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  1. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  2. Cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption: relationship to blood lipids and lipoproteins in premenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Stamford, B A; Matter, S; Fell, R D; Sady, S; Cresanta, M K; Papanek, P

    1984-07-01

    A total of 164 premenopausal female subjects were randomly selected for evaluation from a much larger pool of volunteers. The relationships between blood lipid and lipoprotein levels as dependent variables and cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption were determined from partial regression coefficients. A lower HDL-C level (10.1 mg/dL) was seen in smokers v nonsmokers. For each ounce of alcohol consumed, HDL-C level was higher by 2.8 mg/dL, and greater physical activity was associated with a higher HDL-C level of 8.6 mg/dL. An analysis of covariance with covariance adjustments for age and body fat revealed that smokers who regularly exercise or consume alcohol had significantly lower HDL-C levels than nonsmokers with similar habits. Subjects who both exercise and consume alcohol demonstrated higher HDL-C levels than those who indulge in one or the other separately. Results suggest that cigarette smoking may attenuate the effects of chronic exercise or alcohol consumption, or of both, to raise HDL-C levels. Also, chronic exercise and alcohol consumption may exert an additive effect, raising HDL-C level.

  3. Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity, Protein, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prospective Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Min Soo; Han, Jun Hyun; Shin, Tae Young; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Sang Kon; Lee, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate risk factors for deterioration of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly men in a community-based, prospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods: In a suburban area in Korea, 1,514 subjects aged ≥45 years were randomly selected by systematic sampling. A total of 918 elderly subjects were enrolled in this in-depth clinical study in 2004. Of these, 547 participants were followed up for 3 years and the data was analyzed in 2014. Standard questionnaires were administered face-to-face by trained interviewers. After excluding women, 224 male participants with complete data including transrectal ultrasonography were included in the final analysis. LUTS were diagnosed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Symptom deterioration was defined as a score of ≥8 points during the 3-year follow-up period. Results: LUTS prevalence increased to 13.1% and the mean IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. After adjusting for confounders, a smoking history of ≥50 pack-years was an independent risk factor for deterioration of LUTS and storage subsymptoms compared with no history of smoking (3.1 and 5.1 odds, respectively). Physical activity had a protective effect on voiding subsymptoms. However, high protein diet and alcohol intake were not associated with LUTS deterioration. Conclusions: The LUTS prevalence among elderly men living in a suburban area increased to 13.1% and the IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. A history of heavy smoking, low physical activity, and high protein intake were associated with LUTS deterioration. However, there was no significant association between alcohol intake and LUTS deterioration. PMID:26620903

  4. GPX1 Pro(198)Leu polymorphism, erythrocyte GPX activity, interaction with alcohol consumption and smoking, and risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Rikke Dalgaard; Krath, Britta Naimi; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Loft, Steffen; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Vogel, Ulla; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2009-05-12

    GPX1 encoding the enzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and hOGG1 encoding the 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1) may counteract oxidative stress and resulting DNA damage associated with lifestyle-related exposures. We examined whether the polymorphisms GPX1 Pro(198)Leu and OGG1 Ser(326)Cys or low erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity in pre-diagnostic blood samples are associated with colorectal cancer risk, and assessed possible interactions between the polymorphisms or enzyme activity and various lifestyle factors in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Additionally, we studied whether the GPX1 Pro(198)Leu polymorphism and several lifestyle factors predict GPX activity in erythrocytes. The present study was nested within the prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" study of 57,053 Danes including 375 colorectal cancer cases and a comparison group of 779 individuals matched on gender. Biomaterial was sampled and information on lifestyle factors was obtained from questionnaires filled in at enrolment in 1993-1997. GPX1 Pro(198)Leu, hOGG1 Ser(326)Cys and erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity were not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We observed a higher risk associated with alcohol consumption and smoking among homozygous GPX1(198)Leu carriers, with incidence rate ratios for colorectal cancer of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.17-1.81, P=0.02) per 10g alcohol intake per day and 2.56 (95% CI: 0.99-6.61, P=0.02) among ever smokers compared with never smokers at enrolment. Erythrocyte GPX activity was influenced by the GPX1 Pro(198)Leu genotype, gender, smoking intensity, and intake of fruits and vegetables. Our results indicate that lifestyle-related oxidative stress may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer among subjects with a lowered defence.

  5. Measured Effect of Sexual Activities, Alcohol Consumption, Smoking and Aggression on Health Risk of Students in Rural Communities in Ikenne, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…

  6. Coffee, Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity and QT Interval Duration: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2011-01-01

    Background Abnormalities in the electrocardiographic QT interval duration have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the effect of modifiable factors such as coffee intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on QT interval duration. Methods We studied 7795 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994). Baseline QT interval was measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Coffee and tea intake, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activities over the past month, and lifetime smoking habits were determined using validated questionnaires during the home interview. Results In the fully adjusted model, the average differences in QT interval comparing participants drinking ≥6 cups/day to those who did not drink any were −1.2 ms (95% CI −4.4 to 2.0) for coffee, and −2.0 ms (−11.2 to 7.3) for tea, respectively. The average differences in QT interval duration comparing current to never smokers was 1.2 ms (−0.6 to 2.9) while the average difference in QT interval duration comparing participants drinking ≥7 drinks/week to non-drinkers was 1.8 ms (−0.5 to 4.0). The age, race/ethnicity, and RR-interval adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing men with binge drinking episodes to non-drinkers or drinkers without binge drinking were 2.8 ms (0.4 to 5.3) and 4.0 ms (1.6 to 6.4), respectively. The corresponding differences in women were 1.1 (−2.9 to 5.2) and 1.7 ms (−2.3 to 5.7). Finally, the average differences in QT interval comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of total physical activity was −0.8 ms (−3.0 to 1.4). Conclusion Binge drinking was associated with longer QT interval in men but not in women. QT interval duration was not associated with other modifiable factors including coffee and tea intake, smoking, and physical activity. PMID

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Urges to Smoke among Women during a Smoking Cessation Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Businelle, Michael S.; Lam, Cho Y.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; McClure, Jennifer B.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory and ad libitum smoking studies have indicated that alcohol consumption increases the frequency and intensity of smoking urges. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking urges and alcohol use in natural settings during a quit attempt. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smoking urge and alcohol use in women who reported drinking on at least one occasion during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt (N = 134). Participants were asked to use a palmtop computer to complete assessments that recorded smoking urges and recent alcohol use. Multilevel analyses examined the relation between smoking urge parameters and alcohol use. Smoking urges were higher during assessments where alcohol had been recently consumed compared to assessments where no alcohol had been consumed. Interestingly, the first urge rating of the day was higher and urges were more volatile on days where alcohol would eventually be consumed as compared to days where no alcohol was consumed. A closer examination of urge parameters on drinking days indicated that smoking urge trajectory was significantly flatter and urge volatility was significantly higher following alcohol consumption. However, smoking urge trajectory also flattened later in the day on nondrinking days. The findings suggest that there may be reciprocal relations between smoking urge and alcohol use (e.g., higher initial urges and more volatile urges may increase the likelihood of alcohol use; and, alcohol use may impact within day smoking urge parameters), and these relations could potentially impact smoking cessation and relapse. PMID:23379613

  8. Interrelationship between alcohol, smoking, acetaldehyde and cancer.

    PubMed

    Salaspuro, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    In industrialized countries alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors of upper digestive tract cancer. With regard to the pathogenesis of these cancers, there is strong epidemiological, biochemical and genetic evidence supporting the role of the first metabolite of alcohol oxidation--acetaldehyde--as a common denominator. Alcohol is metabolized to acetaldehyde locally in the oral cavity by microbes representing normal oral flora. Poor oral hygiene, heavy drinking and chronic smoking modify oral flora to produce more acetaldehyde from ingested alcohol. Also, tobacco smoke contains acetaldehyde, which during smoking becomes dissolved in saliva. Via swallowing, salivary acetaldehyde of either origin is distributed from oral cavity to pharynx, oesophagus and stomach. Strongest evidence for the local carcinogenic action of acetaldehyde provides studies with ALDH2-deficient Asian drinkers, who form an exceptional human model for long-term acetaldehyde exposure. After drinking alcohol they have an increased concentration of acetaldehyde in their saliva and this is associated with over 10-fold risk of upper digestive tract cancers. In conclusion, acetaldehyde derived either from ethanol or tobacco appears to act in the upper digestive tract as a local carcinogen in a dose-dependent and synergistic way.

  9. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Unhealthy Patterns of Food Consumption, Physical Activity, Sleep Impairment, and Alcohol Drinking in Chinese Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Christopher; Li, Yawen; Tanenbaum, Hilary; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Palmer, Paula H.; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objectives According to a recent national survey, tobacco use is a critical public health issue in China, with more than two thirds of Chinese males smoking. Findings in Western populations suggest that smoking may cluster with other health-risk behaviors. To explore these relationships in Chinese male adults, we utilized baseline data from the China Seven Cities Study (CSCS). Methods Male adults (N=12,122) were included. Smoking status was defined as never smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and current heavy smokers. Logistic regression was employed to investigate the association of cigarette smoking and patterns of food consumption, physical activity, and alcohol drinking. Results After controlling for age, socioeconomic status, and city residence, heavy smokers consumed significantly less vegetables, fruits, milk and other dairy products, spent significantly more time watching television, slept and exercised less, and got drunk or engaged in binge drinking more frequently compared to never, ex, or current smokers (p<0.05). Conclusion Findings suggest significant associations of heavy cigarette smoking with other health-risk behaviors in Chinese male adults, underscoring the need for tobacco control interventions for Chinese males. PMID:26321106

  10. Telomere shortening unrelated to smoking, body weight, physical activity, and alcohol intake: 4,576 general population individuals with repeat measurements 10 years apart.

    PubMed

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77)), current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3)), increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14)), physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17)), but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10). At the second examination 10 years later, 56% of participants had lost and 44% gained telomere length with a mean loss of 193 basepairs. Change in leukocyte telomere length during 10 years was associated inversely with baseline telomere length (P<1 × 10(-300)) and age at baseline (P = 1 × 10(-27)), but not with baseline or 10-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake was associated with neither. Also, change in telomere length did not associate prospectively with mortality or morbidity in the general population.

  11. Effects of Alcoholism Severity and Smoking on Executive Neurocognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Glass, J.M.; Buu, A.; Adams, K.M.; Nigg, J.T.; Puttler, L.I.; Jester, J.M.; Zucker, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Neurocognitive deficits in chronic alcoholic men are well documented and include impairments in memory, visual-spatial processing, problem solving and executive function. The cause of these deficits is unclear, but could include direct effects of alcohol toxicity, pre-existing cognitive deficits that may predispose towards substance abuse, comorbid psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression) and comorbid abuse of substances other than alcohol. For example, cigarette smoking occurs at a much higher rate among persons with alcoholism and has been linked to poor cognitive performance. Until recently, the negative effects of smoking on cognitive function in alcoholism have been ignored. Methods The effects of alcoholism and smoking are examined in a community recruited sample of alcoholic and non-alcoholic men (N=240) using standard neuropsychological measures and reaction-time measures of executive function. Alcoholism severity was measured as an average of alcoholism diagnoses across the study duration (12 yrs). Smoking was measured in pack-years. Results Both alcoholism and smoking were negatively correlated with a composite executive function score. For component measures, alcoholism was negatively correlated with a broad range of measures, whereas smoking was negatively correlated with measures that emphasize response speed. In regression analyses, both smoking and alcoholism are significant predictors of executive function composite. However; when IQ is included in the regression analyses, alcoholism severity is no longer a significant predictor. Conclusions Both smoking and alcoholism were related to executive function. However, the effect of alcoholism on EF was not independent of IQ, suggesting that the alcoholism effect was generalized, perhaps affecting a wide range of cognitive abilities of which executive function is a component. On the other hand, the effect of smoking on measures relying on response speed were independent of IQ, suggesting a more

  12. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate

  13. [Assessment of selected features of the lifestyle being conduicive to the state of health of 16-18 year old girls. Part I. Dieting, physical activity, smoking and drinking alcohol].

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Ewa; Zechałko-Czajkowska, Alicja; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze health attitude of 409 16-18 year old girls from Wrocław in three areas: physical activity, dieting, and smoking and alcohol use. Research indicated different levels of underweight among 17.4% of girls, overweight and obesity among 11.2% of girls, and inappropriate level of physical activity among 60% of girls. Negative self-evaluation of own appearance among 50% of girls contributed to dieting among 32% of girls. Studies indicated as well that 49% of girls smoke, and 89% of girls drink alcohol occasionally or every week.

  14. Cigarette smoking: an independent risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Talamini, G; Bassi, C; Falconi, M; Frulloni, L; Di Francesco, V; Vaona, B; Bovo, P; Rigo, L; Castagnini, A; Angelini, G; Vantini, I; Pederzoli, P; Cavallini, G

    1996-03-01

    It is not known whether cigarette smoking plays a role as a risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to compare drinking and smoking habits in three groups of male subjects with an alcohol intake in excess of 40 g/day: (i) 67 patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis, without other known potential causative agents; (ii) 396 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis; and (iii) 265 control subjects randomly selected from the Verona polling lists and submitted to a complete medical checkup. The variables considered were age at onset of disease, years of drinking and smoking, daily alcohol intake in grams, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and body mass index (BMI). Cases differed from controls in daily grams of alcohol, number of cigarettes smoked and BMI (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.00001 for each comparison). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, comparing acute and chronic cases, respectively, versus controls, revealed an increased relative risk of pancreatitis in the two comparisons, associated in both cases with a higher alcohol intake (p < 0.00001) and cigarette smoking (p < 0.00001). No significant interaction between alcohol and smoking was noted, indicating that the two risks are independent. In conclusion, in males a higher number of cigarettes smoked daily seems to be a distinct risk factor in acute and chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.

  15. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: opportunities for lifestyle modification.

    PubMed

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-09-15

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0-9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week(-1) (IQR 15-35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as "working" occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03-3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as "managerial or professional." Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29-4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes.

  16. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  17. Evidence of genotoxicity in lymphocytes of non-smoking alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Santovito, Alfredo; Cervella, Piero; Delpero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant public health issue. Epidemiological studies conducted on different populations consistently showed that consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with cytogenetic damages and higher risk for several types of cancer. However, the interpretation of many cytogenetic studies resulted complicated because some confounding factors, such as smoking habit, are not always taken into account. In the present study, the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosome aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MNs) in cultured human lymphocytes was assessed on 15 alcoholic and 15 non-alcoholic control male subjects. Moreover, considering the implication of the Glutathione S-transferases gene polymorphisms in the genetic susceptibility to alcoholic liver diseases, we considered an important issue to evaluate the relationship between these gene polymorphisms and the cytogenetic damage. In our sample we exclusively considered individuals that did not smoke nor consume drugs for a period of at least 2 years prior to the analysis. Statistically significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in the frequency of SCEs/cell (P = 0.001), RI value (P = 0.001), CAs (P = 0.002) and CAB (P = 0.002). Vice versa, no significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in terms of MNs frequency and CBPI value. In both samples, no statistically significant association was found between the analysed GSTs gene polymorphisms and the frequencies of MNs, SCEs and CAs. Finally, among alcoholics we found a positive correlation between SCEs and CAs frequencies and the duration of alcohol abuse.

  18. Length of smoking deprivation moderates the effects of alcohol administration on urge to smoke

    PubMed Central

    Day, Anne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Spillane, Nichea S.; Metrik, Jane; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2014-01-01

    Although smoking deprivation is often used in laboratory studies to induce urges to smoke cigarettes, the optimal length of deprivation has not been established. Previous research showed that overnight abstinence from cigarettes led to high baseline urge to smoke that potentially masked alcohol’s acute effects on urge to smoke (Kahler et al., 2012). The current study examined whether alcohol’s effects on smoking urge were more pronounced when a shorter length of smoking deprivation was used (i.e., 3 hour instead of overnight abstinence). Using a balanced placebo design for alcohol administration, we found that participants experienced a significant increase in self-reported urge to smoke when administered alcohol after a 3-hour smoking deprivation (N=32), whereas this effect was smaller and nonsignificant when smokers were required to be abstinent overnight (N = 96). Research on factors that heighten smoking urges may find stronger effects if a 3-hour deprivation is used compared to using overnight abstinence. PMID:24556154

  19. Effects of smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption on smoking-related outcome expectancies in heavy smokers and tobacco chippers

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Thomas R.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation interventions often target expectancies about the consequences of smoking. Yet little is known about the way smoking-related expectancies vary across different contexts. Two internal contexts that are often linked with smoking relapse are states associated with smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption. This report presents a secondary analysis of data from two experiments designed to examine the influence of smoking abstinence, and smoking abstinence combined with alcohol consumption, on smoking-related outcome expectancies among heavy smokers and tobacco chippers (smokers who had consistently smoked no more than 5 cigarettes/day for at least 2 years). Across both experiments, smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption increased expectancies of positive reinforcement from smoking. In addition, alcohol consumption increased negative reinforcement expectancies among tobacco chippers, such that the expectancies became more similar to those of heavy smokers as tobacco chippers’ level of subjective alcohol intoxication increased. Findings suggest that these altered states influence the way smokers evaluate the consequences of smoking, and provide insight into the link between smoking abstinence, alcohol consumption, and smoking behavior. PMID:17365768

  20. Smoking, alcoholism and genetic polymorphisms alter CYP2B6 levels in human brain.

    PubMed

    Miksys, Sharon; Lerman, Caryn; Shields, Peter G; Mash, Deborah C; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2003-07-01

    CYP2B6 metabolizes drugs such as nicotine and bupropion, and many toxins and carcinogens. Nicotine induces CYP2B1 in rat brain and in humans polymorphic variation in CYP2B6 affects smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to compare CYP2B6 expression in brains of human smokers and non-smokers and alcoholics and non-alcoholics (n=26). CYP2B6 expression was brain region-specific, and was observed in both neurons and astrocytes. CYP2B6 levels were higher in brains of smokers and alcoholics, particularly in cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, cells known to be damaged in alcoholics. Significantly more (p<0.05) CYP2B6 protein was seen in four brain regions of smoking alcoholics compared to non-smoking non-alcoholics: hippocampus (5.8-fold), caudate nucleus (3.3-fold), putamen (3.0-fold) and cerebellar hemisphere (1.6-fold). The genetic variant C1459T (R487C) has been associated with reduced hepatic enzyme levels, stability and activity. Preliminary genotyping of this small sample (n=24) suggested that individuals with the CC genotype had higher brain CYP2B6 than those with the CT or TT genotype. Higher brain CYP2B6 activity in smokers and alcoholics may cause altered sensitivity to centrally acting drugs, increased susceptibility to neurotoxins and carcinogenic xenobiotics and contribute to central tolerance to nicotine.

  1. 8-year trends in physical activity, nutrition, TV viewing time, smoking, alcohol and BMI: A comparison of younger and older Queensland adults

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Mitch J.; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L.; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviours significantly contribute to high levels of chronic disease in older adults. The aims of the study were to compare the prevalence and the prevalence trends of health behaviours (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, fast food consumption, TV viewing, smoking and alcohol consumption), BMI and a summary health behaviour indicator score in older (65+ years) versus younger adults (18–65 years). The self-report outcomes were assessed through the Queensland Social Survey annually between 2007–2014 (n = 12,552). Regression analyses were conducted to compare the proportion of older versus younger adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight in all years combined and examine trends in the proportion of younger and older adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight over time. Older adults were more likely to meet recommended intakes of fruit and vegetable (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.23–1.67), not consume fast food (OR = 2.54, 95%CI = 2.25–2.86) and be non-smokers (OR = 3.02, 95%CI = 2.53–3.60) in comparison to younger adults. Conversely, older adults were less likely to meet the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.78–0.95) and watch less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.58–0.74). Overall, older adults were more likely to report engaging in 3, or at least 4 out of 5 healthy behaviours. The proportion of both older and younger adults meeting the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.95–0.98 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.91–0.97 respectively), watching less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.99 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.90–0.99 respectively) and who were a healthy weight (OR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.92–0.99 and OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.98 respectively) decreased over time. The proportion of older adults meeting the fruit and vegetable recommendations (OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.84–0.96) and not consuming fast food (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0

  2. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and susceptibility to the common cold.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, S; Tyrrell, D A; Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Smith, A P

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study was conducted to test the supposition that both smoking and consuming alcohol suppress host resistance to viral infections. METHODS. The relations between smoking, alcohol consumption, and the incidence of documented clinical colds were prospectively studied among 391 subjects intentionally exposed to one of five respiratory viruses and 26 subjects given saline. Clinical colds were defined as clinical symptoms verified by the isolation of virus or by an increase in virus-specific antibody titer. Analyses included control variables for demographics; body weight; virus; and environmental, immunological and psychological factors. RESULTS. Smokers were at greater risk for developing colds than nonsmokers because smokers were more likely both to develop infections and to develop illness following infection. Greater numbers of alcoholic drinks (up to three or four per day) were associated with decreased risk for developing colds because drinking was associated with decreased illness following infection. However, the benefits of drinking occurred only among nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS. Susceptibility to colds was increased by smoking. Although alcohol consumption did not influence risk of clinical illness for smokers, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with decreased risk for nonsmokers. PMID:8363004

  3. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role.

  4. Working Memory Moderates the Association Between Smoking Urge and Smoking Lapse Behavior After Alcohol Administration in a Laboratory Analogue Task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lapses after smoking cessation often occur in the context of alcohol use, possibly because alcohol increases urge to smoke. Poor working memory, or alcohol-induced decrements in working memory, may influence this relationship by making it more difficult for an individual to resist smoking in the face of smoking urges. Methods: Participants (n = 41) completed measures of working memory and urge to smoke before and after alcohol administration (placebo, 0.4g/kg, and 0.8g/kg, within subjects) and then participated in a laboratory analogue task in which smoking abstinence was monetarily incentivized. Results: Working memory moderated the relationship between smoking urge and latency to smoke: for those with relatively poorer working memory, urge to smoke was more strongly and negatively associated with latency to smoke (i.e., higher urges were associated with shorter latency). Conclusions: Those with weak working memory may need additional forms of treatment to help them withstand smoking urges. PMID:25481913

  5. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking: effect on pregnancy.

    PubMed

    King, J C; Fabro, S

    1983-06-01

    Both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy remain an important concern for the practicing obstetrician, who should provide current information on the potential detrimental effects of these habits. There appears to be a wide spectrum of fetal phenotypic response to the effects of alcohol. This phenotypic variability may be partially explained by the dose, timing, and pattern of gestational exposure, the metabolism of mother or fetus, or other environmental and genetic factors. At the most severe end of the spectrum are infants with the unique combination of anomalies termed the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The abnormalities most typically associated with alcohol teratogenicity can be grouped into 4 categories: central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions; growth deficiencies; a characteristic cluster of facial abnormalites, and variable major and minor malformations. To make a diagnosis of fullblown FAS, abnormalities in all 4 categories must be present. Along the continuum toward normal are infants with various combinations of FAS anomalies. One of the most common and serious defects associated with ethanol teratogenicity is mental retardation. Recent evidence supports the concept of a prenatal origin to the problem. At birth infants with FAS are deficient for both length and weight, usually at or below the 3rd percentile for both parameters. Growth and mental deficiency are seen in many conditions, but the rather striking facial appearance of children with FAS secures the diagnosis. The characteristic face in small children includes short palpebral fissures, short upturned nose, hypoplastic philtrum, hypoplastic maxilla, and thinned upper vermilion. A table lists the variety of malformations that may be found in other organ systems in patients with FAS. The likelihood of miscarriage increases directly with alcohol consumption. Risk of abortion is twice as high in women consuming 1 ounce of absolute alcohol (AA) as infrequently as twice a week

  6. The Synergistic Impact of Excessive Alcohol Drinking and Cigarette Smoking upon Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Anna-Marie; Heffernan, Thomas; Hamilton, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The independent use of excessive amounts of alcohol or persistent cigarette smoking have been found to have a deleterious impact upon Prospective Memory (PM: remembering future intentions and activities), although to date, the effect of their concurrent use upon PM is yet to be explored. The present study investigated the impact of the concurrent use of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol and smoking cigarettes (a “Polydrug” group) in comparison to the combined effect of the single use of these substances upon PM. The study adopted a single factorial independent groups design. The Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT) is a test of both time-based and event-based PM and was used here to measure PM. The CAMPROMPT was administered to 125 adults; an excessive alcohol user group (n = 40), a group of smokers who drink very little alcohol (n = 20), a combined user group (the “Polydrug” group) who drink excessively and smoke cigarettes (n = 40) and a non-drinker/low alcohol consumption control group (n = 25). The main findings revealed that the Polydrug users recalled significantly fewer time-based PM tasks than both excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. Polydrug users (mean = 11.47) also remembered significantly fewer event-based PM tasks than excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. With regards to the main aim of the study, the polydrug users exhibited significantly greater impaired time-based PM than the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers p = 0.033. However, no difference was observed between polydrug users and the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers in event-based PM p = 0.757. These results provide evidence that concurrent (polydrug) use of these two substances has a synergistic effect in terms of deficits upon time-based PM. The observation that combined excessive drinking and cigarette smoking

  7. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  8. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (p<0.05). The association between conscientiousness and continued alcohol consumption was partly explained by both anxiety and depressive symptoms. No associations between personality and continued smoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  9. The role of anti-smoking legislation on cigarette and alcohol consumption habits in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Luca; Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca

    2013-07-01

    The short-term effects of public smoking bans on individual smoking and drinking habits were investigated in this paper. In 2005, a smoking ban was introduced in Italy, and we exploited this exogenous variation to measure the effect on both smoking participation and intensity and the indirect effect on alcohol consumption. Using data from the Everyday Life Aspects survey, for the period 2001-2007, we show that the introduction of smoke-free legislation in Italy significantly affected smoking behavior. We also document significant indirect effects on alcohol consumption for the main alcoholic beverage categories. A robustness analysis is also performed, to test the extent to which unobservable variables may bias our estimated parameters. Our results are then used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the anti-smoking legislation in Italy.

  10. CONTRASTING BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE AND CHRONIC SMOKING IN DETOXIFIED ALCOHOLICS

    PubMed Central

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background Current literature suggests that acute nicotine administration provides a compensatory mechanism by which alcoholics might alleviate attentional deficits. In contrast, chronic smoking is increasingly recognized as negatively affecting neurobehavioral integrity. These opposing effects have not been simultaneously examined. Thus, we sought to a) extend previous work by exploring the effects of acute nicotine effects on vigilance components of attention and replicate previous findings suggesting that treatment-seeking alcoholics experience benefit to a greater extent than do other groups; and b) to examine the impact of chronic smoking on these tasks and across subgroups. Methods Substance abusing participants (N=86) were recruited and subgrouped on the basis of dependency criteria as either alcoholics, alcoholics with co-morbid stimulant dependence, or stimulant dependent individuals. Groups of cigarette-smoking (N=17) and non-smoking (N=22) community controls were recruited as comparison groups. Smoking subjects were assigned a placebo, low, or high dose nicotine patch in a double-blind placebo controlled fashion. Non-smoking controls were administered either a placebo or low dose. Testing occurred after dose stabilization. Results General linear models indicated greater sensitivity to acute nicotine administration among alcoholics than other groups when controlling for the effect of intensity of smoking history, as reflected by pack-years. Pack-years correlated negatively with performance measures in alcoholics but not stimulant abusing subgroups or smoking controls. Finally, regression analyses demonstrated that pack-years predicted poorer performance only for the alcoholic subgroup. Conclusions These results support previous work finding a compensatory effect of acute nicotine administration on attentional performance in alcoholics and reinforce the consideration of recent nicotine use as a confound in neurocognitive studies of alcoholics. Of

  11. Tobacco smoking interferes with GABAA receptor neuroadaptations during prolonged alcohol withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Kelly P.; McKay, Reese; Esterlis, Irina; Kloczynski, Tracy; Perkins, Evgenia; Bois, Frederic; Pittman, Brian; Lancaster, Jack; Glahn, David C.; O’Malley, Stephanie; Carson, Richard E.; Krystal, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of tobacco smoking on neuroadaptations in GABAA receptor levels over alcohol withdrawal will provide critical insights for the treatment of comorbid alcohol and nicotine dependence. We conducted parallel studies in human subjects and nonhuman primates to investigate the differential effects of tobacco smoking and nicotine on changes in GABAA receptor availability during acute and prolonged alcohol withdrawal. We report that alcohol withdrawal with or without concurrent tobacco smoking/nicotine consumption resulted in significant and robust elevations in GABAA receptor levels over the first week of withdrawal. Over prolonged withdrawal, GABAA receptors returned to control levels in alcohol-dependent nonsmokers, but alcohol-dependent smokers had significant and sustained elevations in GABAA receptors that were associated with craving for alcohol and cigarettes. In nonhuman primates, GABAA receptor levels normalized by 1 mo of abstinence in both groups—that is, those that consumed alcohol alone or the combination of alcohol and nicotine. These data suggest that constituents in tobacco smoke other than nicotine block the recovery of GABAA receptor systems during sustained alcohol abstinence, contributing to alcohol relapse and the perpetuation of smoking. PMID:25453062

  12. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  13. Effect of alcohol intake and cigarette smoking on sperm parameters and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A M E; Menkveld, R; Lens, J W; Nienhuis, S E; Rhemrev, J P T

    2014-03-01

    Much has been published about smoking and alcohol intake influencing male fertility, sperm parameters and reproductive outcome. However, there is no conclusive agreement about the effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol use on these outcomes and thus no generally accepted guidelines. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol intake, though, has not been rigorously investigated. Because alcohol consumption and smoking are often seen together, this study focuses on the effect of smoking and drinking habits separately and combined on semen parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology, and on pregnancy outcome. These suggested toxic effects are studied in a group of subfertile, asthenozoospermic men (<10% motile spermatozoa), compared with a group of 'proven fertile', healthy men. The extreme asthenozoospermic group has especially been chosen because of the suspected effect, that is, oxidative stress, on sperm motility. In our study, we found that cigarette smoking and alcohol intake did not differ between the subfertile and fertile group. In conclusion, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption do not appear to significantly affect sperm parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology or pregnancy outcome in our study population.

  14. Smoke-free Policy and Alcohol Use among Undergraduate College Students

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Karen M.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J.; Adkins, Sarah M.; Staten, Ruth R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes and behaviors related to smoke-free policy among undergraduate student alcohol drinkers on a campus in a community with smoke-free bars. Design and Sample This was a secondary data analysis of a study in which participants completed mailed surveys assessing demographic characteristics, attitudes and behaviors related to alcohol and tobacco use and smoke-free policy (n=337). Opinion and behavior items were summarized descriptively; associations were examined using Kruskal Wallis tests and chi-square tests of association. Logistic regression tested for predictors of importance of smoke-free policy. Results Respondents were predominantly female and Caucasian; mean age 20.3 years. One-fourth were current smokers. Seventy-nine percent said the community smoke-free law had no effect on frequency of visiting bars. Eighty-seven percent said smoke-free policy in campus buildings was ‘somewhat’ or ‘very important’. Predictors of perceived importance of smoke-free policy included gender and smoking status. Conclusions Most smokers in this sample did not experience a change in their motivation to quit smoking or in number of cigarettes smoked daily. Implementation of a community smoke-free law did not reduce the likelihood of visiting bars. Women and nonsmokers were more likely to rate smoke-free campus policy as very important. PMID:22512427

  15. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    PubMed Central

    Luhar, Riya B; Sawyer, Kayle S; Gravitz, Zoe; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers), and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers). The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE) scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group) had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current smoking was associated with higher sensation seeking scores and lower extraversion scores among nonalcoholics. Conclusion Results from this exploratory study support and extend prior reports showing that alcoholism and smoking, alone and in combination, are associated with structural brain abnormalities and poorer

  16. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  17. Inhalation injury associated with smoking, alcohol and drug abuse: an increasing problem.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S P H; Trickett, R W; Potokar, T S

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the association of inhalation injury (IHI) with smoking, alcohol and drug abuse in patients admitted to the Welsh Centre for Burns between 1995 and 2006. Common characteristics of these individuals were identified and contrasted with inhalation injury not associated with these social factors. Two hundred and fourteen patients were identified with inhalation injury. Ninety-two of these were associated with smoking, alcohol abuse and/or drug abuse. The proportion of IHI cases associated with smoking remained stable but IHI associated with alcohol and drug abuse increased dramatically over the course of the study and if current trends continue will increase further in future years. This study also showed that IHI associated with smoking alcohol and drug abuse were found to be largely caused by housefires and deliberate self-harm, and occurred between 22:00 and 05:59 h. These results were in sharp contrast with IHI not associated with these factors.

  18. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  19. Gender Differences in the Roles of Religion and Locus of Control on Alcohol Use and Smoking Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Roth, David L.; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Spiritual health locus of control reflects a person’s beliefs about the role of a higher power in one’s health and can take an active or a passive perspective. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of active and passive spiritual health locus of control beliefs on select health risk behaviors—alcohol use and smoking—in a national sample of African Americans. Method: A national U.S. probability sample of study participants (N = 2,370; 906 men; 1,464 women) completed a telephone survey assessing religious involvement, active and passive spiritual health locus of control beliefs, and alcohol consumption and smoking status. Because of previous research suggesting gender-specific associations among these variables, moderation analyses were conducted separately for men and women. Results: For women, higher religious behaviors were associated with less alcohol use, and this effect was more pronounced among those high in active spiritual health locus of control. For men, the combination of lower religious beliefs and higher passive spiritual health locus of control was associated with more alcohol consumption and more days of consuming five or more alcoholic drinks. No moderation effects were found for smoking. Conclusions: This study identified unique patterns of religious involvement and spiritual health locus of control beliefs that are associated with alcohol use, including heavy drinking, among African Americans. These findings have implications for pastoral counseling and other faith-based approaches for addressing heavy drinking in African Americans. PMID:25978836

  20. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  1. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Older Adults: Do Living Arrangements Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-01-01

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998–2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults’ health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women. PMID:25711361

  2. Acute effects of low and high dose alcohol on smoking lapse behavior in a laboratory analogue task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Day, Anne; Leventhal, Adam M.; McKee, Sherry A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Smoking lapses (i.e., returns to smoking after quitting) often occur following alcohol consumption with observational data suggesting greater quantities of alcohol lead to greater risk. However, a causal dose-dependent effect of alcohol consumption on smoking lapse behavior has not been established, and the mechanisms that might account for such an effect have not been tested. Objectives In a within-subjects design, we examined effects of low (0.4 g/kg) and high (0.8 g/kg) dose alcohol, relative to placebo, on smokers’ ability to resist initiating smoking after acute smoking abstinence. Methods Participants were 100 heavy alcohol drinkers, smoking 10–30 cigarettes per day. Across three separate days, participants consumed placebo, low, or high dose alcohol following 3 h of smoking abstinence, and 35 min later were offered the opportunity to smoke while resisting smoking was monetarily reinforced proportional to the amount of time delayed. Results Consistent with a dose-response effect, participants smoked 3.35 min (95% CI [−7.09, 0.40], p=.08) earlier following low dose alcohol and 6.36 min (95% CI [−9.99, −2.73], p=.0006) earlier following high dose alcohol compared to drinking a placebo beverage. Effects of dose on smoking behavior were partially mediated by increases in urge to smoke. There was no evidence that alcohol’s effects on urge to smoke or ability to resist smoking were mediated through its stimulating or sedating effects. Conclusions Alcohol can reduce the ability to resist smoking in a dose-dependent fashion, in part, due to its effect on increasing the intensity of smoking urges. PMID:24858377

  3. Nicotine Interactions with Low-Dose Alcohol: Pharmacological Influences on Smoking and Drinking Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jason A.; Blank, Melissa D.; Rensburg, Kate Janse Van; MacQueen, David A.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    An extensive literature documents a close association between cigarette and alcohol use. The joint pharmacological effects of alcohol and nicotine on smoking and drinking motivation may help explain this relationship. This experiment was designed to test the separate and combined pharmacological effects of nicotine and a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 1–2 standard drinks) on substance use motivation using a double-blind and fully-crossed within-subjects design. Participants (N = 87) with a wide range of smoking and drinking patterns completed four counter-balanced experimental sessions during which they consumed an alcohol (Male: 0.3 g/kg; Female: 0.27 g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoked a nicotine (.6 mg) or placebo cigarette. Outcome measures assessed the impact of drug administration (alcohol or nicotine) on craving to smoke, craving to drink, affect, and liking of the beverage and cigarette. Results indicated that combined administration produced higher cravings to smoke for the entire sample, as well as higher cravings to drink among women and lighter drinkers. Heavier users of either alcohol or cigarettes also exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the effects of either drug in isolation. Separate, but not interactive, effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood were observed, as well as both same-drug and cross-drug effects on beverage and cigarette liking. Together, these findings support the notion that the interactive pharmacological effects of nicotine and low-doses of alcohol play an important role in motivating contemporaneous use and suggest roles for cross-reinforcement and cross-tolerance in the development and maintenance of alcohol and nicotine use and dependence. PMID:24364618

  4. Nicotine interactions with low-dose alcohol: pharmacological influences on smoking and drinking motivation.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jason A; Blank, Melissa D; Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; MacQueen, David A; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J

    2013-11-01

    An extensive literature documents a close association between cigarette and alcohol use. The joint pharmacological effects of alcohol and nicotine on smoking and drinking motivation may help explain this relationship. This experiment was designed to test the separate and combined pharmacological effects of nicotine and a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 1-2 standard drinks) on substance use motivation using a double-blind and fully crossed within-subjects design. Participants (N = 87) with a wide range of smoking and drinking patterns completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions during which they consumed an alcohol (male: 0.3g/kg; female: 0.27g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoked a nicotine (.6 mg) or placebo cigarette. Outcome measures assessed the impact of drug administration (alcohol or nicotine) on craving to smoke, craving to drink, affect, and liking of the beverage and cigarette. Results indicated that combined administration produced higher cravings to smoke for the entire sample, as well as higher cravings to drink among women and lighter drinkers. Heavier users of either alcohol or cigarettes also exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the effects of either drug in isolation. Separate, but not interactive, effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood were observed as well as both same-drug and cross-drug effects on beverage and cigarette liking. Together, these findings support the notion that the interactive pharmacological effects of nicotine and low doses of alcohol play an important role in motivating contemporaneous use and suggest roles for cross-reinforcement and cross-tolerance in the development and maintenance of alcohol and nicotine use and dependence.

  5. Smoking and caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population: effect on fetal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Godel, J C; Pabst, H F; Hodges, P E; Johnson, K E; Froese, G J; Joffres, M R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of smoking and of caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population and to determine the relation of these factors to birth weight, length and head circumference. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey and collection of maternal and newborn measurements. SETTING: Ten communities in the Inuvik Zone, NWT. PATIENTS: A total of 162 women (56 Inuit, 38 Indian, 37 white and 31 mixed race) who presented for prenatal care in their community and gave birth in Inuvik between September 1987 and January 1990 and their newborns. RESULTS: In all, 64% (101/159) of the women smoked, 57% (88/154) ingested more than 300 mg of caffeine daily, and 34% (50/145) drank alcohol during their pregnancy. Smoking, caffeine intake and binge drinking were most frequent among the Inuit and Indian mothers. Smoking was significantly associated with decreased birth weight (p less than 0.001) and length (p less than 0.05). Alcohol intake, especially binge drinking, was significantly associated with decreased head circumference (p less than 0.05). Caffeine was found not to be related to any of the outcome variables after smoking was controlled for through stepwise multiple regression. CONCLUSIONS: The marked prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy and their effects on the newborn are public health concerns in the Northwest Territories and warrant intensive countermeasures. PMID:1623464

  6. Youth smoking risk and community patterns of alcohol availability and control: a national multilevel study

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, E.; Chen, Y.; Subramanian, S

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To test whether college youth smoking risks are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability and control. Design: Hierarchical multilevel multivariable modelling of cross sectional survey data. Outcomes included self reported current (past 30 day) cigarette smoking and heavy episodic (binge) drinking. Setting: 120 nationally representative US colleges. Participants: 10 924 randomly selected students. Main results: Individual risks for smoking and binge drinking are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability, policy enforcement and control over and above individual perceptions about these factors, student and college characteristics, and school binge drinking rates. Youth exposed to high levels of alcohol availability are at higher risk of smoking (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.75, 7.44) and binge drinking (OR 4.22, 95% CI 2.25, 7.93) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to strongly enforced alcohol policy environments are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.16, 0.57) and binge drinking (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10, 0.31) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to communities with strong parental controls are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01, 0.23) and binge drinking (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01, 0.21) than youth not so exposed. Individual risks related to environmental exposures differ for youth with varying perceptions about alcohol availability and policy control. Conclusions: Drinking environments in US college communities comprise strong independent risks for smoking. Smoking prevention models should be tested that include environmental drinking prevention strategies tailored to underlying perceptions and experiences of college youth. PMID:16286496

  7. SMOKING STATUS IS A CLINICAL INDICATOR FOR ALCOHOL MISUSE IN US ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Sherry A.; Falba, Tracy; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Sindelar, Jody; O’Connor, Patrick G.

    2010-01-01

    Context Screening for alcohol use in primary care settings is recommended by clinical care guidelines, but is not adhered to as strongly as screening for smoking. It has been proposed that smoking status could be used to enhance the identification of alcohol misuse in primary and other medical settings but national data are lacking. Objective To investigate smoking status as a clinical indicator for alcohol misuse in a national sample of US adults, following clinical care guidelines for the assessment of these behaviors. Design, Setting, and Participants Analyses are based on a sample of 42,565 US adults from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (Wave I, 2001–2002). Main Outcome Measures Odds ratios (O.R.) and test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value [PPV, NPV], and likelihood ratio [LR] of smoking behavior (daily, occasional, former) were determined for the detection of hazardous drinking behavior and alcohol-related diagnoses, assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV. Results Daily, occasional, and ex-smokers were more likely than never smokers to be hazardous drinkers (O.R.3.23 [95% CI 3.02–3.46]; O.R.5.33 [95% CI 4.70–6.04]; O.R.1.19 [95% CI 1.10–1.28], respectively). Daily and occasional smokers were more likely to meet criteria for alcohol diagnoses (O.R.3.52 [95% CI 3.19–3.90], O.R.5.39 [95% CI 4.60–6.31]; respectively). For the detection of hazardous drinking by current smoking (occasional + daily), sensitivity was 42.5%; specificity 81.9%, PPV 45.3% (vs. population rate of 26.1%), and LR+ 2.34. For the detection of alcohol diagnoses by current smoking; sensitivity was 51.4%; specificity 78.0%, PPV 17.8% (vs. population rate of 8.5%), and LR+ 2.33. Conclusions Occasional and daily smokers were at heightened risk for hazardous drinking and alcohol use diagnoses. Smoking status can be used as a clinical indicator for alcohol

  8. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use revisited.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2013-03-01

    In volume 30, issue 4 of this journal, we used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97) to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. In our analysis, we used a restricted sample of young adults and considered only those who have consumed alcohol, smoked cigarettes, or used marijuana at least once since the date of their last interview. In this paper, we revisit our original study using the full sample. We show that our results for alcohol consumption in the full sample are similar to those from the restricted sample. However, the effect of the MLDA on smoking and marijuana use is smaller and often statistically insignificant.

  9. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use and rates of quitting during pregnancy: is it hard to quit?

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Ahmet Bulent; Uslu Yuvaci, Hilal; Yazici, Esra; Halimoglu Caliskan, Ebru; Cevrioglu, Arif Serhan; Erol, Atila

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol and substance use is a major health challenge in Turkey, as it is worldwide. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the number of females using substances and although usage tends to reduce during pregnancy, it is of critical importance to determine its exact level as substance use negatively impacts on the health of both the mother and infant. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking, alcohol, and substance use, and quitting rates during pregnancy. Method This study was conducted on pregnant females in Sakarya, Turkey. A total of 1,082 consecutively presenting females who agreed to participate in the study were evaluated. The study team prepared a sociodemographic data form and adapted the “Introduction” section, derived from the Addiction Profile Index, to cover substance use during pregnancy. Results The substances most frequently used by pregnant females in their previous pregnancies and current pregnancies were cigarettes/tobacco products (11% and 11.8%, respectively), alcohol (0.6% and 0.4%, respectively), and rarely, synthetic cannabinoids (0.3% and 0.2%, respectively). Daily tobacco smokers continued to smoke during pregnancy, with a rate of 42.5%. Based on research into predictors of smoking (cigarettes) in pregnancy, a correlation was found between lifetime smoking and smoking during a previous pregnancy. A similar link was found with respect to alcohol. Conclusion Cigarettes are the most frequently used substance in pregnancy, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and synthetic cannabinoids, also considered to be risky substances. A high incidence of smoking regularly during pregnancy was found in daily smokers. It is recommended that physicians should sensitively ask pregnant females presenting at clinics about all forms of substance use, including alcohol and synthetic cannabinoids, and to include such questions in their routine enquiries. PMID:27785104

  10. Environmental Stressors, Low Well-being, Smoking, and Alcohol Use Among South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N=2,195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2,195 Black, mixed ancestry (“Coloured”), Indian, and White youth, aged 12 to 17 years old (mean age=14.6; SD=1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant’s preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies. PMID:21492977

  11. Cigarette Smoking and the Risk for Alcohol Use Disorders Among Adolescent Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Grucza, Richard A.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking and alcohol use disorders are closely linked, but it is not clear whether higher rates of alcohol use disorder (AUD) among smokers are solely attributable to heavier drinking, or alternatively, whether smokers are more vulnerable to alcohol abuse and dependence than non-smokers who drink comparable quantities. We sought to address this issue using data from a nationally representative U.S. sample of adolescents and young adults. Specifically, we analyzed the relationship between cigarette smoking, drinking, and alcohol use disorders. Methods: Data were from the aggregated 2002 through 2004 U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Participants were randomly selected, household-dwelling adolescents and young adults (ages 12-20) from the non-institutionalized, civilian population of the United States (N=74,836). Measurements included current DSM-IV alcohol abuse or dependence, number of drinks in the past 30-days, and past-year cigarette smoking, defined as having smoked more than 100 cigarettes across the lifetime and having smoked during the past year. Results: Past-year smokers, (prevalence=16.0%) drank in higher quantities than never-smokers, but were also at elevated risk for AUD when compared to never-smokers who drank equivalent quantities. The effect was observed across age groups, but was more prominent among younger adolescents. After adjusting for drinking quantity and sociodemographic variables, smokers had 4.5-fold higher odds of AUD than never-smokers (95% CI: 3.1-6.6). Youths who reported smoking but did not cross the 100-cigarette threshold were at intermediate risk (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.3). Differences in AUD between smokers and never-smokers were most pronounced at lower levels of drinking. Conclusions: The results are consistent with a higher vulnerability to alcohol use disorders among smokers, compared to non-smokers who drink equivalent quantities. PMID:17117970

  12. Prevalence and Impact of Active and Passive Cigarette Smoking in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, S. Jean; Zhuo, Hanjing; Benowitz, Neal L.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Liu, Kathleen D.; Matthay, Michael A.; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoke exposure has recently been found to be associated with increased susceptibility to trauma- and transfusion-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We sought to determine 1) the prevalence of cigarette smoke exposure in a diverse multi-center sample of ARDS patients, and 2) whether cigarette smoke exposure is associated with severity of lung injury and mortality in ARDS. Design Analysis of the Albuterol for the Treatment of ALI (ALTA) and Omega ARDS Network studies. Setting Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network hospitals. Patients Three hundred eighty one patients with ARDS. Interventions None. Measurements NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol), a validated tobacco-specific marker, was measured in urine samples from subjects enrolled in two NHLBI ARDS Network randomized controlled trials. Main Results Urine NNAL levels were consistent with active smoking in 36% of ARDS patients and with passive smoking in 41% of nonsmokers (vs 20% and 40% in general population, respectively). Patients with NNAL levels in the active smoking range were younger and had a higher prevalence of alcohol misuse, fewer comorbidities, lower severity of illness, and less septic shock at enrollment compared to patients with undetectable NNAL levels. Despite this lower severity of illness, the severity of lung injury did not significantly differ based on biomarker-determined smoking status. Cigarette smoke exposure was not significantly associated with death after adjusting for differences in age, alcohol use, comorbidities, and severity of illness. Conclusions In this first multicenter study of biomarker-determined cigarette smoke exposure in ARDS patients, we found that active cigarette smoke exposure was significantly more prevalent among ARDS patients compared to population averages. Despite their younger age, better overall health, and lower severity of illness, smokers by NNAL had similar severity of lung injury as patients with

  13. Prospective Analysis of Early Lapse to Drinking and Smoking Among Individuals in Concurrent Alcohol and Tobacco Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Laura J.; Litt, Mark D.; Cooney, Ned L.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine, prospectively, 1) dynamic changes in affective state, self-efficacy, and urge in the hours before initial smoking and drinking lapses among individuals in concurrent alcohol and smoking treatment, and 2) the extent to which self-efficacy, urge to use, and/or the use of one substance predicted lapse to the other substance. Ninety-six men and women recruited for a clinical trial of concurrent alcohol and tobacco treatment were eligible for inclusion. Only data from those who experienced an initial lapse to drinking (n=29), or smoking (n=32) were included. Two outpatient substance abuse clinics provided concurrent alcohol and smoking treatment on a weekly basis for three months. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methods were employed over a 28-day monitoring period to assess antecedents to first drink and a 14-day monitoring period was examined for initial smoking lapses. Baseline and EMA measures of positive and negative affect, alcohol/smoking urge, alcohol/smoking abstinence self-efficacy, nicotine withdrawal, and quantity/frequency of alcohol and tobacco use were examined as lapse predictors. Analyses of EMA ratings controlled for the corresponding baseline measure. Smoking lapse among individuals in concurrent alcohol and tobacco treatment was foreshadowed by higher urges to smoke, lower positive mood, and lower confidence to resist smoking. Drinking lapse was preceded by lower confidence to resist smoking, but only among individuals who reported recent smoking. Concurrent alcohol and smoking treatment should focus on the enhancement of abstinence self-efficacy, positive mood, and the curbing of urges in order to offset lapse risk. PMID:22023022

  14. Stressful Events and Continued Smoking and Continued Alcohol Consumption during Mid-Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Beijers, Chantal; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L.; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    Aim to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether the severity of stressful events was associated with the amount of cigarettes and alcohol used by continued users. Method we conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based prospective cohort study. Pregnant women were recruited via midwifery practices throughout The Netherlands. We analyzed women who continued smoking (n = 113) or quit (n = 290), and women who continued alcohol consumption (n = 124) or quit (n = 1403) during pregnancy. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and perceived severity of stressful events were measured at 19 weeks of gestation. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were filled out at 14 weeks of gestation. Odds ratios were calculated as association measures and indicated the relative increase for the odds of continuation of smoking and alcohol consumption for the maximum severity score compared to the minimum score. Findings severity of the following stressful event categories was associated with continued alcohol consumption: ‘conflict with loved ones’ (OR = 10.4, p<0.01), ‘crime related’ (OR = 35.7, p<0.05), ‘pregnancy-specific’ (OR = 13.4, p<0.05), and the total including all events (OR = 17.2, p<0.05). Adjustment for potential confounders (age, parity and educational level) did not notably change the estimates. There was no association of anxiety and depressive symptoms with continued smoking or alcohol consumption. No associations emerged for continued smoking and severity of stressful events. The amount of cigarettes and alcohol consumption among continued users was not associated with severity of stressful events. Conclusions Our

  15. Influence of smoking on caffeine elimination in healthy volunteers and in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Joeres, R; Klinker, H; Heusler, H; Epping, J; Zilly, W; Richter, E

    1988-01-01

    The effect of smoking on caffeine elimination was measured in 7 healthy volunteers and in 18 smoking and in 30 nonsmoking patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis following oral application of 366 mg caffeine. In an intraindividual experiment in smoking health probands, caffeine clearance decreased from 118 +/- 33 to 77 +/- 22 ml per min (p less than 0.05) after abstaining cigarette smoking for 3 weeks. In a control group without liver disease (8 smokers, 15 nonsmokers), we found a caffeine clearance of 114 +/- 40 ml per min in smokers and 64 +/- 20 in nonsmokers (p less than 0.05). Smoking and nonsmoking patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis did not differ with respect to clinical and laboratory data and hexobarbitone elimination. However, caffeine clearance was 63 +/- 63 ml per min in smoking patients compared to 34 +/- 49 ml per min in nonsmokers (p less than 0.05). Fasting plasma concentrations of caffeine were higher in nonsmokers (5.1 +/- 6.2 micrograms per ml) than in smokers (2.1 +/- 4.5 micrograms per ml, p less than 0.05). We conclude that smoking habits have to be taken into account if caffeine is used as a model compound for measuring quantitative liver function.

  16. Alcohol History and Smoking Cessation in Nicotine Replacement Therapy, Bupropion Sustained Release and Varenicline Trials: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Huffman, Christopher J.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims We conducted a review of published reports of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy trials in order to address the following: 1) the generalizability of findings to smokers with a history of alcohol problems; 2) the extent to which alcohol use affects smoking cessation overall and the efficacy of pharmacotherapy specifically and 3) the effect of smoking cessation on alcohol use. Methods We located published reports of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion sustained release (SR) and varenicline clinical trials using an approach based on prior Cochrane reviews. The reports were searched for alcohol-related inclusion/exclusion criteria and for findings related to alcohol. Results The present review included 212 published reports from 149 trials. Alcohol-related exclusion criteria appeared frequently (41.6% of trials)—45/125 NRT trials (36%), 15/22 bupropion SR trials (68.2%) and 3/3 varenicline trials—and most commonly involved exclusion of participants with either current or recent alcohol problems. Most studies failed to provide any baseline alcohol-related characteristics. Eleven trials reported on the relationship between alcohol history and likelihood of smoking cessation. In the majority of these studies, smokers with a past history of alcohol problems were not at a disadvantage, although contrary findings exist. Only two studies examined the potential influence of smoking cessation on alcohol use. Conclusions Smokers with alcohol problems, particularly those with current or recent problems, are underrepresented in studies of approved pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Future trials should assess alcohol use at baseline and during treatment and examine reciprocal influences between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation. PMID:17526629

  17. Mental Health Correlates of Post Disaster Increases in Alcohol and Cigarette Smoking: A Vietnamese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Juliana D.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Richardson, Lisa; Kilpatrick, Dean; Tran, Trinh L.; Trung, Lam T.; Tam, Nguyen T.; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran D.; Acierno, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in US populations has found associations between disaster-related variables, psychological variables, and post-disaster increases in smoking and alcohol use. To date, no research has examined this association in an international population of disaster exposed individuals. Data used in this study were drawn from a larger study…

  18. Alcohol and smoking as risk factors in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Talamini, G; Bassi, C; Falconi, M; Sartori, N; Salvia, R; Rigo, L; Castagnini, A; Di Francesco, V; Frulloni, L; Bovo, P; Vaona, B; Angelini, G; Vantini, I; Cavallini, G; Pederzoli, P

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare alcohol and smoking as risk factors in the development of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. We considered only male subjects: (1) 630 patients with chronic pancreatitis who developed 12 pancreatic and 47 extrapancreatic cancers; (2) 69 patients with histologically well documented pancreatic cancer and no clinical history of chronic pancreatitis; and (3) 700 random controls taken from the Verona polling list and submitted to a complete medical check-up. Chronic pancreatitis subjects drink more than control subjects and more than subjects with pancreatic cancer without chronic pancreatitis (P<0.001). The percentage of smokers in the group with chronic pancreatitis is significantly higher than that in the control group [odds ratio (OR) 17.3; 95% CI 12.6-23.8; P<0.001] and in the group with pancreatic carcinomas but with no history of chronic pancreatitis (OR 5.3; 95% CI 3.0-9.4; P<0.001). In conclusion, our study shows that: (1) the risk of chronic pancreatitis correlates both with alcohol intake and with cigarette smoking with a trend indicating that the risk increases with increased alcohol intake and cigarette consumption; (2) alcohol and smoking are statistically independent risk factors for chronic pancreatitis; and (3) the risk of pancreatic cancer correlates positively with cigarette smoking but not with drinking.

  19. Non-pharmacological modification of cardiac risk factors: part 3. Smoking cessation and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Eagles, C J; Martin, U

    1998-02-01

    Smoking cessation (SC) is probably the single most important risk factor modification for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Interventions to stop smoking are highly cost effective. SC produces reductions in mortality and morbidity that generally outweigh any increase in risk due to weight gain, unless the gain is so great that it is accompanied by adverse changes in blood pressure, lipid profile or glucose tolerance. There is clear evidence that SC improves the lipid profile, decreases thrombotic tendency, reduces vascular endothelial damage and improves insulin sensitivity. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate a reduced risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) with moderate alcohol consumption (showing protection at < or = 2 drinks per day), but an increased risk at higher alcohol consumption levels. Potential mediators of these cardioprotective effects include an increase in high-density cholesterol (HDL-C), decreased clotting propensity, enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and a possible lowering of blood pressure at low consumption levels in women. Alcohol consumption may not, however, compensate for the large increase in risk produced by smoking. Whereas moderate alcohol consumption slightly reduces the risk of death between the ages of 35 and 69 years, cigarette smoking approximately doubles the risk.

  20. After-School Supervision, Psychosocial Impact, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Liu, Ipei; Sussman, Steve; Palmer, Paula; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cen, Steven; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We examined effects of self-care after school hours and psychosocial factors on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents in China. Survey data were obtained from 4734 7th and 11th grade students from seven cities across China. Students were queried about the frequency and quantity of unsupervised self-care after school in an average…

  1. Precocious Initiation into Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Gambling among Children with Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Déry, Michèle; St-Pierre, Renée A.; Laventure, Myriam; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent participation in risky and addictive behaviours, such as smoking, substance use, and gambling has the potential to lead to many serious problems. The presence of conduct problems (CPs) and early initiation into risky and addictive behaviours have been independently shown to be associated with adolescent and young adult smoking, drinking, and gambling. Nevertheless, the relation between early initiation into risky and addictive behaviours and CPs remains to be explored among pre-adolescents. Our study aims to examine the prospective relation between CPs in early primary school and pre-adolescent initiation into smoking, alcohol use, and gambling. Method: Our study used data from participants in an ongoing prospective, longitudinal study at the Université de Sherbrooke to examine cigarette, alcohol, and gambling initiation among primary school-aged boys and girls with CPs. Children were recruited between the ages of 6 and 9 years from several low socioeconomic status public schools in diverse geographical regions of Quebec. Initiation into cigarettes, alcohol, and gambling was measured 1 year later. Results: Children with CPs were found to be at greater risk for early initiation into smoking, alcohol, and gambling. These effects remained even once other known risk factors, such as poor parental supervision and child effortful control, were controlled for. Conclusions: These results suggest that CPs present in early elementary school can predict early initiation in to potentially addictive behaviours among boys and girls. Implications for targeted preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:27582453

  2. Oral squamous cell cancer: early detection and the role of alcohol and smoking

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Oral squamous cell carcinoma has a remarkable incidence worldwide and a fairly onerous prognosis, encouraging further research on factors that might modify disease outcome. Data sources A web-based search for all types of articles published was initiated using Medline/Pub Med, with the key words such as oral cancer, alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms, tobacco smoking and prevention. The search was restricted to articles published in English, with no publication date restriction (last update 2010). Review Methods In this review article, we approach the factors for a cytologic diagnosis during OSCC development and the markers used in modern diagnostic technologies as well. We also reviewed available studies of the combined effects of alcohol drinking and genetic polymorphisms on alcohol-related cancer risk. Results The interaction of smoking and alcohol significantly increases the risk for aero-digestive cancers. The interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption seems to be responsible for a significant amount of disease. Conclusion Published scientific data show promising pathways for the future development of more effective prognosis. There is a clear need for new prognostic indicators, which could be used in diagnostics and, therefore a better selection of the most effective treatment can be achieved. PMID:21211041

  3. A genomic scan for habitual smoking in families of alcoholics: common and specific genetic factors in substance dependence.

    PubMed

    Bierut, Laura Jean; Rice, John P; Goate, Alison; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Saccone, Nancy L; Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J; Cloninger, C Robert; Begleiter, Henri; Conneally, P Michael; Crowe, Raymond R; Hesselbrock, Victor; Li, Ting-Kai; Nurnberger, John I; Porjesz, Bernice; Schuckit, Marc A; Reich, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    Smoking is a highly heritable, addictive disorder that commonly co-occurs with alcohol dependence. The purpose of this study is to perform a genomic screen for habitual smoking and comorbid habitual smoking and alcohol dependence in families from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Subjects were assessed using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) to evaluate alcohol dependence and habitual smoking (smoking one pack per day or more for at least 6 months). Sixty seven multi-generational families with 154 independent sibling pairs affected with habitual smoking were genotyped in a screening sample. Analyses on 79 multi-generational families with 173 independent sibling pairs were repeated in a replication sample. Sibpair analyses were performed using ASPEX. Four chromosomal regions in the screening sample had increased allele sharing among sibling pairs for habitual smoking with a LOD score greater than 1 (chromosomes 5, 9, 11, and 21). The highest LOD score was on chromosome 9 (LOD = 2.02; allele sharing 58.9%). Four chromosomal regions also had modest evidence for linkage to the comorbid phenotype habitual smoking and alcohol dependence (chromosomes 1, 2, 11, 15); and the strongest finding was on chromosome 2 (LOD = 3.30; allele sharing 69.1%). Previously identified areas (chromosomes 1 and 7) implicated in the development of alcohol dependence in this same data set did not provide evidence for linkage to habitual smoking in the screening sample. In the replication data set, there continued to be increased allele sharing near peaks identified in the screening sample on chromosomes 2 and 9, but the results were modest. An area on chromosome 7, approximately 60 cM from a location previously identified in linkage analysis with alcohol dependence, had increased allele sharing for the comorbid habitual smoking and alcohol dependence. These data provide evidence of specific genetic regions involved in the

  4. Influence of sex, age, body mass index, and smoking on alcohol intake and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Müller, C.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between self reported alcohol intake and subsequent mortality from all causes and if the effect of alcohol intake on the risk of death is modified by sex, age, body mass index, and smoking. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--7234 women and 6051 men aged 30-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--A total of 2229 people died, 1398 being men. A U shaped curve described the relation between alcohol intake and mortality. The lowest risk was observed at one to six alcoholic beverages a week (relative risk set at 1). Abstainers had a relative risk of 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.56) whereas those drinking more than 70 beverages a week had a relative risk of 2.29 (1.75 to 3.00). Among the drinkers, the risk was significantly increased only among those drinking more than 42 beverages a week. Sex, age, body mass index, and smoking did not significantly modify the risk function. The risk among heavy drinkers was slightly reduced when smoking was controlled for. The risk function was similar in the first and second period of six years of observation. CONCLUSION--Alcohol intake showed a U shaped relation to mortality with the nadir at one to six beverages a week. The risk function was not modified by sex, age, body mass index, or smoking and remained stable over 12 years. PMID:8124118

  5. The Impact of Smoking Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes on Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Dermody, Sarah S.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Denlinger, Rachel L.; Pacek, Lauren R.; al’Absi, Mustafa; Drobes, David J.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Vandrey, Ryan; Donny, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes could improve public health by reducing smoking and toxicant exposure, but may also have unintended consequences on alcohol use. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effect of reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes on alcohol outcomes. The secondary aim was to examine whether the effects of these cigarettes on alcohol outcomes were mediated by changes in nicotine exposure, smoking behavior, or withdrawal. Methods Between June 2013 and July 2014, we conducted a 7-arm, double-blind, randomized clinical trial at 10 U.S.-based sites. Daily smokers not currently interested in quitting (n = 839) were assigned to equally sized groups to smoke for 6 weeks cigarettes containing either normal nicotine content (NNC; 15.8 mg/g, 9 mg tar), moderate nicotine content (5.2 mg/g nicotine, 9 mg tar), or very low nicotine content (VLNC; 0.4 to 2.4 mg/g, 9 to 13 mg tar). This investigation focused on a subsample of current drinkers (n = 403). Each reduced nicotine content cigarette condition was compared to the NNC control condition with respect to trajectories over the 6-week period of average daily alcohol use and occurrence of binge drinking. Moderating variables were considered. Mediation analyses tested potential explanatory processes including changes in nicotine exposure, cigarettes per day, and withdrawal. Results Over time, reduced nicotine exposure and smoking rate mediated effects of VLNC cigarette use on reduced alcohol use. There was no evidence of compensatory drinking in response to nicotine reduction or nicotine withdrawal, even among subgroups expected to be at greater risk (e.g., relatively heavier drinkers, highly nicotine-dependent individuals). Conclusions The findings suggest that compensatory drinking is unlikely to occur in response to switching to VLNC cigarettes. In contrast, reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes may reduce alcohol use (clinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01681875

  6. Transition to a smoke-free culture within mental health and drug and alcohol services: A survey of key stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Fraser, Trish; Bullen, Chris; Wallace-Bell, Mark; McRobbie, Hayden; Hadwen, Georgy

    2014-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is common among people with mental illnesses, and they carry a higher burden of smoking-related illnesses. Despite this, smoke-free policies and systems for supporting cessation have proved difficult to introduce in mental health and drug and alcohol services (MHDAS). This paper examines the barriers to becoming smoke free within New Zealand services. Key informants, including staff, smoke-free coordinators, and cessation specialists were interviewed. Of the 142 invited informants 61 agreed (42%) to participate in a telephone interview, and 56 provided useable data. Organizations had a permissive or transitioning smoking culture, or were smoke free, defined by smoke-free environments, smoke-free-promoting attitudes and behaviours of management and staff, and cessation support. Most organizations were on a continuum between permissive and transitional cultures. Only eight services had a fully smoke-free culture. MHDAS face many challenges in the transition to a smoke-free culture. They are not helped by exemptions in smoke-free policies for mental health services, staff smoking, negative staff attitudes to becoming smoke free, poor knowledge of nicotine dependence, smoking-related harm and comorbidities, and poor knowledge and skills regarding cessation-support options. Health inequalities will continue across both service and socioeconomic divides without a concerted effort to address smoking.

  7. Sex Differences in Stimulus Expectancy and Pharmacologic Effects of a Moderate Dose of Alcohol on Smoking Lapse Risk in a Laboratory Analogue Study

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Leventhal, Adam M.; McKee, Sherry A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol use is often implicated in initial lapses to smoking during quit smoking attempts. Mechanisms explaining this association are unknown but could include (a) learned associations between drinking and smoking or (b) direct pharmacologic effects of alcohol. Objectives In a 2 (Told Alcohol vs. Told Placebo) × 2 (0.4g/kg vs. 0.0 g/kg ethanol) between-subjects balanced-placebo design, we examined instruction and beverage condition effects on smokers’ ability to resist initiating smoking and whether these effects differed by sex. Methods Participants were 96 heavy alcohol drinkers, smoking 10–30 cigarettes per day. After 15 hours of smoking abstinence, participants consumed either an alcoholic or a non-alcoholic beverage and 35 minutes later completed a smoking lapse task. Results Overall, neither instructions nor beverage contents influenced behavior on the smoking lapse task. However, the instruction condition had different effects in men and women. Women, but not men, were more likely to smoke and reported expecting greater satisfaction from smoking when they were Told Alcohol compared to Told Placebo. The effects of instruction condition on smoking behavior were not mediated by self-reported expected satisfaction from smoking. Conclusions Women may be more likely to choose to smoke after drinking moderate amounts of alcohol because of their expectations rather than the pharmacological effects of the alcohol. PMID:22227611

  8. Smoking cessation is associated with lower rates of mood/anxiety and alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Breslau, Naomi; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Grucza, Richard A.; Salyer, Patricia; Hartz, Sarah M.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The psychological outcomes that accompany smoking cessation are not yet conclusive but positive outcomes could help to persuade quitting. Method We use data from the longitudinal National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between cigarette smoking reduction and Wave 2 status of addiction/mental health disorder among daily smokers at Wave 1, stratified by status of the diagnosis of interest at Wave 1. We adjusted for differences in baseline covariates between smokers with different levels of smoking reduction between Wave 1 and Wave 2 using propensity score regression adjustment. Results After adjusting for propensity scores and other mental health/addiction comorbidities at Wave 2, among daily smokers who had current or lifetime history diagnosis of the outcome of interest at Wave 1, quitting by Wave 2 predicted a decreased risk of mood/anxiety disorder (aOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4, 0.9) and alcohol disorder (aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5, 0.99) at Wave 2. Among daily smokers with no lifetime history diagnosis of the outcome of interest at Wave 1, quitting smoking by Wave 2 predicted a decreased risk of drug use disorder at Wave 2 aOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9). Conclusions There is no support in our data for the concern that smoking cessation would result in smokers’ increased risk of some mental disorders. To the contrary, our data suggest that smoking cessation is associated with risk reduction for mood/anxiety or alcohol use disorder, even among smokers who have had a pre-existing disorder. PMID:25055171

  9. Adolescent internet use and its relationship to cigarette smoking and alcohol use: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal impact of situational Internet use on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use among male and female adolescents. A Northern Taiwanese cohort sample of adolescents with no prior use of cigarettes (n=1445) or alcohol (n=1468) was surveyed at age 16 and again 4 years later. Information regarding where, why, and length of time spent using the Internet was gathered from the 16-year-old participants. Outcome information regarding cigarette/alcohol use was gathered via a follow-up questionnaire at age 20. Multivariate regressions were used to incorporate peer, individual and family characteristics as measured at age 16 and create models of future cigarette and alcohol use at age 20. The analyses demonstrated that adolescent Internet use, particularly where such use took place, has a significant impact on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use, adjusted for conventional factors, and its relationship differs significantly by gender. Female adolescents with Internet café use appear to be especially likely to develop these two risky behaviors. The why of Internet use is also a predictor of future cigarette smoking. Finally, time spent using the Internet is significantly related to alcohol use; greater use of the Internet is associated with higher levels of drinking. The results revealed that different risky behaviors are differentially influenced by separate components of adolescent Internet use. These findings suggest that programs aimed at promoting adolescent health could potentially benefit Taiwanese adolescents by including components related to situational Internet use and taking gender into consideration.

  10. EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON D2/D3 STRIATAL RECEPTOR AVAILABILITY IN ALCOHOLICS AND SOCIAL DRINKERS

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Daniel S.; Kareken, David A.; Yoder, Karmen K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Studies have reported lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in both alcoholics and cigarette smokers relative to healthy controls. These substances are commonly co-abused, yet the relationship between comorbid alcohol/tobacco abuse and striatal D2/D3 receptor availability has not been examined. We sought to determine the degree to which dual abuse of alcohol and tobacco is associated with lower D2/D3 receptor availability. Method Eighty-one subjects (34 nontreatment-seeking alcoholic smokers [NTS-S], 21 social-drinking smokers [SD-S], and 26 social-drinking non-smokers [SD-NS]) received baseline [11C]raclopride scans. D2/D3 binding potential (BPND ≡ Bavail/KD) was estimated for ten anatomically defined striatal regions of interest (ROIs). Results Significant group effects were detected in bilateral pre-commissural dorsal putamen, bilateral pre-commissural dorsal caudate; and bilateral post-commissural dorsal putamen. Post-hoc testing revealed that, regardless of drinking status, smokers had lower D2/D3 receptor availability than non-smoking controls. Conclusions Chronic tobacco smokers have lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability than non-smokers, independent of alcohol use. Additional studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which chronic tobacco smoking is associated with striatal dopamine receptor availability. PMID:23649848

  11. Influence of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviors on Treatment Outcomes of Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Fortin, Andre Wang, C.S.; Vigneault, Eric

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the prognostic value of smoking and drinking status in patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas. Methods and Materials: All patients with all stages and sites were included if complete information was available on baseline smoking and alcohol behavior (never, former, active), disease stage, primary site, radiation dose, sex, and age. Treatment was radiotherapy in 973 patients, postoperative radiotherapy in 469, and chemoradiotherapy in 429. Statistical analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox methods. Results: Data from 1,871 patients were available. At baseline, 9% of patients never smoked, 40% were former smokers, and 51% were active smokers; 20% never drank, 25% were former drinkers, and 55% were active drinkers. Smoking was associated with inferior local control and survival. For local control, the hazard ratio (HR) of active smokers vs. former smokers was 1.5 (p = 0.0001). For survival, the HRs of former smokers and active smokers vs. those who never smoked were also statistically significant (1.3 and 1.7, respectively, p = 0.000001). Alcohol drinking was associated with local control (p = 0.03), and was associated with survival. For survival, HRs of former and active drinkers compared with those who never drank were, respectively, 1.1 (p = 0.01) and 1.28 (p = 0.001). Adjusted 5-year local control and survival rates for those who never smoked and never drank were 87% and 77%, respectively, and for those who were both active smokers and active drinkers were 72% (p = 0.007) and 52% (p = 0.0009), respectively. Conclusion: Smoking and drinking at baseline were associated with poor outcomes in these patients.

  12. Smoking, alcohol consumption and betal-quid chewing among young adult Myanmar laborers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Htin, Kyaw; Howteerakull, Nopporn; Suwannapong, Nawarat; TipayamongkholgulI, Mathuros

    2014-07-01

    Health-risk behaviors among young adults are a serious public health problem. This cross sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of single and concurrent multiple health-risk behaviors: smoking tobacco, consuming alcohol, and chewing betel quid among young adult Myanmar laborers in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Three hundred Myanmar laborers, aged 18-24 years, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. About 33.6% reported no risk behaviors, 24.7% had one, and 41.7% had two or three risk behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed six variables were significantly associated with health-risk behaviors: male gender, high/moderate custom/traditional influences, friends who smoked/consumed alcohol/chewed betel quid, and exposure to betel-quid chewing by other family members.

  13. Facilitating Smoking Cessation and Preventing Relapse in Primary Care: Minimizing Weight Gain by Reducing Alcohol Consumption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    smoking cessation interventions for use in primary care settings. Both included the nicotine patch and buproprion (Zyban) if desired. The Brief Counselor...BCAP), or a Self-Guided Program (SGP), with the nicotine patch and buproprion (Zyban) available to all participants. Participants in the BCAP attend...of motivational interviewing, behavioral counseling and nicotine replacement therapy with an emphasis on reducing alcohol consumption as a strategy

  14. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  15. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-16

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  16. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Methods: Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06–3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86–9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62–1.39). Conclusion: In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not. PMID:27428185

  17. Technology-based support via telephone or web: a systematic review of the effects on smoking, alcohol use and gambling.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Eriksson, Anna-Karin; Allebeck, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review of the literature on telephone or internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: The design being a randomized control trail (RCT), focused on effects of telephone or web based interventions, focused on pure telephone or internet-based self-help, provided information on alcohol or tobacco consumption, or gambling behavior, as an outcome, had a follow-up period of at least 3months, and included adults. Seventy-four relevant studies were found; 36 addressed the effect of internet interventions on alcohol consumption, 21 on smoking and 1 on gambling, 12 the effect of helplines on smoking, 2 on alcohol consumption, and 2 on gambling. Telephone helplines can have an effect on tobacco smoking, but there is no evidence of the effects for alcohol use or gambling. There are some positive findings regarding internet-based support for heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students. However, evidence on the effects of internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling are to a large extent inconsistent.

  18. [The evaluation of smoking and alcohol consumption by university students in Gdańsk].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Z; Anand, J S; Salamon, M; Waldman, W; Wnuk, K

    2001-01-01

    Anonymous questionnaire examination were performed among 1585 students from eight universities in Gdańsk, including 664 men and 921 women from 17 to 48 (mean 21.4 +/- 2.26) years old. Alcohol was consumed by 1452 (91.61%) students, including 91.53% women and 91.72% men. Both men and women preferred beer, respectively, 73.7% and 50.6%. In three-stage AUDIT-test (alcohol drinking dangerous to health) including 716 (45.2%) students, most of them in stage A (81.6%); in stage B about 8.2% comprised while there were about 10.2% in stage C students. Alcohol consumption carried the lowest risk (stage A) among students of Medical University while corresponding risk was the highest among students of Maritime High School. Among respondents drinking alcohol dangerously to health there were significantly more persons who did drugs (73.7%). Students qualified to the AUDIT test smoked cigarettes significantly more often than the rest of the examined population. Smokers amounted to 399 (25.2%) students, including 224 (26.3%) women and 157 (23.6%) men. The difference in figures was statistically non-significant. Among smoking respondents the students of Fine Arts Academy constituted the majority, while those of Medical University and of University School of Physical Education were in minority. Catholic Priest Seminary respondents did not have the relevant experiences.

  19. Close friend and group influence on adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Urberg, K A; Değirmencioğlu, S M; Pilgrim, C

    1997-09-01

    The relative influence of adolescents closest friends and their friendship group on their cigarette smoking and alcohol use was investigated in a short-term, longitudinal study of 1,028 students in the 6th, 8th, and 10th grades in 2 school systems. The amount of influence over the school year was modest in magnitude and came from the closest friend for initiation of cigarette and alcohol use. Only the friendship group use predicted transition into current cigarette use, whereas only the close friend use predicted transition into current alcohol use. Both group and close friends independently contributed to the prediction of adolescents' drinking to intoxication. No difference in the amount of influence, was found between stable and unstable close friendships or friendship groups; neither grade nor gender of the adolescents related to the amount of influence.

  20. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and the risk of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiao-Hua; Huai, Jia-Ping; Ding, Jin; Chen, Yan-Ping; Sun, Xue-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the association between smoking and alcohol consumption and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) through a meta-analysis of clinical observational studies. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using Embase and MEDLINE databases from inception to 31 May 2013 without language limitations, and by manually searching the references of retrieved articles. Case-control and cohort studies that investigated the association between smoking or alcohol consumption and ECC were included. The quality of these studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Summary relative risks and corresponding 95%CI were calculated using a random-effects model. Publication bias was assessed by Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test. RESULTS: A total of 12 eligible articles (11 case-control studies and one cohort study) were included in this meta-analysis. Eleven studies reported the association between smoking and ECC. Pooled analysis indicated that smokers had an increased risk of ECC development as compared with non-smokers (summary RR = 1.23; 95%CI: 1.01-1.50). This correlation was present in population-based studies (n = 5; summary RR = 1.47; 95%CI: 1.06-2.05) but not in hospital-based studies (n = 6; summary RR = 1.10; 95%CI: 0.88-1.37) and in non-Asian regions (n = 7; summary RR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.03-1.87) but not in Asia (n = 4; summary RR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.85-1.38). Seven studies reported an association between consuming alcohol and ECC. Pooled analysis indicated that alcohol drinkers had a similar risk of ECC development as did individuals who did not drink alcohol (summary RR = 1.09; 95%CI: 0.87-1.37). There was moderate heterogeneity among the studies and no evidence of publication bias. CONCLUSION: Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ECC, but alcohol consumption is not. Further population-based studies, particularly cohort studies, are warranted to enable definitive conclusions. PMID:24379600

  1. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, Alcohol use, Physical Activity, and Dietary Behavior as Determinants of Obesity and Body Mass Index in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Raees A.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Singh, Gopal K.; Tibbits, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the United States, using a nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data from the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to adults 18 years and older (N=23,434). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between covariates and obesity and BMI. Results: Overall, 28.1% in the sample were obese and the mean BMI was 27.6 kg/m2. In adjusted models, we found that older age, non-Hispanic Black race, lower education and income levels, Midwestern and Southern region of residence, former smoking, infrequent alcohol use, physical inactivity, consumption of less fruits, vegetables, brown rice and more cheese, fried potato and meat, were associated with obesity. These factors were also associated with higher BMI, along with male gender and higher consumption of meat, fried potatoes and cheese. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The association of many of the socio-demographic and behavioral factors with obesity and higher BMI found in our study was consistent with previous findings. Persistence of such associations suggest a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanism as well as for evaluation of the current programs and policies targeted at reducing the obesity burden in the United States. In view of the rising global obesity epidemic, especially in the low- and middle-income countries, our findings could help guide development of effective health and social policies and programs aimed at reducing the obesity burden in other parts of the world. PMID:27622000

  2. Survey on Smoking, Consuming Alcohol, and using Illicit Drugs in Patients with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    YENİ, Naz; TUMAY, Feray; TONGUÇ, Özge; AZAROĞLU, Elvin; BOZOK, Naz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Addiction can be defined as the continuous consumption of addictive substances or repetition of certain behaviors despite adverse consequences. Epilepsy is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no published data regarding addictions in patients with epilepsy. Considering the high incidence of psychopathology, we planned a survey using a self-report questionnaire to study some of the addictive behaviors in patients with epilepsy and in control subjects. Methods Patients from our outpatient epilepsy clinic (n=106) and control subjects (n=96) aged between 18 and 65 years took the 20-question questionnaire that screened for smoking, consuming alcohol, or using other illicit drugs. Results Fifty-three percent of patients with epilepsy were male (n=57) and in the control group, 52% were male (n=50) (p=.062). The mean age was 32.66±2.23 years for patients with epilepsy and 35.70±0.59 years for the control group (p=.810). Mean duration of epilepsy was found to be 14.33±11.26 (1–46) years. Majority of patients with epilepsy (84%) had focal epilepsy. Alcohol intake was found to be significantly lower in patients with epilepsy (p=.0001). There was no difference regarding smoking (p=.530) or using illicit drugs between the groups (p=.262). Smoking cigarettes was lower in new onset epilepsies (<5 years) compared with epilepsies of longer duration (p=.031). Conclusion Recent studies connote to some common substrates in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and addiction. Therefore, we wanted to evaluate some addictive behaviors in patients with epilepsy. Although this study did not show significant differences other than low frequency of alcohol use in patients with epilepsy and low rate of smoking in patients with epilepsy duration of <5 year, further studies among homogeneous epilepsy subgroups with larger scale along with their neuropsychological profiles may still be required. PMID:28360739

  3. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy by Danish women and their spouses--a potential source of fetal morbidity.

    PubMed

    Rubin, D H; Krasilnikoff, P A; Leventhal, J M; Berget, A; Weil, B

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption behavior during pregnancy was examined in a select group of Danish women and their spouses. Five-hundred consecutive women who had uncomplicated pregnancies and delivered full-term babies were interviewed 3+ days postpartum. Information was collected about smoking and drinking behavior of all household members during pregnancy. We found (1) a high percentage of Danish women (70%) and their spouses (80%) consume alcohol during pregnancy, and (2) a significant correlation between maternal and paternal smoking (r = .25, P .0001) and maternal and paternal drinking (r = .35, P .0001). These data suggest that even though the potential dangers of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy have been well publicized, there is still a high percentage of women who participate in such behaviors. There may also exist an important role for the father in affecting these two behaviors and therefore indirectly affecting fetal development.

  4. Sporadic Retinoblastoma and Parental Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before and after Conception: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Azary, Saeedeh; Ganguly, Arupa; Bunin, Greta R.; Lombardi, Christina; Park, Andrew S.; Ritz, Beate; Heck, Julia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinoblastoma is the most frequent tumor of the eye in children and very little is known about the etiology of non-familial (sporadic) retinoblastoma. In this study we examined whether parental tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption (pre- or post-conception) contribute to the two phenotypes (bilateral or unilateral) of sporadic retinoblastoma. Methods Two large multicenter case-control studies identified 488 cases through eye referral centers in the United States and Canada or through the Children’s Oncology Group. Controls (n = 424) were selected from among friends and relatives of cases and matched by age. Risk factor information was obtained via telephone interview. We employed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of parental tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on retinoblastoma. Findings Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy contributed to unilateral retinoblastoma risk in the child: year before pregnancy conditional Odds Ratio (OR), 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–51, and unconditional OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3–4.7; month before or during pregnancy, conditional OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.5–20.8, and unconditional OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1–7.0. No association was found for maternal or paternal alcohol consumption. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for sporadic retinoblastoma. Our study supports a role for tobacco exposures in embryonal tumors. PMID:26991078

  5. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of alcohols from Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Wieloch, Wioletta; Włóka, Emilia; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Przybysz, Elżbieta; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2012-10-01

    Information on the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of cuticular alcohols on growth and virulence of insecticidal fungi is unavailable. Therefore, we set out to describe the content of cuticular and internal alcohols in the body of housefly larvae, pupae, males and females. The total cuticular alcohols in larvae, males and females of Musca domestica were detected in comparable amounts (4.59, 3.95 and 4.03 μg g(-1) insect body, respectively), but occurred in smaller quantities in pupae (2.16 μg g(-1)). The major free alcohol in M. domestica larvae was C(12:0) (70.4%). Internal alcohols of M. domestica larvae were not found. Among cuticular pupae alcohols, C(12:0) (31.0%) was the most abundant. In the internal lipids of pupae, only five alcohols were identified in trace amounts. The most abundant alcohol in males was C(24:0) (57.5%). The percentage content of cuticular C(24:0) in males and females (57.5 and 36.5%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of cuticular lipids in larvae and pupae (0.9 and 5.6%, respectively). Only two alcohols were present in the internal lipids of males in trace amounts (C(18:0) and C(20:0)). The most abundant cuticular alcohols in females were C(24:0) (36.5%) and C(12:0) (26.8%); only two alcohols (C(18:0) and C(20:0)) were detected in comparable amounts in internal lipids (3.61±0.32 and 5.01±0.42 μg g(-1), respectively). For isolated alcohols, antimicrobial activity against 10 reference strains of bacteria and fungi was determined. Individual alcohols showed approximately equal activity against fungal strains. C(14:0) was effective against gram-positive bacteria, whereas gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all tested alcohols. Mixtures of alcohols found in cuticular lipids of larvae, pupae, males and females of M. domestica generally presented higher antimicrobial activity than individual alcohols. In contrast, crude extracts containing both cuticular and internal lipids showed no antifungal activity against the

  7. Smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine: risk of prostate cancer in Utah (United States).

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; West, D W

    1993-11-01

    Data from a population-based study of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer (n = 362) and age-matched controls (n = 685) conducted in Utah (United States) between 1983 and 1986 were used to determine if cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine were associated with prostate cancer risk. These factors were examined since their use differs in the Utah population, which is comprised predominantly of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon), from most other populations. Pack-years of cigarettes smoked, alcohol intake, and consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, and caffeine were not associated with prostate cancer risk. Compared with men with very low levels of theobromine intake, older men consuming 11 to 20 and over 20 mg of theobromine per day were at increased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] for all tumors = 2.06, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.20, and OR = 1.47, CI = 0.99-2.19, respectively; OR for aggressive tumors = 1.90, CI = 0.90-3.97, and OR = 1.74, CI = 0.91-3.32, respectively). We present biological mechanisms for a possible association between prostate cancer and theobromine. This finding needs further exploration in studies with a wider range of theobromine exposures and more men with aggressive tumors.

  8. The association of smoking, alcoholic consumption, betel quid chewing and oral cavity cancer: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tin-Tin; Lin, Whe-Dar; Wang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Chen-Chi; Liu, Shih-An

    2008-11-01

    We aimed to analyze the relationship between smoking, alcoholic consumption and betel quid chewing with oral cavity cancer. All male patients age > or =18 years who visited our clinic received an oral mucosal inspection. Basic data including personal habits were also obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was utilized to determine relevant risk factors for developing oral cavity cancer. A total of 8,356 patients were enrolled in this study. Abnormal findings were found in 382 patients (4.6%). Two hundred and ninety-seven patients received biopsy and 191 patients were proven to have oral cavity cancer. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that those who smoked, consumed alcohol and chewed betel quid on a regular basis were most likely to contract oral cancer (odds ratio: 39.66, 95% confidence interval: 26.04-60.38). Therefore, habitual cigarette smokers, alcohol consumers, and betel quid chewers have a higher risk of contracting oral cavity cancer and should receive oral mucosal screening regularly so potential oral cavity cancer can be detected as early as possible, which may result in better and improved survival of oral cancer patients.

  9. Risk of vocal chord dysplasia in relation to smoking, alcohol intake and occupation.

    PubMed

    Grasl, M C; Neuwirth-Riedl, K; Vutuc, C; Horak, F; Vorbeck, F; Banyai, M

    1990-03-01

    The significance of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and occupation as risk factors for the development of vocal chord dysplasia was evaluated in a case-control study. Twenty-seven male patients with dysplasia of the vocal chords were chosen from the I. ENT-University Clinic in Vienna (1985-1988) and compared with 54 controls. The main results are: The relative risk (RR) of a smoker compared to that of a non-smoker for vocal chord dysplasia is 7.27 (6.81-7.73); the RR adjusted for occupation is 3.58 (2.31-4.84). The most important risk factor, however, is occupational exposure. The relative risk of a blue collar worker compared to that of a white collar worker is 11.04 (10.61-11.46), which is reduced only to 10.02 (10.61-11.46) after stratification according to smoking habits.

  10. Smoking, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Alcohol Use Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Miriam K.; Flanagan, Julianne C.; Barrett, Emma L.; Crome, Erica; Baillie, Andrew J.; Mills, Katherine L.; Teesson, Maree

    2015-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) often co-occur with smoking and tobacco use disorders. Each of these disorders is known to have negative health consequences and impairment independently, but little is known about the impact of their co-occurrence. The aim of the present study is to examine the prevalence, correlates, order of onset, and impact of co-occurring daily smoking, PTSD, and AUDs. Method The 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (2007 NSMHWB) was a nationally representative survey of 8,841 Australians. The survey assessed for 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders; the age respondents first started smoking daily, experienced a traumatic event, or developed problems with alcohol; and self-reported mental and physical health and impairment. Results There were systematic patterns of co-occurrence between daily smoking, PTSD, and AUDs. Daily smoking and problems with alcohol use tended to develop after first trauma exposure, which is broadly consistent with the self-medication hypothesis. Daily smoking, PTSD, and AUDs were also associated with additive negative effects on mental and physical health and functioning, after controlling for demographics. Conclusions Smoking, PTSD, and AUDs commonly co-occur in this nationally representative sample of Australian men and women, and this comorbidity was associated with greater severity of mental and physical health problems and impairment in several areas of functioning. This study highlights the importance of identifying and eliminating these patterns of co-occurrence, potentially through integrated interventions. PMID:26386825

  11. Application of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) instrument: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Andrécia Cósmen da; Lucchese, Roselma; Vargas, Lorena Silva; Benício, Patrícia Rosa; Vera, Ivânia

    2016-03-01

    Objective To systematize the knowledge and the learning of how the instrument Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) has been applied. Method Integrative review, performed from May to July 2014, searching the databases Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), PubMed and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), as well as in the search system of the Portal of Journals of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). We selected 26 articles. Results ASSIST focused on helping the identification and classification of psychoactive substances use, and it has proved to be important in screening the involvement with alcohol and other drugs, and effectiveness in primary health care. Conclusion It was confirmed as an instrument to be used in Health Care.

  12. Pfeiffer-like syndrome with holoprosencephaly: a newborn with maternal smoking and alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Lee, Inn-Chi; Ng, Yan-Yan; Hu, Jui-Ming; Chen, Suh-Jen

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a female infant with Pfeiffer-like syndrome and holoprosencephaly. She had a cloverleaf skull, ocular proptosis, broad thumbs and halluces, and variable accompanying anomalies compatible with Pfeiffer syndrome. She also displayed microcephaly, short palpebral fissures, and a smooth philtrum, which are clinical signs consistent with fetal alcohol syndrome. She suffered from multiple congenital anomalies and died at 41 days of age. Cardio-pulmonary failure, brain abnormalities, prematurity, and multiple complications contributed to her death. The patient displayed normal chromosomal numbers and type. DNA analysis did not reveal fibrobtast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 or TWIST gene mutations. We review the previous reports of Pfeiffer syndrome and holoprosencephaly and describe our infant patient with Pfeiffer-like syndrome, holoprosencephaly, and heavy in utero maternal alcohol and smoking exposures.

  13. Cigarette Smoking among Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators and Victims: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Weinberger, Andrea H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Cigarette smoking and intimate partner violence (IPV) are preventable, major public health issues that result in severe physical and psychological consequences. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the consistency and strength of the association between these highly variable behaviors using a nationally representative sample. Methods Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and smoking data were collected from 25,515 adults (54% female) through the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Multinomial logistic regression models were constructed to determine the relationships among smoking status (current daily, intermittent, former, and never smoker) and IPV (minor and sever victimization as well as perpetration). Results Results indicated a robust relationship between IPV and smoking among both victims and perpetrators. The odds for current daily and intermittent smoking were significantly elevated among those who reported both minor and severe IPV relative to their non-violent counterparts. Mood and anxiety disorders were significant comorbid conditions in the interpretation of the relationship between severe IPV and smoking. Conclusions The current study provides strong evidence for a robust relationship between IPV and smoking across current smoking patterns, IPV severity levels, and IPV experience patterns. Scientific Significance Findings emphasize the need to better understand the mechanisms by which smoking and IPV are associated and how this interdependence may impact approaches to treatment. Specifically, research is required to assess the efficacy of integrated smoking cessation and IPV treatment or recovery programs over more traditional, exclusive approaches. PMID:25066781

  14. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other cancers ... or having a baby die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Your smoke is ... are battery-operated smoking devices. Not much is known about the health ...

  15. Interactive Effects of Chronic Cigarette Smoking and Age on Brain Volumes in Controls and Alcohol Dependent Individuals in Early Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Mon, Anderson; Pennington, David; Abé, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic alcohol use disorders (AUD) have been shown to interact with normal age-related volume loss to exacerbate brain atrophy with increasing age. However, chronic cigarette smoking, a highly comorbid condition in AUD, and its influence on age-related brain atrophy has not been evaluated. We performed 1.5T quantitative MRI in non-smoking controls (nsCON; n=54), smoking light drinking controls (sCON, n=34), and 1-week-abstinent, treatment-seeking non-smoking alcohol dependent individuals (nsALC, n=35) and smoking ALC (sALC, n=43), to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of alcohol dependence and chronic smoking on regional cortical and subcortical brain volumes, emphasizing the brain reward/executive oversight system (BREOS),. nsCON and sALC showed greater age-related volume losses than nsALC in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC), total cortical BREOS, superior parietal lobule and putamen. nsALC and sALC demonstrated smaller volumes than nsCON in most cortical ROIs. sCON had smaller volumes than nsCON in the DPFC, insula, inferior parietal lobule, temporal pole/parahippocampal region and all global cortical measures. nsALC and sALC had smaller volumes than sCON in the DPFC, superior temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, precuneus and all global cortical measures. Volume differences between nsALC and sALC were observed only in the putamen. Alcohol consumption measures were not related to volumes in any ROI for ALC; smoking severity measures were related to corpus callosum volume in sCON and sALC. The findings indicate that consideration of smoking status is necessary for a better understanding of the factors contributing to regional brain atrophy in AUD. PMID:22943795

  16. Risk of malignant melanoma in relation to drug intake, alcohol, smoking and hormonal factors.

    PubMed Central

    Westerdahl, J.; Olsson, H.; Måsbäck, A.; Ingvar, C.; Jonsson, N.

    1996-01-01

    In a population-based, matched case-control study from southern Sweden of 400 patients with a first diagnosis of malignant melanoma and 640 healthy control subjects aged 15-75 years, the association between commonly prescribed drugs, alcohol, smoking and malignant melanoma was evaluated. In addition, the relation between reproductive and hormonal factors and melanoma in women was studied. It was found that certain specific types of prescribed drugs, i.e. beta-blockers, hydralazines and benzodiazepines, may increase the risk of melanoma development. However, these associations were diminished, at least for benzodiazepines, after controlling for host factors. As these findings are unconfirmed, and may be due to chance or confounding, further studies are warranted. The risk of malignant melanoma was not influenced by alcohol consumption or smoking habits. Our results do not suggest an association between oral contraceptives and melanoma. Furthermore, reproductive factors were not independent risk factors for melanoma. However, increasing number of live births seemed to be protective (P for trend = 0.01). There is a need for further research to be able to draw firm conclusions on the relation between number of live births and melanoma. The results based on histopathological re-examinations and those based on tumour registry data were essentially the same. PMID:8624275

  17. Association among work exposure, alcohol intake, smoking and Dupuytren's disease in a large cohort study (GAZEL)

    PubMed Central

    Descatha, Alexis; Carton, Matthieu; Mediouni, Zakia; Dumontier, Christian; Roquelaure, Yves; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Leclerc, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In view of the debate of factors in Dupuytren’s disease, we aimed to describe its relationship with certain occupational factors, alcohol intake and smoking. Setting The French GAZEL cohort (employees of Electricité de France and Gaz de France). Participants Participants of the cohort who answered a questionnaire in 2012, that is, 13 587 participants (73.7% of the questionnaire sent). In 2007, self-assessed lifetime occupational biomechanical exposure was recorded (carrying loads, manipulating a vibrating tool and climbing stairs), as well as alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Analyses were performed on high alcohol intake, smoking and duration of relevant work exposure, stratified by gender. Primary and secondary outcome measures From a specific question on Dupuytren’s disease assessed in 2012, the outcome measures were self-reported Dupuytren’s disease (yes/no) and disabling Dupuytren’s disease (including surgery). Results A total of 10 017 men and 3570 women, aged 64–73 years, were included; the mean age for men was 68 years and for women was 65 years. Among men, the following were significantly associated with Dupuytren’s disease: age (OR 1.03 (1.00; 1.06)), diabetes (OR 1.31 (1.07; 1.60)), heavy drinking (OR 1.36 (1.10; 1.69)) and over 15 years of manipulating a vibrating tool at work (OR 1.52 (1.15; 2.02)); except for diabetes, the association with these factors was stronger for disabling Dupuytren’s disease (or surgery), with OR 1.07 (1.03; 1.11), 1.71 (1.25; 2.33) and 1.98(1.34; 2.91), respectively, for age, heavy drinking and over 15 years of manipulating a vibrating tool at work. Among the 3570 women included, 160 reported Dupuytren’s disease (4.5%). The number of cases in the group of women was too low to reach conclusions, although the findings seemed similar for age, diabetes and vibration exposure. Conclusions In this large French cohort study, Dupuytren’s disease in men was associated with high

  18. Cigarette Smoking as a Predictor of Alcohol and Other Drug Use by Children and Adolescents: Evidence of the "Gateway Drug Effect."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Data from a 1992 statewide survey of students in grades 5-12 were analyzed to determine the extent to which cigarette smoking predicted alcohol and other drug use and acted as a gateway drug. Results indicated smoking was a powerful predictor for alcohol and drug use, and the relationship was dose responsive. (SM)

  19. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  20. A Prospective Study of Alcohol Consumption and Smoking and the Risk of Major Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Men

    PubMed Central

    Strate, Lisa L.; Singh, Prashant; Boylan, Matthew R.; Piawah, Sorbarikor; Cao, Yin; Chan, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Data regarding smoking and alcohol consumption and risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) are sparse and conflicting. We assessed the risk of major GIB associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in a large, prospective cohort. Methods We prospectively studied 48,000 men in the Health Professional follow-up Study (HPFS) who were aged 40–75 years at baseline in 1986. We identified men with major GIB requiring hospitalization and/or blood transfusion via biennial questionnaires and chart review. Results We documented 305 episodes of major GIB during 26 years of follow-up. Men who consumed >30 g/day of alcohol had a multivariable relative risk (RR) of 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88–2.35; P for trend 0.006) for major GIB when compared with nondrinkers. Alcohol consumption appeared to be primarily related to upper GIB (multivariable RR for >30 g/day vs. nondrinkers was 1.35; 95% CI, 0.66–2.77; P for trend 0.02). Men who consumed ≥ 5 drinks/week vs. < 1 drink/month of liquor had a multivariable RR of 1.72 (95% CI, 1.26–2.35, P for trend <0.001). Wine and beer were not significantly associated with major GIB. The risk of GIB associated with NSAIDs/aspirin use increased with greater alcohol consumption (multivariable RR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.85–2.19 for 1-14g/day of alcohol, RR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.07–2.88 for ≥ 15g/day compared to nondrinkers). Smoking was not significantly associated with GIB. Conclusions Alcohol consumption, but not smoking, was associated with an increased risk of major GIB. Associations were most notable for upper GIB associated with liquor intake. Alcohol appeared to potentiate the risk of NSAID-associated GIB. PMID:27824864

  1. Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tamara J; Todd, Adam; O'Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen J; Husband, Andrew K; Bambra, Clare; Kasim, Adetayo; Sniehotta, Falko F; Steed, Liz; Smith, Sarah; Nield, Lucie; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10 electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Study design: randomised and non-randomised controlled trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times series. Intervention: any relevant intervention set in a community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team. No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language. Results 19 studies were included: 2 alcohol reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight management. Study quality rating: 6 ‘strong’, 4 ‘moderate’ and 9 ‘weak’. 8 studies were conducted in the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or nicotine replacement therapy are effective and cost-effective for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56 (95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar weight loss compared with active interventions in other primary care settings; however, weight loss was not sustained longer term in a range of primary care and commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacy-based weight management interventions have similar provider costs to those delivered in other primary care settings, which are greater than those delivered by commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient information was available to examine relationships between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies, implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of interventions. Conclusions Community pharmacy-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and demonstrate that the pharmacy is a

  2. Smoking and alcohol in the etiology of oral cancer: gender-specific risk profiles in the south of Greece.

    PubMed

    Zavras, A I; Douglass, C W; Joshipura, K; Wu, T; Laskaris, G; Petridou, E; Dokianakis, G; Segas, J; Lefantzis, D; Nomikos, P; Wang, Y F; Diehl, S R

    2001-01-01

    Oral and pharyngeal cancer (OC) mortality is very low in Greece, especially among men, compared to other European countries. We conducted a case-control study of OC in Athens, and obtained information on tobacco, alcohol use and other potential risk factors and confounding variables for 110 incident cases and 115 hospital-based controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Tobacco smoking (pack years, P(trend)=0.01) and alcohol use (drinks/week, P(trend)=0.07) were independent risk factors, with a multiplicative effect for combined exposures (OR, 8.3; 95% CI, 2.4-29.1, for >28 alcohol drinks/week and >50 pack years of cigarette smoking). The type of alcoholic beverage also seemed important: drinking ouzo and tsipouro (liquors of high ethanol concentration) was associated with greater increased OC risk than drinking comparable amounts of wine, beer or dark spirits. While alcohol drinking is more common for male cases versus controls, few men reported regularly consuming large quantities of ethanol associated with highest risk of OC in other studies. This may partially explain the low rates of male OC mortality in Greece. Among the 38% of our cases who were women, however, neither smoking nor alcohol drinking frequencies were significantly elevated compared to controls, and so the etiology of OC risk in females requires further investigation.

  3. Smoking and alcoholism target genes associated with plasticity and glutamate transmission in the human ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Flatscher-Bader, T; Zuvela, N; Landis, N; Wilce, P A

    2008-01-01

    Drugs of abuse including nicotine and alcohol elicit their effect by stimulating the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system. There is a high incidence of nicotine dependence in alcoholics. To date only limited data is available on the molecular mechanism underlying the action of alcohol and nicotine in the human brain. This study utilized gene expression screening to identify genes sensitive to chronic alcohol abuse within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the human brain. Alcohol-responsive genes encoded proteins primarily involved in structural plasticity and neurotransmitter transport and release. In particular, genes involved with brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling and glutamatergic transmission were found to be affected. The possibility that glutamate transport was a target of chronic alcohol and/or tobacco abuse was further investigated in an extended case set by measurement of mRNA and protein expression. Expression levels of vesicular glutamate transporters SLC17A6 and SLC17A7 were robustly induced by smoking, an effect that was reduced by alcohol co-exposure. Glutamatergic transmission is vital for the control of the VTA and may also be critical to the weighting of novelty and importance of a stimulus, an essential output of this brain region. We conclude that enduring plasticity within the VTA may be a major molecular mechanism for the maintenance of smoking addiction and that alcohol, nicotine and co-abuse have distinct impacts on glutamatergic transmission with important implications for the control of this core mesolimbic structure.

  4. Biomarkers of Induced Active and Passive Smoking Damage

    PubMed Central

    Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the well-known link between smoking and lung cancer, large epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between smoking and cancers of the nose, oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, kidney, stomach, liver, colon and cervix, as well as myeloid leukemia. Epidemiological evidence has reported a direct link between exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke and disease, most notably, lung cancer. Much evidence demonstrates that carcinogenic-DNA adducts are useful markers of tobacco smoke exposure, providing an integrated measurement of carcinogen intake, metabolic activation, and delivery to the DNA in target tissues. Monitoring accessible surrogate tissues, such as white blood cells or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, also provides a means of investigating passive and active tobacco exposure in healthy individuals and cancer patients. Levels of DNA adducts measured in many tissues of smokers are significantly higher than in non-smokers. While some studies have demonstrated an association between carcinogenic DNA adducts and cancer in current smokers, no association has been observed in ex or never smokers. The role of genetic susceptibility in the development of smoking related-cancer is essential. In order to establish whether smoking-related DNA adducts are biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and/or its carcinogenic activity we summarized all data that associated tobacco smoke exposure and smoking-related DNA adducts both in controls and/or in cancer cases and studies where the effect of genetic polymorphisms involved in the activation and deactivation of carcinogens were also evaluated. In the future we hope we will be able to screen for lung cancer susceptibility by using specific biomarkers and that subjects of compared groups can be stratified for multiple potential modulators of biomarkers, taking into account various confounding factors. PMID:19440419

  5. Evaluating the Influence of Side Stream Cigarette Smoke at an Early Stage of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Progression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Won; Yun, Hyejin; Choi, Seong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hyub; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong; Kim, Bumseok

    2017-01-01

    Side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS) is known to be as harmful and hazardous to human health as is active smoking. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the exposure to SSCS and its stimulatory and subacute effects on the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). A methionine and choline-deficient plus high fat (MCDHF) diet was administered to C57BL/6 mice for 6 weeks. During the first three weeks of MCDHF diet feeding, each diet group was exposed to SSCS (0, 20, 40 μg/L) or fresh air for 2 hrs per day and 5 days per week. Additional experiments were performed by increasing the concentration (0, 30, 60 μg/L) and exposure time (6 hours per day) of SSCS. According to histopathologic analysis and serum levels of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), there were no differences in hepatic fat deposition, fibrosis, apoptosis or liver damage in MCDHF-fed mice based on SSCS exposure. There were also no differences in the expression of inflammation-, oxidative stress- or fibrosis-related genes between MCDHF-fed mice with or without SSCS exposure. Therefore, it is concluded that SSCS with current exposure amounts does not have additive detrimental effects on the early stage of NASH. PMID:28133511

  6. Investigation of Aggravating Psychosocial Factors on Health and Predictability of Smoking and Alcohol Use in Post Adolescent Students.

    PubMed

    Barmpagianni, Effrosyni; Travlos, Antonios; Kalokairinou, Athina; Sachlas, Athanasios; Zyga, Sofia

    2013-04-18

    Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual.

  7. Working Memory-Related Neural Activity Predicts Future Smoking Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Loughead, James; Wileyto, E Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; Falcone, Mary; Hopson, Ryan; Gur, Ruben; Lerman, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Brief abstinence from smoking impairs cognition, particularly executive function, and this has a role in relapse to smoking. This study examined whether working memory-related brain activity predicts subsequent smoking relapse above and beyond standard clinical and behavioral measures. Eighty treatment-seeking smokers completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions (smoking satiety vs 24 h abstinence challenge) during performance of a visual N-back task. Brief counseling and a short-term quit attempt followed. Relapse during the first 7 days was biochemically confirmed by the presence of the nicotine metabolite cotinine. Mean percent blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change was extracted from a priori regions of interest: bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial frontal/cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Signal from these brain regions and additional clinical measures were used to model outcome status, which was then validated with resampling techniques. Relapse to smoking was predicted by increased withdrawal symptoms, decreased left DLPFC and increased PCC BOLD percent signal change (abstinence vs smoking satiety). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated 81% area under the curve using these predictors, a significant improvement over the model with clinical variables only. The combination of abstinence-induced decreases in left DLPFC activation and reduced suppression of PCC may be a prognostic marker for poor outcome, specifically early smoking relapse. PMID:25469682

  8. Measurements of the Effects of Smoke on Active Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1999-02-09

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformably coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 M{Omega}) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the cent acts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray-capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems.

  9. Health Education: Smoking, Alcoholism, Drugs. Review of selected programmes for schoolchildren and parents. EURO Reports and Studies 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuylsteek, K.

    This review presents some examples of health education programs in various countries and serves as a reference for a World Health Organization (WHO) working group on health education for schoolchildren and parents. Details are given on health education programs in relation to smoking, alcoholism, and the nonmedical use of drugs. Program aims,…

  10. Behavioral Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Smoking, Alcohol, and Caffeine in 5-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Jeffrey K.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    This study examined the behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to smoking, alcohol, and caffeinated beverages on 5-month-old infants. The sample consisted of 179 Caucasian infants and their mothers. All mothers were 19 years of age or older and had at least a tenth-grade education. Mental and motor portions of the Bayley Scales of…

  11. [Emotions, stress, smoking, alcohol consumption and cancer--the correlational and causal connections].

    PubMed

    Korystov, Iu N

    1997-01-01

    Correlative and causal relationships are discussed between emotions, stress, smoking, drinking, and cancer. The following conclusions have been drawn. Emotions control the physiological stress reactions: the negative emotions initiate and maintain stress, and positive emotions stop it. A dissatisfied need provokes the development of the state of emotional stress. There are two types of emotional stress states: the active stress which is directed to "overcoming" and the passive state of "waiting till the stress is over". Individuals differ in emotionality, stress reactivity, and inclination to the active and passive emotional stress. The passive emotional stress increases the probability of cancer. This effect is caused by the development of the hormonal and neurotransmitter state, which provokes immunosuppression, DNA damage, and stimulation of hemopoiesis. Smoking and drinking are the ways of modifying the psychoemotional state. These habits as well as development of cancer are the effects of the same cause--stress. Thus, cases of correlation between smoking and drinking do not reflect the causal relationships. Only intensive smoking and drinking which lead to tissue damage can increase the incidence of cancer.

  12. Translating Behavioral Interventions Onto mHealth Platforms: Developing Text Message Interventions for Smoking and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of mHealth applications is often driven by the investigators and developers with relatively little input from the targeted population. User input is commonly limited to “like/dislike” post- intervention consumer satisfaction ratings or device or application specific user analytics such as usability. However, to produce successful mHealth applications with lasting effects on health behaviors it is crucial to obtain user input from the start of each project and throughout development. The aim of this tutorial is to illustrate how qualitative methods in an iterative process of development have been used in two separate behavior change interventions (targeting smoking and alcohol) delivered through mobile technologies (ie, text messaging). A series of focus groups were conducted to assist in translating a face-to-face smoking cessation intervention onto a text message (short message service, SMS) delivered format. Both focus groups and an advisory panel were used to shape the delivery and content of a text message delivered intervention for alcohol risk reduction. An in vivo method of constructing message content was used to develop text message content that was consistent with the notion of texting as “fingered speech”. Formative research conducted with the target population using a participatory framework led to important changes in our approach to intervention structure, content development, and delivery. Using qualitative methods and an iterative approach that blends consumer-driven and investigator-driven aims can produce paradigm-shifting, novel intervention applications that maximize the likelihood of use by the target audience and their potential impact on health behaviors. PMID:25714907

  13. Translating Behavioral Interventions Onto mHealth Platforms: Developing Text Message Interventions for Smoking and Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bock, Beth C; Rosen, Rochelle K; Barnett, Nancy P; Thind, Herpreet; Walaska, Kristen; Foster, Robert; Deutsch, Christopher; Traficante, Regina

    2015-02-24

    The development of mHealth applications is often driven by the investigators and developers with relatively little input from the targeted population. User input is commonly limited to "like/dislike" post- intervention consumer satisfaction ratings or device or application specific user analytics such as usability. However, to produce successful mHealth applications with lasting effects on health behaviors it is crucial to obtain user input from the start of each project and throughout development. The aim of this tutorial is to illustrate how qualitative methods in an iterative process of development have been used in two separate behavior change interventions (targeting smoking and alcohol) delivered through mobile technologies (ie, text messaging). A series of focus groups were conducted to assist in translating a face-to-face smoking cessation intervention onto a text message (short message service, SMS) delivered format. Both focus groups and an advisory panel were used to shape the delivery and content of a text message delivered intervention for alcohol risk reduction. An in vivo method of constructing message content was used to develop text message content that was consistent with the notion of texting as "fingered speech". Formative research conducted with the target population using a participatory framework led to important changes in our approach to intervention structure, content development, and delivery. Using qualitative methods and an iterative approach that blends consumer-driven and investigator-driven aims can produce paradigm-shifting, novel intervention applications that maximize the likelihood of use by the target audience and their potential impact on health behaviors.

  14. Consumption of salted meat and its interactions with alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sihao; Wang, Xiaorong; Huang, Chengyu; Liu, Xudong; Zhao, Jin; Yu, Ignatius T S; Christiani, David C

    2015-08-01

    Etiology of esophageal cancer has not yet been clearly documented, especially in high-risk regions. To evaluate the association between salted meat intake and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to explore its joint effects with alcohol drinking and smoking, a population-based case-control study was conducted in a high ESCC risk area in China, including 942 incident ESCC cases and 942 age- and sex-matching controls. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on dietary factors, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Conditional logistic regressions were applied to estimate the association between salted meat intake and ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and smoking, with adjustment for other confounders, including total energy intake. Salted meat intake was associated with an increased risk of ESCC, showing an exposure-response relationship (p for trend <0.001). Consumption of 50 g salted meat per week was related to an increased risk by 18% (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.23). Salted meat in combination with either alcohol drinking or smoking had a greater risk than salted meat alone, which was more than additive. The strongest association was seen in the combination of all the three factors, particularly at the highest level of salted meat intake (odds ratio = 29.27, 95% confidence interval: 13.21-64.89). Salted meat intake is strongly associated with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and/or smoking highlights the significance of reducing salted meat intake among smokers and drinkers with respect to ESCC prevention.

  15. Genetic Variants in Nicotine Addiction and Alcohol Metabolism Genes, Oral Cancer Risk and the Propensity to Smoke and Drink Alcohol: A Replication Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, Devasena; Chabrier, Amélie; Gaborieau, Valérie; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja; Mahimkar, Manoj B.; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic variants in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and alcohol metabolism genes have been associated with propensity to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol, respectively, and also implicated in genetic susceptibility to head and neck cancer. In addition to smoking and alcohol, tobacco chewing is an important oral cancer risk factor in India. It is not known if these genetic variants influence propensity or oral cancer susceptibility in the context of this distinct etiology. Methods We examined 639 oral and pharyngeal cancer cases and 791 controls from two case-control studies conducted in India. We investigated six variants known to influence nicotine addiction or alcohol metabolism, including rs16969968 (CHRNA5), rs578776 (CHRNA3), rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs698 (ADH1C), rs1573496 (ADH7), and rs4767364 (ALDH2). Results The CHRN variants were associated with the number of chewing events per day, including in those who chewed tobacco but never smoked (P =  0.003, P =  0.01 for rs16969968 and rs578776 respectively). Presence of the variant allele contributed to approximately 13% difference in chewing frequency compared to non-carriers. While no association was observed between rs16969968 and oral cancer risk (OR =  1.01, 95% CI =  0.83– 1.22), rs578776 was modestly associated with a 16% decreased risk of oral cancer (OR =  0.84, 95% CI =  0.72– 0.98). There was little evidence for association between polymorphisms in genes encoding alcohol metabolism and oral cancer in this population. Conclusion The association between rs16969968 and number of chewing events implies that the effect on smoking propensity conferred by this gene variant extends to the use of smokeless tobacco. PMID:24505444

  16. Significant differences in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moyses, Raquel Ajub; López, Rossana Verónica Mendoza; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Siqueira, Sheila Aparecida Coelho; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; de Gois Filho, José Francisco; Figueiredo, David Livingstone Alves; Head; GENCAPO, Neck Genome Project; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Michaluart, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project – Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation. PMID:23778492

  17. Elevated soluble CD14 and lower D-dimer are associated with cigarette smoking and heavy episodic alcohol use in persons living with HIV (PLWH)

    PubMed Central

    Cioe, Patricia A.; Baker, Jason; Kojic, E.; Onen, N.; Hammer, John; Patel, Pragna; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease in part due to persistent inflammation and coagulation activation. Methods We examined whether smoking and heavy episodic alcohol use (defined as 5 or more drinks on one occasion) were associated with greater monocyte activation (sCD14) and coagulation (D-dimer) in participants in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV and AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (the ‘SUN’ Study), a prospective observational cohort. Results Using regression analysis (n = 689), current smoking compared with nonsmoking was associated with significantly elevated sCD14 (B= 135.57, 95%CI (84.95, 186.19), p < .001); whereas heavy alcohol use compared to non-heavy use was associated with significantly lower D-dimer levels (B= −.059, 95%CI (−.102, −.016), p = .007). Conclusions Smoking cessation should be encouraged by HIV care providers to improve mortality outcomes from all causes of death, particularly cardiovascular disease. PMID:26181818

  18. Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: data from NHANES 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption was investigated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2010 were used for this investigation. Urinary levels of total arsenic (UAS) and dimethylarsonic acid (UDMA) were evaluated for children aged 6-12 years and adolescents and adults aged ≥ 12 years. Urinary levels of arsenobetaine (UAB) were evaluated for adolescents and adults only. Regression models were fitted for log transformed values of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. For the models for children, however, gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and fish/shell fish consumption during the last 30 days were the only independent variables that were included in the models. Nonsmokers were found to have higher levels of UAS and UDMA than smokers. Elevated levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA were associated with higher amounts of daily alcohol consumption. The associations were in the opposite direction for daily caffeine consumption. Females were found to have statistically significantly lower adjusted levels of UDMA than males for those aged ≥ 12 years. Irrespective of age, those with unclassified race/ethnicity had the highest levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA and non-Hispanic whites had the lowest levels. Adolescents had the higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA than adults. Higher SES was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA among adolescents and adults. Irrespective of age, fish consumption was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA.

  19. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity in alcoholic subjects with and without liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, F; Perez, J; Morancho, J; Pinto, B; Richart, C

    1990-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was measured in samples of liver tissue from a group of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects to determine whether decreased liver alcohol dehydrogenase activity is a consequence of ethanol consumption or liver damage. The alcoholic patients were classified further into the following groups: control subjects with no liver disease (group 1), subjects with non-cirrhotic liver disease (group 2), and subjects with cirrhotic liver disease (group 3). The non-alcoholic subjects were also divided, using the same criteria, into groups 4, 5, and 6, respectively. The analysis of the results showed no significant differences when mean alcohol dehydrogenase activities of alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients with similar degrees of liver pathology were compared (groups 1 v 4, 2 v 5, and 3 v 6. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was, however, severely reduced in patients with liver disease compared with control subjects. Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption does not modify hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity. The reduction in specific alcohol dehydrogenase activity in alcoholic liver disease is a consequence of liver damage. PMID:2379876

  20. Esophageal cancer risk by type of alcohol drinking and smoking: a case-control study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, Jesus; Barber, Xavier; Bolumar, Francisco; Porta, Miquel; Santibáñez, Miguel; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Background The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer (EC) has never been explored in Spain where black tobacco and wine consumptions are quite prevalent. We estimated the independent effect of different alcoholic beverages and type of tobacco smoking on the risk of EC and its main histological cell type (squamous cell carcinoma) in a hospital-based case-control study in a Mediterranean area of Spain. Methods We only included incident cases with histologically confirmed EC (n = 202). Controls were frequency-matched to cases by age, sex and province (n = 455). Information on risk factors was elicited by trained interviewers using structured questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were strong and independent risk factors for esophageal cancer. Alcohol was a potent risk factor with a clear dose-response relationship, particularly for esophageal squamous-cell cancer. Compared to never-drinkers, the risk for heaviest drinkers (≥ 75 g/day of pure ethanol) was 7.65 (95%CI, 3.16–18.49); and compared with never-smokers, the risk for heaviest smokers (≥ 30 cigarettes/day) was 5.07 (95%CI, 2.06–12.47). A low consumption of only wine and/or beer (1–24 g/d) did not increase the risk whereas a strong positive trend was observed for all types of alcoholic beverages that included any combination of hard liquors with beer and/or wine (p-trend<0.00001). A significant increase in EC risk was only observed for black-tobacco smoking (2.5-fold increase), not for blond tobacco. The effects for alcohol drinking were much stronger when the analysis was limited to the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 160), whereas a lack of effect for adenocarcinoma was evidenced. Smoking cessation showed a beneficial effect within ten years whereas drinking cessation did not. Conclusion Our study shows that the risk of EC, and

  1. Addressing tobacco use disorder in smokers in early remission from alcohol dependence: the case for integrating smoking cessation services in substance use disorder treatment programs

    PubMed Central

    Kalman, David; Kim, Sun; DiGirolamo, Gregory; Smelson, David; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Despite the declining overall rate of cigarette smoking in the general population in the United States, the prevalence of smoking is estimated to be as high as 80% among treatment-seeking alcoholics. The serious adverse health effects of tobacco and heavy alcohol use are synergistic and recent evidence suggests that smoking slows the process of cognitive recovery following alcohol abstinence. In addition, substantial evidence shows that treatment for tobacco dependence does not jeopardize alcohol abstinence. In this paper, we focus on the impact and treatment implications of tobacco dependence among treatment-seeking alcoholics through a review of five areas of research. We begin with brief reviews of two areas of research: studies investigating the genetic and neurobiological vulnerability of comorbid tobacco and alcohol dependence and studies investigating the consequences of comorbid dependence on neurobiological and cognitive functioning. We then review literature on the effects of smoking cessation on drinking urges and alcohol use and the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions with alcoholic smokers. Finally, we offer recommendations for research with an emphasis on clinical research for enhancing smoking cessation outcomes in this population. PMID:19748166

  2. Trends in dietary patterns, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer in Polish population in 1960-2008.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz; Rychlik, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men.

  3. Ambivalence about smoking and cue-elicited neural activity in quitting-motivated smokers faced with an opportunity to smoke.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen J; Creswell, Kasey G; Sayette, Michael A; Fiez, Julie A

    2013-02-01

    Many cigarette smokers appear to experience ambivalence about smoking, defined as the simultaneous co-occurrence of a strong desire to smoke and a strong wish to quit smoking. Research suggests that this ambivalence about smoking affects how smokers respond to cigarette-related stimuli, but many important questions remain about precisely how smoking ambivalence influences cognitive and affective processing during cigarette cue exposure. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to address this knowledge gap by examining the relation between self-reported ambivalence about smoking and cue-reactivity in quitting-motivated smokers presented with an opportunity to smoke. Eighty-two quitting-motivated cigarette smokers completed a measure assessing their ambivalence about smoking. Subsequently, participants initiated an attempt to quit smoking and underwent an fMRI session, during which they were asked to hold and view a cigarette. Consistent with hypotheses, results indicated that self-reported smoking ambivalence was negatively correlated with cigarette-related activation in brain areas linked to reward-related processing, motivation, and attention (i.e., rostral anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus, visual cortex). Self-reported ambivalence was not, however, correlated with activation in brain regions related to conflict processing. This pattern of results is discussed with respect to the process of change for those attempting to quit smoking.

  4. Salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase - temporal and population variability, correlations with drinking and smoking habits and activity towards aldehydes contained in food.

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Dziadek, Marta; Wroczyński, Piotr; Woźnicka, Katarzyna; Wojno, Barbara; Pietrzak, Monika; Wierzchowski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Fluorimetric method based on oxidation of the fluorogenic 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde was applied to evaluate temporal and population variability of the specific activity of salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and the degree of its inactivation in healthy human population. Analyzed was also its dependence on drinking and smoking habits, coffee consumption, and its sensitivity to N-acetylcysteine. Both the specific activity of salivary ALDH and the degree of its inactivation were highly variable during the day, with the highest activities recorded in the morning hours. The activities were also highly variable both intra- and interpersonally, and negatively correlated with age, and this correlation was stronger for the subgroup of volunteers declaring abstinence from alcohol and tobacco. Moderately positive correlations of salivary ALDH specific activity with alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were also recorded (r(s) ~0.27; p=0.004 and r(s) =0.30; p=0.001, respectively). Moderate coffee consumption correlated positively with the inactivation of salivary ALDH, particularly in the subgroup of non-drinking and non-smoking volunteers. It was found that mechanical stimulation of the saliva flow increases the specific activity of salivary ALDH. The specific activity of the salivary ALDH was strongly and positively correlated with that of superoxide dismutase, and somewhat less with salivary peroxidase. The antioxidant-containing drug N-acetylcysteine increased activity of salivary ALDH presumably by preventing its inactivation in the oral cavity. Some food-related aldehydes, mainly cinnamic aldehyde and anisaldehyde, were excellent substrates of the salivary ALDH3A1 enzyme, while alkenals, particularly those with short chain, were characterized by lower affinity towards this enzyme but high catalytic constants. The protective role of salivary ALDH against aldehydes in food and those found in the cigarette smoke is discussed, as well as its participation in

  5. Associations of body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption with prostate cancer mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; McLerran, Dale F; Gupta, Prakash C; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D

    2015-09-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963-2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation.

  6. Joint and independent effects of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on oral cancer: a large case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Antunes, José Leopoldo; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Scully, Crispian; Petti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking are assumed to have significant independent and joint effects on oral cancer (OC) development. This assumption is based on consistent reports from observational studies, which, however, overestimated the independent effects of smoking and drinking, because they did not account for the interaction effect in multivariable analyses. This case-control study sought to investigate the independent and the joint effects of smoking and drinking on OC in a homogeneous sample of adults. Case patients (N = 1,144) were affected by invasive oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma confirmed histologically, diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 in four hospitals of São Paulo (Brazil). Control patients (N = 1,661) were not affected by drinking-, smoking-associated diseases, cancers, upper aero-digestive tract diseases. Cumulative tobacco and alcohol consumptions were assessed anamnestically. Patients were categorized into never/ever users and never/level-1/level-2 users, according to the median consumption level in controls. The effects of smoking and drinking on OC adjusted for age, gender, schooling level were assessed using logistic regression analysis; Model-1 did not account for the smoking-drinking interaction; Model-2 accounted for this interaction and included the resultant interaction terms. The models were compared using the likelihood ratio test. According to Model-1, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for smoking, drinking, smoking-drinking were 3.50 (95% confidence interval -95CI, 2.76-4.44), 3.60 (95CI, 2.86-4.53), 12.60 (95CI, 7.89-20.13), respectively. According to Model-2 these figures were 1.41 (95CI, 1.02-1.96), 0.78 (95CI, 0.48-1.27), 8.16 (95CI, 2.09-31.78). Analogous results were obtained using three levels of exposure to smoking and drinking. Model-2 showed statistically significant better goodness-of-fit statistics than Model-1. Drinking was not independently associated with OC, while the independent effect of smoking

  7. Physical activity and physical activity adherence in the elderly based on smoking status.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Theodore V; Resor, Michelle R; Stoever, Colby J; Dubbert, Patricia M

    2007-10-01

    This study assessed the impact of current smoking status and lifetime smoking status on physical fitness and physical activity regimen adherence as part of a larger study on walking for exercise in elderly primary care patients at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. At baseline, 218 participants self-reported smoking status which was verified by carbon monoxide expiration. Former and current smokers responded to questions about length of time quit, average daily cigarette intake, and years a smoker. Smoking measures were re-collected at 6- and 12-month follow-ups if the participants indicated a change in smoking status. Veterans completed multiple measures of physical activity (e.g., 6-min walk, 7-day Physical Activity Recall), and adherence to a physical activity goal was assessed. The Physical Component Summary (PCS) subscale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Hierarchical regression models indicated smoking status was a predictor of the baseline 6-min walk such that smokers walked significantly shorter distances than nonsmokers. In addition, smoking status was found to be a significant predictor of adherence; however, the overall model that included smoking status as a predictor did not demonstrate a significant effect on adherence. Neither smoking status nor pack years were predictors of baseline self-reported physical activity or changes in physical activity post intervention. Results are consistent with recommendations to use physical exercise as an aid to tobacco cessation, even in aging men with extensive smoking histories.

  8. Changes in Food Intake and Activity after Quitting Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated changes in food intake and activity levels among 95 subjects who quit smoking. Found significant increases in calories, sucrose, and fats 2 weeks after quitting. Total sugars changes were less consistent. Activity levels did not change significantly. At week 26, caloric intake for abstinent women was approximately equal to baseline…

  9. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and risk of oral cavity cancer by subsite: results of a French population-based case-control study, the ICARE study.

    PubMed

    Radoï, Loredana; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Cyr, Diane; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Guida, Florence; Schmaus, Annie; Cénée, Sylvie; Menvielle, Gwenn; Carton, Matthieu; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Delafosse, Patricia; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2013-05-01

    The objective was to examine the role of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the incidence of oral cavity cancer by subsite in France, a high-incidence area. We analysed detailed data on lifelong tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking from 772 oral cavity cancer cases and 3555 controls included in a population-based case-control study, the ICARE study. Tobacco smoking increased the risk of oral cavity cancer even for the smaller quantities and durations, whereas alcohol drinking increased this risk only in heavy drinkers who were also ever smokers. The combined effect of smoking and drinking was greater than multiplicative. The floor of the mouth was the subsite that was the most affected by the harmful effects of tobacco and alcohol, whereas the gums were less susceptible. The risk associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption did not differ between intraoral cavity and subsites usually included in the oropharynx (soft palate and base of the tongue). Population-attributable risks for oral cavity cancer were 78.6% for tobacco smoking, 7.3% for alcohol drinking and 80.7% for tobacco and/or alcohol consumption. These results indicate that regular oral check-ups should be targeted at smokers and heavy drinkers, and that prevention efforts should be focused on smoking cessation.

  10. Influence of cigarette circumference on smoke chemistry, biological activity, and smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Kevin; Eldridge, Alison; Fearon, Ian M; Liu, Chuan; Manson, Andrew; Murphy, James; Porter, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Cigarettes with reduced circumference are increasingly popular in some countries, hence it is important to understand the effects of circumference reduction on their burning behaviour, smoke chemistry and bioactivity. Reducing circumference reduces tobacco mass burn rate, puff count and static burn time, and increases draw resistance and rod length burned during puff and smoulder periods. Smoulder temperature increases with decreasing circumference, but with no discernible effect on cigarette ignition propensity during a standard test. At constant packing density, mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) tar and nicotine yields decrease approximately linearly with decreasing circumference, as do the majority of smoke toxicants. However, volatile aldehydes, particularly formaldehyde, show a distinctly non-linear relationship with circumference and increases in the ratios of aldehydes to tar and nicotine have been observed as the circumference decreases. Mutagenic, cytotoxic and tumorigenic specific activities of smoke condensates (i.e. per unit weight of condensate) decrease as circumference decreases. Recent studies suggest that there is no statistical difference in mouth-level exposure to tar and nicotine among smokers of cigarettes with different circumferences. Commercially available slim cigarettes usually have changes in other cigarette design features compared with cigarettes with standard circumference, so it is difficult to isolate the effect of circumference on the properties of commercial products. However, available data shows that changes in cigarette circumference offer no discernible change to the harm associated with smoking.

  11. Genetic variation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene is associated with alcohol use disorders identification test scores and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Staffan; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Engel, Jörgen A.; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The multifaceted gut‐brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR‐1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre‐clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR‐1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover, ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding properties of addictive drugs including alcohol and nicotine in rodents. Given the hereditary component underlying addictive behaviors and disorders, we sought to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre‐proghrelin gene (GHRL) and GHSR‐1a gene (GHSR) are associated with alcohol use, measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and smoking. Two SNPs located in GHRL, rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) and rs696217 (Leu72Met), and one in GHSR, rs2948694, were genotyped in a subset (n = 4161) of a Finnish population‐based cohort, the Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression project. The effect of these SNPs on AUDIT scores and smoking was investigated using linear and logistic regressions, respectively. We found that the minor allele of the rs2948694 SNP was nominally associated with higher AUDIT scores (P = 0.0204, recessive model) and smoking (P = 0.0002, dominant model). Furthermore, post hoc analyses showed that this risk allele was also associated with increased likelihood of having high level of alcohol problems as determined by AUDIT scores ≥ 16 (P = 0.0043, recessive model). These convergent findings lend further support for the hypothesized involvement of ghrelin signaling in addictive disorders. PMID:26059200

  12. P3 event-related potential reactivity to smoking cues: Relations with craving, tobacco dependence, and alcohol sensitivity in young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Piasecki, Thomas M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Trela, Constantine J; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2017-02-01

    The current study tested whether the amplitude of the P3 event-related potential (ERP) elicited by smoking cues is (a) associated with the degree of self-reported craving reactivity, and (b) moderated by degree of tobacco dependence. Because alcohol and cigarettes are frequently used together, and given recent evidence indicating that individual differences in alcohol sensitivity influence reactivity to alcohol cues, we also investigated whether alcohol sensitivity moderated neural responses to smoking cues. ERPs were recorded from young adult smokers (N = 90) while they participated in an evaluative categorization oddball task involving 3 types of targets: neutral images, smoking-related images, and images of drinking straws. Participants showing larger P3 amplitudes to smoking cues and to straw cues (relative to neutral targets) reported greater increases in craving after cue exposure. Neither smoking status (daily vs. occasional use) nor psychometric measures of tobacco dependence consistently or specifically moderated P3 reactivity to smoking cues. Lower alcohol sensitivity was associated with larger P3 to smoking cues but not comparison straw cues (relative to neutral targets). This effect was further moderated by tobacco dependence, with the combination of lower sensitivity and higher dependence associated with especially pronounced P3 reactivity to smoking cues. The findings suggest the smoking-cue elicited P3 ERP component indexes an approach-oriented incentive motivational state accompanied by a subjective sense of cigarette craving. Self-reported low sensitivity to the pharmacologic effects of alcohol may represent a marker of drug cue reactivity and therefore deserves attention as a potential moderator in smoking cue exposure studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Alcohol Use Disorder with and without Stimulant Use: Brain Morphometry and Its Associations with Cigarette Smoking, Cognition, and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, David L.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC) as well as light drinking controls (CON), the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU), and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control. Methods All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness) were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control. Results PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON. Conclusion Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further

  14. Hookah tobacco smoking in a large urban sample of adult cigarette smokers: Links with alcohol and poly-tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy M; Ehlke, Sarah J; Cobb, Caroline O; Soule, Eric K

    2017-05-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) has been increasing, particularly among young adults and has similar health effects compared to cigarette smoking. The link between HTS and poly-tobacco use is well documented, but fewer show an association between HTS and alcohol use. It is essential to identify factors that increase the risk for or addictiveness and consequences of HTS, given its growing prevalence. This study examined whether the association between HTS and poly-tobacco use differed as a function of age and alcohol consumption within in a sample of 1223 adult cigarette smokers. Approximately 20% of participants reported HTS. Compared to non-users, hookah users were more likely to be male, highly educated, and to report drug and alcohol use, binge drinking, and poly-tobacco use but were less likely to be heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Regression analyses predicting number of tobacco products used (excluding cigarettes and HTS) indicated a three-way interaction of HTS, frequency of alcohol use, and age such that the association between HTS and number of tobacco products used was strongest for younger respondents who consumed alcohol more frequently. As observed in previous studies, alcohol is an important risk factor in the relationship between HTS and poly-tobacco use, particularly among younger cigarette smokers. The links between alcohol, HTS, and poly-tobacco use should be considered when developing HTS education and prevention materials directed toward younger cigarette smokers. Findings provide information relevant to FDA's interest in the addiction potential of HTS and its link to poly-tobacco use.

  15. Chronic cigarette smoking in alcohol dependence: associations with cortical thickness and N-acetylaspartate levels in the extended brain reward system.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Mon, Anderson; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2013-03-01

    Chronic smoking in alcohol dependence is associated with abnormalities in brain morphology and metabolite levels in large lobar regions (e.g. frontal lobe). Here, we evaluated if these abnormalities are specifically apparent in several cortical and select subcortical components of the extended brain reward system (BRS), a network that is critically involved in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. We studied 33 non-smoking and 43 smoking alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) with 1 week of abstinence and 42 non-smoking Controls. At 1.5 Tesla, we obtained regional measures of cortical thickness and N-acetylaspartate (NAA; a surrogate marker of neuronal integrity) concentration in major components of the BRS as well as the corresponding measures throughout the cortex. Smoking ALC and non-smoking ALC demonstrated decreased thickness compared with Controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the total BRS, total frontal cortex and global cortex. Smoking ALC had significantly decreased thickness compared to non-smoking ALC in the ACC, insula, the total BRS and total frontal cortex. Smoking ALC had also lower NAA concentrations than both non-smoking ALC and Controls in the DLPFC, insula, superior corona radiata and the total BRS. Alcohol consumption and common medical and psychiatric co-morbidities did not mediate differences between smoking and non-smoking ALC. This dual modality magnetic resonance (MR) study indicated that chronic smoking in ALC was associated with significant cortical thinning and NAA abnormalities in anterior brain regions that are implicated in the development and maintenance of addictive disorders.

  16. Alcohol Usage and Abrupt Cessation Modulate Diurnal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Norrell, Stacy; Reyes-Vasquez, Cruz; Burau, Keith; Dafny, Nachum

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol has many effects throughout the body. The effect on circadian rhythms and the correlation of these effects to withdrawal effects of alcohol present interesting findings. By measuring 3 planes of activity of female Sprague-Dawley rats during alcohol usage and continuing study through the first two days following withdrawal of alcohol allow for the observation of a drastic modulation of the circadian pattern of activity. PMID:20615456

  17. Unhealthy Alcohol Use is Associated with Monocyte Activation Prior to Starting Anti-Retroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Carrico, Adam W.; Hunt, Peter W.; Emenyonu, Nneka I.; Muyindike, Winnie; Ngabirano, Christine; Cheng, Debbie M.; Winter, Michael R.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Hahn, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol use may accelerate HIV disease progression, but the plausible biological mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. Methods HIV-positive persons who were not on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) completed the baseline assessment for a longitudinal study examining the association of alcohol use with HIV disease markers. Oversampling drinkers, baseline samples were tested for markers of monocyte activation (sCD14), inflammation (IL-6), and coagulation (D-dimer). We defined “unhealthy alcohol use” as testing positive using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption (AUDIT-C; ≥ 3 for women and ≥ 4 for men) in the past 3 months or testing positive using a biomarker of heavy drinking, phophatidylethanol (PEth; ≥ 50 ng/ml). Multiple linear regression was used to examine the associations of unhealthy alcohol use with sCD14, Log10 IL-6, and D-dimer. Results Compared to those who were abstinent from alcohol, unhealthy drinkers had significantly higher sCD14 levels (mean = 1,676 vs. 1,387 ng/ml; mean difference (95% CI) = 289 (83, 495), p < 0.01). In analyses adjusted for demographic factors, current cigarette smoking, and HIV disease markers, unhealthy drinkers continued to display significantly higher sCD14 levels compared to those who were abstinent from alcohol (adjusted mean = 1,670 vs. 1,406 ng/ml; adjusted mean difference (95% CI) = 264 (47, 480), p = 0.02). Unhealthy alcohol use was not significantly associated with IL-6 or D-dimer levels. Conclusions unhealthy alcohol use was independently associated with a marker of monocyte activation (i.e., higher sCD14) that predicts mortality in treated HIV infection. Longitudinal research should examine if unhealthy alcohol use predicts changes in sCD14 prior to and following ART initiation. PMID:26509359

  18. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  19. Case-case comparison of smoking and alcohol risk associations with Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, M. Constanza; Koriyama, Chihaya; Matsuo, Keitaro; Kim, Woo-Ho; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Liao, Linda M.; Yu, Jun; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Lissowska, Jolanta; Meneses-Gonzalez, Fernando; Yatabe, Yashushi; Ding, Ti; Hu, Nan; Taylor, Philip R.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Gulley, Margaret L.; Torres, Javier; Akiba, Suminori; Rabkin, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the primary cause of gastric cancer. However, monoclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nucleic acid is also present in up to 10% of these tumors worldwide. EBV prevalence is increased with male sex, non-antral localization and surgically disrupted anatomy. To further examine associations between EBV and gastric cancer, we organized an international consortium of 11 studies with tumor EBV status assessed by in situ hybridization. We pooled individual-level data on 2,648 gastric cancer patients, including 184 (7%) with EBV-positive cancers; all studies had information on cigarette use (64% smokers) and 9 had data on alcohol (57% drinkers). We compared patients with EBV-positive and EBV-negative tumors to evaluate smoking and alcohol interactions with EBV status. To account for within-population clustering, multi-level logistic regression models were used to estimate interaction odds ratios (OR) adjusted for distributions of sex (72% male), age (mean 59 years), tumor histology (56% Lauren intestinal-type), anatomic subsite (61% noncardia) and year of diagnosis (1983–2012). In unadjusted analyses, the OR of EBV positivity with smoking was 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–3.2). The OR was attenuated to 1.5 (95% CI, 1.01–2.3) by adjustment for the possible confounders. There was no significant interaction of EBV status with alcohol drinking (crude OR, 1.4; adjusted OR, 1.0). Our data indicate the smoking association with gastric cancer is stronger for EBV-positive than EBV-negative tumors. Conversely, the null association with alcohol does not vary by EBV status. Distinct epidemiologic characteristics of EBV-positive cancer further implicate the virus as a co-factor in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:23904115

  20. [Dopamine content in blood and activity of alcohol-transforming enzymes in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, N K

    1997-01-01

    An increase of alcohol dehydrogenase activity is observed in patients with chronic alcoholism at the first stage of the disease under normal indices of activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase and thymol sample that evidences for the induction of alcohol dehydrogenase synthesis in the liver. At the second stage of alcoholism the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase, the index of thymol sample increase while activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase decreases that indicates to organic destructive changes in the liver. At the third stage of alcoholism one can observe the decrease in activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase relative to activity of these enzymes at the second stage, that can evidence for the increase of the possibility of the processes of synthesis of the liver. The correlation of alcohol dehydrogenase activity to that of aldehyde dehydrogenase in the process of formation and development of alcoholism is shifted towards the progressive accumulation of acetaldehyde. Parallel increase of dopamine concentration in blood creates conditions for formation of morphine-like alcaloides--products of condensation of acetaldehide with dopamine.

  1. What is the association of smoking and alcohol use with the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark? A nationwide register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Diderichsen, Finn; Grønbæk, Morten; Juel, Knud

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to estimate the impact of smoking and alcohol use on the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark in the period 1985–2009. Design A nationwide register-based study. Setting Denmark. Participants The whole Danish population aged 30 years or more in the period 1985–2009. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome is mortality rates in relation to educational attainments calculated with and without deaths related to smoking and alcohol use. An absolute measure of inequality in mortality is applied along with a result on the direct contribution from smoking and alcohol use on the absolute difference in mortality rates. The secondary outcome is life expectancy in relation to educational attainments. Results Since 1985, Danish overall mortality rates have decreased. Alongside the improvement in mortality, the absolute difference in the mortality rate (per 100 000 persons) between the lowest and the highest educated quartile grew from 465 to 611 among men and from 250 to 386 among women. Smoking and alcohol use have caused 75% of the increase among men and 97% of the increase among women. Among men the increase was mainly caused by alcohol. In women the increase was mainly caused by smoking. Conclusions The main explanation for the increase in social inequality in mortality since the mid-1980s is smoking and alcohol use. A significant reduction in the social inequality in mortality can only happen if the prevention of smoking and alcohol use are targeted to the lower educated part of the Danish population. PMID:25967987

  2. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Polly A.; Campbell, Peter T.; Baron, John A.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Du, Mengmeng; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Jeon, Jihyoun; Jenkins, Mark A.; Küry, Sébastien; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindor, Noralane M.; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji; Potter, John D.; Rudolph, Anja; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Thornquist, Mark; Toth, Reka; Wallace, Robert; White, Emily; Jiao, Shuo; Lemire, Mathieu; Hsu, Li; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10−8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8) region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]; P = 2.1×10−4) and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51–0.75]; P = 1.3×10−6) but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059). No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk. PMID:27723779

  3. [Effects of H2-blockers on alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity].

    PubMed

    Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2008-12-01

    First-pass metabolism (FPM) of alcohol is demonstrated by lower blood alcohol concentrations after oral than intravenous administration of the same dose. FPM occurs predominantly in the stomach and has been attributed to class IV of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzyme localizated in the gastric mucosa. A number of factors that influence on gastric ADH activity and thereby modulate FPM have been identified. These include age, sex, ethnicity, concentrations and amounts of alcohol consumed and drugs. Several H2-receptor antagonists, including cimetidine and ranitidine, inhibit gastric ADH activity and reduce FPM, resulting in higher blood alcohol concentrations after H2-blockers administration.

  4. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  5. Social capital in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13–18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed. PMID:23688242

  6. Genetic Sensitivity to Peer Behaviors: "5HTTLPR", Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daw, Jonathan; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Smolen, Andrew; Haberstick, Brett; Boardman, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region ("5HTTLPR"), a gene associated with environmental sensitivity, moderates the association between smoking and drinking patterns at adolescents' schools and their corresponding risk for smoking and drinking themselves. Drawing on the school-based design of the National…

  7. Platelet monoamine oxidase activity predicts alcohol sensitivity and voluntary alcohol intake in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wargelius, Hanna-Linn; Fahlke, Claudia; Suomi, Stephen J; Oreland, Lars; Higley, James Dee

    2010-02-01

    Platelet monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) has been proposed to be a biological marker for the properties of monoamine systems, with low activity being associated with vulnerability for high scores on personality traits such as sensation seeking, monotony avoidance, and impulsiveness, as well as for vulnerability for alcoholism. In the present study, platelet MAO-B activity was analysed in 78 rhesus macaques, and its relation to voluntary alcohol intake and behaviours after intravenous alcohol administration was observed. Monkeys with low platelet MAO-B activity had low levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in cerebrospinal fluid and showed excessive aggression after alcohol administration. A novel finding was that animals with low platelet MAO-B activity showed less intoxication following alcohol administration. As we have shown previously, they also voluntarily consumed more alcohol. We here replicate results from studies on both humans and non-human primates, showing the utility of platelet MAO as a marker for risk behaviours and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, we link platelet MAO activity to alcohol sensitivity.

  8. Smoking, obesity, and hypertension alter the dose-response curve and test sensitivity of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin as a marker of alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, J B; Fletcher, L M; Murphy, T L; Powell, L W; Halliday, J; Heath, A C; Martin, N G

    1998-12-01

    Serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a specific and comparatively sensitive marker of excessive alcohol use; however, reports of its sensitivity vary according to the population or patient groups studied and their average alcohol intake. We have characterized the dose-response curve between alcohol intake and CDT concentrations in a study of 1400 men and women from a community-based twin registry. Our results show that mean CDT increases with increasing reported alcohol consumption even within the range of alcohol use considered to be nonhazardous. We found significant effects of sex, age, smoking, previous alcohol dependence, body mass index, and diastolic hypertension on the alcohol-CDT dose-response curve. These variables either affect test sensitivity or require adjustment of reference intervals. The results also provide insight into the physiological and biochemical factors that affect CDT concentration.

  9. Fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Okuda, H

    1999-12-01

    The fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was characterized using bovine milk LPL. Synthesizing activities were determined in an aqueous medium using oleic acid or trioleylglycerol as the acyl donor and equimolar amounts of long-chain alcohols as the acyl acceptor. When oleic acid and hexadecanol emulsified with gum arabic were incubated with LPL, palmityl oleate was synthesized, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apo-very low density lipoprotein (apoVLDL) stimulated LPL-catalyzed palmityl oleate synthesis. The apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/oleic acid was estimated using a high concentration of LPL and a long (20 h) incubation period. The equilibrium ratio was affected by the incubation pH and the alcohol chain length. When the incubation pH was below pH 7.0 and long chain fatty acyl alcohols were used as substrates, the fatty acid alcohol ester/free fatty acid equilibrium ratio favored ester formation, with an apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/fatty acid of about 0.9/0.1. The equilibrium ratio decreased sharply at alkaline pH (above pH 8.0). The ratio also decreased when fatty alcohols with acyl chains shorter than dodecanol were used. When a trioleoylglycerol/fatty acyl alcohol emulsion was incubated with LPL, fatty acid alcohol esters were synthesized in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Fatty acid alcohol esters were easily synthesized from trioleoylglycerol when fatty alcohols with acyl chains longer than dodecanol were used, but synthesis was decreased with fatty alcohols with acyl chain lengths shorter than decanol, and little synthesizing activity was detected with shorter-chain fatty alcohols such as butanol or ethanol.

  10. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  11. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  12. Fate of free and linear alcohol-ethoxylate-derived fatty alcohols in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Federle, Thomas W; Itrich, Nina R

    2006-05-01

    Pure homologues of [1-14C] C12, C14, and C16 alcohols and the linear alcohol ethoxylates, AE [1-14C alkyl] C13E9 and C16E9 were tested in a batch-activated sludge die-away system to assess their biodegradation kinetics and to predict levels of free alcohol derived from AE biodegradation in treated effluent. First-order rates for primary biodegradation were similar for all alcohols (86-113 h(-1)) and were used to predict removal under typical treatment conditions. Predicted removals of fatty alcohols ranged from 99.76% to 99.85%, consistent with published field data. During the biodegradation of the AE homologues, lower than expected levels of fatty alcohol based upon the assumption that biodegradation occurs through central fission were observed. Rather than fatty alcohols, the major metabolites were polar materials resulting from omega oxidation of the alkyl chain prior to or concurrent with central cleavage. The amounts of free fatty alcohols that were formed from AEs in influent and escape into effluent were negligible due both to their rapid degradation and to the finding that formation of free alcohol through central cleavage is only a minor degradation pathway in activated sludge.

  13. Covariates of Craving in Actively Drinking Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Subhajit; Kuna, Samuel T.; Zaharakis, Nikola; O’Brien, Charles P.; Kampman, Kyle M.; Oslin, David

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship of alcohol craving with biopsychosocial and addiction factors that are clinically pertinent to alcoholism treatment. Alcohol craving was assessed in 315 treatment-seeking, alcohol dependent subjects using the PACS questionnaire. Standard validated questionnaires were used to evaluate a variety of biological, addiction, psychological, psychiatric, and social factors. Individual covariates of craving included age, race, problematic consequences of drinking, heavy drinking, motivation for change, mood disturbance, sleep problems, and social supports. In a multivariate analysis (R2 = .34), alcohol craving was positively associated with mood disturbance, heavy drinking, readiness for change, and negatively associated with age. The results from this study suggest that alcohol craving is a complex phenomenon influenced by multiple factors. PMID:20716308

  14. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders seem to be an under considered health problem amongst the elderly. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), was developed by the World Health Organization to detect substance use disorders. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in a sample of elderly people attending geriatric outpatient facilities (primary care or psychiatric facilities). Methods One hundred persons older than 65 years were recruited from clients attending a geriatric policlinic day care centre and from geriatric psychiatric facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ) and MiniMental State(MMS). Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between ASSIST scores, scores from ASI, AUDIT, RTQ, and significantly higher ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement along with specific substance involvement as assessed by Cronbach’s α, ranging from 0.66, to 0.89 . Conclusions The findings demonstrate that ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in elderly. PMID:22538114

  15. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking and risk of a contralateral breast cancer: The Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Julia A; Bernstein, Leslie; Largent, Joan; Capanu, Marinela; Begg, Colin B; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Lynch, Charles F; Malone, Kathleen E; Reiner, Anne S; Liang, Xiaolin; Haile, Robert W; Boice, John D; Bernstein, Jonine L

    2009-04-15

    Women with primary breast cancer are at increased risk of developing second primary breast cancer. Few studies have evaluated risk factors for the development of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer in women with breast cancer. In the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study (1985-2001), the roles of alcohol and smoking were examined in 708 women with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (cases) compared with 1,399 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls). Cases and controls aged less than 55 years at first breast cancer diagnosis were identified from 5 population-based cancer registries in the United States and Denmark. Controls were matched to cases on birth year, diagnosis year, registry region, and race and countermatched on radiation treatment. Risk factor information was collected by telephone interview. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using conditional logistic regression. Ever regular drinking was associated with an increased risk of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (rate ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.6), and the risk increased with increasing duration (P = 0.03). Smoking was not related to asynchronous contralateral breast cancer. In this, the largest study of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer to date, alcohol is a risk factor for the disease, as it is for a first primary breast cancer.

  16. Do Alcohol Misuse, Smoking, and Depression Vary Concordantly or Sequentially? A Longitudinal Study of HIV-Infected and Matched Uninfected Veterans in Care

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, R. Scott; Fang, Yixin; Tate, Janet; Mentor, Sherry M.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Fiellin, David A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed temporal patterns of alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression among veterans in care to determine whether these conditions vary concordantly or sequentially. Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study, harmful alcohol use (AUDIT-C ≥ 4), current smoking, and depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 8), were measured. In regression analyses, predictors included each outcome condition at baseline, the other two conditions in the same survey, the other two conditions in the immediately preceding survey, number of years since enrollment, and HIV status. We found that current smoking and depression were more common among HIV infected individuals. Harmful alcohol use was more common among uninfected individuals. Temporal analyses suggested a concurrent pattern: each condition was associated with the other two conditions (p < 0.03, OR 1.12–1.66) as well as with the prior presence of the same condition (p < 0.0001; OR 6.38–22.02). Smoking was associated with prior depression after controlling for current depression (OR 1.16; p = 0.003). In conclusion, alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression were temporally concordant and persistent, raising the question of whether they constitute a common syndrome in HIV infected patients and others with chronic diseases. PMID:26187007

  17. Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

  18. Active and passive smoking - New insights on the molecular composition of different cigarette smoke aerosols by LDI-FTICRMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, Sébastien; Carré, Vincent; Scheffler, Jean-Luc; Aubriet, Frédéric

    2014-08-01

    The aerosol generated when a cigarette is smoked is a significant indoor contaminant. Both smokers and non-smokers can be exposed to this class of pollutants. Nevertheless, they are not exposed to the same kind of smoke. The active smoker breathes in the mainstream smoke (MSS) during a puff, whereas the passive smoker inhales not only the smoke generated by the lit cigarette between two puffs (SSS) but also the smoke exhaled by active smokers (EXS). The aerosol fraction of EXS has until now been poorly documented; its composition is expected to be different from MSS. This study aims to investigate the complex composition of aerosol from EXS to better understand the difference in exposure between active and passive smokers. To address this, the in-situ laser desorption ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (LDI-FTICRMS) was used to characterise the aerosol composition of EXS from two different smokers. Results clearly indicated many similarities between EXS samples but also significant differences with MSS and SSS aerosol. The comparison of MSS and EXS aerosol allowed the chemicals retained by the active smoker's lungs to be identified, whereas the convolution of the EXS and SSS aerosol compositions were considered relevant to the exposition of a passive smoker. As a consequence, active smokers are thought to be mainly exposed to polar and poorly unsaturated oxygenated and nitrogenated organics, compared with poorly oxygenated but highly unsaturated compounds in passive smokers.

  19. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061

  20. Body mass index, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption and cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx: modeling odds ratios in pooled case-control data.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Jay H; Gaudet, Mia M; Olshan, Andrew F; Kelsey, Karl; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Dal Maso, Luigino; Daudt, Alexander W; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana; Morgenstern, Hal; Muscat, Joshua; Eluf Neto, Jose; Purdue, Mark P; Rudnai, Peter; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shangina, Oxana; Sturgis, Erich M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Talamini, Renato; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Hashibe, Mia; Hayes, Richard B

    2010-06-15

    Odds ratios for head and neck cancer increase with greater cigarette and alcohol use and lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height(2) (m(2))). Using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium, the authors conducted a formal analysis of BMI as a modifier of smoking- and alcohol-related effects. Analysis of never and current smokers included 6,333 cases, while analysis of never drinkers and consumers of < or =10 drinks/day included 8,452 cases. There were 8,000 or more controls, depending on the analysis. Odds ratios for all sites increased with lower BMI, greater smoking, and greater drinking. In polytomous regression, odds ratios for BMI (P = 0.65), smoking (P = 0.52), and drinking (P = 0.73) were homogeneous for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers. Odds ratios for BMI and drinking were greater for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while smoking odds ratios were greater for laryngeal cancer (P < 0.01). Lower BMI enhanced smoking- and drinking-related odds ratios for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while BMI did not modify smoking and drinking odds ratios for laryngeal cancer. The increased odds ratios for all sites with low BMI may suggest related carcinogenic mechanisms; however, BMI modification of smoking and drinking odds ratios for cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx but not larynx cancer suggests additional factors specific to oral cavity/pharynx cancer.

  1. Dose-dependent reduction of hazardous alcohol use in a placebo-controlled trial of naltrexone for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Stephanie S; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; McKee, Sherry A; Leeman, Robert F; Cooney, Ned L; Meandzija, Boris; Wu, Ran; Makuch, Robert W

    2009-06-01

    The opiate antagonist naltrexone (Ntx) has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence and as a component of treatment to reduce heavy drinking. At present, there are no published dose-ranging clinical trials of the oral preparation for treatment of problem drinking. The present study evaluated the effects of Ntx on alcohol use among the subset of hazardous drinkers (n=102) who participated in a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of oral Ntx (25-mg, 50-mg and 100-mg doses) combined with open-label transdermal nicotine patch for enhancing smoking cessation. On the primary outcome--no hazardous drinking (drinking that exceeded weekly or daily limits) during treatment--25 mg and 50 mg Ntx were superior to placebo (each p<0.05). These findings remained after controlling for baseline predictors or smoking abstinence during treatment. Time to remission of hazardous drinking was examined as a secondary outcome with definitions of hazardous drinking based on weekly limits, daily limits and the combination of weekly and daily limits and the results were consistent with the primary findings. In conclusion, the findings suggest that Ntx can reduce the risk of hazardous drinking in smokers who are not seeking or receiving alcohol treatment, providing strong evidence for the pharmacological effects of Ntx on drinking. This effect appears to favour lower doses that may be better tolerated and less expensive than the higher 100-mg dose. Given its efficacy and favourable side-effect profile, the 25-mg dose should be considered for future studies of combination therapy.

  2. Dose Dependent Reduction of Hazardous Alcohol Use in a Placebo-Controlled Trial of Naltrexone for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; McKee, Sherry A.; Leeman, Robert F.; Cooney, Ned L.; Meandzija, Boris; Wu, Ran; Makuch, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    The opiate antagonist naltrexone has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence and as a component of treatment to reduce heavy drinking. At present, there are no published dose-ranging clinical trials of the oral preparation for treatment of problem drinking. The present study evaluated the effects of naltrexone on alcohol use among the subset of hazardous drinkers (N = 102) who participated in a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of oral naltrexone (25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg doses) combined with open-label transdermal nicotine patch for enhancing smoking cessation. On the primary outcome—no hazardous drinking (drinking that exceeded weekly or daily limits) during treatment—25 mg and 50 mg naltrexone were superior to placebo (each p < 0.05). These findings remained after controlling for baseline predictors or smoking abstinence during treatment. Time to remission of hazardous drinking was examined as a secondary outcome with definitions of hazardous drinking based on weekly limits, daily limits and the combination of weekly and daily limits and the results were consistent with the primary findings. In conclusion, the findings suggest that naltrexone can reduce the risk of hazardous drinking in smokers who are not seeking or receiving alcohol treatment, providing strong evidence for the pharmacological effects of naltrexone on drinking. This effect appears to favor lower doses that may be better tolerated and less expensive than the higher 100 mg dose. Given its efficacy and favorable side effect profile, the 25 mg dose should be considered for future studies of combination therapy. PMID:18796184

  3. Determinants of oral cancer at the national level: just a question of smoking and alcohol drinking prevalence?

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2010-07-01

    In addition to individual-based prevention strategies, the burden of oral cancer could be decreased by controlling its national level determinants. Population-based studies have found smoking, drinking, and wealth to be associated with oral cancer incidence and mortality rates. However, these studies merely reported trends, or did not account for confounders or for intercorrelation between predictor variables. This ecologic study sought to investigate oral cancer determinants at the country level. The male, age-standardized mortality rate was the dependent variable. The explanatory variables, obtained from reliable international agencies, were life expectancy, frequency of physicians, gross national product (GNP), expenditure on health, literacy rate, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, smoking prevalence, alcohol drinking prevalence, drinking modality, average daily calorie consumption, and average calorie intake from fruit and vegetables. Common factor analysis was used to generate a new dimension that incorporated all of the strongly intercorrelated variables. These were life expectancy, physician frequency, GNP, expenditure on health, literacy rate, calorie consumption, smoking prevalence, and drinking modality. According to this dimension, arbitrarily called the country development level (CDL), countries were split into quartiles. The ecologic risk for high mortality from oral cancer, estimated using logistic regression analysis, was three to five times higher among the second, third, and fourth CDL quartiles than among the first CDL quartile, which included the highest-income countries. HIV, drinking prevalence, and fruit and vegetable intake did not affect significantly mortality. These results suggest that it might be possible to improve oral cancer mortality by modifying country-based determinants related to aberrant lifestyles (not only smoking and drinking prevalence) and improving healthcare system efficiency, approximately estimated by CDL

  4. Characterization of the third component of complement (C3) after activation by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Kew, R.R.; Ghebrehiwet, B.; Janoff, A.

    1987-08-01

    Activation of lung complement by tobacco smoke may be an important pathogenetic factor in the development of pulmonary emphysema in smokers. We previously showed that cigarette smoke can modify C3 and activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. However, the mechanism of C3 activation was not fully delineated in these earlier studies. In the present report, we show that smoke-treated C3 induces cleavage of the alternative pathway protein, Factor B, when added to serum containing Mg-EGTA. This effect of cigarette smoke is specific for C3 since smoke-treated C4, when added to Mg-EGTA-treated serum, fails to activate the alternative pathway and fails to induce Factor B cleavage. Smoke-modified C3 no longer binds significant amounts of (/sup 14/C)methylamine (as does native C3), and relatively little (/sup 14/C)methylamine is incorporated into its alpha-chain. Thus, prior internal thiolester bond cleavage appears to have occurred in C3 activated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke components also induce formation of noncovalently associated, soluble C3 multimers, with a Mr ranging from 1 to 10 million. However, prior cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 with methylamine prevents the subsequent formation of these smoke-induced aggregates. These data indicate that cigarette smoke activates the alternative pathway of complement by specifically modifying C3 and that these modifications include cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 and formation of noncovalently linked C3 multimers.

  5. Alcohol and smoking and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in Japanese men: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Norie; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-02-15

    Although alcohol and smoking have not been established as risk factors for prostate cancer, they are important risk factors for other human cancers and potentially major avoidable factors. Alcohol drinkers and smokers might be less likely to get screening, which might lead to attenuation of the positive association. Here, we investigated the association of alcohol drinking and smoking and prostate cancer according to stage, as well as prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms, in a large prospective study among Japanese men. The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC study) was established in 1990 for Cohort I and in 1993 for Cohort II. Subjects were 48,218 men aged 40-69 years who completed a questionnaire, which included their alcohol and smoking habits at baseline, and who were followed until the end of 2010. During 16 years of follow-up, 913 men were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer; of whom 248 had advanced cases, 635 were organ-localized and 30 were of an undetermined stage. Alcohol consumption was dose-dependently associated with advanced prostate cancer [nondrinkers: reference, 0-150 g/week: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-1.82; 150-300 g/week: HR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.04-2.19; ≥ 300 g/week: HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.97-2.05, p for trend = 0.02]. The positive association was not substantially changed among cancers detected by subjective symptoms. Smoking was inversely associated with prostate cancer among total subjects, but tended to increase the risk of advanced prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms. In conclusion, abstinence from alcohol and prohibition of smoking might be important factors in the prevention of advanced prostate cancer.

  6. Development of a Conceptual Model for Smoking Cessation: Physical Activity, Neurocognition, and Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Herod, Skyla M.; Walker, Jerome F.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Mahoney, Sara E.; Kane, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable research has shown adverse neurobiological effects of chronic alcohol use, including long-term and potentially permanent changes in the structure and function of the brain; however, much less is known about the neurobiological consequences of chronic smoking, as it has largely been ignored until recently. In this article, we…

  7. Facilitating Smoking Cessation and Preventing Relapse in Primary Care: Minimizing Weight Gain by Reducing Alcohol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    counseling and nicotine replacement therapy [NRT; nicotine patch and buproprion (Zyban)] with an emphasis on reducing alcohol consumption as a strategy...Counselor Assisted Program (BCAP), or a Self-Guided Program (SGP), with the nicotine patch and buproprion (Zyban) available to all participants...and stay quit by use of motivational interviewing, behavioral counseling and nicotine replacement therapy with an emphasis on reducing alcohol

  8. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  9. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8–2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4–2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6–3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression. PMID:26639938

  10. Changes in Smoking for Adults with and without Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders: Longitudinal Evaluation in the U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Pilver, Corey E.; Hoff, Rani A.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the smoking cessation and smoking relapse behavior of adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and drug use disorders (DUDs). Objectives The current study used longitudinal data from a representative sample of the U.S. adult population to examine changes in smoking over three years for men and women with and without AUD and DUD diagnoses. Methods Participants were current or former daily cigarette smokers at Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions who completed the Wave 2 assessment three years later (n=11,973; 46% female). Analyses examined the main and gender-specific effects of AUD and DUD diagnoses on smoking cessation and smoking relapse. Results Wave 1 Current Daily Smokers with a Current AUD (OR=0.70, 95% CI=0.55, 0.89), Past AUD (OR=0.73, 95% CI=0.60, 0.89), Current DUD (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.31, 0.76), and Past DUD (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.49, 0.79) were less likely to have quit smoking at Wave 2 than those with no AUD or DUD diagnosis. Wave 1 Former Daily Smokers with a Current AUD (OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.36, 3.73), Current DUD (OR=7.97, 95% CI=2.51, 25.34), and Past DUD (OR=2.69, 95% CI=1.84, 3.95) were more likely to have relapsed to smoking at Wave 2 than those with no AUD or DUD diagnosis. The gender-by-diagnosis interactions were not significant. Conclusion Current and Past AUDs and DUDs were associated with a decreased likelihood of quitting smoking while Current AUDs, Current DUDs, and Past DUDs were associated with an increased likelihood of smoking relapse. PMID:23721534

  11. Antimicrobial activity and main chemical composition of two smoke condensates from Peganum harmala seeds.

    PubMed

    Shahverdi, Ahmad R; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid R; Nickavar, Bahman; Bitarafan, Lila; Khodaee, Samira; Khoshakhlagh, Narges

    2005-01-01

    The smoke of Peganum harmala seeds is traditionally used in Iran as a disinfectant agent. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of two smoke condensates from Peganum harmala seeds. Furthermore the composition of smoke preparations was studied using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis. The most prevalent compound detected in a dichloromethane extract was harmine. Standard harmine as well as the dichloromethane extract showed antimicrobial activity against all test strains. Harmine was not detected in an n-hexane extract and we did not observe antimicrobial activity from this smoke preparation at the tested concentrations.

  12. All Physical Activity May Not Be Associated with a Lower Likelihood of Adolescent Smoking Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research has documented that physical activity is associated with a lower risk of adolescent smoking uptake, yet it is unclear whether this relationship exists for all types of physical activity. We sought to determine whether certain types of physical activity are associated with a decreased or an increased risk of adolescent smoking uptake. Methods In this longitudinal cohort study, adolescents (n=1,356) were surveyed every six months for four years (age 14 – 18 years old). Smoking and physical activity were measured at each of the eight time-points. Physical activity that was negatively associated with smoking across the eight waves was considered positive physical activities (i.e., PPA; linked to not smoking such as racquet sports, running, and swimming laps). Physical activity that was positively associated with smoking across the eight waves were considered negative physical activities (i.e., NPA; linked to smoking such as skating, walking, bicycling, sport fighting, and competitive wrestling). Results Associative Processes Latent Growth Curve Modeling revealed that each 30-minute increase in NPA per week at baseline was associated with a 4-fold increased odds of smoking progression (OR=4.10, 95% CI=2.14, 7.83). By contrast, each 30-minute increase in PPA at baseline was associated with a 51% decrease in the odds of smoking progression (OR=.49, 95% CI=.25, .93). Conclusions The type of physical activity that an adolescent engages appears to be important for the uptake of cigarette smoking among adolescents. These associative relationships warrant consideration in interventions to increase overall physical activity and those promoting physical activity to prevent smoking uptake. PMID:26280377

  13. Interaction between MLL3 genetic polymorphisms, smoking, and alcohol drinking in laryngeal cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Gong, Liang; Jiang, Qichuan; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    A previous study indicated that MLL3 genetic polymorphisms were associated with human cancer. However, whether MLL3 genetic variants are associated with the risk of laryngeal cancer is not clear. This study investigated the association between MLL3 gene polymorphisms and laryngeal cancer in a Chinese population. Four polymorphisms of the MLL3 gene (rs6943984, rs4725443, rs3800836, rs6464211) were genotyped using the TaqMan method in 592 patients with larynx cancer and 602 age- and sex-matched noncancer controls. We found that rs6943984 and rs4725443 of the MLL3 gene were significantly associated with the risk of larynx cancer after Bonferroni correction. The minor allele A for rs6943984 was associated with increased larynx cancer risk (P < 0.001, OR = 1.960, 95% CI = 1.587-2.420). C allele frequency (0.151) for rs4725443 was significantly higher in the case group than the control group (0.072, P < 0.001). Haplotype analyses showed that haplotypes A-T-A-C and G-T-G-C increased the risk of laryngeal cancer (OR = 2.406, 95% CI: 1.820-3.180, P < 0.001; OR = 1.399, 95% CI: 1.180-1.659, respectively), and haplotypes G-T-A-C and G-T-G-T significantly reduced the risk of laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.332, 95% CI: 0.271-0.408, P < 0.001; OR = 0.742, 95% CI: 0.607-0.908, respectively). We also found that MLL3 rs6943984 and rs4725443 polymorphisms had synergistic effects with smoking or alcohol drinking for the risk of laryngeal cancer. This study indicated that MLL3 genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes were associated with larynx cancer in a Chinese population. There was a mutually synergistic effect between smoking, alcohol drinking, and MLL3 gene polymorphisms for laryngeal cancer.

  14. Fractures and lifestyle: effect of cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and relative weight on the risk of hip and forearm fractures in middle-aged women.

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, D; Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Stampfer, M J; Speizer, F E

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and low relative weight are often cited as risk factors for osteoporosis. In a prospective cohort study of 96,508 middle-aged nurses 35 to 59 years of age we found that smoking was not a risk factor for hip and forearm fracture. Women who drank more than 15 grams of alcohol per day and whose relative weight was less than 21 kg/m2 were at increased risk of fractures, but these risk factors were not independent. Only the combination of alcohol intake and thinness substantially increased the likelihood of fracture. The low weight women consuming more than one drink per day comprised but 4 per cent of our population of middle-class women and sustained 6 per cent of the fractures. PMID:3189632

  15. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio‐economic background to alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Alastair H.; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims If socio‐economic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Participants were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; n = 15 672), the British birth cohort study (BCS70; n = 12 735) and the West of Scotland Twenty‐07 1970s cohort (T07; n = 1515). Measurements Participants self‐reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16 years) and heavy drinking (> 14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22–26 years). Parental occupational class (manual versus non‐manual) indicated socio‐economic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58, probit coefficients were 0.201 and –0.765, respectively; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents from a non‐manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; P < 0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; P < 0.001) than adolescent non‐smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  18. Alcohol-Related Facebook Activity Predicts Alcohol Use Patterns in College Students.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Hertzenberg, Heather; Goddard, Perilou; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L; O'Connor, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief 10-item alcohol-related Facebook® activity (ARFA) questionnaire would predict alcohol use patterns in college students (N = 146). During a single laboratory session, participants first privately logged on to their Facebook® profiles while they completed the ARFA measure, which queries past 30 day postings related to alcohol use and intoxication. Participants were then asked to complete five additional questionnaires: three measures of alcohol use (the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT], the Timeline Follow-Back [TLFB], and the Personal Drinking Habits Questionnaire [PDHQ]), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Regression analyses revealed that total ARFA scores were significant predictors of recent drinking behaviors, as assessed by the AUDIT, TLFB, and PDHQ measures. Moreover, impulsivity (BIS-11) and social desirability (MC-SDS) did not predict recent drinking behaviors when ARFA total scores were included in the regressions. The findings suggest that social media activity measured via the ARFA scale may be useful as a research tool for identifying risky alcohol use.

  19. Alcohol-Related Facebook Activity Predicts Alcohol Use Patterns in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Hertzenberg, Heather; Goddard, Perilou; Maloney, Sarah F.; Stamates, Amy L.; O’Connor, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief 10-item alcohol-related Facebook® activity (ARFA) questionnaire would predict alcohol use patterns in college students (N = 146). During a single laboratory session, participants first privately logged on to their Facebook® profiles while they completed the ARFA measure, which queries past 30 day postings related to alcohol use and intoxication. Participants were then asked to complete five additional questionnaires: three measures of alcohol use (the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT], the Timeline Follow-Back [TLFB], and the Personal Drinking Habits Questionnaire [PDHQ]), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Regression analyses revealed that total ARFA scores were significant predictors of recent drinking behaviors, as assessed by the AUDIT, TLFB, and PDHQ measures. Moreover, impulsivity (BIS-11) and social desirability (MC-SDS) did not predict recent drinking behaviors when ARFA total scores were included in the regressions. The findings suggest that social media activity measured via the ARFA scale may be useful as a research tool for identifying risky alcohol use. PMID:28138317

  20. Factors related to smoking in college women.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Marlene C; McKinney, Selina Hunt; Tavakoli, Abbas

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking among American women attending college has increased dramatically since the 1980's. To develop effective smoking prevention and cessation programs, a better understanding of factors associated with smoking in college women is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine if selected factors (stress, stress management, nutrition, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and race) were related to smoking in college women. A sample of 354 college women in a southeastern state, 18-22 years of age, participated in the study. Logistic regression analysis indicated that White race (p = < .001), alcohol consumption (p = .0013), and limited physical activity (p = .0078) were significantly associated with smoking. Physically active college women were 2 times less likely to be smokers. However, physical activity mediated the effect of stress and stress management on smoking. Additionally, stress management confounded the effect of stress on smoking. Therefore, in addition to alcohol avoidance, exercise (as a stress management strategy) may be an important component of primary prevention and smoking cessation programs for college women.

  1. The Perceptions and Habits of Alcohol Consumption and Smoking Among Canadian Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakore, Sidd; Ismail, Zahinoor; Jarvis, Scott; Payne, Eric; Keetbaas, Shayne; Payne, Rob; Rothenburg, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to quantify the extent, and to assess student perception, of alcohol and tobacco use among medical students at the University of Calgary, and the relationship of these attitudes to problem drinking (according to the CAGE questionnaire). Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year medical…

  2. Oesophageal cancer mortality: relationship with alcohol intake and cigarette smoking in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Cayuela, A; Vioque, J; Bolumar, F

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to explore temporal changes in mortality from oesophageal cancer that could be related to tobacco and alcohol consumption. DESIGN--The study used mortality trends from oesophageal cancer over the period 1951-1985. In addition, available trends on per capita consumption of alcohol and cigarettes are also presented. SETTING--Data for this study were derived from Spain's National Institute for Statistics. MAIN RESULTS--Age standardised mortality rates from oesophageal cancer have increased significantly among men in Spain from 1951 to 1985 (p less than 0.01). Mortality rates in women have not changed significantly during the same period, although there is evidence of a certain decrease in recent years. Trends of per capita cigarette consumption from 1957 to 1982 related positively with oesophageal cancer mortality among men, whereas no significant relationship was observed in women. Trends of beer, spirits, and total alcohol consumption were also positively correlated with oesophageal cancer mortality in men. Among women, a weaker relationship was found. Wine consumption showed no relationship with oesophageal cancer mortality either in men or women. CONCLUSIONS--These results are similar to those found in other studies, supporting a role of alcohol (spirits and beer) and cigarette consumption in causation of oesophageal cancer. No relationship was observed with wine consumption. PMID:1795145

  3. Lifestyle in Curaçao. Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise.

    PubMed

    Grol, M E; Halabi, Y T; Gerstenbluth, I; Alberts, J F; O'Niel, J

    1997-03-01

    The Curaçao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour. Outcome variables were cross-tabulated by gender, age and socioeconomic status. 17.1% of the participants were smokers and 20.5% were regular drinkers, including 6.3% of the men who consumed alcohol excessively (4 or more glasses of alcohol a day). 75% of the participants did not exercise regularly, 37% did not eat vegetables daily, and half did not eat fruit daily. Other poor eating habits were the addition of extra sugar and salt to prepared food by 33% and 20% of the participants, respectively. On the whole, men had less healthy lifestyles than women, with the exception of exercise behaviour. People of high socioeconomic status (SES) drank less alcohol, and exercised more often than those of low SES. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the Caribbean, research on lifestyle factors in other Caribbean countries is required to facilitate the development of regional prevention and intervention programmes.

  4. Interactive effects of contextual cues and acute alcohol intoxication on the associations between alcohol expectancy activation and urge to drink.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the joint effects of contextual cues and alcohol intoxication on the associations between activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies in memory and self-reported urges to drink alcohol after a laboratory alcohol administration. Young adult heavy drinkers were randomly assigned to drink a moderate dose of alcohol or a placebo (alcohol manipulation), and then listened to positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue manipulation). Before and after these manipulations, participants completed an alcohol expectancy Stroop task assessing positive and negative expectancy activation, as well as self-report measures of urges to drink. Regression analyses revealed that the alcohol and cue manipulations had a joint, moderating impact on the associations between expectancy activation and postcue changes in urge to drink. Specifically, both increased activation of negative expectancies and decreased activation of positive expectancies predicted decreases in urges to drink, but only for intoxicated participants in the negative cue condition. There were no associations between expectancy activation and urges to drink for those in the positive cue condition regardless of beverage condition. Results suggest that whether memory activation of alcohol expectancies has an impact on urge to drink after alcohol is on board may depend on the relevance of the activated expectancies to the current drinking context. This process appears to be influenced by a complex interaction between contextual cues in the environment and the pharmacological effects of alcohol.

  5. No Evidence for Genome-Wide Interactions on Plasma Fibrinogen by Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Body Mass Index: Results from Meta-Analyses of 80,607 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Audrey Y.; Trompet, Stella; Lopez, Lorna M.; Fornage, Myriam; Teumer, Alexander; Tang, Weihong; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Mälarstig, Anders; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kavousi, Maryam; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hayward, Caroline; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rose, Lynda M.; Basu, Saonli; Rumley, Ann; Stott, David J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Sanna, Serena; Masala, Marco; Biffar, Reiner; Homuth, Georg; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Goel, Anuj; Watkins, Hugh; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Rückerl, Regina; Taylor, Kent; Chen, Ming-Huei; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; Palotie, Aarno; Davies, Gail; Siscovick, David S.; Kolcic, Ivana; Wild, Sarah H.; Song, Jaejoon; McArdle, Wendy L.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Schlessinger, David; Grotevendt, Anne; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Illig, Thomas; Waldenberger, Melanie; Lumley, Thomas; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Räikkönen, Katri; Chasman, Daniel I.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Cucca, Francesco; Wallaschofski, Henri; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Seedorf, Udo; Koenig, Wolfgang; Bis, Joshua C.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; van Dongen, Jenny; Widen, Elisabeth; Franco, Oscar H.; Starr, John M.; Liu, Kiang; Ferrucci, Luigi; Polasek, Ozren; Wilson, James F.; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Campbell, Harry; Navarro, Pau; Bandinelli, Stefania; Eriksson, Johan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Dehghan, Abbas; Clarke, Robert; Hamsten, Anders; Boerwinkle, Eric; Jukema, J. Wouter; Naitza, Silvia; Ridker, Paul M.; Völzke, Henry; Deary, Ian J.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Strachan, David P.; Peters, Annette; Smith, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2×10−8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations. PMID:25551457

  6. The effect of computer usage in internet café on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among chinese adolescents and youth: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  7. [Fatal accidents in house fires. The most significant causes, such as smoking and alcohol abuse, multiplied by four the incidence during the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Leth, P M; Gregersen, M; Sabroe, S

    1998-06-01

    A population-based descriptive investigation of housefire accidents in Denmark was carried out for the two five year periods 1953-58 and 1988-93, based on death certificates, police reports and autopsy reports. The number of deaths due to housefire accidents in Denmark has increased (1953-58: 136 (66 men and 70 women), 1988-93: 363 (212 men and 150 women), mostly due to an increase in tobacco-smoking related fire accidents. In 1988-93 the three common causes of housefire deaths were tobacco-smoking, often in combination with alcohol intoxication or handicap (51%), cooking-accidents (10%) and accidents with candles (9%). The largest risk groups were chronic alcoholics, handicapped and elderly people. In conclusion, warnings should be issued against smoking in bed and use of loose-fitting clothing while cooking on an open fire. Protective aprons and devices for use while smoking, self-extinguishing cigarettes and use of fireproof materials in furniture and clothing may prevent ignition. Smoke-alarms may secure early warning.

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  9. Role of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking in the risk of oral cancer in Trivandrum, India: a nested case-control design using incident cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Muwonge, Richard; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Sankila, Risto; Thara, Somanathan; Thomas, Gigi; Vinoda, Jissa; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2008-05-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, with two-thirds of the cases occurring in developing countries. While cohort and nested case-control study designs offer various methodological strengths, the role of tobacco and alcohol consumption in the etiology of oral cancer has been assessed mainly in case-control studies. The role of tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol drinking patterns on the risk of cancer of the oral cavity was evaluated using a nested case-control design on data from a randomized control trial conducted between 1996 and 2004 in Trivandrum, India. Data from 282 incident oral cancer cases and 1410 matched controls were analyzed using multivariate conditional logistic regression models. Tobacco chewing was the strongest risk factor associated with oral cancer. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for chewers were 3.1 (95% confidence interval (CI)=2.1-4.6) for men and 11.0 (95%CI=5.8-20.7) for women. Effects of chewing pan with or without tobacco on oral cancer risk were elevated for both sexes. Bidi smoking increased the risk of oral cancer in men (OR=1.9, 95%CI=1.1-3.2). Dose-response relations were observed for the frequency and duration of chewing and alcohol drinking, as well as in duration of bidi smoking. Given the relatively poor survival rates of oral cancer patients, cessation of tobacco and moderation of alcohol use remain the key elements in oral cancer prevention and control.

  10. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates sidestream cigarette smoke-induced endothelial permeability.

    PubMed

    Low, Brad; Liang, Mei; Fu, Jian

    2007-07-01

    Second-hand smoke is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. So far, little is known about the signaling mechanisms of second-hand smoke-induced vascular dysfunction. Endothelial junctions are fundamental structures important for maintaining endothelial barrier function. Our study showed that sidestream cigarette smoke (SCS), a major component of second-hand smoke, was able to disrupt endothelial junctions and increase endothelial permeability. Sidestream cigarette smoke stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and myosin light chain (MLC). A selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB203580) prevented SCS-induced loss of endothelial barrier integrity as evidenced by transendothelial resistance measurements. Resveratrol, an antioxidant that was able to inhibit SCS-induced p38 MAPK and MLC phosphorylation, also protected endothelial cells from the damage. Thus, p38 MAPK mediates SCS-induced endothelial permeability. Inhibition of p38 MAPK may have therapeutic potential for second-hand smoke-induced vascular injury.

  11. Sex hormone activity in alcohol addiction: integrating organizational and activational effects.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Bernd; Müller, Christian P; Stoessel, Christina; Sperling, Wolfgang; Biermann, Teresa; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    There are well-known sex differences in the epidemiology and etiopathology of alcohol dependence. Male gender is a crucial risk factor for the onset of alcohol addiction. A directly modifying role of testosterone in alcohol addiction-related behavior is well established. Sex hormones exert both permanent (organizational) and transient (activational) effects on the human brain. The sensitive period for these effects lasts throughout life. In this article, we present a novel early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction. We propose that early exposure to sex hormones triggers structural (organizational) neuroadaptations. These neuroadaptations affect cellular and behavioral responses to adult sex hormones, sensitize the brain's reward system to the reinforcing properties of alcohol and modulate alcohol addictive behavior later in life. This review outlines clinical findings related to the early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction (handedness, the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio, and the androgen receptor and aromatase) and includes clinical and preclinical literature regarding the activational effects of sex hormones in alcohol drinking behavior. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axes and the opioid system in mediating the relationship between sex hormone activity and alcohol dependence. We conclude that a combination of exposure to sex hormones in utero and during early development contributes to the risk of alcohol addiction later in life. The early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  12. Facilitating Smoking Cessation and Preventing Relapse in Primary Care: Minimizing Weight Gain by Reducing Alcohol Consumption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    follow-up data were gathered for more than 85% of participants at 3, 6 and 12 months. The study addressed three research questions: (1) Does an alcohol...especially for a large scale study . Despite high follow-up rates, data were obtained from somewhat fewer GSP participants than BCAP participants...was found that participants who were lighter drinkers prior to entering the study had a higher quit rate at three months if they were in the BCAP

  13. Dung biomass smoke activates inflammatory signaling pathways in human small airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Claire E; Duffney, Parker F; Gelein, Robert; Thatcher, Thomas H; Elder, Alison; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2016-12-01

    Animal dung is a biomass fuel burned by vulnerable populations who cannot afford cleaner sources of energy, such as wood and gas, for cooking and heating their homes. Exposure to biomass smoke is the leading environmental risk for mortality, with over 4,000,000 deaths each year worldwide attributed to indoor air pollution from biomass smoke. Biomass smoke inhalation is epidemiologically associated with pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and respiratory infections, especially in low and middle-income countries. Yet, few studies have examined the mechanisms of dung biomass smoke-induced inflammatory responses in human lung cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dung biomass smoke causes inflammatory responses in human lung cells through signaling pathways involved in acute and chronic lung inflammation. Primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were exposed to dung smoke at the air-liquid interface using a newly developed, automated, and reproducible dung biomass smoke generation system. The examination of inflammatory signaling showed that dung biomass smoke increased the production of several proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes in SAECs through activation of the activator protein (AP)-1 and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) but not nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. We propose that the inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed to dung biomass smoke contribute to the development of respiratory diseases.

  14. Effects of smoking and alcohol use on neurocognitive functioning in heavy drinking, HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Monnig, Mollie A; Kahler, Christopher W; Lee, Hana; Pantalone, David W; Mayer, Kenneth H; Cohen, Ronald A; Monti, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    High rates of cognitive impairment persist in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, despite improved health outcomes and reduced mortality through widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking are potential contributors to neurocognitive impairment in people living with HIV (PLWH), yet few studies have examined their influence concurrently. Here we investigated the effects of self-reported alcohol use and smoking on learning, memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function in 124 HIV-positive men who have sex with men [age (mean ± SD) = 42.8 ± 10.4 years], engaged with medical care. All participants were heavy drinkers. Duration of HIV infection averaged 9.9 ± 7.6 years, and 92.7% were on a stable ART regimen. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and assessment of past 30-day substance use. Average number of drinks per drinking day (DPDD) was 5.6 ± 3.5, and 33.1% of participants were daily smokers. Rates of neurocognitive impairment were the highest in learning (50.8%), executive function (41.9%), and memory (38.0%). Multiple regression models tested DPDD and smoking status as predictors of neurocognitive performance, controlling for age and premorbid intelligence. Smoking was significantly, negatively related to verbal learning (p = .046) and processing speed (p = .001). DPDD was a significant predictor of learning (p = .047) in a model that accounted for the interaction of DPDD and smoking status. As expected, premorbid intelligence significantly predicted all neurocognitive scores (ps < .01), and older age was associated with slower processing speed (ps < .01). In conclusion, smoking appears to be associated with neurocognitive functioning deficits in PLWH beyond the effects of heavy drinking, aging, and premorbid intelligence. Smoking cessation interventions have the potential to be an important target for improving functional outcomes

  15. Effects of smoking and alcohol use on neurocognitive functioning in heavy drinking, HIV-positive men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Monnig, Mollie A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Lee, Hana; Pantalone, David W.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment affects approximately half of people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States, despite improved health outcomes and reduced mortality through widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking are potential contributors to neurocognitive impairment in PLWH, yet few studies have examined their influence concurrently. Here we investigated the effects of self-reported alcohol use and smoking on learning, memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function in 124 HIV-positive men who have sex with men [age (mean ± SD) = 42.8 ± 10.4 years], engaged with medical care. All participants were heavy drinkers. Duration of HIV infection averaged 9.9 ± 7.6 years, and 92.7% were on a stable ART regimen. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and assessment of past 30-day substance use. Average number of drinks per drinking day (DPDD) was 5.6 ± 3.5, and 33.1% of participants were daily smokers. Rates of neurocognitive impairment were highest in learning (50.8%), executive function (41.9%), and memory (38.0%). Multiple regression models tested DPDD and smoking status as predictors of neurocognitive performance, controlling for age and premorbid intelligence. Smoking was significantly, negatively related to verbal learning (p = 0.046) and processing speed (p = 0.001). DPDD was a significant predictor of learning (p = 0.047) in a model that accounted for the interaction of DPDD and smoking status. As expected, premorbid intelligence significantly predicted all neurocognitive scores (p’s < 0.01), and older age was associated with slower processing speed (p’s < 0.01). In conclusion, smoking appears to be associated with neurocognitive functioning deficits in PLWH beyond the effects of heavy drinking, aging, and premorbid intelligence. Smoking cessation interventions have the potential to be an important target for improving functional outcomes in heavy drinking PLWH. PMID:26444260

  16. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in Lactococcus chungangensis: application in cream cheese to moderate alcohol uptake.

    PubMed

    Konkit, Maytiya; Choi, Woo Jin; Kim, Wonyong

    2015-09-01

    Many human gastrointestinal facultative anaerobic and aerobic bacteria possess alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and are therefore capable of oxidizing ethanol to acetaldehyde. However, the ADH activity of Lactococcus spp., except Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, has not been widely determined, though they play an important role as the starter for most cheesemaking technologies. Cheese is a functional food recognized as an aid to digestion. In the current study, the ADH activity of Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T) and 11 reference strains from the genus Lactococcus was determined. Only 5 strains, 3 of dairy origin, L. lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T), L. lactis ssp. cremoris KCCM 40699(T), and Lactococcus raffinolactis DSM 20443(T), and 2 of nondairy origin, Lactococcus fujiensis NJ317(T) and Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T) KCTC 13185(T), showed ADH activity and possessed the ADH gene. All these strains were capable of making cheese, but the highest level of ADH activity was found in L. chungangensis, with 45.9nmol/min per gram in tryptic soy broth and 65.8nmol/min per gram in cream cheese. The extent that consumption of cheese, following imbibing alcohol, reduced alcohol uptake was observed by following the level of alcohol in the serum of mice. The results show a potential novel benefit of cheese as a dairy functional food.

  17. Independent and combined effects of alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and betel quid chewing on the risk of esophageal cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Lee, Jang-Ming; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Hsu, Hon-Ki; Kao, Ein-Long; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2005-01-20

    A multicenter case-control study was conducted in northern and southern Taiwan to clarify the independent and combined effects of alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and betel quid chewing on the risk of esophageal cancer. A total of 513 patients with newly diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and 818 gender, age and study hospital-matched controls were included. We found a significant dose-response relationship between the duration and intensity of consumption of the 3 substances and the development of this neoplasm in this site. Although the amount of alcohol consumed had a stronger effect on the risk of esophageal cancer than the number of years it was consumed, however, the number of years one smoked had a stronger effect on the risk than the amount of cigarettes consumed. The strongest risk factor of esophageal cancer was alcohol intake, with highest risk (OR = 13.9) being for those who consumed more than 900 g/day-year. Combined exposure to any 2 of 3 substances brought the risks up to 8.8-19.7 fold and, to all 3 substances, to 41.2-fold. A multiplicative interaction effect for alcohol drinkers who smoked on cancer risk was detected, whereas an additive interaction effect was found among drinkers who chewed. The combined effect of all 3 substances accounted for 83.7% of the attributable fraction of contracting esophageal cancer in this population. In conclusion, these results suggest that the intensity and the length of time alcohol and tobacco are used play different roles in the etiology of esophageal cancer. Alcohol separately interacts with tobacco and betel quid in a differently synergistic way in determining the development of this site of cancer.

  18. Valued Life Activities, Smoking Cessation, and Mood in Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrew M.; Srour, John Fani; Arrighi, James A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Borrelli, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Continued engagement in valued life activities is a protective factor for depression and has been linked to readiness to quit smoking in medical populations, but has never been examined among Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationships among valued life activities, mood, and smoking post-ACS. Methods Participants were 54 post-ACS patients who were smoking before ACS hospitalization. Data on mood, smoking status, engagement in valued activities, restriction of valued activities, and satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was collected 1-12 months post-ACS. Results Depressive symptoms were associated with both less valued activity engagement and greater valued activity restriction. Positive affect was associated with greater valued activity engagement and negative affect was associated with greater valued activity restriction. Satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was associated with greater positive affect, fewer depressive symptoms, and quitting smoking post-ACS. The majority of these relationships remained significant after controlling for relevant covariates, including physical functioning. Conclusions Valued activity restriction and engagement may contribute to depressed mood and failure to quit smoking in ACS patients. Psychotherapies that target greater engagement in valued life activities deserve further investigation in ACS patients. PMID:25471466

  19. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits.

  20. Polyphenols in alcoholic beverages activating constitutive androstane receptor CAR.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruiqing; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kamei, Asuka; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Rogi, Tomohiro; Taieishi, Norifumi; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Kiso, Yoshionobu; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor CAR is a xenosensing nuclear receptor that can be activated by natural polyphenols such as flavonoids and catechins. We examined alcoholic beverage phytochemicals for their ability to activate CAR. HepG2 cells were transfected with CAR expression vector and its reporter gene, and then treated with trans-resveratrol, ellagic acid, β-caryophyllene, myrcene, and xanthohumol. A luciferase assay revealed that ellagic acid and trans-resveratrol activated both human and mouse CAR. Since CAR regulates many genes involved in energy metabolism, the possibility exists that these polyphenols would reduce the risk of certain alcohol-induced metabolic disorders with the help of CAR.

  1. The Effect of Active and Passive Household Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Pregnant Women With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Momirova, Valerija; Dombrowski, Mitchell P.; Schatz, Michael; Wise, Robert; Landon, Mark; Rouse, Dwight J.; Lindheimer, Marshall; Caritis, Steve N.; Sheffield, Jeanne; Miodovnik, Menachem; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Conway, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The article was designed to estimate the effect of active and passive household cigarette smoke exposure on asthma severity and obstetric and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with asthma. Methods: We used a secondary observational analysis of pregnant women with mild and moderate-severe asthma enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study of asthma in pregnancy and a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing inhaled beclomethasone and oral theophylline. A baseline questionnaire detailing smoking history and passive household smoke exposure was given to each patient. Smoking status was confirmed in the RCT using cotinine levels. Data on asthma severity and obstetric and neonatal outcomes were collected and analyzed with respect to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure. Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson χ2 statistics were used to test for significance. Results: A total of 2,210 women were enrolled: 1,812 in the observational study and 398 in the RCT. Four hundred and eight (18%) women reported current active smoking. Of the nonsmokers, 790 (36%) women reported passive household smoke exposure. Active smoking was associated with more total symptomatic days (P < .001) and nights of sleep disturbance (P < .001). Among the newborns of active smokers, there was a greater risk of small for gestational age < 10th percentile (P < .001), and a lower mean birth weight (P < .001). There were no differences in symptom exacerbation or outcome between nonsmokers with and without passive household cigarette smoke exposure. Conclusions: Among pregnant women with asthma, active but not passive smoking is associated with increased asthma symptoms and fetal growth abnormalities. PMID:19820079

  2. Interactive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and age on brain volumes in controls and alcohol-dependent individuals in early abstinence.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Mon, Anderson; Pennington, David; Abé, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) have been shown to interact with normal age-related volume loss to exacerbate brain atrophy with increasing age. However, chronic cigarette smoking, a highly co-morbid condition in AUD and its influence on age-related brain atrophy have not been evaluated. We performed 1.5 T quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in non-smoking controls [non-smoking light drinking controls (nsCONs); n = 54], smoking light drinking controls (sCONs, n = 34), and one-week abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALC) non-smokers (nsALCs, n = 35) and smokers (sALCs, n = 43), to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of alcohol dependence and chronic smoking on regional cortical and subcortical brain volumes, emphasizing the brain reward/executive oversight system (BREOS). The nsCONs and sALCs showed greater age-related volume losses than the nsALCs in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC), total cortical BREOS, superior parietal lobule and putamen. The nsALCs and sALCs demonstrated smaller volumes than the nsCONs in most cortical region of interests (ROIs). The sCONs had smaller volumes than the nsCONs in the DPFC, insula, inferior parietal lobule, temporal pole/parahippocampal region and all global cortical measures. The nsALCs and sALCs had smaller volumes than the sCONs in the DPFC, superior temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, precuneus and all global cortical measures. Volume differences between the nsALCs and sALCs were observed only in the putamen. Alcohol consumption measures were not related to volumes in any ROI for ALC; smoking severity measures were related to corpus callosum volume in the sCONs and sALCs. The findings indicate that consideration of smoking status is necessary for a better understanding of the factors contributing to regional brain atrophy in AUD.

  3. Boost Your High: Cigarette Smoking to Enhance Alcohol and Drug Effects among Southeast Asian American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined: 1) whether using cigarettes to enhance the effects of other drugs (here referred to as “boosting”) is a unique practice related to blunts (i.e., small cheap cigars hollowed out and filled with cannabis) or marijuana use only; 2) the prevalence of boosting among drug-using young people; and 3) the relationship between boosting and other drug-related risk behaviors. We present data collected from 89 Southeast Asian American youth and young adults in Northern California (35 females). 72% respondents reported any lifetime boosting. Controlling for gender, results of linear regression analyses show a significant positive relationship between frequency of boosting to enhance alcohol high and number of drinks per occasion. Boosting was also found to be associated with use of blunts but not other forms of marijuana and with the number of blunts on a typical day. The findings indicate that boosting may be common among drug-using Southeast Asian youths. These findings also indicate a need for further research on boosting as an aspect of cigarette uptake and maintenance among drug- and alcohol-involved youths. PMID:22522322

  4. Do smokers crave cigarettes in some smoking situations more than others? Situational correlates of craving when smoking

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Deborah; Kirchner, Thomas; Shiffman, Saul

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers tend to smoke when experiencing craving, but even within smoking occasions, craving may vary. We examine variations in craving when people were smoking in various real-world situations. Methods: Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, 394 smokers recorded smoking, craving, and smoking context in real time on electronic diaries over 2 weeks of ad libitum smoking. Assessments occurred immediately prior to smoking. Mixed modeling was used to analyze associations between craving and situational variables. Results: Craving varied across smoking situations, but the differences were small (<1 on a 0–10 scale). Specifically, craving was higher in smoking situations where smoking was restricted, likely because high craving leads smokers to violate restrictions. Controlling for restrictions, craving was higher when cigarettes were smoked while eating or drinking, were with other people (vs. alone), were in a group of people (vs. other people simply in view), during work (vs. leisure), and during activity (vs. inactivity). In addition, craving was higher for cigarettes smoked early in the day. No differences in craving were observed in relation to drinking alcohol or caffeine (vs. doing anything else), being at work (vs. home), being at a bar or restaurant (vs. all other locations), interacting with others (vs. not interacting), or other people smoking (vs. no others smoking). Discussion: Even though most craving reports prior to smoking were high, and situations were thus expected to have little influence on craving, results suggest that some cigarettes are craved more than others across different smoking situations, but differences are small. PMID:20133379

  5. Report of National Collegiate Alcohol Awareness Week Activities Fall 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Ann English; And Others

    This document presents a report of the education and prevention activities recognizing National Collegiate Alcohol Awareness (NCAA) Week undertaken at Central Michigan University in Mt. Pleasant, Michigan during October and early November, 1987. It begins with a brief review of the university's campus-wide programs, goals, and activities to reduce…

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  7. Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Smoking Among Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Abrantes, Ana M; Fokas, Kathryn F; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A

    2012-12-01

    Physical activity has been identified as a protective factor with regard to tobacco use, such that physically active adolescents are less likely to initiate smoking, and smokers are less physically active than non-smokers. These findings, along with the well-documented benefits of exercise on mood and well-being in adults, have stimulated interest in exercise-based smoking cessation interventions. However, little research has explored the relationship between physical activity and smoking characteristics within adolescent smokers. Also, gender differences in adolescents' motives for smoking and exercise may have implications for intervention development, especially in clinical populations. The current study explored the relationship between physical activity and smoking in a sample of adolescent smokers (N = 191) and non-smokers (N = 48) receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment (61% female, mean age 15.3 years). Results indicated that smokers were less likely to be physically active than non-smokers. Additionally, there was a consistent pattern of gender differences in the relationship between smoking and physical activity within smokers. Specifically, physically active male smokers were less nicotine dependent and less prone to withdrawal, and had a trend toward greater motivation to quit, than their non-active counterparts. In contrast, physically active female smokers did not differ in dependence or withdrawal and were less motivated to quit than non-active female smokers. Taken together, these results suggest that within clinical populations of adolescent females, smoking and exercise may be used jointly as weight control strategies. Exercise-based interventions for smoking cessation for adolescent females, especially clinical populations, should address weight and body image concerns.

  8. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  9. Alcoholism and Dampened Temporal Limbic Activation to Emotional Faces

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, Ksenija; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Urban, Trinity; O’Reilly, Cara E.; Howard, Julie A.; Sawyer, Kayle; Harris, Gordon J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive chronic drinking is accompanied by a broad spectrum of emotional changes ranging from apathy and emotional flatness to deficits in comprehending emotional information, but their neural bases are poorly understood. Methods Emotional abnormalities associated with alcoholism were examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging in abstinent long-term alcoholic men in comparison to healthy demographically matched controls. Participants were presented with emotionally valenced words and photographs of faces during deep (semantic) and shallow (perceptual) encoding tasks followed by recognition. Results Overall, faces evoked stronger activation than words, with the expected material-specific laterality (left hemisphere for words, and right for faces) and depth of processing effects. However, whereas control participants showed stronger activation in the amygdala and hippocampus when viewing faces with emotional (relative to neutral) expressions, the alcoholics responded in an undifferentiated manner to all facial expressions. In the alcoholic participants, amygdala activity was inversely correlated with an increase in lateral prefrontal activity as a function of their behavioral deficits. Prefrontal modulation of emotional function as a compensation for the blunted amygdala activity during a socially relevant face appraisal task is in agreement with a distributed network engagement during emotional face processing. Conclusions Deficient activation of amygdala and hippocampus may underlie impaired processing of emotional faces associated with long-term alcoholism and may be a part of the wide array of behavioral problems including disinhibition, concurring with previously documented interpersonal difficulties in this population. Furthermore, the results suggest that alcoholics may rely on prefrontal rather than temporal limbic areas in order to compensate for reduced limbic responsivity and to maintain behavioral adequacy when faced with emotionally

  10. Cancer screening of upper aerodigestive tract in Japanese alcoholics with reference to drinking and smoking habits and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Ohmori, T; Muramatsu, T; Higuchi, S; Yokoyama, T; Matsushita, S; Matsumoto, M; Maruyama, K; Hayashida, M; Ishii, H

    1996-11-04

    In this study, 1,000 Japanese male alcoholics were consecutively screened by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with esophageal iodine staining. Associations among cancer-detection rates, drinking and smoking habits, and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genotypes were evaluated. A total of 53 patients (5.3%) had histologically confirmed cancer. Esophageal cancer was diagnosed in 36, gastric cancer in 17, and oropharyngolaryngeal cancer in 9 patients: 8 of the esophageal-cancer patients were multiple-cancer patients, with additional cancer(s) in the stomach and/or oropharyngolaryngeal region. Multiple logistic regression revealed that use of stronger alcoholic beverages (whisky or shochu) in contrast with lighter beverages (sake or beer) and smoking of 50 pack-years or more increased the risks for esophageal (odds ratio 3.2 and 2.8 respectively), oropharyngolaryngeal (4.8 and 5.1 respectively) and multiple cancer (10.5 and 11.8 respectively). The inactive form of ALDH2, encoded by the gene ALDH2*1/2*2 prevalent in Orientals, exposes them to higher blood levels of acetaldehyde, a recognized animal carcinogen, after drinking. This inactive ALDH2 was detected in 19/36 (52.8%) patients with esophageal cancer, in 5/9 (55.6%) patients with oropharyngolaryngeal cancer, and in 7/8 (87.5%) patients with multiple cancer. All of these gene frequencies far exceeded that in a large alcoholic cohort (80/655, 12.2%). The triple combination of the risk factors of the inactive ALDH2, stronger alcoholic beverages and heavy smoking was more commonly associated with multiple-cancer patients than with patients with esophageal cancer alone (62.5% vs. 7.1%). These results show that the 3 risk factors are important for the development of upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer in Japanese alcoholics. For these high-risk drinkers, regimented screening appears to be indicated.

  11. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A.; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E. Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (n=79) 18–26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On two subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (p’s > .05). Physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms (β=−5.23, CI= −6.93, −3.52; p<0.001), negative mood (β=−2.92, CI= −4.13, −1.72; p<0.001), and urge to smoke (β=−7.13, CI= −9.39, −4.86; p<0.001). Also, physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted increased positive affect (β=3.08, CI= 1.87, 4.28; p<0.001) and pleasurable feelings (β=1.07, CI= 0.58, 1.55; p<0.001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=211.76, CI= 32.54, 390.98; p=0.02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings (β=0.22, CI= 0.01 – 0.43, p=0.045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=0.04, CI= 0.01, 0.08; p=0.02), and reduced time to first cigarette (β=−163.00, CI = −323.50, −2.49; p=0.047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produces effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. PMID:26348158

  12. Agrp neuron activity is required for alcohol-induced overeating

    PubMed Central

    Cains, Sarah; Blomeley, Craig; Kollo, Mihaly; Rácz, Romeo; Burdakov, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol intake associates with overeating in humans. This overeating is a clinical concern, but its causes are puzzling, because alcohol (ethanol) is a calorie-dense nutrient, and calorie intake usually suppresses brain appetite signals. The biological factors necessary for ethanol-induced overeating remain unclear, and societal causes have been proposed. Here we show that core elements of the brain's feeding circuits—the hypothalamic Agrp neurons that are normally activated by starvation and evoke intense hunger—display electrical and biochemical hyperactivity on exposure to dietary doses of ethanol in brain slices. Furthermore, by circuit-specific chemogenetic interference in vivo, we find that the Agrp cell activity is essential for ethanol-induced overeating in the absence of societal factors, in single-housed mice. These data reveal how a widely consumed nutrient can paradoxically sustain brain starvation signals, and identify a biological factor required for appetite evoked by alcohol. PMID:28072397

  13. Neural Activity During Health Messaging Predicts Reductions in Smoking Above and Beyond Self-Report

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Emily B.; Berkman, Elliot T.; Whalen, Danielle; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The current study tested whether neural activity in response to messages designed to help smokers quit could predict smoking reduction, above and beyond self-report. Design Using neural activity in an a priori region of interest (a subregion of medial prefrontal cortex [MPFC]), in response to ads designed to help smokers quit smoking, we prospectively predicted reductions in smoking in a community sample of smokers (N = 28) who were attempting to quit smoking. Smoking was assessed via expired carbon monoxide (CO; a biological measure of recent smoking) at baseline and 1 month following exposure to professionally developed quitting ads. Results A positive relationship was observed between activity in the MPFC region of interest and successful quitting (increased activity in MPFC was associated with a greater decrease in expired CO). The addition of neural activity to a model predicting changes in CO from self-reported intentions, self-efficacy, and ability to relate to the messages significantly improved model fit, doubling the variance explained ( Rself−report2=.15,Rself−report+neuralactivity2=.35,Rchange2=.20). Conclusion: Neural activity is a useful complement to existing self-report measures. In this investigation, we extend prior work predicting behavior change based on neural activity in response to persuasive media to an important health domain and discuss potential psychological interpretations of the brain–behavior link. Our results support a novel use of neuroimaging technology for understanding the psychology of behavior change and facilitating health promotion. PMID:21261410

  14. The Interplay of Friendship Networks and Social Networking Sites: Longitudinal Analysis of Selection and Influence Effects on Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the coevolution of adolescent friendships and peer influences with respect to their risk behaviors and social networking site use. Methods. Investigators of the Social Network Study collected longitudinal data during fall 2010 and spring 2011 from 10th-grade students in 5 Southern California high schools (n = 1434). We used meta-analyses of stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in friendship ties and risk behaviors and the effects of Facebook and MySpace use. Results. Significant shifts in adolescent smoking and drinking occurred despite little change in overall prevalence rates. Students with higher levels of alcohol use were more likely to send and receive friendship nominations and become friends with other drinkers. They were also more likely to increase alcohol use if their friends drank more. Adolescents selected friends with similar Facebook and MySpace use habits. Exposure to friends’ risky online pictures increased smoking behaviors but had no significant effects on alcohol use. Conclusions. Our findings support a greater focus on friendship selection mechanisms in school-based alcohol use interventions. Social media platforms may help identify at-risk adolescent groups and foster positive norms about risk behaviors. PMID:24922126

  15. Associations of cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in early radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Yang, Ye; Deng, Zhen-han; Ding, Xiang; Lei, Guanghua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is possibly related to osteoarthritis (OA) progression and a variety of OA-related symptoms. This study aimed to examine associations between cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP in early radiographic knee OA. Design Cross-sectional health examination survey. Setting This primary study was conducted in a health examination centre in China. Participants 936 (656 men and 280 women) patients with early radiographic knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Smoking status was classified into four levels based on daily smoking habit: 0/day, 1–10/day, 11–20/day and >20/day. Betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption status was divided into ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. Early radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren Lawrence (K-L) grade 1 or 2 in at least one leg, and elevated hsCRP was assessed as ≥3.0 mg/L. Results After adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, a significant positive association between cigarette smoking and hsCRP was observed in the multivariable model. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of elevated hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/L) in the second (1–10/day, n=133), third (11–20/day, n=59) and highest (>20/day, n=104) cigarette smoking categories were 1.54 (95% CI 0.91 to 2.61), 1.27 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.79) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.64), respectively, compared with the non-smoker category (n=640). In addition, there was a positive dose–response relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated hsCRP (p for trend=0.01). No significant associations between betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP were observed in the multivariable model. Conclusions This study indicated that cigarette smoking was positively associated with serum hsCRP level in patients with early radiographic knee OA. However, in view of the nature of cross-sectional designs, the results need to be confirmed by

  16. Dopamine D1 receptor blockade impairs alcohol seeking without reducing dorsal striatal activation to cues of alcohol availability

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, Rebecca R; Robinson, Donita L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol-associated cues activate both ventral and dorsal striatum in functional brain imaging studies of heavy drinkers. In rodents, alcohol-associated cues induce changes in neuronal firing frequencies and increase dopamine release in ventral striatum, but the impact of alcohol-associated cues on neuronal activity in dorsal striatum is unclear. We previously reported phasic changes in action potential frequency in the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum after cues that signaled alcohol availability, prompting approach behavior. Methods We investigated the hypothesis that dopamine transmission modulates these phasic firing changes. Rats were trained to self-administer alcohol, and neuronal activity was monitored with extracellular electrophysiology during “anticipatory” cues that signaled the start of the operant session. Sessions were preceded by systemic administration of the D1-type dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0, 10, and 20 μg/kg). Results SCH23390 significantly decreased firing rates during the 60 s prior to cue onset without reducing phasic excitations immediately following the cues. While neuronal activation to cues might be expected to initiate behavioral responses, in this study alcohol seeking was reduced despite the presence of dorsal striatal excitations to alcohol cues. Conclusions These data suggest that D1 receptor antagonism reduces basal firing rates in the dorsal striatum and modulates the ability of neuronal activation to “anticipatory” cues to initiate alcohol seeking in rats with an extensive history of alcohol self-administration. PMID:25642390

  17. Automatically-Activated Attitudes as Mechanisms for Message Effects: The Case of Alcohol Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Catherine E; Slater, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertisement exposure through automatically-activated alcohol attitudes on willingness to engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors, notably drinking and driving. A mechanism that may explain how these advertisements activate automatic, non-deliberative alcohol attitudes was investigated. Associative evidence was found supportive of an evaluative conditioning mechanism, in which positive responses to an alcohol advertisement may lead to more positive automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol itself.

  18. Automatically-Activated Attitudes as Mechanisms for Message Effects: The Case of Alcohol Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Catherine E.; Slater, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertisement exposure through automatically-activated alcohol attitudes on willingness to engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors, notably drinking and driving. A mechanism that may explain how these advertisements activate automatic, non-deliberative alcohol attitudes was investigated. Associative evidence was found supportive of an evaluative conditioning mechanism, in which positive responses to an alcohol advertisement may lead to more positive automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol itself. PMID:21258609

  19. Associations between late and moderately preterm birth and smoking, alcohol, drug use and diet: a population-based case–cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy K; Draper, Elizabeth S; Evans, T Alun; Field, David J; Johnson, Samantha J; Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Marlow, Neil; Petrou, Stavros; Boyle, Elaine M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explores the associations between lifestyle factors and late and moderate preterm birth (LMPT: 32+0–36+6 weeks' gestation), a relatively under-researched group. Study design A population-based case–cohort study was undertaken involving 922 LMPT and 965 term (37+ weeks' gestation) singleton live and stillbirths born between 1 September 2009 and 31 December 2010 to women residing in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, UK. Poisson multivariable regression models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RR) of LMPT birth associated with maternal smoking, alcohol and recreational drug use, and diet. Results Women who smoked during pregnancy were at 38% increased risk of LMPT birth compared with non-smokers (RR 1.38, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.84)). Low consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with a 31% increased risk compared with those who reported eating higher consumption levels (RR 1.31 (1.03 to 1.66)). Women who did not have any aspects of a Mediterranean diet were nearly twice as likely to deliver LMPT compared with those whose diet included more Mediterranean characteristics (RR 1.81 (1.04 to 3.14)). Women who smoked and consumed low levels of fruit and vegetables (5% of women) were at particularly high risk (RR=1.81 (1.29 to 2.55)). There was no significant effect of alcohol or recreational drug use on LMPT birth. Conclusions Smoking and poor diet during pregnancy, factors that strongly impact on very preterm birth, are also important at later gestations and experienced together are associated with an elevated rate of risk. Our findings suggest early cessation of smoking during pregnancy may be an effective strategy to reduce LMPT births. PMID:25972442

  20. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sorak-Pokrajac, M.; Dermelj, M.; Slejkovec, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extremely important. As one of the volatile elements it can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis.

  1. The Identification of Perillyl Alcohol Glycosides with Improved Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A facile route to perillyl alcohol (POH) differential glycosylation and the corresponding synthesis of a set of 34 POH glycosides is reported. Subsequent in vitro studies revealed a sugar dependent antiproliferative activity and the inhibition of S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation as a putative mechanism of representative POH glycosides. The most active glycoside from this cumulative study (4′-azido-d-glucoside, PG9) represents one of the most cytotoxic POH analogues reported to date. PMID:25121720

  2. Satellite estimation of photosynthetically active radiation in Southeast Asia: Impacts of smoke and cloud cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Hoyano, Akira; Aoki, Masatoshi; Komori, Daisuke; Boonyawat, Samakkee

    2004-02-01

    Since large-scale variations in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) influence the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks through the plant photosynthesis variations, large-scale evaluation of PAR is required. In the present study a simple PAR estimation model was developed for Southeast Asia, where large-scale forest fires occurred during El Niño years. The model considered the smoke aerosol released by forest fires using satellite-based smoke detection methods. A comparison study with ground-based solar radiation data for Malaysia and Thailand indicated that the current model could estimate monthly PAR with 10% (root-mean-square) accuracy and would successfully trace the seasonal and year-to-year variations in PAR, including the forest fire periods. During the peak-smoke month in Indonesia, September 1997, the reduction of PAR by smoke reached 63-75% in the center of the Kalimantan and Sumatra Islands. From the analyses of the smoke and cloud cover impacts on PAR in 1997-1999, annual PAR variations were found to be mostly regulated by smoke variations on the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Kalimantan Islands and cloud cover variations on the Indo-China Peninsula. Thus annual variations in PAR changed with location. These variations did not simply correlate with year-to-year variations in cloud cover associated with the El Niño and La Niña cycle, but exhibited more complicated spatial variations due to the existence of smoke in Southeast Asia.

  3. Can physical activity minimize weight gain in women after smoking cessation?

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, I; Troisi, R J; Rotnitzky, A G; Coakley, E H; Colditz, G A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to examine prospectively whether exercise can modify weight gain after smoking cessation in women. METHODS. Data were analyzed from a 2-year follow-up period (1986-1988) in the Nurses' Health Study, an ongoing cohort of 121,700 US women aged 40 to 75 in 1986. RESULTS. The average weight gain over 2 years was 3.0 kg in the 1474 women who stopped smoking, and 0.6 kg among the 7832 women who continued smoking. Among women smoking 1 to 24 cigarettes per day, those who quit without changing their levels of exercise gained an average of 2.3 kg more (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9, 2.6) than women who continued smoking. Women who quit and increased exercise by between 8 to 16 MET-hours (the work metabolic rate divided by the resting metabolic rate) per week gained 1.8 kg (95% CI = 1.0, 2.5), and the excess weight gain was only 1.3 kg (95% CI = 0.7, 1.9) in women who increased exercise by more than 16 MET-hours per week. CONCLUSIONS. Smoking cessation is associated with a net excess weight gain of about 2.4 kg in middle-aged women. However, this weight gain is minimized if smoking cessation is accompanied by a moderate increase in the level of physical activity. PMID:8669525

  4. Effect of filtration by activated charcoal on the toxicological activity of cigarette mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Gaworski, Charles L; Schramke, Heike; Diekmann, Joerg; Meisgen, Thomas J; Tewes, Franz J; Veltel, Detlef J; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick M; Rajendran, Narayanan; Muzzio, Miguel; Haussmann, Hans-Juergen

    2009-07-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) filtration reportedly decreases the yields of smoke vapor phase constituents including some identified as human carcinogens and respiratory irritants. Non-clinical studies including chemical smoke analysis, in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenicity (bacterial and mammalian cells), and in vivo subchronic rat inhalation studies were carried out using machine smoking at ISO conditions with lit-end research cigarettes containing AC filters. The objective was to assess whether AC filter technology would alter the established toxicity profile of mainstream smoke by increasing or decreasing any known toxicological properties, or elicit new ones. The reduced yield of vapor phase irritants from AC filter cigarettes correlated with markedly decreased in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo morphology of the nose and lower respiratory tract. Increased yields of particulate phase constituents (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in AC filtered smoke were noted in comparison to controls in some studies. The in vitro bacterial mutagenicity of AC filtered smoke particulate preparations was occasionally increased over control levels. Laryngeal epithelial thickness was increased in some rats inhaling AC filtered smoke in comparison to controls, an effect perhaps related to higher inspiratory flow. When tested under more intense Massachusetts Department of Public Health smoking conditions, AC filter associated reductions in vapor phase constituent yields were smaller than those seen with ISO conditions, but the effect on in vitro cytotoxicity remained.

  5. Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Sean M.; Ali, Nawal N.; Margalit, Danielle N.; Chan, Annie W.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III-IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0-150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and former smokers (31% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of distant metastasis for patients with lifetime cumulative pack-years >20 and {<=}20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  6. Active and involuntary tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer risks in a multicenter case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Marron, Manuela; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsague, Xavier; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Simonato, Lorenzo; Conway, David I.; McKinney, Patricia A.; Lowry, Raymond J.; Sneddon, Linda; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M.; McCartan, Bernard E.; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Several important issues for the established association between tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risks include the associations with smoking by cancer subsite, by type of tobacco, and among never alcohol drinkers, and the associations with involuntary smoking among nonsmokers. Our aim was to examine these specific issues in a large scale case-control study in Europe. Methods Analysis was performed on 2,103 UADT squamous cell carcinoma cases and 2,221 controls in the Alcohol-Related Cancers and Genetic Susceptibility in Europe (ARCAGE) project, a multicenter case-control study in 10 European countries. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared to never tobacco smoking, current smoking was associated with UADT cancer risks (OR=6.72, 95% CI 5.45–8.30 for overall; 5.83, 4.50–7.54 for oral cavity and oropharynx; 12.19, 8.29–17.92 for hypopharynx and larynx; 4.17, 2.45–7.10 for esophagus). Among never drinkers, dose-response relationships with tobacco smoking packyears were observed for hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.01), but not for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.282). Among never smokers, ever exposure to involuntary smoking was associated with an increased risk of UADT cancers (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.04–2.46). Conclusion Our results corroborate that tobacco smoking may play a stronger role in the development of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers than that of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers among never drinkers and that involuntary smoking is an important risk factor for UADT cancers. Public health interventions to reduce involuntary smoking exposure could help reduce UADT cancer incidence. PMID:19959682

  7. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  8. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  9. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  10. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  11. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  12. Activation of C3a receptor is required in cigarette smoke-mediated emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaoyi; Shan, Ming; You, Ran; Frazier, Michael V.; Hong, Monica Jeongsoo; Wetsel, Rick A.; Drouin, Scott; Seryshev, Alexander; MD, Li-zhen Song; Cornwell, Lorraine; Rossen, Roger D; Corry, David B.; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke can initiate sterile inflammatory responses in the lung and activate myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) that induce differentiation of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells in the emphysematous lungs. Consumption of complement proteins increases in acute inflammation, but the contribution of complement protein 3 (C3) to chronic cigarette smoke-induced immune responses in the lung is not clear. Here we show that following chronic exposure to cigarette smoke, C3 deficient (C3−/−) mice develop less emphysema and have fewer CD11b+CD11c+ mDCs infiltrating the lungs as compared to wild type mice. Proteolytic cleavage of C3 by neutrophil elastase releases C3a, which in turn increases expression of its receptor (C3aR) on lung mDCs. Mice deficient in the C3aR (C3ar−/−) partially phenocopy the attenuated responses to chronic smoke observed in C3−/− mice. Consistent with a role for C3 in emphysema C3 and its active fragments are deposited on the lung tissue of smokers with emphysema, and smoke exposed mice. Together, these findings suggest a critical role for C3a through autocrine/paracrine induction of C3aR in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke induced sterile inflammation and provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of emphysema. PMID:25465103

  13. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Younghoon; Norby, Faye L; Jensen, Paul N; Agarwal, Sunil K; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Lip, Gregory Y H; Longstreth, W T; Alonso, Alvaro; Heckbert, Susan R; Chen, Lin Y

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV) death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI]), and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4) and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1) participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21-2.26)] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69-1.61)]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65-74 years), but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years) adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes.

  14. Early Initiation of Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and Sexual Intercourse Linked to Suicidal Ideation and Attempts: Findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Results Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Conclusion Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors. PMID:20046509

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  16. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  17. Inhibitory effect of disulfiram (Antabuse) on alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Carper, W R; Dorey, R C; Beber, J H

    1987-10-01

    We investigated the effect of disulfiram (Antabuse) on the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) in vitro. We observed a time-dependent inhibition of this dehydrogenase by disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate similar to that obtained for aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3). These results suggest a possible explanation for various side effects observed in the clinical use of Antabuse.

  18. A theoretical model for the study of active and passive smoking in military women: an at-risk population.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, A M

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a model designed for the study of active and passive smoking in military women with children. Some constructs have been adapted from a transtheoretical model of behavior change. Transtheoretical model constructs of relevance to this model include (1) stages of behavior change, (2) decisional balance, and (3) self-efficacy. Other model constructs include (1) personal and situational factors, (2) a mother's self-efficacy to reduce the child's smoke exposure, (3) a mother's expectation for the child's smoke exposure, (4) smoke avoidance, (5) nicotine dependence, and (6) social support for quitting smoking. The occurrence of health problems associated with smoking is the outcome variable. The results of a study under way at present may support the use of this model and may make data available to substantiate the need for behavior-specific interventions designed to prevent and reduce active and passive smoking among military personnel.

  19. Community pharmacy interventions for public health priorities: protocol for a systematic review of community pharmacy-delivered smoking, alcohol and weight management interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacists can deliver health care advice at an opportunistic level, related to prescription or non-prescription medicines and as part of focused services designed to reduce specific risks to health. Obesity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake are three of the most significant modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the UK, and interventions led by community pharmacists, aimed at these three risk factors, have been identified by the government as public health priorities. In 2008, the Department of Health for England stated that ‘a sound evidence base that demonstrates how pharmacy delivers effective, high quality and value for money services is needed’; this systematic review aims to respond to this requirement. Methods/design We will search the databases MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, Scopus and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that have evaluated interventions based on community pharmacies that aim to target weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. We will include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) and repeated measures studies. Data from included studies will be extracted by two independent reviewers and will include study details methods, results, intervention implementation/costs and methodological quality. Meta-analysis will be conducted if appropriate; if not, the synthesis will be restricted to a narrative overview of individual studies looking at the same question. Discussion The review aims to summarise the evidence base on the effectiveness of community pharmacy interventions on health and health behaviours in relation to weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. It will also explore if, and how, socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity and age moderate the effect of the

  20. Smoking automaticity and tolerance moderate brain activation during explore-exploit behavior

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, Merideth A.; Pearson, John M.; Froeliger, Brett; Platt, Michael L.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive trade-off between exploration and exploitation is a key component in models of reinforcement learning. Over the past decade, these models have been applied to the study of reward-seeking behavior. Drugs of addiction induce reward-seeking behavior and modify its underlying neurophysiological processes. These neurophysiological changes may underlie a behavioral shift from a flexible, exploratory mode to a focused, exploitative mode, which precedes the development of inflexible, habitual drug use. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between explore/exploit behavior and drug addiction by examining the neural correlates of this behavior in cigarette smokers. Participants (n = 22) with a range of smoking behaviors completed a smoking dependence motives questionnaire and played a 6-armed bandit task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Exploratory behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior parietal and bilateral frontal cortices than exploitative behavior. Exploitative behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri than exploratory behavior. fMRI data and orthogonalized smoking dependence motive scores were entered into multiple linear regression analyses. After controlling for nicotine tolerance, smoking automaticity positively correlated with activation in the same bilateral parietal regions preferentially activated by exploratory choices. These preliminary results link smoking dependence motives to variation in the neural processes that mediate exploratory decision making. PMID:25453166

  1. Vitamin C blocks inflammatory platelet-activating factor mimetics created by cigarette smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, H A; Weyrich, A S; Saetzler, R K; Jurek, A; Arfors, K E; Zimmerman, G A; Prescott, S M; McIntyre, T M

    1997-01-01

    Cigarette smoking within minutes induces leukocyte adhesion to the vascular wall and formation of intravascular leukocyte-platelet aggregates. We find this is inhibited by platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists, and correlates with the accumulation of PAF-like mediators in the blood of cigarette smoke-exposed hamsters. These mediators were PAF-like lipids, formed by nonenzymatic oxidative modification of existing phospholipids, that were distinct from biosynthetic PAF. These PAF-like lipids induced isolated human monocytes and platelets to aggregate, which greatly increased their secretion of IL-8 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha. Both events were blocked by a PAF receptor antagonist. Similarly, blocking the PAF receptor in vivo blocked smoke-induced leukocyte aggregation and pavementing along the vascular wall. Dietary supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin C prevented the accumulation of PAF-like lipids, and it prevented cigarette smoke-induced leukocyte adhesion to the vascular wall and formation of leukocyte-platelet aggregates. This is the first in vivo demonstration of inflammatory phospholipid oxidation products and it suggests a molecular mechanism coupling cigarette smoke with rapid inflammatory changes. Inhibition of PAF-like lipid formation and their intravascular sequela by vitamin C suggests a simple dietary means to reduce smoking-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:9153277

  2. Body mass index, physical activity, and smoking in relation to military readiness.

    PubMed

    Collée, Audrey; Clarys, Peter; Geeraerts, Philippe; Dugauquier, Christian; Mullie, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the influence of excess weight, regular physical activity, and smoking on the military readiness of the Belgian Armed Forces in a cross-sectional online survey. A multinomial logistic regression was used to study the influence of modifiable risk factors on participation in the physical fitness test. In our study population (n = 4,959), subjects with a body mass index higher than 25 kg/m(2), smokers, and subjects with a lower level of vigorous physical activity were significantly more likely to have failed the physical fitness test. In the Belgian Armed Forces, serious efforts should be made to encourage vigorous physical activity, smoking cessation, and weight loss to preserve our military readiness. Instead of relying on civilian public health interventions, Belgian Defense should develop its own specific approaches to prevent weight gain, improve physical fitness, and influence smoking attitude.

  3. Alveolar Macrophage Recruitment and Activation by Chronic Second Hand Smoke Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ellwanger, Almut; Solon, Margaret; Cambier, Christopher J.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Koth, Laura L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 15% of cases of COPD occur in non-smokers. Among the potential risk factors for COPD in non-smokers is second hand smoke (SHS) exposure. However, the Surgeon General reported in 2006 that the evidence linking second hand smoke and COPD is insufficient to infer a causal relationship, largely because current evidence does not establish a biological link. Objectives The goal of this study was to determine whether SHS exposure can induce alveolar macrophage recruitment and expression of activation markers that we have previously demonstrated in human smokers and in mouse models of emphysema. To achieve these goals, we studied mice exposed to an ambient mixture of predominantly [89%] sidestream smoke at increasing doses over 3 months. Results We found that second hand smoke exposure induced a dose-dependent increase in alveolar macrophage recruitment (mean ± sd; 224,511 ± 52,330 vs 166,152 ± 47,989 macrophages/ml of bronchoalveolar lavage in smoke-exposed vs air-exposed controls at 3 months, p=0.003). We also found increased expression of several markers of alveolar macrophage activation (PLA2g7, dkfzp434l142, Trem-2, and pirin, all p<0.01 at 3 months) and increased lavage levels of two inflammatory mediators associated with COPD (CCL2 [MCP-1], 58 ± 12 vs. 43 ± 22 pg/ml, p=0.03; and TNFα, 138 ± 43 vs 88 ± 78 pg/ml, p=0.04 at 3 months). Conclusions These findings indicate that second smoke exposure can cause macrophage recruitment and activation, providing a biological link between second hand smoke exposure and the development of inflammatory processes linked to COPD. PMID:19378221

  4. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  5. Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Activity and Alcohol Consumption in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscemi, Joanna; Martens, Matthew P.; Murphy, James G.; Yurasek, Ali M.; Smith, Ashley E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Among college students, several studies have found a positive relationship between physical activity and alcohol use. The current study tested gender, Greek status, and ethnicity as potential moderators of the physical activity-alcohol use relationship. Participants: Participants were college freshmen (n = 310) endorsing alcohol/drug…

  6. Motivational effects of smoked marijuana: behavioral contingencies and low-probability activities.

    PubMed Central

    Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V; Bernstein, D J; Capriotti, R M; Nellis, M J; Kelly, T H

    1990-01-01

    Six adult male research volunteers, in two groups of 3 subjects each, lived in a residential laboratory for 15 days. All contact with the experimenters was through a networked computer system, and subjects' behavior was monitored continuously and recorded. During the first part of each day, they were allowed to socialize. Two cigarettes containing active marijuana (2.7% delta 9-THC) or placebo were smoked during the private work period and the period of access to social activities. Three-day contingency conditions requiring subjects to engage in a low-probability work activity (instrumental activity) in order to earn time that could be spent engaging in a high-probability work activity (contingent activity) were programmed during periods of placebo and active-marijuana smoking. During placebo administration, the contingency requirement reliably increased the amount of time that subjects spent engaged in the low-probability instrumental activity and decreased the time spent engaged in the high-probability activity. During active-marijuana administration, however, the increases in instrumental activity were consistently larger than observed under placebo conditions. The decreases in contingent activity were similar to those seen under placebo conditions. Smoking active marijuana was thus observed to produce increments in instrumental activity under motivational conditions involving contingencies for "work activities." PMID:2299291

  7. Cigarette smoking augments sympathetic nerve activity in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Norihiko; Yuasa, Toyoshi; Takata, Shigeo

    2008-05-01

    It has been shown that cigarette smoking increases blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), and decreases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in healthy young smokers. The decrease in MSNA might be secondary to baroreflex responses to the pressor effect. We tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoking increases MSNA in smokers with impaired baroreflex function. The effects of cigarette smoking on BP, HR, forearm blood flow (FBF), forearm vascular resistance (FVR), and MSNA were examined in 14 patients with stable effort angina (59+/-3 years, group CAD) and 10 healthy smokers (23+/-1 years, group C). In group CAD, the arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was significantly lower than in group C (4.7+/-0.8 versus 15.1+/-2.2 msec/mmHg, P<0.01). In both groups, cigarette smoking increased the plasma concentration of nicotine, systolic and diastolic BP, HR, and FVR significantly (P<0.01), but decreased FBF significantly (P<0.01). After smoking, MSNA was decreased significantly in group C (from 35.2+/-3.5 to 23.5+/-3.2 bursts/100 beats, P<0.01), but increased significantly in group CAD (from 48.8+/-5.4 to 57.3+/-5.5 bursts/100 beats, P<0.01). There was significant correlation between BRS and changes in MSNA (r= -0.62, P<0.01). Cigarette smoking increased MSNA in smokers with impaired baroreflex function. This demonstrates that cigarette smoking stimulates sympathetic nerve activity by both a direct peripheral effect and a centrally mediated effect.

  8. Evaluation of CO exposure in active smokers while smoking using breath analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Oh, Jung-Wook

    2003-10-01

    The current study evaluated the personal CO exposure of active smokers while smoking under controlled conditions, decay rate of CO in the body following active smoking, and CO accumulation in the body from repeated active smoking using a novel device for the direct measurement of alveolar breath CO. Prior to this evaluation, the proposed alveolar CO measurement device was successfully evaluated as regards the effect of humidity, CO recovery, carryover effect, and in comparison with the bag sampling method. The breath concentrations prior to and after a single cigarette were measured using a repeated measure design. Under the controlled conditions employed in the present study, active smoking was found to cause a significant body burden of CO. The post-exposure breath CO level was 1.6-2.0 times higher than the background breath level, depending on the subject and cigarette brand. In addition, the pre- and post-exposure breath concentrations were both significantly different among the subjects, yet the ratios of post-exposure to pre-exposure breath concentrations did not differ significantly between the different cigarette brands. The time-series alveolar breath concentrations measured following active smoking showed that the post-exposure alveolar CO concentrations decreased slowly even in the early phase of the decay curves, indicating a mono-compartment uptake and elimination model for the human body. The half-lives estimated in the present study (301, 315, and 385 min) were longer than or comparable to those in previous studies. The breath measurements prior to and after repeated active smoking exhibited a significant increasing trend for both the pre- and post-exposure concentrations. The changes in the pre- and post-exposure breath CO concentrations with repeated smoking ranged from 7% to 23% and from 10% to 15%, respectively, with half-hour intervals between cigarettes, and from 4% to 11% and from 6% to 8%, respectively, with hour intervals between cigarettes

  9. Highly selective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Nie, Yao; Mu, Xiao Qing; Zhang, Rongzhen; Xu, Yan

    2016-07-03

    Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis has been widely used for preparation of optically active chiral alcohols as the important intermediates and precursors of active pharmaceutical ingredients. However, the available whole-cell system involving anti-Prelog specific alcohol dehydrogenase is yet limited. A recombinant Escherichia coli system expressing anti-Prelog stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase from Candida parapsilosis was established as a whole-cell system for catalyzing asymmetric reduction of aryl ketones to anti-Prelog configured alcohols. Using 2-hydroxyacetophenone as the substrate, reaction factors including pH, cell status, and substrate concentration had obvious impacts on the outcome of whole-cell biocatalysis, and xylose was found to be an available auxiliary substrate for intracellular cofactor regeneration, by which (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol was achieved with an optical purity of 97%e.e. and yield of 89% under the substrate concentration of 5 g/L. Additionally, the feasibility of the recombinant cells toward different aryl ketones was investigated, and most of the corresponding chiral alcohol products were obtained with an optical purity over 95%e.e. Therefore, the whole-cell system involving recombinant stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase was constructed as an efficient biocatalyst for highly enantioselective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols and would be promising in the pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Borderline personality traits and substance use: genetic factors underlie the association with smoking and ever use of cannabis, but not with high alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Distel, Marijn A; Trull, Tim J; de Moor, Marleen M H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Geels, Lot M; van Beek, Jenny H D A; Bartels, Meike; Willemsen, Gonneke; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine A; Neale, Michael C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2012-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders often co-occur. Both disorders are heritable and family studies showed that there are familial factors that increase the risk for BPD as well as substance use/abuse. This is the first study that investigates whether the association of borderline personality traits (BPT) with substance use reflects an underlying genetic vulnerability or nongenetic familial influences. To this end we analyzed data of 5,638 Dutch and Belgian twins aged between 21-50 years from 3,567 families. Significant associations between BPT and high alcohol consumption (r = .192), regular smoking (r = .299), and ever use of cannabis (r = .254) were found. Bivariate genetic analyses showed that the associations of BPT and substance use had different etiologies. For regular smoking and for ever use of cannabis, the correlation with BPT was explained by common genetic factors. Interestingly, for high alcohol consumption and BPT the association was explained by unique environmental factors that influence both traits rather than common genetic factors.

  11. Oral epithelial atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, peppers and hot meals, using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou staining techniques.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim; Ebnoof, Syda Omer M Ali; Hussein, Mohmmed Omer M; Gbreel, Afra Yousif A

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate cytological atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, hot meals, and peppers using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou methods. A total of 180 individuals were evaluated, of which 60 were smokers, 34 were alcohol users, 52 were habitual peppers and hot meal (exposed) consumers, 24 were non-exposed, and 10 were patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC), as an internal control. Cytological materials were obtained by brushing of buccal mucosa, on the border of the tongue and on the floor of the mouth, and participants underwent the Papanicolaou test for cytological changes and AgNOR staining for evaluation of the mean number of AgNOR dots per nucleus. SPSS program was used to perform the Pearson chi-square test. The 95% confidence level, Odds Ratio (OR), and the 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were used. The features of cytological atypia were verified among 10 individuals, including 5 smokers, 2 alcohol users, 2 hot meals and peppers consumers, and one non-exposed. For atypia among tobacco smokers, the adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) and the 95% CI were found to be 2 (0.246-16.24). Increased keratinization was detected among 27 (45%) of the smokers (P < 0.0001), 17 (32.7%) of the pepper and hot meals consumers (P < 0.005), 4 (11.8%) of the alcohol consumers, and among 2 (3.7%) of the non-exposed group. Statistical analyses revealed a greater mean number of AgNORs per nucleus in smokers (3.68) followed by (2.82) alcohol consumers, compared to the habitual peppers and hot meal consumers (2.28) and the non-exposed group (2.00). What's more, 80% of the smears with cytological atypia were identified with 6 +/- 2 AgNOR mean count. The increase of the variables suggests that the evaluation of epithelial atypical changes in individuals exposed to smoking and alcohol carcinogens may be a useful screening tool. While hot meals and peppers did not seem to be a risk for oral mucosal proliferation, they increased the potency of

  12. Estrogen receptor activation by tobacco smoke condensate in hormonal therapy-resistant breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Toshifumi; Shinagawa, Yuri; Asari, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kanae; Takanobu, Junko; Gohno, Tatsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuri; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence has been studied for many years, but the effect of smoking on hormonal therapy has not been previously reported. We investigated the effect of smoking on hormonal therapy by performing in vitro experiments. We first prepared tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) and examined its effect on estrogen receptor (ER) activity. The ER activity was analyzed using MCF-7-E10 cells into which the estrogen-responsive element (ERE)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene had been stably introduced (GFP assay) and performing an ERE-luciferase assay. TSC significantly activated ERs, and upregulated its endogenous target genes. This activation was inhibited by fulvestrant but more weakly by tamoxifen. These results suggest that the activation mechanism may be different from that for estrogen. Furthermore, using E10 estrogen depletion-resistant cells (EDR cells) established as a hormonal therapy-resistant model showing estrogen-independent ER activity, ER activation and induction of ER target genes were significantly higher following TSC treatment than by estradiol (E2). These responses were much higher than those of the parental E10 cells. In addition, the phosphorylation status of signaling factors (ERK1/2, Akt) and ER in the E10-EDR cells treated with TSC increased. The gene expression profile induced by estrogenic effects of TSC was characterized by microarray analysis. The findings suggested that TSC activates ER by both ligand-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Although TSC constituents will be metabolized in vivo, breast cancer tissues might be exposed for a long period along with hormonal therapy. Tobacco smoke may have a possibility to interfere with hormonal therapy for breast cancer, which may have important implications for the management of therapy.

  13. Socioeconomic status and lifestyle behaviours in cancer survivors: smoking and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Naik, H.; Qiu, X.; Brown, M.C.; Eng, L.; Pringle, D.; Mahler, M.; Hon, H.; Tiessen, K.; Thai, H.; Ho, V.; Gonos, C.; Charow, R.; Pat, V.; Irwin, M.; Herzog, L.; Ho, A.; Xu, W.; Jones, J.M.; Howell, D.; Liu, G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Smoking cessation and increased physical activity (pa) have been linked to better outcomes in cancer survivors. We assessed whether socioeconomic factors influence changes in those behaviours after a cancer diagnosis. Methods As part of a cross-sectional study, a diverse group of cancer survivors at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (Toronto, ON), completed a questionnaire about past and current lifestyle behaviours and perceptions about the importance of those behaviours with respect to their health. The influence of socioeconomic indicators on smoking status and physical inactivity at 1 year before and after diagnosis were assessed using multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for clinico-demographic factors. Results Of 1222 participants, 1192 completed the smoking component. Of those respondents, 15% smoked before diagnosis, and 43% of those smokers continued to smoke after. The proportion of survivors who continued to smoke increased with lower education level (p = 0.03). Of the 1106 participants answering pa questions, 39% reported being physically inactive before diagnosis, of whom 82% remained inactive afterward. Survivors with a lower education level were most likely to remain inactive after diagnosis (p = 0.003). Lower education level, household income, and occupation were associated with the perception that pa had no effect or could worsen fatigue and quality of life (p ≤ 0.0001). Conclusions In cancer survivors, education level was a major modifier of smoking and pa behaviours. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with incorrect perceptions about pa. Targeting at-risk survivors by education level should be evaluated as a strategy in cancer survivorship programs. PMID:28050143

  14. Differences in the Prevalence of Obesity, Smoking and Alcohol in the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Al Kazzi, Elie S.; Lau, Brandyn; Li, Tianjing; Schneider, Eric B.; Makary, Martin A.; Hutfless, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background The lack of adequate and standardized recording of leading risk factors for morbidity and mortality in medical records have downstream effects on research based on administrative databases. The measurement of healthcare is increasingly based on risk-adjusted outcomes derived from coded comorbidities in these databases. However inaccurate or haphazard assessment of risk factors for morbidity and mortality in medical record codes can have tremendous implications for quality improvement and healthcare reform. Objective We aimed to compare the prevalence of obesity, overweight, tobacco use and alcohol abuse of a large administrative database with a direct data collection survey. Materials and Methods We used the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for four leading risk factors in the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to compare them with a direct survey in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2011. After confirming normality of the risk factors, we calculated the national and state estimates and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for obesity, overweight, tobacco use and alcohol abuse between NIS and BRFSS. Results Compared with direct participant questioning in BRFSS, NIS reported substantially lower prevalence of obesity (p<0.01), overweight (p<0.01), and alcohol abuse (p<0.01), but not tobacco use (p = 0.18). The correlation between NIS and BRFSS was 0.27 for obesity (p = 0.06), 0.09 for overweight (p = 0.55), 0.62 for tobacco use (p<0.01) and 0.40 for alcohol abuse (p<0.01). Conclusions The prevalence of obesity, overweight, tobacco smoking and alcohol abuse based on codes is not consistent with prevalence based on direct questioning. The accuracy of these important measures of health and morbidity in databases is critical for healthcare reform policies. PMID:26536469

  15. Cigarette smoke activates human monocytes by an oxidant-AP-1 signaling pathway: implications for steroid resistance.

    PubMed

    Walters, Matthew J; Paul-Clark, Mark J; McMaster, Shaun K; Ito, Kazuhiro; Adcock, Ian M; Mitchell, Jane A

    2005-11-01

    Smoking cigarettes is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Moreover, smoking-induced pathophysiology is often resistant to the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. The nature of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation is still not defined, although neutrophil recruitment and activation seem to be consistent features. In the current study, we have used a range of approaches to demonstrate that cigarette smoke activates human monocytes and macrophages to release the CXC chemokine CXCL8 [(interleukin-8 (IL-8)]. Furthermore, we show for the first time that cigarette smoke synergizes with proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and it is this interaction that confers steroid resistance to smoke-induced CXCL8 release. We go on to show that smoke-induced activation of human cells is an oxidant-mediated phenomenon acting through activator protein-1, but not nuclear factor kappaB, pathway. These observations add significantly to our understanding of smoke as an inflammatory stimulus that has implications for potential the development of treatments of smoking or related disease.

  16. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema.

    PubMed

    Dey, Neekkan; Das, Archita; Ghosh, Arunava; Chatterjee, Indu B

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100-200 μg/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73-80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70- 90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

  17. Effects of smoke inhalation on surfactant phospholipids and phospholipase A2 activity in the mouse lung.

    PubMed Central

    Oulton, M.; Moores, H. K.; Scott, J. E.; Janigan, D. T.; Hajela, R.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of smoke inhalation on the pulmonary surfactant system were examined in mice exposed for 30 minutes to smoke generated from the burning of polyurethane foam. At 8 or 12 hours after exposure, surfactants were isolated separately from lung lavage (extracellular surfactant) and residual lung tissue (intracellular surfactant) for phospholipid analysis. Calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was measured on a microsomal fraction prepared from the tissue homogenate. Smoke inhalation produced a twofold increase in extracellular surfactant total phospholipid. While there was no change in the total phospholipid or phosphatidylcholine (PC) content of the intracellular surfactant, smoke inhalation significantly decreased the disaturated species of PC (DSPC). The specific activity of PLA2 was reduced by more than 50% in both groups of exposed mice. Smoke inhalation appears to result in selective depletion of the DSPC of intracellular surfactant and PLA2 involved in its synthesis. This depletion may be compensated for by increased secretion or slower breakdown of the material present in the extracellular compartment. Images Figure 1 PMID:1987765

  18. Dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking among pregnant Puerto Rican women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have examined predictors of meeting health guidelines in pregnancy among Latina women. We assessed dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking in the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective cohort of 1231 prenatal care patients. Self-reported information...

  19. Testing a Conceptual Model Related to Weight Perceptions, Physical Activity and Smoking in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bercovitz, Kim; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model based on theoretical and empirically supported relationships related to the influences of weight perceptions, weight concerns, desires to change weight, friends, age and location in relation to physical activity (PA) and smoking in adolescents. A total of 1242 males and 1446 females (mean…

  20. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

  1. Cigarette smoke can activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro by modifying the third component of complement.

    PubMed Central

    Kew, R R; Ghebrehiwet, B; Janoff, A

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with significant increases in the number of pulmonary mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophils. A potent chemoattractant for these cells is C5a, a peptide generated during complement (C) activation. We, therefore, investigated the possibility that cigarette smoke could activate the complement system in vitro. Our results show that factor(s) (mol wt less than 1,000) present in an aqueous solution of whole, unfiltered cigarette smoke can deplete the hemolytic capacity of whole human serum in a dose-dependent manner. The particle-free, filtered gas phase of cigarette smoke is inactive. The smoke factor(s) do not activate serum C1, but do deplete serum C4 activity. Treatment of purified human C3 with whole smoke solution modifies the molecule such that its subsequent addition to serum (containing Mg/EGTA to block the classical pathway) results in consumption of hemolytic complement by activation of the alternative pathway. Smoke-modified C3 shows increased anodal migration in agarose electrophoresis, but this is not due to proteolytic cleavage of the molecule as evidenced by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In contrast to methylamine-treated C3, C3 treated with smoke is only partially susceptible to the action of the complement regulatory proteins Factors H and I. In addition, smoke-modified C3 has diminished binding to Factor H as compared with methylamine-treated C3. Finally, smoke-modified C3 incorporates [14C]methylamine which suggests that the thiolester bond may be intact. These data indicate that aqueous whole cigarette smoke solution can modify C3 and activate the alternative pathway of complement, perhaps by a previously unrecognized mechanism. Should this occur in vivo, complement activation might partly account for the extensive pulmonary leukocyte recruitment observed in smokers. Images PMID:3156879

  2. Immunostimulating activity of polyhydric alcohol isolated from Taxus cuspidata.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon Guen; Lee, Jisun; Lee, Da Gyung; Kim, Joo Won; Alnaeeli, Mawadda; Park, Yong Il; Park, Jae Kweon

    2016-04-01

    A polyhydric alcohol (PAL) was isolated from Taxus cuspidata and its immunostimulatory activities were assessed. The primary monosaccharide composition of the PAL was determined to be glucose, where HPAEC analysis showed no significant amount of any other sugars. However, glycerol and xylitol were identified as the main sugar alcohols. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis indicated that the purified PAL is a complex glycitol, which structurally contains significant amount of hydroxyl groups. MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy also demonstrated that PAL is a complex glycitol built in hexose polymerization. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that the PAL stimulates the release of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with PAL for 24h remarkably increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK, p38 and JNK in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the total protein levels of ERK (t-ERK), p38 (t-p38) and JNK (t-JNK) remained unchanged. These results clearly demonstrate that PAL stimulates the immune response in RAW 264.7 cells through the activation of MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK) signaling pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the primary structure and immune-stimulating activities of PAL from the fruit of T. cuspidata.

  3. Association of physical job demands, smoking and alcohol abuse with subsequent premature mortality: a 9-year follow-up population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bourgkard, Eve; Wild, Pascal; Massin, Nicole; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Otero Sierra, Carmen; Fontana, Jean-Marc; Benamghar, Lahoucine; Mur, Jean-Marie; Ravaud, Jean-François; Guillemin, Francis; Chau, Nearkasen

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships of physical job demands (PJD), smoking, and alcohol abuse, with premature mortality before age 70 (PM-70) among the working or inactive population. The sample included 4,268 subjects aged 15 or more randomly selected in north-eastern France. They completed a mailed questionnaire (birth date, sex, weight, height, job, PJD, smoking habit, alcohol abuse (Deta questionnaire)) in 1996 and were followed for mortality until 2004 (9 yr). PJD score was defined by the cumulative number of the following high job demands at work: hammer, vibrating platform, pneumatic tools, other vibrating hand tools, screwdriver, handling objects, awkward posture, tasks at heights, machine tools, pace, working on a production line, standing about and walking. The data were analyzed using the Poisson regression model. Those with PM-70 were 126 (3.81 per 1,000 person-years). The leading causes of death were cancers (46.4% in men, 57.1% in women), cardiovascular diseases (20.2% and 11.9%), suicide (9.5% and 7.1%), respiratory diseases (6.0% and 4.8%), and digestive diseases (2.4% and 4.8%). PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 1.71 (95% CI 1.02-2.88), 1.76 (1.08-2.88), and 2.07 (1.31-3.26) respectively for all-cause mortality. Manual workers had a risk ratio of 1.84 (1.00-3.37) compared to the higher socio-economic classes. The men had a two-fold higher mortality rate than the women; this difference became non-significant when controlling for job, PJD, smoker and alcohol abuse. For cancer mortality the factors PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 2.00 (1.00-3.99), 2.34 (1.19-4.63), and 2.22 (1.17-4.20), respectively. Health promotion efforts should be directed at structural measures of task redesign and they should also concern lifestyle.

  4. The magnitude of tobacco smoking-betel quid chewing-alcohol drinking interaction effect on oral cancer in South-East Asia. A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Masood, Mohd; Scully, Crispian

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol drinking are oral cancer risk factors. Observational studies unanimously report that oral cancer risk in smoking-drinking-chewing exposed subjects is exceptionally high. However, none of them assessed the fractions of this risk attributable to the three individual risk factors and to the smoking-drinking-chewing interaction. The present study sought to assess the magnitude of the smoking-drinking-chewing interaction effect on oral cancer. A meta-analysis of observational South-East Asian studies which reported oral cancer odds ratios (ORs) stratified for smoking-drinking-chewing exposures was performed. The pooled ORs were estimated and controlled for quality, heterogeneity, publication bias and inclusion criteria. The smoking-drinking-chewing interaction effect was estimated through the pooled Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction (RERI, excess risk in smoking-drinking-chewing exposed individuals with respect to the risk expected from the addition of the three individual risks of smoking, drinking and chewing). Fourteen studies were included with low between-study heterogeneity. The pooled ORs for smoking, drinking, chewing, smoking-drinking-chewing, respectively were 3.6 (95% confidence interval -95% CI, 1.9-7.0), 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6-3.0), 7.9 (95% CI, 6.7-9.3), 40.1 (95% CI, 35.1-45.8). The pooled RERI was 28.4 (95% CI, 22.9-33.7). Among smoking-drinking-chewing subjects, the individual effects accounted for 6.7% (smoking), 3.1% (drinking), 17.7% (chewing) of the risk, while the interaction effect accounted for the remaining 72.6%. These data suggest that 44,200 oral cancer cases in South-East Asia annually occur among smoking-drinking-chewing exposed subjects and 40,400 of these are exclusively associated with the interaction effect. Effective oral cancer control policies must consider concurrent tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, betel quid chewing usages as a unique unhealthy lifestyle.

  5. [Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Ecuador)].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life.

  6. Adolescents' leisure activities, parental monitoring and cigarette smoking - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample. Methods Randomly selected schools (n = 145) participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years). School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built. Results and Discussion Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5%) than males (6.5%). In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively), parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among Māori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-Māori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females and Māori which

  7. Mindfulness, Physical Activity and Avoidance of Secondhand Smoke: A Study of College Students in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Shi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To better understand the documented link between mindfulness and longevity, we examine the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke (SHS), as well as the association between mindfulness and physical activity. Method: In Shanghai University of Finance and Economics (SUFE) we surveyed a convenience sample of 1516 college freshmen. We measured mindfulness, weekly physical activity, and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, along with demographic and behavioral covariates. We used a multilevel logistic regression to test the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, and used a Tobit regression model to test the association between mindfulness and metabolic equivalent hours per week. In both models the home province of the student respondent was used as the cluster variable, and demographic and behavioral covariates, such as age, gender, smoking history, household registration status (urban vs. rural), the perceived smog frequency in their home towns, and the asthma diagnosis. Results: The logistic regression of consciously avoiding SHS shows that a higher level of mindfulness was associated with an increase in the odds ratio of conscious SHS avoidance (logged odds: 0.22, standard error: 0.07, p < 0.01). The Tobit regression shows that a higher level of mindfulness was associated with more metabolic equivalent hours per week (Tobit coefficient: 4.09, standard error: 1.13, p < 0.001). Discussion: This study is an innovative attempt to study the behavioral issue of secondhand smoke from the perspective of the potential victim, rather than the active smoker. The observed associational patterns here are consistent with previous findings that mindfulness is associated with healthier behaviors in obesity prevention and substance use. Research designs with interventions are needed to test the causal link between mindfulness and these healthy behaviors. PMID:26308029

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study Examining Youth Smoking Rates and Correlates in Tbilisi, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Aslanikashvili, Ana; Djibuti, Mamuka

    2014-01-01

    Georgia has high smoking rates; however, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of youth smoking. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 1,879 secondary and postsecondary school students aged 15 to 24 years in Tbilisi, Georgia, examining substance use, perceived risk, and recreational activities in relation to lifetime and current (past 30 days) smoking. Lifetime and current smoking prevalence was 46.1% and 22.6%, respectively. In secondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, and lower perceived risk (P's ≤ .001). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, less frequently exercise, and more often going out (P's < .05). In postsecondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, more often going out, and recreational internet use (P's < .0). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male (P's = .04), consuming alcohol, marijuana use, lower perceived risk, and more often going out (P's < .05). Tobacco control interventions might target these correlates to reduce smoking prevalence in Georgian youth. PMID:24738059

  9. Daily Patterns of Conjoint Smoking and Drinking in College Student Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate a robust association between smoking and alcohol use. However, a critical question that is less resolved is the extent to which the smoking event takes place during the time of alcohol consumption. The present study used data from an eight-week prospective web-based study of college student smokers to examine daily associations between smoking and alcohol use, using measures of both likelihood and level of use. Findings indicated that within a person, consumption of alcohol and smoking covaried on a daily basis. In addition, consistent with the idea of smoking as a social activity for college students, light smokers were more likely than heavier smokers to smoke while drinking and to smoke more cigarettes while drinking. Smoking behavior among light smokers may be influenced by external social contextual cues, in contrast to heavier smokers who may be more affected by internal cues. Implications of findings for prevention work suggest the importance of targeting social situations in which smoking and drinking co-occur. PMID:20853927

  10. Locus coeruleus neuronal activity determines proclivity to consume alcohol in a selectively-bred line of rats that readily consumes alcohol.

    PubMed

    West, Charles H K; Boss-Williams, Katherine A; Ritchie, James C; Weiss, Jay M

    2015-11-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats selectively-bred for susceptibility to stress in our laboratory (Susceptible, or SUS rats) voluntarily consume large amounts of alcohol, and amounts that have, as shown here, pharmacological effects, which normal rats will not do. In this paper, we explore neural events in the brain that underlie this propensity to readily consume alcohol. Activity of locus coeruleus neurons (LC), the major noradrenergic cell body concentration in the brain, influences firing of ventral tegmentum dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic system (VTA-DA neurons), which mediate rewarding aspects of alcohol. We tested the hypothesis that in SUS rats alcohol potently suppresses LC activity to markedly diminish LC-mediated inhibition of VTA-DA neurons, which permits alcohol to greatly increase VTA-DA activity and rewarding aspects of alcohol. Electrophysiological single-unit recording of LC and VTA-DA activity showed that in SUS rats alcohol decreased LC burst firing much more than in normal rats and as a result markedly increased VTA-DA activity in SUS rats while having no such effect in normal rats. Consistent with this, in a behavioral test for reward using conditioned place preference (CPP), SUS rats showed alcohol, given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, to be rewarding. Next, manipulation of LC activity by microinfusion of drugs into the LC region of SUS rats showed that (a) decreasing LC activity increased alcohol intake and increasing LC activity decreased alcohol intake in accord with the formulation described above, and (b) increasing LC activity blocked both the rewarding effect of alcohol in the CPP test and the usual alcohol-induced increase in VTA-DA single-unit activity seen in SUS rats. An important ancillary finding in the CPP test was that an increase in LC activity was rewarding by itself, while a decrease in LC activity was aversive; consequently, effects of LC manipulations on alcohol-related reward in the CPP test were perhaps even

  11. Locus coeruleus neuronal activity determines proclivity to consume alcohol in a selectively-bred line of rats that readily consumes alcohol

    PubMed Central

    West, Charles H.K.; Boss-Williams, Katherine A.; Ritchie, James C.; Weiss, Jay M.

    2015-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats selectively-bred for susceptibility to stress in our laboratory (Susceptible, or SUS rats) voluntarily consume large amounts of alcohol, and amounts that have, as shown here, pharmacological effects, which normal rats will not do. In this paper, we explore neural events in the brain that underlie this propensity to readily consume alcohol. Activity of locus coeruleus neurons (LC), the major noradrenergic cell body concentration in the brain, influences firing of ventral tegmentum dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic system (VTA-DA neurons), which mediate rewarding aspects of alcohol. We tested the hypothesis that in SUS rats, alcohol potently suppresses LC activity to markedly diminish LC-mediated inhibition of VTA-DA neurons, which permits alcohol to greatly increase VTA-DA activity and rewarding aspects of alcohol. Electrophysiological single-unit recording of LC and VTA-DA activity showed that in SUS rats, alcohol decreased LC burst firing much more than in normal rats and as a result markedly increased VTA-DA activity in SUS rats while having no such effect in normal rats. Consistent with this, in a behavioral test for reward using conditioned place preference (CPP), SUS rats showed alcohol, given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, to be rewarding. Next, manipulation of LC activity by microinfusion of drugs into the LC region of SUS rats showed that (a) decreasing LC activity increased alcohol intake and increasing LC activity decreased alcohol intake in accord with the formulation described above, and (b) increasing LC activity blocked both the rewarding effect of alcohol in the CPP test and the usual alcohol-induced increase in VTA-DA single-unit activity seen in SUS rats. An important ancillary finding in the CPP test was that an increase in LC activity was rewarding by itself, while a decrease in LC activity was aversive; consequently, effects of LC manipulations on alcohol-related reward in the CPP test were perhaps even

  12. The influence of physical activity on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers participating in an alcohol treatment intervention.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Dubbert, Patricia M; Olivier, Jake; Businelle, Michael S; Grothe, Karen B

    2008-10-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that physical activity may be beneficial for individuals attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption, although few studies have actually tested this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to describe the physical activity of 620 male veterans enrolled in a treatment intervention study for heavy drinkers, and to determine whether greater involvement in physical activity was associated with greater reductions in alcohol consumption. Participants endorsed moderate physical activity at the baseline visit (median=1.65 kcal/kg/day expended from physical activity), although physical activity declined during over time, p=.011. The most frequently endorsed activities included walking, gardening/yardwork, calisthenics, biking, swimming, weight lifting, golfing, and dancing. Regression analyses revealed no significant relationships between energy expenditure from physical activity and reductions in alcohol consumption at the six- and 12-month visits. Findings suggest that engaging in physical activity does not enhance treatment outcomes within interventions that do not specifically aim to increase physical activity. However, commonly endorsed activities may be easily incorporated into interventions in which physical activity is a desired component.

  13. Review of the role of alcohol in drowning associated with recreational aquatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, T; Harrison, J; Steenkamp, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective and design: To assess the role of alcohol in drowning associated with recreational aquatic activity by reviewing the English language literature published up to October 2003. Results: Alcohol is widely used in association with recreational aquatic activity in the United States, but there is minimal information regarding the extent of use elsewhere. A priori and anecdotal evidence suggests that alcohol is an important risk factor for drowning associated with recreational aquatic activity. Specific studies provide good evidence supporting this, but the extent of increased risk associated with alcohol use, and the attributable risk due to alcohol use, is not well characterised. Drowning appears to be the overwhelming cause of death associated with recreational aquatic activity with alcohol detected in the blood in 30%–70% of persons who drown while involved in this activity. The few relevant studies on degree of increased risk suggest persons with a blood alcohol level of 0.10 g/100 ml have about 10 times the risk of death associated with recreational boating compared with persons who have not been drinking, but that even small amounts of alcohol can increase this risk. The population attributable risk seems to be in the range of about 10%–30%. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption significantly increases the likelihood of immersions resulting in drowning during aquatic activities. However, more information is required if appropriate prevention activities are to be planned, initiated, and evaluated. This includes better information on alcohol use, and attitudes to alcohol use, in association with recreational aquatic activity, and the nature and extent of increased risk associated with alcohol use. Evaluation of interventions is also needed. PMID:15066977

  14. [Effect Of Polyelectrolytes on Catalytic Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase].

    PubMed

    Dubrovsky, A V; Musina, E V; Kim, A L; Tikhonenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent and optical spectroscopy were used to study the interaction of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with negatively charged polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) and dextran sulfate (DS), as well as positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium) (PDADMA). As found, DS and PDADMA did not affect the structural and catalytic enzyme properties. In contrast, PSS slightly decreased the protein self-fluorescence over 1 h of incubation, which is associated with partial destruction of its quaternary (globular) structure. Investigation of the ADH activity with and without PSS showed its dependency on the incubation time and the PSS presence. Sodium chloride (2.0 M and 0.2 M) or ammonium sulfate (0.1 M) added to the reaction mixture did not completely protect the enzyme quaternary structure from the PSS action. However ammonium sulfate or 0.2 M sodium chloride stabilized the enzyme and partially inhibited the negative PSS effect.

  15. [Anaerobic growth ability and alcohol fermentation activity of microscopic fungi].

    PubMed

    Kurakov, A V; Khidirov, K S; Sadykova, V S; Zviagintsev, D G

    2011-01-01

    The method proposed in this study was used to isolate fungi grown under anaerobic conditions and to reveal distinctions in their abundance and species composition in different habitats. The ability of micromycetes of different taxa to grow under anaerobic conditions and ensure alcohol fermentation was determined for a representative sample (344 strains belonging to more than 60 species). The group of fungi growing under anaerobic conditions included species with high, moderate, and low fermentation activity. The ability for anaerobic growth and fermentation depended on the taxonomic affiliation of fungi. In some cases, the expression of these characteristics depended on the habitat from which the strain was isolated. The maximum level of ethanol accumulation in culture liquid (1.2-4.7%) was detected for Absidia spinosa, Aspergillus sp. of group flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Acremonium sp., Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp., Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. sambucinum, Rhizopus arrhizus var. Arrhizus, Trichoderma atroviride, and Trichoderma sp.

  16. Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life Expectancy Lost in Canada Attributable to Smoking, Alcohol, Physical Inactivity, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Richard; Taljaard, Monica; Hennessy, Deirdre; Wilson, Kumanan; Tanuseputro, Peter; Bennett, Carol; Tuna, Meltem; Fisher, Stacey; Rosella, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Behaviours such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy alcohol consumption are leading risk factors for death. We assessed the Canadian burden attributable to these behaviours by developing, validating, and applying a multivariable predictive model for risk of all-cause death. Methods A predictive algorithm for 5 y risk of death—the Mortality Population Risk Tool (MPoRT)—was developed and validated using the 2001 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Surveys. There were approximately 1 million person-years of follow-up and 9,900 deaths in the development and validation datasets. After validation, MPoRT was used to predict future mortality and estimate the burden of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and poor diet in the presence of sociodemographic and other risk factors using the 2010 national survey (approximately 90,000 respondents). Canadian period life tables were generated using predicted risk of death from MPoRT. The burden of behavioural risk factors attributable to life expectancy was estimated using hazard ratios from the MPoRT risk model. Findings The MPoRT 5 y mortality risk algorithms were discriminating (C-statistic: males 0.874 [95% CI: 0.867–0.881]; females 0.875 [0.868–0.882]) and well calibrated in all 58 predefined subgroups. Discrimination was maintained or improved in the validation cohorts. For the 2010 Canadian population, unhealthy behaviour attributable life expectancy lost was 6.0 years for both men and women (for men 95% CI: 5.8 to 6.3 for women 5.8 to 6.2). The Canadian life expectancy associated with health behaviour recommendations was 17.9 years (95% CI: 17.7 to 18.1) greater for people with the most favourable risk profile compared to those with the least favourable risk profile (88.2 years versus 70.3 years). Smoking, by itself, was associated with 32% to 39% of the difference in life expectancy across social groups (by education achieved or neighbourhood deprivation). Conclusions Multivariable

  17. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Yelena; Staines-Orozco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on their respiratory system. Objective To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students’ lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%–75%]) and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure) by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1) nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2) nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3) smokers. Results The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%), females (54%), who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%). Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49%) and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%). The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%–75% =66.35±12.55) than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%–75% =78.90±14.65) and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13.61; FEV1/FVC =94.88±21.88; and FEF25%–75% =87.36±17.02) (P<0.001). Similarly, respiratory complaints were more prevalent among smokers and those exposed to SHS when compared to nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS. Conclusion Our findings suggest that initiation of cigarette smoking and, to a

  18. Smoking, second-hand smoke exposure and smoking cessation in relation to leukocyte telomere length and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Serrano, Fidel Emmanuel C.; Utarini, Adi; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya; Watkins, Johnathan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the link between smoking exposure, telomere length and mortality, with emphasis on second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the duration of smoking cessation. Results A total of 1,018 participants died during follow-up (mean: 10.3 years). A 50 base-pair decrease in LTL was shown among cotinine-confirmed current versus never smokers. The 90th quantile of LTL decreased with increasing cotinine among never smokers, indicating a role of SHS. Longer telomeres with smoking cessation were indicated but limited to a 3-16 year period of abstaining smoking. When assessing mortality, we observed a lower risk of all-cause death for the second quintile compared to the first among never smokers (HR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52-0.87), and a higher risk was found among current smokers (HR: 1.89, 1.19-2.92). MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied 6,456 nationally representative U.S. respondents with mortality follow-up through to 31 December 2011. Smoking status was assessed by interviews and cotinine levels. Relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was quantified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Multivariable linear regression was performed to examine LTL by smoking exposure, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. We further estimated the association of LTL with cotinine levels using quantile regression, and with smoking cessation dynamics. Cox regression was used to estimate mortality by smoking status and LTL. Conclusion Our findings indicated a complex association between smoking, telomere length, and mortality. LTL alterations with SHS and smoking cessation warrant further investigation for translation to public health measures. PMID:27509177

  19. The relative roles of types of extracurricular activity on smoking and drinking initiation among tweens

    PubMed Central

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Gibson Chambers, Jennifer J.; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Youth involvement in extracurricular activities may help prevent smoking and drinking initiation. However, the relative roles of types of extracurricular activity on these risks are unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between substance use and participation in team sports with a coach, other sports without a coach, music, school clubs, and other clubs in a nationally representative sample of US tweens. Methods We conducted telephone surveys with 6,522 U.S. students (ages 10-14) in 2003. We asked participants if they had ever tried smoking or drinking and about their participation in extracurricular activities. We used sample weighting to produce response estimates that were representative of the population of adolescents aged 10-14 years at the time of data collection. Logistic regression models that adjusted for appropriate sampling weights using Jackknife variance estimation tested associations with trying smoking and drinking, controlling for sociodemographics, child and parent characteristics, friend/sibling/parent substance use, and media use. Results A little over half of the students reported participating in team sports with a coach (55.5%) and without a coach (55.4%) a few times per week or more. Most had minimal to no participation in school clubs (74.2%), however most reported being involved in other clubs (85.8%). A little less than half participated in music, choir, dance, and/or band lessons. Over half of participants involved in religious activity did those activities a few times per week or more. In the multiple regression analysis, team sport participation with a coach was the only extracurricular activity associated with lower risk of trying smoking (adjusted OR = 0.68, 95% C.I. 0.49, 0.96) compared to none or minimal participation. Participating in other clubs was the only extracurricular activity associated with lower risk of trying drinking (adjusted OR = 0.56, 95% C.I. 0.32, 0.99) compared to none or minimal participation

  20. Psychophysiological reactions during active and passive stress coping following smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Hasenfratz, M; Bättig, K

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 9 days' smoking abstinence on psychophysiological stress reactions. The subjects were 40 female smokers; 20 of them intended to give up smoking in the course of the study, whereas the remaining 20 had no such intention. A first session was carried out before, a second and a third during days 3 and 9 of abstinence. The nonabstainers were tested at corresponding intervals. Each session consisted of a 30-min stress-coping phase with relaxation phases before and after. While performing a rapid information processing task (RIP) the subjects had to sustain electrical shocks which were, according to instructions, but not in fact, either avoidable (active coping) or not (passive coping). Generally, the active coping instruction produced greater responses to the RIP task than did the passive coping instruction for heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure but not for finger pulse amplitude, thus resembling a beta-adrenergic stimulation. RIP processing rate was not affected, but the response rate (total of hits and commission errors) was greater during active than during passive coping. However, none of these stress reactions differed between abstainers and nonabstainers. On the other hand, both heart rate and the craving to smoke decreased significantly in the abstainer group across the 9 days. Thus, it is concluded that a deprivation of 1 h, 3 or 9 days has no differential effect on physiological stress reactions.

  1. Active cigarette smoking, variants in carcinogen metabolism genes and breast cancer risk among pre- and postmenopausal women in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cotterchio, Michelle; Mirea, Lucia; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Kreiger, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with various diseases including many cancers; however, evidence regarding breast cancer risk remains inconclusive with some studies reporting no association, and others an increased risk with long duration and early initiation of smoking. Genetic variation in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes may modify these associations. Breast cancer cases were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) during 2003-2004 and population controls through random digit dialing methods. All subjects completed self-administered questionnaires. Subsequently, saliva samples were obtained from cases (N = 1,776) and controls (N = 1,839) for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for active smoking variables, and interactions were assessed between smoking and 36 carcinogen-metabolizing candidate gene variants. No statistically significant association was found between active smoking and breast cancer risk among all women nor when stratified by menopausal status; however, nonsignificant increased premenopausal breast cancer risk was observed among current smokers and women smoking before first pregnancy. Several statistically significant interactions were observed between smoking and genetic variants (CYP1A2 1548C>T, CYP1A1 3801T>C, CYP1B1 4326G>C, NAT1 c.-85-1014T>A, UGT1A7 W208R 622T>C, SOD2 c.47T>C, GSTT1 deletion). However, in analyses stratified by these genotypes, smoking ORs had wide confidence intervals (and with few exceptions included 1.0) making interpretations difficult. Active smoking was not associated with breast cancer risk, although several significant interactions were observed between smoking, carcinogen-metabolizing genetic variants, and breast cancer risk.

  2. Does Alcohol Use among Sexually Active College Students Moderate HIV Risk Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John E.; Malow, Robert M.; Norman, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    College students frequently use alcohol and are very sexually active, but do the two behaviors result in greater HIV risk? We employed the AIDS Risk Reduction Model to assess condom use during vaginal intercourse for sexually active college students using and not using alcohol proximal to sex. Students reported multiple lifetime sex partners and…

  3. Extracurricular Activities, Athletic Participation, and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Gender-Differentiated and School-Contextual Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, John P.

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of extracurricular activities on alcohol use among male (n = 4,495) and female (n = 5,398) adolescents who participated in the 1990-92 National Education Longitudinal Study. Previous studies have assessed the association between extracurricular activities and alcohol use, but none have explored whether the…

  4. VALIDATION OF AN AUDIO COMPUTER ASSISTED SELF INTERVIEW (ACASI) VERSION OF THE ALCOHOL, SMOKING AND SUBSTANCE INVOLVEMENT SCREENING TEST (ASSIST) IN PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, Jennifer; Strauss, Shiela M.; Rotrosen, John; Ramautar, Arianne; Gourevitch, Marc N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To address barriers to implementing the “Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST)” in medical settings, we adapted the traditional interviewer-administered (IA) ASSIST to an audio-guided computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. This study sought to validate the ACASI ASSIST by estimating the concordance, correlation, and agreement of scores generated using the ACASI versus the reference standard IA ASSIST. Secondary aims were to assess feasibility and compare ASSIST self-report to drug testing results. Design Participants completed the ACASI and IA ASSIST in a randomly assigned order, followed by drug testing. Setting Urban safety-net primary care clinic. Participants A total of 393 adult patients. Measurements Scores generated by the ACASI and IA ASSIST; drug testing results from saliva and hair samples. Findings Concordance between the ACASI and IA ASSIST in identifying moderate-high risk use was 92–99% for each substance class. Correlation was excellent for global scores (ICC=0.94, CI 0.92–0.95) and for substance-specific scores for tobacco (ICC=0.93, CI 0.91–0.94), alcohol (ICC=0.91, CI 0.89–0.93) and illicit drugs (ICC=0.85, CI 0.85–0.90), and good for prescription drugs (ICC=0.68, CI 0.61–0.73). Ninety-four percent of differences in global scores fell within anticipated limits of agreement. Among participants with a positive saliva test, 74% self-reported use on the ACASI ASSIST. The ACASI ASSIST required a median time of 3.7 minutes (range 0.7–15.4), and 21 (5.3%) participants requested assistance. Conclusions The computer self-administered Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test appears to be a valid alternative to the interviewer-administered approach for identifying substance use in primary care patients. PMID:26360315

  5. Adult onset asthma and interaction between genes and active tobacco smoking: The GABRIEL consortium

    PubMed Central

    Postma, D. S.; Moffatt, M. F.; Jarvis, D.; Ramasamy, A.; Wjst, M.; Omenaas, E. R.; Bouzigon, E.; Demenais, F.; Nadif, R.; Siroux, V.; Polonikov, A. V.; Solodilova, M.; Ivanov, V. P.; Curjuric, I.; Imboden, M.; Kumar, A.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Ogorodova, L. M.; Puzyrev, V. P.; Bragina, E. Yu; Freidin, M. B.; Nolte, I. M.; Farrall, A. M.; Cookson, W. O. C. M.; Strachan, D. P.; Koppelman, G. H.; Boezen, H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified novel genetic associations for asthma, but without taking into account the role of active tobacco smoking. This study aimed to identify novel genes that interact with ever active tobacco smoking in adult onset asthma. Methods We performed a genome-wide interaction analysis in six studies participating in the GABRIEL consortium following two meta-analyses approaches based on 1) the overall interaction effect and 2) the genetic effect in subjects with and without smoking exposure. We performed a discovery meta-analysis including 4,057 subjects of European descent and replicated our findings in an independent cohort (LifeLines Cohort Study), including 12,475 subjects. Results First approach: 50 SNPs were selected based on an overall interaction effect at p<10−4. The most pronounced interaction effect was observed for rs9969775 on chromosome 9 (discovery meta-analysis: ORint = 0.50, p = 7.63*10−5, replication: ORint = 0.65, p = 0.02). Second approach: 35 SNPs were selected based on the overall genetic effect in exposed subjects (p <10−4). The most pronounced genetic effect was observed for rs5011804 on chromosome 12 (discovery meta-analysis ORint = 1.50, p = 1.21*10−4; replication: ORint = 1.40, p = 0.03). Conclusions Using two genome-wide interaction approaches, we identified novel polymorphisms in non-annotated intergenic regions on chromosomes 9 and 12, that showed suggestive evidence for interaction with active tobacco smoking in the onset of adult asthma. PMID:28253294

  6. Blood cell superoxide dismutase and enolase activities as markers of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Ledig, M; Doffoel, M; Doffoel, S; Kopp, P; Bockel, R; Mandel, P

    1988-01-01

    Monitoring of chronic alcoholism would be facilitated by using sensitive biochemical markers in blood cells, mainly to detect differences between alcoholic subjects with or without liver injury. We propose two types of markers: the first one is superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity involved in the conversion of superoxide radicals (O2-.) formed during acetaldehyde oxidation by xanthine oxidase after chronic alcohol consumption; the second one is enolase activity with both isoenzyme forms: nonneuronal enolase (NNE) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) which has been shown to be modified in many injuries related to the glycolytic pathways. For SOD activity we found a significant increase in alcoholic patients with liver injury and mainly in cirrhotic patients with ascitis. Both enolase activities were also found to be significantly increased in alcoholic patients with liver injury but NNE activity was also increased in alcoholics without apparent liver disease. Our results suggest that increased activity of SOD and NSE in blood cells may be related to liver injury mainly in alcoholism while increased NNE activity may also be a marker of alcohol abuse without liver injury.

  7. Activities of the healthcare team for women who smoke during pregnancy and the puerperium1

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Carolina de Castilhos; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Echer, Isabel Cristina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify activities developed by the healthcare team for pregnant and postpartum women who smoke. METHOD: cross-sectional study with a sample of 135 healthcare team members who assist pregnant and postpartum women in a university hospital located in southern Brazil. The data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software. RESULTS: 76 (56.3%) staff members reported that they always addressed smoking cessation; however, the approach occurred in only two periods of the hospitalization and/or prenatal consultations, not including family members. In regard to the effectiveness of their actions, the health team assessed it as fair or poor, and mentioned the need for updating knowledge regarding this issue. CONCLUSIONS: the health team did not perform the approach as recommended by the tobacco control guidelines, requiring training to offer a qualified and efficient intervention. PMID:25296146

  8. Positive alcohol expectancies mediate the influence of the behavioral activation system on alcohol use: a prospective path analysis.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-04-01

    Gray's (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray's theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students.

  9. Smoke exposure causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipid accumulation in retinal pigment epithelium through oxidative stress and complement activation.

    PubMed

    Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Atkinson, Carl; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2014-05-23

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease caused by genetic and environmental factors, including genetic variants in complement components and smoking. Smoke exposure leads to oxidative stress, complement activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and lipid dysregulation, which have all been proposed to be associated with AMD pathogenesis. Here we examine the effects of smoke exposure on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or filtered air for 6 months. RPE cells grown as stable monolayers were exposed to 5% cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Effects of smoke were determined by biochemical, molecular, and histological measures. Effects of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement and complement C3a anaphylatoxin receptor signaling were analyzed using knock-out mice or specific inhibitors. ER stress markers were elevated after smoke exposure in RPE of intact mice, which was eliminated in AP-deficient mice. To examine this relationship further, RPE monolayers were exposed to CSE. Short term smoke exposure resulted in production and release of complement C3, the generation of C3a, oxidative stress, complement activation on the cell membrane, and ER stress. Long term exposure to CSE resulted in lipid accumulation, and secretion. All measures were reversed by blocking C3a complement receptor (C3aR), alternative complement pathway signaling, and antioxidant therapy. Taken together, our results provide clear evidence that smoke exposure results in oxidative stress and complement activation via the AP, resulting in ER stress-mediated lipid accumulation, and further suggesting that oxidative stress and complement act synergistically in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  10. Cigarette smoking impairs Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the human coronary microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hiroto; Toyama, Kazuyoshi; Pratt, Phillip F; Gutterman, David D

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](o)) has been proposed to link cardiac metabolism with coronary perfusion and arrhythmogenesis, particularly during ischemia. Several animal studies have also supported K(+) as an EDHF that activates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and/or inwardly rectifying K(+) (K(ir)) channels. Therefore, we examined the vascular reactivity of human coronary arterioles (HCAs) to small elevations in [K(+)](o), the influence of risk factors for coronary disease, and the role of K(+) as an EDHF. Changes in the internal diameter of HCAs were recorded with videomicroscopy. Most vessels dilated to increases in [K(+)](o) with a maximal dilation of 55 ± 6% primarily at 12.5-20.0 mM KCl (n = 38, average: 16 ± 1 mM). Ouabain, a Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, alone reduced the dilation, and the addition of Ba(2+), a K(ir) channel blocker, abolished the remaining dilation, whereas neither endothelial denudation nor Ba(2+) alone reduced the dilation. Multivariate analysis revealed that cigarette smoking was the only risk factor associated with impaired dilation to K(+). Ouabain significantly reduced the vasodilation in HCAs from subjects without cigarette smoking but not in those with smoking. Cigarette smoking downregulated the expression of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase catalytic α(1)-subunit but not Kir2.1 in the vessels. Ouabain abolished the dilation in endothelium-denuded vessels to a same extent to that with the combination of ouabain and Ba(2+) in endothelium-intact vessels, whereas neither ouabain nor ouabain plus Ba(2+) reduced EDHF-mediated dilations to bradykinin and ADP. A rise in [K(+)](o) dilates HCAs primarily via the activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in vascular smooth muscle cells with a considerable contribution of K(ir) channels in the endothelium, indicating that [K(+)](o) may modify coronary microvascular resistance in humans. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity is impaired in subjects who smoke, possibly contributing to dysregulation of the coronary

  11. Impact of active smoking on survival of patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Bulent; Kodaz, Hilmi; Karabulut, Senem; Cinkaya, Ahmet; Tozkir, Hilmi; Tanriverdi, Ozgur; Cabuk, Devrim; Hacioglu, Muhammed Bekir; Turkmen, Esma; Hacibekiroglu, Ilhan; Uzunoglu, Sernaz; Cicin, Irfan

    2016-11-10

    Lung cancer in smokers and non-smokers demonstrates distinct genetic profiles, and cigarette smoking affects epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) function and causes secondary EGFR tyrosine kinase resistance. We evaluated the effect of active smoking in patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 132 metastatic lung adenocarcinoma patients, diagnosed between 2008 and 2013, with known EGFR mutation status, were evaluated retrospectively. Among these patients, 40 had an activating EGFR mutation. Patients who continued smoking during the treatment were defined as active smokers. Former smokers and never smokers were together defined as non-smokers. The outcomes of the treatment in relation to the EGFR mutation and smoking status were evaluated. The median follow-up time was 10.5 months. The overall response rate for the first-line therapy was significantly higher among the EGFR-mutant patients (p = 0.01), however, smoking status had no impact on the response rate (p = 0.1). The EGFR-mutant active smokers progressed earlier than the non-smokers (p < 0.01). The overall survival (OS) of the non-smokers and patients treated with erlotinib was significantly longer (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Smoking status did not affect the OS in EGFR wild type tumors (p = 0.49) but EGFR-mutant non-smokers had a longer OS than the active smokers (p = 0.01).The active smokers treated with erlotinib had poorer survival than the non-smokers (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of EGFR-mutant patients showed that erlotinib treatment at any line and non-smoking were independent prognostic factors for the OS (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively). Smoking during treatment is a negative prognostic factor in metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with an EGFR mutation.

  12. Cigarette smoke induces aberrant EGF receptor activation that mediates lung cancer development and resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Filosto, Simone; Becker, Cathleen R; Goldkorn, Tzipora

    2012-04-01

    The EGF receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling are implicated in lung cancer development. Therefore, much effort was spent in developing specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) that bind to the EGFR ATP-pocket, blocking EGFR phosphorylation/signaling. Clinical use of TKIs is effective in a subset of lung cancers with mutations in the EGFR kinase domain, rendering the receptor highly susceptible to TKIs. However, these benefits are limited, and emergence of additional EGFR mutations usually results in TKI resistance and disease progression. Previously, we showed one mechanism linking cigarette smoke to EGFR-driven lung cancer. Specifically, exposure of lung epithelial cells to cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress stimulates aberrant EGFR phosphorylation/activation with impaired receptor ubiquitination/degradation. The abnormal stabilization of the activated receptor leads to uncontrolled cell growth and tumorigenesis. Here, we describe for the first time a novel posttranslational mechanism of EGFR resistance to TKIs. Exposure of airway epithelial cells to cigarette smoke causes aberrant phosphorylation/activation of EGFR, resulting in a conformation that is different from that induced by the ligand EGF. Unlike EGF-activated EGFR, cigarette smoke-activated EGFR binds c-Src and caveolin-1 and does not undergo canonical dimerization. Importantly, the cigarette smoke-activated EGFR is not inhibited by TKIs (AG1478; erlotinib; gefitinib); in fact, the cigarette smoke exposure induces TKI-resistance even in the TKI-sensitive EGFR mutants. Our findings show that cigarette smoke exposure stimulates not only aberrant EGFR phosphorylation impairing receptor degradation, but also induces a different EGFR conformation and signaling that are resistant to TKIs. Together, these findings offer new insights into cigarette smoke-induced lung cancer development and TKI resistance.

  13. Tiotropium bromide exerts anti-inflammatory activity in a cigarette smoke mouse model of COPD.

    PubMed

    Wollin, L; Pieper, M P

    2010-08-01

    Tiotropium bromide is a long acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), marketed under the brand name Spiriva, for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Besides its proven direct bronchodilatory activity, recent clinical studies demonstrated that tiotropium is able to reduce the exacerbation rate and impact the clinical course of COPD. One significant pathological feature believed to be causative for the progressive nature of COPD is chronic pulmonary inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of tiotropium on cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for four days with increasing exposure time for up to 6h per day to elicit pulmonary inflammation and mediator release. One hour before smoke exposure, animals were treated with tiotropium by inhalation (0.01-0.3mg/mL) for 5 min; 18h after the last CS exposure a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed. Tiotropium concentration-dependently inhibited pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation with an IC(50) of 0.058 mg/mL and a maximum inhibition of 60% at 0.3mg/mL. Furthermore, the CS-induced pulmonary release of leukotriene B(4), interleukin-6, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and -2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha was dose-dependently reduced. The bronchodilatory activity of tiotropium against acetycholine-induced bronchoconstriction was found to be in the same dose range as the anti-inflammatory activity with an IC(50) of 0.045 mg/mL and a maximum bronchodilation of 90% at 0.3mg/mL. Our data suggest that the beneficial effects of tiotropium on the course of COPD shown in patients may be associated with an anti-inflammatory activity.

  14. Diminished adrenocorticotropin response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in nondepressed, actively drinking male alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Berman, J D; Cook, D M; Buchman, M; Keith, L D

    1990-09-01

    Although changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function have frequently been reported in alcoholics, the majority of studies have used recently detoxified subjects in whom abstinence phenomena and clinical depression may contribute to observed stress axis alterations. To isolate the primary effects of alcohol dependence on the stress axis, the ACTH and cortisol responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were measured in seven actively drinking male alcoholics recruited from the general public through a newspaper advertisement along with eight age-matched male controls. The alcoholic subjects met current American Psychiatric Association diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, were stably employed, and had no concurrent psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, or psychometric evidence of depression. While relatively young (30.0 yr; range, 22-48 yr), they had lengthy histories of alcohol-related problems (11.9 yr; range, 5-30 yr). Insulin administration resulted in similar nadirs in blood sugar in both alcoholic and control groups. However, the plasma ACTH response was markedly blunted in the alcoholics (P = 0.040, by Mann-Whitney U test). There was a nonsignificant trend toward increased cortisol levels in the alcoholic group. The findings suggest that altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in alcoholics is a primary results of chronic ethanol exposure rather than a confounding effect of clinical depression or recent detoxification.

  15. Correspondence regarding "Effect of active smoking on the human bronchial epithelium transcriptome"

    PubMed Central

    Zuyderduyn, Scott D

    2009-01-01

    Background In the work of Chari et al. entitled "Effect of active smoking on the human bronchial epithelium transcriptome" the authors use SAGE to identify candidate gene expression changes in bronchial brushings from never, former, and current smokers. These gene expression changes are categorized into those that are reversible or irreversible upon smoking cessation. A subset of these identified genes is validated on an independent cohort using RT-PCR. The authors conclude that their results support the notion of gene expression changes in the lungs of smokers which persist even after an individual has quit. Results This correspondence raises questions about the validity of the approach used by the authors to analyze their data. The majority of the reported results suffer deficiencies due to the methods used. The most fundamental of these are explained in detail: biases introduced during data processing, lack of correction for multiple testing, and an incorrect use of clustering for gene discovery. A randomly generated "null" dataset is used to show the consequences of these shortcomings. Conclusion Most of Chari et al.'s findings are consistent with what would be expected by chance alone. Although there is clear evidence of reversible changes in gene expression, the majority of those identified appear to be false positives. However, contrary to the authors' claims, no irreversible changes were identified. There is a broad consensus that genetic change due to smoking persists once an individual has quit smoking; unfortunately, this study lacks sufficient scientific rigour to support or refute this hypothesis or identify any specific candidate genes. The pitfalls of large-scale analysis, as exemplified here, may not be unique to Chari et al. PMID:19224643

  16. Alcohol, smoking and papillomavirus infection as risk factors for esophageal squamous-cell papilloma and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Talamini, G; Capelli, P; Zamboni, G; Mastromauro, M; Pasetto, M; Castagnini, A; Angelini, G; Bassi, C; Scarpa, A

    2000-06-15

    Esophageal papilloma, an infrequent benign tumor, and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma sometimes appear to be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV being implicated in anogenital carcinogenesis. Our aim was to assess whether there is any epidemiological difference in terms of risk factors for papilloma and cancer. From 1989 to 1996, a total of 12,011 patients (53% male, median age 52.7 years) were submitted to esophagogastroduodenoscopy by our Digestive Endoscopy Service. The genome of HPV was sought by PCR using 2 different primer sets. Of the total, 42 subjects (0.35%), 50% male with a mean age of 45.1 years, were suffering from esophageal squamous-cell papilloma and 45 (0.37%), 91% male with a mean age of 63.0 years, from esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. Of these patients, only 2 with papilloma were HPV(+). Compared with the general endoscopic population, patients with papilloma do not present significantly different characteristics (even in terms of frequency of esophagitis and hiatal hernia). Those with carcinoma differ significantly both from the general endoscopic population and from those with papilloma in that they are more often male (p < 0. 0001), older (p < 0.0001) and drinkers (p < 0.0001); they differ significantly only from the general population, but not from the papilloma patients, in smoking habits. Papilloma appears to be neither a lesion involving a risk of development into a malignancy nor a marker for any such risk. Environmental factors, such as alcohol and smoking, appear to play a decisive role in esophageal carcinogenesis in northern Italy.

  17. Anti-ulcer activity of higher primary alcohols of beeswax.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, D; Molina, V; Valdés, S; Arruzazabala, L; Más, R

    1995-09-01

    The anti-ulcer effects of a natural mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols, designated D-002, isolated from beeswax, were compared with those of cimetidine on indomethacin-, ethanol-, water-immersion-induced ulcers and on gastric secretion in rats. D-002 (25-50 mg kg-1 p.o.) was similar to cimetidine in dose-dependently reducing the duration of indomethacin-induced ulcers while also being effective in preventing ethanol-induced ulcers, which are not affected by cimetidine. On the other hand, D-002 (100 mg kg-1) moderately decreased the volume of gastric basal secretion in pylorus-ligated rats, but not the acidity. Nevertheless, it inhibited gastric ulcer induced by pylorus-ligation at doses (50 mg kg-1) that were ineffective in decreasing the volume. In addition, 100 mg kg-1 of D-002 prevented the formation of acute gastric ulcers induced in rats by water-immersion stress. The results demonstrate the anti-ulcer activity of the preparation in different experimental models suggesting its potential value for ulcer therapy.

  18. Neutrophil elastase activity in differentiating HL-60 promyelocytes is decreased by culture with ethanol and elastase deficient neutrophils are produced in alcoholics

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, C.; Christianson, R.; Pratt, P.; Lynn, W.

    1987-05-01

    Serum-free culture of HL-60 in the presence of recombinant Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor in four days elicits a five-fold increase in esterolytic neutrophil elastase (NE) like activity measured with methoxy-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-val p-nitroanilide and purified NE standard but does not cause terminal differentiation. Simultaneous exposure to 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6% (vol./vol.) ethanol blocks this increase in NE activity. Exposure to 0.85% ethanol promotes terminal differentiation to elastase-deficient granulocytes which as been described using DMSO. To ascertain if ethanol may have similar effects on granulocytic differentiation in vivo, they compared oxidase and elastase activities of PMN's in male alcoholics on a binge (ethanol > 200 mg/dl.). In 29 patients an average of 872 (+/- 237) (SD) ng./10/sup 6/ PMN's of active NE was found compared to 1571 (+/- 177) in 13 controls. Patients admitted for treatment of alcoholism had similar NE activity in 3-4 days, showed a slight increase in activity within one week and had NE activity comparable to controls within 2-3 weeks. These findings support the previous observation that smoking related emphysema is less prevalent and severe in patients who regularly consume alcohol. They conclude that ethanol may visibly alter responsiveness of promyelocytic precursors to regulatory differentiating factors.

  19. GAS PHASE SELECTIVE PHOTOXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND MOLECULAR OXYGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas Phase Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Light-Activated Titanium Dioxide and Molecular Oxygen

    Gas phase selective oxidations of various primary and secondary alcohols are studied in an indigenously built stainless steel up-flow photochemical reactor using ultravi...

  20. Prospective associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, maternal satisfaction, and parental and childhood body mass index at 6.5 years with later problematic eating attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Wade, K H; Skugarevsky, O; Kramer, M S; Patel, R; Bogdanovich, N; Vilchuck, K; Sergeichick, N; Richmond, R; Palmer, T; Davey Smith, G; Gillman, M; Oken, E; Martin, R M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have prospectively investigated whether early-life exposures are associated with pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Objective: The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured childhood BMI, assessed between birth and 6.5 years, with problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years. Methods: Observational cohort analysis nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, a cluster-randomised trial conducted in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Our primary outcome was a Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) score ⩾22.5 (85th percentile), an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. We employed multivariable mixed logistic regression models, which allow inference at the individual level. We also performed instrumental variable (IV) analysis using parents' BMIs as instruments for the child's BMI, to assess whether associations could be explained by residual confounding or reverse causation. Subjects: Of the 17 046 infants enrolled between 1996 and 1997 across Belarus, 13 751 (80.7%) completed the ChEAT test at 11.5 years. Results: In fully adjusted models, overweight children at age 6.5 years had a 2.14-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.52) increased odds of having ChEAT scores ⩾85th percentile at age 11.5 years, and those who were obese had a 3.89-fold (95% CI: 2.95, 5.14) increased odds compared with normal-weight children. Children of mothers or fathers who were themselves overweight or obese were more likely to score ⩾85th percentile (P for trend ⩽0.001). IV analysis was consistent with a child's BMI causally affecting future eating attitudes. There was little evidence that parental smoking, alcohol use, or marital status or maternal satisfaction were associated with eating attitudes. Conclusion: In our

  1. Activation of corn cellulose with alcohols to improve its dissolvability in fabricating ultrafine fibers via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haizhen; Ni, Jinping; Chen, Jing; Xue, Wenwen; Wang, Jinggang; Na, Haining; Zhu, Jin

    2015-06-05

    Water and four small molecular alcohols are respectively used to activate corn cellulose (CN cellulose) with the aim to improve the dissolvability in DMAc/LiCl. Among all these activated agents, monohydric alcohols are found to produce the optimal effect of activation in the whole process including of activating, dissolving, and electrospinning of CN cellulose. Meanwhile, well distributed fibers with the diameter of 500nm-2μm are fabricated in electrospinning. Understanding the activation effect of monohydric alcohols with water and polyhydric alcohols, the most effective activated agent is ascertained with the characteristics of small molecular size, low viscosity, and single functionality. This work is definitely initiated to understand the critical principle of CN cellulose in dissolving. Accordingly, a feasible methodology is also established to prepare ultrafine cellulose fibers with good morphology in electrospinning.

  2. Alcohol's impact on man's activities. Its role in unnatural death.

    PubMed

    Weston, J T

    1980-11-01

    The association of alcohol with unnatural death, especially automobile accidents, is widely accepted. Unfortunately, national statistics often do not include information from medical examiners, which can be a significant contribution. This report summarizes the experience of the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator during the period 1974-76. Thirty-nine per cent of automobile drivers involved in fatal motor vehicle accidents and 40% of pedestrians killed by motor vehicles had some blood alcohol present. The relationship of alcohol and other violent crimes is summarized, indicating the involvement of alcohol in 39% to 74% of the several types of crimes presented. The expense of alcohol-related accidents is presented. The psychological autopsy was used to prepare profiles of drivers involved in a variety of vehicular accidents. Drivers were grouped into five categories according to behavioral characteristics that were likely to have contributed to their accidents. Twenty-eight per cent of drivers involved in serious and fatal accidents in this study were judged to have had behavioral disorders in which alcohol often played a role.

  3. Cigarette smoking, binge drinking, physical activity, and diet in 138 Asian American and Pacific Islander community college students in Brooklyn, New York.

    PubMed

    Arliss, Rebecca M

    2007-02-01

    Assessment of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet in the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community has been neglected. A questionnaire was used to investigate these health risk behaviors in 466 students at an urban community college and results for the 138 AAPI study participants were compared to the 328 non-Asians. Results for AAPI study participants showed that twenty percent (20.3%) were current cigarette smokers and 7.7% smoked eleven or more cigarettes per day. Ten percent (10.7%) reported binge drinking on one to two days per month and 17.3% reported binge drinking on three or more days per month. With regard to physical activity, 28.8% participated in stretching, 23.6% in strength and toning, 29.4% in moderate exercise, and 25.4% in vigorous exercise. Results indicated that on the day preceding the survey, only 11.9% consumed five or more servings of fruits and vegetables, 88.4% ate no more than two servings of high-fat foods, and 37.6% consumed tofu, soymilk, or other soy food. AAPI study participants were more likely to frequently binge drink (p < .05), less likely to participate in strength and toning exercises (p < .05), and more likely to consume soy foods daily (p < .01) than non-Asian study participants. Recommendations are presented for health promotion program planning.

  4. Bhas 42 cell transformation activity of cigarette smoke condensate is modulated by selenium and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Gu; Pant, Kamala; Bruce, Shannon W; Gairola, C Gary

    2016-04-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a major health risk worldwide. Development of newer tobacco products requires the use of quantitative toxicological assays. Recently, v-Ha-ras transfected BALB/c3T3 (Bhas 42) cell transformation assay was established that simulates the two-stage animal tumorigenesis model and measures tumor initiating and promoting activities of chemicals. The present study was performed to assess the feasibility of using this Bhas 42 cell transformation assay to determine the initiation and promotion activities of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and its water soluble fraction. Further, the modulating effects of selenium and arsenic on cigarette smoke-induced cell transformation were investigated. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water extracts of CSC (CSC-D and CSC-W, respectively) were tested at concentrations of 2.5-40 µg mL(-1) in the initiation or promotion assay formats. Initiation protocol of the Bhas 42 assay showed a 3.5-fold increase in transformed foci at 40 µg mL(-1) of CSC-D but not CSC-W. The promotion phase of the assay yielded a robust dose response with CSC-D (2.5-40 µg mL(-1)) and CSC-W (20-40 µg mL(-1)). Preincubation of cells with selenium (100 nM) significantly reduced CSC-induced increase in cell transformation in initiation assay. Co-treatment of cells with a sub-toxic dose of arsenic significantly enhanced cell transformation activity of CSC-D in promotion assay. The results suggest a presence of both water soluble and insoluble tumor promoters in CSC, a role of oxidative stress in CSC-induced cell transformation, and usefulness of Bhas 42 cell transformation assay in comparing tobacco product toxicities and in studying the mechanisms of tobacco carcinogenesis.

  5. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui Zhang, Faya; Zhu, Zhaohui; Luong, Dung; Meadows, Gary G.

    2015-01-15

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1{sup +}CD44{sup hi} mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1{sup −} immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1{sup −}CD44{sup lo} Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A{sup +} iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3{sup +} iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. - Highlights: • Chronic alcohol consumption increases iNKT cells in the thymus and liver • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances thymic Stage I iNKT cell proliferation • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation in thymus and periphery • Chronic alcohol

  6. Differential effects of a body image exposure session on smoking urge between physically active and sedentary female smokers.

    PubMed

    Nair, Uma S; Collins, Bradley N; Napolitano, Melissa A

    2013-03-01

    Smoking is often used as a maladaptive weight control strategy among female smokers. Many of the perceived benefits accrued from smoking, including enhanced mood, reduced anxiety, and weight control, can also be achieved through physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a novel behavioral task (body-image exposure) that was designed to elicit body image and weight concerns on urge to smoke among 18-24 year old female smokers who vary in levels of physical activity. Using a cue-reactivity paradigm, 16 sedentary (SE) and 21 physically active (PA) female smokers (≥5 cigarettes/day for past 6 months) were exposed to a pilot tested body-image exposure session. Self-reported urge and latency to first puff were obtained before and after exposure session. Paired sample t tests showed significant increases in self-reported urge (p < .01) and quicker latency to first puff (p < .01) at posttest for the entire sample compared with pretest. Results of partial correlation (controlling for body mass index [BMI], nicotine dependence, withdrawal, and depressive symptoms) showed that increased time engaging in vigorous intensity physical activity was associated with lower self-reported urge to smoke at post (r = -0.44; p = .01) but not with latency to first puff (r = -.10; p = .62). These results suggest that among weight-concerned female smokers, physical activity may attenuate smoking urges in a context where weight concerns are increased. Future research should continue to explore effects of physical activity on reactivity to body image and smoking cues and variability in smoking cue-reactivity related to physical activity.

  7. Forsythiaside inhibits cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Li, Fan; Ma, Rui; Hu, Xianping

    2015-09-01

    Cigarette smoke has been reported to be the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It causes persistent inflammation by regulating the redox-sensitive pathways. Forsythiaside, an active constituent isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Forsythia suspensa, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Thus, in this study, we investigated the protective effects of forsythiaside against cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation in mice. COPD mice model was established by cigarette smoke. Forsythiaside was given 2h before cigarette smoke exposure for five consecutive days. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissues were collected to assess pathological changes, lipid peroxidation, inflammatory cytokine production, Nrf-2, and NF-κB expression. Our results showed that forsythiaside attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, NO and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production, and reversed the CS-induced decrease of glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Western blot analysis showed that forsythiaside inhibited cigarette smoke-induced NF-κB activation. In addition, forsythiaside dose-dependently up-regulated the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. In conclusion, forsythiaside protected against cigarette smoke-induced lung injury through activating Nrf2 and inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway.

  8. Combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the risk of head and neck cancers: a re-analysis of case-control studies using bi-dimensional spline models.

    PubMed

    Dal Maso, Luigino; Torelli, Nicola; Biancotto, Elisa; Di Maso, Matteo; Gini, Andrea; Franchin, Gianni; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Serraino, Diego; Polesel, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    The synergistic effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of head and neck cancers has been mainly investigated as a cross-product of categorical exposure, thus leading to loss of information. We propose a bi-dimensional logistic spline model to investigate the interacting dose-response relationship of two continuous exposures (i.e., ethanol intake and tobacco smoking) on the risk of head and neck cancers, representing results through three-dimensional graphs. This model was applied to a pool of hospital-based case-control studies on head and neck cancers conducted in Italy and in the Vaud Swiss Canton between 1982 and 2000, including 1569 cases and 3147 controls. Among never drinkers and for all levels of ethanol intake, the risk of head and neck cancers steeply increased with increasing smoking intensity, starting from 1 cigarette/day. The risk associated to ethanol intake increased with incrementing exposure among smokers, and a threshold effect at approximately 50 g/day emerged among never smokers. Compared to abstainers from both tobacco and alcohol consumption, the combined exposure to ethanol and/or cigarettes led to a steep increase of cancer risk up to a 35-fold higher risk (95 % confidence interval 27.30-43.61) among people consuming 84 g/day of ethanol and 10 cigarettes/day. The highest risk was observed at the highest levels of alcohol and tobacco consumption. Our findings confirmed a combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on head and neck cancers risk, providing evidence that bi-dimensional spline models could be a feasible and flexible method to explore the pattern of risks associated to two interacting continuous-exposure variables.

  9. Does smoking influence the physical activity and lung cancer relation? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Daniela; Ricci, Cristian; Behrens, Gundula; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2016-12-01

    Research suggests an inverse association between physical activity and lung cancer. However, whether the relation is modified by degree of smoking adjustment has not been summarized. We conducted a meta-analysis of physical activity and lung cancer focusing on evaluating whether smoking status and the degree of smoking adjustment influenced the association. Comparing high versus low physical activity levels from 25 observational studies yielded a lung cancer summary relative risk (RR) of 0.79 [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.72-0.87], with RRs of 0.87 (95 % CI = 0.80-0.94) for cohort studies and 0.57 (95 % CI = 0.46-0.71) for case-control studies. In further analyses restricted to cohort studies, physical activity was inversely related to lung cancer among former smokers (RR = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.51-0.90) and current smokers (RR = 0.80, 95 % CI = 0.70-0.90), whereas the association was null among never smokers (RR = 1.05, 95 % CI = 0.78-1.40, p interaction = 0.26). The degree of smoking adjustment did not modify the association (p interaction = 0.73). Physical activity was unrelated to lung cancer among never smokers but it was inversely associated with lung cancer among former and current smokers. Although the physical activity and lung cancer relation was not modified by smoking status or degree of smoking adjustment, residual confounding by smoking remains a possible explanation for the relations observed.

  10. Cigarette smoke extract affects functional activity of MRP1 in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    van der Deen, Margaretha; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Visserman, Hylke; Zandbergen, Wouter; Postma, Dirkje S; Timens, Wim; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is the principal risk factor for development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters, which transport physiologic and toxic substrates across cell membranes. MRP1 is highly expressed in lung epithelium. This study aims to analyze the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on MRP1 activity. In the human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o-, MRP1 function was studied flow cytometrically by cellular retention of carboxyfluorescein (CF) after CSE incubation and MRP1 downregulation by RNA interference (siRNA). Cell survival was measured by the MTT assay. Immunocytochemically, it was shown that 16HBE14o(-) expressed MRP1 and breast cancer resistance protein. Coincubation of CSE IC50 (1.53% +/- 0.22%) with MK571 further decreased cell survival 31% (p, = 0.018). CSE increased cellular CF retention dose dependently from 1.7-fold at 5% CSE to 10.3-fold at 40% CSE (both p < 0.05). siRNA reduced MRP1 RNA expression with 49% and increased CF accumulation 67% versus control transfected cells. CSE exposure further increased CF retention 24% (p = 0.031). A linear positive relation between MRP1 function and CSE-modulating effects (r = 0.99, p =0.089) was shown in untransfected, control transfected, and MRP1 downregulated 16HBE14o- cells analogous to blocking effects with MRP1 inhibitor MK571 (r = 0.99, p = 0.034). In conclusion, cigarette smoke extract affects MRP1 activity probably competitively in bronchial epithelial cells. Inhibition of MRP1 in turn results in higher CSE toxicity. We propose that MRP1 may be a protective protein for COPD development.

  11. Feasibility and Acceptability of an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Suzanne E.; Shedlin, Michele; Gilberti, Brian; Fiellin, Maya; McNeely, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background This study explores the feasibility and acceptability of a computer self-administered approach to substance use screening from the perspective of primary care patients. Methods Forty-eight patients from a large safety net hospital in New York City completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and a qualitative interview to assess feasibility and acceptability; comprehension; comfort with screening questions; and preferences for screening mode (interviewer or computer). Qualitative data analysis organized the participants’ feedback into major themes. Results Participants overwhelmingly reported being comfortable with the ACASI ASSIST. Mean administration time was 5.2 minutes (range 1.6 – 14.8). The major themes from the qualitative interviews were 1) ACASI ASSIST is feasible and acceptable to patients, 2) Social stigma around substance use is a barrier to patient disclosure, and 3) ACASI screening should not preclude personal interaction with providers. Conclusions The ACASI ASSIST is an appropriate and feasible approach to substance use screening in primary care. Because of the highly sensitive nature of substance use, screening tools must explain the purpose of screening, assure patients that their privacy is protected, and inform patients of the opportunity to discuss their screening results with their provider. PMID:26158798

  12. Cigarette, alcohol use and physical activity among Myanmar youth workers, Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Howteerakul, N; Suwannapong, N; Than, M

    2005-05-01

    Over 1.2 million migrants from Myanmar are currently residing in Thailand. Little information is known about Myanmar youth risk behaviors. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with cigarette and alcohol use, and physical inactivity, among Myanmar youth working in a harbor town in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand. One hundred and seventy-seven young workers aged 15-24 years, living in the study area, were interviewed by structured questionnaire. About 21.5% were current smokers, 25.4% were alcohol drinkers, and 36.7% were physically inactive. Univariate analysis indicated one variable was significantly associated with cigarette smoking: education level higher than primary school (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.02-5.0), Three variables were significantly associated with alcohol drinking: married status (OR=2.2, 95%CI 1.02-4.5); non-seafood-processing workers, i e, street vendors, construction laborers, etc. (OR=3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.1), and high job stress due to supervisor/boss (OR=2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2). Two variables were significantly associated with physical inactivity: female youth (OR=3.9 95% CI 2.1-7.5), and education level higher than primary school (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8). The prevalence of smoking, alcohol drinking and physical inactivity among Myanmar migrant youths was quite high. Government and non-government organizations should co-operate to provide interventions to reduce youths' risk behaviors.

  13. Bronchial epithelial cells release monocyte chemotactic activity in response to smoke and endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, S.; Rennard, S.I.; Leikauf, G.D.; Robbins, R.A. )

    1991-08-01

    An increase in mononuclear phagocytes occurs within the airways during airway inflammation. Bronchial epithelial cells could release monocyte chemotactic activity and contribute to this increase. To test this hypothesis, bovine bronchial epithelial cells were isolated and maintained in culture. Bronchial epithelial cell culture supernatant fluids were evaluated for monocyte chemotactic activity. Epithelial cell culture supernatant fluids attracted significantly greater numbers of monocytes compared to media alone and the number of monocytes attracted increased in a time dependent manner. Endotoxin and smoke extract induced a dose and time dependent release of monocyte chemotactic activity compared with cells cultured in media (52.5 {plus minus} 2.6 (endotoxin), 30.5 {plus minus} 2.3 (smoke) vs 20.5 {plus minus} 2.2 cells/high power field (HPF) p less than 0.001). The released activity was chemotactic by checkerboard analysis. Stimulation of the epithelial cells by opsonized zymosan, calcium ionophore (A23187), and PMA also resulted in an increase in monocyte chemotactic activity (p less than 0.01). Because the release of activity was blocked by the lipoxygenase inhibitors, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and diethycarbamazine, epithelial cell monolayers were cultured with 3 microCi (3H)arachidonic acid for 24 h and then exposed to A23187, PMA, or both stimuli, for 4, 8, and 24 h. Analysis of the released 3H activity was performed with reverse-phase HPLC and revealed that the major lipoxygenase product was leukotriene B4. These data suggest that monocytes may be recruited into airways in response to chemotactic factors released by bronchial epithelial cells.

  14. [Importance of drug interactions with smoking in modern drug research].

    PubMed

    Laki, Szilvia; Kalapos-Kovács, Bernadett; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Drug interaction is a process during which a drug's fate in the body or its pharmacological properties are altered by an influencing factor. The extent of the drug interaction's effect can vary. The interaction could result from the modulation by another drug, food, alcohol, caffeine, narcotics, a drug influencing absorption or smoking. Moreover, transporter interactions with smoking could also have a major impact on many drug's efficacy. Clinically relevant drug interactions with smoking were classified in terms of their effect: pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and transporter interactions. Policyclic aromatic carbohydrates, found in cigarette smoke, have enzyme inducing properties. The interaction affects mainly the hepatic isoenzyme CYP1A2. Interactions caused by smoking have an effect on all drugs being substrates of and therefore metabolised by CYP1A2. Pharmacokinetic alteration can also occur during the absorption, distribution and elimination process. The pharmacodynamic interactions are mainly caused by the effects of nicotine, a cigarette smoke component. Through interactions, smoking could also modify the activity of transporter proteins, altering this way the ADME properties of many drugs. Since smoking is one of the deadliest artefact in the history of human civilisation, identifying drug interactions with smoking is the physician's and pharmacist's major responsibility and task. Moreover, it is necessary to identify the patient's smoking habits during a medical treatment. This review aims to investigate the main types of drug interactions (PK/PD), identify factors influencing the activity of CYP enzymes and transporters, and also summarize the mechanisms of the most important drug interactions with smoking and their clinically relevant consequences (Table II-VI.). Drugs, with effects somehow altered by smoking-interactions, have been studied.

  15. Toxicant content, physical properties and biological activity of waterpipe tobacco smoke and its tobacco-free alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan; Schubert, Jens; Klaiany, Joanne; El Sabban, Marwan; Luch, Andreas; Saliba, Najat A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking using sweetened, flavoured tobacco products has become a widespread global phenomenon. In this paper, we review chemical, physical and biological properties of waterpipe smoke. Data sources Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major databases between 1991 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, narghile, hookah, shisha along with names of chemical compounds and classes of compounds, in addition to terms commonly used in cellular biology and aerosol sizing. Study selection The search was limited to articles published in English which reported novel data on waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) toxicant content, biological activity or particle size and which met various criteria for analytical rigour including: method specificity and selectivity, precision, accuracy and recovery, linearity, range, and stability. Data extraction Multiple researchers reviewed the reports and collectively agreed on which data were pertinent for inclusion. Data synthesis Waterpipe smoke contains significant concentrations of toxicants thought to cause dependence, heart disease, lung disease and cancer in cigarette smokers, and includes 27 known or suspected carcinogens. Waterpipe smoke is a respirable aerosol that induces cellular responses associated with pulmonary and arterial diseases. Except nicotine, smoke generated using tobacco-free preparations marketed for ‘health conscious’ users contains the same or greater doses of toxicants, with the same cellular effects as conventional products. Toxicant yield data from the analytical laboratory are consistent with studies of exposure biomarkers in waterpipe users. Conclusions A sufficient evidence base exists to support public health interventions that highlight the fact that WTS presents a serious inhalation hazard. PMID:25666550

  16. [Effects of active and passive smoking during pregnancy on the blood flow in uterine artery in third trimester of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, Mariola; Napierała, Marta; Chuchracki, Marek; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Florek, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of active and passive maternal tobacco smoking on the parameters of blood flow in the uterine arteries in the third trimester. of pregnancy. The study was performed among 96 pregnant women in a single full-term pregnancy in the third trimester of pregnancy. A questionnaire assessing the status of the concentration of nicotine and nicotine metaboliteotinine in the serum of pregnant. The plasma was extracted technique of liquid-liquid, and then performed laboratory assays using high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection using norepinephrine as an internal standard. Based on the concentration of cotinine and interview patients were assigned to three groups: Group 1--patients smoking cigarettes during the entire pregnancy (23), group 2--patients exposed to environmental tobacco smoking (30) and a control group 3--nonsmokers and patients unexposed to passive smoking (43). In the third trimester of pregnancy blood flow in the uterine arteries was performed using "B-mode" technique with function of spectral Doppler. We analized the pulsatility index and resistance index in both uterine arteries, the presence of the indent diastolic "notch" and the scale of the uterine arteries. There were no statistically significant differences with regards to pulsatility index and index of resistance in blood flow in the uterine arteries in different groups of patients. The presence of the indent diastolic "notch" was significantly more frequent among active smokers, compared to women passively exposed to tobacco smoke and non-smoking women (39.1% vs. 20% vs. 4.6%; p = 0.012). The values in the scale of uterine arteries showed no significant difference between groups. Both active and passive smoking had no significant effect on the blood flow in uterine artery in pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy.

  17. Heavy Smoking Is More Strongly Associated with General Unhealthy Lifestyle than Obesity and Underweight

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Tina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking and obesity are major causes of non-communicable diseases. We investigated the associations of heavy smoking, obesity, and underweight with general lifestyle to infer which of these risk groups has the most unfavourable lifestyle. Methods We used data from the population-based cross-sectional Swiss Health Survey (5 rounds 1992–2012), comprising 85,575 individuals aged≥18 years. Height, weight, smoking, diet, alcohol intake and physical activity were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to analyse differences in lifestyle between the combinations of body mass index (BMI) category and smoking status. Results Compared to normal-weight never smokers (reference), individuals who were normal-weight, obese, or underweight and smoked heavily at the same time had a poorer general lifestyle. The lifestyle of obese and underweight never smokers differed less from reference. Regardless of BMI category, in heavy smoking men and women the fruit and vegetable consumption was lower (e.g. obese heavy smoking men: relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.30;2.21]) and high alcohol intake was more common (e.g. normal-weight heavy smoking women 5.51 [3.71;8.20]). In both sexes, physical inactivity was observed more often in heavy smokers and obese or underweight (e.g. underweight never smoking 1.29 [1.08;1.54] and heavy smoking women 2.02 [1.33;3.08]). A decrease of smoking prevalence was observed over time in normal-weight, but not in obese individuals. Conclusions Unhealthy general lifestyle was associated with both heavy smoking and BMI extremes, but we observed a stronger association for heavy smoking. Future smoking prevention measures should pay attention to improvement of general lifestyle and co-occurrence with obesity and underweight. PMID:26910775

  18. Activation of Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity of Poly(vinyl alcohol) using a Supramolecular Trigger†

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Daniel J.; Congdon, Thomas R.; Gibson, Matthew I.

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze (glyco)proteins (AF(G)Ps) have potent ice recrystallisation inhibition (IRI) activity – a desirable phenomenon in applications such as cryopreservation, frozen food and more. In Nature AF(G)P activity is regulated by protein expression levels in response to an environmental stimulus; temperature. However, this level of regulation is not possible in synthetic systems. Here, a synthetic macromolecular mimic is introduced, using supramolecular assembly to regulate activity. Catechol-terminated poly(vinyl alcohol) was synthesised by RAFT polymerization. Upon addition of Fe3+, larger supramolecular star polymers form by assembly with two or three catechols. This increase in molecular weight effectively ‘switches on’ the IRI activity and is the first example of external control over the function of AFP mimetics. This provides a simple but elegant solution to the challenge of external control of AFP-mimetic function. PMID:28003855

  19. Physician Counseling of Pregnant Women About Active and Second-hand Smoking in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Raul; Martinez, Valeria Guil; Gregorich, Steven E.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Describe physicians' practices of smoking cessation and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure counseling during prenatal visits. Design Cross-sectional survey Setting 13 public and private hospitals from three cities in Argentina Population 300 obstetrician/gynecologists Methods Self-administered survey included knowledge and attitudes about tobacco use during pregnancy, frequency, type and duration of smoking cessation counseling, barriers to counseling, communication skills, level of understanding, and personal smoking history. Main Outcome Measures Composite outcomes of 4 items, each representative of counseling on smoking cessation and SHS exposure. Results 235 (78.3%) questionnaires were completed; 54.5% men, mean age 45, 35% current smokers. Only 22% had received training in smoking cessation counseling and 48.5% reported insufficient knowledge to provide smoking cessation advice. Although 88.9% always or almost always advised women to stop smoking, 75% believed it was acceptable for pregnant women to smoke up to 6 cigarettes per day. The risk of SHS exposure was “always or almost always discussed” by only 34.5% of physicians. Multivariate logistic regression showed that lack of training was associated with less counseling about smoking cessation (OR 0.18; 95%CI 0.04-0.82) and SHS exposure (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.12-0.59). Current compared to never smokers had lower odds of smoking cessation counseling (OR 0.39; 95%CI 0.05-0.82). Current smokers were less likely than former smokers to counsel about SHS (OR 0.25, 95%CI 0.11-0.62). Conclusions Smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina occurs infrequently, interventions are needed to assist physicians motivate and counsel women to quit smoking and avoid SHS exposure. Physicians taking care of pregnant women also need to quit smoking. PMID:20367427

  20. Alcohol and Alcohol Safety: A Curriculum Manual for Junior High Level. Volume II, A Teacher's Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Platt, Judith

    This curriculum manual on Alcohol and Alcohol Safety is designed as a teacher's guide for junior high level students. The topics it covers are: (1) safety; (2) attitudes toward alcohol and reasons people drink; (3) physical and behavioral effects; (4) interpersonal situations; (5) laws and customs; and (6) problem drinking and alcoholism. Each…

  1. Alcohol and Alcohol Safety: A Curriculum Manual for Senior High Level. Volume II, A Teacher's Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Platt, Judith

    This curriculum manual on Alcohol and Alcohol Safety is designed as a teacher's guide for senior high level students. The topics it covers are: (1) safety; (2) attitudes toward alcohol and reasons people drink; (3) physical and behavioral effects; (4) alcohol industry; (5) interpersonal situations; (6) laws and customs; and (7) problem drinking…

  2. Alcohol consumption and antitumor immunity: dynamic changes from activation to accelerated deterioration of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Zhaohui; Zhang, Faya; Meadows, Gary G

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of how alcohol and its metabolites induce cancer have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms whereby chronic alcohol consumption affects antitumor immunity and host survival have largely been unexplored. We studied the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on the immune system and antitumor immunity in mice inoculated with B16BL6 melanoma and found that alcohol consumption activates the immune system leading to an increase in the proportion of IFN-γ-producing NK, NKT, and T cells in mice not injected with tumors. One outcome associated with enhanced IFN-γ activation is inhibition of melanoma lung metastasis. However, the anti-metastatic effects do not translate into increased survival of mice bearing subcutaneous tumors. Continued growth of the subcutaneous tumors and alcohol consumption accelerates the deterioration of the immune system, which is reflected in the following: (1) inhibition in the expansion of memory CD8+ T cells, (2) accelerated decay of Th1 cytokine-producing cells, (3) increased myeloid-derived suppressor cells, (4) compromised circulation of B cells and T cells, and (5) increased NKT cells that exhibit an IL-4 dominant cytokine profile, which is inhibitory to antitumor immunity. Taken together, the dynamic effects of alcohol consumption on antitumor immunity are in two opposing phases: the first phase associated with immune stimulation is tumor inhibitory and the second phase resulting from the interaction between the effects of alcohol and the tumor leads to immune inhibition and resultant tumor progression.

  3. Synchrony of corticostriatal-midbrain activation enables normal inhibitory control and conflict processing in recovering alcoholic men

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, T.; Müller-Oehring, E.M.; Sullivan, E.V.; Pfefferbaum, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with inhibitory control deficits, possibly related to abnormalities in frontoparietal cortical and midbrain function and connectivity. Methods We examined functional connectivity and microstructural fiber integrity between frontoparietal and midbrain structures using a Stroop Match-to-Sample task with functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in 18 alcoholics and 17 controls. Manipulation of color cues and response repetition sequences modulated cognitive demands during Stroop conflict. Results Despite similar lateral frontoparietal activity and functional connectivity in alcoholics and controls when processing conflict, controls deactivated the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), whereas alcoholics did not. Posterior cingulum fiber integrity predicted the degree of PCC deactivation in controls but not alcoholics. Also, PCC activity was modulated by executive control demands: activated during response switching and deactivated during response repetition. Alcoholics showed the opposite pattern: activation during repetition and deactivation during switching. Here, in alcoholics, greater deviations from the normal PCC activity correlated with higher amounts of lifetime alcohol consumption. A functional dissociation of brain network connectivity between the groups further showed that controls exhibited greater corticocortical connectivity between middle cingulate, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortices than alcoholics. By contrast, alcoholics exhibited greater midbrain-orbitofrontal cortical network connectivity than controls. Degree of microstructural fiber integrity predicted robustness of functional connectivity. Conclusion Thus, even subtle compromise of microstructural connectivity in alcoholism can influence modulation of functional connectivity and underlie alcohol-related cognitive impairment. PMID:22137506

  4. The influence of active and passive smoking during pregnancy on umbilical cord blood levels of vitamins A and E and neonatal anthropometric indices.

    PubMed

    Titova, Olga E; Ayvazova, Elena A; Bichkaeva, Fatima A; Brooks, Samantha J; Chumakova, Galina N; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2012-10-28

    Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be detrimental for the developing fetus. The effects of active and passive maternal smoking on umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E were examined. Secondary measures included anthropometric parameters in the newborn. Maternal and umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E were measured at delivery. The mothers were assigned to three groups: non-smoking (n 12); passive smoking (n 13); active smoking (n 18). Based on multivariate linear regressions, active smoking during pregnancy was associated with increased umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E. While enhanced circulating levels of vitamin A in cord blood were also found in non-smoking mothers exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, those of vitamin E were not influenced. Further, an inverse association between smoking behaviour during pregnancy and birth length was observed, with shortest length in active smokers followed by passive smoking mothers. Active and passive maternal smoking behaviour during pregnancy increases the fetal demand for antioxidant compounds in order to counteract the oxidative burden by cigarette smoke. Against this background, the observed increase in umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E may subserve antioxidative processes in response to tobacco smoke-induced oxidative stress. This would reduce the availability of vitamins A and E for fetal maturation, which is critical inasmuch as both compounds are indispensable for the developing fetus. However, due to the cross-sectional nature of our observation, this line of reasoning definitely requires validation in cause-effect experiments in the future.

  5. Hydrogen-bond-assisted activation of allylic alcohols for palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Gumrukcu, Yasemin; de Bruin, Bas; Reek, Joost N H

    2014-03-01

    We report direct activation of allylic alcohols using a hydrogen-bond-assisted palladium catalyst and use this for alkylation and amination reactions. The novel catalyst comprises a palladium complex based on a functionalized monodentate phosphoramidite ligand in combination with urea additives and affords linear alkylated and aminated allylic products selectively. Detailed kinetic analysis show that oxidative addition of the allyl alcohol is the rate-determining step, which is facilitated by hydrogen bonds between the alcohol, the ligand functional group, and the additional urea additive.

  6. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Delays T Cell Activation and Effector Function in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Margoles, Lindsay M.; Mittal, Rohit; Klingensmith, Nathan J.; Lyons, John D.; Liang, Zhe; Serbanescu, Mara A.; Wagener, Maylene E.

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of death in intensive care units in the US, and it is known that chronic alcohol use is associated with higher incidence of sepsis, longer ICU stays, and higher mortality from sepsis. Both sepsis and chronic alcohol use are associated with immune deficits such as decreased lymphocyte numbers, impaired innate immunity, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, and susceptibility to infections; however, understanding of specific pathways of interaction or synergy between these two states of immune dysregulation is lacking. This study therefore sought to elucidate mechanisms underlying the immune dysregulation observed during sepsis in the setting of chronic alcohol exposure. Using a murine model of chronic ethanol ingestion followed by sepsis induction via cecal ligation and puncture, we determined that while CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from alcohol fed mice eventually expressed the same cellular activation markers (CD44, CD69, and CD43) and effector molecules (IFN-γ, TNF) as their water fed counterparts, there was an overall delay in the acquisition of these phenotypes. This early lag in T cell activation was associated with significantly reduced IL-2 production at a later timepoint in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments in alcohol sepsis, as well as with a reduced accumulation of CD8dim activated effectors. Taken together, these data suggest that delayed T cell activation may result in qualitative differences in the immune response to sepsis in the setting of chronic alcohol ingestion. PMID:27861506

  7. Alcohol-induced alterations in dopamine modulation of prefrontal activity.

    PubMed

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Chandler, L Judson

    2015-12-01

    Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC.

  8. Alcohol-induced alterations in dopamine modulation of prefrontal activity

    PubMed Central

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Chandler, L. Judson

    2015-01-01

    Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC. PMID:26558348

  9. Relations Among Caffeine Consumption, Smoking, Smoking Urge, and Subjective Smoking Reinforcement in Daily Life.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Hayley R; Piasecki, Thomas M; McCarthy, Danielle E; Baker, Timothy B

    2014-09-01

    Caffeine consumption and cigarette smoking tend to occur within the same individuals and at the same time. One potential explanation for this co-use is that caffeine consumption increases subjective smoking reinforcement. Electronic diaries were used to collect momentary reports of smoking, caffeine consumption, temptation/urge to smoke, and subjective smoking reinforcement in 74 prequit smokers. Momentary reports of caffeine consumption and smoking were associated, replicating previous findings. These results remained significant when contextual factors (time of day, weekday/weekend, presence of others, presence of others smoking, location, and past hour alcohol consumption) were covaried. Caffeine consumption was also associated with positive cigarette appraisals and reports of strong temptation/urge to smoke and urge reduction from the prior cigarette. Under the conditions of caffeine consumption versus at other times, smokers were significantly more likely to report their last cigarette as producing a rush/buzz, being pleasant, relaxing, and tasting good. The effects for temptation/urge to smoke and rush/buzz varied as a function of latency since smoking. Caffeine consumption increased reports of urge to smoke and rush/buzz only when smoking occurred more than 15 minutes prior to the diary entry. Findings suggest that caffeine consumption influences some aspects of smoking motivation or affects memorial processing of smoking reinforcement.

  10. Joint associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

    PubMed

    Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; De Neve, Melissa; Shelton, Nicola J; Tielemans, Susanne M A J; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    Individual associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular disease are relatively established, but the joint associations are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine prospectively the joint associations between alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular mortality (CVM) and all-cause mortality. Four population-based studies in the United Kingdom were included, the 1997 and 1998 Health Surveys for England and the 1998 and 2003 Scottish Health Surveys. In men and women, respectively, low physical activity was defined as 0.1 to 5 and 0.1 to 4 MET-hours/week and high physical activity as ≥5 and ≥4 MET-hours/week. Moderate or moderately high alcohol intake was defined as >0 to 35 and >0 to 21 units/week and high levels of alcohol intake as >35 and >21 units/week. In total, there were 17,410 adults without prevalent cardiovascular diseases and complete data on alcohol and physical activity (43% men, median age 55 years). During a median follow-up period of 9.7 years, 2,204 adults (12.7%) died, 638 (3.7%) with CVM. Cox proportional-hazards models were adjusted for potential confounders such as marital status, social class, education, ethnicity, and longstanding illness. In the joint associations analysis, low activity combined with high levels of alcohol (CVM: hazard ratio [HR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28 to 2.96, p = 0.002; all-cause mortality: HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.03, p <0.001) and low activity combined with no alcohol (CVM: HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.76, p <0.001; all-cause mortality: HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.81, p <0.001) were linked to the highest risk, compared with moderate drinking and higher levels of physical activity. Within each given alcohol group, low activity was linked to increased CVM risk (e.g., HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.03, p = 0.014, for the moderate drinking group), but in the presence of high physical activity, high alcohol intake was not linked to increased CVM

  11. Activation of Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Inhibits the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Alcohol via Selective Activity Within the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Cannady, Reginald; Grondin, Julie JM; Fisher, Kristen R; Hodge, Clyde W; Besheer, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes (mGlu2/3) regulate a variety of alcohol-associated behaviors, including alcohol reinforcement, and relapse-like behavior. To date, the role of mGlu2/3 receptors in modulating the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol has not been examined. Given that the discriminative stimulus effects of drugs are determinants of abuse liability and can influence drug seeking, we examined the contributions of mGlu2/3 receptors in modulating the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. In male Long-Evans rats trained to discriminate between alcohol (1 g/kg, IG) and water, the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268 (0.3–10 mg/kg) did not produce alcohol-like stimulus effects. However, pretreatment with LY379268 (1 and 3 mg/kg; in combination with alcohol) inhibited the stimulus effects of alcohol (1 g/kg). Systemic LY379268 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) was associated with increases in neuronal activity within the amygdala, but not the nucleus accumbens, as assessed by c-Fos immunoreactivity. Intra-amygdala activation of mGlu2/3 receptors by LY379268 (6 μg) inhibited the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol, without altering response rate. In contrast, intra-accumbens LY379268 (3 μg) profoundly reduced response rate; however, at lower LY379268 doses (0.3, 1 μg), the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol and response rate were not altered. These data suggest that amygdala mGlu2/3 receptors have a functional role in modulating the discriminative stimulus properties of alcohol and demonstrate differential motor sensitivity to activation of mGlu2/3 receptors in the amygdala and the accumbens. Understanding the neuronal mechanisms that underlie the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol may prove to be important for future development of pharmacotherapies for treating alcoholism. PMID:21734651

  12. CLPTM1L genetic polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol drinking in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in the Han population from northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xun, Xiaojie; Wang, Huijuan; Yang, Hua; Wang, Hong; Wang, Bo; Kang, Longli; Jin, Tianbo; Chen, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Genetic variants of cleft lip and palate trans-membrane 1-like (CLPTM1L) genes in the p15.33 region of chromosome 5 were previously identified to influence susceptibility to lung cancer. We examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CLPTM1L genes with lung cancer and explored their potential effects on the relationship between environmental risk factors (smoking, drinking) and lung cancer in a Chinese Han population. We genotyped 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CLPTM1L in a case-control study with 228 lung cancer cases and 301 controls from northwest China. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. We identified that the minor alleles of rs451360, rs402710, and rs31484 in CLPTM1L were associated with a 0.52-fold, 0.76-fold, and 0.70-fold decreased risk of lung cancer in allelic model analysis, respectively. In the genetic model analysis, we found rs402710 and rs401681 were associated with decreased lung cancer risk. Further stratification analysis showed that rs380286 displayed a significantly decreased lung cancer risk (OR=0.65, P=0.041) in the non-drinkers. In addition, Haplotype "GTTATCTGT" was found to be associated with decreased lung cancer risk (OR=0.50, P=0.033). Our results verified that genetic variants of CLPTM1L contribute to lung cancer susceptibility in the northwest Chinese Han population. Additionally, we found that consumption of alcohol may interact with CLPTM1L polymorphisms to contribute to overall lung cancer susceptibility.

  13. The influence of active and passive smoking on the cardiorespiratory fitness of adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of active and passive smoking on cardiorespiratory responses in asymptomatic adults during a sub-maximal-exertion incremental test. Methods The participants (n = 43) were divided into three different groups: active smokers (n = 14; aged 36.5 ± 8 years), passive smokers (n = 14; aged 34.6 ± 11.9 years) and non-smokers (n = 15; aged 30 ± 8.1 years). They all answered the Test for Nicotine Dependence and underwent anthropometric evaluation, spirometry and ergospirometry according to the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Results VO2max differed statistically between active and non-smokers groups (p < 0.001) and between non-smokers and passive group (p=0.022). However, there was no difference between the passive and active smokers groups (p=0.053). Negative and significant correlations occurred between VO2max and age (r = - 0.401, p = 0.044), percentage of body fat (r = - 0.429, p = 0.011), and waist circumference (WC) (r = - 0.382, p = 0.025). Conclusion VO2max was significantly higher in non-smokers compared to active smokers and passive smokers. However, the VO2max of passive smokers did not differ from active smokers. PMID:25009739

  14. Let's Get AHEAD (Health-Education-Alcohol & Drug). Activities K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Program Development.

    This book of activities for use with elementary school students lists 10 salient points in each of three areas: health education, alcohol education, and drug education. Suggested activities are then described for students in kindergarten through third grade and for students in fourth through six grades. Activities are suggested in 10 categories:…

  15. Let's Get AHEAD (Health-Education-Alcohol & Drug). Activities 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Program Development.

    This book of activities for use with secondary school students lists 10 salient points in each of three areas: health education, alcohol education, and drug education. Suggested activities are then described for students in grades 7 and 8 and for students in grades 9 through 12. Activities are suggested in 10 categories: (1) human growth and…

  16. Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) in a general adult population and their relationship with alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Alende, R; Gude, F; Campos, J; Rey, J; Meijide, L M; Fernandez-Merino, C; Vidal, C

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations in relation to demographic factors, common habits (alcohol consumption and smoking) and metabolic abnormalities in an adult population-based survey including 460 individuals. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, a marker of inflammation, were also determined. After adjusting for confounders, male sex was associated positively with IgA levels and negatively with IgM levels. Age was associated positively with IgA and IgG levels. Smoking was associated negatively with IgG levels. Heavy drinking was associated positively with IgA levels. Metabolic abnormalities (obesity and metabolic syndrome) were associated positively with IgA levels. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were the components of metabolic syndrome associated most strongly with serum IgA. Heavy drinkers with metabolic syndrome showed particularly high serum IgA levels. Serum IL-6 levels were correlated positively with IgA and IgG concentrations. It is concluded that sex, age, alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities should be taken into account when interpreting serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM. PMID:18005364

  17. Changes in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities from sugarcane cultivars inoculated with Sporisorium scitamineum sporidia.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rocío; Alarcón, Borja; de Armas, Roberto; Vicente, Carlos; Legaz, María Estrella

    2012-06-01

    This study describes a method for determining cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity in sugarcane stems using reverse phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography to elucidate their possible lignin origin. Activity is assayed using the reverse mode, the oxidation of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols into hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes. Appearance of the reaction products, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde is determined by measuring absorbance at 340 and 345 nm, respectively. Disappearance of substrates, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol is measured at 263 and 273 nm, respectively. Isocratic elution with acetonitrile:acetic acid through an RP Mediterranea sea C18 column is performed. As case examples, we have examined two different cultivars of sugarcane; My 5514 is resistant to smut, whereas B 42231 is susceptible to the pathogen. Inoculation of sugarcane stems elicits lignification and produces significant increases of coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD). Production of lignin increases about 29% in the resistant cultivar and only 13% in the susceptible cultivar after inoculation compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that the resistance of My 5514 to smut is likely derived, at least in part, to a marked increase of lignin concentration by the activation of CAD and SAD.

  18. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.

  19. Perinatal aromatase activity in male and female rats: effect of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    McGivern, R F; Roselli, C E; Handa, R J

    1988-12-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure has been shown to produce long-term feminizing and demasculinizing effects on male rat behaviors which are organizationally dependent upon perinatal androgen levels. Such exposure has previously been shown to suppress the normal surge of testosterone during the critical prenatal period. Since defeminization of male rat behavior is dependent upon estrogen derived from the aromatization of testosterone in brain, brain aromatase activity was measured during the perinatal period in males and females exposed to alcohol beginning on Day 14 of gestation. Aromatase activity was measured in whole hypothalamus of fetuses from Day 16 through 20 of gestation and in the hypothalamic preoptic area and amygdala of animals 6-12 hr postparturition. Hypothalamic aromatase activity was elevated in fetal alcohol exposed males compared to controls on Days 18 and 19 of gestation and on postnatal Day 1. No effect of prenatal alcohol exposure was found in females. A sex effect in aromatase activity in the amygdala was evident on Day 1 when activity was found to be greater in males than females. Overall, these findings indicate that fetal alcohol exposure will elevate regional brain aromatase activity in males, but not females during the perinatal period of neurobehavioral sexual differentiation.

  20. Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.

    Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of…

  1. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 1. Particle detection by active photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Markus; Strelnikova, Irina

    2009-03-01

    We present a new design of an in situ detector for the study of meteor smoke particles (MSPs) in the middle atmosphere. This detector combines a classical Faraday cup with a xenon-flashlamp for the active photoionization/photodetachment of MSPs and the subsequent detection of corresponding photoelectrons. This instrument was successfully launched in September 2006 from the Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway. A comparison of photocurrents measured during this rocket flight and measurements performed in the laboratory proves that observed signatures are truly due to photoelectrons. In addition, the observed altitude cut-off at 60 km (i.e., no signals were observed below this altitude) is fully understood in terms of the mean free path of the photoelectrons in the ambient atmosphere. This interpretation is also proven by a corresponding laboratory experiment. Consideration of all conceivable species which can be ionized by the photons of the xenon-flashlamp demonstrates that only MSPs can quantitatively explain the measured currents below an altitude of 90 km. Above this altitude, measured photocurrents are most likely due to photoionization of nitric oxide. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the active photoionization and subsequent detection of photoelectrons provides a promising new tool for the study of MSPs in the middle atmosphere. Importantly, this new technique does not rely on the a priori charge of the particles, neither is the accessible particle size range severely limited by aerodynamical effects. Based on the analysis described in this study, the geophysical interpretation of our measurements is presented in the companion paper by Strelnikova, I., et al. [2008. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. results. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.011].

  2. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism attenuates neuronal activity triggered by stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking

    PubMed Central

    Schank, J.R.; Nelson, B.S.; Damadzic, R.; Tapocik, J.D.; Yao, M.; King, C.E.; Rowe, K.E.; Cheng, K.; Rice, K.C.; Heilig, M.

    2015-01-01

    Substance P (SP) and its cognate neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) are involved in alcohol-related behaviors. We have previously reported that NK1R antagonism attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking and suppresses escalated alcohol self-administration, but does not affect primary reinforcement or cue-induced reinstatement. Here, we administered an NK1R antagonist or vehicle prior to footshock-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, and mapped the resulting neuronal activation using Fos immunohistochemistry. As expected, vehicle treated animals exposed to footshock showed induction of Fos immunoreactivity in several regions of the brain stress circuitry, including the amygdala (AMG), nucleus accumbens (NAC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). NK1R antagonism selectively suppressed the stress-induced increase in Fos in the DR and NAC shell. In the DR, Fos-induction by stress largely overlapped with tryptophan hydroxylase (TrpH), indicating activation of serotonergic neurons. Of NAC shell neurons activated during stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, about 30% co-expressed dynorphin (DYN), while 70% co-expressed enkephalin (ENK). Few (<1%) activated NAC shell neurons co-expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which labels the cholinergic interneurons of this region. Infusion of the NK1R antagonist L822429 into the NAC shell blocked stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. In contrast, L822429 infusion into the DR had no effect, suggesting that the influence of NK1R signaling on neuronal activity in the DR is indirect. Taken together, our results outline a potential pathway through which endogenous NK1R activation mediates stress-induced alcohol seeking. PMID:26188146

  3. EEG Spectral Changes in Treatment Naïve Active Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Fein, G.; Allen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background The present study examines the EEG spectra of actively drinking treatment naïve alcoholics (TxNA). Methods EEGs were gathered on 51 TxNA’s and age and sex-matched controls during eyes-closed conditions. Participants were excluded for lifetime diagnoses of psychiatric or substance abuse disorders. Power for the theta to high beta bands was examined across midline electrodes. Results The TxNA sample exhibited a nexus of disinhibited traits associated with the vulnerability to alcoholism, and had developed alcohol dependence, but no other diagnosable psychiatric or substance abuse disorders. The TxNA subjects evidenced higher power for all EEG bands compared to controls. The magnitude and anterior-posterior extent of the group differences varied across bands. Within the TxNA group, EEG power was negatively correlated with average and peak alcohol drinking duration and average and peak alcohol dose. Conclusions Increased EEG power across the theta to high beta bands distinguishes TxNAs without comorbid diagnoses from controls. These effects varied across bands in their magnitude and spatial extent, suggesting that there are different effects for the different EEG spectral generators. We hypothesize the increased power in these individuals is a trait difference associated with the inherited nexus of disinhibited traits and its manifestation in alcoholism. Based on the strong negative correlations with alcohol use variables, we speculate that decreases in EEG power are a morbid effect of long-term alcohol abuse. We acknowledge that this hypothesized effect of alcohol abuse on EEG power is opposite to the increased EEG power we hypothesize is associated with alcoholism and its inherited nexus of disinhibited traits. An implication of this model is that with continuing alcohol abuse, the increased EEG power in TxNAs will eventually be overpowered by the effects of long-term severe alcohol abuse. This model predicts that in very long-term alcoholics EEG power

  4. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3 activates glucose alcoholic fermentation in genetically engineered Dekkera bruxellensis yeast.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Siurkus, Juozas; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Joerck-Ramberg, Dorte; Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Nerve; Blevins, James E; Sibirny, Andriy A; Piškur, Jure; Ishchuk, Olena P

    2016-04-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a non-conventional Crabtree-positive yeast with a good ethanol production capability. Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its tolerance to acidic pH and its utilization of alternative carbon sources make it a promising organism for producing biofuel. In this study, we developed an auxotrophic transformation system and an expression vector, which enabled the manipulation of D. bruxellensis, thereby improving its fermentative performance. Its gene ADH3, coding for alcohol dehydrogenase, was cloned and overexpressed under the control of the strong and constitutive promoter TEF1. Our recombinant D. bruxellensis strain displayed 1.4 and 1.7 times faster specific glucose consumption rate during aerobic and anaerobic glucose fermentations, respectively; it yielded 1.2 times and 1.5 times more ethanol than did the parental strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The overexpression of ADH3 in D. bruxellensis also reduced the inhibition of fermentation by anaerobiosis, the "Custer effect". Thus, the fermentative capacity of D. bruxellensis could be further improved by metabolic engineering.

  5. Effects of long-term smoking on the activity and mRNA expression of CYP isozymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiao-Meng; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Ming-Zhen; Li, Yang; Li, Hu-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of long-term smoking on the activity and mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to passive smoking 6 cigarettes per day for 180 days. A cocktail solution which contained phenacetin (20 mg/kg), tolbutamide (5 mg/kg), chlorzoxazone (20 mg/kg) and midazolam (10 mg/kg) was given orally to rats. Blood samples were collected at pre-specified time points and the concentrations of probe drugs in plasma were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 3.0. In addition, real-time RT-PCR was used to analyze the mRNA expression of CYP1A2, CYP2C11, CYP2E1 and CYP3A1 in rat liver. Results There were no significant influences of pharmacokinetic profiles of chlorzoxazone in long-term smoking pretreated rats. But many pharmacokinetic profiles of phenacetin, tolbutamide, and midazolam in long-term smoking pretreated rats were affected significantly (P<0.05). The results suggested that long-term smoking had significant inhibition effects on CYP2C11 and CYP3A1 while CYP1A2 enzyme activity was induced. Furthermore, Long-term smoking had no effects on rat CYP2E1. The mRNA expression results were consistent with the pharmacokinetic results. Conclusions Alterations of CYP450 enzyme activities may fasten or slow down excretion with corresponding influence on drug efficacy or toxicity in smokers compared to nonsmokers, which may lead to clinical failures of lung cancer therapy or toxicity in smokers. PMID:26623094

  6. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy-Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL).

    PubMed

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-12-08

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required.

  7. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy—Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL)

    PubMed Central

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required. PMID:27941658

  8. Application of MODIS-Derived Active Fire Radiative Energy to Fire Disaster and Smoke Pollution Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Hao, Wei Min; Habib, Shahid

    2004-01-01

    The radiative energy emitted by large fires and the corresponding smoke aerosol loading are simultaneously measured from the MODIS sensor from both the Terra and Aqua satellites. Quantitative relationships between the rates of emission of fire radiative energy and smoke are being developed for different fire-prone regions of the globe. Preliminary results are presented. When fully developed, the system will enable the use of MODIS direct broadcast fire data for near real-time monitoring of fire strength and smoke emission as well as forecasting of fire progression and smoke dispersion, several hours to a few days in advance.

  9. Gait and Balance in Treatment-Naive Active Alcoholics with and without a Lifetime Drug Codependence

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Smith, Stan; Greenstein, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Disturbed gait and balance are among the most consistent sequelae of chronic alcoholism. However, although a majority of alcoholics have never sought treatment, most investigations showing ataxia in alcohol dependent individuals have relied on samples drawn from treated populations. In addition, few studies have addressed the associations of codependence on other drugs with alcoholic gait and balance disturbance. Methods The present study employed the Walk-a-line Ataxia Battery (Fregly et al. 1972) to assess gait and balance in treatment-naive, actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women (TNA; n = 69) who were dependent on alcohol only (ALC; n = 43), or who also had a lifetime drug dependence (ALC+DRG; n = 26; i.e., methamphetamine, cocaine, opiates, and/or marijuana), compared with non-substance abusing controls (NSAC; n = 74). We also examined associations between lifetime alcohol use and age with gait and balance measures. Results Our main findings were 1) no evidence of disturbed gait and balance in ALC vs. NSAC and 2) significantly disturbed gait and balance in ALC+DRG, relative to both NSAC and ALC, along with steeper age-associated decline in gait and balance performance in ALC vs. ALC+DRG. Conclusions Our results provide evidence consistent with previous studies that TNA (without a lifetime drug codependence) may represent a population that is different and less impaired (including in gait and balance) than treated alcoholics. Additionally, we provide evidence that ALC+DRG, with greater alcohol use and family drinking density than ALC, have an accelerated effect of age on gait and balance disturbance compared to both NSAC and ALC. The ALC+DRG group likely represents a subset of TNA with different characteristics than ALC. PMID:22390787

  10. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on the Activation of Oxidative Stress-Related Transcription Factors in Female A/J Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Tharappel, Job C.; Cholewa, Jill; Espandiari, Parvaneh; Spear, Brett T.; Gairola, C. Gary; Glauert, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains a high concentration of free radicals and induces oxidative stress in the lung and other tissues. Several transcription factors are known to be activated by oxidative stress, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Studies were therefore undertaken to examine if cigarette smoke could activate these transcription factors, as well as other transcription factors that may be important in lung carcinogenesis. Female A/J mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 42, or 56 days (6 hr/day, 5 days/wk). Cigarette smoke did not increase NF-κB activation at any of these times, but NF-κB DNA binding activity was lower after 15 days and 56 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activity of AP-1 was lower after 10 days and 56 days but was not changed after 42 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activity of HIF was quantitatively increased after 42 days of smoke exposure but decreased after 56 days. Whether the activation of other transcription factors in the lung could be altered after exposure to cigarette smoke was subsequently examined. The DNA binding activities of FoxF2, myc-CF1, RORE, and p53 were examined after 10 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activities of FoxF2 and p53 were quantitatively increased, but those of myc-CF1 and RORE were unaffected. These studies show that cigarette smoke exposure leads to quantitative increases in DNA binding activities of FoxF2 and p53, while the activations of NF-κB, AP-1, and HIF are largely unaffected or reduced. PMID:20711931

  11. Smoking cessation and adolescent treatment response with comorbid ADHD☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Delos-Reyes, Christina M.; Wasilow, Sherry; Svala, Kathleen M.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Minors entering treatment for alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders tend to smoke at high rates, and many have comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clear-air laws force patients to refrain from smoking on the premises of AOD treatment facilities, which may hinder the progress of treatment-seeking populations who smoke and struggle with ADHD comorbidity in particular. This study explores clinical characteristics associated with smoking among youths presenting for residential treatment, clinical characteristics associated with smoking cessation, and the impact of smoking cessation with ADHD comorbidity on AOD treatment response. Participants were 195 adolescents (52% female, aged 14–18 years) court-referred to residential treatment. Data were collected at intake, prospectively each week for the 10-week treatment period, and at discharge. Two-thirds (67%) of the enrollment sample entered treatment smoking half a pack a day on average, a large proportion (50%) of which did not smoke during treatment. ADHD patients were more likely to smoke before and during treatment except for those who got active in service and step-work. Quitting smoking did not adversely affect AOD outcomes and was associated with better prognosis of lowered AOD cravings for youths with and without ADHD. Smoking cessation during adolescent AOD treatment is recommended with provision of pharmaceutical and/or behavioral modalities that reduce nicotine withdrawal. PMID:27692184

  12. Estimates of alcohol use and clinical treatment needs among homosexually active men and women in the U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Cochran, S D; Keenan, C; Schober, C; Mays, V M

    2000-12-01

    Concerns about dysfunctional alcohol use among lesbians and gay men are longstanding. The authors examined alcohol use patterns and treatment utilization among adults interviewed in the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Sexually active respondents were classified into 2 groups: those with at least 1 same-gender sexual partner (n = 194) in the year prior to interview and those with only opposite-gender sexual partners (n = 9,714). The authors compared these 2 groups separately by gender. For men, normative alcohol use patterns or morbidity did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. However, homosexually active women reported using alcohol more frequently and in greater amounts and experienced greater alcohol-related morbidity than exclusively heterosexually active women. Findings suggest higher risk for alcohol-related problems among lesbians as compared with other women, perhaps because of a more common pattern of moderate alcohol consumption.

  13. A classroom-administered simulation of a television campaign on adolescent smoking: testing an activation model of information exposure.

    PubMed

    Helme, Donald W; Donohew, Robert Lewis; Baier, Monika; Zittleman, Linda

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, research has shown that mass media can be used effectively either alone or in conjunction with interpersonal and institutional channels, such as schools. Much has yet been be learned about the application of newer, more effective strategies for media campaigns for adolescent smoking prevention interventions. This article describes a study applying an activation model of information exposure and a sensation-seeking targeting approach to the design of a smoking prevention campaign for adolescents. The participants were 1,272 middle school students aged 12-14 from across the Colorado Front Range who were stratified by their level of sensation seeking and then exposed to both high and low sensation value anti tobacco public service announcements (PSAs) at three time points. Hypothesized effects of the intervention on the primary dependent measures--attitudes (against smoking) and behavioral intentions not to smoke--were strongly supported for high sensation seekers. Further support is offered from the secondary indicators, self-efficacy, perceived message effectiveness, and perceived risk from smoking. No differences were demonstrated, however, in message effects between those selected by focus groups to be high in sensation value and those selected to be low in sensation value.

  14. Activation of transcription factors in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to aqueous extracts of mainstream cigarette smoke in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Takashi; Hirata, Tadashi; Mine, Toshiki; Fukano, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the most sensitive transcription factor activated by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and to explore cigarette smoke components that have high biological activities in a cell-base assay. Previously, we found evidence that implicated 10 different transcription factors as having a high biological activity to CSE in vitro, based on the results of a comprehensive gene expression profile. For this study, luciferase reporter assays for each transcription factor were developed in two types of human bronchial epithelial cells: NCI-H292 and BEAS-2B cells. The results demonstrated that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)/anti-oxidant response element (ARE) pathway was the most sensitive in response to CSE. Consistently, hemo oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a downstream target gene of NRF2, was effectively up-regulated in BEAS-2B cells exposed to CSE. Moreover, among 1395 cigarette smoke components, naphthoquinones including 9,10-phenaotrenquinone, quinones, benzenediols and α, β-unsaturated carbonyls, were identified as major smoke components that contribute to activating the NRF2/ARE pathway, as indicated by the ARE-reporter assay in BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, NRF2 appears to be a key molecule in the CSE-induced cellular response, and the employed methodology is helpful for the analysis of molecular and cellular effects by CSE.

  15. Public Health, Academic Medicine, and the Alcohol Industry’s Corporate Social Responsibility Activities

    PubMed Central

    Robaina, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry’s economic interests. PMID:23237151

  16. Public health, academic medicine, and the alcohol industry's corporate social responsibility activities.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry's economic interests.

  17. Cigarette Smoke inhibits ROCK2 activation in T cells and modulates IL-22 production

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chien-Huan; Gupta, Sanjay; Geraghty, Patrick; Foronjy, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions are known to play a key role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is one of the strongest environmental risk factors associated with RA and has been shown to mediate a range of complex immunomodulatory effects from decreased T and B cell activation to depressed phagocytic function. The effects of CS on the function of TH17 cells, one of the key TH effector subsets implicated in RA pathogenesis, are not fully understood. IRF4 is one of the crucial transcription factors involved in TH-17 differentiation and is absolutely required for the production of IL-17 and IL-21 but, interestingly, inhibits the synthesis of IL-22. The production of IL-17 and IL-21 by IRF4 can be augmented by its phosphorylation by the serine-threonine kinase ROCK2. Given that CS has been reported to increase ROCK activity in endothelial cells, here we investigated the effects of CS on the ROCK2-IRF4 axis in T cells. Surprisingly, we found that CS leads to decreased ROCK2 activation and IRF4 phosphorylation in T cells. This effect was associated with increased IL-22 production. Using a GEF pull-down assay we furthermore identify ARHGEF1 as a key upstream regulator of ROCK2 whose activity in T cells is inhibited by CS. Thus CS can inhibit the ROCK2-IRF4 axis and modulate T cell production of IL-22. PMID:26882474

  18. The influence of hepatic insufficiency due to alcoholic cirrhosis on the erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA).

    PubMed

    Graudal, N; Torp-Pedersen, K; Bonde, J; Hanel, H K; Kristensen, M; Milman, N; Thomsen, A C

    1987-04-01

    The erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA), the stimulated erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKAS), and the thiaminepyrophosphate effect (TPPE) were measured in 21 alcoholic patients with cirrhosis and hepatic insufficiency, 13 alcoholic patients without cirrhosis and 21 non-alcoholic persons before and after oral treatment with 100 mg of thiamine daily for 2 weeks in order to investigate the influence of hepatic insufficiency on these variables. A statistically significant rise in ETKA and fall in TPPE were found in all three groups. ETKA, ETKAS and TPPE did not differ from each other in alcoholic patients with and without cirrhosis, but TPPE was significantly higher in these patients than in the non-alcoholic persons. The conclusions are that severe cirrhosis does not affect the erythrocyte transketolase apoenzyme, the ability of the tissues to convert thiamine to thiaminepyrophosphate for use in the erythrocytes or the absorption of thiamine from the gastrointestinal tract. Besides alcoholism seems to dispose to thiamine deficiency to a higher degree than cirrhosis, and the role of the liver as a thiamine store appears to be of minor importance in the development of thiamine deficiency. Finally, ETKA, ETKAS, and TPPE are considered to be usable as thiamine deficiency indicators in patients with cirrhosis as well as in patients without cirrhosis.

  19. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua) water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE) and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR) assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders. PMID:20974012

  20. Brain activation induced by voluntary alcohol and saccharin drinking in rats assessed with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Mateusz; Abo-Ramadan, Usama; Hermann, Derik; Brown, Matthew; Canals, Santiago; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Hyytiä, Petri

    2015-11-01

    The neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of alcohol reward has been studied extensively, but global alterations of neural activity in reward circuits during chronic alcohol use remain poorly described. Here, we measured brain activity changes produced by long-term voluntary alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko alcohol) rats using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). MEMRI is based on the ability of paramagnetic manganese ions to accumulate in excitable neurons and thereby enhance the T1-weighted signal in activated brain areas. Following 6 weeks of voluntary alcohol drinking, AA rats were allowed to drink alcohol for an additional week, during which they were administered manganese chloride (MnCl2 ) with subcutaneous osmotic minipumps before MEMRI. A second group with an identical alcohol drinking history received MnCl2 during the abstinence week following alcohol drinking. For comparing alcohol with a natural reinforcer, MEMRI was also performed in saccharin-drinking rats. A water-drinking group receiving MnCl2 served as a control. We found that alcohol drinking increased brain activity extensively in cortical and subcortical areas, including the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways and their afferents. Remarkably similar activation maps were seen after saccharin ingestion. Particularly in the prelimbic cortex, ventral hippocampus and subthalamic nucleus, activation persisted into early abstinence. These data show that voluntary alcohol recruits an extensive network that includes the ascending dopamine systems and their afferent connections, and that this network is largely shared with saccharin reward. The regions displaying persistent alterations after alcohol drinking could participate in brain networks underlying alcohol seeking and relapse.

  1. HMGB1/TLR Receptor Danger Signaling Increases Brain Neuroimmune Activation in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Fulton T.; Qin, Liya; Sheedy, Donna; Vetreno, Ryan P.; Zou, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Innate immune gene expression is regulated in part through high mobility group box 1(HMGB1), an endogenous proinflammatory cytokine, that activates multiple members of the interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) family associated with danger signaling. We investigated expression of HMGB1, TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 in chronic ethanol treated mouse brain, post-mortem human alcoholic brain, and rat brain slice culture to test the hypothesis that neuroimmune activation in alcoholic brain involves ethanol activation of HMGB1/TLR danger signaling. Methods Protein levels were assessed using Western blot, ELISA, immunohistochemical immunoreactivity (+IR), and mRNA levels were measured by real time PCR in ethanol-treated mice (5 g/kg/day, i.g., 10 days + 24 hr), rat brain slice culture, and post-mortem human alcoholic brain. Results Ethanol treatment of mice increased brain mRNA and +IR protein expression of HMGB1, TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4. Post-mortem human alcoholic brain also showed increased HMGB1, TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4+IR cells that correlated with lifetime alcohol consumption as well as each other. Ethanol treatment of brain slice culture released HMGB1 into the media and induced the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. Neutralizing antibodies to HMGB1 and small inhibitory mRNA to HMGB1 or TLR4 blunted ethanol induction of IL-1β. Conclusions Ethanol-induced HMGB1/TLR signaling contributes to induction of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. Increased expression of HMGB1, TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 in alcoholic brain and in mice treated with ethanol suggests that chronic alcohol-induced brain neuroimmune activation occurs through HMGB1/TLR signaling. PMID:23206318

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  3. Oxidation of alcohols and activated alkanes with Lewis acid-activated TEMPO.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy-Ai D; Wright, Ashley M; Page, Joshua S; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2014-11-03

    The reactivity of MCl3(η(1)-TEMPO) (M = Fe, 1; Al, 2; TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) with a variety of alcohols, including 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol, 1-phenyl-2-phenoxyethanol, and 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethanol, was investigated using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Complex 1 was effective in cleanly converting these substrates to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone. Complex 2 was also able to oxidize these substrates; however, in a few instances the products of overoxidation were also observed. Oxidation of activated alkanes, such as xanthene, by 1 or 2 suggests that the reactions proceed via an initial 1-electron concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) event. Finally, reaction of TEMPO with FeBr3 in Et2O results in the formation of a mixture of FeBr3(η(1)-TEMPOH) (23) and [FeBr2(η(1)-TEMPOH)]2(μ-O) (24), via oxidation of the solvent, Et2O.

  4. Effect of different levels of alcohol consumption on natural killer and lymphokine activated killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klassen, L.W.; DeVasure, J.M.; Lemley-Gillespie, S.D.; Thiele, G.M. Omaha VA Hospital, NE )

    1991-03-11

    The effect of alcohol consumption on natural killer (NK) cell activity is controversial as both increased and decreased levels have been reported. It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of feeding BDF1 mice different levels of alcohol on NK and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell activity. After four-six weeks of chronic alcohol feeding, mice were sacrificed, spleen cells obtained and assayed for NK and IL-2 boosted NK activity against YAC-1 cells in a traditional {sup 51}chromium release assay. Cells were also cultured in the presence of IL-2 for five days and tested for cytolytic activity using P815 cells as targets. Cells from each group were passed over a nylon wool column and the adherent (AD) and nonadherent (NAD) populations collected and tested as above. Increased NK, 24 hour IL-2 boosted NK and 5 day LAK activity were observed only in the spleen cells obtained from mice on 20% alcohol. Also, NAD populations had a 2-4 fold higher lytic unit values (LU{sub 20}) at all levels of alcohol consumption and in all assays, as compared with the unseparated spleen cells. Analysis of cell surface markers on these three populations of cells show that there were differences in MAC-2, Asialo GM-1, Thy 1.2, B220 and NK 1.1 that may correlate with the differences observed in the cytolytic assays. These data suggest that different levels of alcohol affect the cytolytic activity of NK and LAK cells and may result from alterations in the cell subset populations.

  5. Association of Leisure-Time Physical Activity to Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in Relation to Smoking among Adult Nevadans.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Masaru; Moonie, Sheniz; Cross, Chad L; Chino, Michelle; Alpert, Patricia T

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cigarette smoking and physical activity have significant impacts on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity. Meanwhile, it is of interest to understand whether physical activity protects against CVD for smokers in a similar manner as it does for non-smokers. The present study examined how leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with the prevalence of CVD in relation to smoking status among adult Nevadans, using data from the 2010 Nevada Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Of the 3,913 survey respondents, 8.5% self-reported that they had ever been diagnosed with CVD. People with a history of CVD were significantly less likely to engage in LTPA than those with no history of CVD (p < 0.05). After adjusting for common sociodemographic variables, it was revealed that people with CVD were twice more likely to not engage in LTPA than their counterparts independent of smoking status. Without taking LTPA into account, the odds of having CVD for current and former smokers was 1.87-2.25 times higher than the odds for non-smokers. Interestingly, however, if LTPA was accounted for, there was no significant difference in the odds of having CVD between current and non-smokers. These results indicate that LTPA is inversely associated with the prevalence of CVD independent of smoking status, and that regular physical activity may protect against CVD for smokers as well as for non-smokers. Physical activity, along with smoking cessation, should be promoted to better prevent and control CVD among smokers.

  6. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure.

  7. Activating Interpersonal Influence in Health Promotion: A Field Test of Iowa's Program Against Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Julie A.; And Others

    This study examined a smoking intervention program, which employed group competitions with rewards, to determine its effects on adolescents' smoking-relevant beliefs, their subjective norms, and peer influence. Initially, 1,187 seventh graders in Burlington, Clinton, and Muscatine, Iowa were surveyed in 1984. Data were gathered from a re-survey…

  8. Mutagenic activity of overnight urine from healthy non-smoking subjects.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Lupi, Silvia; Pulliero, Alessandra; Gregorio, Pasquale; Saia, Bruno Onofrio; Clonfero, Erminio

    2007-03-01

    Urinary mutagenicity was evaluated in relation to environmental mutagen exposure (i.e., diet, indoor/outdoor activities, residential area etc.) on the day prior to sample collection, and also considering factors that contribute to the variability of Salmonella mutagenicity assay results. Overnight urine samples from 283 healthy non-smoking residents of northeast Italy (46% males, 20-62 years) were analyzed for mutagenicity on sensitive Salmonella typhimurium strain YG1024 with S9 mix employing the preincubation version of the plate incorporation assay (i.e., the Salmonella reverse mutation test). Urinary mutagenicity varied between 0.02 and 9.84 rev/ equiv. ml, and 7% of samples were positive (i.e., sample elicited a two-fold increase in revertants). There was an evident increase in mutagenicity in subjects with increased intake of mutagen-rich meals (n = 80) (P < 0.01 and positive urine 13% vs. 5%, P = 0.025). Indoor-exposed subjects (n = 65) also showed a higher percentage of positive urine (14% vs. 5%, P = 0.015). In particular, those subjects exposed to cooking fumes the previous evening (n = 28) revealed higher urinary mutagenicity (P = 0.035, positive urine 25% vs. 5%, P < 0.001) than non-indoor exposed. The sources of variability of the mutagenicity assay, mainly the histidine content of the urine concentrate (z = 4.06, P < 0.0001), and to a lesser extent bacterial inoculum size (z = 2.33, P = 0.019), also significantly influenced urinary mutagenicity values. In a linear multiple regression analysis, their effects were still significant (i.e., histidine content P = 0.026 and inoculum size P = 0.021), but the effects of diet, indoor exposure, and other environmental exposures (i.e., traffic and heating system exhausts, residential area) were not. It is concluded that the previous day's exposure to mutagen-rich meals and cooking fumes may influence the presence of mutagenic activity in the overnight urine of non-smoking subjects. This mutagenic activity, which

  9. Linalool inhibits cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianqun; Xu, Hai; Wu, Jun; Qu, Changfa; Sun, Fenglin; Xu, Shidong

    2015-12-01

    Linalool, a natural compound that exists in the essential oils of several aromatic plants species, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of linalool on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced acute lung inflammation have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of linalool on CS-induced acute lung inflammation in mice. Linalool was given i.p. to mice 2h before CS exposure daily for five consecutive days. The numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. The production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1 were detected by ELISA. The expression of NF-κB was detected by Western blotting. Our results showed that treatment of linalool significantly attenuated CS-induced lung inflammation, coupled with inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1 production. Meanwhile, treatment of linalool inhibited CS-induced lung MPO activity and pathological changes. Furthermore, linalool suppressed CS-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that linalool protected against CS-induced lung inflammation through inhibiting CS-induced NF-κB activation.

  10. Effects of a low alcohol dose on static balance, fine motor activity, and mental performance.

    PubMed

    Mangold, S; Läubli, T; Krueger, H

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a single low alcohol dose (men 0.54 g and women 0.44 g alcohol per kg body weight) were measured by static balance, fine motor activity, and mental performance. In 10 healthy volunteers balance was registered by a temporally and spatially high resolution platform measuring the center of foot pressure and a three-dimensional coordination measurement system. Fine motor activity and mental performance were tested with selected experiments from the NES2 (Neurobehavioral Evaluation System) neuropsychological test battery. Changes of bipedal and monopedal balance could be detected after the alcohol consumption. Neither the fine motor activity nor the mental performance test demonstrated significant effects. Thus, the static balance test proved to be a sensitive, fast, and atraumatic method to identify slight neurotoxic disturbances.

  11. Toxicity of chronic high alcohol intake on mouse natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, R M; Starkey, J R; Meadows, G G

    1988-02-01

    The toxicity of chronic alcohol intake on natural killer (NK) cell activity of spleen cells from well-nourished, female C57BL/6 mice was studied in a 4-hour cytolytic chromium-release assay against YAC-1 lymphoma cells. Mice were fed a nutritionally complete crystalline amino acid diet and received 20% w/v alcohol solution for 12 weeks. Ad libitum and pair-fed control mice were given diet and either an isocaloric glucose solution or water. Decreased NK cell activity was observed in alcohol-consuming mice relative to all other control groups. NK cell activity was moderately decreased by feeding mice a high glucose diet, but more severely lowered in pair-fed groups compared to ad libitum control groups.

  12. Sulfoximine-mediated syntheses of optically active alcohols. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, C. J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Several routes are described for the production of optically active secondary and tertiary alcohols. In all cases, the asymmetry emanates from the use of (+)-(S)-N,S-dimethyl-S-phenyl-sulfoximine (1) at some point in the variation of the diastereomers. One route relies upon the separation of the diastereomers produced from the condensation of (+)-(S)-(N-methylphenyl-sulfonimidoyl) methyllithium with prochiral aldehydes and ketones. Subsequent carbon-sulfur bond cleavage of the separated diastereomeric beta-hydroxysulfoximines yields optically active alcohols. Alternatively, beta-hydroxysulfoximines were produced from the reduction of chiral beta-ketosulfoximines. The reductions were most successfully achieved with diborane generated externally and bubbled into a toluene solution of the ketone at -78 C. Optically active alcohols were also produced from prochiral ketones by reduction with diborane or lithium aluminum hydride complexes of resolved diastereomers of beta-hydroxysulfoximines.

  13. Experimental demonstration of the influence of alcohol advertising on the activation of alcohol expectancies in memory among fourth- and fifth-grade children.

    PubMed

    Dunn, M E; Yniguez, R M

    1999-11-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that children's organization and activation of alcohol expectancies in memory vary as a function of alcohol use, even among children as young as in the 3rd grade. To advance the understanding of influences on the development of alcohol expectancies in children, 551 4th- and 5th-grade children were exposed to 5 beer commercials or 5 soft drink commercials. After viewing the advertisements, all children reported their 1st associate to an alcohol prompt and completed a memory model-based measure of children's alcohol expectancies. Multidimensional scaling was used to map expectancies into hypothetical memory network format, and preference mapping was used to derive possible paths of activation. Children who viewed beer commercials were more likely to activate positive and arousing alcohol expectancies. In view of previous findings demonstrating that this pattern of activation corresponded to higher drinking among 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th graders, the present findings suggested that antecedents to drinking like exposure to advertising may promote heavier drinking among children by influencing the activation of expectancies in memory.

  14. Combined varenicline and naltrexone treatment reduces smoking topography intensity in heavy-drinking smokers.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel J O; Bujarski, Spencer; Hartwell, Emily; Green, ReJoyce; Ray, Lara A

    2015-07-01

    Heavy drinking smokers constitute a distinct sub-population of smokers for whom traditional smoking cessation therapies may not be effective. Recent evidence suggested that combined varenicline (VAR) and naltrexone (NTX) therapy may be more efficacious than either monotherapy alone in reducing smoking and drinking-related behavior in this population. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e., smoking topography) may be predictive of smoking cessation outcomes, yet the effects of smoking pharmacotherapies on puffing behavior have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the current double-blind medication study examined the effects of VAR alone (1mg BID), low dose NTX alone (25mg QD), the combination of VAR+NTX, and placebo on smoking topography measures in heavy drinking, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=120). After a 9-day titration period, participants completed a laboratory session in which they smoked their first cigarette of the day using a smoking topography device following 12h of nicotine abstinence and consumption of an alcoholic beverage (BrAC=0.06g/dl). The primary measures were puff count, volume, duration, and velocity and inter-puff interval (IPI). Independent of medication group, puff velocity and IPI increased, while puff volume and duration decreased, over the course of the cigarette. The active medication groups, vs. the placebo group, had significantly blunted puff duration and velocity slopes over the course of the cigarette, and this effect was particularly evident in the VAR+NTX group. Additionally, the VAR+NTX group demonstrated lower average IPI than the monotherapy groups and lower average puff volume than all other groups. These results suggest that smoking pharmacotherapies, particularly the combination of VAR+NTX, alter smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers, producing a pattern of less intense puffing behavior. As smoking topography has been predictive of the ability to quit smoking, future studies should

  15. Discovery and exploitation of AZADO: the highly active catalyst for alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes (or carboxylic acids) or ketones is a fundamental transformation in organic synthesis. Stable organic nitroxyl radicals as represented by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) (1) have been used extensively to catalyze the oxidation of a number of alcohol substrates employing environmentally benign co-oxidants such as bleach (NaOCl) or PhI(OAc)2. Although TEMPO oxidation is better known as a method for selective oxidation of primary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes, the TEMPO-based method is not very efficient for the oxidation of structurally hindered secondary alcohols. We designed and synthesized 2-azaadamantane N-oxyl [AZADO (11)] and 1-Me-AZADO (20), a structurally less hindered class of nitroxyl radical. AZADOs were found to exhibit excellent catalytic activity enabling oxidation of a variety of alcohols with which TEMPO exhibits poor reactivity. Based on structure-activity relationships (SAR) employing AZADO (11), 1-Me-AZADO (20), 1,3-dimethyl-AZADO (33), 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-N-oxyl [ABNO (34)] and 9-azanoradamantane N-oxyl [Nor-AZADO (37)], we concluded that the α-methyl group flanked nearby the nitroxyl group affects the reactivity for the oxidation of sterically hindered alcohols and the azaadamantane skeleton contributes to the high turnover of the catalyst. The highly active nature of AZADOs spurred us to exploit their further use in alcohol oxidations. A facile, green, one-pot oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids with broad substrate applicability has been developed by employing an expedient catalytic system consisting of the oxoammonium salt [1-Me-AZADO(+)X(-) (X=Cl, BF4)]/NaClO2. The synthetic use of AZADOs and the related nitroxyl radicals/oxoammonium salts-based methods for alcohol oxidation have been demonstrated in several total syntheses of natural products. We also describe the development of a Nor-AZADO (37)/DIAD/AcOH method that

  16. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  17. Polymorphisms in metabolic genes, their combination and interaction with tobacco smoke and alcohol consumption and risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study in an Italian population

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Stefania; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Fakhredin A; Persiani, Roberto; Gianfagna, Francesco; Rausei, Stefano; Arzani, Dario; La Greca, Antonio; D'Ugo, Domenico; La Torre, Giuseppe; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ricciardi, Gualtiero

    2007-01-01

    Background The distribution and the potential gene-gene and gene-environment interaction of selected metabolic genetic polymorphisms was investigated in relation to gastric cancer risk in an Italian population. Methods One hundred and seven cases and 254 hospital controls, matched by age and gender, were genotyped for CYP1A1, CYP2E1, mEH, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2 and SULT1A1 polymorphisms. Haplotype analysis was performed for EPHX1 exons 3 and 4, as well as CYP2E1 RsaI (*5 alleles) and CYP2E1 DraI (*5A or *6 alleles). The effect modification by alcohol and cigarette smoking was tested with the heterogeneity test, while the attributable proportion (AP) was used to measure the biological interaction from the gene-gene interaction analysis. Results Gastric cancer risk was found to be associated with the inheritance of GSTT1 null genotype (OR = 2.10, 95%CI: 1.27–3.44) and the SULT1A1 His/His genotype (OR = 2.46, 95%CI: 1.03–5.90). No differences were observed for the haplotype distributions among cases and controls. For the first time an increased risk was detected among individuals carrying the *6 variant allele of CYP2E1 if ever-drinkers (OR = 3.70; 95%CI: 1.45–9.37) with respect to never-drinkers (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.22–1.46) (p value of heterogeneity among the two estimates = 0.001). Similarly, the effect of SULT1A1 variant genotype resulted restricted to ever-smokers, with an OR of 2.58 (95%CI: 1.27–5.25) for the carriers of His allele among smokers, and an OR of 0.86 (95%CI: 0.45–1.64) among never-smokers (p value of heterogeneity among the two estimates = 0.03). The gene-gene interaction analyses demonstrated that individuals with combined GSTT1 null and NAT2 slow acetylators had an additional increased risk of gastric cancer, with an OR of 3.00 (95%CI: 1.52–5.93) and an AP of 52%. Conclusion GSTT1, SULT1A1 and NAT2 polymorphisms appear to modulate individual's susceptibility to gastric cancer in this Italian population, particularly when more than one

  18. Neural activation during processing of aversive faces predicts treatment outcome in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Charlet, Katrin; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Richter, Anne; Naundorf, Karina; Dornhof, Lina; Weinfurtner, Christopher E J; König, Friederike; Walaszek, Bernadeta; Schubert, Florian; Müller, Christian A; Gutwinski, Stefan; Seissinger, Annette; Schmitz, Lioba; Walter, Henrik; Beck, Anne; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kiefer, Falk; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Neuropsychological studies reported decoding deficits of emotional facial expressions in alcohol-dependent patients, and imaging studies revealed reduced prefrontal and limbic activation during emotional face processing. However, it remains unclear whether this reduced neural activation is mediated by alcohol-associated volume reductions and whether it interacts with treatment outcome. We combined analyses of neural activation during an aversive face-cue-comparison task and local gray matter volumes (GM) using Biological Parametric Mapping in 33 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 33 matched healthy controls. Alcoholics displayed reduced activation toward aversive faces-neutral shapes in bilateral fusiform gyrus [FG; Brodmann areas (BA) 18/19], right middle frontal gyrus (BA46/47), right inferior parietal gyrus (BA7) and left cerebellum compared with controls, which were explained by GM differences (except for cerebellum). Enhanced functional activation in patients versus controls was found in left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus (BA10/11), even after GM reduction control. Increased ACC activation correlated significantly with less (previous) lifetime alcohol intake [Lifetime Drinking History (LDH)], longer abstinence and less subsequent binge drinking in patients. High LDH appear to impair treatment outcome via its neurotoxicity on ACC integrity. Thus, high activation of the rostral ACC elicited by affective faces appears to be a resilience factor predicting better treatment outcome. Although no group differences were found, increased FG activation correlated with patients' higher LDH. Because high LDH correlated with worse task performance for facial stimuli in patients, elevated activation in the fusiform 'face' area may reflect inefficient compensatory activation. Therapeutic interventions (e.g. emotion evaluation training) may enable patients to cope with social stress and to decrease relapses after detoxification.

  19. Combining Satellite Observations of Fire Activity and Numerical Weather Prediction to Improve the Prediction of Smoke Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. A.; Wang, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Smoke emissions estimates used in air quality and visibility forecasting applications are currently limited by the information content of satellite fire observations, and the lack of a skillful short-term forecast of changes in fire activity. This study explores the potential benefits of a recently developed sub-pixel-based calculation of fire radiative power (FRPf) from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which provides more precise estimates of the radiant energy (over the retrieved fire area) that in turn, improves estimates of the thermal buoyancy of smoke plumes and may be helpful characterizing the meteorological effects on fire activity for large fire events. Results show that unlike the current FRP product, the incorporation of FRPf produces a statistically significant correlation (R = 0.42) with smoke plume height data provided by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and several meteorological variables, such as surface wind speed and temperature, which may be useful for discerning cases where smoke was injected above the boundary layer. Drawing from recent advances in numerical weather prediction (NWP), this study also examines the meteorological conditions characteristic of fire ignition, growth, decay, and extinction, which are used to develop an automated, 24-hour prediction of satellite fire activity. Satellite fire observations from MODIS and geostationary sensors show that the fire prediction model is an improvement (RMSE reduction of 13 - 20%) over the forecast of persistence commonly used by near-real-time fire emission inventories. The ultimate goal is to combine NWP data and satellite fire observations to improve both analysis and prediction of biomass-burning emissions, through improved understanding of the interactions between fire activity and weather at scales appropriate for operational modeling. This is a critical step toward producing a global fire prediction model and improving operational forecasts of

  20. [Suicidal and personality characteristics of women married to men with alcohol dependence and suicidal activity].

    PubMed

    Merinov, A V; Shustov, D I

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the suicidal activity in men with alcohol dependence on suicidal indexes, personal-codependency and psychological specifics of their wives has been studied. It has been found that women married to suicidal men with alcohol dependence significantly more frequently demonstrate suicidal activity (a phenomenon of suicidal matrimonial comorbidity) compared to wives of "non-suicidal" men. They also reveal non-suicidal behavioral patterns more frequently and prosuicidal predictors are quite common in them. This contingent of women has high suicidal potential that needs special attention during the therapeutic work.

  1. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction. PMID:25662840

  2. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2015-07-01

    Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction.

  3. Influence of increased adrenergic activity and magnesium depletion on cardiac rhythm in alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed Central

    Denison, H; Jern, S; Jagenburg, R; Wendestam, C; Wallerstedt, S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the prevalence of arrhythmias in alcoholic men during detoxification and its relation to neuroendocrine activation and electrolyte disturbances. DESIGN--Consecutive case-control study. SETTING--Primary and secondary care, detoxification ward. PATIENTS AND CONTROLS--19 otherwise healthy alcoholic men (DSM-III-R) with withdrawal symptoms necessitating detoxification in hospital. 19 age matched, healthy non-alcoholic men as controls for Holter recordings. INTERVENTIONS--Treatment with chlomethiazole; additional treatment with carbamazepine in patients with previous seizures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Computer based analyses of mean heart rate and arrhythmias from 24 hour Holter recordings, 24 hour urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline, magnesium retention measured by means of intravenous loading test, and serum concentrations of electrolytes. RESULTS--The 24 hour mean heart rate was higher in the alcoholic men (97.4 beats/minute, 95% confidence interval (CI) 91.2 to 103.6) than in the controls (69.6 beats/minute, 95% CI 65.4 to 73.8, P < 0.001). However, there was no difference in diurnal heart rate variation. The prevalence of premature supraventricular depolarisations was lower in the alcoholic men (P < 0.05). Neither atrial fibrillation nor malignant ventricular arrhythmias occurred. The sinus tachycardia in the alcoholic men correlated with the concomitant urinary excretion of catecholamines (P < 0.05). The mean serum magnesium concentration was 0.78 mmol/l (95% CI 0.73 to 0.83) in the alcoholic men and 0.83 mmol/l (95% CI 0.81 to 0.85) in a reference population of 55 men aged 40. Magnesium depletion (defined as magnesium retention > 30%) was detected in 10 alcoholic men (53%). Three alcoholic men had serum potassium concentrations < or = 3.3 mmol/l on admission. CONCLUSION--Increased adrenergic activity, magnesium depletion, and hypokalaemia are often seen after heavy drinking, but in alcoholic men without clinical heart disease

  4. Memory retrieval of smoking-related images induce greater insula activation as revealed by an fMRI-based delayed matching to sample task.

    PubMed

    Janes, Amy C; Ross, Robert S; Farmer, Stacey; Frederick, Blaise B; Nickerson, Lisa D; Lukas, Scott E; Stern, Chantal E

    2015-03-01

    Nicotine dependence is a chronic and difficult to treat disorder. While environmental stimuli associated with smoking precipitate craving and relapse, it is unknown whether smoking cues are cognitively processed differently than neutral stimuli. To evaluate working memory differences between smoking-related and neutral stimuli, we conducted a delay-match-to-sample (DMS) task concurrently with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in nicotine-dependent participants. The DMS task evaluates brain activation during the encoding, maintenance and retrieval phases of working memory. Smoking images induced significantly more subjective craving, and greater midline cortical activation during encoding in comparison to neutral stimuli that were similar in content yet lacked a smoking component. The insula, which is involved in maintaining nicotine dependence, was active during the successful retrieval of previously viewed smoking versus neutral images. In contrast, neutral images required more prefrontal cortex-mediated active maintenance during the maintenance period. These findings indicate that distinct brain regions are involved in the different phases of working memory for smoking-related versus neutral images. Importantly, the results implicate the insula in the retrieval of smoking-related stimuli, which is relevant given the insula's emerging role in addiction.

  5. Teaching Units on Smoking, Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Helen M.

    Smoking, tobacco, and health are presented in this resource unit for grades four, five, and six. One of three units on smoking, drugs, and alcohol, this guide for teachers outlines information about the physiological and socio-economic effects of smoking, effects of smoking on physical performance, man's use of tobacco and tobacco production,…

  6. Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ... Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ...

  7. Epileptiform Activity in Alcohol Dependent Patients and Possibilities of Its Indirect Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Raboch, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence during withdrawal and also in abstinent period in many cases is related to reduced inhibitory functions and kindling that may appear in the form of psychosensory symptoms similar to temporal lobe epilepsy frequently in conditions of normal EEG and without seizures. Because temporal lobe epileptic activity tend to spread between hemispheres, it is possible to suppose that measures reflecting interhemispheric information transfer such as electrodermal activity (EDA) might be related to the psychosensory symptoms. Methods and Findings We have performed measurement of bilateral EDA, psychosensory symptoms (LSCL-33) and alcohol craving (ACQ) in 34 alcohol dependent patients and 32 healthy controls. The results in alcohol dependent patients show that during rest conditions the psychosensory symptoms (LSCL-33) are related to EDA transinformation (PTI) between left and right EDA records (Spearman r = 0.44, p<0.01). Conclusions The result may present potentially useful clinical finding suggesting a possibility to indirectly assess epileptiform changes in alcohol dependent patients. PMID:21541318

  8. Activated nuclear factor kappa B and airway inflammation after smoke inhalation and burn injury in sheep.

    PubMed

    Cox, Robert A; Burke, Ann S; Jacob, Sam; Oliveras, Gloria; Murakami, Kazunori; Shimoda, Katsumi; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Traber, Lillian D; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L; Hawkins, Hal K

    2009-01-01

    In a recent study, we have shown a rapid inflammatory cell influx across the glandular epithelium and strong proinflammatory cytokine expression at 4 hours after inhalation injury. Studies have demonstrated a significant role of nuclear factor kappa B in proinflammatory cytokine gene transcription. This study examines the acute airway inflammatory response and immunohistochemical detection of p65, a marker of nuclear factor kappa B activation, in sheep after smoke inhalation and burn injury. Pulmonary tissue from uninjured sheep and sheep at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after inhalation and burn injury was included in the study. Following immunostaining for p65 and myeloperoxidase, the cell types and the percentage of bronchial submucosal gland cells staining for p65 and the extent of myeloperoxidase stained neutrophils in the bronchial submucosa were determined. Results indicate absence of detection of P65 before 12 hours after injury. At 12 hours after injury, strong perinuclear staining for p65 was evident in bronchial gland epithelial cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Bronchial submucosal gland cells showed a significant increase in the percentage of cells stained for p65 compared with uninjured animals and earlier times after injury, P < .05. At 24 and 48 hours after injury, p65 expression was evident in the bronchiolar epithelium, Type II pneumocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Quantitation of the neutrophil influx into the bronchial submucosa showed a significant increase compared with uninjured tissue at 24 and 48 hours after injury, P < .05. In conclusion, immunohistochemical detection of activated p65 preceded the overall inflammatory response measured in the lamina propria. However, detection of p65 did not correlate with a recent study showing rapid emigration of neutrophils at 4 hours postinjury. Together, these results suggest that p65 immunostaining may identify cells that are activated to produce proinflammatory cytokines after

  9. Physical activity as a protective factor in relapse following smoking cessation in participants with a depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Paquito; Ninot, Gregory; Guillaume, Sebastien; Fond, Guillaume; Courtet, Philippe; Christine Picot, Marie; Quantin, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The factors predicting smoking abstinence in depressive smokers, and the role of physical activity in precessation, were investigated. One hundred thirty-three smokers with current major depressive disorders (score ≥10 on the Depression subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were recruited from a large prospective cohort of smokers (n = 1,119). Over a maximum period of 3 years, regression modeling, adjusted for potential confounders, showed that physical activity was associated with relapse (relapse rate = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.34-0.85, p = .008). Also, antidepressants, anxiolytics, level of education, and number of attempts to quit were associated with relapse. The protective role of physical activity on relapse rate could be a modifiable factor in smoking cessation for smokers with depressive disorders.

  10. Smoking, Exercise, and Physical Fitness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    activity , smoking behavior, and physical fitness were examined in 3,045 Navy personnel. Exercise and smoking behaviors were measured using a "life-style... physical endurance-both cardiorespiratory (1.5-mile run) and muscular (sit-ups). After controlling for the effects of exercise activity , smoking was...although smoking has been associated with lower physical activity in supervised exercise programs (Dishman, Sallis, & Orenstein, 1985). There has also

  11. [Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Effect of nicotine, alcohol and marihuana on clinical symptoms].

    PubMed

    Müller-Vahl, K R; Kolbe, H; Dengler, R

    1997-12-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric spectrum disorder of unknown etiology. While several studies have provided evidence that nicotine causes an improvement, only anecdotal reports suggest that alcohol and marijuana influence the symptomatology. Using a structured interview, we questioned a larger group of patients with Tourette syndrome (n = 47) about the use of nicotine, alcohol, and marijuana and their subjective experiences. Of 28 smoking patients only 2 (7%) reported a tic reduction when smoking. Of 35 patients drinking alcohol 24 (69%) noted an improvement. Thirteen patients reported the use of marijuana, of whom 11 (85%) noted a marked improvement. Our results provided strong evidence that the use of both alcohol and marijuana causes much more improvement in TS than nicotine smoking. We suggest that marijuana influences an assumed interaction between cannabinoid and dopamine receptors and, by this, influences the dopaminergic processes in basal ganglia and motor activity.

  12. Addressing Heavy Drinking in Smoking Cessation Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; LaChance, Heather R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Abrams, David B.; Monti, Peter M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking and may impede smoking cessation. This clinical trial examined whether smoking cessation treatment that incorporates brief alcohol intervention can improve smoking cessation outcomes (7-day verified point prevalence abstinence) and reduce drinks consumed per week. Heavy drinkers seeking…

  13. Nitrated Fatty Acids Reverse Cigarette Smoke-Induced Alveolar Macrophage Activation and Inhibit Protease Activity via Electrophilic S-Alkylation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Aravind T; Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Muchumarri, Ramamohan R; Reddy, Raju C

    2016-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids (NFAs), endogenous products of nonenzymatic reactions of NO-derived reactive nitrogen species with unsaturated fatty acids, exhibit substantial anti-inflammatory activities. They are both reversible electrophiles and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists, but the physiological implications of their electrophilic activity are poorly understood. We tested their effects on inflammatory and emphysema-related biomarkers in alveolar macrophages (AMs) of smoke-exposed mice. NFA (10-nitro-oleic acid or 12-nitrolinoleic acid) treatment downregulated expression and activity of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB while upregulating those of PPARγ. It also downregulated production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and of the protease cathepsin S (Cat S), a key mediator of emphysematous septal destruction. Cat S downregulation was accompanied by decreased AM elastolytic activity, a major mechanism of septal destruction. NFAs downregulated both Cat S expression and activity in AMs of wild-type mice, but only inhibited its activity in AMs of PPARγ knockout mice, pointing to a PPARγ-independent mechanism of enzyme inhibition. We hypothesized that this mechanism was electrophilic S-alkylation of target Cat S cysteines, and found that NFAs bind directly to Cat S following treatment of intact AMs and, as suggested by in silico modeling and calculation of relevant parameters, elicit S-alkylation of Cys25 when incubated with purified Cat S. These results demonstrate that NFAs' electrophilic activity, in addition to their role as PPARγ agonists, underlies their protective effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and support their therapeutic potential in this disease.

  14. Measurement of fine particles and smoking activity in a statewide survey of 36 California Indian casinos.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruo-Ting; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Klepeis, Neil E; Repace, James L; Ott, Wayne R; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2011-01-01

    Despite California's 1994 statewide smoking ban, exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) continues in California's Indian casinos. Few data are available on exposure to airborne fine particles (PM₂.₅) in casinos, especially on a statewide basis. We sought to measure PM₂.₅ concentrations in Indian casinos widely distributed across California, exploring differences due to casino size, separation of smoking and non-smoking areas, and area smoker density. A selection of 36 out of the 58 Indian casinos throughout California were each visited for 1-3 h on weekend or holiday evenings, using two or more concealed monitors to measure PM₂.₅ concentrations every 10 s. For each casino, the physical dimensions and the number of patrons and smokers were estimated. As a preliminary assessment of representativeness, we also measured eight casinos in Reno, NV. The average PM₂.₅ concentration for the smoking slot machine areas (63 μg/m³) was nine times as high as outdoors (7 μg/m³), whereas casino non-smoking restaurants (29 μg/m³) were four times as high. Levels in non-smoking slot machine areas varied: complete physical separation reduced concentrations almost to outdoor levels, but two other separation types had mean levels that were 13 and 29 μg/m³, respectively, higher than outdoors. Elevated PM₂.₅ concentrations in casinos can be attributed primarily to SHS. Average PM₂.₅ concentrations during 0.5-1 h visits to smoking areas exceeded 35 μg/m³ for 90% of the casino visits.

  15. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase determines the susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for agents that suppress inflammation and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) has been associated with this disorder, and several inhibitors of this cascade are in clinical trials for its treatment, but their efficacy and utility are unknown. This study evaluated the relationship between p38 MAPK activation and susceptibility to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, and whether its inhibition ameliorated the lung inflammation and injury in murine models of cigarette smoke exposure. Methods In acute and chronic CS exposure, the activation and expression of p38 MAPK in the lungs, as well as lung inflammation and injury (proteinase production, apoptosis, and oxidative DNA damage), were compared between two mouse strains: C57BL/6 (emphysema-susceptible) and NZW (emphysema-resistant). The selective p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 (45 mg/kg) was administrated intra-peritoneally to C57BL/6 mice, to examine whether it ameliorated cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation and injury. Results Acute CS-induced lung inflammation (neutrophil infiltration, mRNA expressions of TNF-α and MIP-2), proteinase expression (MMP-12 mRNA), apoptosis, and oxidative DNA damage were significantly lower in NZW than C57BL/6 mice. p38 MAPK was significantly activated and up-regulated by both acute and chronic CS exposure in C57BL/6 but not NZW mice. mRNA expression of p38 MAPK was also upregulated in C57BL/6 by chronic CS exposure and tended to be constitutively suppressed in NZW mice. SB203580 significantly attenuated lung inflammation (neutrophil infiltration, mRNA expressions of TNF-α and MIP-2, protein levels of KC, MIP-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6), proteinase expression (MMP-12 mRNA), oxidative DNA damage, and apoptosis caused by acute CS exposure. Conclusions Cigarette smoke activated p38 MAPK only in mice that were susceptible to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. Its selective inhibition ameliorated

  16. Does cue context matter? Examining the specificity of cue-related activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-12-01

    Consistent with the Encoding Specificity principle, positive alcohol expectancies may be activated by cues in drinking contexts because they are more closely associated with these cues in memory than are negative expectancies. However, there is little research examining the specificity of cue-induced alcohol expectancy activation. This study investigated the relative activation of positive and negative expectancies in response to positive and negative cue contexts. We also examined whether these effects were stronger for heavier and more problematic drinkers. College student drinkers were randomly assigned to listen to vignettes describing either positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue exposure). Participants also completed an implicit measure of alcohol expectancy activation (modified Stroop task) both before and after the cue exposure, as well as self-report measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. We found that alcohol-related problems moderated the effects of cue condition on expectancy activation, such that specific activation of positive relative to negative expectancies in response to positive cues was observed only for drinkers with higher levels of alcohol problems. No differences in activation of positive versus negative expectancies were observed for more problematic drinkers in the negative cue condition or for less problematic drinkers in either cue condition. The results are partially consistent with the Encoding Specificity principle, showing that positive contextual cues can selectively activate positive alcohol expectancies for more problematic drinkers. Findings may have implications for interventions that target automatic expectancy processes, suggesting potential utility in targeting specific expectancies in specific contexts.

  17. Ethanol up-regulates nucleus accumbens neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp): implications for alcohol-induced behavioral plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ary, Alexis W; Cozzoli, Debra K; Finn, Deborah A; Crabbe, John C; Dehoff, Marlin H; Worley, Paul F; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2012-06-01

    Neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp) interacts with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptors to facilitate excitatory synapse formation by aggregating them at established synapses. Alcohol is well-characterized to influence central glutamatergic transmission, including AMPA receptor function. Herein, we examined the influence of injected and ingested alcohol upon Narp protein expression, as well as basal Narp expression in mouse lines selectively bred for high blood alcohol concentrations under limited access conditions. Alcohol up-regulated accumbens Narp levels, concomitant with increases in levels of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit. However, accumbens Narp or GluR1 levels did not vary as a function of selectively bred genotype. We next employed a Narp knock-out (KO) strategy to begin to understand the behavioral relevance of alcohol-induced changes in protein expression in several assays of alcohol reward. Compared to wild-type mice, Narp KO animals: fail to escalate daily intake of high alcohol concentrations under free-access conditions; shift their preference away from high alcohol concentrations with repeated alcohol experience; exhibit a conditioned place-aversion in response to the repeated pairing of 3 g/kg alcohol with a distinct environment and fail to exhibit alcohol-induced locomotor hyperactivity following repeated alcohol treatment. Narp deletion did not influence the daily intake of either food or water, nor did it alter any aspect of spontaneous or alcohol-induced motor activity, including the development of tolerance to its motor-impairing effects with repeated treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that Narp induction, and presumably subsequent aggregation of AMPA receptors, may be important for neuroplasticity within limbic subcircuits mediating or maintaining the rewarding properties of alcohol.

  18. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  19. Alcohol, Sex and Illegal Activities: An Analysis of Selected Facebook Central Photos in Fifty States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sandy White; Smith, Zachary; Driver, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the central photos of 150 students in 50 states participating in Facebook for evidence of alcohol consumption, illegal activities and portrayal of sexually inappropriate behaviors (including nudity or partial nudity). Because the media has frequently reported evidence of these behaviors in…

  20. Stressful Life Events, Ethnic Identity, Historical Trauma, and Participation in Cultural Activities: Associations with Smoking Behaviors among American Indian Adolescents in California

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Claradina; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction American Indian (AI) adolescents have the highest prevalence of commercial tobacco use of any ethnic group in the United States. This study examines ethnic identity (EI), participation in cultural activities, and stressful life events (SLEs) as correlates of smoking and examines historical trauma (HT) as a mediator of these associations. Methods California AI youth (N= 969, ages 13–19, recruited from 49 tribal youth organizations and cultural activities in urban and reservation areas in California) completed a tobacco survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model examining HT as a potential mediator of the associations of EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs with cigarette smoking. Results Model fit was adequate. EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs predicted HT. HT mediated the associations of participation in cultural activities and SLEs with past-month smoking. Stronger EI predicted greater past-month smoking and this effect was mediated by greater HT. The direct effects from HT to both smoking outcomes were positive and the direct effect from EI to past-month smoking was negative. Conclusions HT is a risk factor for cigarette smoking both directly and in mediating the links of EI, cultural activities, and SLEs. More efforts are needed to help AI youth to process these thoughts and empower themselves to contribute to their own lives and those of their families and communities without resorting to unhealthy addictive behaviors such as commercial tobacco use. PMID:26103424

  1. [Damage from passive tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Bartkowiak, Z

    1995-01-01

    The author presents data on the biological casualties and consequences of tobacco-smoking. Smoking is the most dangerous addiction in the scale of the world and in Poland. It causes numerous premature decrease and tobacco-dependent sickness. The author characterises the spread of this addiction in Poland concentrating on the problem of the passive smoking harmfulness. Non-smokers, children and youth, embryo and foetus during the pregnancy are exposed to the passive smoking. The experimental examinations of animals and the analysis of the lateral stream of the tobacco smoke confirm not the least, but rather the greater damage of the passive smoking than the active one. The mechanisms of acting of the tobacco smoke on the passive smokers' body and the health consequences are discussed. The manners, means and activities that are useful for the health protection of non-smokers against the tobacco smoke and the ways of the smoking prevention are described.

  2. Cigarette smoking, exercise and high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Stamford, B A; Matter, S; Fell, R D; Sady, S; Papanek, P; Cresanta, M

    1984-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with depressed levels of HDL-C, whereas exercise is associated with elevated levels of HDL-C. The purpose was to determine effects of smoking and exercise on blood lipids and lipoproteins in middle-aged males. It was hypothesized that smoking may attenuate the effects of exercise to elevate HDL-C. A total of 269 males (70 smokers) met all criteria for inclusion in the study population. Age, height, weight, body fatness via hydrostatic weighing, daily caloric consumption and alcohol intake, and smoking habits and history were determined. Interviews concerning physical activity patterns were conducted and cardiovascular responses to treadmill exercise were determined. Subjects were grouped as sedentary (low activity), participants in vigorous recreational activities (moderate activity) and joggers/runners (high activity). Analysis of covariance with adjustments for factors which may affect blood lipids and lipoproteins was employed. Smokers demonstrated lower HDL-C and higher total cholesterol levels than nonsmokers. High activity subjects demonstrated significantly higher HDL-C levels than the low and moderate groups which did not differ. High activity smokers did not differ from low activity nonsmokers with respect to HDL-C. This supports the proposed hypothesis. Nonsmokers were higher in weight and body fatness than smokers even though smokers consumed 288 more calories per day on the average. This suggests that smoking may account for a significant number of calories through altered metabolism or some other means.

  3. Probe molecule studies: Active species in alcohol synthesis. Final report, July 1993--July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Blackmond, D.G.; Wender, I.; Oukaci, R.; Wang, Jian

    1994-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the role(s) of cobalt and copper in constructing the active sites for the formation of higher alcohols from CO/H{sub 2} over the Co-Cu based catalysts by using different reduction treatments and applying selected characterization tools such as TPR, TPD, XRD and XPS as well as to generate mechanistic information on the reaction pathway(s) and key intermediate(s) of higher alcohol synthesis from CO/H{sub 2} over Co-Cu/ZnO catalysts by the approach of in-situ addition of a probe molecule (nitromethane).

  4. Alcohol promotes migration and invasion of triple-negative breast cancer cells through activation of p38 MAPK and JNK.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Howard, Erin W; Parris, Amanda B; Guo, Zhiying; Zhao, Qingxia; Yang, Xiaohe

    2017-03-01

    Although alcohol is an established breast cancer risk factor, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies examined the general association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk; however, the risk for different breast cancer subtypes has been rarely reported. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer lacking hormone receptors and HER2 expression, and having poor prognosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of TNBC etiology remains a significant challenge. In this study, we investigated cellular responses to alcohol in two TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468. Our results showed that alcohol at low concentrations (0.025-0.1% v/v) induced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in 1% FBS-containing medium. Molecular analysis indicated that these phenotypic changes were associated with alcohol-induced reactive oxygen species production and increased p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Likewise, p38 or JNK inhibition attenuated alcohol-induced cell migration and invasion. We revealed that alcohol treatment activated/phosphorylated NF-κB regulators and increased transcription of NF-κB-targeted genes. While examining the role of acetaldehyde, the major alcohol metabolite, in alcohol-associated responses in TNBC cells, we saw that acetaldehyde induced cell migration, invasion, and increased phospho-p38, phospho-JNK, and phospho-IκBα in a pattern similar to alcohol treatment. Taken together, we established that alcohol promotes TNBC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. The underlying mechanisms involve the induction of oxidative stress and the activation of NF-κB signaling. In particular, the activation of p38 and JNK plays a pivotal role in alcohol-induced cellular responses. These results will advance our understanding of alcohol-mediated development and promotion of TNBC. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [The influence of smoking on plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant concentrations in active smokers (preliminary report)].

    PubMed

    Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Sobczak, Andrzej; Król, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains many reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative stress. Crucial role in defending the organism against ROS play vitamins E and A. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of tobacco smoke on concentration of main ingredients of these vitamins alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol, as well as retinol. The study population consisted of 104 healthy males between the age of 34 and 45 years. Survey questionnaire and determination of plasma cotinine concentration were used to divide the group into smokers (62 males) and non-smokers (42 males). The arbitrary threshold value of plasma cotinine concentration was set to 15 ng/ml. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to estimate the plasma concentration of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, retinol and cotinine. Within the smoking part of the study population a significantly lower (by 12.5%) concentration of alpha-tocopherol, and non-significantly higher (by 15.7%) concentration of gamma-tocopherol was ascertained, when compared to the plasma concentration of those compounds in the non-smoking group. Practically no difference in concentration of retinol was found between the two studied groups. In order to determine the magnitude of interdependency between the extensiveness of exposure to tobacco smoke and the concentration of analyzed antioxidants, correlations between their plasma concentrations and plasma concentration of cotinine were investigated. A significant, moderate and negative correlation of alpha-tocopherol versus cotinin was determined, in the smoking group as well as in the entire study population (r = -0.291 and r = - 0,317, respectively). Other relationship: gamma-tocopherol versus cotinine and retinol versus cotinine did not show any correlation. The obtained results suggest that tobacco smoke weakens the organism's antioxidant barrier by decreasing the concentration of plasma alpha-tocopherol, while not influencing significantly the plasma

  6. Depression of alcohol dehydrogenase activity in rat hepatocyte culture by dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Mezey, E; Potter, J J; Diehl, A M

    1986-01-15

    Hepatocytes harvested from castrated rats retained a higher alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) activity than hepatocytes harvested from normal rats during 7 days of culture. Dihydrotestosterone (1 microM) decreased the enzyme activity, after 2 and 5 days of culture, in hepatocytes from castrated and control animals respectively. Dihydrotestosterone decreased the enzyme activity to similar values in both groups of hepatocytes by the end of 7 days of culture. Testosterone (1 microM) had no effect on the enzyme activity in normal hepatocytes and only a transitory effect in decreasing the enzyme activity in hepatocytes from castrated animals. The increases in alcohol dehydrogenase activity after castration and their suppression by dihydrotestosterone were associated with parallel changes in the rate of ethanol elimination. Additions of substrates of the malate-aspartate shuttle or dinitrophenol did not modify ethanol elimination. These observations indicate that dihydrotestosterone has a direct suppressant effect on hepatocyte alcohol dehydrogenase and that the enzyme activity is a major determinant of the rate of ethanol elimination.

  7. Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weibin; Zhu, Bo; Peng, Xiaomin; Zhou, Meiling; Jia, Dongwei; Gu, Jianxin

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. •Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. •Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients.

  8. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  9. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  10. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke leads to activation of p21 (RAC1)-activated kinase 6 (PAK6) in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Nazia; Solanki, Hitendra S.; Puttamallesh, Vinuth N.; Balaji, Sai A.; Nanjappa, Vishalakshi; Datta, Keshava K.; Babu, Niraj; Renuse, Santosh; Patil, Arun H.; Izumchenko, Evgeny; Prasad, T.S. Keshava; Chang, Xiaofei; Rangarajan, Annapoorni; Sidransky, David; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gowda, Harsha; Chatterjee, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data clearly establishes cigarette smoking as one of the major cause for lung cancer worldwide. Recently, targeted therapy has become one of the most preferred modes of treatment for cancer. Though certain targeted therapies such as anti-EGFR are in clinical practice, they have shown limited success in lung cancer patients who are smokers. This demands discovery of alternative drug targets through systematic investigation of cigarette smoke-induced signaling mechanisms. To study the signaling events activated in response to cigarette smoke, we carried out SILAC-based phosphoproteomic analysis of H358 lung cancer cells chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. We identified 1,812 phosphosites, of which 278 phosphosites were hyperphosphorylated (≥ 3-fold) in H358 cells chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. Our data revealed hyperphosphorylation of S560 within the conserved kinase domain of PAK6. Activation of PAK6 is associated with various processes in cancer including metastasis. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of PAK6 led to reduction in cell proliferation, migration and invasion of the cigarette smoke treated cells. Further, siRNA mediated silencing of PAK6 resulted in decreased invasive abilities in a panel of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Consistently, mice bearing tumor xenograft showed reduced tumor growth upon treatment with PF-3758309 (group II PAK inhibitor). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed overexpression of PAK6 in 66.6% (52/78) of NSCLC cases in tissue microarrays. Taken together, our study indicates that PAK6 is a promising novel therapeutic target for NSCLC, especially in smokers. PMID:27542207

  11. Recent Extreme Forest Fire Activity in Western Russia: Fire Danger Conditions, Fire Behavior and Smoke Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, B. J.; Fromm, M.; Goldammer, J.; Carr, R.; Sukhinin, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    During the summer of 2010, widespread forest and peatland fires in western Russia burned over hundreds of thousands of hectares, burning over croplands, destroying hundreds of homes, and directly causing the death of more than 50 people. Unprecedented drought conditions, combined with an extended heat wave, resulted in extreme fire danger conditions and explosive fire behavior in a region of Russia not noted for large fires. Several fires exhibited pyroconvection, injecting smoke directly into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, while deep-burning fires created major regional smoke problems. This smoke persisted in the heavily-populated areas around Moscow, exposing millions to high levels of ozone and particulate matter, and creating both immediate and longer-term health risks. This presentation will explore the drought conditions leading to the catastrophic fire behavior experienced in western Russia, and analyze fire behavior in terms of fuel consumption, smoke production, fire intensity levels, and pyroconvection. Impacts of regional and long-range smoke transport will also be discussed.

  12. In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn.

    PubMed

    Bhalodia, Nayan R; Nariya, Pankaj B; Acharya, R N; Shukla, V J

    2013-04-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

  13. Firearms, alcohol and crime: convictions for driving under the influence (DUI) and other alcohol-related crimes and risk for future criminal activity among authorised purchasers of handguns.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Wright, Mona A; Castillo-Carniglia, Alvaro; Shev, Aaron; Cerdá, Magdalena

    2017-01-30

    Firearm violence frequently involves alcohol, but there are no studies of misuse of alcohol and risk for future violence among firearm owners. We examined the association between prior convictions for alcohol-related crimes, chiefly driving under the influence (DUI), and risk of subsequent arrest among 4066 individuals who purchased handguns in California in 1977. During follow-up through 1991, 32.8% of those with prior alcohol-related convictions and 5.7% of those with no prior criminal history were arrested for a violent or firearm-related crime; 15.9% and 2.7%, respectively, were arrested for murder, rape, robbery or aggravated assault. Prior alcohol-related convictions were associated with a fourfold to fivefold increase in risk of incident arrest for a violent or firearm-related crime, a relative increase greater than that seen for age, sex or prior violence. Prior convictions for alcohol-related crime may be an important predictor of risk for future criminal activity among purchasers of firearms.

  14. Social Activity, School-Related Activity, and Anti-Substance Use Media Messages on Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the "Monitoring the Future" (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-drug messages had an indirect negative effect on tobacco and alcohol use through school-related activity and social activity. The results suggest that comprehensive ecological interventions encompassing media, family, and school can increase on the preventive effects of adolescent's substance use.

  15. A steric tethering approach enables palladium-catalysed C-H activation of primary amino alcohols.

    PubMed

    Calleja, Jonas; Pla, Daniel; Gorman, Timothy W; Domingo, Victoriano; Haffemayer, Benjamin; Gaunt, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    Aliphatic primary amines are a class of chemical feedstock essential to the synthesis of higher-order nitrogen-containing molecules, commonly found in biologically active compounds and pharmaceutical agents. New methods for the construction of complex amines remain a continuous challenge to synthetic chemists. Here, we outline a general palladium-catalysed strategy for the functionalization of aliphatic C-H bonds within amino alcohols, an important class of small molecule. Central to this strategy is the temporary conversion of catalytically incompatible primary amino alcohols into hindered secondary amines that are capable of undergoing a sterically promoted palladium-catalysed C-H activation. Furthermore, a hydrogen bond between amine and catalyst intensifies interactions around the palladium and orients the aliphatic amine substituents in an ideal geometry for C-H activation. This catalytic method directly transforms simple, easily accessible amines into highly substituted, functionally concentrated and structurally diverse products, and can streamline the synthesis of biologically important amine-containing molecules.

  16. A steric tethering approach enables palladium-catalysed C-H activation of primary amino alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calleja, Jonas; Pla, Daniel; Gorman, Timothy W.; Domingo, Victoriano; Haffemayer, Benjamin; Gaunt, Matthew J.

    2015-12-01

    Aliphatic primary amines are a class of chemical feedstock essential to the synthesis of higher-order nitrogen-containing molecules, commonly found in biologically active compounds and pharmaceutical agents. New methods for the construction of complex amines remain a continuous challenge to synthetic chemists. Here, we outline a general palladium-catalysed strategy for the functionalization of aliphatic C-H bonds within amino alcohols, an important class of small molecule. Central to this strategy is the temporary conversion of catalytically incompatible primary amino alcohols into hindered secondary amines that are capable of undergoing a sterically promoted palladium-catalysed C-H activation. Furthermore, a hydrogen bond between amine and catalyst intensifies interactions around the palladium and orients the aliphatic amine substituents in an ideal geometry for C-H activation. This catalytic method directly transforms simple, easily accessible amines into highly substituted, functionally concentrated and structurally diverse products, and can streamline the synthesis of biologically important amine-containing molecules.

  17. 210Po and 210Pb Activity Concentrations in Cigarettes Produced in Vietnam and Their Estimated Dose Contribution Due to Smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thuy-Ngan N.; Le, Cong-Hao; Chau, Van-Tao

    Smoking cigarettes contributes significantly to the increase of radiation in human body because 210Po and 210Pb exist relatively high in tobacco leaves. Therefore, these two radioisotopes in eighteen of the most frequently sold cigarette brands produced in Vietnam were examined in this study. 210Po was determined by alpha spectroscopy using a passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector after a procedure including radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of polonium on a copper disc (the deposition efficiency of 210Po on a copper disc was approximately 94%). Sequentially, 210Pb was determined through the ingrowth of 210Po after storing the sample solutions for approximately six months. The activity concentrations of 210Po in cigarettes ranged from 13.8 to 82.6 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 26.4 mBq/cigarette) and the activity concentrations of 210Pb in cigarettes ranged from 13.9 to 78.8 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 25.8 mBq/cigarette). The annual committed effective dose for smokers who smoke one pack per day was also estimated to be 295.4 µSv/year (223.0 µSv/year and 72.4 µSv/year from 210Po and 210Pb, respectively). These indicated that smoking increased the risk of developing lung cancer was approximately 60 times greater for smokers than for non-smokers.

  18. Wood Bark Smoke Induces Lung and Pleural Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 and Stabilizes Its mRNA in Porcine Lung Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    in situ. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids by Western blotting. Induction of PAI-1 was determined at the...As measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, this defect in fibrinolysis is mainly attributable to overexpression of plasminogen activator...monitoring Pigs were monitored for 48 h. The following variables were measured : number of smoke breaths received, volume of smoke received, peak carboxy

  19. Low doses of alcohol potentiate GABA sub B inhibition of spontaneous activity of hippocampal CA1 neurons in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Criado, J.R.; Thies, R. )

    1991-03-11

    Low doses of alcohol facilitate firing of hippocampal neurons. Such doses also enhance the inhibitory actions of GABA. Alcohol is known to potentiate inhibition via GABA{sub A} receptors. However, the effects of alcohol on GABA{sub B} receptor function are not understood. Spontaneous activity of single units was recorded from CA1 neurons of male rats anesthetized with 1.0% halothane. Electrical recordings and local application of drugs were done with multi-barrel pipettes. CA1 pyramidal neurons fired spontaneous bursts of action potentials. Acute alcohol decreased the interval between bursts, a mild excitatory action. Alcohol also more than doubled the period of complete inhibition produced by local application of both GABA and baclofen. These data suggest that GABA{sub B}-mediated inhibition is also potentiated by low doses of alcohol.

  20. Metal-free oxidative hydroxyalkylarylation of activated alkenes by direct sp3 C-H functionalization of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yuan; Guo, Li-Na; Wang, Hua; Duan, Xin-Hua

    2013-09-04

    A metal-free tandem radical addition/cyclization reaction of activated alkenes and alcohols has been developed. The process provides an efficient and atom economical access to various valuable hydroxyl-containing oxindoles through the direct sp(3) C-H functionalization of alcohols.

  1. Antifatigue and Antioxidant Activity of Alcoholic Extract from Saussurea involucrata.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Chang; Kao, Jung-Yie; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Liao, Chien-Fu; Huang, Chi-Hung; Fan, Ling-Ling; Way, Tzong-Der

    2011-10-01

    Fatigue is a noticeable and highly prevalent symptom in tense, industriously, and economically affluent modern society. Therefore, new antifatigue agents to smooth the fatigue feature are an energetic topic. The total ethanol extract (ESI) of Saussurea involucrata Kar et Kir., known as Tian-Shan snow lotus, was evaluated for antifatigue activity in ICR mice with mice forced swimming test and the determination of the contents of blood lactic acid and serum urea nitrogen. ESI (0.05, 0.15, 0.25 g/kg) was administered orally to mice for 4 weeks. The average swimming times to exhaustion of the ESI-treated ICR mice (0.15, 0.25 g/kg) were prolonged by 132% and 180% (p<0.001) with a lessening of fatigue compared with that of the control group. Analysis of biochemical parameters showed that levels of serum urea nitrogen and blood lactic acid of experimental groups were also decreased significantly (p<0.001) compared with that of the control group. The antioxidant activity of ESI was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay and the hydrogen peroxide-induced luminol chemiluminescence assay and the results indicated that ESI exerts DPPH scavenging ability and reducing power. These results provide scientific evidence that S. involucrata may have been potential as an antifatigue agent.

  2. Design of a high activity and selectivity alcohol catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, H.C.; Mills, G.A.

    1992-02-07

    Results of the pyridine adsorption, studies on native and K-doped alumina provide fundamental grounding for the observed methanol dehydration activity of these samples. Both the reactor studies and the pyridine adsorption studies support the conclusion that the K-doped sample had reduced Lewis acidity. Moreover, we were able to measurably alter the acidity of the support surface by our ion exchange treatment. More significantly, when reactor results for transition-metal loaded samples are reconsidered in combination with their surface characteristics suggested by our pyridine adsorption studies, our hypothesis that Rh and Mo have ultimately titrated the support surface seems all the more convincing. Hence, in light of the pyridine adsorption results, the attenuation of a transition-metal based decomposition pathway for methanol on the metal-loaded samples-as seen in the reactor testing-is all the more reasonable.

  3. A bifunctional enzyme from Rhodococcus erythropolis exhibiting secondary alcohol dehydrogenase-catalase activities.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Rojas, Enriqueta; Kurt, Tutku; Schmidt, Udo; Meyer, Vera; Garbe, Leif-Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases have long been recognized as potential biocatalyst for production of chiral fine and bulk chemicals. They are relevant for industry in enantiospecific production of chiral compounds. In this study, we identified and purified a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SdcA) from Rhodococcus erythropolis oxidizing γ-lactols into γ-lactones. SdcA showed broad substrate specificity on γ-lactols; secondary aliphatic alcohols with 8 and 10 carbon atoms were also substrates and oxidized with (2S)-stereospecificity. The enzyme exhibited moderate stability with a half-life of 5 h at 40 °C and 20 days at 4 °C. Mass spectrometric identification revealed high sequence coverage of SdcA amino acid sequence to a highly conserved catalase from R. erythropolis. The corresponding encoding gene was isolated from genomic DNA and subsequently overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 DE3 cells. In addition, the recombinant SdcA was purified and characterized in order to confirm that the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase activity correspond to the same enzyme.

  4. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can force you to use your quick-relief medicine more often. Smoking can disturb your sleep by making you cough more at night. Smoking can affect how well you do in sports or other physical activities. Worst of all, smoking can send you ...

  5. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  6. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  7. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  8. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  9. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  10. Reduced toxicological activity of cigarette smoke by the addition of ammonia magnesium phosphate to the paper of an electrically heated cigarette: subchronic inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed

    Moennikes, O; Vanscheeuwijck, P M; Friedrichs, B; Anskeit, E; Patskan, G J

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex chemical mixture that causes a variety of diseases, such as lung cancer. With the electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), temperatures are applied to the tobacco below those found in conventional cigarettes, resulting in less combustion, reduced yields of some smoke constituents, and decreased activity in some standard toxicological tests. The first generation of electrically heated cigarettes (EHC) also resulted in increased formaldehyde yields; therefore, a second generation of EHC was developed with ammonium magnesium phosphate (AMP) in the cigarette paper in part to address this increase. The toxicological activity of mainstream smoke from these two generations of EHC and of a conventional reference cigarette was investigated in two studies in rats: a standard 90-day inhalation toxicity study and a 35-day inhalation study focusing on lung inflammation. Many of the typical smoke exposure-related changes were found to be less pronounced after exposure to smoke from the second-generation EHC with AMP than to smoke from the first-generation EHC or the conventional reference cigarette, when compared on a particulate matter or nicotine basis. Differences between the EHC without AMP and the conventional reference cigarette were not as prominent. Overall, AMP incorporated in the EHC cigarette paper reduced the inhalation toxicity of the EHCSS more than expected based on the observed reduction in aldehyde yields.

  11. Driving kids to smoke? Children's reported exposure to smoke in cars and early smoking initiation.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Scragg, Robert; Min, Sandar; Kira, Anette; Nosa, Vili; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris

    2011-11-01

    The health risks associated with second hand smoke (SHS) are well-known. However, little is known about exposure to SHS in cars and risk of smoking uptake. This paper investigates the association between pre-adolescents reported exposure to smoking in cars and prevalence of early stage smoking activity. Data from Keeping Kids Smokefree baseline surveys of students were used to investigate smoking status and reported exposure to smoking in cars. Log binomial regression analyses were used to investigate if reported exposure to SHS in cars was associated with smoking prevalence. 83% of 5676 students invited took part. After controlling for all variables reported exposure to smoking in cars and homes were significantly associated with increased risk of initiated smoking (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.43-2.44, and RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.13-1.97, respectively). Exposure to smoking in cars was substantially and significantly associated with risk of current smoking (RR 3.21, 95% CI 1.45-7.08). Early smoking uptake is associated with students' reported exposure to smoking in cars which confirms the importance of protecting children from SHS. Smoking in cars is under parental control and therefore modifiable. Moreover, children's reports of SHlS exposure offer a simple way of identifying families who can be targeted for tobacco control interventions.

  12. Smoking Cessation

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2017 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2017 ...

  13. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2017 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2017 ...

  14. Wood Smoke

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  15. Asia Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Smoke from Asian Fires Traverses the Pacific     View Larger Image ... moved eastwards over the northern portion of the Pacific Ocean, the thickness of the smoke passing over an area south of the Aleutian ...

  16. Teen Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... or product placement in movies that create the perception that smoking is glamorous and more prevalent than ... org/healthy-lifestyle/tween-and-teen-health/in-depth/teen-smoking/art-20047069 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  17. Influence of fermentation conditions on specific activity of the enzymes alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase from yeasts.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, J C; Ortega, J M

    1993-01-01

    The effects of anaerobic, semi-aerobic and short aeration fermentation conditions and the addition of ergosterol and oleic acid to musts on the specific activity of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH and ALDH) from two yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii, were studied. ADH I biosynthesis only occurred during the first few hours of fermentation. ADH II from S. cerevisiae and ALDH-NADP+ from the two yeast species behaved as constitutive enzymes under all fermentation conditions. ADH II from T. delbrueckii was only synthesized in small amounts, and its activity was always lower than in S. cerevisiae, where it was responsible for the termination of alcoholic fermentation during the steady growth phase.

  18. Chronic Alcohol Intoxication Is Not Accompanied by an Increase in Calpain Proteolytic Activity in Cardiac Muscle of Rats.

    PubMed

    Gritsyna, Yu V; Salmov, N N; Bobylev, A G; Fadeeva, I S; Fesenko, N I; Sadikova, D G; Kukushkin, N I; Podlubnaya, Z A; Vikhlyantsev, I M

    2017-02-01

    Enzymatic activity of Ca2+-dependent calpain proteases as well as the content and gene expression of μ-calpain (activated by micromolar calcium ion concentrations), calpastatin (inhibitor of calpains), and titin (substrate for calpains) were investigated in cardiac muscles of rats subjected to chronic