In this manner, this study provides additional evidence that nanocrystalline calcium phosphates can serve as suitable synthetic analogs to natural bone to improve numerous orthopedic applications. It also provides the first data of healthy osteoclast and osteoblast functions on nanocrystalline calcium phosphates compared to natural bone.

  7. Similar healthy osteoclast and osteoblast activity on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and nanoparticles of tri-calcium phosphate compared to natural bone

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, Adam K; Lamberti, Francis V; Moulton, Julia N; Geilich, Benjamin M; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    While there have been numerous studies to determine osteoblast (bone forming cell) functions on nanocrystalline compared to micron crystalline ceramics, there have been few studies which have examined osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB [RANK]). This is despite the fact that osteoclasts are an important part of maintaining healthy bone since they resorb bone during the bone remodeling process. Moreover, while it is now well documented that bone formation is enhanced on nanoceramics compared to micron ceramics, some have pondered whether osteoblast functions (such as osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand [RANKL]) are normal (ie, non-diseased) on such materials compared to natural bone. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to determine various functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts on nanocrystalline and micron crystalline hydroxyapatite as well as tri-calcium phosphate materials and compare such results to cortical and cancellous bone. Results showed for the first time similar osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and RANK) and osteoblast activity (osteoprotegerin and RANKL) on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite compared to natural bone, whereas osteoclast and osteoblast functions on micron crystalline versions of these ceramics were much different than natural bone. In this manner, this study provides additional evidence that nanocrystalline calcium phosphates can serve as suitable synthetic analogs to natural bone to improve numerous orthopedic applications. It also provides the first data of healthy osteoclast and osteoblast functions on nanocrystalline calcium phosphates compared to natural bone. PMID:25506216

  8. The Influence of Cross-Language Similarity on within- and between-Language Stroop Effects in Trilinguals.

    PubMed

    van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Coderre, Emily L; Guo, Taomei; Dijkstra, Ton

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German-English-Dutch trilinguals), two similar scripts and one different script (Chinese and alphabetic scripts in Chinese-English-Malay trilinguals), or three completely different scripts (Arabic, Chinese, and alphabetic in Uyghur-Chinese-English trilinguals). The results revealed a similar magnitude of within-language Stroop interference for the three groups, whereas between-language interference was modulated by cross-language similarity. For the same-script trilinguals, the within- and between-language interference was similar, whereas the between-language Stroop interference was reduced for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The magnitude of within-language Stroop facilitation was similar across the three groups of trilinguals, but smaller than within-language Stroop interference. Between-language Stroop facilitation was also modulated by cross-language similarity such that these effects became negative for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The overall pattern of Stroop interference and facilitation effects can be explained in terms of diverging and converging color and word information across languages.

  9. The Influence of Cross-Language Similarity on within- and between-Language Stroop Effects in Trilinguals

    PubMed Central

    van Heuven, Walter J. B.; Conklin, Kathy; Coderre, Emily L.; Guo, Taomei; Dijkstra, Ton

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German–English–Dutch trilinguals), two similar scripts and one different script (Chinese and alphabetic scripts in Chinese–English–Malay trilinguals), or three completely different scripts (Arabic, Chinese, and alphabetic in Uyghur–Chinese–English trilinguals). The results revealed a similar magnitude of within-language Stroop interference for the three groups, whereas between-language interference was modulated by cross-language similarity. For the same-script trilinguals, the within- and between-language interference was similar, whereas the between-language Stroop interference was reduced for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The magnitude of within-language Stroop facilitation was similar across the three groups of trilinguals, but smaller than within-language Stroop interference. Between-language Stroop facilitation was also modulated by cross-language similarity such that these effects became negative for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The overall pattern of Stroop interference and facilitation effects can be explained in terms of diverging and converging color and word information across languages. PMID:22180749

  10. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: II. Multiple pyrokinins exert similar effects in the lobster stomatogastric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Kurland, Sienna C; Qu, Xuan; Parker, Brett O; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A; Williams, Alex H; Ysasi, Alexandra B; Christie, Andrew E

    2015-09-01

    Many neuropeptides are members of peptide families, with multiple structurally similar isoforms frequently found even within a single species. This raises the question of whether the individual peptides serve common or distinct functions. In the accompanying paper, we found high isoform specificity in the responses of the lobster (Homarus americanus) cardiac neuromuscular system to members of the pyrokinin peptide family: only one of five crustacean isoforms showed any bioactivity in the cardiac system. Because previous studies in other species had found little isoform specificity in pyrokinin actions, we examined the effects of the same five crustacean pyrokinins on the lobster stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). In contrast to our findings in the cardiac system, the effects of the five pyrokinin isoforms on the STNS were indistinguishable: they all activated or enhanced the gastric mill motor pattern, but did not alter the pyloric pattern. These results, in combination with those from the cardiac ganglion, suggest that members of a peptide family in the same species can be both isoform specific and highly promiscuous in their modulatory capacity. The mechanisms that underlie these differences in specificity have not yet been elucidated; one possible explanation, which has yet to be tested, is the presence and differential distribution of multiple receptors for members of this peptide family.

  11. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: II. Multiple pyrokinins exert similar effects in the lobster stomatogastric nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Patsy S.; Kurland, Sienna C.; Qu, Xuan; Parker, Brett O.; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A.; Williams, Alex H.; Ysasi, Alexandra B.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many neuropeptides are members of peptide families, with multiple structurally similar isoforms frequently found even within a single species. This raises the question of whether the individual peptides serve common or distinct functions. In the accompanying paper, we found high isoform specificity in the responses of the lobster (Homarus americanus) cardiac neuromuscular system to members of the pyrokinin peptide family: only one of five crustacean isoforms showed any bioactivity in the cardiac system. Because previous studies in other species had found little isoform specificity in pyrokinin actions, we examined the effects of the same five crustacean pyrokinins on the lobster stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). In contrast to our findings in the cardiac system, the effects of the five pyrokinin isoforms on the STNS were indistinguishable: they all activated or enhanced the gastric mill motor pattern, but did not alter the pyloric pattern. These results, in combination with those from the cardiac ganglion, suggest that members of a peptide family in the same species can be both isoform specific and highly promiscuous in their modulatory capacity. The mechanisms that underlie these differences in specificity have not yet been elucidated; one possible explanation, which has yet to be tested, is the presence and differential distribution of multiple receptors for members of this peptide family. PMID:26206359

  12. Piloting Health Text Messages for Rural Low-Income Mothers: Effects of Source Similarity and Simple Action Steps.

    PubMed

    Aldoory, Linda; Yaros, Ronald A; Prado, Antonio A; Roberts, Erica; Briones, Rowena L

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 85% of people living in rural settings own a cell phone, and of those, 76% send or receive text messages. Thus, text messaging may be an effective way to reach rural low-income mothers with important information and resources that will improve their health and well-being. This exploratory study examined the utility of using text messaging for disseminating health information to rural low-income mothers. Researchers tested messages that were personalized and sent from a source similar to participants, a mom named Ms. Peg. Ms. Peg sent text messages about physical activity, oral health, nutrition, and health insurance-facts and tips that addressed barriers and lifestyles in rural low-income contexts-over a 4-week period. Participants completed a prequestionnaire assessing healthy behaviors, text message use and preference, and demographic information. Participants then received two text messages for 4 weeks. Findings indicated that participants were satisfied receiving information through text messages, with half finding it "easy" and "convenient." The majority reported being highly motivated by the messages, and for 41% the messages were associated with self-efficacy and intention to act. Close to half of the participants found the use of personalization effective and perceived the messages as "relatable." PMID:26921364

  13. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: II. Multiple pyrokinins exert similar effects in the lobster stomatogastric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Kurland, Sienna C; Qu, Xuan; Parker, Brett O; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A; Williams, Alex H; Ysasi, Alexandra B; Christie, Andrew E

    2015-09-01

    Many neuropeptides are members of peptide families, with multiple structurally similar isoforms frequently found even within a single species. This raises the question of whether the individual peptides serve common or distinct functions. In the accompanying paper, we found high isoform specificity in the responses of the lobster (Homarus americanus) cardiac neuromuscular system to members of the pyrokinin peptide family: only one of five crustacean isoforms showed any bioactivity in the cardiac system. Because previous studies in other species had found little isoform specificity in pyrokinin actions, we examined the effects of the same five crustacean pyrokinins on the lobster stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). In contrast to our findings in the cardiac system, the effects of the five pyrokinin isoforms on the STNS were indistinguishable: they all activated or enhanced the gastric mill motor pattern, but did not alter the pyloric pattern. These results, in combination with those from the cardiac ganglion, suggest that members of a peptide family in the same species can be both isoform specific and highly promiscuous in their modulatory capacity. The mechanisms that underlie these differences in specificity have not yet been elucidated; one possible explanation, which has yet to be tested, is the presence and differential distribution of multiple receptors for members of this peptide family. PMID:26206359

  14. Effects of internal heat transfer on the structure of self-similar blast waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghoniem, A. F.; Berger, S. A.; Oppenheim, A. K.; Kamel, M. M.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the problem of self-similar, nonadiabatic blast waves, where both conduction and radiation are allowed to take place, show the problem to be reducible to the integration of a system of six coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Consideration of these equations shows that although radiation tends to produce uniform fields through temperature gradient attenuation, all the energy carried by radiation is deposited on the front and the bounding shock becomes increasingly overdriven. When conduction is taken into account, the distribution of gasdynamic parameters in blast waves in the case of Rosseland diffusion radiation is more uniform than in the case of the Planck emission radiation.

  15. Location of the redox-active thiols of ribonucleotide reductase: sequences similarity between the Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus leichmannii enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, A.N.I.; Ashley, G.W.; Stubbe, J.

    1987-11-03

    The redox-active thiols of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase and of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase have been located by a procedure involving (1) prereduction of enzyme with dithiothreitol, (2) specific oxidation of the redox-active thiols by treatment with substrate in the absence of exogenous reductant, (3) alkylation of other thiols with iodoacetamide, and (4) reduction of the disulfides with dithiothreitol and alkylation with (1-/sup 14/C)iodoacetamide. The dithiothreitol-reduce E. coli B1 subunit is able to convert 3 equiv of CDP to dCDP and is labeled with 5.4 equiv of /sup 14/C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 2.8 equiv of /sup 14/C is on cysteines-752 and -757 at the C-terminus of B1, while 1.0-1.5 equiv of /sup 14/C is on cysteines-222 and -227. It thus appears that two sets of redox-active dithiols are involved in substrate reduction. The L. leichmannii reductase is able to convert 1.1 equiv of CTP to dCTP and is labeled with 2.1 equiv of /sup 14/C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 1.4 equiv of /sup 14/C is located on the two cysteines of C-E-G-G-A-C-P-I-K. This peptide shows remarkable and unexpected similarity to the thiol-containing region of the C-terminal peptide of E. coli B1, C-E-S-G-A-C-K-I.

  16. Dysregulated Immune Activation in Second-Line HAART HIV+ Patients Is Similar to That of Untreated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Espíndola, Milena S.; Lima, Leonardo J. G.; Soares, Luana S.; Cacemiro, Maira C.; Zambuzi, Fabiana A.; de Souza Gomes, Matheus; Amaral, Laurence R.; Bollela, Valdes R.; Martins-Filho, Olindo A.; Frantz, Fabiani G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the outcome of AIDS patients worldwide because the complete suppression of viremia improves health and prolongs life expectancy of HIV-1+ patients. However, little attention has been given to the immunological profile of patients under distinct HAART regimens. This work aimed to investigate the differences in the immunological pattern of HIV-1+ patients under the first- or second-line HAART in Brazil. Methods CD4+ T cell counts, Viral load, and plasma concentration of sCD14, sCD163, MCP-1, RANTES, IP-10, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 were assessed for immunological characterization of the following clinical groups: Non-infected individuals (NI; n = 66), HIV-1+ untreated (HIV; n = 46), HIV-1+ treated with first-line HAART (HAART 1; n = 15); and HIV-1+ treated with second-line HAART (HAART 2; n = 15). Results We found that the immunological biosignature pattern of HAART 1 is similar to that of NI individuals, especially in patients presenting slow progression of the disease, while patients under HAART 2 remain in a moderate inflammatory state, which is similar to that of untreated HIV patients pattern. Network correlations revealed that differences in IP-10, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-α, and IL-10 interactions were primordial in HIV disease and treatment. Heat map and decision tree analysis identified that IP-10>TNF-α>IFN-α were the best respective HAART segregation biomarkers. Conclusion HIV patients in different HAART regimens develop distinct immunological biosignature, introducing a novel perspective into disease outcome and potential new therapies that consider HAART patients as a heterogeneous group. PMID:26684789

  17. Similarities and differences of acute nonconvulsive seizures and other epileptic activities following penetrating and ischemic brain injuries in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi-Chun May; Mountney, Andrea; Chen, Zhiyong; Wei, Guo; Cao, Ying; Leung, Lai Yee; Khatri, Vivek; Cunningham, Tracy; Tortella, Frank C

    2013-04-01

    The similarities and differences between acute nonconvulsive seizures (NCS) and other epileptic events, for example, periodic epileptiform discharges (PED) and intermittent rhythmic delta activities (IRDA), were characterized in rat models of penetrating and ischemic brain injuries. The NCS were spontaneously induced by either unilateral frontal penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), and were detected by continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring begun immediately after the injury and continued for 72 h or 24 h, respectively. Analysis of NCS profiles (incidence, frequency, duration, and time distribution) revealed a high NCS incidence in both injury models. The EEG waveform expressions of NCS and PED exhibited intrinsic variations that resembled human electrographic manifestations of post-traumatic and post-ischemic ictal and inter-ictal events, but these waveform variations were not distinguishable between the two types of brain injury. However, the NCS after pMCAO occurred more acutely and intensely (latency=0.6 h, frequency=25 episodes/rat) compared with the PBBI-induced NCS (latency=24 h, frequency=10 episodes/rat), such that the most salient features differentiating post-traumatic and post-ischemic NCS were the intensity and time distribution of the NCS profiles. After pMCAO, nearly 50% of the seizures occurred within the first 2 h of injury, whereas after PBBI, NCS occurred sporadically (0-5%/h) throughout the 72 h recording period. The PED were episodically associated with NCS. By contrast, the IRDA appeared to be independent of other epileptic events. This study provided comprehensive comparisons of post-traumatic and post-ischemic epileptic profiles. The identification of the similarities and differences across a broad spectrum of epileptic events may lead to differential strategies for post-traumatic and post-stroke seizure interventions.

  18. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes: a six-nation study.

    PubMed

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is the consequence of a threatened identity due to its relative size combined with too much similarity on a vital part of its identity, namely language. To test this hypothesis, 832 high-school students from six different ethnic/national entities (France, Germany, Austria, the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the French- and Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium, and The Netherlands) completed a questionnaire on liking and similarity ratings. The results-to a large extent-showed that differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity with another nation, pose a threat to the identity of the smaller nation or ethnic group. Differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity, were associated with asymmetries in mutual liking on one hand and asymmetrical perceptions of similarity to the other country on the other hand. The conclusions of this study are consistent with findings of earlier research and stress the importance of language for a nation's identity. Moreover, the findings support social identity theory as a useful theory for understanding intergroup and international relations. Les nations voisines linguistiquement similaires qui diffèrent en taille sont souvent asymétriques dans leurs relations attitudinales l'une envers l'autre: les citoyens des nations plus petites tendent à voir les nations plus grandes comme moins sympathiques et moins semblables et vice-versa. Notre hypothèse était que la réaction des nations plus petites est la conséquence d'un sentiment de menace à l'identité dû à leur taille réduite combinée avec trop de similitudes concernant une partie vitale de leur identité: c'est-à-dire le langage. Pour

  19. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes: a six-nation study.

    PubMed

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is the consequence of a threatened identity due to its relative size combined with too much similarity on a vital part of its identity, namely language. To test this hypothesis, 832 high-school students from six different ethnic/national entities (France, Germany, Austria, the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the French- and Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium, and The Netherlands) completed a questionnaire on liking and similarity ratings. The results-to a large extent-showed that differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity with another nation, pose a threat to the identity of the smaller nation or ethnic group. Differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity, were associated with asymmetries in mutual liking on one hand and asymmetrical perceptions of similarity to the other country on the other hand. The conclusions of this study are consistent with findings of earlier research and stress the importance of language for a nation's identity. Moreover, the findings support social identity theory as a useful theory for understanding intergroup and international relations. Les nations voisines linguistiquement similaires qui diffèrent en taille sont souvent asymétriques dans leurs relations attitudinales l'une envers l'autre: les citoyens des nations plus petites tendent à voir les nations plus grandes comme moins sympathiques et moins semblables et vice-versa. Notre hypothèse était que la réaction des nations plus petites est la conséquence d'un sentiment de menace à l'identité dû à leur taille réduite combinée avec trop de similitudes concernant une partie vitale de leur identité: c'est-à-dire le langage. Pour

  20. The Effects of Attitude Similarity, Spatial Relationship, and Task Difficulty on Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krivonos, Paul D.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a study of the effects of the occupation of an individual's personal space on that individual's judgment of the invader when the invader's attitudes are known to the invadee. Also studies the effect of the difficulty of the task on the relationship between spatial orientation and interpersonal attraction. (JMF)

  1. Reevaluating Key Evidence for the Development of Rehearsal: Phonological Similarity Effects in Children Are Subject to Proportional Scaling Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Citroen, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    The size of an individual's phonological similarity effect for visually presented material is assumed to reflect his or her ability to recode, and by implication rehearse, information in verbal short-term memory. Many studies have shown that under these conditions, the size of this effect interacts with age, tending to be nonsignificant in…

  2. Potency of Full- Length MGF to Induce Maximal Activation of the IGF-I R Is Similar to Recombinant Human IGF-I at High Equimolar Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Joseph A. M. J. L.; Hofland, Leo J.; Strasburger, Christian J.; van den Dungen, Elisabeth S. R.; Thevis, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare full-length mechano growth factor (full-length MGF) with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and human recombinant insulin (HI) in their ability to activate the human IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), the human insulin receptor (IR-A) and the human insulin receptor-B (IR-B), respectively. In addition, we tested the stimulatory activity of human MGF and its stabilized analog Goldspink-MGF on the IGF-IR. Methods The effects of full-length MGF, IGF-I, human mechano growth factor (MGF), Goldspink-MGF and HI were compared using kinase specific receptor activation (KIRA) bioassays specific for IGF-I, IR-A or IR-B, respectively. These assays quantify activity by measuring auto-phosphorylation of the receptor upon ligand binding. Results IGF-IR: At high equimolar concentrations maximal IGF-IR stimulating effects generated by full-length MGF were similar to that of IGF-I (89-fold vs. 77-fold, respectively). However, EC50 values of IGF-I and full-length MGF for the IGF-I receptor were 0.86 nmol/L (95% CI 0.69–1.07) and 7.83 nmol/L (95% CI: 4.87–12.58), respectively. No IGF-IR activation was observed by human MGF and Goldspink-MGF, respectively. IR-A/IR-B: At high equimolar concentrations similar maximal IR-A stimulating effects were observed for full -length MGF and HI, but maximal IR-B stimulation achieved by full -length MGF was stronger than that by HI (292-fold vs. 98-fold). EC50 values of HI and full-length MGF for the IR-A were 1.13 nmol/L (95% CI 0.69–1.84) and 73.11 nmol/L (42.87–124.69), respectively; for IR-B these values were 1.28 nmol/L (95% CI 0.64–2.57) and 35.10 nmol/L (95% 17.52–70.33), respectively. Conclusions Full-length MGF directly stimulates the IGF-IR. Despite a higher EC50 concentration, at high equimolar concentrations full-length MGF showed a similar maximal potency to activate the IGF-IR as compared to IGF-I. Further research is needed to understand the actions of full-length MGF in vivo and to define the

  3. Development of pharmacophore similarity-based quantitative activity hypothesis and its applicability domain: applied on a diverse data-set of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Jasrai, Yogesh T; Mehta, Vijay P; Pandya, Himanshu A

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative pharmacophore hypothesis combines the 3D spatial arrangement of pharmacophore features with biological activities of the ligand data-set and predicts the activities of geometrically and/or pharmacophoric similar ligands. Most pharmacophore discovery programs face difficulties in conformational flexibility, molecular alignment, pharmacophore features sampling, and feature selection to score models if the data-set constitutes diverse ligands. Towards this focus, we describe a ligand-based computational procedure to introduce flexibility in aligning the small molecules and generating a pharmacophore hypothesis without geometrical constraints to define pharmacophore space, enriched with chemical features necessary to elucidate common pharmacophore hypotheses (CPHs). Maximal common substructure (MCS)-based alignment method was adopted to guide the alignment of carbon molecules, deciphered the MCS atom connectivity to cluster molecules in bins and subsequently, calculated the pharmacophore similarity matrix with the bin-specific reference molecules. After alignment, the carbon molecules were enriched with original atoms in their respective positions and conventional pharmacophore features were perceived. Distance-based pharmacophoric descriptors were enumerated by computing the interdistance between perceived features and MCS-aligned 'centroid' position. The descriptor set and biological activities were used to develop support vector machine models to predict the activities of the external test set. Finally, fitness score was estimated based on pharmacophore similarity with its bin-specific reference molecules to recognize the best and poor alignments and, also with each reference molecule to predict outliers of the quantitative hypothesis model. We applied this procedure to a diverse data-set of 40 HIV-1 integrase inhibitors and discussed its effectiveness with the reported CPH model.

  4. The Target Selective Neural Response — Similarity, Ambiguity, and Learning Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hampshire, Adam; Thompson, Russell; Duncan, John; Owen, Adrian M.

    2008-01-01

    A network of frontal and parietal brain regions is commonly recruited during tasks that require the deliberate ‘top-down’ control of thought and action. Previously, using simple target detection, we have demonstrated that within this frontoparietal network, the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) in particular is sensitive to the presentation of target objects. Here, we use a range of target/non-target morphs to plot the target selective response within distinct frontoparietal sub-regions in greater detail. The increased resolution allows us to examine the extent to which different cognitive factors can predict the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response to targets. Our results reveal that both probability of positive identification (similarity to target) and proximity to the 50% decision boundary (ambiguity) are significant predictors of BOLD signal change, particularly in the right VLPFC. Furthermore, the profile of target related signal change is not static, with the degree of selectivity increasing as the task becomes familiar. These findings demonstrate that frontoparietal sub-regions are recruited under increased cognitive demand and that when recruited, they adapt, using both fast and slow mechanisms, to selectively respond to those items that are of the most relevance to current intentions. PMID:18575585

  5. The Consequences of Differentiation in Episodic Memory: Similarity and the Strength Based Mirror Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.

    2006-01-01

    When items on one list receive more encoding than items on another list, the improvement in performance usually manifests as an increase in the hit rate and a decrease in the false alarm rate (FAR). A common account of this strength based mirror effect is that participants adopt a more strict criterion following a strongly than weakly encoded list…

  6. Specific vulnerability of face perception to noise: a similar effect in schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; McBain, Ryan; Norton, Daniel

    2015-02-28

    Face perception plays a foundational role in the social world. This perceptual ability is deficient in schizophrenia. A noise-filtering mechanism is essential for perceptual processing. It remains unclear as to whether a specific noise-filtering mechanism is implicated in the face perception problem or a general noise-filtering mechanism is involved which also mediates non-face visual perception problems associated with this psychiatric disorder. This study examined and compared the effects of external noise on the performance of face discrimination and car discrimination in schizophrenia patients (n=25) and healthy controls (n=27). Superimposing the external visual noise on face or car stimuli elevated perceptual thresholds (i.e. degraded performance levels) for both face and car discrimination. However, the effect of noise was significantly larger on face than on car discrimination, both in patients and controls. This pattern of results suggests specific vulnerability of face processing to noise in healthy individuals and those with schizophrenia.

  7. The flip-over effect in self-similar laser-induced plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Nathan P.; Shabanov, Sergei V.

    2008-09-15

    We present a rigorous study of a dynamical model for a nonsymmetric expansion of laser-induced plasma plumes into the vacuum. The model is used in the laser film deposition technique and for remote chemical analysis in the so-called laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. It defines a particular class of solutions of the hydrodynamics equations when the (plasma) mass density, pressure, and temperature as functions of position have level surfaces that are ellipsoids. The time evolution of ellipsoid semiaxes is determined by the dynamical model. In this model we investigate the flip-over effect: A pancakelike shape of the plasma plume turns into a cigarlike shape and vice versa in due course of its expansion. The effect has been observed in experiments as well as in numerical simulations. In many practical cases, axially symmetric plasma plumes with the adiabatic constant of (5/3) (ideal gas) are used. For this case we prove that the flip-over effect occurs exactly once in the above dynamical model. This rigorous result agrees with the earlier experimental and numerical evidence and, hence, validates a wide applicability of the model.

  8. The flip-over effect in self-similar laser-induced plasma expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Nathan P.; Shabanov, Sergei V.

    2008-09-01

    We present a rigorous study of a dynamical model for a nonsymmetric expansion of laser-induced plasma plumes into the vacuum. The model is used in the laser film deposition technique and for remote chemical analysis in the so-called laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. It defines a particular class of solutions of the hydrodynamics equations when the (plasma) mass density, pressure, and temperature as functions of position have level surfaces that are ellipsoids. The time evolution of ellipsoid semiaxes is determined by the dynamical model. In this model we investigate the flip-over effect: A pancakelike shape of the plasma plume turns into a cigarlike shape and vice versa in due course of its expansion. The effect has been observed in experiments as well as in numerical simulations. In many practical cases, axially symmetric plasma plumes with the adiabatic constant of 5/3 (ideal gas) are used. For this case we prove that the flip-over effect occurs exactly once in the above dynamical model. This rigorous result agrees with the earlier experimental and numerical evidence and, hence, validates a wide applicability of the model.

  9. The effects of gravity on human walking: a new test of the dynamic similarity hypothesis using a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Raichlen, David A

    2008-09-01

    The dynamic similarity hypothesis (DSH) suggests that differences in animal locomotor biomechanics are due mostly to differences in size. According to the DSH, when the ratios of inertial to gravitational forces are equal between two animals that differ in size [e.g. at equal Froude numbers, where Froude = velocity2/(gravity x hip height)], their movements can be made similar by multiplying all time durations by one constant, all forces by a second constant and all linear distances by a third constant. The DSH has been generally supported by numerous comparative studies showing that as inertial forces differ (i.e. differences in the centripetal force acting on the animal due to variation in hip heights), animals walk with dynamic similarity. However, humans walking in simulated reduced gravity do not walk with dynamically similar kinematics. The simulated gravity experiments did not completely account for the effects of gravity on all body segments, and the importance of gravity in the DSH requires further examination. This study uses a kinematic model to predict the effects of gravity on human locomotion, taking into account both the effects of gravitational forces on the upper body and on the limbs. Results show that dynamic similarity is maintained in altered gravitational environments. Thus, the DSH does account for differences in the inertial forces governing locomotion (e.g. differences in hip height) as well as differences in the gravitational forces governing locomotion. PMID:18723533

  10. Beyond personality impressions: effects of physical and vocal attractiveness on false consensus, social comparison, affiliation, and assumed and perceived similarity.

    PubMed

    Miyake, K; Zuckerman, M

    1993-09-01

    We examined the effects of target persons' physical and vocal attractiveness on judges' responses to five measures: false consensus (the belief that the target shares one's behavior), choice of targets as comparison others, affiliation with targets, assumed similarity (similarity between self-ratings and ratings assigned to targets), and perceived similarity (direct questions about similarity). Higher physical attractiveness and higher vocal attractiveness were both related to higher scores on all variables. The effect of one type of attractiveness was more pronounced for higher levels of the other type of attractiveness. The joint effect of the two types of attractiveness was best described as synergistic, i.e., only targets high on both types of attractiveness elicited higher scores on the dependent variables. The effect of physical attractiveness on most dependent variables was more pronounced for subjects who were themselves physically attractive. The synergistic effect (the advantage of targets high on both types of attractiveness) was more pronounced for judges high in self-monitoring. The contribution of the study to the literature on attractiveness stereotypes is discussed. PMID:8246108

  11. Thermic effects of food and exercise in lean and obese men of similar lean body mass.

    PubMed

    Segal, K R; Gutin, B; Albu, J; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1987-01-01

    The thermic effect of food at rest, during 30 min of cycle exercise, and postexercise with two sequences of exercise and meal (before or after exercise) was compared in eight lean (mean +/- SE, 12.8 +/- 0.7% body fat) and eight obese men (29.7 +/- 0.6% fat) to determine whether exercise before or after a meal enhances thermogenesis. The groups were matched for age, height, and lean body mass (LBM) in order to study the relationship between thermogenesis and body fat independent of LBM. Metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry on five mornings, in randomized order, after an overnight fast. Treatments on respective days were 1) 3-h rest, no meal; 2) 3-h rest after a 750-kcal mixed meal (14% protein, 31% fat, 55% carbohydrate); 3) during and 3 h after 30 min of cycling, no meal; 4) during and 3 h after 30 min of cycling, meal 30 min before exercise; and 5) 3 h after 30 min of cycling, meal immediately after exercise. The thermic effect of food, which is the fed minus fasted caloric expenditure, was significantly greater for the lean than the obese men under the resting (mean +/- SE 53 +/- 5 vs. 26 +/- 5 kcal over 3 h for the lean and obese groups, P less than 0.01), exercise (26 +/- 4 vs. 4 +/- 2 kcal over 30 min, P less than 0.01), and both postexercise conditions. However, for the lean men the thermic effect of food was significantly greater for the meal-before-exercise than the resting and the meal-after-exercise conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Conventional physiotherapy and forced expiration manoeuvres have similar effects on tracheobronchial clearance.

    PubMed

    van Hengstum, M; Festen, J; Beurskens, C; Hankel, M; Beekman, F; Corstens, F

    1988-08-01

    This study compared the effect of two forms of chest physiotherapy. In the "conventional" form of physiotherapy, postural drainage was combined with percussion and directed coughing. The other, relatively new form of physiotherapy, was the forced expiration technique, i.e. huffing combined with postural drainage, breathing exercises and, if necessary, coughing. Eight patients (six with cystic fibrosis, two with agammaglobulinaemia) took part in the study. No difference was found in tracheobronchial clearance, regional lung clearance, sputum production or lung function between the two forms of treatment. The forced expiration technique can be performed without an assistant. Therefore, it is concluded that in general the forced expiration technique is preferable.

  13. Similar and Additive Effects of Ovariectomy and Diabetes on Insulin Resistance and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Shady H.; Mahmoud, Bothaina F.; Saad, Mohamed I.; Shehata, Mona; Kamel, Maher A.; Helmy, Madiha H.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is among the leading causes of death in postmenopausal women. The disruption of ovarian function may contribute to the incidence of T2DM. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ovariectomy and T2DM on glucose and lipid homeostasis, perilipin levels in adipose tissues, as a lipolytic regulator, and levels of certain adipokines. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were used as a model for postmenopausal women. The study was performed on sham, OVX, sham diabetic, and OVX diabetic female rats. The results indicated that ovariectomy alters adipose tissue metabolism through reducing perilipin content in white adipose tissue (WAT); however it has no effect on perilipin level in brown adipose tissue (BAT). OVX diabetic females suffer from serious metabolic disturbances, suggested by exacerbation of insulin resistance in terms of disrupted lipid profile, higher HOMA-IR, hyperinsulinemia, higher leptin, and lower adiponectin concentrations. These metabolic derangements may underlie the predisposition for cardiovascular disease in women after menopause. Therefore, for efficient treatment, the menopausal status of diabetic female should be addressed, and the order of events is of great importance because ovariectomy following development of diabetes has more serious complications compared to development of diabetes as result of menopause. PMID:25834745

  14. Maltodextrin can produce similar metabolic and cognitive effects to those of sucrose in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Michael D; Lin, Candy S; Beilharz, Jessica E; Rooney, Kieron B; Boakes, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    In the context of the well-documented metabolic and behavioural effects of supplementing rats' diets with access to a sucrose solution, the aim of this study was to compare the impact of 10% sucrose with that of an isoenergetic (10.4%) solution of hydrolysed starch, maltodextrin. This polysaccharide is metabolised at least as rapidly as sucrose and is also very palatable to rats, but does not contain fructose. Each of three experiments contained three groups: one given a sucrose solution, one given a maltodextrin solution and a control group maintained on standard chow and water alone. In Experiment 1 the sucrose and maltodextrin groups were given their supplementary drinks for 2 h each day, while in Experiments 2 and 3 these groups had 24-h access to their supplements. Ad libitum access to maltodextrin produced at least as rapid weight gain as sucrose and in Experiment 2 retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in the two carbohydrate groups than in the control group. Moreover, in Experiment 3, impaired performance on a location recognition task was also found in both carbohydrate groups after only 17 days on the diets. These results indicate that the harmful effects of excess sucrose consumption can also be produced by another rapidly absorbed carbohydrate that does not contain fructose.

  15. Grammatical Gender Processing in L2: Electrophysiological Evidence of the Effect of L1-L2 Syntactic Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucart, Alice; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of proficiency and similarity between the first and the second language on grammatical gender processing in L2. In three experiments, we manipulated gender agreement violations within the determiner phrase (DP), between the determiner and the noun (Experiment 1), the postposed adjective and the noun (Experiment 2)…

  16. The Effect of Similarity/Dissimilarity of Race and Personal Interests on Empathy and Altruism in Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panofsky, Anne D.

    The experiment reported in this dissertation investigated the effect of similarity/dissimilarity of race and personal interests on empathy and altruism in second graders. It was hypothesized that white children would empathize more with other white children than with black children. It was also hypothesized that white children would empathize more…

  17. Interference between maintenance and processing in working memory: the effect of item-distractor similarity in complex span.

    PubMed

    Oberauer, Klaus; Farrell, Simon; Jarrold, Christopher; Pasiecznik, Kazimir; Greaves, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Four experiments examined the effect of phonological similarity between items and distractors on complex span performance. Item-distractor similarity benefited serial recall when distractors followed the items they were similar to, but not when distractors preceded the items they were similar to. These findings are predicted by C-SOB (contextual serial order in a box), a computational model of complex span. The model assumes that distractors are involuntarily encoded into memory, being associated to the preceding item's list position. Distractors interfere with items by superposition of distributed representations that are associated to the same position. Superposition distorts item memory; this distortion is less severe when the distractor is similar to the item. Further support for the assumption that distractors are encoded at the position of the preceding item comes from the finding that intrusions of distractors at recall tended to come from the position of the target item. In addition, intruding distractors tend to replace items to which they are similar, showing that lack of distinctiveness also contributes to interference.

  18. Interference between maintenance and processing in working memory: the effect of item-distractor similarity in complex span.

    PubMed

    Oberauer, Klaus; Farrell, Simon; Jarrold, Christopher; Pasiecznik, Kazimir; Greaves, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Four experiments examined the effect of phonological similarity between items and distractors on complex span performance. Item-distractor similarity benefited serial recall when distractors followed the items they were similar to, but not when distractors preceded the items they were similar to. These findings are predicted by C-SOB (contextual serial order in a box), a computational model of complex span. The model assumes that distractors are involuntarily encoded into memory, being associated to the preceding item's list position. Distractors interfere with items by superposition of distributed representations that are associated to the same position. Superposition distorts item memory; this distortion is less severe when the distractor is similar to the item. Further support for the assumption that distractors are encoded at the position of the preceding item comes from the finding that intrusions of distractors at recall tended to come from the position of the target item. In addition, intruding distractors tend to replace items to which they are similar, showing that lack of distinctiveness also contributes to interference. PMID:22141748

  19. Physical aggression, spreading of rumors, and social prominence in early adolescence: reciprocal effects supporting gender similarities?

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2013-12-01

    There is a robust association between aggression and social prominence by early adolescence, yet findings regarding the direction of influence remain inconclusive in light of gender differences across various forms of aggressive behaviors. The current study examined whether physical aggression and spreading of rumors, as two gender-typed aggressive behaviors that differ in overt displays of power, promote and/or maintain socially prominent status for girls and boys during non-transitional grades in middle school. Peer nominations were used to assess physical aggression, spreading of rumors, and "cool" reputation (social prominence) during three time points between the spring of seventh grade and spring of eighth grade. Participants included 1,895 (54 % female) ethnically diverse youth: 47 % Latino, 22 % African-American, 11 % Asian, 10 % White and 10 % Other/Mixed ethnic background. Cross-lagged path analyses were conducted to test the directionality of the effects, and gender moderation was assessed by relying on multi-group analyses. The analyses revealed mainly reciprocal associations for each form of aggression, suggesting that boys, as well as girls, can both gain and maintain their status by spreading rumors about their peers, just as they do by physically fighting and pushing others in urban middle schools. The implications of the findings for interventions are discussed.

  20. Do cancer cells in human and meristematic cells in plant exhibit similar responses toward plant extracts with cytotoxic activities?

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Noha S; Barakat, Hoda S; Elhallouty, Salwa; Salem, Dina

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of water extracts of Persea americana fruit, and of the leaves of Tabernamontana divericata, Nerium oleander and Annona cherimolia (positive control) on Vicia faba root cells. We had confirmed in our previously published data the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts on four human cancer cell lines: liver (HepG-2), lung (A549), colon (HT-29) and breast (MCF-7). Vicia faba roots were soaked in plant extracts at dilutions of 100, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 ppm for 4 and 24 h. All treatments resulted in a significant reduction in the mitotic index in a dose dependant manner. Root cells treated with T. divericata, N. oleander and A. cherimolia exhibited a decrease in prophase cell percentage, increase in micronuclei and chromosomal abnormalities as concentration increased. The P. americana treatment showed the highest cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, prophase cell percentage increased linearly with the applied concentration and no micronuclei were detected. This study shows that root tip assay of beans can be used in initial screening for new plant extracts to validate their use as candidates for containing active cytotoxic agents against malignant cells. This will greatly help in exploring new plant extracts as drugs for cancer treatment. PMID:24705601

  1. Similar names for similar biologics.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Nicole; Felix, Thomas; Strober, Bruce E; Warnock, David G

    2014-10-01

    Approval of the first biosimilar in the USA may occur by the end of 2014, yet a naming approach for biosimilars has not been determined. Biosimilars are highly similar to their biologic reference product but are not identical to it, because of their structural complexity and variations in manufacturing processes among companies. There is a need for a naming approach that can distinguish a biosimilar from its reference product and other biosimilars and ensure accurate tracing of adverse events (AEs) to the administered product. In contrast, generic small-molecule drugs are identical to their reference product and, therefore, share the same nonproprietary name. Clinical trials required to demonstrate biosimilarity for approval may not detect rare AEs or those occurring after prolonged use, and the incidence of such events may differ between a biosimilar and its reference product. The need for precise biologic identification is further underscored by the possibility of biosimilar interchangeability, a US designation that will allow substitution without prescriber intervention. For several biologics, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has used a naming approach that adds a prefix to a common root nonproprietary name, enabling healthcare providers to distinguish between products, avoid medication errors, and facilitate pharmacovigilance. We recommend that the FDA implement a biosimilars naming policy that likewise would add a distinguishable prefix or suffix to the root nonproprietary name of the reference product. This approach would ensure that a biosimilar could be distinguished from its reference product and other biosimilars in patient records and pharmacovigilance databases/reports, facilitating accurate attribution of AEs. PMID:25001080

  2. Phonological similarity and lexicality effects in children's verbal short-term memory: concerns about the interpretation of probed recall data.

    PubMed

    Jarrold, Christopher; Cocksey, Joanne; Dockerill, Emma

    2008-02-01

    Probed recall tasks are often used to assess aspects of children's verbal short-term memory development because they are not subject to potentially confounding output effects. However, the marked recency effects that are observed in probed recall means that these tasks are potentially insensitive to experimental manipulations when later serial positions are probed. This clouds the interpretation of data from probed recall studies in which children of different ages are presented with to-be-remembered lists of different lengths. In two experiments we examined the magnitude of phonological similarity and lexicality effects in both 5- to 6- and 8- to 9-year-old children. In each case performance on probed recall tasks was contrasted with that seen on tests of serial recognition. The results indicated that probed recall tasks are potentially less sensitive to experimental manipulations in younger than older children. However, comparable effects of both phonological similarity and lexicality were seen in both age groups using serial recognition procedures. These findings have implications for the interpretation of other studies that have examined the development of verbal short-term memory using probed recall and for theoretical accounts of the development of phonological similarity and lexicality effects in children.

  3. Do transposed-letter similarity effects occur at a morpheme level? Evidence for morpho-orthographic decomposition.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Perea, Manuel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2007-12-01

    When does morphological decomposition occur in visual word recognition? An increasing body of evidence suggests the presence of early morphological processing. The present work investigates this issue via an orthographic similarity manipulation. Three masked priming lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the transposed-letter similarity effect (e.g., jugde facilitates JUDGE more than the control jupbe) in polymorphemic and monomorphemic words. If morphological decomposition occurs at early stages of visual word recognition, we would expect an interaction with transposed-letter effects. Experiment 1 was carried out in Basque, which is an agglutinative language. The nonword primes were created by transposing two letters that either crossed the morphological boundaries of suffixes or did not. Results showed a transposed-letter effect for non-affixed words, whereas there were no signs of a transposed-letter effect across morpheme boundaries for affixed words. In Experiment 2, this issue was revisited in a non-agglutinative language (Spanish), with prefixed and suffixed word pairs. Again, results showed a significant transposed-letter effect for non-affixed words, whereas there were no signs of a transposed-letter effect across morpheme boundaries for affixed words (both prefixed words and suffixed words). Experiment 3 replicated the previous findings, and also revealed that, for polymorphemic words, transposed-letter priming effects occurred for within-morpheme transpositions. Taken together, these findings support the view that morphological decomposition operates at an early stage of visual word recognition.

  4. [Psychotropic effects of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Nespor, K; Csémy, L

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity can improve mental health. Positive effect of physical activity on depression and anxiety are mentioned. Moreover physical activity increases resistance against memory loss during aging. Physical activity also improves quality and life satisfaction in all age group; this fact was confirmed also in Czech children. Physical activity should be sufficient, but not excessive, and it should be combined with pharmacotherapy in severe and long-term depression. The kind of physical activity depends on the preferences and possibilities of patients; walking, yoga, swimming, etc. are usually appropriate.

  5. Either Kras activation or Pten loss similarly enhance the dominant-stable CTNNB1-induced genetic program to promote granulosa cell tumor development in the ovary and testis.

    PubMed

    Richards, J S; Fan, H-Y; Liu, Z; Tsoi, M; Laguë, M-N; Boyer, A; Boerboom, D

    2012-03-22

    WNT, RAS or phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways control specific stages of ovarian follicular development. To analyze the functional interactions of these pathways in granulosa cells during follicular development in vivo, we generated specific mutant mouse models. Stable activation of the WNT signaling effector β-catenin (CTNNB1) in granulosa cells results in the formation of premalignant lesions that develop into granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) spontaneously later in life or following targeted deletion of the tumor suppressor gene Pten. Conversely, expression of oncogenic KRAS(G12D) dramatically arrests proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in granulosa cells, and consequently, small abnormal follicle-like structures devoid of oocytes accumulate in the ovary. Because of the potent anti-proliferative effects of KRAS(G12D) in granulosa cells, we sought to determine whether KRAS(G12D) would block precancerous lesion and tumor formation in follicles of the CTNNB1-mutant mice. Unexpectedly, transgenic Ctnnb1;Kras-mutant mice exhibited increased GC proliferation, decreased apoptosis and impaired differentiation and developed early-onset GCTs leading to premature death in a manner similar to the Ctnnb1;Pten-mutant mice. Microarray and reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that gene regulatory processes induced by CTNNB1 were mostly enhanced by either KRAS activation or Pten loss in remarkably similar patterns and degree. The concomitant activation of CTNNB1 and KRAS in Sertoli cells also caused testicular granulosa cell tumors that showed gene expression patterns that partially overlapped those observed in GCTs of the ovary. Although the mutations analyzed herein have not yet been linked to adult GCTs in humans, they may be related to juvenile GCTs or to tumors in other tissues where CTNNB1 is mutated. Importantly, the results provide strong evidence that CTNNB1 is the driver in these contexts and that KRAS(G12D) and Pten loss promote the program set

  6. Monitor-outside-a-monitor effect and self-similar fractal structure in the eigenmodes of unstable optical resonators.

    PubMed

    Courtial, J; Padgett, M J

    2000-12-18

    A novel mechanism is proposed for the generation of self-similar structure over a limited range of length scales. Our mechanism, which we call the monitor-outside-a-monitor effect, comprises repeated magnification and addition of small-scale structure. We invoke this mechanism to explain recent observations of fractal structure in the eigenmodes of unstable optical resonators [G. P. Karman et al., Nature (London) 402, 138 (1999)]. PMID:11135986

  7. Effects of surface source/sink distributions on the flux-gradient similarity in the unstable surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Qing; Cai, Xuhui; Kang, Ling; Zhang, Hongsheng; Song, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the micrometeorological measurements at a heterogeneous farmland in the North China Plain, this study focused on the effects of surface source/sink distributions on the flux-gradient similarity theory in the unstable surface layer. Firstly, the quality of the micrometeorological measurements was evaluated by the analysis of the surface energy balance closure and the integral turbulence characteristics. In general, a 22 % deficit of energy balance was found at this site, with the sum of sensible and latent heat being smaller than the available energy. The normalized standard deviations of turbulent quantities behaved in accordance with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. However, slight departures from the classical formulations might be caused by the surface heterogeneity. Then, the applicability of flux-gradient similarity over the heterogeneous surface was examined. The observed normalized wind gradients agreed with the classical universal function established over homogeneous surface. However, due to the effects of surface source/sink distributions, the observed normalized humidity and temperature gradients deviated from the classical universal functions. Our study shows that the classical universal functions, when adjusted by a coefficient considering the effects of surface heterogeneity, can be utilized to estimate fluxes via gradient method even though over the heterogeneous surface. This adjustment coefficient was found to decrease linearly from unity with the increase of the absolute value of the vertical flux divergence.

  8. Sugar Consumption Produces Effects Similar to Early Life Stress Exposure on Hippocampal Markers of Neurogenesis and Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher P.; Youngson, Neil A.; Sinha, Jitendra K.; Morris, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse early life experience is a known risk factor for psychiatric disorders. It is also known that stress influences food preference. We were interested in exploring whether the choice of diet following early life stress exerts long-lasting molecular changes in the brain, particularly the hippocampus, a region critically involved in stress regulation and behavioral outcomes. Here, we examined the impact of early life stress induced by limited nesting material (LN) and chronic sucrose availability post-weaning on an array of hippocampal genes related to plasticity, neurogenesis, stress and inflammatory responses and mitochondrial biogenesis. To examine mechanisms underlying the impact of LN and sugar intake on hippocampal gene expression, we investigated the role of DNA methylation. As females are more likely to experience adverse life events, we studied female Sprague-Dawley rats. After mating LN was imposed from days 2 to 9 postpartum. From 3 to 15 weeks of age, female Control and LN siblings had unlimited to access to either chow and water, or chow, water and 25% sucrose solution. LN markedly reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and neurogenic differentiation 1 (Neurod1) mRNA, markers involved in stress and hippocampal plasticity respectively, by more than 40%, with a similar effect of sugar intake in control rats. However, no further impact was observed in LN rats consuming sugar. Hippocampal Akt3 mRNA expression was similarly affected by LN and sucrose consumption. Interestingly, DNA methylation across 4 CpG sites of the GR and Neurod1 promoters was similar in LN and control rats. In summary, early life stress and post-weaning sugar intake produced long-term effects on hippocampal GR and Neurod1 expression. Moreover we found no evidence of altered promoter DNA methylation. We demonstrate for the first time that chronic sucrose consumption alone produces similar detrimental effects on the expression of hippocampal genes as LN exposure. PMID:26834554

  9. The satiating effects of eggs or cottage cheese are similar in healthy subjects despite differences in postprandial kinetics.

    PubMed

    Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Fromentin, Gilles; Nau, Françoise; Airinei, Gheorghe; Piedcoq, Julien; Rémond, Didier; Barbillon, Pierre; Benamouzig, Robert; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire

    2015-07-01

    Studies have reported a better satiating effect of eggs when compared with common cereal-based breakfasts, an effect that can be attributed to their macronutrient composition. Our aim was to compare the satiating power of an omelette and cottage cheese, both being common food snacks with similar nutrient compositions (containing proteins and lipids) but in different food forms. Thirty healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover trial. On each test day, the subjects consumed one of the two snacks, both providing 1346 kJ, 26 g protein, 21 g lipids, and 8 g lactose. The elapsed time between the snack and lunch request, their food intake at lunch, and their satiety scores were recorded. In a subgroup of 10 volunteers, blood was sampled to measure plasma metabolites and hormones. The two preloads were similar in terms of the time between the snack and a request for the buffet (167 ± 8 min), energy intake at the buffet (3988 ± 180 kJ) and appetite ratings. Plasma amino acid and urea concentrations indicated a marked delay in kinetic delivery after the eggs compared with the cottage cheese. In contrast, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol displayed similar profiles after the snack. GIP and insulin secretions increased significantly after the cottage cheese, while glucagon and GLP-1 secretions were delayed with the omelette. We conclude that despite important differences in protein kinetics and their subsequent effects on hormone secretion, eggs and cottage cheese had a similar satiating power. This strongly suggests that with dose of proteins that is compatible to supplement strategies, i.e. 20-30 g, a modulation of protein kinetics is ineffective in increasing satiety. PMID:25772196

  10. [Peptide-agonist of protease-activated receptor (PAR 1), similar to activated protein C, promotes proliferation in keratinocytes and wound healing of epithelial layer].

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, E V; Sidorova, M V; Gorbacheva, L R; Strukova, S M

    2014-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is serine protease hemostasis, independent of its anticoagulant activity, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties that determine the possibility of the protective effects of APC in different diseases, including sepsis and chronic wound healing. APC, binding of endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and specifically cleaving PAR1 receptor and releasing peptide agonist PAR1 stabilizes not only endothelial cells, but also many others, including epidermal keratinocytes of the skin. We develop the hypothesis that the cytoprotective effect of APC on the cells, involved in wound healing, seem to imitate peptide - analogous of PAR1 "tethered ligand" that activate PAR1. In our work, we synthesized a peptide (AP9) - analogue of PAR1 tethered ligand, released by APC, and firstly showed that peptide AP9 (0.1-10 мM), like to APC (0.01-100 nM), stimulates the proliferative activity of human primary keratinocytes. Using a model of the formation of epithelial wounds in vitro we found that peptide AP9, as well as protease APC, accelerates wound healing. Using specific antibodies to the receptor PAR1 and EPCR was studied the receptor mechanism of AP9 action in wound healing compared with the action of APС. The necessity of both receptors - PAR1 and EPСR, for proliferative activity of agonists was revealed. Identified in our work imitation by peptide AP9 - PAR1 ligand, APC acts on keratinocytes suggests the possibility of using a peptide AP9 to stimulate tissue repair.

  11. Visual similarity effects on short-term memory for order: the case of verbally labeled pictorial stimuli.

    PubMed

    Poirer, Marie; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Musselwhite, Karen; Mohanadas, Thulasi; Mahammed, Ghuson

    2007-06-01

    Four experiments examined the effect of visual similarity on immediate memory for order. Experiments 1 and 2 used easily nameable line drawings. Following a sequential presentation in either silent or suppression conditions, participants were presented with the drawings in a new, random order and were required to remember their original serial position. In Experiment 3, participants first learned to associate a verbal label with an abstract matrix pattern. Then they completed an immediate memory task in which they had to name the matrices aloud during presentation. At recall, the task required remembering either the order of the matrices or the order of their names. In Experiment 4, participants learned to associate nonword labels with schematic line drawings of faces; the phonemic similarity of the verbal labels was also manipulated. All four experiments indicate that the representations supporting performance comprise both verbal and visual features. The results are consistent with a multiattribute encoding view.

  12. Similar time restriction for intracytoplasmic sperm injection and round spermatid injection into activated oocytes for efficient offspring production.

    PubMed

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nguyen, Van Thuan; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2004-06-01

    The injection of male haploid germ cells, such as spermatozoa and round spermatids, into preactivated mouse oocytes can result in the development of viable embryos and offspring. However, it is not clear how the timing of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) affects the production of offspring. We carried out ICSI and ROSI every 20 min for up to 4 h after the activation of mouse oocytes by Sr(2+) and compared the late-stage development of ICSI- and ROSI- treated oocytes, including the formation of pronuclei, blastocyst formation, and offspring production. The rate of pronucleus formation (RPF) after carrying out ICSI started to decrease from >95% at 100 min following oocyte activation and declined to <20% by 180 min. In comparison, RPF by ROSI decreased gradually from >70% between 0 and 4 h after activation. The RPFs were closely correlated with blastocyst formation. Offspring production for both ICSI and ROSI decreased significantly when injections were conducted after 100 min, a time at which activated oocytes were in the early G1 stage of the cell cycle. These results suggest that spermatozoa and round spermatids have different potentials for inducing the formation of a male pronucleus in activated oocytes, but ICSI and ROSI are both subject to the same time constraint for the efficient production of offspring, which is determined by the cell cycle of the activated oocyte. PMID:14985245

  13. TG containing stearic acid, synthesized from coconut oil, exhibit lipidemic effects in rats similar to those of cocoa butter.

    PubMed

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-09-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification was used to prepare structured TG from coconut oil TG by partially replacing some of the atherogenic saturated FA with stearic acid, which is known to have a neutral effect on lipid levels in the body. The level of stearic acid was increased from 4% in the native coconut oil to 40% in the structured lipids, with most of the stearic acid being incorporated into the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of TG. When structured lipids were fed to rats at a 10% level for a period of 60 d, a 15% decrease in total cholesterol and a 23% decrease in LDL cholesterol levels in the serum were observed when compared to those fed coconut oil. Similarly, the total and free cholesterol levels in the livers of the rats fed structured lipids were lowered by 31 and 36%, respectively, when compared to those fed coconut oil. The TG levels in the serum and in the liver showed decreases of 14 and 30%, respectively, in animals fed structured lipids. Rats fed cocoa butter and structured lipids having a similar amount of stearic acid had similar lipid levels in the serum and liver. These studies indicated that the atherogenic potential of coconut oil lipids can be reduced significantly by enriching them with stearic acid. This also changed the physical properties of coconut oil closer to those of cocoa butter as determined by DSC.

  14. Spaceflight on STS-48 and earth-based unweighting produce similar effects on skeletal muscle of young rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Munoz, Kathryn A.; Stump, Craig S.; Woodman, Christopher R.; Kirby, Christopher R.

    1993-01-01

    Eight female albino rats were exposed to 5.4 days of weightlessness aboard the Space Shuttle mission STS-48 in 1991. An asynchronous ground control experiment mimicked the flight cage conditions and mission duration of the STS-48 rats, and a third group of animals underwent limb suspension for 5.4 days. The flight animals gained a greater percentage of body mass per day despite similar rates of food consumption in the three groups. The results obtained on insulin response and muscle size show that a tail-cast hindlimb-suspension model is suitable for mimicking the effects of weightlessness on rapidly growing juvenile rat muscles.

  15. Brain Activity in Adults Who Stutter: Similarities across Speaking Tasks and Correlations with Stuttering Frequency and Speaking Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roger J.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ingham, Janis C.

    2012-01-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n = 18) and matched fluent…

  16. Short-term behaviour of two similar active glasses used as granules in the repair of bone defects.

    PubMed

    Gatti, A M; Zaffe, D

    1991-07-01

    The bioactivity of two similar vitreous materials used in the form of granules of 'critical' size was investigated in bone defects in jaws of two sheep. The granules consisted of Hench's Bioglass and another glass with the same chemical composition made in Italy. Two months after implantation, the sheep were killed and elemental analyses carried out on sections of the embedded jaws. The microanalyses for both the glasses showed a diffusion from the granules towards the surrounding tissue of silicon and sodium, and an inverse diffusion (from the surrounding tissue towards the granules) of calcium and phosphorus. The degradation for the Italian glass was slower than for the Bioglass. No significant osteoinduction was seen after that time at the interface of the glass granules or in the bone pocket. PMID:1892986

  17. Effects of species’ similarity and dominance on the functional and phylogenetic structure of a plant meta-community

    PubMed Central

    Chalmandrier, L.; Münkemüller, T.; Lavergne, S.; Thuiller, W.

    2015-01-01

    Different assembly processes drive the spatial structure of meta-communities (β-diversity). Recently, functional and phylogenetic diversities have been suggested as indicators of these assembly processes. Assuming that diversity is a good proxy for niche overlap, high β-diversity along environmental gradients should be the result of environmental filtering while low β-diversity should stem from competitive interactions. So far studies trying to disentangle the relative importance of these assembly processes provided mixed results. One reason for this may be that these studies often rely on a single measure of diversity and thus implicitly make a choice on how they account for species relative abundances and how species similarities are captured by functional traits or phylogeny. Here, we tested the effect of gradually scaling the importance of dominance (the weight given to dominant vs. rare species) and species similarity (the weight given to small vs. large similarities) on resulting β-diversity patterns of an alpine plant meta-community. To this end, we combined recent extensions of the Hill numbers framework with Pagel’s phylogenetic tree transformation approach. We included functional (based on the Leaf-Height-Seed spectrum) and phylogenetic facets of β-diversity in our analysis and explicitly accounted for effects of environmental and spatial covariates. We found that functional β-diversity was high when the same weight was given to dominant vs. rare species and to large vs. small species’ similarities. In contrast, phylogenetic β-diversity was low when greater weight was given to dominant species and small species’ similarities. Those results suggested that different environments along the gradients filtered different species according to their functional traits, while, the same competitive lineages dominated communities across the gradients. Our results highlight that functional vs. phylogenetic facets, presence-absence vs. abundance structure

  18. Similar disturbances in B cell activity and regulatory T cell function in Henoch-Schonlein purpura and systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, M.G.; Nash, G.S.; Bertovich, M.J.; MacDermott, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The immunoglobulin synthesizing activities of peripheral mononuclear cells (MNC) from five patients with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) and eight patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were compared. Cumulative amounts of IgM, IgG, and IgA synthesized and secreted by unstimulated and PWM-stimulated patient cells over a 12-day period were determied in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. In unstimulated control cultures mean rates of IgM, IgG, and IgA synthesis were less than 250 ng/ml. The synthetic activities of patient MNC were markedly increased. In HSP cultures IgA was the major immunoglobulin class produced (2810 x/divide 1.33 ng/ml) followed by IgG (1754 x/divide 1.32 ng/ml) and IgM (404 x/divide 1.16 ng/ml). In SLE cultures IgA and IgG syntheses were equally elevated (4427 x/divide 1.20 and 4438 x/divide 1.49 ng/ml, respectively) whereas IgM synthesis averaged 967 x/divide 1.66 ng/ml. PWM stimulation of pateient MNC caused a sharp decline in the synthesis of all three immunoglobulin classes. After T cell depletion B cell-enriched fractions from HSP and SLE patients maintained high levels of IgA and IgG synthesis that were inhibited by PWM and by normal allogeneic but not autologous T cells. In PWM-stimulted co-cultures, patient T cells nonspecifically suppressed the synthetic activities of autologous and control B cells. in contrast patient B cells achieved normal levels of immunoglobulin synthesis when cultured with control T cells plus PWM. In longitudinal studies patient B and T cell disturbances persisted despite clinical improvement.

  19. Essential Oil from Berries of Lebanese Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb Displays Similar Antibacterial Activity to Chlorhexidine but Higher Cytocompatibility with Human Oral Primary Cells.

    PubMed

    Azzimonti, Barbara; Cochis, Andrea; Beyrouthy, Marc El; Iriti, Marcello; Uberti, Francesca; Sorrentino, Rita; Landini, Manuela Miriam; Rimondini, Lia; Varoni, Elena Maria

    2015-05-21

    Chlorhexidine (CHX), one of the most effective drugs administered for periodontal treatment, presents collateral effects including toxicity when used for prolonged periods; here, we have evaluated the bactericidal potency and the cytocompatibility of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb essential oil (EO) in comparison with 0.05% CHX. The EO was extracted from berries by hydrodistillation and components identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Bacterial inhibition halo analysis, quantitative cell viability 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenyl amino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT), and colony forming unit (CFU) count were evaluated against the two biofilm formers Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans. Finally, cytocompatibility was assessed with human primary gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and mucosal keratinocytes (HK). The resulting EO was mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. An inhibition halo test demonstrated that both bacteria were sensitive to the EO; XTT analysis and CFU counts confirmed that 10-fold-diluted EO determined a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in bacteria count and viability towards both biofilm and planktonic forms in a comparable manner to those obtained with CHX. Moreover, EO displayed higher cytocompatibility than CHX (p < 0.05). In conclusion, EO exhibited bactericidal activity similar to CHX, but a superior cytocompatibility, making it a promising antiseptic alternative to CHX.

  20. Similar response patterns do not imply identical origins: an energetic masking account of nonspeech effects in compensation for coarticulation.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Navin; Magnuson, James S; Fowler, Carol A

    2013-08-01

    Nonspeech materials are widely used to identify basic mechanisms underlying speech perception. For instance, they have been used to examine the origin of compensation for coarticulation, the observation that listeners' categorization of phonetic segments depends on neighboring segments (Mann, 1980). Specifically, nonspeech precursors matched to critical formant frequencies of speech precursors have been shown to produce similar categorization shifts as speech contexts. This observation has been interpreted to mean that spectrally contrastive frequency relations between neighboring segments underlie the categorization shifts observed after speech, as well as nonspeech precursors (Lotto & Kluender, 1998). From the gestural perspective, however, categorization shifts in speech contexts occur because of listeners' sensitivity to acoustic information for coarticulatory gestural overlap in production; in nonspeech contexts, this occurs because of energetic masking of acoustic information for gestures. In 2 experiments, we distinguish the energetic masking and spectral contrast accounts. In Experiment 1, we investigated the effects of varying precursor tone frequency on speech categorization. Consistent only with the masking account, tonal effects were greater for frequencies close enough to those in the target syllables for masking to occur. In Experiment 2, we filtered the target stimuli to simulate effects of masking and obtained behavioral outcomes that closely resemble those with nonspeech tones. We conclude that masking provides the more plausible account of nonspeech context effects. More generally, we suggest that similar results from the use of speech and nonspeech materials do not automatically imply identical origins and that the use of nonspeech in speech studies entails careful examination of the nature of information in the nonspeech materials. PMID:23148469

  1. Significant Treatment Effect of Bupropion in Patients With Bipolar Disorder but Similar Phase-Shifting Rate as Other Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dian-Jeng; Tseng, Ping-Tao; Chen, Yen-Wen; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Lin, Pao-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bupropion is widely used for treating bipolar disorder (BD), and especially those with depressive mood, based on its good treatment effect, safety profile, and lower risk of phase shifting. However, increasing evidence indicates that the safety of bupropion in BD patients may not be as good as previously thought. The aim of this study was to summarize data on the treatment effect and safety profile of bupropion in the treatment of BD via a meta-analysis. Electronic search through PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov was performed. The inclusion criteria were: (i) studies comparing changes in disease severity before and after bupropion treatment or articles comparing the treatment effect of bupropion in BD patients with those receiving other standard treatments; (ii) articles on clinical trials in humans. The exclusion criteria were (i) case reports/series, and (ii) nonclinical trials. All effect sizes from 10 clinical trials were pooled using a random effects model. We examined the possible confounding variables using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Bupropion significantly improved the severity of disease in BD patients (P < 0.001), and the treatment effect was similar to other antidepressants/standard treatments (P = 0.220). There were no significant differences in the dropout rate (P = 0.285) and rate of phase shifting (P = 0.952) between BD patients who received bupropion and those who received other antidepressants. We could not perform a detailed meta-analysis of every category of antidepressant, nor could we rule out the possible confounding effect of concurrent psychotropics or include all drug side effects. Furthermore, the number of studies recruited in the meta-analysis was relatively small. Our findings reconfirm the benefits of bupropion for the treatment of bipolar depression, which are similar to those of other antidepressants. However, the rate of phase shifting with bupropion usage was not as low compared to other

  2. Recognition Memory for Objects in Very Young Children: The Effect of Shape and Label Similarity on Preference for Novel Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daehler, Marvin W.; O'Connor, Mary P.

    1980-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether gross perceptual similarity (shape similarity) and basic conceptual similarity (label similarity) are processed by very young children and influence preferences for novel stimuli. The 88 subjects were 12 to 38 months of age. (MP)

  3. Binding of monoclonal antibody AA4 to gangliosides on rat basophilic leukemia cells produces changes similar to those seen with Fc epsilon receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The mAb AA4 binds to novel derivatives of the ganglioside Gd1b on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Some of the gangliosides are located close to the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI), and binding of mAb AA4 inhibits Fc epsilon RI-mediated histamine release. In the present study, mAb AA4 was found to bind exclusively to mast cells in all rat tissues examined. In vitro, within 1 min of mAb AA4 binding, the cells underwent striking morphologic changes. They lost their normal spindle shaped appearance, increased their ruffling, and spread over the surface of the culture dish. These changes were accompanied by a redistribution of the cytoskeletal elements, actin, tubulin, and vimentin, but only the actin was associated with the membrane ruffles. Binding of mAb AA4 also induces a rise in intracellular calcium, stimulates phosphatidyl inositol breakdown, and activates PKC. However, the extent of these changes was less than that observed when the cells were stimulated with antigen or antibody directed against the Fc epsilon RI. None of these changes associated with mAb AA4 binding were seen when the cells were exposed to nonspecific IgG, IgE, or four other anti-cell surface antibodies, nor were the changes induced by binding mAb AA4 at 4 degrees C or in the absence of extracellular calcium. Although mAb AA4 does not stimulate histamine release, it enhances the effect of the calcium ionophore A23187 mediated release. The morphological and biochemical effects produced by mAb AA4 are similar to those seen following activation of the cell through the IgE receptor. Therefore, the surface gangliosides which bind mAb AA4 may function in modulating secretory events. PMID:1370498

  4. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? 3.12 Section 3.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing...

  5. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? 3.12 Section 3.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing...

  6. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? 3.12 Section 3.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing...

  7. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  8. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Currie, Richard A; Peffer, Richard C; Goetz, Amber K; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Goodman, Jay I

    2014-07-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA.

  9. Genetic analysis of mutant chromosomes 3 with similar phenotypic effect from geographically distant populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, N.Y.; Zakharov, I.K.

    1995-07-01

    From geographically distant populations of Drosophila melanogaster, the following mutant phenotypes with a wide spectrum of similar phenotypic variation were isolated: {number_sign}89300 and {number_sign}89386 from a population of Uman` (Ukraine) in 1989, and {number_sign}920017, {number_sign}921314, and {number_sign}921503 from a population of Gorno-Altaisk (Altai) in 1992. A similar mutant phenotype (line {number_sign}i13) was obtained by {gamma}-irradiation of the laboratory line Canton S. Phenotypic changes involve eye shape and structure, morphology of body appendages (wings, legs, and antennae), and fertility. Genetic analysis of mutations {number_sign}89300 and {number_sign}89386 showed that they belong to the third linkage group. Chromosomes 3 of mutants {number_sign}89300 and {number_sign}89386 carry inversions In(3R)92D-98F and In(3R)89F-95A, respectively. A complementation test for allelism of the isolated mutations among themselves and with several laboratory lines was conducted. The mutant phenotypical effect of the chromosomes isolated is assumed to be related to geographic variants of alleles of two closely linked genes, rotund and roughened eye and claret. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Similar oxysterols may lead to opposite effects on synaptic transmission: Olesoxime versus 5α-cholestan-3-one at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Kasimov, M R; Zakyrjanova, G F; Giniatullin, A R; Zefirov, A L; Petrov, A M

    2016-07-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products frequently have a high biological activity. In the present study, we have used microelectrode recording of end plate currents and FM-based optical detection of synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis to investigate the effects of two structurally similar oxysterols, olesoxime (cholest-4-en-3-one, oxime) and 5ɑ-cholestan-3-one (5ɑCh3), on neurotransmission at the frog neuromuscular junction. Olesoxime is an exogenous, potentially neuroprotective, substance and 5ɑCh3 is an intermediate product in cholesterol metabolism, which is elevated in the case of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. We found that olesoxime slightly increased evoked neurotransmitter release in response to a single stimulus and significantly reduced synaptic depression during high frequency activity. The last effect was due to an increase in both the number of synaptic vesicles involved in exo-endocytosis and the rate of synaptic vesicle recycling. In contrast, 5ɑCh3 reduced evoked neurotransmitter release during the low- and high frequency synaptic activities. The depressant action of 5ɑCh3 was associated with a reduction in the number of synaptic vesicles participating in exo- and endocytosis during high frequency stimulation, without a change in rate of the synaptic vesicle recycling. Of note, olesoxime increased the staining of synaptic membranes with the B-subunit of cholera toxin and the formation of fluorescent ganglioside GM1 clusters, and decreased the fluorescence of 22-NBD-cholesterol, while 5ɑCh3 had the opposite effects, suggesting that the two oxysterols have different effects on lipid raft stability. Taken together, these data show that these two structurally similar oxysterols induce marked different changes in neuromuscular transmission which are related with the alteration in synaptic vesicle cycle. PMID:27102612

  11. The effects of Xingnao Jieyu capsules on post-stroke depression are similar to those of fluoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yongmei; Fan, Wentao; Liu, Li; Yang, Ru; Yang, Wenjia

    2013-01-01

    The Xingnao Jieyu capsule has been shown to effectively relieve neurologic impairments and lessen depression. It remains poorly understood whether this capsule can be used to treat post-stroke depression. Thus, in the present study, we established a rat model of post-stroke depression using left middle cerebral artery occlusions in combination of chronic unpredictable stress and solitary housing during development. Experimental rats received intragastric perfusion with 0.82, 0.41, and 0.20 g/kg Xingnao Jieyu capsules separately dissolved in 2 mL distilled water. Fluoxetine served as a positive control. The treatment was conducted over 28 days. Sugar water consumption test, open-field test, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining results demonstrated that intragastric perfusion with various doses of Xingnao Jieyu capsules increased sugar water consumption, voluntary behaviors and synaptotagmin mRNA and protein expression in rats with post-stroke depression. These therapeutic effects were similar to those of fluoxetine. These results indicate that Xingnao Jieyu capsules upregulate synaptotagmin expression in hippocampi of rats with post-stroke depression, and exert antidepressant effects. PMID:25206473

  12. The effects of Xingnao Jieyu capsules on post-stroke depression are similar to those of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yongmei; Fan, Wentao; Liu, Li; Yang, Ru; Yang, Wenjia

    2013-07-01

    The Xingnao Jieyu capsule has been shown to effectively relieve neurologic impairments and lessen depression. It remains poorly understood whether this capsule can be used to treat post-stroke depression. Thus, in the present study, we established a rat model of post-stroke depression using left middle cerebral artery occlusions in combination of chronic unpredictable stress and solitary housing during development. Experimental rats received intragastric perfusion with 0.82, 0.41, and 0.20 g/kg Xingnao Jieyu capsules separately dissolved in 2 mL distilled water. Fluoxetine served as a positive control. The treatment was conducted over 28 days. Sugar water consumption test, open-field test, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining results demonstrated that intragastric perfusion with various doses of Xingnao Jieyu capsules increased sugar water consumption, voluntary behaviors and synaptotagmin mRNA and protein expression in rats with post-stroke depression. These therapeutic effects were similar to those of fluoxetine. These results indicate that Xingnao Jieyu capsules upregulate synaptotagmin expression in hippocampi of rats with post-stroke depression, and exert antidepressant effects. PMID:25206473

  13. Two diets with different haemoglobin A1c and antiglycaemic medication effects despite similar weight loss in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S B; Jeffreys, A S; Olsen, M K; McDuffie, J R; Feinglos, M N; Yancy, W S

    2014-01-01

    We analysed participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 46) within a larger weight loss trial (n = 146) who were randomized to 48 weeks of a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD; n = 22) or a low-fat diet + orlistat (LFD + O; n = 24). At baseline, mean body mass index (BMI) was 39.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. 6.5) and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 7.6% (s.d. 1.3). Although the interventions reduced BMI similarly (LCD -2.4 kg/m(2) ; LFD + O -2.7 kg/m(2) , p = 0.7), LCD led to a relative improvement in HbA1c: -0.7% in LCD versus +0.2% in LFD + O [difference -0.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.6, -0.02; p = 0.045]. LCD also led to a greater reduction in antiglycaemic medications using a novel medication effect score (MES) based on medication potency and total daily dose; 70.6% of LCD versus 30.4% LFD + O decreased their MES by ≥50% (p = 0.01). Lowering dietary carbohydrate intake demonstrated benefits on glycaemic control beyond its weight loss effects, while at the same time lowering antiglycaemic medication requirements.

  14. [Orthographic similarity or semantic relation? The origin of orthographic neighborhood size effects on the lexical decision to Japanese kanji words].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Rika; Matsui, Takao

    2014-12-01

    It is known that lexical decisions to Japanese kanji words get faster as the orthographic neighborhood size of the words grows. This study aimed to show that this facilitative effect of orthographic neighborhood size is due not only to orthographic similarity but also to semantic relationships between words and their neighbors. In the experiment, common and proper nouns each composed of two kanji characters were used as stimuli, the latter having no semantic relation to their neighbors. Lexical decision times for each type of noun were measured with large and small orthographic neighborhoods. The results showed that lexical decision times for both common and proper nouns with large neighborhoods were shorter than those with small neighborhoods, and that the difference was prominent for common nouns sharing their first characters with neighbors. These results suggest that the semantic relatedness of the first characters of Japanese kanji words and their neighbors also facilitates their lexical decision. Finally, variance of neighborhood effects on lexical decision among writing systems and the need to consider various kanji-specific factors are discussed.

  15. Demonstrating the effects of phonological similarity and frequency on item and order memory in Down syndrome using process dissociation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth; Jarrold, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    It is important to distinguish between memory for item information and memory for order information when considering the nature of verbal short-term memory (vSTM) performance. Although other researchers have attempted to make this distinction between item and order memory in children, none has done so using process dissociation. This study shows that such an approach can be particularly useful and informative. Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to experience a vSTM deficit. These two experiments explored whether phonological similarity (Experiment 1) and item frequency (Experiment 2) affected vSTM for item and order information in a group of individuals with DS compared with typically developing (TD) vocabulary-matched children. Process dissociation was used to obtain measures of item and order memory via Nairne and Kelley's procedure (Journal of Memory and Language, 50 (2004) 113-133). Those with DS were poorer than the matched TD group for recall of both item and order information. However, in both populations, phonologically similar items reduced order memory but enhanced item memory, whereas high-frequency items resulted in improvements in both item and order memory-effects that are in line with previous research in the adult literature. These results indicate that, despite poorer vSTM performance in DS, individuals experience phonological coding of verbal input and a contribution of long-term memory knowledge to recall. These findings inform routes for interventions for those with DS, highlighting the need to enhance both item and order memory. Moreover, this work demonstrates that process dissociation is applicable and informative for studying special populations and children.

  16. The effect of different levels of wheat bran on iron absorption in rats from bread containing similar amounts of phytate.

    PubMed

    Fairweather-Tait, S J

    1982-03-01

    1. Iron absorption was studied in weanling rats using balance techniques from semi-synthetic diets containing dried white bread (60.5 g dietary fibre/kg. White & Southgate, unpublished results), brown bread (130.2 g dietary fibre/kg) or wholemeal bread (221.2 g dietary fibre/kg) at a level of 300 g/kg and compared with a control group given a diet containing added FeSO4 at a similar Fe level to that for the bread groups. The dried bread contained 6.2-6.4 g phytate/kg. 2. Absorption of Fe was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in the control group (0.45) than in the White (0.28), brown (0.31) or wholemeal (0.24) groups. 3. A second experiment was carried out on 6-week-old rats in which the dried bread was extrinsically labelled with 59Fe and absorption from a single meal measured by both faecal excretion and incorporation of 59Fe into the blood. Control animals were given 59FeSO4 for comparison. 4. The excretion of 59Fe (% of administered dose) was significantly lower (P less than 0.001) in the control group (31) than in the white (48), brown (45) or wholemeal (47) groups. After 10 d the control group had significantly more 59Fe in the blood than the bread groups, but there were no differences between the bread groups. 5. It appears that wheat bran fibre itself has no effect on the retention of Fe from the diet in the rat, when supplied in amounts similar to those found in commercially-available bread.

  17. Rotenone exerts similar stimulatory effects on H2O2 production by isolated brain mitochondria from young-adult and old rats.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Luiz G B; Figueira, Tiago R; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Castilho, Roger F

    2015-03-01

    Chronic and systemic treatment of rodents with rotenone, a classical inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex I, results in neurochemical, behavioral, and neuropathological features of Parkinson's disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether brain mitochondria from old rats (24 months old) would be more susceptible to rotenone-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and increased generation of H2O2 than mitochondria from young-adult rats (3-4 months old). Isolated brain mitochondria were incubated in the presence of different rotenone concentrations (5, 10, and 100nM), and oxygen consumption and H2O2 production were measured during respiratory states 3 (ADP-stimulated respiration) and 4 (resting respiration). Respiratory state 3 and citrate synthase activity were significantly lower in mitochondria from old rats. Mitochondria from young-adult and old rats showed similar sensitivity to rotenone-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption. Similarly, H2O2 production rates by both types of mitochondria were dose-dependently stimulated to the same extent by increasing concentrations of rotenone. We conclude that rotenone exerts similar effects on oxygen consumption and H2O2 production by isolated brain mitochondria from young-adult and old rats. Therefore, aging does not increase the mitochondrial H2O2 generation in response to complex I inhibition.

  18. Application of a Self-Similar Pressure Profile to Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Data from Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mroczkowski, Tony; Bonamente, Max; Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas L.; Greer, Christopher; Hawkins, David; Hennessy, Ryan; Joy, Marshall; Lamb, James W.; Leitch, Erik M.; Loh, Michael; Maughan, Ben; Marrone, Daniel P.; Miller, Amber; Muchovej, Stephen; Nagai, Daisuke; Pryke, Clem; Sharp, Matthew; Woody, David

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the utility of a new, self-similar pressure profile for fitting Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect observations of galaxy clusters. Current SZ imaging instruments-such as the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA)- are capable of probing clusters over a large range in a physical scale. A model is therefore required that can accurately describe a cluster's pressure profile over a broad range of radii from the core of the cluster out to a significant fraction of the virial radius. In the analysis presented here, we fit a radial pressure profile derived from simulations and detailed X-ray analysis of relaxed clusters to SZA observations of three clusters with exceptionally high-quality X-ray data: A1835, A1914, and CL J1226.9+3332. From the joint analysis of the SZ and X-ray data, we derive physical properties such as gas mass, total mass, gas fraction and the intrinsic, integrated Compton y-parameter. We find that parameters derived from the joint fit to the SZ and X-ray data agree well with a detailed, independent X-ray-only analysis of the same clusters. In particular, we find that, when combined with X-ray imaging data, this new pressure profile yields an independent electron radial temperature profile that is in good agreement with spectroscopic X-ray measurements.

  19. BET and HDAC inhibitors induce similar genes and biological effects and synergize to kill in Myc-induced murine lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhadury, Joydeep; Nilsson, Lisa M.; Veppil Muralidharan, Somsundar; Green, Lydia C.; Li, Zhoulei; Gesner, Emily M.; Hansen, Henrik C.; Keller, Ulrich B.; McLure, Kevin G.; Nilsson, Jonas A.

    2014-01-01

    The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain family of proteins binds to acetylated lysines on histones and regulates gene transcription. Recently, BET inhibitors (BETi) have been developed that show promise as potent anticancer drugs against various solid and hematological malignancies. Here we show that the structurally novel and orally bioavailable BET inhibitor RVX2135 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of lymphoma cells arising in Myc-transgenic mice in vitro and in vivo. We find that BET inhibition exhibits broad transcriptional effects in Myc-transgenic lymphoma cells affecting many transcription factor networks. By examining the genes induced by BETi, which have largely been ignored to date, we discovered that these were similar to those induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). HDACi also induced cell-cycle arrest and cell death of Myc-induced murine lymphoma cells and synergized with BETi. Our data suggest that BETi sensitize Myc-overexpressing lymphoma cells partly by inducing HDAC-silenced genes, and suggest synergistic and therapeutic combinations by targeting the genetic link between BETi and HDACi. PMID:24979794

  20. NG-nitro-L-arginine and phenylephrine have similar effects on the vascular waterfall in the canine hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Shrier, I; Magder, S

    1995-02-01

    Hindlimb pressure-flow relationships are well characterized by modeling a vascular waterfall at the arteriolar level. Under these conditions, Q = (Pper - Pcrit)/Rart, where Q is blood flow, Pper is perfusion pressure, Pcrit is waterfall pressure, and Rart is the resistance upstream from the waterfall. To determine the effects of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) on Pcrit, Rart, and venous resistance (Rv), we varied Pper in the canine hindlimb between 100 and 200 mmHg before and after NG-nitro-L-arginine infusion (L-NNA, an inhibitor of EDRF synthesis). Before L-NNA, Pcrit increased with increasing Pper. After L-NNA, Pcrit was higher at each Pper, and the increase in Pcrit with increases in Pper was greater than under control conditions. In contrast to Pcrit, Rart decreased with increasing Pper before L-NNA. After L-NNA, Rart was higher at each Pper and no longer decreased with increasing Pper. Rv was not affected by Pper under control conditions but decreased with increasing Pper after L-NNA. The pressure in the small venules at each Pper decreased after L-NNA. In a second group of animals, we infused phenylephrine to control for increased tone produced by L-NNA. Results were similar to those seen with L-NNA. In conclusion, blocking EDRF synthesis increases both Pcrit and Rart, but the same response was also obtained with phenylephrine.

  1. The Effects of Within-Sequence Acoustic Similarity on the Short-Term Retention of Consonants and Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcer, D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Compares the rates of forgetting of five-item sequences of acoustically similar and dissimilar consonants and words in the absence of proactive and retroactive interference in order to test whether within sequence similarity rather than stimulus length would have a greater influence on retention. (Author/RK)

  2. Significant Quantum Effects in Hydrogen Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kyriakou, Georgios; Davidson, Erlend R.; Peng, Guowen; Roling, Luke T.; Singh, Suyash; Boucher, Matthew B.; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2014-03-31

    Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to 190 K and for D2 up to 140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation.

  3. Significant Quantum Effects in Hydrogen Activation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to ∼190 K and for D2 up to ∼140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation. PMID:24684530

  4. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  5. Similar Adiponectin Levels in Obese Normotensive and Obese Hypertensive Men and No Vasorelaxant Effect of Adiponectin on Human Arteries.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Rasmus; Asferg, Camilla; Berg, Jais O; Andersen, Ulrik B; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan; Linneberg, Allan; Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Edvinsson, Lars; Skovsted, Gry F

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanism linking obesity to hypertension is not fully elucidated. In obesity, circulating concentrations of adiponectin are decreased and hypoadiponectinaemia has in some but not all studies been associated with increased risk of hypertension. Due to this inconsistency, we decided to study adiponectin from two aspects in a cross-sectional in vivo study and in an experimental in vitro study. In the cross-sectional study, 103 men with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) were studied; 63 had 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) ≥ 130/80 mmHg (ObeseHT) and 40 had 24-hr ABP < 130/80 mmHg (ObeseNT). As controls, we studied 27 men with BMI between 20.0 and 24.9 kg/m(2) and 24-hr ABP < 130/80 mmHg (LeanNT). Serum concentrations of adiponectin and body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning were determined. In vitro, the direct vasomotor response of adiponectin was tested on subcutaneous resistance arteries from human abdominal adipose tissue. The two obese groups had lower adiponectin concentrations compared with LeanNT (p < 0.01) [median (interquartile range)]: ObeseHT 6.5 (5.1-8.3) mg/L; ObeseNT 6.6 (5.2-7.8) mg/L; and LeanNT 9.4 (6.7-12.4) mg/L, with no significant difference in adiponectin concentrations (or body composition) between ObeseHT and ObeseNT (p = 0.67). In vitro, adiponectin did not have any direct vasodilatory effect and adiponectin did not affect angiotensin II-stimulated vasoconstriction. In conclusion, obese hypertensive men have similar serum concentrations of adiponectin as obese normotensive men. In combination with the in vitro data, these findings question a pathogenic role of adiponectin in human hypertension.

  6. A new set of regulatory molecules in plants: A plant phospholipid similar to platelet-activating factor stimulates protein kinase and proton-translocating ATPase in membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Scherer, G F; Martiny-Baron, G; Stoffel, B

    1988-08-01

    1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, an ether phospholipid from mammals known as platelet-activating factor (PAF), specifically stimulates proton transport in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) microsomes (G.F.E. Scherer, 1985, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commm. 133, 1160-1167). When plant lipids were analyzed by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography a lipid was found with chromatographic properties very similar to the PAF (G.F.E. Scherer and B. Stoffel, 1987, Planta, 172, 127-130). This lipid was isolated from zucchini hypocotyls, red beet root, lupin root, maize seedlings and crude soybean phospholipids. It had biological activity similar to that of the PAF, based on phosphorus content, and stimulated the steady-state ΔpH in zucchini hypocotyl microsomes about twofold. Other phospholipids, monoglyceride, diglyceride, triglyceride, oleic acid, phorbol ester, and 1-O-alkylglycerol did not stimulate proton transport. When microsomes were washed the PAF was ineffective but when soluble protein was added the PAF stimulation of H(+) transport was reconstituted. The soluble protein responsible for the PAF-dependent stimulation of transport activity could be partially purified by diethylaminoethyl Sephacel column chromatography. In the same fractions where the PAF-dependent transport-stimulatory protien was found, a protein kinase was active. This protein kinase was stimulated twofold either by the PAF or by Ca(2+). When Ca(2+) was present the PAF did not stimulate protein-kinase activity. When either the PAF, protein kinase, or both were added to membranes isolated on a linear sucrose gradient, ATPase activity was stimulated up to 30%. Comparison with marker enzymes indicated the possibility that tonoplast and plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPase might be stimulated by the PAF and protein kinase. We speculate that a PAF-dependent protein kinase is involved in the regulation of proton transport in plants in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Acoustic Similarity and Dichotic Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter

    1978-01-01

    An experiment tests conjectures that right ear advantage (REA) has an auditory origin in competition or interference between acoustically similar stimuli and that feature-sharing effect (FSE) has its origin in assignment of features of phonetically similar stimuli. No effect on the REA for acoustic similarity, and a clear effect of acoustic…

  8. Competition Between Different Social Ranked Rams has Similar Effects on Testosterone and Sexual Behaviour Throughout the Year.

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, R; Lacuesta, L

    2015-12-01

    Dominant rams have preferential access to females, as they frequently interrupt sexual behaviour from subordinated. Testosterone concentrations are directly linked to sexual and aggressive behaviour and have important variations along the year. Therefore, it may be expected that the effects of dominance relationships on reproductive behaviour differ according to testosterone concentrations, and thus to the period of the year. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of dominance relationships on testosterone and sexual behaviour in different moments of the year in rams. Twelve rams were maintained in a single group. Social rank was determined in January (maximum reproductive development), May (regression of the reproductive status) and August (lowest reproductive activity), and the four rams with higher (HR) and the four with lower (LR) success index were used. Testosterone serum concentration was weekly measured four times during each experimental period. Sexual behaviour was evaluated in each period with an oestrous ewe, and with the oestrous ewe and another ram from the other social rank (each HR with each LR ram). Testosterone concentration was greater in HR than LR rams in January (p = 0.03), and all the behaviours were displayed more frequently in non-competitive than in competitive tests (p < 0.05). Rams modified their sexual strategy in competitive environments decreasing the display of sexual behaviour independently of their social status. This effect was observed consistently throughout the year: high-ranked rams have greater testosterone concentrations than LR rams only during the pre-rut, when they naturally compete to join the groups of ewes.

  9. Competition Between Different Social Ranked Rams has Similar Effects on Testosterone and Sexual Behaviour Throughout the Year.

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, R; Lacuesta, L

    2015-12-01

    Dominant rams have preferential access to females, as they frequently interrupt sexual behaviour from subordinated. Testosterone concentrations are directly linked to sexual and aggressive behaviour and have important variations along the year. Therefore, it may be expected that the effects of dominance relationships on reproductive behaviour differ according to testosterone concentrations, and thus to the period of the year. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of dominance relationships on testosterone and sexual behaviour in different moments of the year in rams. Twelve rams were maintained in a single group. Social rank was determined in January (maximum reproductive development), May (regression of the reproductive status) and August (lowest reproductive activity), and the four rams with higher (HR) and the four with lower (LR) success index were used. Testosterone serum concentration was weekly measured four times during each experimental period. Sexual behaviour was evaluated in each period with an oestrous ewe, and with the oestrous ewe and another ram from the other social rank (each HR with each LR ram). Testosterone concentration was greater in HR than LR rams in January (p = 0.03), and all the behaviours were displayed more frequently in non-competitive than in competitive tests (p < 0.05). Rams modified their sexual strategy in competitive environments decreasing the display of sexual behaviour independently of their social status. This effect was observed consistently throughout the year: high-ranked rams have greater testosterone concentrations than LR rams only during the pre-rut, when they naturally compete to join the groups of ewes. PMID:26489705

  10. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects.

    PubMed

    Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M; Christensen, S; Dekker, S C; Duyts, H; van Hal, R; Harvey, J A; Hedlund, K; Maraun, M; Mikola, J; Mladenov, A G; Robin, C; de Ruiter, P C; Scheu, S; Setälä, H; Smilauer, P; van der Putten, W H

    2010-10-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure, and functioning of soil communities. However, whether natural soil food webs that are completely open to immigration and emigration differ underneath individual plants remains unknown. In a biodiversity restoration experiment we first compared the soil nematode communities of 228 individual plants belonging to eight herbaceous species. We included grass, leguminous, and non-leguminous species. Each individual plant grew intermingled with other species, but all plant species had a different nematode community. Moreover, nematode communities were more similar when plant individuals were growing in the same as compared to different plant communities, and these effects were most apparent for the groups of bacterivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous nematodes. Subsequently, we analyzed the composition, structure, and functioning of the complete soil food webs of 58 individual plants, belonging to two of the plant species, Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) and Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). We isolated and identified more than 150 taxa/groups of soil organisms. The soil community composition and structure of the entire food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon

  11. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects.

    PubMed

    Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M; Christensen, S; Dekker, S C; Duyts, H; van Hal, R; Harvey, J A; Hedlund, K; Maraun, M; Mikola, J; Mladenov, A G; Robin, C; de Ruiter, P C; Scheu, S; Setälä, H; Smilauer, P; van der Putten, W H

    2010-10-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure, and functioning of soil communities. However, whether natural soil food webs that are completely open to immigration and emigration differ underneath individual plants remains unknown. In a biodiversity restoration experiment we first compared the soil nematode communities of 228 individual plants belonging to eight herbaceous species. We included grass, leguminous, and non-leguminous species. Each individual plant grew intermingled with other species, but all plant species had a different nematode community. Moreover, nematode communities were more similar when plant individuals were growing in the same as compared to different plant communities, and these effects were most apparent for the groups of bacterivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous nematodes. Subsequently, we analyzed the composition, structure, and functioning of the complete soil food webs of 58 individual plants, belonging to two of the plant species, Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) and Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). We isolated and identified more than 150 taxa/groups of soil organisms. The soil community composition and structure of the entire food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon

  12. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K.; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-01

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, Cdbnd O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO-2/lipid, COO-/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  13. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study.

    PubMed

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-15

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, C=O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO(-)2/lipid, COO(-)/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  14. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study.

    PubMed

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-15

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, C=O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO(-)2/lipid, COO(-)/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development. PMID:26952787

  15. Immunological and physiological effects of chronic exposure of Peromyscus leucopus to Aroclor 1254 at a concentration similar to that found at contaminated sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segre, M.; Arena, S.M.; Greeley, E.H.; Melancon, M.J.; Graham, D.A.; French, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants known to cause adverse health effects to biological systems. Limited data are available on their effects on the immune system of wildlife species. Previously, we found that 4 and 6-week-old white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) born from dams injected with a single dose (300 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254, had altered immunological, hematological, and biochemical responses. Here, we examined the effect of transplacental lactational and postnatal exposure to Aroclor 1254, at a concentration similar to that found at contaminated sites, on various physiological parameters of 22-week-old white-footed mice. Liver weight and liver somatic index of PCB treated animals were significantly higher, the combined weights of the adrenal glands were significantly lower and EROD and BROD enzyme activity was significantly higher compared to control values. The number of thymocytes of the treated mice was significantly lower than that of the controls; however, thymocytes of treated mice had a higher proliferative response to the mitogen Con A. These alterations were correlated with the PCBs body burdens. Some toxic effects of chronic exposure to PCBs, at levels comparable to exposure found in contaminated sites in the USA, are still evident in adult P. leucopus.

  16. A Genetic Determinant in Streptococcus gordonii Challis Encodes a Peptide with Activity Similar to That of Enterococcal Sex Pheromone cAM373, Which Facilitates Intergeneric DNA Transfer▿

    PubMed Central

    Vickerman, M. M.; Flannagan, S. E.; Jesionowski, A. M.; Brossard, K. A.; Clewell, D. B.; Sedgley, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis strains secrete multiple peptides representing different sex pheromones that induce mating responses by bacteria carrying specific conjugative plasmids. The pheromone cAM373, which induces a response by the enterococcal plasmid pAM373, has been of interest because a similar activity is also secreted by Streptococcus gordonii and Staphylococcus aureus. The potential to facilitate intergeneric DNA transfer from E. faecalis is of concern because of extensive multiple antibiotic resistance, including vancomycin resistance, that has emerged among enterococci in recent years. Here, we characterize the related pheromone determinant in S. gordonii and show that the peptide it encodes, gordonii-cAM373, does indeed induce transfer of plasmid DNA from E. faecalis into S. gordonii. The streptococcal determinant camG encodes a lipoprotein with a leader sequence, the last 7 residues of which represent the gordonii-cAM373 heptapeptide SVFILAA. Synthetic forms of the peptide had activity similar to that of the enterococcal cAM373 AIFILAS. The lipoprotein moiety bore no resemblance to the lipoprotein encoded by E. faecalis. We also identified determinants in S. gordonii encoding a signal peptidase and an Eep-like zinc metalloprotease (lspA and eep, respectively) similar to those involved in processing certain pheromone precursors in E. faecalis. Mutations generated in camG, lspA, and eep each resulted in the ablation of gordonii-cAM373 activity in culture supernatants. This is the first genetic analysis of a potential sex pheromone system in a commensal oral streptococcal species, which may have implications for intergeneric gene acquisition in oral biofilms. PMID:20233933

  17. Structural Key Bit Occurrence Frequencies and Dependencies in PubChem and Their Effect on Similarity Searches.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nelson G; Golovlev, Val

    2013-04-01

    Little published literature exists on the 881 bit structural keys used by PubChem for categorizing and comparing the compounds present in its database. We characterized these structural keys by examining their frequencies of occurrence within the PubChem compound database. In addition, bit dependencies, defined as the universal presence of a bit given the presence of another, were determined. We show that the vast majority of bits are rarely set and that substantial numbers of dependencies exist. A comparison of similarity searches with five United States Food and Drug Administration approved drugs as reference compounds using the full structural keys versus a variant in which all dependent bits were removed was performed using the Tanimoto coefficient. These bit dependencies not only affect similarity scores, but also alter the compounds returned in similarity searching. Judicious selection of bits is needed to maintain sufficient ability to differentiate related compounds.

  18. NMR structure of the complex between the Tfb1 subunit of TFIIH and the activation domain of VP16: structural similarities between VP16 and p53.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Chantal; Mas, Caroline; Di Lello, Paola; Jenkins, Lisa M Miller; Legault, Pascale; Omichinski, James G

    2008-08-13

    The Herpes Simplex Virion Protein 16 (VP16) activates transcription through a series of protein/protein interactions involving its highly acidic transactivation domain (TAD). The acidic TAD of VP16 (VP16TAD) has been shown to interact with several partner proteins both in vitro and in vivo, and many of these VP16 partners also bind the acidic TAD of the mammalian tumor suppressor protein p53. For example, the TADs of VP16 and p53 (p53TAD) both interact directly with the p62/Tfb1 (human/yeast) subunit of TFIIH, and this interaction correlates with their ability to activate both the initiation and elongation phase of transcription. In this manuscript, we use NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetery (ITC) and site-directed mutagenesis studies to characterize the interaction between the VP16TAD and Tfb1. We identify a region within the carboxyl-terminal subdomain of the VP16TAD (VP16C) that has sequence similarity with p53TAD2 and binds Tfb1 with nanomolar affinity. We determine an NMR structure of a Tfb1/VP16C complex, which represents the first high-resolution structure of the VP16TAD in complex with a target protein. The structure demonstrates that like p53TAD2, VP16C forms a 9-residue alpha-helix in complex with Tfb1. Comparison of the VP16/Tfb1and p53/Tfb1 structures clearly demonstrates how the viral activator VP16C and p53TAD2 shares numerous aspects of binding to Tfb1. Despite the similarities, important differences are observed between the p53TAD2/Tfb1 and VP16C/Tfb1 complexes, and these differences demonstrate how selected activators such as p53 depend on phosphorylation events to selectively regulate transcription.

  19. NMR structure of the complex between the Tfb1 subunit of TFIIH and the activation domain of VP16: structural similarities between VP16 and p53.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Chantal; Mas, Caroline; Di Lello, Paola; Jenkins, Lisa M Miller; Legault, Pascale; Omichinski, James G

    2008-08-13

    The Herpes Simplex Virion Protein 16 (VP16) activates transcription through a series of protein/protein interactions involving its highly acidic transactivation domain (TAD). The acidic TAD of VP16 (VP16TAD) has been shown to interact with several partner proteins both in vitro and in vivo, and many of these VP16 partners also bind the acidic TAD of the mammalian tumor suppressor protein p53. For example, the TADs of VP16 and p53 (p53TAD) both interact directly with the p62/Tfb1 (human/yeast) subunit of TFIIH, and this interaction correlates with their ability to activate both the initiation and elongation phase of transcription. In this manuscript, we use NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetery (ITC) and site-directed mutagenesis studies to characterize the interaction between the VP16TAD and Tfb1. We identify a region within the carboxyl-terminal subdomain of the VP16TAD (VP16C) that has sequence similarity with p53TAD2 and binds Tfb1 with nanomolar affinity. We determine an NMR structure of a Tfb1/VP16C complex, which represents the first high-resolution structure of the VP16TAD in complex with a target protein. The structure demonstrates that like p53TAD2, VP16C forms a 9-residue alpha-helix in complex with Tfb1. Comparison of the VP16/Tfb1and p53/Tfb1 structures clearly demonstrates how the viral activator VP16C and p53TAD2 shares numerous aspects of binding to Tfb1. Despite the similarities, important differences are observed between the p53TAD2/Tfb1 and VP16C/Tfb1 complexes, and these differences demonstrate how selected activators such as p53 depend on phosphorylation events to selectively regulate transcription. PMID:18630911

  20. The Effects of Attitude Similarity and Utility on Liking for a Stranger: Measurement of Attraction with the IJS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesler, Mitchell S.; And Others

    Research has demonstrated that attraction to a stranger is a function of the proportion of similar attitudes reported by that stranger. Traditional theories of attraction do not usually differentiate between respect or esteem for another and liking. This study used a 2 x 2 factorial experiment to test the hypothesis that the desire to work with…

  1. Do Transposed-Letter Similarity Effects Occur at a Morpheme Level? Evidence for Morpho-Orthographic Decomposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Peream, Manuel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    When does morphological decomposition occur in visual word recognition? An increasing body of evidence suggests the presence of early morphological processing. The present work investigates this issue via an orthographic similarity manipulation. Three masked priming lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the transposed-letter…

  2. Structure-semantics interplay in complex networks and its effects on the predictability of similarity in texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2012-09-01

    The classification of texts has become a major endeavor with so much electronic material available, for it is an essential task in several applications, including search engines and information retrieval. There are different ways to define similarity for grouping similar texts into clusters, as the concept of similarity may depend on the purpose of the task. For instance, in topic extraction similar texts mean those within the same semantic field, whereas in author recognition stylistic features should be considered. In this study, we introduce ways to classify texts employing concepts of complex networks, which may be able to capture syntactic, semantic and even pragmatic features. The interplay between various metrics of the complex networks is analyzed with three applications, namely identification of machine translation (MT) systems, evaluation of quality of machine translated texts and authorship recognition. We shall show that topological features of the networks representing texts can enhance the ability to identify MT systems in particular cases. For evaluating the quality of MT texts, on the other hand, high correlation was obtained with methods capable of capturing the semantics. This was expected because the golden standards used are themselves based on word co-occurrence. Notwithstanding, the Katz similarity, which involves semantic and structure in the comparison of texts, achieved the highest correlation with the NIST measurement, indicating that in some cases the combination of both approaches can improve the ability to quantify quality in MT. In authorship recognition, again the topological features were relevant in some contexts, though for the books and authors analyzed good results were obtained with semantic features as well. Because hybrid approaches encompassing semantic and topological features have not been extensively used, we believe that the methodology proposed here may be useful to enhance text classification considerably, as it

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction of painted human interphase chromosomes: active and inactive X chromosome territories have similar volumes but differ in shape and surface structure

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    This study provides a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of differences between the 3D morphology of active and inactive human X interphase chromosomes (Xa and Xi territories). Chromosome territories were painted in formaldehyde-fixed, three-dimensionally intact human diploid female amniotic fluid cell nuclei (46, XX) with X-specific whole chromosome compositive probes. The colocalization of a 4,6-diamidino-2- phenylindole dihydrochloride-stained Barr body with one of the two painted X territories allowed the unequivocal discrimination of the inactive X from its active counterpart. Light optical serial sections were obtained with a confocal laser scanning microscope. 3D- reconstructed Xa territories revealed a flatter shape and exhibited a larger and more irregular surface when compared to the apparently smoother surface and rounder shape of Xi territories. The relationship between territory surface and volume was quantified by the determination of a dimensionless roundness factor (RF). RF and surface area measurements showed a highly significant difference between Xa and Xi territories (P < 0.001) in contrast to volume differences (P > 0.1). For comparison with an autosome of similar DNA content, chromosome 7 territories were additionally painted. The 3D morphology of the chromosome 7 territories was similar to the Xa territory but differed strongly from the Xi territory with respect to RF and surface area (P < 0.001). PMID:8978813

  4. Congenital renal tubular dysplasia and skull ossification defects similar to teratogenic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, D; Moss, G; Primhak, R; Coombs, R

    1997-01-01

    An apparently autosomal recessive syndrome of congenital renal tubular dysplasia and skull ossification defects is described in five infants from two separate, consanguineous, Pakistani Muslim kindreds. The clinical, pathological, and radiological features are similar to the phenotype associated with fetal exposure to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: intrauterine growth retardation, skull ossification defects, and fetal/ neonatal anuric renal failure associated with renal tubular dysplasia. There was no fetal exposure to ACE inhibitors in the affected infants. Phenotypic similarities between these familial cases and those associated with ACE inhibition suggest an abnormality of the "renin-angiotensin-aldosterone" system (RAS). It is postulated that the molecular pathology in this uncommon autosomal recessive proximal renal tubular dysgenesis could be related to mutations of the gene systems governing the RAS. Images PMID:9222960

  5. Effect of self-similar traffic on the performance and buffer requirements of ATM ABR edge devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dastangoo, S.; Miller, G.J.; Chen, H.; Brandt, J.

    1996-02-05

    Previous studies demonstrated that Ethemet local area network traffic is statistically self-similar and that the commonly used Poisson models are not able to capture the fractal characteristics of Ethemet traffic. This contribution uses simulated self-similar traffic traces from the MITRE Corporation and Sandia`s simulation software to evaluate the ABR performance of an ATM backbone. The ATM backbone interconnects Ethemet LANs via edge devices such as routers and bridges. We evaluate the overall network performance in terms of throughput, response time, fairness, and buffer requirements. Because typical edge devices perform simple forwarding functions, their usual mechanism for signaling network congestion is packet dropping. Therefore, we believe that the proper provisioning of buffer resources in ATM edge devices is crucial to the overall network performance.

  6. Biosimilar Insulins: How Similar is Similar?

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Hompesch, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Biosimilar insulins (BIs) are viewed as commercially attractive products by a number of companies. In order to obtain approval in the European Union or the United States, where there is not a single BI currently on the market, a manufacturer needs to demonstrate that a given BI has a safety and efficacy profile that is similar to that of the “original” insulin formulation that is already on the market. As trivial as this may appear at first glance, it is not trivial at all for a good number of reasons that will be discussed in this commentary. As with protein manufacturing, modifications in the structure of the insulin molecule can take place (which can have serious consequences for the biological effects induced), so a rigid and careful assessment is absolutely necessary. The example of Marvel's failed application with the European Medicines Agency provides insights into the regulatory and clinical challenges surrounding the matter of BI. Although a challenging BI approval process might be regarded as a hurdle to keep companies out of certain markets, it is fair to say that the potential safety and efficacy issues surrounding BI are substantial and relevant and do warrant a careful and evidence-driven approval process. PMID:21722590

  7. Similar ventral occipito-temporal cortex activations in literate and illiterate adults during the Chinese character matching task: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Geqi; Li, Xiujun; Yan, Tianyi; Wang, Bin; Yang, Jiajia; Wu, Jinglong; Guo, Qiyong

    2014-04-30

    Visual word expertise is typically associated with enhanced ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) cortex activation in response to written words. Previous study utilized a passive viewing task and found that vOT response to written words was significantly stronger in literate compared to the illiterate subjects. However, recent neuroimaging findings have suggested that vOT response properties are highly dependent upon the task demand. Thus, it is unknown whether literate adults would show stronger vOT response to written words compared to illiterate adults during other cognitive tasks, such as perceptual matching. We addressed this issue by comparing vOT activations between literate and illiterate adults during a Chinese character and simple figure matching task. Unlike passive viewing, a perceptual matching task requires active shape comparison, therefore minimizing automatic word processing bias. We found that although the literate group performed better at Chinese character matching task, the two subject groups showed similar strong vOT responses during this task. Overall, the findings indicate that the vOT response to written words is not affected by expertise during a perceptual matching task, suggesting that the association between visual word expertise and vOT response may depend on the task demand. PMID:24582905

  8. Negative strain rate sensitivity in bulk metallic glass and its similarities with the dynamic strain aging effect during deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Dalla Torre, Florian H.; Dubach, Alban; Siegrist, Marco E.; Loeffler, Joerg F.

    2006-08-28

    Detailed investigations were carried out on the deformation behavior of Zr-based monolithic bulk metallic glass and bulk metallic glass matrix composites. The latter, due to splitting and multiplication of shear bands, exhibits larger compressive strains than the former, without significant loss of strength. Serrated flow in conjunction with a negative strain rate sensitivity was observed in both materials. This observation, together with an increase in stress drops with increasing strain and their decrease with increasing strain rate, indicates phenomenologically close similarities with the dynamic strain aging deformation mechanism known for crystalline solids. The micromechanical mechanism of a shear event is discussed in light of these results.

  9. Predicting relationship and life satisfaction from personality in nationally representative samples from three countries: the relative importance of actor, partner, and similarity effects.

    PubMed

    Dyrenforth, Portia S; Kashy, Deborah A; Donnellan, M Brent; Lucas, Richard E

    2010-10-01

    Three very large, nationally representative samples of married couples were used to examine the relative importance of 3 types of personality effects on relationship and life satisfaction: actor effects, partner effects, and similarity effects. Using data sets from Australia (N = 5,278), the United Kingdom (N = 6,554), and Germany (N = 11,418) provided an opportunity to test whether effects replicated across samples. Actor effects accounted for approximately 6% of the variance in relationship satisfaction and between 10% and 15% of the variance in life satisfaction. Partner effects (which were largest for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability) accounted for between 1% and 3% of the variance in relationship satisfaction and between 1% and 2% of the variance in life satisfaction. Couple similarity consistently explained less than .5% of the variance in life and relationship satisfaction after controlling for actor and partner effects.

  10. ACTIVITY LEVEL AND LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SJOGREN, DOUGLAS D.; STAKE, ROBERT E.

    A STUDY OF LEARNING ACTIVITY EXPLORED (1) AN ACTIVITY-ACHIEVEMENT SCALE TO DESCRIBE THE IMPACT OF ACTIVITY ON ACHIEVEMENT AND (2) THE POSSIBLE COMPLEXITY OR DIMENSIONALITY OF THIS IMPACT. TEN GROUPS, OF 10 COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS EACH, WERE SCHEDULED TO STUDY UNDER EACH OF 10 LEARNING SITUATIONS. THE SITUATIONS CONSISTED OF TWO MODES OF…

  11. Interference Effects as a Function of Semantic Similarity in the Translation Recognition Task in Bilinguals of Catalan and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldovan, Cornelia D.; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Demestre, Josep; Ferre, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Previous evidence has shown that word pairs that are either related in form (e.g., "ruc-berro"; donkey-watercress) or very closely semantically related (e.g., "ruc-caballo", donkey-horse) produce interference effects in a translation recognition task (Ferre et al., 2006; Guasch et al., 2008). However, these effects are not observed when the words…

  12. The effects of climate model similarity on probabilistic climate projections and the implications for local, risk-based adaptation planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinschneider, Scott; McCrary, Rachel; Mearns, Linda O.; Brown, Casey

    2015-06-01

    Approaches for probability density function (pdf) development of future climate often assume that different climate models provide independent information, despite model similarities that stem from a common genealogy (models with shared code or developed at the same institution). Here we use an ensemble of projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 to develop probabilistic climate information, with and without an accounting of intermodel correlations, for seven regions across the United States. We then use the pdfs to estimate midcentury climate-related risks to a water utility in one of the regions. We show that the variance of climate changes is underestimated across all regions if model correlations are ignored, and in some cases, the mean change shifts as well. When coupled with impact models of the hydrology and infrastructure of a water utility, the underestimated likelihood of large climate changes significantly alters the quantification of risk for water shortages by midcentury.

  13. Testing the Interactive Effect of Parent and Child ADHD on Parenting in Mothers and Fathers: A Further Test of the Similarity-Fit Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psychogiou, Lamprini; Daley, Dave; Thompson, Margaret; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2007-01-01

    Mother and child ADHD symptoms both have a negative effect on parenting. Little is known about how these characteristics interact. In a recent paper, we reported two studies that suggested that maternal ADHD ameliorated the negative effects of child ADHD on negative parenting supporting a "similarity-fit" hypothesis. The aim of the current paper…

  14. Effect of river sediment on phosphorus chemistry of similarly aged natural and created wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta, Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Poach, M E; Faulkner, S P

    2007-01-01

    The goal of wetland creation is to produce an artificial wetland that functions as a natural wetland. Studies comparing created wetlands to similarly aged natural wetlands provide important information about creation techniques and their improvement so as to attain that goal. We hypothesized that differences in sediment phosphorus accretion, deposition, and chemistry between created and natural wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta, Louisiana, USA were a function of creation technique and natural river processes. Sediment deposition was determined with feldspar marker horizons located in created and natural wetlands belonging to three age classes (<3, 5-10, and 15-20 yr old). Phosphorus fractions were measured in these deposited sediments and in suspended and bedload sediment from the Atchafalaya River. Bedload sediment had significantly lower iron- and aluminum-bound, reductant-soluble, and total phosphorus than suspended sediment due to its high sand percentage. This result indicates that wetlands artificially created in the Atchafalaya Delta using bedload sediment will initially differ from natural wetlands of the same age. Even so, similarities between the mudflat stratum of the <1- to 3-yr-old created wetland and the mudflat stratum of the 15- to 20-yr-old natural wetland support the contention that created wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta can develop natural characteristics through the deposition of river suspended sediment. Differences between three created wetland strata, the 15- to 20-yr-old willow stratum and the <1- to 3-yr-old willow and mixed marsh strata, and their natural counterparts were linked to design elements of the created wetlands that prevented the direct deposition of the river's suspended sediment.

  15. Effect of river sediment on phosphorus chemistry of similarly aged natural and created wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta, Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poach, M.E.; Faulkner, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of wetland creation is to produce an artificial wetland that functions as a natural wetland. Studies comparing created wetlands to similarly aged natural wetlands provide important information about creation techniques and their improvement so as to attain that goal. We hypothesized that differences in sediment phosphorus accretion, deposition, and chemistry between created and natural wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta, Louisiana, USA were a function of creation technique and natural river processes. Sediment deposition was determined with feldspar marker horizons located in created and natural wetlands belonging to three age classes (<3, 5-10, and 15-20 yr old). Phosphorus fractions were measured in these deposited sediments and in suspended and bedload sediment from the Atchafalaya River. Bedload sediment had significantly lower iron- and aluminum-bound, reductant-soluble, and total phosphorus than suspended sediment due to its high sand percentage. This result indicates that wetlands artificially created in the Atchafalaya Delta using bedload sediment will initially differ from natural wetlands of the same age. Even so, similarities between the mudflat stratum of the <1- to 3-yr-old created wetland and the mudflat stratum of the 15- to 20-yr-old natural wetland support the contention that created wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta can develop natural characteristics through the deposition of river suspended sediment. Differences between three created wetland strata, the 15- to 20-yr-old willow stratum and the < 1- to 3-yr-old willow and mixed marsh strata, and their natural counterparts were linked to design elements of the created wetlands that prevented the direct deposition of the river's suspended sediment. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  16. The effect of visual similarity on short-term memory for spatial location: implications for the capacity of visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Walker, P; Hitch, G J; Duroe, S

    1993-08-01

    Evidence from the recency effect suggests that visual short-term memory is limited to preserving information about a single pattern. Three experiments explored the capacity of visual short-term memory using a task which involved presenting a series of patterns in a random spatio-temporal sequence and probing memory for the spatial location of one of them. Experiment 1 used sequences of quasi-random block patterns which were either visually similar or dissimilar. Serial position curves showed a single-item recency effect. However, there was also a deleterious effect of visual similarity for the earlier patterns, indicating that visual short-term memory was supporting their retention. Experiment 2 showed that performance was unaffected by articulatory suppression, confirming that phonological coding is not an important factor in the localisation task. Experiment 3 switched to letter stimuli and, because of the known tendency for this type of stimulus to be phonologically recoded, required articulatory suppression. Letters were shown in a customised form in sequences which were either visually similar or visually dissimilar. The results replicated experiment 1 in showing restricted recency combined with an effect of visual similarity extending across earlier list items. When the same letters were shown in standard form, the recency effect remained but the similarity effect disappeared, ruling out possible interpretations in terms of semantic as well as phonological coding. It is concluded that the recency effect gives a misleading indication of the capacity of visual short-term memory. The visual similarity effect suggests that it is capable of supporting the retention of several patterns.

  17. Palmitate activates mTOR/p70S6K through AMPK inhibition and hypophosphorylation of raptor in skeletal muscle cells: Reversal by oleate is similar to metformin.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bumsup; Querfurth, Henry W

    2015-11-01

    Excessive saturated free fatty acids (SFFAs; e.g. palmitate) in blood are a pathogenic factor in diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and liver failure. In contrast, monounsaturated free fatty acids (e.g. oleate) prevent the toxic effect of SFFAs in various types of cells. The mechanism is poorly understood and involvement of the mTOR complex is untested. In the present study, we demonstrate that oleate preconditioning, as well as coincubation, completely prevented palmitate-induced markers of inflammatory signaling, insulin resistance and cytotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes. We then examined the effect of palmitate and/or oleate on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal path and whether their link is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Palmitate decreased the phosphorylation of raptor and 4E-BP1 while increasing the phosphorylation of p70S6K. Palmitate also inhibited phosphorylation of AMPK, but did not change the phosphorylated levels of mTOR or rictor. Oleate completely prevented the palmitate-induced dysregulation of mTOR components and restored pAMPK whereas alone it produced no signaling changes. To understand this more, we show activation of AMPK by metformin also prevented palmitate-induced changes in the phosphorylations of raptor and p70S6K, confirming that the mTORC1/p70S6K signaling pathway is responsive to AMPK activity. By contrast, inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation by Compound C worsened palmitate-induced changes and correspondingly blocked the protective effect of oleate. Finally, metformin modestly attenuated palmitate-induced insulin resistance and cytotoxicity, as did oleate. Our findings indicate that palmitate activates mTORC1/p70S6K signaling by AMPK inhibition and phosphorylation of raptor. Oleate reverses these effects through a metformin-like facilitation of AMPK. PMID:26344902

  18. Effects of a Cognitive Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program Are Similar for Asian American, Hispanic, and White Participants

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Rosalía; Marchand, Erica; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explored the effects of participating in a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program on changes in thin ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and eating symptoms among White, Asian American, and Hispanic participants. Method Participants were (n = 394), 13 to 20-year-old adolescent girls and young women who reported being White (n = 311), Hispanic/Latina (n = 61), or Asian-American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 33). The current study used data drawn from the pre- and post assessments of an efficacy trial and an effectiveness trial of this eating disorder prevention program. Results The intervention reduced disordered eating behaviors and eating disorder risk factors for all three ethnic groups at post-intervention assessment; there was no evidence of significantly stronger effects in any particular ethnic group. Conclusion Results suggest that a cognitive dissonance-based prevention program for eating disorders may be equally effective for Asian American, Hispanic, and White adolescent women. PMID:18528871

  19. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from cirrhotic patients retain similar capacity for maturation/activation and antigen presentation as those from healthy subjects☆

    PubMed Central

    Tanoue, Shiroh; Chang, Li-Yuan; Li, Yonghai; Kaplan, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of liver cirrhosis on dendritic cell function. The purpose of this study was to compare the activation and antigen-presentation capacity of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) from cirrhotic patients (CIR) relative to healthy donors (HD). MoDC from CIR and HD were matured, phenotyped, irradiated and pulsed with 15mer peptides for two hepatocellular carcinoma-related antigens, alphafetoprotein and glypican-3, then co-cultured with autologous T-cells. Expanded T-cells were evaluated by interferon-gamma ELISPOT and intracellular staining. 15 CIR and 7 HD were studied. While CD14+ monocytes from CIR displayed enhanced M2 polarization, under MoDC-polarizing conditions, we identified no significant difference between HD and CIR in maturation-induced upregulation of co-stimulation markers. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between CIR and HD in subsequent expansion of tumor antigen-specific IFNγ+ T-cells. Conclusion MoDCs isolated from cirrhotic individuals retain similar capacity for in vitro activation, maturation and antigen-presentation as those from healthy donors. PMID:25734547

  20. Similarities and differences in brain activation and functional connectivity in first and second language reading: evidence from Chinese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Young Kim, Say; Liu, Yanni; Liu, Li

    2014-10-01

    It has been evidenced that both similarities and differences exist in the brain network involved in second language reading in comparison to the first language reading. However, very few studies have been done to compare functional connectivity in L1 and L2 reading. Brain activation and functional connectivity during English pseudoword rhyming judgment in a group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CE group) were compared to a Chinese word rhyming judgment task in another group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CC group). Brain activation analyses revealed that the two groups engaged a similar network and that the only significant group difference was greater involvement of the right middle occipital gyrus in the CC group than in the CE group, due to greater holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. English pseudowords can be read using the same network as Chinese characters, whereas psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses revealed different connectivity within the reading network between the two groups. Greater functional connectivity was found between three visuo-orthographic seed regions and the right precentral gyrus in the CC group, suggesting that the sensorimotor patterns of Chinese syllables are activated during Chinese word rhyming judgment. In contrast, we found greater connectivity between the three seed regions and the left postcentral gyrus in the CE group. In addition, the connectivity between one of the three seed regions (i.e. the right middle occipital gyrus) and the left postcentral gyrus was positively correlated with English proficiency in the CE group. This suggests that somatosensory feedback plays a key role in processing the foreign phonemes of English pseudowords and those highly proficient bilinguals tend to rely on this information to a greater degree. We also found that within the CE group, the connectivity between the right middle occipital gyrus and the left inferior parietal lobule was positively

  1. Similar potential ATP-P production and enzymatic activities in the microplankton community off Concepción (Chile) under oxic and suboxic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Rodrigo R.; Gutiérrez, Marcelo H.; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2007-11-01

    The effects of the oxygen minimum zone on the metabolism of the heterotrophic microplankton community (0.22-100 μm) in the Humboldt Current System, as well as the factors controlling its biomass production, remain unknown. Here we compare the effect of four sources of dissolved organic carbon (glucose, oxaloacetate, glycine, leucine) on microbial biomass production (such as ATP-P) and the potential enzymatic activities involved in catabolic pathways under oxic and suboxic conditions. Our results show significant differences ( p < 0.05) in the ATP-P production when induced by the different substrates that are used as dissolved organic carbon herein. The induction of ATP-P production is enhanced from glucose < oxaloacetate < glycine < leucine. Nevertheless, for individual substrates, no significant differences were found between incubation under oxic and suboxic conditions except in the case of leucine. For this amino acid, the induction of ATP-P synthesis was higher under suboxic than oxic conditions. The data sets of all the substrates used showed greater potential ATP-P production under suboxic than oxic conditions. The results of the potential enzymatic activities suggest that malate dehydrogenase has the highest signal of NADH oxidization activity in the microbial assemblage. Furthermore, for all experiments, the malate dehydrogenase activity data set had a significant relationship with ATP-P production. These findings suggest that the microbial community inhabiting the oxygen minimum zone has the same or greater potential growth than the community inhabiting more oxygenated strata of the water column and that malate dehydrogenase is the activity that best represents the metabolic potential of the community.

  2. Beyond Single Syllables: The Effect of First Syllable Frequency and Orthographic Similarity on Eye Movements during Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawelka, Stefan; Schuster, Sarah; Gagl, Benjamin; Hutzler, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the eye movements of 60 adult German readers during silent reading of target words, consisting of two and three syllables, embedded in sentences. The first objective was to assess whether the inhibitory effect of first syllable frequency, which was up to now primarily shown for isolated words, generalises to natural reading. The…

  3. The effects of changing deposition conditions on the similarity of sputter-deposited fluorocarbon thin films to bulk PTFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandona, Philip

    Solid lubrication of space-borne mechanical components is essential to their survival and the continued human exploration of space. Recent discoveries have shown that PTFE when blended with alumina nanofillers exhibits greatly improved physical performance properties, with wear rates being reduced by several orders of magnitude. The bulk processes used to produce the PTFE-alumina blends are limiting. Co-sputter deposition of PTFE and a filler material overcomes several of these limitations by enabling the reduction of particle size to the atomic level and also by allowing for the even coating of the solid lubricant on relatively large areas and components. The goal of this study was to establish a baseline performance of the sputtered PTFE films as compared to the bulk material, and to establish deposition conditions that would result in the most bulk-like film possible. In order to coax change in the structure of the sputtered films, sputtering power and deposition temperature were increased independently. Further, post-deposition annealing was applied to half of the deposited film in an attempt to affect change in the film structure. Complications in the characterization process due to increasing film thickness were also examined. Bulk-like metrics for characterization processes the included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray spectroscopy (XPS), nanoindentation via atomic force microscopy, and contact angle of water on surface measurements were established. The results of the study revealed that increasing sputtering power and deposition temperature resulted in an increase in the similarity between the fluorocarbon films and the bulk PTFE, at a cost of affecting the potential of the film thicknesses, either by affecting the deposition process directly, or by decreasing the longevity of the sputtering targets.

  4. Similar hypotensive effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise with 1 set versus 3 sets in women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tibana, Ramires A; Nascimento, Dahan da C; de Sousa, Nuno M F; de Almeida, Jeeser A; Moraes, Milton R; Durigan, João Luiz Quagliotti; Collier, Scott R; Prestes, Jonato

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the response of systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) following combined training with 1 set or with 3 sets of resistance exercise (RE). Sixteen women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) were randomly assigned to perform two combined exercise protocols and a control session (CON): 1-set, 30 min of aerobic exercise (AE) at 65-70% of reserve heart rate and 1 set of 8-12 repetitions at 80% of 10-RM in six resistance exercises; 3-sets, same protocol but with 3 sets; and CON, 30 min of seated rest. The SBP, MBP and DBP were measured before and every 15 min during 90 min following the experimental sessions. The SBP displayed a decrease (P ≤ 0.05) during the 90 min following the RE session with 1-set and 3-set, while MBP was decreased (P ≤ 0.05) up to 75 min after 1-set and up to 30 min after the 3-set exercise session compared with pre-intervention values. There was a decrease in DBP only for the greatest individual decrease following 1-set (-6.1 mmHg) and 3-set (-4.9 mmHg) combined exercise sessions, without differences between them. The rate-pressure product and heart rate remained significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) 75 min and 90 min after the combined exercise session with 1- and 3-sets compared with the CON, respectively. In conclusion, a low-volume RE combined with AE resulted in similar decrease of SBP when compared with RE with 3-sets in women with MetS, which could be beneficial in situations of limited time.

  5. Candida tropicalis from veterinary and human sources shows similar in vitro hemolytic activity, antifungal biofilm susceptibility and pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Evangelista, Antônio José de Jesus; Serpa, Rosana; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Aguiar, Felipe Rodrigues Magalhães de; Pereira, Vandbergue Santos; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro Aquino; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemolytic activity and biofilm antifungal susceptibility of veterinary and human Candida tropicalis strains, as well as their pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans. Twenty veterinary isolates and 20 human clinical isolates of C. tropicalis were used. The strains were evaluated for their hemolytic activity and biofilm production. Biofilm susceptibility to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin was assessed using broth microdilution assay. The in vivo evaluation of strain pathogenicity was investigated using the nematode C. elegans. Hemolytic factor was observed in 95% of the strains and 97.5% of the isolates showed ability to form biofilm. Caspofungin and amphotericin B showed better results than azole antifungals against mature biofilms. Paradoxical effect on mature biofilm metabolic activity was observed at elevated concentrations of caspofungin (8-64μg/mL). Azole antifungals were not able to inhibit mature C. tropicalis biofilms, even at the higher tested concentrations. High mortality rates of C. elegans were observed when the worms were exposed to with C. tropicalis strains, reaching up to 96%, 96h after exposure of the worms to C. tropicalis strains. These results reinforce the high pathogenicity of C. tropicalis from veterinary and human sources and show the effectiveness of caspofungin and amphotericin B against mature biofilms of this species. PMID:27527785

  6. A "Perfect" Hydrodynamic Similarity and the Effect of Small-Scale Vortices on the Large-Scale Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D; Remington, B

    2003-11-10

    In the laboratory experiments designed to reproduce hydrodynamical phenomena of relevance for astrophysics the Reynolds numbers, although very large, are usually smaller than in real astrophysical systems. If the hydrodynamic flow reaches the turbulent state, it may then happen that differences (related to the difference in Reynolds numbers) would appear in the global-scale motions of the two systems. The difficulty in studying this issue in high energy density laboratory experiments lies in that equations of state and transport coefficients are usually not very well known, so that the subtle effect of the Reynolds number may be easily obscured by experimental uncertainties. An approach has recently been suggested [D.D. Ryutov, B.A. Remington, Phys. Plasmas, 10, 2629, 2003] that allows one to circumvent this difficulty and isolate the effect of the Reynolds number. In the present paper, after presenting a summary of the previous results, we briefly discuss various aspects of possible experiments.

  7. HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Itch Functions as a Novel Negative Regulator of Gli-Similar 3 (Glis3) Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    ZeRuth, Gary T.; Williams, Jason G.; Cole, Yasemin C.; Jetten, Anton M.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Gli-similar 3 (Glis3) plays a critical role in the generation of pancreatic ß cells and the regulation insulin gene transcription and has been implicated in the development of several pathologies, including type 1 and 2 diabetes and polycystic kidney disease. However, little is known about the proteins and posttranslational modifications that regulate or mediate Glis3 transcriptional activity. In this study, we identify by mass-spectrometry and yeast 2-hybrid analyses several proteins that interact with the N-terminal region of Glis3. These include the WW-domain-containing HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases, Itch, Smurf2, and Nedd4. The interaction between Glis3 and the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases was verified by co-immunoprecipitation assays and mutation analysis. All three proteins interact through their WW-domains with a PPxY motif located in the Glis3 N-terminus. However, only Itch significantly contributed to Glis3 polyubiquitination and reduced Glis3 stability by enhancing its proteasomal degradation. Itch-mediated degradation of Glis3 required the PPxY motif-dependent interaction between Glis3 and the WW-domains of Itch as well as the presence of the Glis3 zinc finger domains. Transcription analyses demonstrated that Itch dramatically inhibited Glis3-mediated transactivation and endogenous Ins2 expression by increasing Glis3 protein turnover. Taken together, our study identifies Itch as a critical negative regulator of Glis3-mediated transcriptional activity. This regulation provides a novel mechanism to modulate Glis3-driven gene expression and suggests that it may play a role in a number of physiological processes controlled by Glis3, such as insulin transcription, as well as in Glis3-associated diseases. PMID:26147758

  8. New insights into steric and electronic effects in a series of phosphine ligands from the perspective of local quantum similarity using the Fukui function.

    PubMed

    Morales-Bayuelo, Alejandro; Caballero, Julio

    2015-03-01

    The field of molecular quantum similarity (MQS) was introduced by Carbó-Dorca 30 years ago. MQS currently suffers from numerous bottlenecks, for example when studying similarities in chemical reactivity, because there is no clear guidance on the best methodology to follow. For this reason, we have revisited this topic here. Today's search tools and methodologies have made an important contribution to studying steric and electronic effects in phosphine ligands (PR3). In this contribution, we propose a hybrid methodology joining (MQS) and chemical reactivity. Additionally, a chemical reactivity study using global and local reactivity descriptors was performed in the context of density functional theory (DFT). Phosphines are σ-donor and π-acceptor ligands, therefore reactivity descriptors allow us quantify the retrodonor process in terms of quantum similarity (QS). In this regard, new ways to characterize steric and electronic effects in phosphine ligands and their chemical bonds are presented in the QS context. PMID:25687904

  9. Similar effects in vivo of two aluminum salts on the liver, kidney, bone, and brain of Rattus norvegicus

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, A.K.; Talukder, G.; Sharma, A. )

    1991-08-01

    The widespread distribution of aluminum (Al) compounds in nature and their use have stimulated considerable interest in the toxicity of this metal. Aluminum accumulation has been suggested to be an associated phenomenon in various human diseases such as renal dialysis dementia, senile dementia, dialysis osteomalacia, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, gastrointestinal toxicity and Alzheimer's disease. The present work was undertaken to observe the effects of different concentrations of aluminum following oral ingestion for various durations on various organs of rats and also to compare two different Al salts at doses having the same amount of Al. The findings can be of relevance owing to the widespread use of aluminum compounds by oral route either as medicines or unintentionally through utensils and cookwares.

  10. Dietary palmitic and oleic acids exert similar effects on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein profiles in normocholesterolemic men and women.

    PubMed

    Ng, T K; Hayes, K C; DeWitt, G F; Jegathesan, M; Satgunasingam, N; Ong, A S; Tan, D

    1992-08-01

    To compare the effects of dietary palmitic acid (16:0) vs oleic acid (18:1) on serum lipids, lipoproteins, and plasma eicosanoids, 33 normocholesterolemic subjects (20 males, 13 females; ages 22-41 years) were challenged with a coconut oil-rich diet for 4 weeks. Subsequently they were assigned to either a palm olein-rich or olive oil-rich diet followed by a dietary crossover during two consecutive 6-week periods. Each test oil served as the sole cooking oil and contributed 23% of dietary energy or two-thirds of the total daily fat intake. Dietary myristic acid (14:0) and lauric acid (12:0) from coconut oil significantly raised all the serum lipid and lipoprotein parameters measured. Subsequent one-to-one exchange of 7% energy between 16:0 (palm olein diet) and 18:1 (olive oil diet) resulted in identical serum total cholesterol (192, 193 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (130, 131 mg/dl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (41, 42 mg/dl), and triglyceride (TG) (108, 106 mg/dl) concentrations. Effects attributed to gender included higher HDL in females and higher TG in males associated with the tendency for higher LDL and LDL/HDL ratios in men. However, both sexes were equally responsive to changes in dietary fat saturation. The results indicate that in healthy, normocholesterolemic humans, dietary 16:0 can be exchanged for 18:1 within the range of these fatty acids normally present in typical diets without affecting the serum lipoprotein cholesterol concentration or distribution. In addition, replacement of 12:0 + 14:0 by 16:0 + 18:1, but especially 16:0 or some component of palm olein, appeared to have a beneficial impact on an important index of thrombogenesis, i.e., the thromboxane/prostacyclin ratio in plasma.

  11. Effect Of Simulated Microgravity On Activated T Cell Gene Transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Maureen A.

    2003-01-01

    Studies of T lymphocytes under the shear stress environment of clinorotation have demonstrated an inhibition of activation in response to TCR mediated signaling. These results mimic those observed during space flight. This work investigates the molecular signaling events of T lymphocyte activation with clinorotation. Purified human T lymphocytes and the T cell clone Jurkat exhibit an uncoupling of signaling as mediated through the TCR. Activation of the transcription factor AP-1 is inhibited while activation of NFAT occurs. NFAT dephosphorylation and activation is dependent on sustained Ca(++) influx. Alternatively, AP-1, which consists of two transcription factors, jun and fos, is activated by PKC and Ras mediated pathways. TCR signaling is known to be dependent on cytoskeletal rearrangements, in particular, raft aggregation is critical. Raft aggregation, as mediated through GM, crosslinking, overcomes the inhibition of T lymphocyte activation with clinorotation, indicating that the block is occurring upstream of raft aggregation. Clinorotation is shown to have an effect similar to a weak TCR signal.

  12. The Effects of Similarity and Actual Levels of Self-Disclosure and Self-Disclosure Flexibility on Perceptions of Interpersonal Attraction and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winum, Paul C.; Banikiotes, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated how individuals perceive others who systematically vary in both level of disclosure and disclosure flexibility. Subjects were 52 students rated high or low in self-disclosure and disclosure flexibility. Found a similarity effect for disclosure flexibility and highest ratings for medium-high disclosure and high disclosure flexibility…

  13. Faith-Based and Graduate Adult Educators' Negotiation of Similarities and Differences among People as an Indicator of Their Multicultural Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth Conerly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adult educators' multicultural effectiveness scores and their negotiation of similarities and differences scores. The participants were in faith-based institutions, specifically Christian churches and in graduate adult education programs of universities and colleges in the United States. Multicultural…

  14. Sling exercise and traditional warm-up have similar effects on the velocity and accuracy of throwing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juliet S; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Weltman, Arthur L; Saliba, Susan A

    2011-06-01

    Throwing is a complex motion that involves the entire body and often puts an inordinate amount of stress on the shoulder and the arm. Warm-up prepares the body for work and can enhance performance. Sling-based exercise (SE) has been theorized to activate muscles, particularly the stabilizers, in a manner beneficial for preactivity warm-up, yet this hypothesis has not been tested. Our purpose was to determine if a warm-up using SE would increase throwing velocity and accuracy compared to a traditional, thrower's 10 warm-up program. Division I baseball players (nonpitchers) (16 men, age: 19.6 ± 1.3, height: 184.2 ± 6.2 cm, mass: 76.9 ± 19.2 kg) volunteered to participate in this crossover study. All subjects underwent both a warm-up routine using a traditional method (Thrower's 10 exercises) and a warm-up routine using closed kinetic chain SE methods (RedCord) on different days separated by 72 hours. Ball velocity and accuracy measures were obtained on 10 throws after either the traditional and SE warm-up regimens. Velocity was recorded using a standard Juggs radar gun (JUGS; Tualatin, OR, USA). Accuracy was recorded using a custom accuracy target. An Analysis of covariance was performed, with the number of throws recorded before the testing was used as a covariate and p < 0.05 was set a priori. There were no statistical differences between the SE warm-up and Thrower's 10 warm-up for throwing velocity (SE: 74.7 ± 7.5 mph, Thrower's 10: 74.6 ± 7.3 mph p = 0.874) or accuracy (SE: 115.6 ± 53.7 cm, Thrower's 10: 91.8 ± 55 cm, p = 0.136). Warming up with SE produced equivalent throwing velocity and accuracy compared to the Thrower's 10 warm-up method. Thus, SE provides an alternative to traditional warm-up.

  15. Non-targeted transcriptomic effects upon thyroid irradiation: similarity between in-field and out-of-field responses varies with tissue type

    PubMed Central

    Langen, Britta; Rudqvist, Nils; Spetz, Johan; Swanpalmer, John; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non-targeted effects can induce responses in tissues that have not been exposed to ionizing radiation. Despite their relevance for risk assessment, few studies have investigated these effects in vivo. In particular, these effects have not been studied in context with thyroid exposure, which can occur e.g. during irradiation of head and neck tumors. To determine the similarity between in-field and out-of-field responses in normal tissue, we used a partial body irradiation setup with female mice where the thyroid region, the thorax and abdomen, or all three regions were irradiated. After 24 h, transcriptional regulation in the kidney cortex, kidney medulla, liver, lungs, spleen, and thyroid was analyzed using microarray technology. Thyroid irradiation resulted in transcriptional regulation in the kidney medulla and liver that resembled regulation upon direct exposure of these tissues regarding both strength of response and associated biological function. The kidney cortex showed fewer similarities between the setups, while the lungs and spleen showed little similarity between in-field and out-of-field responses. Interestingly, effects were generally not found to be additive. Future studies are needed to identify the molecular mechanisms that mediate these systemic effects, so that they may be used as targets to minimize detrimental side effects in radiotherapy. PMID:27779251

  16. Lidocaine and structure-related mexiletine induce similar contractility-enhancing effects in ischaemia-reperfusion injured equine intestinal smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tappenbeck, Karen; Hoppe, Susanne; Hopster, Klaus; Kietzmann, Manfred; Feige, Karsten; Huber, Korinna

    2013-06-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is a severe complication following small intestinal surgery in horses. It was hypothesised that prokinetic effects of lidocaine, the most commonly chosen drug for treatment of POI, resulted from drug integration into smooth muscle (SM) cell membranes, thereby modulating cell membrane properties. This would probably depend on the structural and lipophilic characteristics of lidocaine. To assess the influence of molecular structure and lipophilicity on prokinetic effects in vitro, the current study compared the effects of lidocaine with four structure-related drugs, namely, mexiletine, bupivacaine, tetracaine and procaine. The response to cumulative drug administration and reversibility of effects were tested by measuring isometric contractile performance of equine jejunal circular SM strips, challenged by a standardised, artificial in vivo ischaemia-reperfusion injury. A second set of SM strips were incubated with the different drugs to determine changes in creatine kinase (CK) release. All drugs caused a drug-specific increase in contractility, although only lidocaine and mexiletine induced similar concentration-dependent curve progressions, significantly reduced CK release, and featured shorter recovery times of tissue contractility after washing, compared to bupivacaine and tetracaine. In was concluded that the structural and lipophilic similarity of mexiletine and lidocaine were responsible for the similar effects of these drugs on SM contractility and cell membrane permeability, which supported the hypothesis that prokinetic effects of lidocaine are based on interactions with SM cell membranes modulated by these features. PMID:23265867

  17. Nest predation increases with parental activity: Separating nest site and parental activity effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.; Scott, J.; Menge, C.

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection.

  18. No contractile effect for 5-HT1D and 5-HT1F receptor agonists in human and bovine cerebral arteries: similarity with human coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Bouchelet, Isabelle; Case, Bruce; Olivier, André; Hamel, Edith

    2000-01-01

    Using subtype-selective 5-HT1 receptor agonists and/or the 5-HT1 receptor antagonist GR127935, we characterized in vitro the 5-HT receptor that mediates the contraction of human and bovine cerebral arteries. Further, we investigated which sumatriptan-sensitive receptors are present in human coronary artery by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). Agonists with affinity at the 5-HT1B receptor, such as sumatriptan, alniditan and/or IS-159, elicited dose-dependent contraction in both human and bovine cerebral arteries. They behaved as full agonists at the sumatriptan-sensitive 5-HT1 receptors in both species. In contrast, PNU-109291 and LY344864, selective agonists at 5-HT1D and 5-HT1F receptors, respectively, were devoid of any significant vasocontractile activity in cerebral arteries, or did not affect the sumatriptan-induced vasocontraction. The rank order of agonist potency was similar in both species and could be summarized as 5-HT=alniditan>sumatriptan=IS-159>>>PNU-109291=LY344864. In bovine cerebral arteries, the 5-HT1 receptor antagonist GR127935 dose-dependently inhibited the vasoconstrictions elicited by both 5-HT and sumatriptan, with respective pA2 values of 8.0 and 8.6. RT–PCR studies in human coronary arteries showed a strong signal for the 5-HT1B receptor while message for the 5-HT1F receptor was weak and less frequently detected. Expression of 5-HT1D receptor mRNA was not detected in any sample. The present results demonstrate that the triptan-induced contraction in brain vessels is mediated exclusively by the 5-HT1B receptor, which is also present in a majority of human coronary arteries. These results suggest that selective 5-HT1D and 5-HT1F receptor agonists might represent new antimigraine drugs devoid of cerebro- and cardiovascular effects. PMID:10711348

  19. Taste transduction mechanism: similar effects of various modifications of gustatory receptors on neural responses to chemical and electrical stimulation in the frog

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwayanagi, M.; Yoshii, K.; Kobatake, Y.; Kurihara, K.

    1981-09-01

    Responses in the frog glossopharyngeal nerve induced by electrical stimulation of the tongue were compared with those induced by chemical stimuli under various conditions. (a) Anodal stimulation induced much larger responses than cathodal stimulation, and anodal stimulation of the tongue adapted to 5 mM MgCl2 produced much larger responses than stimulation with the tongue adapted to 10 mM NaCl at equal current intensities, as chemical stimulation with MgCl2 produced much larger responses than stimulation with NaCl at equal concentration. (b) The enhansive and suppressive effects of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate, NiCl2, and uranyl acetate on the responses to anodal current were similar to those on the responses to chemical stimulation. (c) Anodal stimulation of the tongue adapted to 50 mM CaCl2 resulted in a large response, whereas application of 1 M CaCl2 to the tongue adapted to 50 mM CaCl2 produced only a small response. This, together with theoretical considerations, suggested that the accumulation of salts on the tongue surface is not the cause of the generation of the response to anodal current. (d) Cathodal current suppressed the responses induced by 1 mM CaCl2, 0.3 M ethanol, and distilled water. (e) The addition of EGTA or Ca-channel blockers (CdCl2 and verapamil) to the perfusing solution of the lingual artery reversibly suppressed both the responses to chemical stimulus (NaCl) and to anodal current with 10 mM NaCl. (f) We assume from the results obtained that electrical current from the microvillus membrane of a taste cell to the synaptic area supplied by anodal stimulation or induced by chemical stimulation activates the voltage-dependent Ca channel at the synaptic area.

  20. Effect of Surface-Active Pseudomonas spp. on Leaf Wettability

    PubMed Central

    Bunster, Lillian; Fokkema, Nyckle J.; Schippers, Bob

    1989-01-01

    Different strains of Pseudomonas putida and P. fluorescens isolated from the rhizosphere and phyllosphere were tested for surface activity in droplet cultures on polystyrene. Droplets of 6 of the 12 wild types tested spread over the surface during incubation, and these strains were considered surface active; strains not showing this reaction were considered non-surface active. Similar reactions were observed on pieces of wheat leaves. Supernatants from centrifuged broth cultures behaved like droplets of suspensions in broth; exposure to 100°C destroyed the activity. Average contact angles of the supernatants of surface-active and non-surface-active strains on polystyrene were 24° and 72°, respectively. The minimal surface tension of supernatants of the surface-active strains was about 46 mN/m, whereas that of the non-surface-active strains was 64 mN/m (estimations from Zisman plots). After 6 days of incubation, wheat flag leaves sprayed with a dilute suspension of a surface-active strain of P. putida (WCS 358RR) showed a significant increase in leaf wettability, which was determined by contact angle measurements. Increasing the initial concentration of bacteria and the amount of nutrients in the inoculum sprayed on leaves reduced the contact angles from 138° on leaves treated with antibiotics (control) to 43° on leaves treated with surface-active bacteria. A closely related strain with no surface activity on polystyrene did not affect leaf wettability, although it was present in densities similar to those of the surface-active strain. Nutrients alone could occasionally also increase leaf wettability, apparently by stimulating naturally occurring surface-active bacteria. When estimating densities of Pseudomonas spp. underneath droplets with low contact angles, it appeared that populations on leaves treated with a surface-active strain could vary from about 104 to 106 CFU cm−2, suggesting that the surface effect may be prolonged after a decline of the

  1. Application of a transonic similarity rule to correct the effects of sidewall boundary layers in two-dimensional transonic wind tunnels. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sewall, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    A transonic similarity rule which accounts for the effects of attached sidewall boundary layers is presented and evaluated by comparison with the characteristics of airfoils tested in a two dimensional transonic tunnel with different sidewall boundary layer thicknesses. The rule appears valid provided the sidewall boundary layer both remains attached in the vicinity of the model and occupies a small enough fraction of the tunnel width to preserve sufficient two dimensionality in the tunnel.

  2. The effects of high-voltage pulse electric discharges on ion adsorption on activated carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, M. M.; Sveshnikova, D. A.; Larin, S. V.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.; Shabanova, Z. E.; Yusupova, A. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.

    2008-07-01

    The effects of high-voltage pulse electric discharges (HPED) on sorption of boron and sulfate ions on activated carbons of different kinds (KM-2, BAU, DAK) were investigated. The effect of HPED activation on the sorption characteristics of the systems was found to be similar to the temperature effect.

  3. Effects of Physical (In)activity on Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Heber, Stefan; Volf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (in)activity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i) acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii) regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii) habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality. PMID:26557653

  4. Do similarities or differences between CEO leadership and organizational culture have a more positive effect on firm performance? A test of competing predictions.

    PubMed

    Hartnell, Chad A; Kinicki, Angelo J; Lambert, Lisa Schurer; Fugate, Mel; Doyle Corner, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the nature of the interaction between CEO leadership and organizational culture using 2 common metathemes (task and relationship) in leadership and culture research. Two perspectives, similarity and dissimilarity, offer competing predictions about the fit, or interaction, between leadership and culture and its predicted effect on firm performance. Predictions for the similarity perspective draw upon attribution theory and social identity theory of leadership, whereas predictions for the dissimilarity perspective are developed based upon insights from leadership contingency theories and the notion of substitutability. Hierarchical regression results from 114 CEOs and 324 top management team (TMT) members failed to support the similarity hypotheses but revealed broad support for the dissimilarity predictions. Findings suggest that culture can serve as a substitute for leadership when leadership behaviors are redundant with cultural values (i.e., they both share a task- or relationship-oriented focus). Findings also support leadership contingency theories indicating that CEO leadership is effective when it provides psychological and motivational resources lacking in the organization's culture. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and delineate directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Do similarities or differences between CEO leadership and organizational culture have a more positive effect on firm performance? A test of competing predictions.

    PubMed

    Hartnell, Chad A; Kinicki, Angelo J; Lambert, Lisa Schurer; Fugate, Mel; Doyle Corner, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the nature of the interaction between CEO leadership and organizational culture using 2 common metathemes (task and relationship) in leadership and culture research. Two perspectives, similarity and dissimilarity, offer competing predictions about the fit, or interaction, between leadership and culture and its predicted effect on firm performance. Predictions for the similarity perspective draw upon attribution theory and social identity theory of leadership, whereas predictions for the dissimilarity perspective are developed based upon insights from leadership contingency theories and the notion of substitutability. Hierarchical regression results from 114 CEOs and 324 top management team (TMT) members failed to support the similarity hypotheses but revealed broad support for the dissimilarity predictions. Findings suggest that culture can serve as a substitute for leadership when leadership behaviors are redundant with cultural values (i.e., they both share a task- or relationship-oriented focus). Findings also support leadership contingency theories indicating that CEO leadership is effective when it provides psychological and motivational resources lacking in the organization's culture. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and delineate directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26949819

  6. Effectiveness of noise in blocking electromagnetic effects on enzyme activity in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Martin, A H; Moses, G C

    1995-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that exposure of the chick embryo to a 60 Hz, 4 microT split sine wave for the first 72 hours of development causes a significant reduction in the activity of the ectoenzyme 5'-nucleotidase. This reduced activity persisted, throughout the embryonic period, despite further incubation in a field free environment. We also showed that the reduction in 5'NT activity can be localized in the developing brain to the Cerebellum. The present study reveals that superimposition of an electromagnetic noise, of similar amplitude and frequency, can mitigate the effect of the field on 5'NT activity.

  7. Asthma and Rhinitis Are Associated with Less Objectively-Measured Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity, but Similar Sport Participation, in Adolescent German Boys: GINIplus and LISAplus Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) protects against most noncommunicable diseases and has been associated with decreased risk of allergic phenotype, which is increasing worldwide. However, the association is not always present; furthermore it is not clear whether it is strongest for asthma, rhinitis, symptoms of these, or atopic sensitization; which sex is most affected; or whether it can be explained by either avoidance of sport or exacerbation of symptoms by exercise. Interventions are thus difficult to target. Methods PA was measured by one-week accelerometry in 1137 Germans (mean age 15.6 years, 47% boys) from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, and modeled as a correlate of allergic symptoms, sensitization, or reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or rhinitis. Results 8.3% of children had asthma, of the remainder 7.9% had rhinitis, and of the remainder 32% were sensitized to aero-allergens (atopic). 52% were lung-healthy controls. Lung-healthy boys and girls averaged 46.4 min and 37.8 min moderate-to-vigorous PA per day, of which 14.6 and 11.4 min was vigorous. PA in allergic girls was not altered, but boys with asthma got 13% less moderate and 29% less vigorous PA, and those with rhinitis with 13% less moderate PA, than lung-healthy boys. Both sexes participated comparably in sport (70 to 84%). Adolescents with wheezing (up to 68%, in asthma) and/or nose/eye symptoms (up to 88%, in rhinitis) were no less active. Conclusions We found that asthma and rhinitis, but not atopy, were independently associated with low PA in boys, but not in girls. These results indicate that allergic boys remain a high-risk group for physical inactivity even if they participate comparably in sport. Research into the link between PA and allergy should consider population-specific and sex-specific effects, and clinicians, parents, and designers of PA interventions should specifically address PA in allergic boys to ensure full participation. PMID:27560942

  8. Vitis labrusca extract effects on cellular dynamics and redox modulations in a SH-SY5Y neuronal cell model: a similar role to lithium.

    PubMed

    Scola, Gustavo; Laliberte, Victoria Louise Marina; Kim, Helena Kyunghee; Pinguelo, Arsene; Salvador, Mirian; Young, L Trevor; Andreazza, Ana Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress and calcium imbalance are consistently reported in bipolar disorder (BD). Polymorphism of voltage-dependent calcium channel, L type, alpha 1C subunit (CACNA1c), which is responsible for the regulation of calcium influx, was also shown to have a strong association with BD. These alterations can lead to a number of different consequences in the cell including production of reactive species causing oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Lithium is the most frequent medication used for the treatment of BD. Despite lithium's effects, long-term use can result in many negative side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of drugs that may have similar biological effects as lithium without the negative consequences. Moreover, polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants that present multi-faceted molecular abilities, such as regulation of cellular responses. Vitis labrusca extract (VLE), a complex mixture of polyphenols obtained from seeds of winery wastes of V. labrusca, was previously characterized by our group. This extract presented powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, the ability of VLE to ameliorate the consequences of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced redox alterations to cell viability, intracellular calcium levels and the relative levels of the calcium channel CACNA1c in comparison to lithium's effects were evaluated using a neuroblastoma cell model. H2O2 treatment increased cell mortality through apoptotic and necrotic pathways leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and alterations to relative CACNA1c levels. VLE and lithium were found to similarly ameliorate cell mortality through regulation of the apoptotic/necrotic pathways, decreasing intracellular calcium levels and preventing alterations to the relative levels of CACNA1c. The findings of this study suggest that VLE exhibits protective properties against oxidative stress-induced alterations similar to that of lithium

  9. Vitis labrusca extract effects on cellular dynamics and redox modulations in a SH-SY5Y neuronal cell model: a similar role to lithium.

    PubMed

    Scola, Gustavo; Laliberte, Victoria Louise Marina; Kim, Helena Kyunghee; Pinguelo, Arsene; Salvador, Mirian; Young, L Trevor; Andreazza, Ana Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress and calcium imbalance are consistently reported in bipolar disorder (BD). Polymorphism of voltage-dependent calcium channel, L type, alpha 1C subunit (CACNA1c), which is responsible for the regulation of calcium influx, was also shown to have a strong association with BD. These alterations can lead to a number of different consequences in the cell including production of reactive species causing oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Lithium is the most frequent medication used for the treatment of BD. Despite lithium's effects, long-term use can result in many negative side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of drugs that may have similar biological effects as lithium without the negative consequences. Moreover, polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants that present multi-faceted molecular abilities, such as regulation of cellular responses. Vitis labrusca extract (VLE), a complex mixture of polyphenols obtained from seeds of winery wastes of V. labrusca, was previously characterized by our group. This extract presented powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, the ability of VLE to ameliorate the consequences of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced redox alterations to cell viability, intracellular calcium levels and the relative levels of the calcium channel CACNA1c in comparison to lithium's effects were evaluated using a neuroblastoma cell model. H2O2 treatment increased cell mortality through apoptotic and necrotic pathways leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and alterations to relative CACNA1c levels. VLE and lithium were found to similarly ameliorate cell mortality through regulation of the apoptotic/necrotic pathways, decreasing intracellular calcium levels and preventing alterations to the relative levels of CACNA1c. The findings of this study suggest that VLE exhibits protective properties against oxidative stress-induced alterations similar to that of lithium

  10. The gender similarities hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-09-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships. PMID:16173891

  11. The gender similarities hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-09-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships.

  12. Self-similar aftershock rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise—an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes—the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  13. Self-similar aftershock rates.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting. PMID:27627324

  14. Self-similar aftershock rates.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  15. Towards Personalized Medicine: Leveraging Patient Similarity and Drug Similarity Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  16. Towards personalized medicine: leveraging patient similarity and drug similarity analytics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  17. The plant G box promoter sequence activates transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is bound in vitro by a yeast activity similar to GBF, the plant G box binding factor.

    PubMed Central

    Donald, R G; Schindler, U; Batschauer, A; Cashmore, A R

    1990-01-01

    G box and I box sequences of the Arabidopsis thaliana ribulose-bisphosphate-1,5-carboxylase small subunit (RBCS) promoter are required for expression mediated by the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A promoter in transgenic tobacco plants and are bound in vitro by factors from plant nuclear extracts termed GBF and GA-1, respectively. We show here that a -390 to -60 rbcS-1A promoter fragment containing the G box and two I boxes activates transcription from a truncated iso-1-cytochrome c (CYC1) gene promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutagenesis of either the rbcS-1A G box or both I box sequences eliminated the expression mediated by this fragment. When polymerized, I box oligonucleotides were also capable of enhancing expression from the truncated CYC1 promoter. Single-copy G box sequences from the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A, Arabidopsis Adh and tomato rbcS-3A promoters were more potent activators and were used in mobility shift assays to identify a DNA binding activity in yeast functionally similar to GBF. In methylation interference experiments, the binding specificity of the yeast protein was indistinguishable from that obtained with plant nuclear extracts. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2161333

  18. [Kinetic analysis of additive effect on desulfurization activity].

    PubMed

    Han, Kui-hua; Zhao, Jian-li; Lu, Chun-mei; Wang, Yong-zheng; Zhao, Gai-ju; Cheng, Shi-qing

    2006-02-01

    The additive effects of A12O3, Fe2O3 and MnCO3 on CaO sulfation kinetics were investigated by thermogravimetic analysis method and modified grain model. The activation energy (Ea) and the pre-exponential factor (k0) of surface reaction, the activation energy (Ep) and the pre-exponential factor (D0) of product layer diffusion reaction were calculated according to the model. Additions of MnCO3 can enhance the initial reaction rate, product layer diffusion and the final CaO conversion of sorbents, the effect mechanism of which is similar to that of Fe2O3. The method based isokinetic temperature Ts and activation energy can not estimate the contribution of additive to the sulfation reactivity, the rate constant of the surface reaction (k), and the effective diffusivity of reactant in the product layer (Ds) under certain experimental conditions can reflect the effect of additives on the activation. Unstoichiometric metal oxide may catalyze the surface reaction and promote the diffusivity of reactant in the product layer by the crystal defect and distinct diffusion of cation and anion. According to the mechanism and effect of additive on the sulfation, the effective temperature and the stoichiometric relation of reaction, it is possible to improve the utilization of sorbent by compounding more additives to the calcium-based sorbent.

  19. Multivariate Hypergeometric Similarity Measure

    PubMed Central

    Kaddi, Chanchala D.; Parry, R. Mitchell; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a similarity measure based on the multivariate hypergeometric distribution for the pairwise comparison of images and data vectors. The formulation and performance of the proposed measure are compared with other similarity measures using synthetic data. A method of piecewise approximation is also implemented to facilitate application of the proposed measure to large samples. Example applications of the proposed similarity measure are presented using mass spectrometry imaging data and gene expression microarray data. Results from synthetic and biological data indicate that the proposed measure is capable of providing meaningful discrimination between samples, and that it can be a useful tool for identifying potentially related samples in large-scale biological data sets. PMID:24407308

  20. Mouse gastric tumor models with prostaglandin E2 pathway activation show similar gene expression profiles to intestinal-type human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gastric cancers are generally classified into better differentiated intestinal-type tumor and poorly differentiated diffuse-type one according to Lauren's histological categorization. Although induction of prostaglandin E2 pathway promotes gastric tumors in mice in cooperation with deregulated Wnt or BMP signalings, it has remained unresolved whether the gastric tumor mouse models recapitulate either of human gastric cancer type. This study assessed the similarity in expression profiling between gastric tumors of transgenic mice and various tissues of human cancers to find best-fit human tumors for the transgenic mice models. Results Global expression profiling initially found gastric tumors from COX-2/mPGES-1 (C2mE)-related transgenic mice (K19-C2mE, K19-Wnt1/C2mE, and K19-Nog/C2mE) resembled gastric cancers among the several tissues of human cancers including colon, breast, lung and gastric tumors. Next, classification of the C2mE-related transgenic mice by a gene signature to distinguish human intestinal- and diffuse-type tumors showed C2mE-related transgenic mice were more similar to intestinal-type compared with diffuse one. We finally revealed that induction of Wnt pathway cooperating with the prostaglandin E2 pathway in mice (K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice) further reproduce features of human gastric intestinal-type tumors. Conclusion We demonstrated that C2mE-related transgenic mice show significant similarity to intestinal-type gastric cancer when analyzed by global expression profiling. These results suggest that the C2mE-related transgenic mice, especially K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice, serve as a best-fit model to study molecular mechanism underlying the tumorigenesis of human gastric intestinal-type cancers. PMID:20015407

  1. Overlapping Trisomies for Human Chromosome 21 Orthologs Produce Similar Effects on Skull and Brain Morphology of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ratliff, Tabetha S.; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2014-01-01

    Trisomy 21 results in gene-dosage imbalance during embryogenesis and throughout life, ultimately causing multiple anomalies that contribute to the clinical manifestations of Down syndrome. Down syndrome is associated with manifestations of variable severity (e.g., heart anomalies, reduced growth, dental anomalies, shortened life-span). Craniofacial dysmorphology and cognitive dysfunction are consistently observed in all people with Down syndrome. Mouse models are useful for studying the effects of gene-dosage imbalance on development. We investigated quantitative changes in the skull and brain of the Dp(16) 1Yey Down syndrome mouse model and compared these mice to Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models. Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography images of Dp(16)1Yey and euploid mouse crania were morphometrically evaluated. Cerebellar cross-sectional area, Purkinje cell linear density, and granule cell density were evaluated relative to euploid littermates. Skulls of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice displayed similar changes in craniofacial morphology relative to their respective euploid littermates. Trisomy-based differences in brain morphology were also similar in Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice. These results validate examination of the genetic basis for craniofacial and brain phenotypes in Dp(16)1Yey mice and suggest that they, like Ts65Dn mice, are valuable tools for modeling the effects of trisomy 21 on development. PMID:24788405

  2. Overlapping trisomies for human chromosome 21 orthologs produce similar effects on skull and brain morphology of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, John M; Dutka, Tara; Ratliff, Tabetha S; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2014-08-01

    Trisomy 21 results in gene-dosage imbalance during embryogenesis and throughout life, ultimately causing multiple anomalies that contribute to the clinical manifestations of Down syndrome. Down syndrome is associated with manifestations of variable severity (e.g., heart anomalies, reduced growth, dental anomalies, shortened life-span). Craniofacial dysmorphology and cognitive dysfunction are consistently observed in all people with Down syndrome. Mouse models are useful for studying the effects of gene-dosage imbalance on development. We investigated quantitative changes in the skull and brain of the Dp(16)1Yey Down syndrome mouse model and compared these mice to Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models. Three-dimensional micro-computed tomography images of Dp(16)1Yey and euploid mouse crania were morphometrically evaluated. Cerebellar cross-sectional area, Purkinje cell linear density, and granule cell density were evaluated relative to euploid littermates. Skulls of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice displayed similar changes in craniofacial morphology relative to their respective euploid littermates. Trisomy-based differences in brain morphology were also similar in Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice. These results validate examination of the genetic basis for craniofacial and brain phenotypes in Dp(16)1Yey mice and suggest that they, like Ts65Dn mice, are valuable tools for modeling the effects of trisomy 21 on development. PMID:24788405

  3. Thromboplastin immobilized on polystyrene surface exhibits kinetic characteristics close to those for the native protein and activates in vitro blood coagulation similarly to thromboplastin on fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fadeeva, O A; Panteleev, M A; Karamzin, S S; Balandina, A N; Smirnov, I V; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2010-06-01

    A method for transmembrane protein thromboplastin (tissue factor) immobilization on polystyrene surface is described. Tissue factor is the main activating factor launching the blood coagulation process. It is a cofactor of factor VIIa, the first protease in the cascade of coagulation reactions. The proposed method preserves kinetic characteristics specific for native tissue factor on the fibroblast surface. The kinetics of binding to factor VIIa and enzymic activity of the formed complex follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics, which is also characteristic of native complex. A small difference is that dissociation constant for tissue factor immobilized on polystyrene surface exceeds 2.7-fold that for native factor. The proposed technique of immobilization provides for protein density on the activating surface corresponding to the tissue factor density on the fibroblast surface. The immobilized tissue factor can be used to activate blood coagulation in methods simulating spatial dynamics of in vitro clot growth. Investigation in this direction will make it possible to register both hypo- and hypercoagulation states of the system. This approach is advantageous over traditional methods of estimation of the coagulation system conditions, which mainly register only hypocoagulation. Investigation of the storage time has shown that activators containing immobilized tissue factor can be stored and used during for at least 100 days in the method studying spatial dynamics of fibrin clot formation.

  4. Effect of trimebutine on colonic myoelectrical activity in IBS patients.

    PubMed

    Frexinos, J; Fioramonti, J; Bueno, L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of trimebutine 100 mg i.v. and placebo on colonic myoelectrical activity was investigated in 10 patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (5 constipated and 5 diarrhoeic), using an intraluminal probe supporting 8 groups of electrodes. At each site examined from transverse to sigmoid colon, the electromyograms exhibited two kinds of spike bursts: short spike bursts (SSB) localized at one electrode site and appearing rhythmically at 10.3/min, and long spike bursts (LSB), isolated or propagated orally or aborally. Computerized analysis of the duration of each kind of spike burst showed that, as compared to the control, trimebutine 100 mg, selectively inhibited by 43 to 73% the mean duration of LSB activity in the transverse, descending and sigmoid colon, from 0 to 30 min after administration. The inhibitory effect was similar in constipated and diarrhoeic patients. Placebo injection did not significantly affect (p greater than 0.05) the duration of LSB and SSB activity. Variance analysis indicated that the inhibitory effect of trimebutine was significantly greater (p less than 0.05) on LSB activity in the transverse than the descending colon, and that it was absent from the sigmoid colon. The results suggest that trimebutine selectively inhibits the propulsive activity of the proximal two thirds of the colon in IBS patients, and that this effect cannot entirely explain its therapeutic efficacy in IBS. PMID:3987797

  5. Significant Treatment Effect of Bupropion in Patients With Bipolar Disorder but Similar Phase-Shifting Rate as Other Antidepressants: A Meta-Analysis Following the PRISMA Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Li, Dian-Jeng; Tseng, Ping-Tao; Chen, Yen-Wen; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Lin, Pao-Yen

    2016-03-01

    Bupropion is widely used for treating bipolar disorder (BD), and especially those with depressive mood, based on its good treatment effect, safety profile, and lower risk of phase shifting. However, increasing evidence indicates that the safety of bupropion in BD patients may not be as good as previously thought. The aim of this study was to summarize data on the treatment effect and safety profile of bupropion in the treatment of BD via a meta-analysis. Electronic search through PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov was performed. The inclusion criteria were: (i) studies comparing changes in disease severity before and after bupropion treatment or articles comparing the treatment effect of bupropion in BD patients with those receiving other standard treatments; (ii) articles on clinical trials in humans. The exclusion criteria were (i) case reports/series, and (ii) nonclinical trials. All effect sizes from 10 clinical trials were pooled using a random effects model. We examined the possible confounding variables using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Bupropion significantly improved the severity of disease in BD patients (P < 0.001), and the treatment effect was similar to other antidepressants/standard treatments (P = 0.220). There were no significant differences in the dropout rate (P = 0.285) and rate of phase shifting (P = 0.952) between BD patients who received bupropion and those who received other antidepressants. We could not perform a detailed meta-analysis of every category of antidepressant, nor could we rule out the possible confounding effect of concurrent psychotropics or include all drug side effects. Furthermore, the number of studies recruited in the meta-analysis was relatively small. Our findings reconfirm the benefits of bupropion for the treatment of bipolar depression, which are similar to those of other antidepressants. However, the rate of phase shifting with bupropion usage was not as low compared to other antidepressants as

  6. Significant Treatment Effect of Bupropion in Patients With Bipolar Disorder but Similar Phase-Shifting Rate as Other Antidepressants: A Meta-Analysis Following the PRISMA Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Li, Dian-Jeng; Tseng, Ping-Tao; Chen, Yen-Wen; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Lin, Pao-Yen

    2016-03-01

    Bupropion is widely used for treating bipolar disorder (BD), and especially those with depressive mood, based on its good treatment effect, safety profile, and lower risk of phase shifting. However, increasing evidence indicates that the safety of bupropion in BD patients may not be as good as previously thought. The aim of this study was to summarize data on the treatment effect and safety profile of bupropion in the treatment of BD via a meta-analysis. Electronic search through PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov was performed. The inclusion criteria were: (i) studies comparing changes in disease severity before and after bupropion treatment or articles comparing the treatment effect of bupropion in BD patients with those receiving other standard treatments; (ii) articles on clinical trials in humans. The exclusion criteria were (i) case reports/series, and (ii) nonclinical trials. All effect sizes from 10 clinical trials were pooled using a random effects model. We examined the possible confounding variables using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Bupropion significantly improved the severity of disease in BD patients (P < 0.001), and the treatment effect was similar to other antidepressants/standard treatments (P = 0.220). There were no significant differences in the dropout rate (P = 0.285) and rate of phase shifting (P = 0.952) between BD patients who received bupropion and those who received other antidepressants. We could not perform a detailed meta-analysis of every category of antidepressant, nor could we rule out the possible confounding effect of concurrent psychotropics or include all drug side effects. Furthermore, the number of studies recruited in the meta-analysis was relatively small. Our findings reconfirm the benefits of bupropion for the treatment of bipolar depression, which are similar to those of other antidepressants. However, the rate of phase shifting with bupropion usage was not as low compared to other antidepressants as

  7. Temporary inhibition of dorsal or ventral hippocampus by muscimol: distinct effects on measures of innate anxiety on the elevated plus maze, but similar disruption of contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Ning; Bast, Tobias; Xu, Yan; Feldon, Joram

    2014-04-01

    Studies in rats, involving hippocampal lesions and hippocampal drug infusions, have implicated the hippocampus in the modulation of anxiety-related behaviors and conditioned fear. The ventral hippocampus is considered to be more important for anxiety- and fear-related behaviors than the dorsal hippocampus. In the present study, we compared the role of dorsal and ventral hippocampus in innate anxiety and classical fear conditioning in Wistar rats, examining the effects of temporary pharmacological inhibition by the GABA-A agonist muscimol (0.5 ug/0.5 ul/side) in the elevated plus maze and on fear conditioning to a tone and the conditioning context. In the elevated plus maze, dorsal and ventral hippocampal muscimol caused distinct behavioral changes. The effects of ventral hippocampal muscimol were consistent with suppression of locomotion, possibly accompanied by anxiolytic effects, whereas the pattern of changes caused by dorsal hippocampal muscimol was consistent with anxiogenic effects. In contrast, dorsal and ventral hippocampal muscimol caused similar effects in the fear conditioning experiments, disrupting contextual, but not tone, fear conditioning.

  8. The Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Peter V.; Lee, Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) with respect to children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The primary focus is on the development of English language and literacy skills, and some information is provided on the acquisition of English as a second language. The QSH is briefly discussed within…

  9. Dietary L-leucine and L-alanine supplementation have similar acute effects in the prevention of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Anne; Petzke, Klaus J; Klaus, Susanne

    2013-02-01

    High-protein diets have been shown to alleviate detrimental effects of high-fat diets and this effect can be partially mimicked by dietary L-leucine supplementation. Here, we aimed to elucidate the early mechanisms and the specificity of leucine effects. We performed a 1-week trial with male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum with semisynthetic high-fat diets containing an adequate (10 % w/w, AP) or high (50 % w/w, HP) amount of whey protein, or supplemented with L-leucine corresponding to the leucine content within the HP diet (Leu) or supplemented with equimolar L-alanine (Ala). Food and water intake were monitored continuously using a computer-controlled monitor system and body composition changes were assessed using quantitative NMR. HP completely prevented the AP-induced accumulation of body fat. Leu and Ala resulted in a similar reduction of body fat accumulation which was intermediate between AP and HP. There were no significant effects on plasma glucose or insulin. Triacylglycerol content and gene expression of lipogenesis enzymes in liver as well as plasma cholesterol were reduced by HP compared to AP with Leu and Ala again showing intermediate effects. Body fat gain and liver triacylglycerols were strongly correlated with total energy intake. Water intake was rapidly increased by HP feeding and total water intake correlated strongly with total amino nitrogen intake. We concluded that the positive effects of high-protein diets on metabolic syndrome associated traits are acutely due to effects on satiety possibly linked to amino nitrogen intake and on the subsequent suppression of liver lipogenesis without evidence for a specific leucine effect.

  10. Wood smoke particles from different combustion phases induce similar pro-inflammatory effects in a co-culture of monocyte and pneumocyte cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been linked to several adverse cardiopulmonary effects, probably via biological mechanisms involving inflammation. The pro-inflammatory potential of PM depends on the particles’ physical and chemical characteristics, which again depend on the emitting source. Wood combustion is a major source of ambient air pollution in Northern countries during the winter season. The overall aim of this study was therefore to investigate cellular responses to wood smoke particles (WSPs) collected from different phases of the combustion cycle, and from combustion at different temperatures. Results WSPs from different phases of the combustion cycle induced very similar effects on pro-inflammatory mediator release, cytotoxicity and cell number, whereas WSPs from medium-temperature combustion were more cytotoxic than WSPs from high-temperature incomplete combustion. Furthermore, comparisons of effects induced by native WSPs with the corresponding organic extracts and washed particles revealed that the organic fraction was the most important determinant for the WSP-induced effects. However, the responses induced by the organic fraction could generally not be linked to the content of the measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suggesting that also other organic compounds were involved. Conclusion The toxicity of WSPs seems to a large extent to be determined by stove type and combustion conditions, rather than the phase of the combustion cycle. Notably, this toxicity seems to strongly depend on the organic fraction, and it is probably associated with organic components other than the commonly measured unsubstituted PAHs. PMID:23176191

  11. Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 and the commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165 exhibit similar protective effects to induced barrier hyper-permeability in mice

    PubMed Central

    Laval, L; Martin, R; Natividad, JN; Chain, F; Miquel, S; de Maredsous, C Desclée; Capronnier, S; Sokol, H; Verdu, EF; van Hylckama Vlieg, JET; Bermúdez-Humarán, LG; Smokvina, T; Langella, P

    2015-01-01

    Impaired gut barrier function has been reported in a wide range of diseases and syndromes and in some functional gastrointestinal disorders. In addition, there is increasing evidence that suggests the gut microbiota tightly regulates gut barrier function and recent studies demonstrate that probiotic bacteria can enhance barrier integrity. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 on intestinal barrier function. In vitro results using a Caco-2 monolayer cells stimulated with TNF-α confirmed the anti-inflammatory nature of the strain CNCM I-3690 and pointed out a putative role for the protection of the epithelial function. Next, we tested the protective effects of L. rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 in a mouse model of increased colonic permeability. Most importantly, we compared its performance to that of the well-known beneficial human commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prauznitzii A2-165. Increased colonic permeability was normalized by both strains to a similar degree. Modulation of apical tight junction proteins expression was then analyzed to decipher the mechanism underlying this effect. We showed that CNCM I-3690 partially restored the function of the intestinal barrier and increased the levels of tight junction proteins Occludin and E-cadherin. The results indicate L. rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 is as effective as the commensal anti-inflammatory bacterium F. prausnitzii to treat functional barrier abnormalities. PMID:25517879

  12. Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 and the commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165 exhibit similar protective effects to induced barrier hyper-permeability in mice.

    PubMed

    Laval, L; Martin, R; Natividad, J N; Chain, F; Miquel, S; Desclée de Maredsous, C; Capronnier, S; Sokol, H; Verdu, E F; van Hylckama Vlieg, J E T; Bermúdez-Humarán, L G; Smokvina, T; Langella, P

    2015-01-01

    Impaired gut barrier function has been reported in a wide range of diseases and syndromes and in some functional gastrointestinal disorders. In addition, there is increasing evidence that suggests the gut microbiota tightly regulates gut barrier function and recent studies demonstrate that probiotic bacteria can enhance barrier integrity. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 on intestinal barrier function. In vitro results using a Caco-2 monolayer cells stimulated with TNF-α confirmed the anti-inflammatory nature of the strain CNCM I-3690 and pointed out a putative role for the protection of the epithelial function. Next, we tested the protective effects of L. rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 in a mouse model of increased colonic permeability. Most importantly, we compared its performance to that of the well-known beneficial human commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prauznitzii A2-165. Increased colonic permeability was normalized by both strains to a similar degree. Modulation of apical tight junction proteins expression was then analyzed to decipher the mechanism underlying this effect. We showed that CNCM I-3690 partially restored the function of the intestinal barrier and increased the levels of tight junction proteins Occludin and E-cadherin. The results indicate L. rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 is as effective as the commensal anti-inflammatory bacterium F. prausnitzii to treat functional barrier abnormalities.

  13. Effects of aircraft noise on human activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoult, M. D.; Gilfillan, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of aircrft noise on human activities was investigated by developing a battery of tasks (1) representative of a range of human activities and (2) sensitive to the disruptive effects of noise. The noise used were recordings of jet aircraft and helicopter sounds at three lvels of loudness--60, 70, and 80 dB(A). Experiment 1 investigated 12 different cognitive tasks, along with two intelligibility tasks included to validate that the noises were being effective. Interference with intelligibility was essentially the same as found in the research literature, but only inconsistent effects were found on either accuracy or latency of performance on the cognitive tasks. When the tasks were grouped into four categories (Intelligibility, Matching, Verbal, and Arithmetic), reliable differences in rated annoyingness of the noises were related to the task category and to the type of noise (jet or helicopter).

  14. Inferred metagenomic comparison of mucosal and fecal microbiota from individuals undergoing routine screening colonoscopy reveals similar differences observed during active inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mei San; Poles, Jordan; Leung, Jacqueline M; Wolff, Martin J; Davenport, Michael; Lee, Soo Ching; Lim, Yvonne Al; Chua, Kek Heng; Loke, P'ng; Cho, Ilseung

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal microbiota lives in close proximity with the intestinal epithelium and may interact more directly with the host immune system than the luminal/fecal bacteria. The availability of nutrients in the mucus layer of the epithelium is also very different from the gut lumen environment. Inferred metagenomic analysis for microbial function of the mucosal microbiota is possible by PICRUSt. We recently found that by using this approach, actively inflamed tissue of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients have mucosal communities enriched for genes involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism, and reduced for carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. Here, we find that the same bacterial taxa (e.g. Acinetobacter) and predicted microbial pathways enriched in actively inflamed colitis tissue are also enriched in the mucosa of subjects undergoing routine screening colonoscopies, when compared with paired samples of luminal/fecal bacteria. These results suggest that the mucosa of healthy individuals may be a reservoir of aerotolerant microbial communities expanded during colitis. PMID:25559083

  15. The Binding Mode Prediction and Similar Ligand Potency in the Active Site of Vitamin D Receptor with QM/MM Interaction, MESP, and MD Simulation.

    PubMed

    Selvaraman, Nagamani; Selvam, Saravana Kumar; Muthusamy, Karthikeyan

    2016-08-01

    Non-secosteroidal ligands are well-known vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists. In this study, we described a combined QM/MM to define the protein-ligand interaction energy a strong positive correlation in both QM-MM interaction energy and binding free energy against the biological activity. The molecular dynamics simulation study was performed, and specific interactions were extensively studied. The molecular docking results and surface analysis shed light on steric and electrostatic complementarities of these non-secosteroidal ligands to VDR. Finally, the drug likeness properties were also calculated and found within the acceptable range. The results show that bulky group substitutions in side chain decrease the VDR activity, whereas a small substitution increased it. Functional analyses of H393A and H301A mutations substantiate their roles in the VDR agonistic and antagonistic activities. Apart from the His393 and His301, two other amino acids in the hinge region viz. Ser233 and Arg270 acted as an electron donor/acceptor specific to the agonist in the distinct ligand potency. The results from this study disclose the binding mechanism of VDR agonists and structural modifications required to improve the selectivity.

  16. Indexing Similar DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

    To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

  17. Two highly similar LAEDDTNAQKT and LTDKIGTEI epitopes in G glycoprotein may be useful for effective epitope based vaccine design against pathogenic Henipavirus.

    PubMed

    Parvege, Md Masud; Rahman, Monzilur; Nibir, Yead Morshed; Hossain, Mohammad Shahnoor

    2016-04-01

    Nipah virus and Hendra virus, two members of the genus Henipavirus, are newly emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause acute respiratory illness and severe encephalitis in human. Lack of the effective antiviral therapy endorses the urgency for the development of vaccine against these deadly viruses. In this study, we employed various computational approaches to identify epitopes which has the potential for vaccine development. By analyzing the immune parameters of the conserved sequences of G glycoprotein using various databases and bioinformatics tools, we identified two potential epitopes which may be used as peptide vaccines. Using different B cell epitope prediction servers, four highly similar B cell epitopes were identified. Immunoinformatics analyses revealed that LAEDDTNAQKT is a highly flexible and accessible B-cell epitope to antibody. Highly similar putative CTL epitopes were analyzed for their binding with the HLA-C 12*03 molecule. Docking simulation assay revealed that LTDKIGTEI has significantly lower binding energy, which bolstered its potential as epitope-based vaccine design. Finally, cytotoxicity analysis has also justified their potential as promising epitope-based vaccine candidate. In sum, our computational analysis indicates that either LAEDDTNAQKT or LTDKIGTEI epitope holds a promise for the development of universal vaccine against all kinds of pathogenic Henipavirus. Further in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to validate the obtained findings. PMID:26970211

  18. Two highly similar LAEDDTNAQKT and LTDKIGTEI epitopes in G glycoprotein may be useful for effective epitope based vaccine design against pathogenic Henipavirus.

    PubMed

    Parvege, Md Masud; Rahman, Monzilur; Nibir, Yead Morshed; Hossain, Mohammad Shahnoor

    2016-04-01

    Nipah virus and Hendra virus, two members of the genus Henipavirus, are newly emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause acute respiratory illness and severe encephalitis in human. Lack of the effective antiviral therapy endorses the urgency for the development of vaccine against these deadly viruses. In this study, we employed various computational approaches to identify epitopes which has the potential for vaccine development. By analyzing the immune parameters of the conserved sequences of G glycoprotein using various databases and bioinformatics tools, we identified two potential epitopes which may be used as peptide vaccines. Using different B cell epitope prediction servers, four highly similar B cell epitopes were identified. Immunoinformatics analyses revealed that LAEDDTNAQKT is a highly flexible and accessible B-cell epitope to antibody. Highly similar putative CTL epitopes were analyzed for their binding with the HLA-C 12*03 molecule. Docking simulation assay revealed that LTDKIGTEI has significantly lower binding energy, which bolstered its potential as epitope-based vaccine design. Finally, cytotoxicity analysis has also justified their potential as promising epitope-based vaccine candidate. In sum, our computational analysis indicates that either LAEDDTNAQKT or LTDKIGTEI epitope holds a promise for the development of universal vaccine against all kinds of pathogenic Henipavirus. Further in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to validate the obtained findings.

  19. Cardiorespiratory effects of forced activity and digestion in toads.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Johnnie Bremholm; Wang, Tobias

    2003-01-01

    Digestion and physical activity are associated with large and sometimes opposite changes in several physiological parameters. Gastric acid secretion during digestion causes increased levels of plasma bicarbonate ([HCO-3](pl)), whereas activity leads to a metabolic acidosis with increased lactate and decrease in plasma bicarbonate. Here we describe the combined effects of feeding and activity in the toad Bufo marinus to investigate whether the increased bicarbonate buffering capacity during digestion (the so-called alkaline tide) protects the acid-base disturbance during activity and enhances the subsequent recovery. In addition, we describe the changes in arterial oxygen levels and plasma ion composition, as well as rates of gas exchange, heart rates, and blood pressures. Toads were equipped with catheters in the femoral artery and divided into four experimental regimes: control, digestion, forced activity, and forced activity during the postprandial period (N=6 in each). Digestion induced a significant metabolic alkalosis with increased [HCO-3](pl) that was completely balanced by a respiratory acidosis; that is, increased arterial Pco(2) (P(a)co(2)), so that arterial pH (pH(a)) did not change. Forced activity led to a substantial reduction in pH(a) by 0.43 units, an increase in plasma lactate concentration by 12.5 mmol L(-1), and a reduction in [HCO-3](pl) of similar magnitude. While digesting animals had higher P(a)co(2) and [HCO-3](pl) at rest, the magnitude and duration of the changes in arterial acid-base parameters were similar to those of fasting animals, although the reduction in pH(a) was somewhat lower (0.32 units). In conclusion, while recovery from the acidosis following exercise did not seem to be affected by digestion, the alkaline tide did slightly dampen the reduction in pH(a) during activity.

  20. ARSENIC EFFECTS ON TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic effects on telomere and telomerase activity. T-C. Zhang, M. T. Schmitt, J. Mo, J. L. Mumford, National Research Council and U.S Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
    Arsenic is a known carcinogen and also an anticancer agent for acut...

  1. A cyanobacterial protein with similarity to phytochelatin synthases catalyzes the conversion of glutathione to gamma-glutamylcysteine and lacks phytochelatin synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Harada, Emiko; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Clemens, Stephan

    2004-12-01

    Phytochelatins are glutathione-derived, non-translationally synthesized peptides essential for cadmium and arsenic detoxification in plant, fungal and nematode model systems. Recent sequencing programs have revealed the existence of phytochelatin synthase-related genes in a wide range of organisms that have not been reported yet to produce phytochelatins. Among those are several cyanobacteria. We have studied one of the encoded proteins (alr0975 from Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120) and demonstrate here that it does not possess phytochelatin synthase activity. Instead, this protein catalyzes the conversion of glutathione to gamma-glutamylcysteine. The thiol spectrum of yeast cells expressing alr0975 shows the disappearance of glutathione and the formation of a compound that by LC-MSMS analysis was unequivocally identified as gamma-glutamylcysteine. Purified recombinant protein catalyzes the respective reaction. Unlike phytochelatin synthesis, the conversion of glutathione to gamma-glutamylcysteine is not dependent on activation by metal cations. No evidence was found for the accumulation of phytochelatins in cyanobacteria even after prolonged exposure to toxic Cd2+ concentrations. Expression of alr0975 was detected in Nostoc sp. cells with an antiserum raised against the protein. No indication for a responsiveness of expression to toxic metal exposure was found. Taken together, these data provide further evidence for possible additional functions of phytochelatin synthase-related proteins in glutathione metabolism and provide a lead as to the evolutionary history of phytochelatin synthesis.

  2. Evaluation of Biological and Enzymatic Activity of Soil in a Tropical Dry Forest: Desierto de la Tatacoa (Colombia) with Potential in Mars Terraforming and Other Similar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Moreno, A. N.

    2009-12-01

    Desierto de la Tatacoa has been determined to be a tropical dry forest bioma, which is located at 3° 13" N 75° 13" W. It has a hot thermal floor with 440 msnm of altitude; it has a daily average of 28° C, and a maximum of 40° C, Its annual rainfall total can be upwards of 1250 mm. Its solar sheen has a daily average of 5.8 hours and its relative humidity is between 60% and 65%. Therefore, the life forms presents are very scant, and in certain places, almost void. It was realized a completely random sampling of soil from its surface down to 6 inches deep, of zones without vegetation and with soils highly loaded by oxides of iron in order to determine the number of microorganisms per gram and its subsequent identification. It was measured the soil basal respiration. Besides, it was determined enzymatic activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease). Starting with the obtained results, it is developes an alternative towards the study of soil genesis in Mars in particular, and recommendations for same process in other planets. Although the information found in the experiments already realized in Martian soil they demonstrate that doesnt exist any enzymatic activity, the knowledge of the same topic in the soil is proposed as an alternative to problems like carbonic fixing of the dense Martian atmosphere of CO2, the degradation of inorganic compounds amongst other in order to prepare the substratum for later colonization by some life form.

  3. Attenuation of Diabetic Conditions by Sida rhombifolia in Moderately Diabetic Rats and Inability to Produce Similar Effects in Severely Diabetic in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja; Kwape, Tebogo Elvis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was done out to evaluate the effects of Sida rhombifolia methanol extract (SRM) on diabetes in moderately diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: SRM was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% methanol and rota evaporating the methanol from the extract. Effective hypoglycemic doses were established by performing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in normal rats. Hourly effects of SRM on glucose were observed in the MD and the SD rats. Rats were grouped, five rats to a group, into normal control 1 (NC1), MD control 1 (MDC1), MD experimental 1 (MDE1), SD control 1 (SDC1), and SD experimental 1 (SDE1) groups. All rats in the control groups were administered 1 mL of distilled water (DW). The rats in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups were administered SRM orally at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively, dissolved in 1 mL of DW. Blood was collected initially and at intervals of 1 hour for 6 hours to measure blood glucose. A similar experimental design was followed for the 30-day long-term trial. Finally, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to measure blood glucose, lipid profiles, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Results: OGTTs indicated that two doses (200 and 300 mg/kg BW) were effective hypoglycemic doses in normal rats. Both doses reduced glucose levels after 1 hour in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups. A long-term trial of SRM in the MD group showed a reduced glucose level, a normal lipid profile, and normal GSH and TBARS levels. In SD rats, SRM had no statistically significant effects on these parameters. Normal weight was achieved in the MD rats, but the SD rats showed reduced BW. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that SRM has potential to alleviate the conditions of moderate diabetic, but not severe diabetes. PMID:26998385

  4. Effects of isolation on various lymphocyte activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of Sprague Dawley male rats to isolation, water scheduling, or their combination resulted in an enhanced lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Time course studies of effects of isolation on mitogenic response of splenic and/or blood T and B lymphocytes and splenic NK cell activity demonstrated a suppression with short term exposure followed by an enhancement with prolonged exposure. Use of immunoperoxidase staining techniques to identify splenic T or T helper cells revealed that prolonged exposure to isolation had no significant effect on the proportion of these cell populations in the spleen. Examination of the data by Lineweaver-Burke plot and plot of the data as % maximum response showed that prolonged exposure to isolation did not alter the sensitivity of the lymphocytes to mitogen. Involvement of corticosteroids and opioid peptides in mediation of the effects of exposure to isolation on lymphocyte activity was assessed by measurement of plasma corticosterone by radioimmunoassay and by examination of the ability of the opioid antagonist naltrexone to alter the effects of isolation on lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Attempts were made to mimic the effects of short-term isolation on lymphocyte activity by morphine sulfate administration.

  5. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brang, David; Rouw, Romke; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2011-04-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the particular colors associated with particular graphemes or how synesthesia occurs developmentally. A recent suggestion of such an interaction has been proposed in the cascaded cross-tuning (CCT) model of synesthesia, which posits that in synesthetes connections between grapheme regions and color area V4 participate in a competitive activation process, with synesthetic colors arising during the component-stage of grapheme processing. This model more directly suggests that graphemes sharing similar component features (lines, curves, etc.) should accordingly activate more similar synesthetic colors. To test this proposal, we created and regressed synesthetic color-similarity matrices for each of 52 synesthetes against a letter-confusability matrix, an unbiased measure of visual similarity among graphemes. Results of synesthetes' grapheme-color correspondences indeed revealed that more similarly shaped graphemes corresponded with more similar synesthetic colors, with stronger effects observed in individuals with more intense synesthetic experiences (projector synesthetes). These results support the CCT model of synesthesia, implicate early perceptual mechanisms as driving factors in the elicitation of synesthetic hues, and further highlight the relationship between conceptual and perceptual factors in this phenomenon.

  6. Similar PDK1-AKT-mTOR pathway activation in balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons of type II focal cortical dysplasia with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-xiang; Lin, Kun; Kang, De-zhi; Liu, Xin-xiu; Wang, Xing-fu; Zheng, Shu-fa; Yu, Liang-hong; Lin, Zhang-ya

    2015-05-01

    Dysmorphic neurons and balloon cells constitute the neuropathological hallmarks of type II focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) with refractory epilepsy. The genesis of these cells may be critical to the histological findings in type II FCD. Recent work has shown enhanced activation of the mTOR cascade in both balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons, suggesting a common pathogenesis for these two neuropathological hallmarks. A direct comparative analysis of balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons might identify a molecular link between balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons. Here, we addressed whether PDK1-AKT-mTOR activation differentiates balloon cells from dysmorphic neurons. We used immunohistochemistry with antibodies against phosphorylated (p)-PDK1 (Ser241), p-AKT (Thr308), p-AKT (Ser473), p-mTOR (Ser2448), p-P70S6K (Thr229), and p-p70S6 kinase (Thr389) in balloon cells compared with dysmorphic neurons. Strong or moderate staining for components of the PDK1-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway was observed in both balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons. However, only a few pyramidal neurons displayed weak staining in control group (perilesional neocortex and histologically normal neocortex). Additionally, p-PDK1 (Ser241) and p-AKT (Thr308) staining in balloon cells were stronger than in dysmorphic neurons, whereas p-P70S6K (Thr229) and p-p70S6 kinase (Thr389) staining in balloon cells was weaker than in dysmorphic neurons. In balloon cells, p-AKT (Ser473) and p-mTOR (Ser2448) staining was comparable with the staining in dysmorphic neurons. Our data support the previously suggested pathogenic relationship between balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons concerning activation of the PDK1-AKT-mTOR, which may play important roles in the pathogenesis of type II FCD. Differential expression of some components of the PDK1-AKT-mTOR pathway between balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons may result from cell-specific gene expression.

  7. Dynamically stable, self-similarly evolving, and self-organized states of high beta tokamak and reversed pinch plasmas and advanced active control

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Fukasawa, Toshinobu

    2009-11-15

    Generalized simultaneous eigenvalue equations derived from a generalized theory of self-organization are applied to a set of simultaneous equations for two-fluid model plasmas. An advanced active control by using theoretical time constants is proposed by predicting quantities to be controlled. Typical high beta numerical configurations are presented for the ultra low q tokamak plasmas and the reversed-field pinch (RFP) ones in cylindrical geometry by solving the set of simultaneous eigenvalue equations. Improved confinement with no detectable saw-teeth oscillations in tokamak experiments is reasonably explained by the shortest time constant of ion flow. The shortest time constant of poloidal ion flow is shown to be a reasonable mechanism for suppression of magnetic fluctuations by pulsed poloidal current drives in RFP experiments. The bifurcation from basic eigenmodes to mixed ones deduced from stability conditions for eigenvalues is shown to be a good candidate for the experimental bifurcation from standard RFP plasmas to their improved confinement regimes.

  8. Concentrated arabinoxylan but not concentrated β-glucan in wheat bread has similar effects on postprandial insulin as whole-grain rye in porto-arterial catheterized pigs.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kirstine L; Hedemann, Mette S; Lærke, Helle N; Jørgensen, Henry; Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Bach Knudsen, Knud E

    2013-08-14

    The acute glycemic effects of concentrated dietary fibers (DF) versus whole-grain rye were studied in porto-arterial catheterized pigs. Two white wheat breads with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat β-glucan (BG), two rye breads with intact rye kernels (RK) or milled rye (GR), and a low DF white wheat bread were fed to six pigs in a randomized crossover design. Blood profiles were collected for 4 h after feeding. Glucose absorption was reduced in pigs fed the AX bread at 60 min postprandial (3.1 mmol/min for AX compared to 9.4 mmol/min for WF, P = 0.02) and insulin secretion was lowered at 30 min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P < 0.04). In conclusion, the GR and AX breads were most effective in improving insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic response. PMID:23919413

  9. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, and ultraviolet B have similar effects on mRNA accumulation of antioxidant genes in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia L.

    SciTech Connect

    Willekens, H.; Van Camp, W.; Van Montagu, M.; Inze, D.; Langebartels, C.; Sandermann, H. Jr. |

    1994-11-01

    We have studied the expression of antioxidant genes in response to near ambient conditions of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, and ultraviolet B (UV-B) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia L. The genes analyzed encode four different superoxide dismutases (SODs), three catalases (Cat1, Cat2, and Cat3), the cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cyt APx), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The experimental setup for each treatment was essentially the same and caused no visible damage, thus allowing direct comparison of the different stress responses. Our data showed that the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, and UV-B on the antioxidant genes are very similar, although the response to SO{sub 2} is generally less pronounced and delayed. The effects of the different stresses are characterized by a decline in Cat1, a moderate increase in Cat3, and a strong increase in Cat2 and GPx. Remarkably, SODs and cyt APx were not affected. Analysis of SOD and APx expression in the ozone-sensitive Nicotiana tabacum L. cv PBD6 revealed that induction of the cytosolic copper/zinc SOD and cyt APx occurs only with the onset of visible damage. It is proposed that alterations in mRNA levels of catalases and GPx, but not of SODs and cyt APx, form part of the initial antioxidant response to O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, and UV-B in Nicotiana. 57 refs., 4 figs.

  10. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Molybdenum Cofactor Enzyme crARC Has a Zn-Dependent Activity and Protein Partners Similar to Those of Its Human Homologue ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chamizo-Ampudia, Alejandro; Galvan, Aurora; Fernandez, Emilio; Llamas, Angel

    2011-01-01

    The ARC (amidoxime reducing component) proteins are molybdenum cofactor (Moco) enzymes named hmARC1 and hmARC2 (human ARCs [hmARCs]) in humans and YcbX in Escherichia coli. They catalyze the reduction of a broad range of N-hydroxylated compounds (NHC) using reducing power supplied by other proteins. Some NHC are prodrugs or toxic compounds. YcbX contains a ferredoxin (Fd) domain and requires the NADPH flavin reductase CysJ to reduce NHC. In contrast, hmARCs lack the Fd domain and require a human cytochrome b5 (hCyt b5) and a human NADH Cyt b5 reductase (hCyt b5-R) to reduce NHC. The ARC proteins in the plant kingdom are uncharacterized. We demonstrate that Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants defective in Moco biosynthesis genes are sensitive to the NHC N6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP). The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ARC protein crARC has been purified and characterized. The six Chlamydomonas Fds were isolated, but none of them are required by crARC to reduce HAP. We have also purified and characterized five C. reinhardtii Cyt b5 (crCyt b5) and two flavin reductases, one that is NADPH dependent (crCysJ) and one that is NADH dependent (crCyt b5-R). The data show that crARC uses crCyt b5-1 and crCyt b5-R to reduce HAP. The crARC has a Zn-dependent activity, and the presence of Zn increases its Vmax more than 14-fold. In addition, all five cysteines of crARC were substituted by alanine, and we demonstrate that the fully conserved cysteine 252 is essential for both Moco binding and catalysis. Therefore, it is proposed that crARC belongs to the sulfite oxidase family of Moco enzymes. PMID:21803866

  11. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  12. Effective diffusion of confined active Brownian swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, Mario; Dagdug, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    We find theoretically the effect of confinement and thermal fluctuations, on the diffusivity of a spherical active swimmer moving inside a two-dimensional narrow cavity of general shape. The explicit formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a swimmer moving inside two particular cavities are presented. We also compare our analytical results with Brownian Dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement. L.D. thanks Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT) Mexico, for partial support by Grant No. 176452. M. S. thanks CONACyT and Programa de Mejoramiento de Profesorado (PROMEP) for partially funding this work under Grant No. 103.5/13/6732.

  13. Communication: Memory effects and active Brownian diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Pulak K.; Li, Yunyun; Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2015-12-07

    A self-propelled artificial microswimmer is often modeled as a ballistic Brownian particle moving with constant speed aligned along one of its axis, but changing direction due to random collisions with the environment. Similarly to thermal noise, its angular randomization is described as a memoryless stochastic process. Here, we speculate that finite-time correlations in the orientational dynamics can affect the swimmer’s diffusivity. To this purpose, we propose and solve two alternative models. In the first one, we simply assume that the environmental fluctuations governing the swimmer’s propulsion are exponentially correlated in time, whereas in the second one, we account for possible damped fluctuations of the propulsion velocity around the swimmer’s axis. The corresponding swimmer’s diffusion constants are predicted to get, respectively, enhanced or suppressed upon increasing the model memory time. Possible consequences of this effect on the interpretation of the experimental data are discussed.

  14. Tilted frames of reference have similar effects on the perception of gravitational vertical and the planning of vertical saccadic eye movements.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Michael; Grant, Simon; Melmoth, Dean; Solomon, Joshua A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of a tilted reference frame (i.e., allocentric visual context) on the perception of the gravitational vertical and saccadic eye movements along a planned egocentric vertical path. Participants (n = 5) in a darkened room fixated a point in the center of a circle on an LCD display and decided which of two sequentially presented dots was closer to the unmarked '6 o'clock' position on that circle (i.e., straight down toward their feet). The slope of their perceptual psychometric functions showed that participants were able to locate which dot was nearer the vertical with a precision of 1°-2°. For three of the participants, a square frame centered at fixation and tilted (in the roll direction) 5.6° from the vertical caused a strong perceptual bias, manifest as a shift in the psychometric function, in the direction of the traditional 'rod-and-frame' effect, without affecting precision. The other two participants showed negligible or no equivalent biases. The same subjects participated in the saccade version of the task, in which they were instructed to shift their gaze to the 6 o'clock position as soon as the central fixation point disappeared. The participants who showed perceptual biases showed biases of similar magnitude in their saccadic endpoints, with a strong correlation between perceptual and saccadic biases across all subjects. Tilting of the head 5.6° reduced both perceptual and saccadic biases in all but one observer, who developed a strong saccadic bias. Otherwise, the overall pattern and significant correlations between results remained the same. We conclude that our observers' saccades-to-vertical were dominated by perceptual input, which outweighed any gravitational or head-centered input.

  15. The effect of malathion on the activity, performance, and microbial ecology of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Rauglas, Erik; Martin, Seth; Bailey, Kandace; Magnuson, Matthew; Phillips, Rebecca; Harper, Willie F

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) surrogate (malathion) on the activity, performance, and ecology of activated sludge bioreactors. In the presence of malathion, the maximum observed respiration rates varied between 43 and 53 μg/O2 min, generally similar to the 49 μg O2/min rates observed in controls. Malathion did not alter the respiration ratio of O2 consumed-to-CO2 produced nor did it impact the shape of the oxygen consumption curves during respirometry. Shorter term (12 h) batch tests showed that both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia removal were not negatively impacted by the presence of 0.1-3 mg/L malathion. Longer term continuous addition (i.e. 40 days) of 0.1 mg/L of malathion also had no effect on COD and ammonia removal. In contrast to shorter term exposures, longer term continuous addition of 3 mg/L of malathion negatively impacted both COD and nitrogen removal and was associated with shifts in the abundance of species that are common to activated sludge. These results illustrate the impact that chemicals like malathion may have on COD removal, and nitrification, as well as the robustness of activated sludge microbial communities.

  16. The effect of malathion on the activity, performance, and microbial ecology of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Rauglas, Erik; Martin, Seth; Bailey, Kandace; Magnuson, Matthew; Phillips, Rebecca; Harper, Willie F

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) surrogate (malathion) on the activity, performance, and ecology of activated sludge bioreactors. In the presence of malathion, the maximum observed respiration rates varied between 43 and 53 μg/O2 min, generally similar to the 49 μg O2/min rates observed in controls. Malathion did not alter the respiration ratio of O2 consumed-to-CO2 produced nor did it impact the shape of the oxygen consumption curves during respirometry. Shorter term (12 h) batch tests showed that both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia removal were not negatively impacted by the presence of 0.1-3 mg/L malathion. Longer term continuous addition (i.e. 40 days) of 0.1 mg/L of malathion also had no effect on COD and ammonia removal. In contrast to shorter term exposures, longer term continuous addition of 3 mg/L of malathion negatively impacted both COD and nitrogen removal and was associated with shifts in the abundance of species that are common to activated sludge. These results illustrate the impact that chemicals like malathion may have on COD removal, and nitrification, as well as the robustness of activated sludge microbial communities. PMID:27594690

  17. The Success of Thread-embedding Therapy in Generating Hair Re-growth in Mice Points to Its Possibly Having a Similar Effect in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun Jong; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kwon, Kang; Seo, Hyung-Sik; Jeong, Han-Sol; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Ha, Ki-Tae; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Jang, Yong-Suk; Lee, Byung-Wook; Kim, Byung Joo; Jung, Myeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recently, thread-embedding therapy (TET) has been widely applied in Korean medicine for cosmetic purposes such as reducing skin wrinkles. An inserted thread was reported to have induced continuous stimulation, followed by support for connective tissue regeneration. However, the potential role of TET in hairgrowth has not yet been reported. Methods: We designed this study to evaluate whether TET has a hair-growth-promoting effect. C57 black 6 (C57BL/6) mice were divided into three groups: normal saline-treated, minoxidil-treated, and thread-embedded groups. Normal saline or 5% minoxidil was topically sprayed on the dorsal skin of the mice once a day for 16 days. Medical threads were embedded into the dorsal skin of the mice in a single application. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using dermoscopic and microscopic observations. Sections of the dorsal skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7), and fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5) were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was adopted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of FGF-7 and FGF-5. Results: TET enhanced anagen development in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. The expressions of BrdU and PCNA, both of which imply active cellular proliferation, were increased by using TET. Moreover, TET increased the expression of FGF-7, an anagen-inducing growth factor, while decreasing the expression of FGF-5, an anagen-cessation growth factor, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. Conclusion: TET enhanced hair re-growth in C57BL/6 mice. TET regulated the expressions of anagen-associated growth factors and activated the proliferation of hair follicular cells in depilated skin lesions. Considering its long-lasting effect, TET may be a good alternative therapeutic for the treatment of alopecia

  18. Effect of detonation nanodiamonds on phagocyte activity.

    PubMed

    Karpukhin, Alexey V; Avkhacheva, Nadezhda V; Yakovlev, Ruslan Yu; Kulakova, Inna I; Yashin, Valeriy A; Lisichkin, Georgiy V; Safronova, Valentina G

    2011-07-01

    Detonation ND (nanodiamond) holds much promise for biological studies and medical applications. Properties like size of particles, inclination for modification of their surface and unambiguous biocompatibility are crucial. Of prime importance is interaction between ND and immune cells, which supervise foreign intrusion into an organism and eliminate it. Neutrophils are more reactive in inflammatory response implementing cytotoxical arsenal including ROS (reactive oxygen species). The aim of the work was to estimate the ability of two ND samples (produced by Diamond Center and PlasmaChem) to keep the vitality of neutrophils from the inflammatory site. The ability of cells to generate ROS in the presence of ND particles is considered as indicating their biocompatibility. IR spectra and size of particles in the samples were characterized. Acid modification of ND was carried out to get the luminescent form. In the biological aspect, ND demonstrated up or down action, depending on the concentration, time and conditions of activation of cells. Weak action of ND in whole blood was obtained possibly owing to the ND adsorbed plasma proteins, which mask active functional groups to interact with the cell membrane. ND did not influence the viability of isolated inflammatory neutrophils in low and moderate concentrations and suppressed it in high concentrations (≥1 g/l). Addition of ND to the cell suspension initiated concentration-dependent reaction to produce ROS similar to respiratory burst. ND up-regulated response to bacterial formylpeptide, but up- and down-modified (low or high concentrations, accordingly) response to such bacterial agents as OZ (opsonized zymosan), which neutrophils swallow up by oxygen-dependent phagocytosis. Localization of the particles on the cell surface as into the cells was identified by monitoring the intrinsic fluorescence of oxidized ND. The various mechanisms that could account for penetration of ND particles into the cell are discussed

  19. Effect of ionic strength on surface-selective patch binding-induced phase separation and coacervation in similarly charged gelatin-agar molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Boral, Shilpi; Bohidar, H B

    2010-09-23

    Coacervate is defined as a polymer-rich dense phase, which remains in thermodynamic equilibrium with its low concentrated phase called the supernatant. The effect of ionic strength (I = 0-0.1 M NaCl) on the mechanism of surface patch binding-induced protein-polysaccharide interaction leading to complex coacervation, between agar (a polyanionic polysaccharide) and gelatin B (a polyampholyte protein), both having similar net charge, at a particular mixing ratio, [gelatin]/[agar] = 1, was studied at various temperatures (20-40 °C). The coacervation transition was probed by turbidity and zeta-potential measurements. The intermolecular association had the signature of surface-selective binding, and a model calculation could explain the potential energy of interactions operative in such processes. The thermo-mechanical features of the coacervates were found to be strongly dependent on ionic strength, which has been interpreted as originating from formation of salt-bridges between the biopolymers. The microstructure of the coacervate materials was analyzed using rheology and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques, which probed the heterogeneity prevailing in the system that had characteristic length in the range 1.3-2.0 nm, and the same data yielded the correlation length of concentration fluctuations, which was estimated to lay in the range 2.4-4 nm. It is concluded that the coacervation transition driven by surface-selective binding is not influenced by the ionic strength of the solution, but the mobile ions participate in the structural organization of the interacting polyions in the coacervate.

  20. Similar cerebral protective effectiveness of antegrade and retrograde cerebral perfusion during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in aortic surgery: a meta-analysis of 7023 patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shasha; Sun, Yanhua; Ji, Bingyang; Liu, Jinping; Wang, Guyan; Zheng, Zhe

    2015-04-01

    In aortic arch surgery, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) combined with cerebral perfusion is employed worldwide as a routine practice. Even though antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is more widely used than retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP), the difference in benefit and risk between ACP and RCP during DHCA is uncertain. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare neurologic outcomes and early mortality between ACP and RCP in patients who underwent aortic surgery during DHCA. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the key words "antegrade," "retrograde," "cerebral perfusion," "cardiopulmonary bypass," "extracorporeal circulation," and "cardiac surgery" for studies reporting on clinical endpoints including early mortality, stroke, temporary neurologic dysfunction (TND), and permanent neurologic dysfunction (PND) in aortic surgery requiring DHCA with ACP or RCP. Heterogeneity was analyzed with the Cochrane Q statistic and I(2) statistic. Publication bias was tested with Begg's funnel plot and Egger's test. Thirty-four studies were included in this meta-analysis, with 4262 patients undergoing DHCA + ACP and 2761 undergoing DHCA + RCP. The overall pooled relative risk for TND was 0.722 (95% CI = [0.579, 0.900]), and the z-score for overall effect was 2.9 (P = 0.004). There was low heterogeneity (I(2) = 18.7%). The analysis showed that patients undergoing DHCA + ACP had better outcomes than those undergoing DHCA + RCP in terms of TND, while there were no significant differences between groups in terms of PND, stroke, and early mortality. This meta-analysis indicates that DHCA + ACP has an advantage over DHCA + RCP in terms of TND, while the two methods show similar results in terms of PND, early mortality, and stroke.

  1. Advances in variable selection methods II: Effect of variable selection method on classification of hydrologically similar watersheds in three Mid-Atlantic ecoregions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrological flow predictions in ungauged and sparsely gauged watersheds use regionalization or classification of hydrologically similar watersheds to develop empirical relationships between hydrologic, climatic, and watershed variables. The watershed classifications may be based...

  2. Noncontiguous atom matching structural similarity function.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ana L; Falcao, Andre O

    2013-10-28

    Measuring similarity between molecules is a fundamental problem in cheminformatics. Given that similar molecules tend to have similar physical, chemical, and biological properties, the notion of molecular similarity plays an important role in the exploration of molecular data sets, query-retrieval in molecular databases, and in structure-property/activity modeling. Various methods to define structural similarity between molecules are available in the literature, but so far none has been used with consistent and reliable results for all situations. We propose a new similarity method based on atom alignment for the analysis of structural similarity between molecules. This method is based on the comparison of the bonding profiles of atoms on comparable molecules, including features that are seldom found in other structural or graph matching approaches like chirality or double bond stereoisomerism. The similarity measure is then defined on the annotated molecular graph, based on an iterative directed graph similarity procedure and optimal atom alignment between atoms using a pairwise matching algorithm. With the proposed approach the similarities detected are more intuitively understood because similar atoms in the molecules are explicitly shown. This noncontiguous atom matching structural similarity method (NAMS) was tested and compared with one of the most widely used similarity methods (fingerprint-based similarity) using three difficult data sets with different characteristics. Despite having a higher computational cost, the method performed well being able to distinguish either different or very similar hydrocarbons that were indistinguishable using a fingerprint-based approach. NAMS also verified the similarity principle using a data set of structurally similar steroids with differences in the binding affinity to the corticosteroid binding globulin receptor by showing that pairs of steroids with a high degree of similarity (>80%) tend to have smaller differences

  3. Regulatory effects of fisetin on microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Pei-Chun; Shen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Jia-Hong; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2014-06-26

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin)-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase)-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Similarity to the self influences cortical recruitment during impression formation.

    PubMed

    Leshikar, Eric D; Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-04-01

    Prior work has shown that whether or not someone is similar to the self influences person memory--a type of self-reference effect for others. In this study, we were interested in understanding the neural regions supporting the generation of impressions and subsequent memory for targets who vary in similarity to the self. Participants underwent fMRI scanning while forming positive or negative impressions of face-behavior pairs. We tested participants' memory for their generated impressions and then back-sorted the impression trials (encoding) into different levels of self-similarity (high, medium, low) using a self-similarity posttest that came after recognition. Extending prior behavioral work, our data confirmed our hypothesis that memory would be highest for self-similar others and lowest for self-dissimilar others. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity increased with self-similarity (high > medium > low) to targets, regardless of later memory for them. An analysis of regions supporting impression memory revealed a double dissociation within medial temporal lobe regions: for similar others, amygdala recruitment supported memory, whereas for dissimilar others, hippocampal activation supported memory. These results suggest that self-similarity influences evaluation and memory for targets but also affects the underlying neural resources engaged when thinking about others who vary in self-similarity. PMID:26558615

  5. Similarity to the self influences cortical recruitment during impression formation.

    PubMed

    Leshikar, Eric D; Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-04-01

    Prior work has shown that whether or not someone is similar to the self influences person memory--a type of self-reference effect for others. In this study, we were interested in understanding the neural regions supporting the generation of impressions and subsequent memory for targets who vary in similarity to the self. Participants underwent fMRI scanning while forming positive or negative impressions of face-behavior pairs. We tested participants' memory for their generated impressions and then back-sorted the impression trials (encoding) into different levels of self-similarity (high, medium, low) using a self-similarity posttest that came after recognition. Extending prior behavioral work, our data confirmed our hypothesis that memory would be highest for self-similar others and lowest for self-dissimilar others. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity increased with self-similarity (high > medium > low) to targets, regardless of later memory for them. An analysis of regions supporting impression memory revealed a double dissociation within medial temporal lobe regions: for similar others, amygdala recruitment supported memory, whereas for dissimilar others, hippocampal activation supported memory. These results suggest that self-similarity influences evaluation and memory for targets but also affects the underlying neural resources engaged when thinking about others who vary in self-similarity.

  6. Thematic Relations Affect Similarity via Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

    2009-01-01

    Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the "rowing" theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing…

  7. Effect of viscous macromolecules on peritoneal plasminogen activator activity: a potential mechanism for their ability to reduce postoperative adhesion formation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, M; Yedgar, S; Hurwitz, A; Palti, Z; Finzi, Z; Milwidsky, A

    1988-10-01

    Activity of peritoneal plasminogen activator and its regulation by dextran and other macromolecules that clinically suppress postoperative adhesions was studied. Plasminogen activator activity was assayed by a two-stage globinolytic assay that monitors formation of plasmin, as well as by cleavage of a chromogenic peptide substrate (S-2444) in the presence of aprotinin (Trasylol). Plasminogen activator activity was located on the outer surface of human peritoneum. Incubation of peritoneal tissue with buffer in vitro (conditioning) prompted release of plasminogen activator into the conditioning medium. The released plasminogen activator formed a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis at an apparent molecular weight of 174,000 and was markedly suppressed by antiserum raised against human melanoma tissue-type plasminogen activator. Nonspecific proteolytic activity did not accumulate in the medium during conditioning. The presence of dextran 80 during conditioning of peritoneum reversibly suppressed tissue-bound plasminogen activator activity and reduced plasminogen activator activity in the spent medium. A similar inhibition of peritoneal plasminogen activator was induced by dextran 500, methyl cellulose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. Dextran, when added to the medium after conditioning, had no direct inhibitory effect on plasminogen activator activity. Dextran did not induce peritoneal production of inhibitor(s) of trypsin, chymotrypsin, or urokinase. On the basis of these findings, two possible mechanisms for the effect of viscous polymers in the reduction of adhesion formation are proposed. These mechanisms consider the importance of peritoneal tissue-type plasminogen activator for removal of fibrin clots and suggest that polymer coating either prevents the shedding of plasminogen activator into the abdominal cavity or reduces the access of fibrin clots to the serosal surfaces. PMID:2459968

  8. Similar anxiolytic effects of agonists targeting serotonin 5-HT1A or cannabinoid CB receptors on zebrafish behavior in novel environments

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Kristin A.; Valenti, Theodore W.; Lawless, Kelly; Sackerman, James; Onaivi, Emmanuel S.; Brooks, Bryan W.; Gould, Georgianna G.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are present and bioaccumulate in aquatic ecosystems have spurred studies of fish serotonin transporters (SERTs) and changes in SSRI-sensitive behaviors as adverse outcomes relevant for risk assessment. Many SSRIs also act at serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. Since capitolizing on this action may improve treatments of clinical depression and other psychiatric disorders, novel multimodal drugs that agonize 5-HT1A and block SERT were introduced. In mammals both 5-HT1A and CB agonists, such as buspirone and WIN55,212-2, reduce anxious behaviors. Immunological and behavioral evidence suggests that 5-HT1A-like receptors may function similarly in zebrafish (Danio rerio), yet their pharmacological properties are not well characterized. Herein we compared the density of [3H] 8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) binding to 5-HT1A-like sites in the zebrafish brain, to that of simalarly Gαi/o-coupled cannabinoid receptors. [3H] 8-OH-DPAT specific binding was 176 ± 8, 275 ± 32, and 230 ± 36 fmol/mg protein in the hypothalamus, optic tectum, and telencephalon. [3H] WIN55,212-2 binding density was higher in those same brain regions at 6 ± 0.3, 5.5 ± 0.4 and 7.3 ± 0.3 pm/mg protein. The aquatic light-dark plus maze was used to examine behavioral effects of 5-HT1A and CB receptor agonists on zebrafish novelty-based anxiety. With acute exposure to the 5-HT1A partial-agonist buspirone (50 mg/L), or dietary exposure to WIN55,212-2 (7 μg/week) zebrafish spent more time in and/or entered white arms more often than controls (p < 0.05). Acute exposure to WIN55,212-2 at 0.5-50 mg/L, reduced mobility. These behavioral findings suggest that azipirones, like cannabinoid agonists, have anxiolytic and/or sedative properties on fish in novel environments. These observations highlight the need to consider potential ecological risks of azapirones and multimodal antidepressants in the future. PMID

  9. Anharmonic effects on Raman-active phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonico, Michael John

    This dissertation explores anharmonic properties of semiconductor materials associated with strain and phonon lifetime using Raman spectroscopy. In recent years, extensive research and development of strain engineered advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices utilizing high-k dielectrics and metal gate technology has been conducted to meet the challenges imposed by fundamental limits of device scaling. From a development and manufacturing viewpoint, the metrology required to drive these new technologies is critical to their success. In particular, UV-Raman spectroscopy has been extensively used to measure wafer and device strain due to the high spatial and spectral resolution coupled with an ultra-short optical penetration depth in Si. However, the strain-shift coefficients reported in the literature, which correlate the shift in Raman frequency with strain, have typically been measured in the visible portion of the spectrum and appear to differ from their UV counter-parts. This work presents a detailed measurement of the strain-shift coefficients in the UV at 325 and 364nm for Si, Ge, and Si:C and SiGe alloys. In addition, the temperature dependence of the frequencies and linewidths of the Raman-active longitudinal-optic (LO) phonons in GaAs and AlAs III-V semiconductor compounds is presented. Contrary to early theoretical predictions, the low temperature lifetime of the LO phonon is similar for the two materials with tau = 9.5 ps and 9.7 ps in GaAs and AlAs, respectively. The discrepancy between theory and experiment is caused by the accidental degeneracy between the AlAs LO phonon frequency and a Van Hove singularity in the two-phonon density of states. A new expression, based on the frequency dependence of the phonon self-energy, is derived to model the phonon lifetime.

  10. Effects of genetic similarity on the life-history strategy of co-infecting trematodes: are parasites capable of intrahost kin recognition?

    PubMed

    Joannes, A; Lagrue, C; Poulin, R; Beltran-Bech, S

    2014-08-01

    For conspecific parasites sharing the same host, kin recognition can be advantageous when the fitness of one individual depends on what another does; yet, evidence of kin recognition among parasites remains limited. Some trematodes, like Coitocaecum parvum, have plastic life cycles including two alternative life-history strategies. The parasite can wait for its intermediate host to be eaten by a fish definitive host, thus completing the classical three-host life cycle, or mature precociously and produce eggs while still inside its intermediate host as a facultative shortcut. Two different amphipod species are used as intermediate hosts by C. parvum, one small and highly mobile and the other larger, sedentary, and burrow dwelling. Amphipods often harbour two or more C. parvum individuals, all capable of using one or the other developmental strategy, thus creating potential conflicts or cooperation opportunities over transmission routes. This model was used to test the kin recognition hypothesis according to which cooperation between two conspecific individuals relies on the individuals' ability to evaluate their degree of genetic similarity. First, data showed that levels of intrahost genetic similarity between co-infecting C. parvum individuals differed between host species. Second, genetic similarity between parasites sharing the same host was strongly linked to their likelihood of adopting identical developmental strategies. Two nonexclusive hypotheses that could explain this pattern are discussed: kin recognition and cooperation between genetically similar parasites and/or matching genotypes involving parasite genotype-host compatibility filters. PMID:24836164

  11. Unusual Effects of Nicotine as a Psychostimulant on Ambulatory Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Umezu, Toyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of nicotine, alone and in combination with various drugs that act on the CNS, on ambulatory activity, a behavioral index for locomotion, in ICR (CD-1) strain mice. Nicotine at 0.25–2 mg/kg acutely reduced ambulatory activity of ICR mice. The effect of nicotine was similar to that of haloperidol and fluphenazine but distinct from that of bupropion and methylphenidate. ICR mice developed tolerance against the inhibitory effect of nicotine on ambulatory activity when nicotine was repeatedly administered. This effect was also distinct from bupropion and methylphenidate as they produced augmentation of their ambulation-stimulating effects in ICR mice. Nicotine reduced the ambulation-stimulating effects of bupropion and methylphenidate as well as haloperidol and fluphenazine. Taken together, nicotine exhibited unusual effects as a psychostimulant on ambulatory activity in ICR mice. PMID:22530136

  12. The Similarities (and Familiarities) of Pseudowords and Extremely High-Frequency Words: Examining a Familiarity-Based Explanation of the Pseudoword Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozubko, Jason D.; Joordens, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The pseudoword effect is the finding that pseudowords (i.e., rare words or pronounceable nonwords) give rise to more hits and false alarms than words. Using the retrieving effectively from memory (REM) model of recognition memory, we tested a familiarity-based account of the pseudoword effect: Specifically, the pseudoword effect arises because…

  13. Conversational Structure and Attitude Similarity: A Preliminary Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barge, J. Kevin; And Others

    A study used an interpersonal goals approach to investigate the impact of normal communicative activity upon the attitude similarity and social attraction relationship of 90 undergraduate students. It was hypothesized (1) that there would be a main effect upon perceptions of social attractiveness and communication competence due to aligning…

  14. Stigma's Effect on Social Interaction and Social Media Activity.

    PubMed

    Boudewyns, Vanessa; Himelboim, Itai; Hansen, Derek L; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatized topics, such as HIV/STD, likely constrain related information sharing in ways that should be apparent in social interactions both on and off the Internet. Specifically, the authors predicted that the more people perceive an issue as stigmatized, the less likely they are to talk about the issue both privately (with sexual partners and peers) and publicly (on Twitter). Study 1 tested the effect of stigma on conversations at the individual level: The authors asked a group of participants (N = 138) about perceived STD-testing stigma, interactions with a sexual partner, and conversations with peers about STD testing. Study 2 assessed whether health conditions, in the aggregate, were less likely to generate social media activity as a function of current stigmatization. Using 259,758 archived Twitter posts mentioning 13 medical conditions, the authors tested whether level of stigma predicted the volume of relevant social media conversation, controlling for each condition's amount of advocacy and Google search popularity from a user's perspective. Findings supported our hypotheses. Individuals who reported perceiving a given health conditions in more stigmatic ways also reported interacting less with others about that topic; Twitter results showed a similar pattern. Results also suggest a more complex story of influence, as funding from the National Institutes of Health (i.e., each conditions amount of advocacy) associated with the examined health conditions also predicted Twitter activity. Overall, these results indicated that stigma had a similar, dampening effect on face-to-face and Twitter interactions. Findings hold theoretical and practical implications, which are discussed.

  15. Effect of temperature change on anammox activity.

    PubMed

    Lotti, T; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal appears as a prerequisite for the implementation of energy autarchic municipal wastewater treatment plants. Whilst the application of anammox-related technologies in the side-stream is at present state of the art, the feasibility of this energy-efficient process in main-stream conditions is still under investigation. Lower operating temperatures and ammonium concentrations, together with a demand for high and stable nitrogen removal efficiency, represent the main challenges to overcome for this appealing new frontier of the wastewater treatment field. In this study, we report the short-term effect of temperature on the maximum biomass specific activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria as evaluated by means of batch tests. The experiments were performed on anammox biomass sampled from two full-scale reactors and two lab-scale reactors, all characterized by different reactor configurations and operating conditions. The results indicate that for the anammox conversion, the temperature dependency cannot be accurately modeled by one single Arrhenius coefficient (i.e., θ) as typically applied for other biological processes. The temperature effect is increasing at lower temperatures. Adaptation of anammox bacteria after long-term cultivation at 20 and 10°C was observed. Implications for modeling and process design are finally discussed.

  16. Cholesterol-mediated activation of P-glycoprotein: distinct effects on basal and drug-induced ATPase activities.

    PubMed

    Belli, Sara; Elsener, Priska M; Wunderli-Allenspach, Heidi; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2009-05-01

    Cholesterol promotes basal and verapamil-induced ATPase activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). We investigated whether these effects are related to each other and to the impact of the sterol on bilayer fluidity and verapamil membrane affinity. P-gp was reconstituted in egg-phosphatidylcholine (PhC) liposomes with or without cholesterol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) or 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMC). Basal and verapamil-induced ATPase activities were studied with an enzymatic assay. Membrane fluidity was characterized with diphenyl-hexatriene anisotropy measurements and membrane affinity by equilibrium dialysis. DPPC (70% mol/mol) decreased the fluidity of PhC bilayers to the same level as 20% cholesterol. PMC (20%) and alpha-Toc (20%) decreased the fluidity to lesser extents. alpha-Toc and PMC, but not DPPC increased the verapamil membrane affinity. While 20% cholesterol strikingly enhanced the basal ATPase activity, none of the other constituents had a similar effect. In contrast, verapamil stimulation of P-gp ATPase activity was not only enabled by cholesterol but also by alpha-Toc and DPPC. PMC had no effect. In conclusion, cholesterol exerts distinct effects on basal and verapamil-induced ATPase activity. The influence on basal ATPase activity is sterol-specific while its effect on verapamil-induced ATPase activity is unspecific and not related to its influence on membrane fluidity and on verapamil membrane affinity.

  17. Effects of Age, Animacy and Activation Order on Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Kemper, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The current study examines whether young and older adults have similar preferences for animate-subject and active sentences, and for using the order of activation of a verb's arguments to determine sentence structure. Ninety-six participants produced sentences in response to three-word stimuli that included a verb and two nouns differing in…

  18. Effects of trifluoperazine on platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Ardlie, N G; Boatwright, C; Garrett, J; McGuiness, J A

    1985-06-15

    Previous reports of the inhibitory effects of trifluoperazine on platelet responses to different aggregating agents have been conflicting, and the mechanism of action remains unclear. We have found that aggregation by minimum concentrations of collagen and arachidonic acid, and second phase aggregation by minimum concentrations of ADP, thrombin, epinephrine and the calcium ionophore A23187 were inhibited by 40-60 microM trifluoperazine. The first phase of aggregation by a minimum concentration of epinephrine was completely inhibited by 100 microM trifluoperazine, and the first phase of aggregation induced by ADP, thrombin or A23187 was decreased by 300 microM trifluoperazine. The platelet shape change caused by collagen, but by no other aggregating agent examined, was inhibited by 300 microM trifluoperazine. Secretion of 3H-5 hydroxytryptamine by minimum concentrations of ADP, collagen, epinephrine and arachidonic acid was completely suppressed by 50 microM trifluoperazine. Secretion by thrombin and A23187 was incompletely inhibited by 300 microM trifluoperazine. Thromboxane B2 formation caused by all aggregating agents, except epinephrine, was incompletely suppressed by 50 microM trifluoperazine, and 300 microM trifluoperazine only caused complete inhibition of thromboxane B2 formation by ADP, collagen and epinephrine. The phorbol ester, TPA, which mimics diacylglycerol by activating protein kinase C, caused aggregation and secretion. Aggregation, but not secretion, by low concentrations of TPA was inhibited by concentrations of trifluoperazine as low as 50 microM. However, aggregation by a combination of TPA and A23187 was only inhibited by concentrations of trifluoperazine in excess of 100 microM. Secretion by TPA was inhibited by concentrations of trifluoperazine in excess of 200 microM. Our findings suggest that low concentrations of trifluoperazine inhibit platelet activation by inhibiting phospholipase A2, and that higher concentrations inhibit platelet

  19. [Effects of human engineering activities on permafrost active layer and its environment in northern Qinghai-Tibetan plateau].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenggang; Wu, Qingbo; Niu, Fujun

    2006-11-01

    With disturbed and undisturbed belts during the construction of Qinghai-Tibet highway as test objectives, this paper studied the effects of human engineering activities on the permafrost ecosystem in northern Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. The results showed that the thickness of permafrost active layer was smaller in disturbed than in undisturbed belt, and decreased with increasing altitude in undisturbed belt while no definite pattern was observed in disturbed belt. Different vegetation types had different effects on the thickness of permafrost active layer, being decreased in the order of steppe > shrub > meadow. In the two belts, altitude was the main factor affecting the vertical distribution of soil moisture, but vegetation type was also an important affecting factor if the altitude was similar. Due to the human engineering activities, soil temperature in summer was lower in disturbed than in undisturbed belt.

  20. Interpersonal attraction and personality: what is attractive--self similarity, ideal similarity, complementarity or attachment security?

    PubMed

    Klohnen, Eva C; Luo, Shanhong

    2003-10-01

    Little is known about whether personality characteristics influence initial attraction. Because adult attachment differences influence a broad range of relationship processes, the authors examined their role in 3 experimental attraction studies. The authors tested four major attraction hypotheses--self similarity, ideal-self similarity, complementarity, and attachment security--and examined both actual and perceptual factors. Replicated analyses across samples, designs, and manipulations showed that actual security and self similarity predicted attraction. With regard to perceptual factors, ideal similarity, self similarity, and security all were significant predictors. Whereas perceptual ideal and self similarity had incremental predictive power, perceptual security's effects were subsumed by perceptual ideal similarity. Perceptual self similarity fully mediated actual attachment similarity effects, whereas ideal similarity was only a partial mediator. PMID:14561124

  1. Differential effects of triclosan on the activation of mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanfeng; Wu, Qiangen; Beland, Frederick A; Ge, Peter; Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Fang, Jia-Long

    2014-11-18

    Triclosan is an anti-bacterial agent used in many personal care products, household items, medical devices, and clinical settings. Liver tumors occur in mice exposed to triclosan, a response attributed to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) activation; however, the effects of triclosan on mouse and human PPARα have not been fully evaluated. We compared the effects of triclosan on mouse and human PPARα using PPARα reporter assays and on downstream events of PPARα activation using mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells and human hepatoma HepG2 cells. PPARα transcriptional activity was increased by triclosan in a mouse PPARα reporter assay and decreased in a human PPARα reporter assay. Concentrations of triclosan inhibiting 50% cell growth were similar in both human and mouse hepatoma cells. Western blotting analysis showed that triclosan increased acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACOX1), a PPARα target, in Hepa1c1c7 cells but decreased the level in HepG2 cells. Treatment of Hepa1c1c7 cells with triclosan enhanced DNA synthesis and suppressed transforming growth factor beta-mediated apoptosis. This did not occur in HepG2 cells. These data demonstrate that triclosan had similar cytotoxicity in Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells, but differential effects on the activation of PPARα, the expression of ACOX1, and downstream events including DNA synthesis and apoptosis.

  2. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  3. Compton effect thermally activated depolarization dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    A dosimetry technique for high-energy gamma radiation or X-radiation employs the Compton effect in conjunction with radiation-induced thermally activated depolarization phenomena. A dielectric material is disposed between two electrodes which are electrically short circuited to produce a dosimeter which is then exposed to the gamma or X radiation. The gamma or X-radiation impinging on the dosimeter interacts with the dielectric material directly or with the metal composing the electrode to produce Compton electrons which are emitted preferentially in the direction in which the radiation was traveling. A portion of these electrons becomes trapped in the dielectric material, consequently inducing a stable electrical polarization in the dielectric material. Subsequent heating of the exposed dosimeter to the point of onset of ionic conductivity with the electrodes still shorted through an ammeter causes the dielectric material to depolarize, and the depolarization signal so emitted can be measured and is proportional to the dose of radiation received by the dosimeter.

  4. Semantically enabled image similarity search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casterline, May V.; Emerick, Timothy; Sadeghi, Kolia; Gosse, C. A.; Bartlett, Brent; Casey, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Georeferenced data of various modalities are increasingly available for intelligence and commercial use, however effectively exploiting these sources demands a unified data space capable of capturing the unique contribution of each input. This work presents a suite of software tools for representing geospatial vector data and overhead imagery in a shared high-dimension vector or embedding" space that supports fused learning and similarity search across dissimilar modalities. While the approach is suitable for fusing arbitrary input types, including free text, the present work exploits the obvious but computationally difficult relationship between GIS and overhead imagery. GIS is comprised of temporally-smoothed but information-limited content of a GIS, while overhead imagery provides an information-rich but temporally-limited perspective. This processing framework includes some important extensions of concepts in literature but, more critically, presents a means to accomplish them as a unified framework at scale on commodity cloud architectures.

  5. Radiation-Related Treatment Effects across the Age Spectrum: Differences and Similarities or What The Old and Young Can Learn From Each Other

    PubMed Central

    Krasin, Matthew J.; Constine, Louis S.; Friedman, Debra; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation related effects in children and adults limit the delivery of effective radiation doses and result in long-term morbidity affecting function and quality of life. Improvements in our understanding of the etiology and biology of these effects, including the influence of clinical variables, dosimetric factors, and the underlying biologic processes has made treatment safer and more efficacious. However, the approach to studying and understanding these effects differs between children and adults. By using the pulmonary and skeletal organ systems as examples, comparisons are made across the age spectrum for radiation related effects including pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, osteonecrosis and fracture. Methods for dosimetric analysis, incorporation of imaging and biology as well a length of follow-up are compared, contrasted and discussed for both organ systems in children and adults. Better understanding of each age specific approach and how it differs may improve our ability to study late effects of radiation across the ages PMID:19959028

  6. Effects of long term irrigation with polluted water and sludge amendment on some soil enzyme activities

    SciTech Connect

    Topac, F.O.; Baskaya, H.S.; Alkan, U.; Katkat, A.V.

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wastewater sludge-fly ash mixtures on urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in soils. In order to evaluate the probable effects of previous soil management practices (irrigation with polluted water) on soil enzymes, two different soil samples which were similar in physical properties, but different in irrigation practice were used. The application of wastewater sludges supplemented with varying doses of fly ash increased potential enzyme activities for a short period of time (3 months) in comparison to unamended soils. However, the activity levels generally showed a decreasing trend with increasing ash ratios indicating the inhibitory effect of fly ash. The urease and dehydrogenase activities were particularly lower in soils irrigated from a polluted stream, indicating the negative effects of the previous soil management on soil microbial activity.

  7. Effect of morphine on sympathetic nerve activity in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Jason R.; Sauder, Charity L.; Ray, Chester A.

    2002-01-01

    There are conflicting reports for the role of endogenous opioids on sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercise in humans. A number of studies have utilized naloxone (an opioid-receptor antagonist) to investigate the effect of opioids during exercise. In the present study, we examined the effect of morphine (an opioid-receptor agonist) on sympathetic and cardiovascular responses at rest and during isometric handgrip (IHG). Eleven subjects performed 2 min of IHG (30% maximum) followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) before and after systemic infusion of morphine (0.075 mg/kg loading dose + 1 mg/h maintenance) or placebo (saline) in double-blinded experiments on separate days. Morphine increased resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; 17 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 2 bursts/min; P < 0.01) and increased mean arterial pressure (MAP; 87 +/- 2 to 91 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.02), but it decreased heart rate (HR; 61 +/- 4 to 59 +/- 3; P < 0.01). However, IHG elicited similar increases for MSNA, MAP, and HR between the control and morphine trial (drug x exercise interaction = not significant). Moreover, responses to PEMI were not different. Placebo had no effect on resting, IHG, and PEMI responses. We conclude that morphine modulates cardiovascular and sympathetic responses at rest but not during isometric exercise.

  8. The varying effects of warm-water bathing therapies: partial bathing decreases exercise tolerance to levels similar to full-body bathing.

    PubMed

    Ohshige, Tadasu; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Kiyama, Ryoji

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in postural sway and tolerance to exercise before and after full-body, forearm, and lower leg bathing in warm-water. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy, young adult males were subjected to full-body, forearm, and lower leg bathing at 41 °C for 10 minutes. [Results] The 2-point discrimination sense value and total trajectory length significantly decreased after bathing. [Conclusion] In summary, we found that warm-water bathing sharpens plantar sensation, and thus may help to prevent falls in the elderly. Even partial forearm and lower leg bathing increased exercise tolerance to levels similar to full-body bathing. PMID:26696701

  9. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  10. Transformation and Alignment in Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Carl J.; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one…

  11. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  12. Effects of motor fatigue on human brain activity, an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    van Duinen, Hiske; Renken, Remco; Maurits, Natasha; Zijdewind, Inge

    2007-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate effects of motor fatigue on brain activation in humans, using fMRI. First, we assessed brain activation that correlated with muscle activity during brief contractions at different force levels (force modulation). Second, a similar analysis was done for sustained contractions inducing motor fatigue. Third, we studied changes in brain activation due to motor fatigue over time. And fourth, we investigated cross-over effects of fatigue by comparing brain activation before and after the fatiguing condition during simple and high-order motor tasks (reaction time tasks). Several motor areas in the brain showed increased activity with increased muscle activity, both during force modulation and motor fatigue. Interestingly, the cerebellum showed a smaller increase in activation, during compensatory activation due to fatigue, while additional activation was found in the pre-supplementary motor area and in a frontal area. During motor fatigue, there was a decrease in force production, an increase in force variability, and an increase in muscle activity. Brain areas comparable with the aforementioned areas also showed stronger activation over time. After fatigue, reaction time task performance remained the same (compared to before fatigue), while increased activation in orbitofrontal areas was found. Furthermore, there was a reduction in subjects' maximal voluntary contraction force, accompanied by a decrease in activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA). These results suggest that especially the activity in the SMA and frontal areas is affected by motor fatigue.

  13. The use of propensity score methods with survival or time-to-event outcomes: reporting measures of effect similar to those used in randomized experiments.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C

    2014-03-30

    Propensity score methods are increasingly being used to estimate causal treatment effects in observational studies. In medical and epidemiological studies, outcomes are frequently time-to-event in nature. Propensity-score methods are often applied incorrectly when estimating the effect of treatment on time-to-event outcomes. This article describes how two different propensity score methods (matching and inverse probability of treatment weighting) can be used to estimate the measures of effect that are frequently reported in randomized controlled trials: (i) marginal survival curves, which describe survival in the population if all subjects were treated or if all subjects were untreated; and (ii) marginal hazard ratios. The use of these propensity score methods allows one to replicate the measures of effect that are commonly reported in randomized controlled trials with time-to-event outcomes: both absolute and relative reductions in the probability of an event occurring can be determined. We also provide guidance on variable selection for the propensity score model, highlight methods for assessing the balance of baseline covariates between treated and untreated subjects, and describe the implementation of a sensitivity analysis to assess the effect of unmeasured confounding variables on the estimated treatment effect when outcomes are time-to-event in nature. The methods in the paper are illustrated by estimating the effect of discharge statin prescribing on the risk of death in a sample of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. In this tutorial article, we describe and illustrate all the steps necessary to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the effect of treatment on time-to-event outcomes.

  14. Effective, Active Learning Strategies for the Oceanography Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.

    2014-12-01

    A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.

  15. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  16. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  17. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis.

  18. Ultra-short laser-accelerated proton pulses have similar DNA-damaging effectiveness but produce less immediate nitroxidative stress than conventional proton beams

    PubMed Central

    Raschke, S.; Spickermann, S.; Toncian, T.; Swantusch, M.; Boeker, J.; Giesen, U.; Iliakis, G.; Willi, O.; Boege, F.

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-short proton pulses originating from laser-plasma accelerators can provide instantaneous dose rates at least 107-fold in excess of conventional, continuous proton beams. The impact of such extremely high proton dose rates on A549 human lung cancer cells was compared with conventionally accelerated protons and 90 keV X-rays. Between 0.2 and 2 Gy, the yield of DNA double strand breaks (foci of phosphorylated histone H2AX) was not significantly different between the two proton sources or proton irradiation and X-rays. Protein nitroxidation after 1 h judged by 3-nitrotyrosine generation was 2.5 and 5-fold higher in response to conventionally accelerated protons compared to laser-driven protons and X-rays, respectively. This difference was significant (p < 0.01) between 0.25 and 1 Gy. In conclusion, ultra-short proton pulses originating from laser-plasma accelerators have a similar DNA damaging potential as conventional proton beams, while inducing less immediate nitroxidative stress, which probably entails a distinct therapeutic potential. PMID:27578260

  19. Ultra-short laser-accelerated proton pulses have similar DNA-damaging effectiveness but produce less immediate nitroxidative stress than conventional proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, S.; Spickermann, S.; Toncian, T.; Swantusch, M.; Boeker, J.; Giesen, U.; Iliakis, G.; Willi, O.; Boege, F.

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-short proton pulses originating from laser-plasma accelerators can provide instantaneous dose rates at least 107-fold in excess of conventional, continuous proton beams. The impact of such extremely high proton dose rates on A549 human lung cancer cells was compared with conventionally accelerated protons and 90 keV X-rays. Between 0.2 and 2 Gy, the yield of DNA double strand breaks (foci of phosphorylated histone H2AX) was not significantly different between the two proton sources or proton irradiation and X-rays. Protein nitroxidation after 1 h judged by 3-nitrotyrosine generation was 2.5 and 5-fold higher in response to conventionally accelerated protons compared to laser-driven protons and X-rays, respectively. This difference was significant (p < 0.01) between 0.25 and 1 Gy. In conclusion, ultra-short proton pulses originating from laser-plasma accelerators have a similar DNA damaging potential as conventional proton beams, while inducing less immediate nitroxidative stress, which probably entails a distinct therapeutic potential.

  20. The mc2-CMX vaccine induces an enhanced immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis compared to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin but with similar lung inflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fábio Muniz de; Trentini, Monalisa Martins; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Kipnis, André

    2016-04-01

    Although the attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been used since 1921, tuberculosis (TB) control still proceeds at a slow pace. The main reason is the variable efficacy of BCG protection against TB among adults, which ranges from 0-80%. Subsequently, the mc2-CMX vaccine was developed with promising results. Nonetheless, this recombinant vaccine needs to be compared to the standard BCG vaccine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune response induced by mc2-CMX and compare it to the response generated by BCG. BALB/c mice were immunised with both vaccines and challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The immune and inflammatory responses were evaluated by ELISA, flow cytometry, and histopathology. Mice vaccinated with mc2-CMX and challenged with Mtb induced an increase in the IgG1 and IgG2 levels against CMX as well as recalled specific CD4+ T-cells that produced T-helper 1 cytokines in the lungs and spleen compared with BCG vaccinated and challenged mice. Both vaccines reduced the lung inflammatory pathology induced by the Mtb infection. The mc2-CMX vaccine induces a humoral and cellular response that is superior to BCG and is efficiently recalled after challenge with Mtb, although both vaccines induced similar inflammatory reductions.

  1. The mc2-CMX vaccine induces an enhanced immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis compared to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin but with similar lung inflammatory effects

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Fábio Muniz; Trentini, Monalisa Martins; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Kipnis, André

    2016-01-01

    Although the attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been used since 1921, tuberculosis (TB) control still proceeds at a slow pace. The main reason is the variable efficacy of BCG protection against TB among adults, which ranges from 0-80%. Subsequently, the mc2-CMX vaccine was developed with promising results. Nonetheless, this recombinant vaccine needs to be compared to the standard BCG vaccine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune response induced by mc2-CMX and compare it to the response generated by BCG. BALB/c mice were immunised with both vaccines and challenged withMycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The immune and inflammatory responses were evaluated by ELISA, flow cytometry, and histopathology. Mice vaccinated with mc2-CMX and challenged with Mtb induced an increase in the IgG1 and IgG2 levels against CMX as well as recalled specific CD4+ T-cells that produced T-helper 1 cytokines in the lungs and spleen compared with BCG vaccinated and challenged mice. Both vaccines reduced the lung inflammatory pathology induced by the Mtb infection. The mc2-CMX vaccine induces a humoral and cellular response that is superior to BCG and is efficiently recalled after challenge with Mtb, although both vaccines induced similar inflammatory reductions. PMID:27074251

  2. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  3. Ultra-short laser-accelerated proton pulses have similar DNA-damaging effectiveness but produce less immediate nitroxidative stress than conventional proton beams.

    PubMed

    Raschke, S; Spickermann, S; Toncian, T; Swantusch, M; Boeker, J; Giesen, U; Iliakis, G; Willi, O; Boege, F

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-short proton pulses originating from laser-plasma accelerators can provide instantaneous dose rates at least 10(7)-fold in excess of conventional, continuous proton beams. The impact of such extremely high proton dose rates on A549 human lung cancer cells was compared with conventionally accelerated protons and 90 keV X-rays. Between 0.2 and 2 Gy, the yield of DNA double strand breaks (foci of phosphorylated histone H2AX) was not significantly different between the two proton sources or proton irradiation and X-rays. Protein nitroxidation after 1 h judged by 3-nitrotyrosine generation was 2.5 and 5-fold higher in response to conventionally accelerated protons compared to laser-driven protons and X-rays, respectively. This difference was significant (p < 0.01) between 0.25 and 1 Gy. In conclusion, ultra-short proton pulses originating from laser-plasma accelerators have a similar DNA damaging potential as conventional proton beams, while inducing less immediate nitroxidative stress, which probably entails a distinct therapeutic potential. PMID:27578260

  4. On structural similarity in wall turbulence organization under weak thermal effects: from the wind tunnel to the atmospheric surface layer (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guala, M.

    2013-12-01

    Reproducing the different thermal stability regimes of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in wind tunnel experiments requires accurate control of the free stream air and wall temperatures and a test section long enough to ensure the establishment of fully developed conditions. Such requirements are met in the SAFL atmospheric wind tunnel, with some limitations on the achievable range of z/L, confined between the weakly stratified and weakly convective boundary layers. A number of statistical checks based on Reynolds, Monin-Obukhov similarities, Kolmogorov small scale universality, temperature and velocity variance balance equations, are available to assess the quality of the measurements, flow and estimate of the scaling parameters. However, limited work has been devoted to the comparison of the spatio-temporal structure of turbulent flows from the laboratory to the field scale. Specifically, the vertical extent, scaling and statistical relevance of different structural types pose some scalability issues and deserve further investigation. PIV and triple wire measurements from the SAFL Wind Tunnel will be presented and compared with measurements in the atmospheric surface layer. Particular care is devoted to the contributions of large and very-large scale motions to the momentum and heat fluxes, and to their role in near-surface processes and wind energy.

  5. Attitude Similarity, Topic Importance, and Psychotherapeutic Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Thomas

    1975-01-01

    The effect of attitude similarity and topic importance on attraction was studied by exposing 75 prison inmates, incarcerated for public intoxication, to varying attitudes of a psychotherapist. Subjects were more attracted to the therapist after receiving alcohol items regardless of degree of similarity expressed. (Author)

  6. Muscle fibre characteristics, enzyme activity and meat colour of wild boar (Sus scrofa s. L.) muscle with 2n=36 compared to those of phenotypically similar crossbreeds (2n=37 and 2n=38).

    PubMed

    Skewes, Oscar; Cádiz, Patricia; Merino, Victoria; Islas, Armando; Morales, Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate European wild boar (Sus scrofa s. L.) of chromosomal number 2n=36 in comparison with phenotypically similar crossbreeds (2n=37 and 2n=38) with respect to the muscle fibre characteristics and enzyme activity as well as meat colour in the longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles. Differences in the proportion of IIA fibre in the LD muscle between karyotypes 2n=37 and 2n=38 were found. The 2n=36 group showed a lower muscle fibre cross-section area than the 2n=38 karyotype. The meat colour of the 2n=36 karyotype group was redder than 2n=37 and 2n=38. The muscle fibre cross-section area might explain the differences in colour of the meat of wild boar.

  7. Effects of complement activation on allograft injury

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Joong Hyuk; Heeger, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the current knowledge regarding mechanisms linking the complement system to transplant injury, highlighting findings reported since 2013. Recent findings Building upon the documentation that complement activation is a pathogenic mediator of post-transplant ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, emerging evidence indicates blocking either the classical or lectin pathways attenuates IR injury in animal models. Immune cell-derived and locally activated complement, including intracellular C3 positively modulates allo-reactive T cell activation and expansion, while simultaneously inhibiting regulatory T cell induction and function, together promoting transplant rejection. While alloantibody-initiated complement activation directly injures target cells, complement-dependent signals activate endothelial cells to facilitate T cell dependent inflammation. Complement activation within allografts contributes to progressive chronic injury and fibrosis. Summary The complement cascade, traditionally considered relevant to transplantation only as an effector mechanism of antibody-initiated allograft injury, is now understood to damage the allograft through multiple mechanisms. Complement activation promotes post-transplant IR injury, formation and function of allo-antibody, differentiation and function of alloreactive T cells, and contributes to chronic progressive allograft failure. The recognition that complement impacts transplant injury at many levels provides a foundation for targeting complement as a therapy to prolong transplant survival and improve patient health. PMID:26132735

  8. Native and non-native ruderals experience similar plant-soil feedbacks and neighbor effects in a system where they coexist.

    PubMed

    Chiuffo, Mariana C; MacDougall, Andrew S; Hierro, José L

    2015-11-01

    Recent applications of coexistence theory to plant invasions posit that non-natives establish in resident communities through either niche differences or traits conferring them with fitness advantages, the former being associated with coexistence and the latter with dominance and competitive exclusion. Plant-soil feedback is a mechanism that is known to explain both coexistence and dominance. In a system where natives and non-natives appear to coexist, we explored how plant-soil feedbacks affect the performance of nine native and nine non-native ruderal species-the prevalent life-history strategy among non-natives-when grown alone and with a phytometer. We also conducted field samplings to estimate the abundance of the 18 species, and related feedbacks to abundances. We found that groups of native and non-native ruderals displayed similar frequencies of negative, positive, and neutral feedbacks, resulting in no detectable differences between natives and non-natives. Likewise, the phytometer exerted comparable negative impacts on native and non-native plants, which were unchanged by plant-soil feedbacks. Finally, feedbacks explained plant abundances only after removing one influential species which exhibited strong positive feedbacks but low abundance. Importantly, however, four out of five species with negative feedbacks were rare in the field. These findings suggest that soil feedbacks and plant-plant interactions do not confer an advantage to non-native over native species, but do contribute to the observed coexistence of these groups in the system. By comparing natives and non-natives with overlapping abundances and strategies, our work broadens understanding of the consequences of plant-soil feedbacks in plant invasion and, more generally, coexistence within plant communities. PMID:26209047

  9. Effects of biological and environmental factors on activity rhythms of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Tester, J R; Figala, J

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews information on the effects of biological and environmental factors on activity rhythms of wild animals monitored by radio telemetry. Variations in radio signals received from free-ranging animals are used to determine the pattern of activity and rest. Telemetry is especially effective for obtaining activity data from wild animals at night and from those living in dense vegetation or underground. Biological factors such as breeding behavior, care of young, time of last eating, and food storage cause changes in daily activity patterns. Similarly, environmental factors such as temperature, snow cover, food supply and disturbance caused by humans in an urban setting also cause changes in daily activity patterns. The observed modifications of activity rhythms show that controlling mechanisms allow wild animals to quickly respond to changing biological and environmental factors.

  10. The Effect of Outdoor Activity Context on Physical Activity in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.; Morley, Allison J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a method for assessing the effect of outdoor activity context on level of physical activity in preschool children. The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children was used to define the test conditions and various levels of physical activity within a multielement design.…

  11. Microdosimetric analysis confirms similar biological effectiveness of external exposure to gamma-rays and internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Manabe, Kentaro; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The risk of internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I is of great public concern after the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE, defined herein as effectiveness of internal exposure relative to the external exposure to γ-rays) is occasionally believed to be much greater than unity due to insufficient discussions on the difference of their microdosimetric profiles. We therefore performed a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation in ideally aligned cell systems to calculate the probability densities of absorbed doses in subcellular and intranuclear scales for internal exposures to electrons emitted from 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I, as well as the external exposure to 662 keV photons. The RBE due to the inhomogeneous radioactive isotope (RI) distribution in subcellular structures and the high ionization density around the particle trajectories was then derived from the calculated microdosimetric probability density. The RBE for the bystander effect was also estimated from the probability density, considering its non-linear dose response. The RBE due to the high ionization density and that for the bystander effect were very close to 1, because the microdosimetric probability densities were nearly identical between the internal exposures and the external exposure from the 662 keV photons. On the other hand, the RBE due to the RI inhomogeneity largely depended on the intranuclear RI concentration and cell size, but their maximum possible RBE was only 1.04 even under conservative assumptions. Thus, it can be concluded from the microdosimetric viewpoint that the risk from internal exposures to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I should be nearly equivalent to that of external exposure to γ-rays at the same absorbed dose level, as suggested in the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:24919099

  12. Microdosimetric analysis confirms similar biological effectiveness of external exposure to gamma-rays and internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Manabe, Kentaro; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The risk of internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I is of great public concern after the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE, defined herein as effectiveness of internal exposure relative to the external exposure to γ-rays) is occasionally believed to be much greater than unity due to insufficient discussions on the difference of their microdosimetric profiles. We therefore performed a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation in ideally aligned cell systems to calculate the probability densities of absorbed doses in subcellular and intranuclear scales for internal exposures to electrons emitted from 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I, as well as the external exposure to 662 keV photons. The RBE due to the inhomogeneous radioactive isotope (RI) distribution in subcellular structures and the high ionization density around the particle trajectories was then derived from the calculated microdosimetric probability density. The RBE for the bystander effect was also estimated from the probability density, considering its non-linear dose response. The RBE due to the high ionization density and that for the bystander effect were very close to 1, because the microdosimetric probability densities were nearly identical between the internal exposures and the external exposure from the 662 keV photons. On the other hand, the RBE due to the RI inhomogeneity largely depended on the intranuclear RI concentration and cell size, but their maximum possible RBE was only 1.04 even under conservative assumptions. Thus, it can be concluded from the microdosimetric viewpoint that the risk from internal exposures to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I should be nearly equivalent to that of external exposure to γ-rays at the same absorbed dose level, as suggested in the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  13. Interpersonal Congruency, Attitude Similarity, and Interpersonal Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touhey, John C.

    1975-01-01

    As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)

  14. Gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and gamma valerolactone (GVL): similarities and differences in their effects on the acoustic startle reflex and the conditioned enhancement of startle in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, Laureen J; Leavell, Bonita J; Jones, Calleen M; Hepler, Bradford R; Isenschmid, Daniel S; Commissaris, Randall L

    2012-06-01

    Gamma butyrolactone (GBL) is metabolized to gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in the body. GHB is a DEA Schedule 1 compound; GBL is a DEA List 1 chemical. Gamma valerolactone (GVL) is the 4-methyl analog of GBL; GVL is metabolized to 4-methyl-GHB; GVL is NOT metabolized to GBL or GHB. The effects of GBL (18.75-150 mg/kg), GVL (200-1600 mg/kg) or vehicle on the acoustic startle reflex (ASR), and the classically-conditioned enhancement of startle, the Startle Anticipated Potentiation of Startle (SAPS) response were studied in male rats. Both compounds produced a dose-dependent reduction of ASR, with GBL 5-7 times more potent than GVL. In contrast, GBL treatment significantly reduced SAPS at doses that exerted only moderate effects on ASR, whereas GVL exerted little or no effect on the SAPS, except at doses that produced pronounced reductions in Noise Alone ASR. In a second experiment, rats were tested for Noise Alone ASR behavior following treatment with a single mid-range dose of GBL (75 mg/kg), GVL (400mg/kg) or vehicle; immediately following startle testing the animals were sacrificed and their brains and blood were collected for determination of GHB, 4-methyl-GHB, GBL and GVL. GHB was found in measurable concentrations in all of the blood specimens and 6 (of 8) of the brain specimens from the GBL-treated subjects. 4-Methyl-GHB was found in measurable concentrations in all of the blood and brain specimens of the GVL-treated subjects; the change in startle amplitude was inversely correlated to the brain concentrations of these compounds. These findings confirm the differences in the metabolic fate of GBL and GVL as pro-drugs for the formation of GHB and 4-methyl-GHB, respectively. Moreover, the dissimilarity in effect profile for GBL and GVL on ASR versus SAPS behaviors suggests that different receptor(s) may be involved in mediating these behavioral effects. PMID:22349589

  15. Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans.

    PubMed

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Ockenfels, Axel

    2013-11-26

    Humans are attracted to similar others. As a consequence, social networks are homogeneous in sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and other characteristics--a principle called homophily. Despite abundant evidence showing the importance of interpersonal similarity and homophily for human relationships, their behavioral correlates and cognitive foundations are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceived similarity substantially increases altruistic punishment, a key mechanism underlying human cooperation. We induced (dis)similarity perception by manipulating basic cognitive mechanisms in an economic cooperation game that included a punishment phase. We found that similarity-focused participants were more willing to punish others' uncooperative behavior. This influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. Our findings demonstrate that pure similarity promotes reciprocity in ways known to encourage cooperation. At the same time, the increased willingness to punish norm violations among similarity-focused participants provides a rationale for why similar people are more likely to build stable social relationships. Finally, our findings show that altruistic punishment is differentially involved in encouraging cooperation under pure similarity vs. in-group conditions. PMID:24218611

  16. Visual similarity is stronger than semantic similarity in guiding visual search for numbers.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Hayward J; Hout, Michael C; Menneer, Tamaryn

    2014-06-01

    Using a visual search task, we explored how behavior is influenced by both visual and semantic information. We recorded participants' eye movements as they searched for a single target number in a search array of single-digit numbers (0-9). We examined the probability of fixating the various distractors as a function of two key dimensions: the visual similarity between the target and each distractor, and the semantic similarity (i.e., the numerical distance) between the target and each distractor. Visual similarity estimates were obtained using multidimensional scaling based on the independent observer similarity ratings. A linear mixed-effects model demonstrated that both visual and semantic similarity influenced the probability that distractors would be fixated. However, the visual similarity effect was substantially larger than the semantic similarity effect. We close by discussing the potential value of using this novel methodological approach and the implications for both simple and complex visual search displays.

  17. Similar Effects of Two Modified Constraint-Induced Therapy Protocols on Motor Impairment, Motor Function and Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Wilma Costa; Conforto, Adriana B.; Orsini, Marco; Stern, Annette; André, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) protocols show motor function and real-world arm use improvement. Meanwhile it usually requires constant supervision by physiotherapists and is therefore more expensive than customary care. This study compared the preliminary efficacy of two modified CIMT protocols. A two-group randomized controlled trial with pre and post treatment measures and six months follow-up was conducted. Nineteen patients with chronic stroke received 10 treatment sessions distributed three to four times a week over 22 days. CIMT3h_direct group received 3 hours of CIMT supervised by a therapist (n=10) while CIMT1.5h_direct group had 1.5 hours of supervised CIMT+1.5 hours home exercises supervised by a caregiver (n=9). Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Motor Activity Log, and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale. The modified CIMT protocols were feasible and well tolerated. Improvements in motor function, real-world arm use and quality of life did not differ significantly between treated groups receiving either 3 or 1.5 hours mCIMT supervised by a therapist. PMID:26294941

  18. Similar Effects of Two Modified Constraint-Induced Therapy Protocols on Motor Impairment, Motor Function and Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Souza, Wilma Costa; Conforto, Adriana B; Orsini, Marco; Stern, Annette; André, Charles

    2015-03-23

    Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) protocols show motor function and real-world arm use improvement. Meanwhile it usually requires constant supervision by physiotherapists and is therefore more expensive than customary care. This study compared the preliminary efficacy of two modified CIMT protocols. A two-group randomized controlled trial with pre and post treatment measures and six months follow-up was conducted. Nineteen patients with chronic stroke received 10 treatment sessions distributed three to four times a week over 22 days. CIMT3h_direct group received 3 hours of CIMT supervised by a therapist (n=10) while CIMT1.5h_direct group had 1.5 hours of supervised CIMT+1.5 hours home exercises supervised by a caregiver (n=9). Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Motor Activity Log, and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale. The modified CIMT protocols were feasible and well tolerated. Improvements in motor function, real-world arm use and quality of life did not differ significantly between treated groups receiving either 3 or 1.5 hours mCIMT supervised by a therapist.

  19. Multivariate Time Series Similarity Searching

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jimin; Zhu, Yuelong; Li, Shijin; Wan, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate time series (MTS) datasets are very common in various financial, multimedia, and hydrological fields. In this paper, a dimension-combination method is proposed to search similar sequences for MTS. Firstly, the similarity of single-dimension series is calculated; then the overall similarity of the MTS is obtained by synthesizing each of the single-dimension similarity based on weighted BORDA voting method. The dimension-combination method could use the existing similarity searching method. Several experiments, which used the classification accuracy as a measure, were performed on six datasets from the UCI KDD Archive to validate the method. The results show the advantage of the approach compared to the traditional similarity measures, such as Euclidean distance (ED), cynamic time warping (DTW), point distribution (PD), PCA similarity factor (SPCA), and extended Frobenius norm (Eros), for MTS datasets in some ways. Our experiments also demonstrate that no measure can fit all datasets, and the proposed measure is a choice for similarity searches. PMID:24895665

  20. Multivariate time series similarity searching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jimin; Zhu, Yuelong; Li, Shijin; Wan, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate time series (MTS) datasets are very common in various financial, multimedia, and hydrological fields. In this paper, a dimension-combination method is proposed to search similar sequences for MTS. Firstly, the similarity of single-dimension series is calculated; then the overall similarity of the MTS is obtained by synthesizing each of the single-dimension similarity based on weighted BORDA voting method. The dimension-combination method could use the existing similarity searching method. Several experiments, which used the classification accuracy as a measure, were performed on six datasets from the UCI KDD Archive to validate the method. The results show the advantage of the approach compared to the traditional similarity measures, such as Euclidean distance (ED), cynamic time warping (DTW), point distribution (PD), PCA similarity factor (SPCA), and extended Frobenius norm (Eros), for MTS datasets in some ways. Our experiments also demonstrate that no measure can fit all datasets, and the proposed measure is a choice for similarity searches. PMID:24895665

  1. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  2. Discuss Similarity Using Visual Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dana C.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2012-01-01

    The change in size from a smaller shape to a larger similar shape (or vice versa) is created through continuous proportional stretching or shrinking in every direction. Students cannot solve similarity tasks simply by iterating or partitioning a composed unit, strategies typically used on numerical proportional tasks. The transition to thinking…

  3. Effects of UV-C irradiation on phosphoinositide turnover in plant cells: similarities with those occurring via the formation of reactive oxygen intermediates in animal cells.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, M P; Ricci, D; Fraternale, D; Piatti, E; Manunta, A; Accorsi, A

    1999-03-01

    With the aim of examining the response of plant cells to UV-C irradiation, we investigated the behaviour of the phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PtdIns 4,5-P2) molecule (the precursor of the phosphoinositide signal transduction cascade) by exposing callus cells from Peucedanum verticillare to UV-C (130 J m-2) and by examining the level and the fatty acid composition of PtdIns 4,5-P2 at different times after irradiation. We show that a pathway for the UV-C response includes transient PtdIns 4,5-P2 breakdown. The effect of ultraviolet rays is mimicked by H2O2 suggesting that in this plant it may be brought about by reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), as already underlined in experimental animal models. PMID:10374257

  4. Orthographic similarity: the case of "reversed anagrams".

    PubMed

    Morris, Alison L; Still, Mary L

    2012-07-01

    How orthographically similar are words such as paws and swap, flow and wolf, or live and evil? According to the letter position coding schemes used in models of visual word recognition, these reversed anagrams are considered to be less similar than words that share letters in the same absolute or relative positions (such as home and hose or plan and lane). Therefore, reversed anagrams should not produce the standard orthographic similarity effects found using substitution neighbors (e.g., home, hose). Simulations using the spatial coding model (Davis, Psychological Review 117, 713-758, 2010), for example, predict an inhibitory masked-priming effect for substitution neighbor word pairs but a null effect for reversed anagrams. Nevertheless, we obtained significant inhibitory priming using both stimulus types (Experiment 1). We also demonstrated that robust repetition blindness can be obtained for reversed anagrams (Experiment 2). Reversed anagrams therefore provide a new test for models of visual word recognition and orthographic similarity.

  5. Evaluating Similarity Measures for Brain Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Razlighi, Q. R.; Kehtarnavaz, N.; Yousefi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of similarity measures for image registration is a challenging problem due to its complex interaction with the underlying optimization, regularization, image type and modality. We propose a single performance metric, named robustness, as part of a new evaluation method which quantifies the effectiveness of similarity measures for brain image registration while eliminating the effects of the other parts of the registration process. We show empirically that similarity measures with higher robustness are more effective in registering degraded images and are also more successful in performing intermodal image registration. Further, we introduce a new similarity measure, called normalized spatial mutual information, for 3D brain image registration whose robustness is shown to be much higher than the existing ones. Consequently, it tolerates greater image degradation and provides more consistent outcomes for intermodal brain image registration. PMID:24039378

  6. Use of comparative effectiveness research for similar Chinese patent medicine for angina pectoris of coronary heart disease: a new approach based on patient-important outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a profound history in many Asian countries. TCM syndrome is a set of characteristic physical signs and symptoms shared by a group of patients. Syndrome diagnosis and treatment assignment according to the identified TCM syndrome is a long-held practice of Chinese medicine. Owing to its distinctive way of interpreting illness and administering care, medical practitioners not well educated in TCM theories and practices are generally incapable of giving out prescriptions for Chinese patent drugs. Currently, the existence of a multitude of Chinese patent drugs marked with largely identical indications is further complicating this situation. Methods In this multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy clinical trial, in which we will use the comparative effectiveness research method, we will compare the efficacy of two commonly used Chinese patent medicines for angina patients diagnosed with qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome. A total of 160 patients will be recruited and randomly assigned to receive either (1) QiShenYiQi dripping pills, Tongxinluo placebo and routine medication or (2) Tongxinluo capsules, QiShenYiQi placebo and routine medication. These treatment regimens will be carried out for 4 weeks, followed by a 10-day washout period and a 4-week crossover phase in which the treatments in the two patient groups will be exchanged. Patients will be allowed to choose symptoms that matter most to them and will be grouped accordingly. Patient-reported outcomes such as the Seattle Angina Questionnaire score and the 15-point Likert scale score will be measured and reported. The minimally clinical important difference will be calculated and used for efficacy assessment, and correspondence analysis will be performed to identify the best indications for each drug. Discussion The goal of the study is to establish a methodology for the precise identification of the characteristic

  7. Aberrant cell divisions in root meristeme of maize following exposure to X-rays low doses compared to similar effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focea, R.; Capraru, G.; Racuciu, M.; Creanga, D.; Luchian, T.

    2012-04-01

    The response of maize to radiation exposure was investigated by two cytogenetic methods considering the importance of the geno-toxic effect for environmental and agricultural purposes. Uniform genophond seeds, freshly germinated, were exposed to relatively low radiation doses using a radiotherapy X-ray applicator from a hospital irradiation device and to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field with about 10 mT magnetic induction (generated within laboratory assembled electromagnetic coils). Radicular meristeme tissue aliquots were prevailed for cytogenetic investigation based on microscopic observations and cell counting. Microscope slides were prepared following a specific procedure (squash technique and Feulgen method based on modified Carr reactive coloration). Mitotic index as well as chromosomal aberration percentage were calculated for more than 30,000 cells taken into account. From a qualitative viewpoint, chromosomal aberrations such as interchromatidian bridges, lagging and expelled chromosomes and multipolar divisions were evidenced - no distinct situation for either ionizing radiation or electromagnetic field being identified. The main quantitative difference consisted in the increased mitotic index for electromagnetic exposure increased times compared with the diminished mitotic index in the case of low X-ray doses.

  8. Pharmacological analysis of G-protein activation mediated by guinea-pig recombinant 5-HT1B receptors in C6-glial cells: similarities with the human 5-HT1B receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Petrus J; Wurch, Thierry; Palmier, Christiane; Colpaert, Francis C

    1998-01-01

    The guinea-pig recombinant 5-hydroxytryptamine1B (gp 5-HT1B) receptor stably transfected in rat C6-glial cells was characterized by monitoring G-protein activation in a membrane preparation with agonist-stimulated [35S]-GTPγS binding. The intrinsic activity of 5-HT receptor ligands was compared with that determined previously at the human recombinant 5-HT1B (h 5-HT1B) receptor under similar experimental conditions.Membrane preparations of C6-glial/gp 5-HT1B cells exhibited [3H]-5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) and [3H] - N- [4-methoxy-3,4 - methylpiperazin-1-yl) phenyl] -3 - methyl - 4-(4 - pyridinyl)benzamide (GR 125743) binding sites with a pKd of 9.62 to 9.85 and a Bmax between 2.1 to 6.4 fmol mg−1 protein. The binding affinities of a series of 5-HT receptor ligands determined with [3H]-5-CT and [3H]-GR 125743 were similar. Ligand affinities were comparable to and correlated (r2: 0.74, P<0.001) with those determined at the recombinant h 5-HT1B receptor.[35S]-GTPγS binding to membrane preparations of C6-glial/gp 5-HT1B cells was stimulated by the 5-HT receptor agonists that were being investigated. The maximal responses of naratriptan, zolmitriptan, sumatriptan, N-methyl-3-[pyrrolidin-2(R)-ylmethyl]-1H-indol-5-ylmethylsulphonamide (CP122638), rizatriptan and dihydroergotamine were between 0.76 and 0.85 compared to 5-HT. The potency of these agonists showed a positive correlation (r2: 0.72, P=0.015) with their potency at the recombinant h 5-HT1B receptor. 1-naphthylpiperazine, (±)-cyanopindolol and (2′-methyl-4′-(5-methyl[1,2,4] oxadiazole-3-yl)biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid [4-methoxy-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]amide (GR 127935) elicited an even smaller response (Emax: 0.32 to 0.63).The ligands 1′-methyl-5-(2′-methyl-4′-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3-yl) biphenyl-4-carbonyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrospiro [furo[2,3-f]indole-3-spiro-4′-piperidine] (SB224289), methiothepin and ritanserin displayed inhibition of basal [35S

  9. Pharmacological analysis of G-protein activation mediated by guinea-pig recombinant 5-HT1B receptors in C6-glial cells: similarities with the human 5-HT1B receptor.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, P J; Wurch, T; Palmier, C; Colpaert, F C

    1998-01-01

    1. The guinea-pig recombinant 5-hydroxytryptamine1B (gp 5-HT1B) receptor stably transfected in rat C6-glial cells was characterized by monitoring G-protein activation in a membrane preparation with agonist-stimulated [35S]-GTPgammaS binding. The intrinsic activity of 5-HT receptor ligands was compared with that determined previously at the human recombinant 5-HT1B (h 5-HT1B) receptor under similar experimental conditions. 2. Membrane preparations of C6-glial/gp 5-HT1B cells exhibited [3H]-5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) and [3H]-N-[4-methoxy-3,4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) phenyl]-3-methyl-4-(4-pyridinyl)benzamide (GR 125743) binding sites with a pKd of 9.62 to 9.85 and a Bmax between 2.1 to 6.4 fmol mg(-1) protein. The binding affinities of a series of 5-HT receptor ligands determined with [3H]-5-CT and [3H]-GR 125743 were similar. Ligand affinities were comparable to and correlated (r2: 0.74, P<0.001) with those determined at the recombinant h 5-HT1B receptor. 3. [35S]-GTPgammaS binding to membrane preparations of C6-glial/gp 5-HT1B cells was stimulated by the 5-HT receptor agonists that were being investigated. The maximal responses of naratriptan, zolmitriptan, sumatriptan, N-methyl-3-[pyrrolidin-2(R)-ylmethyl]-1H-indol-5-ylmethyl sulphonamide (CP 122638), rizatriptan and dihydroergotamine were between 0.76 and 0.85 compared to 5-HT. The potency of these agonists showed a positive correlation (r2: 0.72, P=0.015) with their potency at the recombinant h 5-HT1B receptor. 1-naphthylpiperazine, (+/-)-cyanopindolol and (2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl[1,2,4] oxadiazole-3-yl)biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid [4-methoxy-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]amide (GR 127935) elicited an even smaller response (Emax: 0.32 to 0.63). 4. The ligands 1'-methyl-5-(2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3-yl) biphenyl-4-carbonyl)-2,3,6,7tetrahydrospiro [furo[2,3-f]indole-3-spiro-4'-piperidine] (SB224289), methiothepin and ritanserin displayed inhibition of basal [35S]-GTPgammaS binding at concentrations

  10. Effects of microgravity on osteoblast growth activation.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, M; Lewis, M L

    1996-04-10

    Space flight is an environmental condition where astronauts can lose up to 19% of weight-bearing bone during long duration missions. We used the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast to investigate bone cell growth in microgravity (10(-6) to 10(-9)g). Osteoblasts were launched on the STS-56 shuttle flight in a quiescent state with 0.5% fetal calf serum (FCS) medium and growth activation was initiated by adding fresh medium with 10% FCS during microgravity exposure. Four days after serum activation, the cells were fixed before return to normal Earth gravity. Ground controls were treated in parallel with the flight samples in identical equipment. On landing, cell number, cell cytoskeleton, glucose utilization, and prostaglandin synthesis in flight (n = 4) and ground controls (n = 4) were examined. The flown osteoblasts grew slowly in microgravity with total cell number significantly reduced (55 +/- 6 vs 141 +/- 8 cells per microscopic field). The cytoskeleton of the flight osteoblasts had a reduced number of stress fibers and a unique abnormal morphology. Nuclei in the ground controls were large and round with punctate Hoechst staining of the DNA nucleosomes. The flight nuclei were 30% smaller than the controls (P < 0.0001) and oblong in shape, with fewer punctate areas. Due to their reduced numbers, the cells activated in microgravity used significantly less glucose than ground controls (80.2 +/- 0.7 vs 50.3 +/- 3.7 mg of glucose/dl remaining in the medium) and had reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis when compared to controls (57.3 +/- 17 vs 138.3 +/- 41 pmol/ml). Cell viability was normal since, on a per-cell basis, glucose use and prostaglandin synthesis were comparable for flight and ground samples. Taken together, these data suggest that growth activation in microgravity results in reduced growth, causing reduced glucose utilization and reduced prostaglandin synthesis, with significantly altered actin cytoskeleton in osteoblasts.

  11. Effects of microgravity on osteoblast growth activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Lewis, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    Space flight is an environmental condition where astronauts can lose up to 19% of weight-bearing bone during long duration missions. We used the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast to investigate bone cell growth in microgravity (10(-6) to 10(-9)g). Osteoblasts were launched on the STS-56 shuttle flight in a quiescent state with 0.5% fetal calf serum (FCS) medium and growth activation was initiated by adding fresh medium with 10% FCS during microgravity exposure. Four days after serum activation, the cells were fixed before return to normal Earth gravity. Ground controls were treated in parallel with the flight samples in identical equipment. On landing, cell number, cell cytoskeleton, glucose utilization, and prostaglandin synthesis in flight (n = 4) and ground controls (n = 4) were examined. The flown osteoblasts grew slowly in microgravity with total cell number significantly reduced (55 +/- 6 vs 141 +/- 8 cells per microscopic field). The cytoskeleton of the flight osteoblasts had a reduced number of stress fibers and a unique abnormal morphology. Nuclei in the ground controls were large and round with punctate Hoechst staining of the DNA nucleosomes. The flight nuclei were 30% smaller than the controls (P < 0.0001) and oblong in shape, with fewer punctate areas. Due to their reduced numbers, the cells activated in microgravity used significantly less glucose than ground controls (80.2 +/- 0.7 vs 50.3 +/- 3.7 mg of glucose/dl remaining in the medium) and had reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis when compared to controls (57.3 +/- 17 vs 138.3 +/- 41 pmol/ml). Cell viability was normal since, on a per-cell basis, glucose use and prostaglandin synthesis were comparable for flight and ground samples. Taken together, these data suggest that growth activation in microgravity results in reduced growth, causing reduced glucose utilization and reduced prostaglandin synthesis, with significantly altered actin cytoskeleton in osteoblasts.

  12. Effective dopant activation via low temperature microwave annealing of ion implanted silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhao; David Theodore, N.; Vemuri, Rajitha N. P.; Das, Sayantan; Lu, Wei; Lau, S. S.; Alford, T. L.

    2013-11-01

    Susceptor-assisted microwave annealing enables effective dopant activation, at low temperatures, in ion-implanted Si. Given similar thermal budgets for microwave annealing and rapid thermal annealing (RTA), sheet resistances of microwave annealed Si, with either B+ or P+ implants, are lower than the values obtained using RTA. The fraction of dopants activated is as high as 18% for B+ implants and 64% for P+ implants. Dopant diffusion is imperceptible after microwave annealing, but significant after RTA, for P+ implanted Si samples with the same dopant activation. Microwave annealing achieves such properties using shorter anneal times and lower peak temperatures compared to RTA.

  13. Effect of stabilization on biomass activity.

    PubMed

    Cokgor, Emine Ubay; Okutman Tas, Didem; Zengin, Gulsum Emel; Insel, Guclu

    2012-02-20

    The study aimed to compare aerobic and aerobic/anoxic stabilization processes in terms of organic matter and the biomass removal efficiencies using a municipal sludge sample. The efficiency of stabilization process was assessed monitoring suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC, DOC), nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate parameters. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR) measurements were conducted to determine active biomass concentration. On the 30th day of the aerobic stabilization, the SS, VSS and TOC removal efficiencies were 22%, 28% and 55%, respectively. Under aerobic/anoxic conditions, removal efficiencies for SS, VSS and TOC were 25%, 27% and 67%. On the 17th day of the stabilization, SS and VSS removal rates were 60 mg SS/L day and 47 mg VSS/L day for aerobic and 102 mg SS/L day and 63 mg VSS/L day for aerobic/anoxic conditions, respectively. These findings reflected the higher stabilization performance of the aerobic/anoxic conditions. Based on respirometric results, the ratios of the active biomass were decreased to 30% and 24% for the 17th and 30th day of the aerobic stabilization, respectively. Such results have significant implications relative to the activity decrease quantification of the biomass as well as its further application potentials after aerobic or aerobic/anoxic sludge stabilization. PMID:21791229

  14. Similarity metrics for ligands reflecting the similarity of the target proteins.

    PubMed

    Schuffenhauer, Ansgar; Floersheim, Philipp; Acklin, Pierre; Jacoby, Edgar

    2003-01-01

    In this study we evaluate how far the scope of similarity searching can be extended to identify not only ligands binding to the same target as the reference ligand(s) but also ligands of other homologous targets without initially known ligands. This "homology-based similarity searching" requires molecular representations reflecting the ability of a molecule to interact with target proteins. The Similog keys, which are introduced here as a new molecular representation, were designed to fulfill such requirements. They are based only on the molecular constitution and are counts of atom triplets. Each triplet is characterized by the graph distances and the types of its atoms. The atom-typing scheme classifies each atom by its function as H-bond donor or acceptor and by its electronegativity and bulkiness. In this study the Similog keys are investigated in retrospective in silico screening experiments and compared with other conformation independent molecular representations. Studied were molecules of the MDDR database for which the activity data was augmented by standardized target classification information from public protein classification databases. The MDDR molecule set was split randomly into two halves. The first half formed the candidate set. Ligands of four targets (dopamine D2 receptor, opioid delta-receptor, factor Xa serine protease, and progesterone receptor) were taken from the second half to form the respective reference sets. Different similarity calculation methods are used to rank the molecules of the candidate set by their similarity to each of the four reference sets. The accumulated counts of molecules binding to the reference target and groups of targets with decreasing homology to it were examined as a function of the similarity rank for each reference set and similarity method. In summary, similarity searching based on Unity 2D-fingerprints or Similog keys are found to be equally effective in the identification of molecules binding to the same

  15. [Study on influence between activated carbon property and immobilized biological activated carbon purification effect].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-zhi; Li, Wei-guang; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da; Ding, Chi; Ma, Xiao-na; Qu, Yan-ming

    2006-10-01

    By means of immobilizing five kinds of activated carbon, we studied the influence between the chief activated carbon property items and immobilized bioactivated carbon (IBAC) purification effect with the correlation analysis. The result shows that the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.7 include molasses, abrasion number, hardness, tannin, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter; the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.5 include pH, iodine, butane and tetrachloride. In succession, the partial correlation analysis shows that activated carbon property items mostly influencing on IBAC purification effect include molasses, hardness, abrasion number, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter. The causation of these property items bringing influence on IBAC purification is that the activated carbon holes distribution (representative activated carbon property item is molasses) provides inhabitable location and adjust food for the dominance bacteria; the mechanical resist-crash property of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: abrasion number and hardness) have influence on the stability of biofilm; and the particle diameter size and distribution of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter) can directly affect the force of water in IBAC filter bed, which brings influence on the dominance bacteria immobilizing on activated carbon.

  16. Effect of catalyst preparation on catalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Design parameters have been identified for Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts prepared by wet impregnation and incipient wetness from nickel nitrate solution in contact with a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support. The metal dispersion, activity for C{sub 1}, C{sub 2}, and C{sub 3} formation under synthesis conditions, and the carbon deposited during reaction have been shown to be predictable based solely on the properties of the electrolytes from which these catalysts were formed. Regardless of the method of preparation, NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was found to be the only active Ni species on low weight loading Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts; both Ni and NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} are present on high weight loading catalysts. The high-temperature methane peak observed only from CO-TRP spectra of low weight loading catalysts is due to NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}; the low-temperature peak that appears as the weight loading is increased is due to Ni. Steady-state reaction kinetics for CH{sub 4} production yield activation energies which increase with increasing weight loading. The apparent activation energies for catalysts with a single methane peak in their CO-TPR spectra were found to be normally distributed. The apparent activation energies for catalysts with two methane peaks in their CO-TPR spectra were found to also be normally distributed when the method of preparation was considered in testing the statistical nature of the distribution. Titration experiments of the carbon pool subsequent to steady-state reaction of H{sub 2} and CO in conjunction with temperature-programmed surface reaction were used to asses the impact of Ni speciation on the rate-determining in step in the methanation reaction. In situ ESCA experiments and microreactor studies were used to examined the existence of metal-support interaction between dispersed Ni and the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} carrier.

  17. Differential effects of prenatal cocaine and retinoic acid on activity level throughout day and night.

    PubMed

    Church, M W; Tilak, J P

    1996-12-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with disrupted state control and lowered activity levels. Prenatal retinoic acid excess also influences activity levels in laboratory rats. Activity level is usually monitored during a brief period in young offspring. The effects of these drugs on pup activity levels throughout the day is unknown. There is also little information on the long-lasting effects of these teratogens in adult animals. We compared the daily activity of rats which were prenatally exposed to cocaine or retinoic acid (RA). Appropriate control groups were also used. The offspring were evaluated for activity levels in a neophobic situation and for a 22-h period in same-sex groups of 3 littermates. As both pups and adults, the cocaine groups were hypoactive while the RA group was hyperactive when first placed into the testing cage (neophobic situation). Similarly, during the remainder of the 22-h testing period, the pup and adult cocaine animals exhibited reduced activity levels while the RA animals exhibited elevated activity levels. Thus, prenatal cocaine and retinoic acid exposures affected offspring activity levels differently, both drugs have long-lasting neurobehavioral effects that persist into adulthood, and effects are influenced by time-of-day. Strain-dependent differences and mechanisms of action are discussed.

  18. Effects of a subminiature radiocollar on activity of free-living white-footed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ormiston, B.G.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of a subminiature (1.1 g) radiocollar on activity of free-living Peromyscus leucopus were examined by comparing recapture frequency, persistence, apparent reproduction, body weight, and ranging activity of 43 collared and 304 uncollared mice. Although some differences between collar treatment groups were noted for most measures, no significant deleterious effects of wearing the radiocollar were detected. Collared juveniles weighing from 12 to 16 g appeared to grow and mature similarly relative to uncollared juveniles. The results suggest that this radiocollar-package can be used to provide reliable information about the natural acitivity of both immature and adult P. leucopus. 14 references, 2 tables.

  19. Effect of the benzylic structure of lignan on antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Satoshi; Sugahara, Takuya; Matsugi, Junko; Someya, Tatsushi; Masuda, Toshiya; Kishida, Taro; Akiyama, Koichi; Maruyama, Masafumi

    2007-09-01

    The effect of the benzylic structure of lignan on antioxidant activity was evaluated. Secoisolariciresinol (1) and 3,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)tetrahydrofuran (2), which have two secondary benzylic positions without oxygen, showed the highest antioxidant activity. Optically active verrucosin (4) was synthesized for the first time in this experiment.

  20. Synergetic Effects of Nanoporous Support and Urea on Enzyme Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Chenghong; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Jun; Ackerman, Eric J.

    2007-02-01

    Here we report that synergetic effects of functionalized nanoporous support and urea on enzyme activity enhancement. Even in 8.0 M urea, the specific activity of GI entrapped in FMS was still higher than the highest specific activity of GI free in solution, indicating the strong tolerance of GI in FMS to the high concentration of urea.

  1. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the modulation of the mitochondrial activity of macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Nadhia H. C.; Ferrari, Raquel A. M.; Silva, Daniela F. T.; Nunes, Fabio D.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Fernandes, Kristianne P. S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a major role among the inflammatory cells that invade muscle tissue following an injury. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has long been used in clinical practice to accelerate the muscle repair process. However, little is known regarding its effect on macrophages. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of LLLT on the mitochondrial activity (MA) of macrophages. METHOD: J774 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon - gamma (IFN-γ) (activation) for 24 h to simulate an inflammatory process, then irradiated with LLLT using two sets of parameters (780 nm; 70 mW; 3 J/cm2 and 660 nm; 15 mW; 7.5 J/cm2). Non-activated/non-irradiated cells composed the control group. MA was evaluated by the cell mitochondrial activity (MTT) assay (after 1, 3 and 5 days) in three independent experiments. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: After 1 day of culture, activated and 780 nm irradiated macrophages showed lower MA than activated macrophages, but activated and 660 nm irradiated macrophages showed MA similar to activated cells. After 3 days, activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed greater MA than activated macrophages, and after 5 days, the activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed similar MA to the activated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 660 nm and 780 nm LLLT can modulate the cellular activation status of macrophages in inflammation, highlighting the importance of this resource and of the correct determination of its parameters in the repair process of skeletal muscle. PMID:25076002

  2. Engineering Active and Effective Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Andrea Sabatini

    2004-01-01

    New teachers expect many things in educational life to be complex (e.g., classroom management, lesson planning, administrative paperwork, relationships with colleagues and students' parents), they still underestimate the amount of detail that goes into creating effective learning experiences daily. Field trips, for example, always sound like a…

  3. Effect of caffeine on cocaine locomotor stimulant activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Misra, A L; Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B

    1986-03-01

    The effect of caffeine on the locomotor stimulant activity induced by intravenous cocaine in rats was investigated. Low doses of caffeine (20 mg/kg IP) potentiated the locomotor activity induced by 1, 2.5 mg/kg intravenous doses of cocaine and higher doses of caffeine (50, 100 mg/kg IP) had no significant effect. The locomotor stimulant effect of 20 mg/kg IP dose of caffeine per se in vehicle was significantly higher and that with 100 mg/kg dose significantly lower than that of the vehicle control. Thus caffeine produced dose-dependent effects on cocaine-induced locomotor stimulant activity, with low dose potentiating and higher doses having no significant effect on such activity. Pharmacokinetic or dispositional factors did not appear to play a role in potentiation of cocaine locomotor stimulant activity by caffeine. PMID:3703910

  4. Effects of phosphorus fertilizer supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Taehyun; Oke, Moustapha; Schofield, Andrew; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2005-03-01

    The effects of soil and foliar phosphorus supplementation on the activities and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in tomato fruits were evaluated by determining enzyme activities and isoenzyme analysis. Both protein levels and enzyme activities varied depending on the variety and season. In general, phosphorus supplementation did not alter SOD, POX, and APX activities significantly;however, some treatments showed season- and stage-specific enhancement in activities as noticed with hydrophos and seniphos supplementation. Three different SOD isozymes were observed, and these isozymes showed very similar staining intensities in response to P application and during the three developmental stages studied. Two major isozymes of POX and two different APX isozymes were observed at all the developmental stages. The results suggest that antioxidant enzyme activities may be influenced by the availability of phosphorus, but are subject to considerable variation depending on the developmental stage and the season. PMID:15740037

  5. Pyrenophora bromi, causal agent of brownspot of bromegrass, expresses a gene encoding a protein with homology and similar activity to Ptr ToxB, a host-selective toxin of wheat.

    PubMed

    Andrie, Rachael M; Ciuffetti, Lynda M

    2011-03-01

    Ptr ToxB, encoded by ToxB, is one of multiple host-selective toxins (HST) produced by the wheat pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Homologs of ToxB are found in several ascomycetes, including sister species Pyrenophora bromi, causal agent of brownspot of bromegrass. Due to the close evolutionary relatedness of P. tritici-repentis and P. bromi and that of their grass hosts, we hypothesized that homologs of ToxB in P. bromi may act as HST in the disease interaction between P. bromi and bromegrass. A representative set of transcriptionally active P. bromi ToxB genes were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and the resultant proteins tested for their ability to act as HST on bromegrass. The tested Pyrenophora bromi ToxB (Pb ToxB) proteins were not toxic to bromegrass; thus, Pb ToxB does not appear to function as an HST in the P. bromi-bromegrass interaction. Instead, we revealed that the Pb ToxB proteins can be toxic to Ptr ToxB-sensitive wheat, at levels similar to Ptr ToxB, and the corresponding P. bromi ToxB genes are expressed in P. bromi-inoculated wheat. Our data suggest that P. bromi possesses the potential to become a wheat pathogen and highlights the importance of investigating the interaction between P. bromi and wheat. PMID:21091157

  6. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  7. Effect of Lead stress on phosphatase activity and reducing power assay of Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Gubrelay, U; Agnihotri, R K; Shrotriya, S; Sharma, R

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic heavy metal for both plants and animals; the environment is increasingly polluted with heavy metals and reduces crop productivity. Plants possess homeostatic mechanisms that allow them to keep correct concentrations of essential metal ions in cellular compartments and to minimize the damaging effects of an excess of nonessential ones. One of their adverse effects on plants are the generation of harmful active oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress and the antioxidative activity seems to be of fundamental importance for adaptive response of plant against environmental stress. The present study explores the effects of lead (soil treated twice/ week) with (10, 30 and 60 mM) on the specific activities of phosphatases which might lead to reducing power assay in (Triticum aestivum PBW344) seedling. A significant decrease in the redox potential of shoot compared to root was observed at the similar concentration of lead. A similar trend on leaves was also noted. Acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in roots than in shoot at all the three concentration of lead i.e. 10, 30 and 60 mM, compared to controls. The above mentioned changes were more pronounced at 60 mM concentration of lead than two other concentrations. These results lead us to suggest that increased lead concentration in soil might lead to adverse effects on plant growth and phosphatase activities. PMID:26107501

  8. Stability of similarity measurements for bipartite networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Hou, Lei; Pan, Xue; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental measure in network analyses and machine learning algorithms, with wide applications ranging from personalized recommendation to socio-economic dynamics. We argue that an effective similarity measurement should guarantee the stability even under some information loss. With six bipartite networks, we investigate the stabilities of fifteen similarity measurements by comparing the similarity matrixes of two data samples which are randomly divided from original data sets. Results show that, the fifteen measurements can be well classified into three clusters according to their stabilities, and measurements in the same cluster have similar mathematical definitions. In addition, we develop a top-n-stability method for personalized recommendation, and find that the unstable similarities would recommend false information to users, and the performance of recommendation would be largely improved by using stable similarity measurements. This work provides a novel dimension to analyze and evaluate similarity measurements, which can further find applications in link prediction, personalized recommendation, clustering algorithms, community detection and so on. PMID:26725688

  9. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2009-01-01

    A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure. PMID:20037730

  10. The biological effects of solar activity.

    PubMed

    Breus, T K; Pimenov, K Yu; Cornélissen, G; Halberg, E; Syutkina, E V; Baevsky, R M; Petrov, V M; Orth-Gómer, K; Akerstedt, T; Otsuka, K; Watanabe, Y; Chibisov, S M

    2002-01-01

    The synchronization of biological circadian and circannual rhythms is broadly viewed as a result of photic solar effects. Evidence for non-photic solar effects on biota is also slowly being recognized. The ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes from rabbits, the time structure of blood pressure and heart rate of neonates, and the heart rate variability of human adults on earth and in space were examined during magnetically disturbed and quiet days, as were morbidity statistics. Alterations in both the about-daily (circadian) and about-weekly (circaseptan) components are observed during disturbed vs. quite days. The about-weekly period of neonatal blood pressure correlates with that of the local geomagnetic disturbance index K. Circaseptans which are seen early in human life and in various other forms of life, including unicells, may provide information about the possible site(s) of life's origins from an integrative as well as adaptive evolutionary perspective. PMID:12653180

  11. Concentration and temperature effects on ovostatin activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriarity, Debra M.

    1994-01-01

    Light scattering experiments performed at Mississippi State University using MSFC ovostatin preparations indicated that at low ovostatin concentrations, below 0.2 mg/ml, the protein was dissociating from a tetramer into dimers. Since the proposed mechanism of action involved the tetrameric form of the protein, we hypothesized that perhaps under the conditions of our assays at various O/T ratios the ovostatin was becoming dissociated into an inactive dimer. To examine this possibility we assayed the ovostatin activity as a function of ovostatin concentration and of temperature of the assay. Data are presented that show the results of these assays at 23 C, 30 C, 37 C and 42 C respectively. The data are highly suggestive that there is a decrease in ovostatin activity as the concentration of the protein falls below 0.06 mg/ml. This may not be of any physiological importance, however, since the concentration of ovostatin in the egg is about 0.5 mg/ml. Curiously, the dissociation of the tetramer into dimers does not show a significant temperature dependence as would be expected for an equilibrium reaction. Whether this is in fact the case, or whether the differences are so small as to not be discerned from the current data remains to be seen. Another aspect to consider is that in the egg the primary role of the ovostatin may or may not be as a protease inhibitor. Although the inhibition of collagenase by ovostatin may be an important aspect of embryogenesis, it is also possible that it functions as a binding protein for some substance. In this regard, all ovostatin preparations from MSFC have shown an approximately 88,000 MW protein associated with the ovostatin. The identity of this protein is not currently known and may be the subject of future studies.

  12. Similarity, invariance, and musical variation.

    PubMed

    McAdams, S; Matzkin, D

    2001-06-01

    Perceptual similarity underlies a number of important psychological properties of musical materials, including perceptual invariance under transformation, categorization, recognition, and the sense of familiarity. Mental processes involved in the perception of musical similarity may be an integral part of the functional logic of music composition and thus underly important aspects of musical experience. How much and in what ways can musical materials be varied and still be considered as perceptually related or as belonging to the same category? The notions of musical material, musical variation, perceptual similarity and invariance, and form-bearing dimensions are considered in this light. Recent work on similarity perception has demonstrated that the transformation space for a given musical material is limited by several factors ranging from degree of match of the values of auditory attributes of the events composing the sequences to their relations of various levels of abstraction and to the degree that the transformation respects the grammar of the musical system within which the material was composed. These notions and results are considered in the light of future directions of research, particularly concerning the role of similarity and invariance in the understanding of musical form during listening.

  13. Similarity, invariance, and musical variation.

    PubMed

    McAdams, S; Matzkin, D

    2001-06-01

    Perceptual similarity underlies a number of important psychological properties of musical materials, including perceptual invariance under transformation, categorization, recognition, and the sense of familiarity. Mental processes involved in the perception of musical similarity may be an integral part of the functional logic of music composition and thus underly important aspects of musical experience. How much and in what ways can musical materials be varied and still be considered as perceptually related or as belonging to the same category? The notions of musical material, musical variation, perceptual similarity and invariance, and form-bearing dimensions are considered in this light. Recent work on similarity perception has demonstrated that the transformation space for a given musical material is limited by several factors ranging from degree of match of the values of auditory attributes of the events composing the sequences to their relations of various levels of abstraction and to the degree that the transformation respects the grammar of the musical system within which the material was composed. These notions and results are considered in the light of future directions of research, particularly concerning the role of similarity and invariance in the understanding of musical form during listening. PMID:11458867

  14. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  15. Sibling similarity in family formation.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marcel; Fasang, Anette Eva; Karhula, Aleksi; Erola, Jani

    2014-12-01

    Sibling studies have been widely used to analyze the impact of family background on socioeconomic and, to a lesser extent, demographic outcomes. We contribute to this literature with a novel research design that combines sibling comparisons and sequence analysis to analyze longitudinal family-formation trajectories of siblings and unrelated persons. This allows us to scrutinize in a more rigorous way whether sibling similarity exists in family-formation trajectories and whether siblings' shared background characteristics, such as parental education and early childhood family structure, can account for similarity in family formation. We use Finnish register data from 1987 through 2007 to construct longitudinal family-formation trajectories in young adulthood for siblings and unrelated dyads (N = 14,257 dyads). Findings show that family formation is moderately but significantly more similar for siblings than for unrelated dyads, also after controlling for crucial parental background characteristics. Shared parental background characteristics add surprisingly little to account for sibling similarity in family formation. Instead, gender and the respondents' own education are more decisive forces in the stratification of family formation. Yet, family internal dynamics seem to reinforce this stratification such that siblings have a higher probability to experience similar family-formation patterns. In particular, patterns that correspond with economic disadvantage are concentrated within families. This is in line with a growing body of research highlighting the importance of family structure in the reproduction of social inequality.

  16. Variation in energy expenditure among black-legged kittiwakes: Effects of activity-specific metabolic rates and activity budgets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Kaufman, A.M.; Turco, K.R.; Visser, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the effect of variation in time-activity budgets (TABs) and foraging behavior on energy expenditure rates of parent black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). We quantified TABs using direct observations of radio-tagged adults and simultaneously measured field metabolic rates (FMR) of these same individuals (n = 20) using the doubly labeled water technique. Estimated metabolic rates of kittiwakes attending their brood at the nest or loafing near the colony were similar (ca. 1.3 x basal metabolic rate [BMR]), although loafing during foraging trips was more costly (2.9 x BMR). Metabolic rates during commuting flight (7.3 x BMR) and prey-searching flight (6.2 x BMR) were similar, while metabolic rates during plunge diving were much higher (ca. 47 x BMR). The proportion of the measurement interval spent foraging had a positive effect on FMR (R2 = 0.68), while the combined proportion of time engaged in nest attendance and loafing near the colony had a negative effect on FMR (R2 = 0.72). Thus, more than two-thirds of the variation in kittiwake FMR could be explained by the allocation of time among various activities. The high energetic cost of plunge diving relative to straight flight and searching flight suggests that kittiwakes can optimize their foraging strategy under conditions of low food availability by commuting long distances to feed in areas where gross foraging efficiency is high.

  17. The effects of chemically modifying serum apolipoproteins on their ability to activate lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, P F; Lopez-Johnston, A; Welch, V A; Gurr, M I

    1987-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase activity was measured in an acetone-dried-powder preparation from rat epididymal adipose tissue using pig serum or pig serum lipoprotein, which had been chemically modified, as activator. Modification of acidic amino acids of lipoproteins with NN-dimethyl-1,3-diamine resulted in a complete loss of ability to activate lipoprotein lipase. Modification of 34% of lipoprotein arginine groups with cyclohexanedione resulted in the loss of 75% of the activation of lipoprotein lipase; approx. 42% of the original activity was recovered after reversal of the modification. This effect was dependent on the cyclohexanedione concentration. Modification of 48% of lipoprotein lysine groups with malonaldehyde decreased the maximum activation by 20%, but three times as much lipoprotein was required to achieve this. Non-enzymic glycosylation of lipoprotein with glucose, under a variety of conditions resulting in up to 28 nmol of glucose/mg of protein, had no effect upon the ability to activate lipoprotein lipase. In contrast non-enzymic sialylation resulted in a time-dependent loss of up to 60% of ability to activate lipoprotein lipase. Reductive methylation and acetoacetylation of serum did not affect the ability to activate lipoprotein lipase. The results are compared to the effects of similar modifications to low density lipoproteins on receptor-mediated endocytosis. PMID:3593262

  18. Short-term effects of integrated motor imagery practice on muscle activation and force performance.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, F; Blache, Y; Kanthack, T F D; Monteil, K; Collet, C; Guillot, A

    2015-10-01

    The effect of motor imagery (MI) practice on isometric force development is well-documented. However, whether practicing MI during rest periods of physical training improves the forthcoming performance remains unexplored. We involved 18 athletes in a counterbalanced design including three physical training sessions scheduled over five consecutive days. Training involved 10 maximal isometric contractions against a force plate, with the elbow at 90°. During two sessions, we integrated MI practice (focusing on either muscle activation or relaxation) during the inter-trial rest periods. We measured muscle performance from force plate and electromyograms of the biceps brachii and anterior deltoideus. We continuously monitored electrodermal activity (EDA) to control sympathetic nervous system activity. MI of muscle activation resulted in higher isometric force as compared to both MI of muscle relaxation and passive recovery (respectively +2.1% and +3.5%). MI practice of muscle relaxation also outperformed the control condition (+1.9%). Increased activation of the biceps brachii was recorded under both MI practice conditions compared to control. Biceps brachii activation was similar between the two MI practice conditions, but electromyography revealed a marginal trend toward greater activation of the anterior deltoideus during MI practice of muscle activation. EDA and self-reports indicated that these effects were independent from physiological arousal and motivation. These results might account for priming effects of MI practice yielding to higher muscle activation and force performance. Present findings may be of interest for applications in sports training and neurologic rehabilitation. PMID:26241339

  19. THE EFFECT OF OUTDOOR ACTIVITY CONTEXT ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Normand, Matthew P; Larson, Tracy A; Morley, Allison J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a method for assessing the effect of outdoor activity context on level of physical activity in preschool children. The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children was used to define the test conditions and various levels of physical activity within a multielement design. In general, all participants were fairly sedentary during the analysis. The fixed playground equipment condition produced the most moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, a finding that does not correspond to the descriptive assessment literature on childhood physical activity. PMID:22844146

  20. Transformation and alignment in similarity.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Carl J; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

    2009-10-01

    This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one representation into the other. We assess RD by defining a simple coding scheme of psychological transformations for the experimental materials. In two experiments, this "concrete" version of RD provides compelling fits of the data and compares favourably with SA. Finally, stepping back from particular models, we argue that perceptual theory suggests that transformations and alignment processes should generally be viewed as complementary, in contrast to the current distinction in the literature. PMID:19720370

  1. [Nanosilver - harmful effects of biological activity].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Nanosilver, also identified as colloidal silver, has been known and used for ages to combat diseases or prolong food freshness. It usually occurs in the form of a suspension consisting of particles of size < 100 nm. Due to its specific properties, silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies to produce medical devices, textiles, conductive materials or photovoltaic cells. The growing popularity of nanosilver applications increases the number of people occupationally exposed to this substance. Potential exposure routes for silver nanoparticles are through dermal, oral and inhalation pathways. Silver nanoparticles may be absorbed through the lungs, intestine, and through the skin into circulation and thus may reach such organs as the liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart and testes. Nanosilver may cause mild eyes and skin irritations. It can also act as a mild skin allergen. Inhalation of silver nanoparticles mainly affects the lungs and liver. It has been demonstrated that silver nanoparticles may be genotoxic to mammalian cells. There are some alarming reports on the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on reproduction of experimental animals. Exposure to silver nanoparticles may exert a neurotoxic effect and affect cognitive functions, causing the impairment of short-term and working memory. Maximum admissible concentration (MAC) for the inhalable fraction of silver of 0.05 mg/m3 is currently binding in Poland. In light of toxicological studies of silver nanoparticles it seems reasonable to update the hygiene standards for silver with nanoparticles as a separate fraction.

  2. The pretreatment effects on the antioxidant activity of jujube polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chenling; Yu, Songcheng; Jin, Huali; Wang, Jinshui; Luo, Li

    2013-10-01

    Pretreatment is vital to keep the bioactivities of polysaccharides. In this paper, the effects of hot water, ultrasonic and microwave extraction, as well as the effects of protein and pigment removal steps, on the antioxidant activity of water soluble polysaccharides in jujube (WSPJ) were studied. Hydroxyl free radical (OH) scavenging activity was adopted to determine the antioxidant activity of WSPJ. The results showed that OH scavenging activity of WSPJ extracted by ultrasonic wave was higher than that extracted by hot water and by microwave. Furthermore, power parameter in both ultrasonic and microwave extraction affected the OH scavenging activity dramatically. On the other hand, Sevag reagent was better than trichloroacetic acid (TCA), TCA with 1-butanol (TCA-B) and hydrochloric acid for protein removal, and H2O2 was better than active carbon for pigment removal to keep the antioxidant activity of WSPJ.

  3. Effect of steroids on the activation status of platelets in patients with Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).

    PubMed

    Bhoria, Preeti; Sharma, Saniya; Varma, Neelam; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Subhash; Luthra-Guptasarma, Manni

    2015-01-01

    The activation status of platelets in Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients--which is still somewhat controversial--is of potential interest, because activated platelets tend to aggregate (leading to excessive clotting or thromboembolic events) but cannot do so when platelet numbers are low, as in ITP. Although corticosteroids are the first line of therapy in ITP, the effect of steroids on activation of platelets has not been evaluated so far. We examined the status of platelet activation (with and without stimulation with ADP) in ITP patients, at the start of therapy (pre-steroid treatment, naive) and post-steroid treatment (classified on the basis of steroid responsiveness). We used flow cytometry to evaluate the levels of expression of P-selectin, and PAC-1 binding to platelets of 55 ITP patients and a similar number of healthy controls, treated with and without ADP. We found that platelets in ITP patients exist in an activated state. In patients who are responsive to steroids, the treatment reverses this situation. Also, the fold activation of platelets upon treatment with ADP is more in healthy controls than in ITP patients; treatment with steroids causes platelets in steroid-responsive patients to become more responsive to ADP-activation, similar to healthy controls. Thus steroids may cause changes in the ability of platelets to get activated with an agonist like ADP. Our results provide new insights into how, and why, steroid therapy helps in the treatment of ITP.

  4. The middeck active control experiment: Gravity and suspension effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Alexander, H.; Rey, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE): Gravity and Suspension Effects are presented. Topics covered include: gravity and suspension influences; gravity and suspension effects on structure; gravity effects on sensors and actuators; modeling of gravity and suspension effects on structure; geometric stiffness theory and initial static deformation calculation; modeling gravity's effect on accelerometers and PMA's; application to MACE; MACE EM configuration study; and MACE DM configuration study.

  5. Activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma have depot-specific effects on human preadipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, M; Montague, C T; Prins, J B; Holder, J C; Smith, S A; Sanders, L; Digby, J E; Sewter, C P; Lazar, M A; Chatterjee, V K; O'Rahilly, S

    1997-01-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, a nuclear receptor highly expressed in adipocytes, induces the differentiation of murine preadipocyte cell lines. Recently, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a novel class of insulin-sensitizing compounds effective in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have been shown to bind to PPARgamma with high affinity. We have examined the effects of these compounds on the differentiation of human preadipocytes derived from subcutaneous (SC) and omental (Om) fat. Assessed by lipid accumulation, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and mRNA levels, subcultured preadipocytes isolated from either SC or Om depots did not differentiate in defined serum-free medium. Addition of TZDs (BRL49653 or troglitazone) or 15-deoxyDelta12,14prostaglandin J2 (a natural PPARgamma ligand) enhanced markedly the differentiation of preadipocytes from SC sites, assessed by all three criteria. The rank order of potency of these agents in inducing differentiation matched their ability to activate transcription via human PPARgamma. In contrast, preadipocytes from Om sites in the same individuals were refractory to TZDs, although PPARgamma was expressed at similar levels in both depots. The mechanism of this depot-specific TZD response is unknown. However, given the association between Om adiposity and NIDDM, the site-specific responsiveness of human preadipocytes to TZDs may be involved in the beneficial effects of these compounds on in vivo insulin sensitivity. PMID:9399962

  6. A quantitative analysis of the effects of activity and time of day on the diurnal variations of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Clark, L A; Denby, L; Pregibon, D; Harshfield, G A; Pickering, T G; Blank, S; Laragh, J H

    1987-01-01

    The effects of activity and time of day on blood pressure (BP) were analyzed in 461 patients with untreated hypertension who wore a noninvasive portable BP recorder which took readings every 15 minutes for 24 hours. Patients recorded activity and location in a diary. The data were analyzed separately for two groups of patients: the 190 who stayed at home and the 271 who went to work. The effects of 16 different activities on BP were estimated by relating the BP to the associated activity and to the individual's clinic BP. Blood pressure was higher at work than at home, but the increment of BP for individual activities was similar in the two locations. The overall effect of activities on BP variability was computed using a one-way analysis of covariance model. For the patients who went to work this model accounted for 40% of the observed variation (R2) for systolic and 39% for diastolic BP. A similar model using time of day instead of activity accounted for 33% of variability in both systolic and diastolic BP. Combining activity and time of day was little better than activity alone (41% for both). After allowing for the effects of activity on BP, where sleep is one of the activities, there was no significant diurnal variation of BP. We conclude that there is no important circadian rhythm of BP which is independent of activity. PMID:3597670

  7. Do Laboratory Results Concerning High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomers versus Amalgam for Tooth Restorations Indicate Similar Effect Direction and Magnitude than that of Controlled Clinical Trials? - A Meta-Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2015-01-01

    Background A large percentage of evidence concerning dental interventions is based on laboratory research. The apparent wealth of laboratory evidence is sometimes used as basis for clinical inference and recommendations for daily dental practice. In this study two null-hypotheses are tested: whether trial results from laboratory and controlled clinical trials concerning the comparison of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (HVGIC) to amalgam for restorations placed in permanent posterior teeth have: (i) similar effect direction and (ii) similar effect magnitude. Methods 7 electronic databases were searched, as well as reference lists. Odds ratios (OR) and Standardised Mean Differences (SMD) with 95% Confidence intervals were computed for extracted dichotomous and continuous data, respectively. Pooled effect estimates for laboratory and clinical data were computed to test for effect direction. Odds ratios were converted into SMDs. SMDs from laboratory and clinical data were statistically compared to test for differences in effect magnitude. The analysed results were further investigated within the context of potential influencing or confounding factors using a Directed acyclic graph. Results Of the accepted eight laboratory and nine clinical trials, 13 and 21 datasets could be extracted, respectively. The pooled results of the laboratory datasets were highly statistically significant in favor of amalgam. No statistically significant differences, between HVGICs and amalgam, were identified for clinical data. For effect magnitude, statistically significant differences between clinical and laboratory trial results were found. Both null-hypotheses were rejected. Conclusion Laboratory results concerning high-viscosity glass-ionomers versus amalgam for tooth restorations do not indicate similar effect direction and magnitude than that of controlled clinical trials. PMID:26168274

  8. Exploring similarities among many species distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmerman, Scott; Wang, Jingyuan; Osborne, James; Shook, Kimberly; Huang, Jian; Godsoe, William; Simons, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    Collecting species presence data and then building models to predict species distribution has been long practiced in the field of ecology for the purpose of improving our understanding of species relationships with each other and with the environment. Due to limitations of computing power as well as limited means of using modeling software on HPC facilities, past species distribution studies have been unable to fully explore diverse data sets. We build a system that can, for the first time to our knowledge, leverage HPC to support effective exploration of species similarities in distribution as well as their dependencies on common environmental conditions. Our system can also compute and reveal uncertainties in the modeling results enabling domain experts to make informed judgments about the data. Our work was motivated by and centered around data collection efforts within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park that date back to the 1940s. Our findings present new research opportunities in ecology and produce actionable field-work items for biodiversity management personnel to include in their planning of daily management activities.

  9. Comparison of hydrological similarity measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rianna, Maura; Ridolfi, Elena; Manciola, Piergiorgio; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The use of a traditional at site approach for the statistical characterization and simulation of spatio-temporal precipitation fields has a major recognized drawback. Indeed, the weakness of the methodology is related to the estimation of rare events and it involves the uncertainty of the at-site sample statistical inference, because of the limited length of records. In order to overcome the lack of at-site observations, regional frequency approach uses the idea of substituting space for time to estimate design floods. The conventional regional frequency analysis estimates quantile values at a specific site from multi-site analysis. The main idea is that homogeneous sites, once pooled together, have similar probability distribution curves of extremes, except for a scaling factor. The method for pooling groups of sites can be based on geographical or climatological considerations. In this work the region of influence (ROI) pooling method is compared with an entropy-based one. The ROI is a flexible pooling group approach which defines for each site its own "region" formed by a unique set of similar stations. The similarity is found through the Euclidean distance metric in the attribute space. Here an alternative approach based on entropy is introduced to cluster homogeneous sites. The core idea is that homogeneous sites share a redundant (i.e. similar) amount of information. Homogeneous sites are pooled through a hierarchical selection based on the mutual information index (i.e. a measure of redundancy). The method is tested on precipitation data in Central Italy area.

  10. What Difference Reveals about Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagi, Eyal; Gentner, Dedre; Lovett, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe "how" two images differ--that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises…

  11. 76 FR 56213 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects... Effects Declaration (CBP Form 1304). This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork... concerning the following information collection: Title: Crew's Effects Declaration. OMB Number:...

  12. What causes similarity in catchments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    One of the biggest issues in hydrology is how to handle the heterogeneity of catchment properties at different scales. But is this really such a big issue? Is this problem not merely the consequence of how we conceptualise and how we model catchments? Is there not far more similarity than we observe. Maybe we are not looking at the right things or at the right scale to see the similarity. The identity of catchments is largely determined by: the landscape, the ecosystem living on the landscape, and the geology, in that order. Soils, which are often seen as a crucial aspect of hydrological behaviour, are far less important, as will be demonstrated. The main determinants of hydrological behaviour are: the landscape composition, the rooting depth and the phenology. These determinants are a consequence of landscape and ecosystem evolution, which, in turn, are the manifestations of entropy production. There are striking similarities between catchments. The different runoff processes from hillslopes are linked and similar in different environments (McDonnell, 2013). Wetlands behave similarly all over the world. The key is to classify landscapes and to link the ecosystems living on them to climate. The ecosystem then is the main controller of hydrological behaviour. Besides phenology, the rooting depth is key in determining runoff behaviour. Both are strongly linked to climate and much less to soil properties. An example is given of how rooting depth is determined by climate, and how rooting depth can be predicted without calibration, providing a strong constraints on the prediction of rainfall partitioning and catchment runoff.

  13. Modelling the Effects of Ageing Time of Starch on the Enzymatic Activity of Three Amylolytic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Nelson P.; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of increasing ageing time (t) of starch on the activity of three amylolytic enzymes (Termamyl, San Super, and BAN) was investigated. Although all the enzymatic reactions follow michaelian kinetics, vmax decreased significantly (P < 0.05) and KM increased (although not always significantly) with the increase in t. The conformational changes produced in the starch chains as a consequence of the ageing seemed to affect negatively the diffusivity of the starch to the active site of the enzymes and the release of the reaction products to the medium. A similar effect was observed when the enzymatic reactions were carried out with unaged starches supplemented with different concentrations of gelatine [G]. The inhibition in the amylolytic activities was best mathematically described by using three modified forms of the Michaelis-Menten model, which included a term to consider, respectively, the linear, exponential, and hyperbolic inhibitory effects of t and [G]. PMID:22666116

  14. Energy effective approach for activation of metallurgical slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, I. N.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mamulat, S. L.; Suvorov, D. S.; Saltikova, Y. S.; Yudin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of the process of mechanical activation of metallurgical slag using different approaches - ball milling and electromagnetic vortex apparatus. Particle size distribution and structure of mechanically activated slag samples were investigated, as well as energetic parameters of the activation process. It was shown that electromagnetic vortex activation is more energy effective and allows to produce microscale milled slag-based concrete using very short treatment time. Activated slag materials can be used as clinker-free cement in civilian and road construction, providing ecology-friendly technology and recycling of high-tonnage industrial waste.

  15. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories.

  16. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  17. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  18. Effects of urine composition on epithelial Na+ channel-targeted protease activity

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Jonathan M; Awayda, Ryan G; Awayda, Mouhamed S

    2015-01-01

    We examined human urinary proteolytic activity toward the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC). We focused on two sites in each of alpha and gamma ENaC that are targets of endogenous and exogenous proteases. We examined the effects of ionic strength, pH and urinary H+-buffers, metabolic intermediates, redox molecules, and large urinary proteins. Monoatomic cations caused the largest effect, with sodium inhibiting activity in the 15–515 mEq range. Multivalent cations zinc and copper inhibited urinary proteolytic activity at concentrations below 100 μmol/L. Similar to sodium, urea caused a 30% inhibition in the 0–500 mmol/L range. This was not observed with acetone and ethanol. Modulating urinary redox status modified activity with H2O2 stimulated and ascorbate inhibited activity. Minimal effects (<10%) were observed with caffeine, glucose, several TCA cycle intermediates, salicylic acid, inorganic phosphate, albumin, creatinine, and Tamm–Horsfall protein. The cumulative activity of ENaC-cleaving proteases was highest at neutral pH, however, alpha and gamma proteases exhibited an inverse dependence with alpha stimulated at acidic and gamma stimulated at alkaline pH. These data indicate that ENaC-targeting urinary proteolytic activity is sensitive to sodium, urea and pH and changes in these components can modify channel cleavage and activation status, and likely downstream sodium absorption unrelated to changes in protein or channel density. PMID:26564065

  19. Effects of urine composition on epithelial Na+ channel-targeted protease activity.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jonathan M; Awayda, Ryan G; Awayda, Mouhamed S

    2015-11-01

    We examined human urinary proteolytic activity toward the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC). We focused on two sites in each of alpha and gamma ENaC that are targets of endogenous and exogenous proteases. We examined the effects of ionic strength, pH and urinary H(+)-buffers, metabolic intermediates, redox molecules, and large urinary proteins. Monoatomic cations caused the largest effect, with sodium inhibiting activity in the 15-515 mEq range. Multivalent cations zinc and copper inhibited urinary proteolytic activity at concentrations below 100 μmol/L. Similar to sodium, urea caused a 30% inhibition in the 0-500 mmol/L range. This was not observed with acetone and ethanol. Modulating urinary redox status modified activity with H2O2 stimulated and ascorbate inhibited activity. Minimal effects (<10%) were observed with caffeine, glucose, several TCA cycle intermediates, salicylic acid, inorganic phosphate, albumin, creatinine, and Tamm-Horsfall protein. The cumulative activity of ENaC-cleaving proteases was highest at neutral pH, however, alpha and gamma proteases exhibited an inverse dependence with alpha stimulated at acidic and gamma stimulated at alkaline pH. These data indicate that ENaC-targeting urinary proteolytic activity is sensitive to sodium, urea and pH and changes in these components can modify channel cleavage and activation status, and likely downstream sodium absorption unrelated to changes in protein or channel density. PMID:26564065

  20. Effects of swimming activity on the copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats.

    PubMed

    Allouh, M Z

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has long been associated with better sexual function. This study investigated the effects of moderate swimming exercise on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats. Two sets of sexually potent male rats -highly active and moderately active- were identified depending on baseline sexual activity. Each of the two sets of rats was further randomly divided into two groups (swimming and sedentary). There were 16 rats in each of the four study groups (highly active swimming, highly active sedentary, moderately active swimming and moderately active sedentary). The copulatory behavior parameters and serum testosterone levels were measured and compared between the rats of the swimming and sedentary groups following a month long training period in which rats were made to swim for 1 h every alternate day. Swimming significantly improved the sexual performance of highly active rats, as indicated by increased intromission frequency and intromission ratio, compared with the sedentary controls. Swimming improved both sexual desire and performance, as indicated by reduced mount latency and increased intromission ratio, respectively, in swimming moderately active rats compared with the sedentary moderately active controls. Therefore, swimming activity improves the copulatory behavior of both highly active and moderately active male rats.