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Sample records for activity smoking status

  1. Spatial and sustained attention in relation to smoking status: behavioural performance and brain activation patterns.

    PubMed

    Vossel, Simone; Warbrick, Tracy; Mobascher, Arian; Winterer, Georg; Fink, Gereon R

    2011-11-01

    Nicotine enhances attentional functions. Since chronic nicotine exposure through smoking induces neuroadaptive changes in the brain at a structural and molecular level, the present functional MRI (fMRI) study aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms underlying visuospatial and sustained attention in smokers and non-smokers. Visuospatial attention was assessed with a location-cueing paradigm, while sustained attention was measured by changes in response speed over time. During invalid trials, neural activity within the basal forebrain was selectively enhanced in smokers and higher basal forebrain activity was associated with increased parietal cortex activation. Moreover, higher levels of expired carbon monoxide in smokers before scanning were associated with higher parietal cortex activation and faster responses to invalidly cued targets. Smokers showed a slowing of responses and additionally recruited an area within the right supramarginal gyrus with increasing time on task. Activity decreases over time were observed in visual areas in smokers. The data provide evidence for altered attentional functions in smokers as compared with non-smokers, which were partly modulated by residual nicotine levels and were observed at a behavioural level for sustained and at a neural level for spatial and sustained attention.

  2. Smoking status and the practice of other unhealthy behaviors.

    PubMed

    Revicki, D; Sobal, J; DeForge, B

    1991-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between smoking behavior and other unhealthy practices in the US. Data from the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences were used to compare alcohol use, sleep behavior, overweight status, physical activity, and skipping breakfast with smoking status. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers were more likely to sleep fewer than six hours per night, skip breakfast, not actively exercise, and drink heavily. Smokers were less likely to be significantly overweight than former smokers or those who never smoked. These associations were present for both men and women for sleep behavior, skipping breakfast, overweight status, and alcohol use, but not for physical activity. These findings may assist physicians in understanding the association between smoking and other practices that influence morbidity and mortality.

  3. Antioxidant status of neonates exposed in utero to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Fayol, L; Gulian, J M; Dalmasso, C; Calaf, R; Simeoni, U; Millet, V

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the influence of maternal smoke exposure on neonatal and maternal antioxidant status, 39 mothers who were active smokers, 14 mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 17 controls, and their newborns were included in a prospective, controlled study. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, measured as total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and concentrations of specific antioxidants were measured in cord and in maternal blood. A similar, significant increase in ceruloplasmin concentration was observed in neonates born to actively smoking mothers and in those born to ETS exposed mothers. Uric acid and TRAP concentrations were significantly increased in ETS-exposed newborns and their mothers, compared to newborns and mothers from the active smoking and no-exposure groups with a trend towards increased uric acid, TRAP and FRAP concentrations being observed in the active smokers group. Neonatal and maternal antioxidant concentrations correlated significantly, except for ceruloplasmin. Cord blood vitamin A, E and C concentrations were unaffected by smoke exposure. These results show that maternal active smoking as well as ETS exposure significantly affect neonatal and maternal antioxidant status. PMID:15539769

  4. [Midwives and smoking--attitudes, smoking status and counselling competence in the course of training].

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, K; Laux, M; Koch, F; Groneberg, D A; Kusma, B; Schwarz, C; Pankow, W; Mache, S

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major public health threat. Midwives can contribute to the reduction of tobacco use among pregnant women and young families. It can be assumed that personal smoking behaviour and knowledge of harmful effects influences counselling activities. The aim of this study was to assess smoking status, nicotine dependency and the will to change of midwifery students in german-speaking countries. Broad data on this population is not available so far. In 2010, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among Austrian, German and Swiss midwifery schools. Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking habits, personal attitudes towards smoking, knowledge of cessation strategies, perceived self-efficacy and competence to counsel pregnant women regarding their smoking habits of midwifery trainees were examined. 1 126 students and 38 teaching midwives answered this questionnaire (RR=61.8%). 22.7% are daily or occasional smokers. 6.8% have to be considered as medium and heavy smokers. 98.1% consider cessation counselling for pregnant and breast-feeding women as a midwife's task, while 76.5% feel competent enough to do so. 75.5% rate cessation counselling through midwives as effective stop-smoking procedures compared to blurry knowledge on related health risks and effective stop-smoking strategies. The self-reported smoking prevalence is considerably lower than in previous studies and other populations. Knowledge of harmful effects and of effective treatment options needs improvement. Counselling competence needs to be included in a broader way in midwifery curricula.

  5. Plasma antioxidant status in healthy smoking and non-smoking men.

    PubMed

    Goraca, A; Skibska, B

    2005-01-01

    Human serum contains many different antioxidants which may be important in the maintenance of an antioxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between lipid peroxidation and total plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy smoking and non-smoking young and elderly subjects. Plasma concetrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were detected by HPLC. Additionally, in the in vitro experiments, the effects of exogenous compounds (ascorbic acid, uric acid, Trolox) on total ferric reducing activity of plasma were tested. We demonstrated that total antioxidant capacity of plasma obtained from healthy non-smoking young subjects was significantly higher than plasma antioxidant capacity of smoking elderly subjects. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (p < 0.001) in young non-smoking volunteers was lower than that in young smokers. The concentration of TBARS in elderly non-smoking volunteers was lower than in elderly smokers. Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were significantly lower in elderly smokers than in elderly non-smokers of same age. No difference in plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were found in 22-year-old smoking and non-smoking subjects. In vitro addition of ascorbic acid, uric acid, or Trolox to plasma samples significantly increased their total antioxidant capacity. Decrease of FRAP values and increase of TBARS concentra-' tions is a significant physiologic condition of aging process. Supplementation of antioxidants could be useful for the enhancement of plasma antioxidant status (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref: 35).

  6. [Passive smoking--active killer].

    PubMed

    Palavra, Irena Rojnić; Franelić, Iva Pejnović; Milanović, Sanja Musić; Puljić, Kresimir

    2013-01-01

    Although still not perceived in this way, passive smoking is a public health issue of great importance. World Health Organization estimates that as a result of passive exposure to tobacco smoke each year 600,000 people die, of which 165,000 children. There are 33% of men, 35% of women and 40% of children who do not smoke, but are exposed to second hand smoke, and still only 11% of the world population is protected by adequate smoke-free legislation. Scientific literature provides evidence that passive exposure to tobacco smoke can result in numerous adverse health effects: asthma and allergies, respiratory infections and (middle) ear infections, cancers of various localization, accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, retardation of growth and development in children, and in pregnancy it can lead to congenital anomalies and premature birth as well as lower body weight and length of the child. Certainly, the scariest consequence of all is sudden infant death syndrome, also called "death in the crib". Smoke-free policies have proven their effectiveness, but while implementing the laws, it is necessary to raise public awareness of the hazards of, both active and passive, exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:24490334

  7. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate

  8. Socioeconomic status and smoking: a review.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Bauld, Linda; Amos, Amanda; Fidler, Jennifer A; Munafò, Marcus

    2012-02-01

    Smoking prevalence is higher among disadvantaged groups, and disadvantaged smokers may face higher exposure to tobacco's harms. Uptake may also be higher among those with low socioeconomic status (SES), and quit attempts are less likely to be successful. Studies have suggested that this may be the result of reduced social support for quitting, low motivation to quit, stronger addiction to tobacco, increased likelihood of not completing courses of pharmacotherapy or behavioral support sessions, psychological differences such as lack of self-efficacy, and tobacco industry marketing. Evidence of interventions that work among lower socioeconomic groups is sparse. Raising the price of tobacco products appears to be the tobacco control intervention with the most potential to reduce health inequalities from tobacco. Targeted cessation programs and mass media interventions can also contribute to reducing inequalities. To tackle the high prevalence of smoking among disadvantaged groups, a combination of tobacco control measures is required, and these should be delivered in conjunction with wider attempts to address inequalities in health. PMID:22092035

  9. Smoking prevalence and factors associated with smoking status among Vietnamese in California

    PubMed Central

    Gildengorin, G.; Nguyen, T.; Tsoh, J.; Modayil, M.; Wong, C.; McPhee, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Vietnamese American men have smoking prevalence rates higher than the general population. We analyzed Vietnamese American smoking behavior by demographic and health-related factors, including some specific to Vietnamese, in the largest tobacco-specific survey yet targeting the Vietnamese population. Methods: Using a statewide surname probability sample and computer-assisted telephone interviewing, we surveyed 1,101 Vietnamese men and 1,078 Vietnamese women in California (63.5% participation among successfully contacted eligible individuals) in 2007–2008. We conducted multivariate regression models to analyze the association between Vietnamese male smoking status and demographic and health-related factors. Results: Among women, <1% were current smokers and <2% were former smokers. Among men, 25% were current and 24% were former smokers. Regression models for Vietnamese men delineated factors associated with both current and former smoking (vs. never smoking): being married, being employed, having lower educational attainment, and consuming alcohol. Other factors associated with current smoking (vs. never smoking) were having no health insurance, having seen a Vietnamese doctor or no doctor visit in the past year, having Vietnamese military or Vietnamese reeducation camp experience, having less knowledge about the harms of smoking, and reporting higher depression symptoms. Increasing age and not being Buddhist were associated with former (vs. never) smoking. Discussion: Smoking patterns of Vietnamese women and Vietnamese men are significantly different from the general California population. Tobacco control efforts targeting Vietnamese men should include community outreach since current smokers have low health care access, utilization, and knowledge. PMID:20488931

  10. Characterising the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of aboriginal health workers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Maksimovic, Lauren; Paquet, Catherine; Daniel, Mark; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Lekkas, Peter; Cargo, Margaret

    2013-12-13

    The study objectives were to characterise the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) in South Australia (SA), Australia; and identify the psychosocial, socio-demographic, and household smoking characteristics that distinguish smokers from quitters and never smokers. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was completed by AHWs in SA. Non-parametric statistics were used for inferential analyses. Eighty-five AHWs completed surveys representing a response rate of 63.0%. The prevalence of current smokers was 50.6%. Non-smokers (49.5%) included quitters (22.4%) and never smokers (27.1%). Smoking status did not differ by gender or geographic location. Of current smokers, 69.0% demonstrated a readiness to quit and 50.0% had made at least one quit attempt in the last 12 months. Compared to quitters and never smokers, current smokers expressed lower emotional wellbeing, and three times as many resided with another smoker. Quitters had the highest levels of perceived social support and part-time employment. A high proportion of AHWs who smoke desire, and are ready to quit. Individual, social and household factors differentiated smokers from non-smokers and quitters. Social support, and relationships and structures that favour social support, are implicated as necessary to enable AHWs who smoke to act on their desire to quit smoking.

  11. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Nondaily and Daily Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Nguyen, Nga; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore associations between subjective social status (SSS) and smoking level among 2274 adult current smokers. Methods Associations were investigated using a covariate-adjusted proportional odds cumulative logit model. Moderation (via race/ethnicity or sex) and mediation (via depressive symptoms, social/emotional support, or life satisfaction) were explored in additional models. Results Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily versus light daily or moderate/ heavy daily smoking (p = .017). Life satisfaction partially mediated the association of SSS and smoking level (p = .003). Conclusions Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily relative to light daily or moderate to heavy smoking, potentially via greater life satisfaction. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24629553

  12. [Thirdhand smoke: current research status and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Hang, Bo; Cheng, Senping; Xia, Yankai; Mao, Jianhua

    2015-04-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) is defined as residual tobacco components that remain on indoor surfaces after tobacco has been smoked, such as walls furniture, and dust particles, which are re-emitted into the air. THS also includes secondary pollutants generated from the reaction of surface residual smoke compounds with reactive indoor air pollutants. THS is a new hidden health hazard, with infants and children being most at risk of higher exposure. This article summarized the aging process of secondhand smoke and the mechanism of generation of THS; reviewed the current status of research on THS regarding its chemical constituents, physical and chemical properties, biological toxicity, as well as degree of pollution in China and other countries; and finally provided the perspectives on the future study of THS.

  13. Working Memory-Related Neural Activity Predicts Future Smoking Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Loughead, James; Wileyto, E Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; Falcone, Mary; Hopson, Ryan; Gur, Ruben; Lerman, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Brief abstinence from smoking impairs cognition, particularly executive function, and this has a role in relapse to smoking. This study examined whether working memory-related brain activity predicts subsequent smoking relapse above and beyond standard clinical and behavioral measures. Eighty treatment-seeking smokers completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions (smoking satiety vs 24 h abstinence challenge) during performance of a visual N-back task. Brief counseling and a short-term quit attempt followed. Relapse during the first 7 days was biochemically confirmed by the presence of the nicotine metabolite cotinine. Mean percent blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change was extracted from a priori regions of interest: bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial frontal/cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Signal from these brain regions and additional clinical measures were used to model outcome status, which was then validated with resampling techniques. Relapse to smoking was predicted by increased withdrawal symptoms, decreased left DLPFC and increased PCC BOLD percent signal change (abstinence vs smoking satiety). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated 81% area under the curve using these predictors, a significant improvement over the model with clinical variables only. The combination of abstinence-induced decreases in left DLPFC activation and reduced suppression of PCC may be a prognostic marker for poor outcome, specifically early smoking relapse. PMID:25469682

  14. Husband's smoking status and breast cancer risk in Japan: From the Takayama study.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keiko; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Hori, Akihiro; Takeyama, Naoharu; Tanabashi, Shinobu; Matsushita, Shogen; Tokimitsu, Naoki; Nagata, Chisato

    2015-04-01

    The effects of smoking on breast cancer remain unclear. We assessed the associations of subjects' or husbands' smoking status with breast cancer incidence in a population-based prospective study in Japan. The subjects were 15 719 women aged 35 years or older. The follow up was conducted from September 1992 to March 2008. Cancer incidence was mainly confirmed through regional population-based cancer registries. Breast cancer was defined as code C50 according to the International Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th Revision. Lifestyle, including smoking status, was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. After multivariate adjustments for age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity, education, age at menarche, age at first delivery, menopausal status, number of children and history of hormone replacement therapy, active smoking was not associated with the risk of breast cancer. Compared with never smokers whose husband had never smoked, the risks of breast cancer were 1.98 (95% CI: 1.03-3.84) among never smokers whose husband was a current smoker of 21 cigarettes per day or more. The increased risk of breast cancer among women having a smoking husband was pronounced among those who did not habitually consume alcohol. These results suggest that exposure to smoke from husbands is a potential risk factor for breast cancer. The impact of alcohol consumption on the increased breast cancer risk from passive smoking needs to be addressed in further studies.

  15. Gender differences in personality patterns and smoking status after a smoking cessation treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lack of conclusive results and the scarce use of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) in the study of the relationship between smoking and personality are the reasons that motivated the study reported here. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of personality patterns, assessed with the MCMI-III, and of nicotine dependence on treatment outcomes at the end of the treatment and at 12 months follow-up in men and women smokers receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Methods The sample was made up of 288 smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Personality patterns were assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Abstinence at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up was validated with the test for carbon monoxide in expired air. Results The results showed significant differences by personality patterns that predict nicotine dependence (Narcissistic and Antisocial in men and Schizoid in women). At the end of the treatment it is more likely that quit smoking males with a Compulsive pattern and less likely in those scoring high in Depressive, Antisocial, Sadistic, Negativistic, Masochistic, Schizotypal and Borderline. In women, it is less likely that quit smoking those with the Schizoid pattern. At 12 months follow-up it is more likely that continue abstinent those males with a high score in the Compulsive pattern. Furthermore, nicotine dependence was an important variable for predicting outcome at the end of the treatment and smoking status at 12 months follow-up in both men and women. Conclusions We found substantial differences by gender in some personality patterns in a sample of smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. We should consider the existence of different personality patterns in men and women who seek treatment for smoking cessation. PMID:23565918

  16. Mayo clinic NLP system for patient smoking status identification.

    PubMed

    Savova, Guergana K; Ogren, Philip V; Duffy, Patrick H; Buntrock, James D; Chute, Christopher G

    2008-01-01

    This article describes our system entry for the 2006 I2B2 contest "Challenges in Natural Language Processing for Clinical Data" for the task of identifying the smoking status of patients. Our system makes the simplifying assumption that patient-level smoking status determination can be achieved by accurately classifying individual sentences from a patient's record. We created our system with reusable text analysis components built on the Unstructured Information Management Architecture and Weka. This reuse of code minimized the development effort related specifically to our smoking status classifier. We report precision, recall, F-score, and 95% exact confidence intervals for each metric. Recasting the classification task for the sentence level and reusing code from other text analysis projects allowed us to quickly build a classification system that performs with a system F-score of 92.64 based on held-out data tests and of 85.57 on the formal evaluation data. Our general medical natural language engine is easily adaptable to a real-world medical informatics application. Some of the limitations as applied to the use-case are negation detection and temporal resolution.

  17. Effect of bacoside A on brain antioxidant status in cigarette smoke exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Anbarasi, K; Vani, G; Balakrishna, K; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2006-02-16

    Free radicals mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases and antioxidant nutrients are reported to prevent the oxidative damage induced by smoking. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant role of bacoside A (triterpenoid saponin isolated from Bacopa monniera) against chronic cigarette smoking induced oxidative damage in rat brain. Adult male albino rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for a period of 12 weeks and simultaneously administered with bacoside A (10 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.). Antioxidant status of the brain was assessed from the levels of reduced glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, and vitamin A and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The levels of copper, iron, zinc and selenium in brain and serum ceruloplasmin activity were also measured. Oxidative stress was evident from the diminished levels of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Alterations in the levels of trace elements with accumulation of copper and iron, and depletion of zinc and selenium were also observed. Bacoside A administration improved the antioxidant status and maintained the levels of trace elements. These results suggest that chronic cigarette smoke exposure enhances oxidative stress, thereby disturbing the tissue defense system and bacoside A protects the brain from the oxidative damage through its antioxidant potential.

  18. Association between metabolic syndrome, smoking status and coronary artery calcification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Ah; Kang, Sung-Goo; Song, Sang-Wook; Rho, Jun-Seung; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC), an indicator of coronary artery stenosis, is an independent risk factor of ischemic heart disease. Smoking increases the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular disease. Almost no previous studies have evaluated the combined effect of MS and smoking status on CAC. Therefore, in this study we examined the relationships between CAC, MS, and smoking. This study included 775 adult males without histories of cardiovascular disease who visited the Health Promotion Center at the University Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea from January 2, 2010 to December 31, 2012. All subjects were screened for CAC by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). CAC increased significantly with age and body mass index (BMI). Among MS components, abdominal obesity and elevated fasting blood glucose were correlated with CAC. After adjusting for age and BMI, MS was associated with a 1.46-fold increase in CAC (95% CI:1.02-2.09), abdominal obesity was associated with a 1.45-fold increase (95% CI:1.04-2.04), elevated fasting blood glucose was associated with a 2-fold increase (95% CI:1.36-2.94), and MS and smoking combined were associated with 2.44-fold increase in CAC. Thus, the combination of smoking and MS had a greater impact on CAC than any single factor alone. MS is correlated with an increased risk of CAC, and a combination of MS and smoking is associated with even greater risk. These findings can be used to prevent cardiovascular disease in adults.

  19. Smoking, educational status and health inequity in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev

    2006-07-01

    Health related behaviours, especially smoking and tobacco use, are major determinants of health and lead to health inequities. Smoking leads to acute respiratory diseases, tuberculosis and asthma in younger age groups and non communicable diseases such as chronic lung disease, cardiovascular diseases and cancer in middle and older age. We observed an inverse association of educational status with tobacco use (smoking and other forms) in western Indian State of Rajasthan. In successive cross-sectional epidemiological studies- the Jaipur Heart Watch (JHW)- in rural (JHWR; n=3148, men=1982), and urban subjects: JHW-1 (n=2212, men=1415), JHW-2 (n=1124, men=550) and JHW-3 (n=458, men=226), we evaluated various cardiovascular risk factors. The greatest tobacco consumption was observed among the illiterate and low educational status subjects (nil, 1-5, 6-10, >10 yr of formal education) as compared to more literate in men (JHW-R 60, 51, 46 and 36% respectively; JHW-1 44, 52, 30 and 18% JHW-2 54, 43, 29 and 24%; and JHW-3 50, 27, 25 and 25%) as well as women (Mantel Haenzel test, P for trend <0.05). In the illiterate subjects the odds ratios (OR) and 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI) for smoking or tobacco use as compared to the highest educational groups in rural (men OR 2.68, CI 2.02, 3.57; women OR 3.13, CI 1.22, 8.08) as well as larger urban studies- JHW-1 (men OR 2.47, CI 1.70, 3.60; women OR 13.78, CI 3.35, 56.75) and JHW-2 (men OR 3.81; CI 1.90, 7.66; women OR 13.73, CI 1.84, 102.45) were significantly greater (P<0.01). Smoking significantly correlated with prevalence of coronary heart disease and hypertension. Other recent Indian studies and national surveys report similar associations. Health ethicists argue that good education and health lead to true development in an underprivileged society. We propose that improving educational status, a major social determinant of health, can lead to appropriate health related behaviours and prevent the epidemics of non

  20. Who is Most Susceptible to Movie Smoking Effects? Exploring the Impacts of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Lewis, Valerie; Tanski, Susanne; Sargent, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study assesses how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) modify the relationship between exposure to movie smoking and having tried smoking in adolescents. Design Data come from a cross-sectional telephone survey and were analyzed using logistic regression models. A respondent reporting ever having tried smoking was regressed on exposure to movie smoking, race, socioeconomic status, the interactions of these variables, and family and background characteristics. Setting National sample of US adolescents. Participants 3653 respondents aged 13–18 years. Measurements Outcome was if subjects reported ever having tried smoking. Movie smoking exposure was assessed through respondents’ reporting having watched a set of movie titles, which were coded for smoking instances. Findings The proportion having tried smoking was lower for Blacks (0.32) compared to Hispanics (0.41) and Whites (0.38). The relationship between movie smoking and having tried smoking varied by race/ethnicity. Among Whites and Hispanics exposure to movie smoking positively predicted smoking behavior, but movie smoking had no impact on Blacks. SES further modified the relation among Whites; high SES white adolescents were more susceptible to movie smoking than low SES white adolescents. Conclusions Exposure to movie smoking is not uniformly experienced as a risk factor for having ever tried smoking among U.S. adolescents. Whites and Hispanics are more likely to try smoking as a function of increased exposure to movie smoking. In addition, higher socioeconomic status increases susceptibility to movie smoking among Whites. Youth with fewer risk factors may be more influenced by media messages on smoking. PMID:22724674

  1. Smoking Status and Intention to Quit: The Role of Affective Associations and Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Marks, Anthony D. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how affective associations with smoking and outcome expectancies regarding smoking are related to smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Researchers and practitioners can draw on findings regarding affective associations and outcome expectancies to provide a further basis for smoking…

  2. The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

    UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in the smoking areas compared to the non-smoking areas of pubs that contained both smoking and non-smoking sections. Median concentrations of RSP and nicotine were reduced by 18% and 68%, respectively, in non-smoking areas. UVPM, FPM and SolPM median concentrations were reduced by 27%, 34% and 39%, demonstrating the increased tobacco-specificity of the particulate markers and the impact of non-smoking areas. Levels of particulate phase ETS markers were also found to be higher in the smoking sections of pubs that allowed smoking throughout compared to the smoking sections of pubs with other areas where smoking was prohibited. The presence of a non-smoking section has the effect of reducing concentrations even in the smoking areas. This may be caused by migration of smoke into the non-smoking section thereby diluting the smoking area or by smokers tending to avoid pubs with non-smoking areas thus reducing source strengths in the smoking areas of these pubs. Nicotine concentrations were not found to be significantly different in smoking areas of the two types of establishment indicating that nicotine is not as mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that

  3. Smoking habits and coenzyme Q10 status in healthy European adults

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Alexandra; Onur, Simone; Paulussen, Michael; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipophilic endogenously synthesised antioxidant that is present in nearly all human tissues and plays an important role in mitochondrial energy production. It has been postulated that smoking has a consumptive effect on CoQ10. Material and methods To further define the relation between smoking and the serum CoQ10 status, 276 healthy volunteers aged 19 to 62 years were grouped into non-smokers (n = 113; 77 male, 36 female) and smokers (n = 163; 102 male, 61 female). Serum lipid profile was analysed by standard clinical chemistry. Coenzyme Q10 concentration and redox status were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Results Male smokers showed higher serum CoQ10 levels than female smokers. This sex-related difference was accounted for when CoQ10 was related to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as the main carrier of CoQ10 in the circulation. Neither LDL-adjusted CoQ10 concentration nor redox status significantly differed when smokers and non-smokers were compared. Regarding the smoking history, the number of cigarettes consumed per day did not significantly affect the CoQ10 status. Interestingly, with increasing time of smoking habit we observed increasing levels of LDL-adjusted serum CoQ10 concentration (Spearman's p < 0.002) and of the reduced form of CoQ10 (Spearman's p < 0.0001). Conclusions As an adaptive response to oxidative stress in long-term smokers an increased demand for antioxidant capacity may be covered by increasing levels of LDL-adjusted CoQ10 serum concentrations and by a concomitantly increased availability of the reduced, active form of CoQ10, possibly by induction of enzymes that are involved in converting CoQ10ox to CoQ10red. PMID:27478450

  4. Active Smoking, Passive Smoking, and Breast Cancer Risk: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yingsong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Kondo, Takaaki; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Nishio, Kazuko; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan; Yamamoto, Akio; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Mori, Mitsuru; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence is lacking regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and breast cancer in Japanese women. We examined the association between breast cancer incidence and active and passive smoking in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk. Methods Our study comprised 34,401 women aged 40-79 years who had not been diagnosed previously with breast cancer and who provided information on smoking status at baseline (1988-1990). The subjects were followed from enrollment until December 31, 2001. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between breast cancer incidence and tobacco smoke. Results During 271,412 person-years of follow-up, we identified 208 incident cases of breast cancer. Active smoking did not increase the risk of breast cancer, with a HR for current smokers of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.32-1.38). Furthermore, an increased risk of breast cancer was not observed in current smokers who smoked a greater number of cigarettes each day. Overall, passive smoking at home or in public spaces was also not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among nonsmokers. Women who reported passive smoking during childhood had a statistically insignificant increase in risk (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.84-1.85), compared with those who had not been exposed during this time. Conclusion Smoking may not be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in this cohort of Japanese women. PMID:18403857

  5. The relationship between cigarette smoking and education revisited: implications for categorizing persons' educational status.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, B P; Giovino, G A; Mowery, P D; Eriksen, M P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to reassess the relationship between cigarette smoking and education. METHODS: Data from the 1983 to 1991 National Health Interview Survey for participants aged 25 years and older were used to plot the prevalence of current smoking, ever smoking, heavy smoking, and smoking cessation, as well as the adjusted log odds ratios, by years of education. RESULTS: The "less than high school graduate" category consisted of two groups with distinct smoking patterns: persons with 0 to 8 years and persons with 9 to 11 years of education. The latter were the most likely to be current, ever, and heavy smokers and the least likely to have quit smoking, whereas the former were similar to persons having 12 years of education. After 11 years of education, the likelihood of smoking decreased and that of smoking cessation increased with each successive year of education. These results persisted after the statistical adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, poverty status, employment status, marital status, geographic region, and year of survey. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between smoking and education is not monotonic. Thus, when evaluating smoking in relation to education, researchers should categorize years of education as follows: 0 to 8, 9 to 11, 12, 13 to 15, and 16 or more years. PMID:8916524

  6. Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Guitérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Seguí-Gómez, María; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between smoking, changes in smoking, and quality of life in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. Smoking habits were self-reported at baseline and four years later. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) at year 4. Statistical differences in SF-36 scores between groups were determined using ANCOVA with age and sex as covariates. Out of 5,234 eligible participants over 2000–2006, there were 2,639 non-smoker participants, 1,419 ex-smokers, and 1,048 smokers. Within the previous four years, 435 participants became recent quitters and 205 starters. Comparing smoking and health status in year 4, non-smokers showed better scores than the other categories of ever smoking in all dimensions except in the vitality scale value, which was similar in non-smokers and in those smoking less than 15 cigarettes/day. Comparing changes in smoking and health in year 4, continuing smokers had statistically significant worse scores than non-smokers in general health, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health, whereas recent quitters showed statistically significant improvements in role-emotional and mental health over those who had continued smoking or those who became smokers. Our findings support a dose-response relationship between cigarette consumption and a worse quality of life in general and mental health in particular. They also support that changes in smoking have an impact on health. PMID:19440285

  7. Smoking status, changes in smoking status and health-related quality of life: findings from the SUN ("Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra") cohort.

    PubMed

    Guitérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Seguí-Gómez, María; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between smoking, changes in smoking, and quality of life in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. Smoking habits were self-reported at baseline and four years later. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) at year 4. Statistical differences in SF-36 scores between groups were determined using ANCOVA with age and sex as covariates. Out of 5,234 eligible participants over 2000-2006, there were 2,639 non-smoker participants, 1,419 ex-smokers, and 1,048 smokers. Within the previous four years, 435 participants became recent quitters and 205 starters. Comparing smoking and health status in year 4, non-smokers showed better scores than the other categories of ever smoking in all dimensions except in the vitality scale value, which was similar in non-smokers and in those smoking less than 15 cigarettes/day. Comparing changes in smoking and health in year 4, continuing smokers had statistically significant worse scores than non-smokers in general health, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health, whereas recent quitters showed statistically significant improvements in role-emotional and mental health over those who had continued smoking or those who became smokers. Our findings support a dose-response relationship between cigarette consumption and a worse quality of life in general and mental health in particular. They also support that changes in smoking have an impact on health.

  8. Understanding the relationship between socioeconomic status, smoking cessation services provided by the health system and smoking cessation behavior in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Thrasher, James F; Perez, Cristina; Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Fong, Geoffrey; Almeida, Liz Maria de

    2013-03-01

    Increasing the effectiveness of smoking cessation policies requires greater consideration of the cultural and socioeconomic complexities of smoking. The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between socioeconomic status and "selected midpoints" linked to smoking cessation in Brazil. Data was collected from a representative sample of urban adult smokers as part of the ITC-Brazil Survey (2009, N = 1,215). After controlling for age and gender, there were no statistically significant differences quit attempts in the last six months between individuals with different socioeconomic status. However, smokers with high socioeconomic status visited a doctor 1.54 times more often than those with low socioeconomic status (p-value = 0.017), and were also 1.65 times more likely to receive advice to quit smoking (p-value = 0.025). Our results demonstrate that disparities in health and socioeconomic status are still a major challenge for policymakers to increase the population impact of tobacco control actions worldwide.

  9. Support for no-smoking policies among residents of public multiunit housing differs by smoking status.

    PubMed

    Ballor, Douglas L; Henson, Heidi; MacGuire, Kathleen

    2013-12-01

    We compared perceptions of smoking and non-smoking Tacoma, WA multiunit public housing residents regarding smoke-free policies and in-home smoking rules. Two-hundred-twenty-nine completed surveys (~16% of units) of a modified version of the CDC's multiunit housing resident survey were analyzed. Smokers differed significantly (p < 0.05) from non-smokers with respect to agreement with policies that would ban smoking in homes (41% of smokers and 82% of non-smokers strongly agreed or agreed), in common indoor areas (74% of smokers and 82% of non-smokers strongly agreed or agreed), and for outdoor areas (38% of smokers and 68% of non-smokers strongly agreed or agreed). For in-home smoking rules, smokers and non-smokers again differed significantly (p < 0.05) with 53% of smokers and 90% of non-smokers not allowing smoking in their homes. Twenty-five percent of residents reported smelling secondhand smoke that infiltrated their residence from the outside on a daily basis. The most notable findings are that more than 50% of smokers do not allow smoking in their homes and that more than 50% of smokers are supportive of or neutral with respect to smoke-free policies for one's home. This suggests that implementation of smoke-free policies may not greatly impact vacancy rates even in populations with high rates of smoking (37% in this study).

  10. Active and Passive Smoking and the Incidence of Asthma in the Black Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Webb, Nelsy; Yu, Jeffrey; O’Connor, George T.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Evidence linking active or passive smoking to the incidence of adult-onset asthma is inconsistent with both positive and inverse associations being reported. Most previous studies of active smoking have not accounted for passive smoke exposure, which may have introduced bias. Objectives: To assess the separate associations of active and passive smoking to the incidence of adult-onset asthma in the U.S. Black Women’s Health Study, a prospective cohort of African American women followed since 1995 with mailed biennial questionnaires. Methods: Active smoking status was reported at baseline and updated on all follow-up questionnaires. Passive smoke exposure during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood was ascertained in 1997. Asthma cases comprised women who reported doctor-diagnosed asthma with concurrent asthma medication use. Cox regression models were used to derive multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for former and current smoking and for passive smoking among nonsmokers compared with a reference category of never active or passive smokers. Measurements and Main Results: Among 46,182 participants followed from 1995 to 2011, 1,523 reported incident asthma. The multivariable HRs for former active smoking, current active smoking, and passive smoking only were, respectively, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.11–1.67), 1.43 (95% CI, 1.15–1.77), and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.00–1.45), compared with never active/passive smoking. Conclusions: In this large population with 16 years of follow-up, active smoking increased the incidence of adult-onset asthma, and passive smoke exposure increased the risk among nonsmokers. Continued efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco smoke may have a beneficial effect on the incidence of adult-onset asthma. PMID:25387276

  11. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  12. Prevalence and Impact of Active and Passive Cigarette Smoking in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, S. Jean; Zhuo, Hanjing; Benowitz, Neal L.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Liu, Kathleen D.; Matthay, Michael A.; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoke exposure has recently been found to be associated with increased susceptibility to trauma- and transfusion-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We sought to determine 1) the prevalence of cigarette smoke exposure in a diverse multi-center sample of ARDS patients, and 2) whether cigarette smoke exposure is associated with severity of lung injury and mortality in ARDS. Design Analysis of the Albuterol for the Treatment of ALI (ALTA) and Omega ARDS Network studies. Setting Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network hospitals. Patients Three hundred eighty one patients with ARDS. Interventions None. Measurements NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol), a validated tobacco-specific marker, was measured in urine samples from subjects enrolled in two NHLBI ARDS Network randomized controlled trials. Main Results Urine NNAL levels were consistent with active smoking in 36% of ARDS patients and with passive smoking in 41% of nonsmokers (vs 20% and 40% in general population, respectively). Patients with NNAL levels in the active smoking range were younger and had a higher prevalence of alcohol misuse, fewer comorbidities, lower severity of illness, and less septic shock at enrollment compared to patients with undetectable NNAL levels. Despite this lower severity of illness, the severity of lung injury did not significantly differ based on biomarker-determined smoking status. Cigarette smoke exposure was not significantly associated with death after adjusting for differences in age, alcohol use, comorbidities, and severity of illness. Conclusions In this first multicenter study of biomarker-determined cigarette smoke exposure in ARDS patients, we found that active cigarette smoke exposure was significantly more prevalent among ARDS patients compared to population averages. Despite their younger age, better overall health, and lower severity of illness, smokers by NNAL had similar severity of lung injury as patients with

  13. Active and Passive Smoking and Fecundability in Danish Pregnancy Planners

    PubMed Central

    Radin, Rose G.; Hatch, Elizabeth E.; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Riis, Anders H.; Wise, Lauren A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the extent to which fecundability is associated with active smoking, time since smoking cessation, and passive smoking. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 2007–2011. Patients 3,773 female pregnancy planners aged 18–40 years. Intervention None. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported pregnancy. Fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using a proportional probabilities model that adjusted for menstrual cycle at risk and potential confounders. Results Among current smokers, smoking duration ≥10 years was associated with reduced fecundability compared with never smokers (FR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.72–1.00). Former smokers who had smoked ≥10 pack-years had reduced fecundability regardless of when they quit smoking (1–1.9 years FR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.54–1.27; ≥2 years FR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.53–1.02). Among never smokers, the FRs were 1.04 (95% CI: 0.89–1.21) for passive smoking in early life and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.82–1.03) for passive smoking in adulthood. Conclusions Among Danish pregnancy planners, cumulative exposure to active cigarette smoking was associated with delayed conception among current and former smokers. Time since smoking cessation and passive smoking were not appreciably associated with fecundability. PMID:24746741

  14. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R.; Goldman, N.; Pebley, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education, and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future. PMID:19367478

  15. Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Sean M.; Ali, Nawal N.; Margalit, Danielle N.; Chan, Annie W.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III-IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0-150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and former smokers (31% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of distant metastasis for patients with lifetime cumulative pack-years >20 and {<=}20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  16. The relationship between perceived exposure to promotional smoking messages and smoking status among high school students.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ronald J; Kelder, Steven H; Prokhorov, Alexander; Springer, Andrew E; Yacoubian, George S; Agurcia, Carolyn A; Amos, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Data on self-reported perceived exposure to pro-smoking messages were collected from 1,608 high school students surveyed through the ASPIRE (A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience) Program in Houston, Texas, in 2003. Results indicated that high school smoking quitters had approximately twice the odds of perceived exposure to pro-smoking messages as nonsmokers through billboard advertisements (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.81), newspapers & magazines (AOR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.56), and movies (AOR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.65). Smoking experimenters marginally perceived more exposure to pro-smoking radio messages (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.67) and billboard advertisements (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.61) compared to nonsmokers. Lastly, current smokers were 1.82 times as likely to report exposure to pro-smoking poster advertisements as nonsmokers (95% CI: 1.19, 2.79, p < or = .05). These findings suggest that experimenters and quitters may pay more attention to smoking advertisements than nonsmokers and current smokers. PMID:16966195

  17. Lung and Heart Diseases Are Better Predicted by Pack-Years than by Smoking Status or Duration of Smoking Cessation in HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raggi, Paolo; Gomes, André; Zona, Stefano; Marchi, Enrico; Santoro, Antonella; Besutti, Giulia; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Ligabue, Guido; Leipsic, Jonathon; Man, Paul; Sin, Don

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of pack-years smoking and time since smoking cessation with risk of lung and heart disease. Methods We investigated the history of lung and heart disease in 903 HIV-infected patients who had undergone thoracic computed tomography (CT) imaging stratified by smoking history. Multimorbidity lung and heart disease (MLHD) was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 clinical or subclinical lung abnormalities and at least one heart abnormality. Results Among 903 patients, 23.7% had never smoked, 28.7% were former smokers and 47.6% were current smokers. Spirometry indicated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 11.4% of patients and MLHD was present in 53.6%. Age, male sex, greater pack-years smoking history and smoking cessation less than 5 years earlier vs. more than 10 years earlier (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.27–5.29, p = 0.009) were independently associated with CT detected subclinical lung and heart disease. Pack-years smoking history was more strongly associated with MLHD than smoking status (p<0.001). Conclusions MLHD is common even among HIV-infected patients who never smoked and pack- years smoking history is a stronger predictor than current smoking status of MLHD. A detailed pack-years smoking history should be routinely obtained and smoking cessation strategies implemented. PMID:26650682

  18. Smoking Cessation and Socioeconomic Status: An Update of Existing Evidence from a National Evaluation of English Stop Smoking Services

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Dobbie, Fiona; Bauld, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Smokers from lower socioeconomic groups are less likely to be successful in stopping smoking than more affluent smokers, even after accessing cessation programmes. Data were analysed from 3057 clients of nine services. Routine monitoring data were expanded with CO validated smoking status at 52-week follow-up. Backwards logistic regression modelling was used to consider which factors were most important in explaining the relationship between SES and quitting. The odds ratio of stopping smoking among more affluent clients, compared with more disadvantaged clients, after taking into account design variables only, was 1.85 (95% CI 1.44 to 2.37) which declined to 1.44 (1.11 to 1.87) when all controls were included. The factors that explained more than 10% of the decline in the odds ratio were age, proportion of friends and family who smoked, nicotine dependence, and taking varenicline. A range of factors contribute to lower cessation rates for disadvantaged smokers. Some of these can be modified by improved smoking cessation service provision, but others require contributions from wider efforts to improve material, human, and social capital. PMID:26273602

  19. Adolescent Socioeconomic and School-Based Social Status, Smoking, and Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Relationships between subjective social status (SSS) and health-risk behaviors have received less attention than those between SSS and health. Inconsistent associations between school-based SSS and smoking or drinking might be because it is a single measure reflecting several status dimensions. We investigated how adolescent smoking and drinking are associated with “objective” socioeconomic status (SES), subjective SES, and three dimensions of school-based SSS. Methods Scottish 13–15 years-olds (N = 2,503) completed questionnaires in school-based surveys, providing information on: “objective” SES (residential deprivation, family affluence); subjective SES (MacArthur Scale youth version); and three school-based SSS dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”). We examined associations between each status measure and smoking (ever and weekly) and drinking (ever and usually five or more drinks) and investigated variations according to gender and age. Results Smoking and heavier drinking were positively associated with residential deprivation; associations with family affluence and subjective SES were weak or nonexistent. Both substances were related to each school-based SSS measure, and these associations were equally strong or stronger than those with deprivation. Although SSS-peer was positively associated with both smoking and (especially heavier) drinking, SSS-scholastic and SSS-sports were negatively associated with both substances. There were no gender differences in the associations and few according to age. Conclusions Subjective school-based status has stronger associations with adolescent smoking and drinking than “objective” or subjective SES. However, different dimensions of school-based status relate to adolescent smoking and drinking in opposing directions, meaning one measure based on several dimensions might show inconsistent relationships with adolescent substance use. PMID:26095407

  20. Smoking and Physical Activity in Healthy Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Asady, Hadi; Baikpour, Masoud; Barat, Atena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking and physical inactivity are two major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Not only these factors have a causal effect on NCDs, but they can also affect each other. This study aimed to assess the relationship between these factors as well as their effect on NCDs. Materials and Methods: A total of 2,602 healthy adults aged 30–60 years participated in this survey in 2010. Data on demographic characteristics, medical history, smoking status, physical activity and anthropometric measures including weight and height were collected and analyzed. The effect of smoking on physical activity was evaluated by logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Among demographic characteristics, only age (P<0.001) and educational level (P<0.001) had a significant association with smoking status. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers had an odds ratio of 4.88 (95% CI, 3.34–7.13) for having unsatisfactory physical activity. Conclusion: The present study showed that cigarette smoking negatively affects the quality of physical activity. PMID:27114725

  1. Toxicity of smoke to epiphytic ice nucleation-active bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zagory, D; Lindow, S E; Parmeter, J R

    1983-07-01

    Wheat straw smoke aerosols and liquid smoke condensates reduced significantly both the viability and the ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Erwinia herbicola in vitro and on leaf surfaces in vivo. Highly significant reductions in numbers of bacterial ice nuclei on the surface of both corn and almond were observed after exposure to smoke aerosols. At -5 degrees C, frost injury to corn seedlings colonized by ice nucleation-active bacteria was reduced after exposure to smoke aerosols. Effects on -9 degrees C ice nuclei, although significant, were less than on ice nuclei active at -5 degrees C. These results suggest that smoke from wildfires or smudge pots may reduce plant frost susceptibility and sources of ice nuclei important in other natural processes under some conditions. PMID:16346333

  2. Using NicAlert Strips to Validate Smoking Status Among Pregnant Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Gaalema, Diann E.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Bradstreet, Matthew P.; Heil, Sarah H.; Bernstein, Ira M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Decreasing smoking during pregnancy is an important public health priority. An important step towards decreasing smoking during pregnancy is wider dissemination of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions. One such intervention is contingency management wherein mothers earn vouchers exchangeable for retail items contingent on biochemically-verified smoking abstinence. Wider dissemination may be possible by using smoking verification methods that require minimal training and equipment. One possibility is to use a cotinine-sensitive dipstick (NicAlert) rather than a bench-top cotinine analyzer, which is expensive and requires relatively extensive technician expertise, or breath carbon monoxide analysis, which is relatively nonspecific. The present study was conducted to begin examining the utility of cotinine-sensitive dipsticks for this purpose. Methods Fifty urine samples from pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation program were analyzed to compare three different methods for verifying smoking status: NicAlert strips, a bench-top enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) analyzer, and gas chromatography (GC), the current gold standard for determining cotinine levels in urine. Results Agreement between GC and NicAlert results were high (96%) and comparable to agreement between GC and EMIT results (94%). Semi-quantitative measurements using NicAlert were low with only 30% of samples in agreement between GC and specific ranges given on the strips. Conclusions NicAlert strips appear to be a valid measure of determining smoking status among pregnant smokers although not of absolute cotinine concentration. With minimal training and equipment required, NicAlert strips provide a potentially practical method for using urine cotinine to verify smoking status in community treatment settings. PMID:21652155

  3. Smoking status moderates the contribution of social-cognitive and environmental determinants to adolescents' smoking intentions.

    PubMed

    Victoir, An; Eertmans, A; Van den Broucke, S; Van den Bergh, O

    2006-10-01

    In this study, it was tested whether attitudes, self-efficacy, social influences and the perception of the school and home environments had different associations with intentions for adolescent non-smokers, occasional smokers and daily smokers. A regression model allowing for separate slopes of social-cognitive and environment variables accounted for 72% of the variation in intentions. For non-smokers, ease of refusing to smoke (beta = -0.06) and social influences favouring smoking (beta = 0.05) were linked to intentions. Occasional and daily smokers' intentions were associated with health consequences (beta = -0.05 and beta = -0.06, respectively) and ease of smoking/buying cigarettes (beta = 0.05 and beta = 0.24, respectively). Social influences favouring smoking (beta = 0.10) were also associated with intentions in daily smokers. In an extended model for current smokers (adjusted R(2) = 0.45), context-cued nicotine cravings (beta = 0.27) were linked to daily smokers', but not occasional smokers' intentions. The results suggest that motivating adolescents to abstain from or to quit smoking implies working on different combinations of determinants in non-smokers, occasional smokers and daily smokers. Interventions for daily smokers should supplement motivational techniques with stratagems that allow smokers to reduce the number of cravings they experience in specific contexts.

  4. Increased chromosome fragility as a consequence of blood folate levels, smoking status, and coffee consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.T.L.; Reidy, J.A.; Annest, J.L.; Welty, T.K.; Zhou, H. )

    1989-01-01

    Chromosome fragility in 96 h, low-folate cultures was found to be associated with smoking status, coffee consumption, and blood folate level. The higher proportion of cells with chromosome aberrations in cigarette smokers was attributable to lower red cell folate levels in smokers compared with nonsmokers. There was a positive linear relationship between the average cups of coffee consumed per day and the proportion of cells with aberrations. This association was independent of the effects of smoking and red cell folate level. These data suggest that smoking history, coffee consumption, and red cell folate level are important considerations for the design and interpretation of fragile site studies in cancer cytogenetics.

  5. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  6. The Relationship of Diabetes and Smoking Status to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chien-Hsieh; Lu, Chia-Wen; Han, Hsieh-Cheng; Hung, Shou-Hung; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationship of diabetes and smoking status to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality is not clear. We aimed to investigate the association of smoking cessation relative to diabetes status with subsequent deaths from HCC. We followed up 51,164 participants (aged 44–94 years) without chronic hepatitis B or C from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2008 enrolled from nationwide health screening units in a prospective cohort study. The primary outcomes were deaths from HCC. During the study period, there were 253 deaths from HCC. History of diabetes was associated with deaths from HCC for both total participants (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08–4.23) and ever smokers with current or past smoking habits (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.10–3.34). Both never smokers (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.32–0.65) and quitters (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39–0.97) had a lower adjusted risk of HCC deaths compared with current smokers. Among all ever smokers with current or past smoking habits, as compared with diabetic smokers, only quitters without diabetes had a lower adjusted risk of HCC deaths (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18–0.78). However, quitters with diabetes were observed to have a similar risk of deaths from HCC when compared with smokers with diabetes. Regarding the interaction between diabetes and smoking status on adjusted HCC-related deaths, with the exception of quitters without history of diabetes, all groups had significantly higher HRs than nondiabetic never smokers. There was also a significant multiplicative interaction between diabetes and smoking status on risk of dying from HCC (P = 0.033). We suggest clinicians should promote diabetes prevention and never smoking to associate with reduced subsequent HCC mortality even in adults without chronic viral hepatitis. PMID:26871803

  7. Passive smoking, active smoking, and education: their relationship to weight history in women in Geneva.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, M; Morabia, A; Héritier, S; Katchatrian, N

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship of education and tobacco smoke to lifetime weight history in women. METHODS: Information on passive smoking, active smoking, and weight history was collected from 928 women aged 29 to 74 years selected from the general population of Geneva, Switzerland. Multivariate analysis of variance was performed for weight, weight at age 20, and weight changes since age 20. RESULTS: Education was inversely related to weight at age 20, current weight, and weight gain since age 20. The least educated group had a current weight of 4 kg more than the most educated group. Differences across smoking categories were small: passive smokers had the highest current weight (63.4 kg) and former active smokers had the lowest (60.4 kg). Weight gain since age 20 tended to be smaller in former and current active smokers (5.5 to 7.2 kg) than in passive smokers (8.3 to 10.4 kg) and those never exposed (9.1 kg). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, education was an important predictor of women's current weight and weight history. Passive and active smoking had little long-term effect on weight. PMID:8806379

  8. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  9. Cohort Life Tables By Smoking Status Removing Lung Cancer as a Cause of Death

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Marjorie A.; Feuer, Eric J.; Yu, Binbing; Sun, Jiafeng; Henley, S. Jane; Shanks, Thomas G.; Anderson, Christy M.; McMahon, Pam M.; Thun, Michael J.; Burns, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop life tables by smoking status removing lung cancer as a cause of death. These life tables are inputs to studies that compare the effectiveness of lung cancer treatments or interventions, and provide a way to quantify time until death from causes other than lung cancer. The study combined actuarial and statistical smoothing methods, as well as data from multiple sources, to develop separate life tables by smoking status, birth cohort, by single year of age, and by sex. For current smokers, separate life tables by smoking quintiles were developed based on the average number of cigarettes smoked per day by birth cohort. The end product is the creation of six non-lung cancer life tables for males and six tables for females: five current smoker quintiles and one for never smokers. Tables for former smokers are linear combinations of the appropriate table based on the current smoker quintile prior to quitting smoking and the never smoker probabilities, plus added covariates for the smoking quit age and time since quitting. PMID:22882890

  10. Biomarkers of Induced Active and Passive Smoking Damage

    PubMed Central

    Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the well-known link between smoking and lung cancer, large epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between smoking and cancers of the nose, oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, kidney, stomach, liver, colon and cervix, as well as myeloid leukemia. Epidemiological evidence has reported a direct link between exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke and disease, most notably, lung cancer. Much evidence demonstrates that carcinogenic-DNA adducts are useful markers of tobacco smoke exposure, providing an integrated measurement of carcinogen intake, metabolic activation, and delivery to the DNA in target tissues. Monitoring accessible surrogate tissues, such as white blood cells or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, also provides a means of investigating passive and active tobacco exposure in healthy individuals and cancer patients. Levels of DNA adducts measured in many tissues of smokers are significantly higher than in non-smokers. While some studies have demonstrated an association between carcinogenic DNA adducts and cancer in current smokers, no association has been observed in ex or never smokers. The role of genetic susceptibility in the development of smoking related-cancer is essential. In order to establish whether smoking-related DNA adducts are biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and/or its carcinogenic activity we summarized all data that associated tobacco smoke exposure and smoking-related DNA adducts both in controls and/or in cancer cases and studies where the effect of genetic polymorphisms involved in the activation and deactivation of carcinogens were also evaluated. In the future we hope we will be able to screen for lung cancer susceptibility by using specific biomarkers and that subjects of compared groups can be stratified for multiple potential modulators of biomarkers, taking into account various confounding factors. PMID:19440419

  11. Maternal Active and Passive Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Stephanie M.; Scher, Erica; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Savitz, David A.; Alsaker, Elin R.; Trogstad, Lill; Magnus, Per

    2014-01-01

    Background The inverse association between prenatal smoking and preeclampsia is puzzling, given the increased risks of prematurity and low birthweight associated with both smoking and preeclampsia. We analyzed the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort (MoBa) to determine whether the associations varied by timing of prenatal smoking. Methods We conducted an analysis of 74,439 singleton pregnancies with completed second- and third- trimester questionnaires. Active and passive smoke exposure by trimester were determined by maternal self-report, and covered the period of preconception through approximately 30 weeks’ gestation. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results Rates of active smoking declined dramatically during pregnancy: for trimester 1, 23%; trimester 2, 9%; and trimester 3, 8%. Active smoking in the third trimester was associated with reduced odds of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension, with the strongest association among continuous smokers (for preeclampsia, OR = 0.57 [95% CI = 0.46–0.70]). Women who quit smoking before the third trimester had approximately the same risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension as nonsmokers. There was some evidence of dose-response, with the heaviest smokers (more than eight cigarettes per day) having the lowest risks of preeclampsia (0.48 [0.32–0.73]) and gestational hypertension (0.51 [0.28–0.95]). There was little evidence of an association with passive smoking exposure. Conclusion The association between smoking and preeclampsia varies substantially according to the timing and intensity of exposure. A better understanding of the biologic pathways that underlie these associations may provide important clues to the etiology of preeclampsia and the development of effective clinical interventions. PMID:23429405

  12. Exposure to pro-tobacco messages and smoking status among Mexican origin youth.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Carey, Felicia R; Spitz, Margaret R

    2014-06-01

    Though several studies have found a positive relationship between exposure to tobacco advertising and/or promotional marketing and smoking status among youth, few have examined these relationships specifically for youth of Mexican origin. The current analysis examines the relationship between perceived exposure to pro-tobacco messages and progression through the smoking continuum from trying to repeated use in a cohort of Mexican origin youth ages 14-19. Data were collected via personal in-home interviews at two time points-in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011 (N = 942). Smoking status, exposure to pro-tobacco messages from five major media sources, demographic variables and established risk factors for adolescent smoking were measured at both waves. Data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi square tests, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression. Adolescent perception of the number of pro-tobacco messages seen in 2008-2009 was unrelated to smoking less than one cigarette assessed in 2010-2011. However, having seen a higher number of pro-tobacco messages was significantly associated with being more likely to have smoked more than one cigarette (OR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.03-1.42) controlling for demographic factors and known psychosocial risk factors of smoking behavior. Results suggest that the more pro-tobacco messages Mexican origin youth are able to recall, the further their progression through the smoking trajectory a year later. These youth are clearly susceptible to pro-tobacco messaging, and our results underscore the need to restrict all forms of messaging that promote tobacco use.

  13. Exposure to pro-tobacco messages and smoking status among Mexican origin youth

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Carey, Felicia R; Spitz, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Though several studies have found a positive relationship between exposure to tobacco advertising and/or promotional marketing and smoking status among youth, few have examined these relationships specifically for youth of Mexican origin. The current analysis examines the relationship between perceived exposure to pro-tobacco messages and progression through the smoking continuum from trying to repeated use in a cohort of Mexican origin youth ages 14 to 19. Methods Data were collected via personal in-home interviews at two time points – in 2008-09 and 2010-11 (N=942). Smoking status, exposure to pro-tobacco messages from five major media sources, demographic variables and established risk factors for adolescent smoking were measured at both waves. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square tests, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression. Results Adolescent perception of the number of pro-tobacco messages seen in 2008-09 was unrelated to smoking less than one cigarette assessed in 2010-11. However, having seen a higher number of pro-tobacco messages was significantly associated with being more likely to have smoked more than one cigarette (OR=1.21; 95% CI: 1.03-1.42) controlling for demographic factors and known psychosocial risk factors of smoking behavior. Conclusion Results suggest that the more pro-tobacco messages Mexican origin youth are able to recall, the further their progression through the smoking trajectory a year later. These youth are clearly susceptible to pro-tobacco messaging, and our results underscore the need to restrict all forms of messaging that promote tobacco use. PMID:23584711

  14. Active cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Catsburg, Chelsea; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2015-05-01

    Although epidemiological evidence on the role of active cigarette smoking in breast cancer risk has been inconsistent, recent literature supports a modest association between smoking and breast cancer. This association is particularly observed in women who smoke for a long duration, or who smoke for a long time prior to their first pregnancy. Here, we provide updated results on cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS). The NBSS is a large cohort of 89,835 women, aged 40-59, who were followed for a mean of 22.1 years, resulting in the ascertainment of 6,549 incident cases of breast cancer. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of cigarette smoking variables with breast cancer risk. We found breast cancer to be associated with duration (40 years vs. 0: HR = 1.57; 95%CI = 1.29-1.92), intensity (40 cigarettes per day vs. 0: HR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.04-1.40), cumulative exposure (40 pack-years vs. 0: HR = 1.19; 95%CI = 1.06-1.13) and latency (40 years since initiation vs. 0: HR = 1.19; 95%CI = 1.10-1.53) of cigarette smoking. Number of years smoked prior to first full-term pregnancy was associated with higher risk of breast cancer than comparative years smoked post-pregnancy (among parous women, 5 years pre pregnancy vs. 0: HR = 1.18; 95%CI = 1.10-1.26). These results strongly support a role for cigarette smoking in breast cancer etiology and emphasize the importance of timing of this exposure.

  15. Measurements of the effects of smoke on active circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformally coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 Mohm) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the contacts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems.

  16. Measurements of the Effects of Smoke on Active Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1999-02-09

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformably coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 M{Omega}) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the cent acts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray-capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems.

  17. Endothelial activation and injury by cigarette smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Guarino, F; Cantarella, G; Caruso, M; Russo, C; Mancuso, S; Arcidiacono, G; Cacciola, R R; Bernardini, R; Polosa, R

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial activation/injury following exposure to cigarette smoke may explain incidence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in smokers. We investigated cigarette smoke extract (CSE) effects relative to activation, injury, and survival of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and compared circulating levels of specific endothelial activation markers between smokers and healthy non-smokers before and after smoking cessation. Viability and toxicity of HUVEC were tested by MTT and LDH assay. Release (by endothelial cells) and circulating levels (in smokers) of von Willebrand Factor (vWF), thrombomodulin (TM), was evaluated by ELISA. Incubation with increasing concentrations of CSE reduced the percentage of viable cells, being 33.9%, 23.9% after CSE 4%, 6% respectively. Dose- and time-dependent release of LDH was observed after incubation with CSE. vWF, TM release were assayed after CSE 2% HUVEC stimulation. Significant 42%, 61%, 76% increase in vWF concentration was detected respectively at 30', 60', 120'. Reduction in circulating levels of vWF, from a median value of 144.0% to 123.7%, was observed in the quitters group after smoking cessation. Exposure to cigarette smoke is cytotoxic and induces activation/injury of endothelium in vitro and in vivo. These findings may provide pathogenetic basis by which smoking can predispose to development of atherothrombosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:21880215

  18. Comparison between objective measures of smoking and self-reported smoking status in patients with asthma or COPD: are our patients telling us the truth?*

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach, Rafael; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Carvalho-Pinto, Regina Maria; Athanazio, Rodrigo Abensur; Rached, Samia Zahi; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Cukier, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Smoking prevalence is frequently estimated on the basis of self-reported smoking status. That can lead to an underestimation of smoking rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference between self-reported smoking status and that determined through the use of objective measures of smoking at a pulmonary outpatient clinic. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 144 individuals: 51 asthma patients, 53 COPD patients, 20 current smokers, and 20 never-smokers. Smoking status was determined on the basis of self-reports obtained in interviews, as well as through tests of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and urinary cotinine. RESULTS: All of the asthma patients and COPD patients declared they were not current smokers. In the COPD and asthma patients, the median urinary cotinine concentration was 167 ng/mL (range, 2-5,348 ng/mL) and 47 ng/mL (range, 5-2,735 ng/mL), respectively (p < 0.0001), whereas the median eCO level was 8 ppm (range, 0-31 ppm) and 5 ppm (range, 2-45 ppm), respectively (p < 0.05). In 40 (38%) of the patients with asthma or COPD (n = 104), there was disagreement between the self-reported smoking status and that determined on the basis of the urinary cotinine concentration, a concentration > 200 ng/mL being considered indicative of current smoking. In 48 (46%) of those 104 patients, the self-reported non-smoking status was refuted by an eCO level > 6 ppm, which is also considered indicative of current smoking. In 30 (29%) of the patients with asthma or COPD, the urinary cotinine concentration and the eCO level both belied the patient claims of not being current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high proportions of smoking pulmonary patients with lung disease falsely declare themselves to be nonsmokers. The accurate classification of smoking status is pivotal to the treatment of lung diseases. Objective measures of smoking could be helpful in improving clinical management and counseling. PMID:25972966

  19. Passive smoking as well as active smoking increases the risk of acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bonita, R.; Duncan, J.; Truelsen, T.; Jackson, R.; Beaglehole, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To estimate the relative risk of stroke associated with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, passive smoking) and to estimate the risk of stroke associated with current smoking (active smoking) using the traditional baseline group (never-smokers) and a baseline group that includes lifelong non-smokers and long-term (>10 years) ex-smokers who have not been exposed to ETS.
DESIGN AND SETTING—Population-based case-control study in residents of Auckland, New Zealand.
SUBJECTS—Cases were obtained from the Auckland stroke study, a population-based register of acute stroke. Controls were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of major cardiovascular risk factors measured in the same population. A standard questionaire was administered to patients and controls by trained nurse interviewers.
RESULTS—Information was available for 521 patients with first-ever acute stroke and 1851 community controls aged 35-74 years. After adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, history of hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes) using logistic regression, exposure to ETS among non-smokers and long-term ex-smokers was associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke (odds ratio (OR) = 1.82; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.34 to 2.49). The risk was significant in men (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.33 to 3.32) and women (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.57). Active smokers had a fourfold risk of stroke compared with people who reported they had never smoked cigarettes (OR = 4.14; 95% CI = 3.04 to 5.63); the risk increased when active smokers were compared with people who had never smoked or had quit smoking more than 10 years earlier and who were not exposed to ETS (OR = 6.33; 95% CI = 4.50 to 8.91).
CONCLUSIONS—This study is one of the few to investigate the association between passive smoking and the risk of acute stroke. We found a significantly increased risk of stroke in men and in women. This study also confirms the higher

  20. [Activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters].

    PubMed

    Bizoń, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is constantly exposed to xenobiotics. This will include exogenous substances from environmental pollution such as heavy metals and lifestyle such as smoking, which may lead to impaired functioning of many organs. The liver and kidney are the critical organs in the case of a long-term occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke. In diagnostics of liver and kidney damage useful are the methods which determine the activity of enzymes such as alanine aminopeptidase (AAP). AAP is a marker for early detection of acute kidney damage, and presence of AAP derive mainly from proximal tubular brush-border. Activity of AAP in urine allows to assess the damage resulting from the nephrotoxic exposure to heavy metals. In the serum AAP is mainly from hepatic. Activity of AAP may be useful to identify liver cancer. The investigation was shown, that AAP activity in the blood is used to detect hepatic cholestasis and congestive jaundice. The aim of present study was to assess the influence of occupational exposure of copper-foundry workers to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead) on activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and urine. The investigations were performed in blood and urine of 166 subjects: 101 male copper smelters and 65 non-exposed male subjects. The study protocol was approved by Local Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (KB No: 469/2008). The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material collected from the control group and smelters was divided into subgroups of nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined in whole blood, whilst the level of arsenic and cadmium were determined in urine using FAAS method (Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) in the acetylate flame on the SOLAAR M6. The activity of AA was determined in blood and in urine. The results showed a 9-fold

  1. [Activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase in blood of smoking and non-smoking smelters].

    PubMed

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bizoń, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    The liver is the critical organ in the case of a long-term occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke. In diagnostics of liver damage useful are the methods which determine the activity of enzymes such as gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT). GGT is present in the liver and bile duct. In the serum is mainly from hepatic. Clinical studies have shown that GGT is highly sensitive indicator of liver damage. Increased activity is observed in acute and chronic liver disease, biliary tract, pancreas. Strong stimulus of growth in serum is alcohol consumption, exposure to heavy metals (including lead, cadmium), dioxins and pesticides. The aim of this research was to assess the influence of occupational exposure of copper-foundry workers to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead) on activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase in blood. The investigations were performed in blood and urine of 166 subjects: 101 male copper smelters and 65 non-exposed male subjects. The study protocol was approved by Local Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (KB No: 469/2008). The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentration. Biological material collected from the control group and the smelter workers was divided into groups of non-smokers, those who smoked less than 20 cigarettes a day and those who smoked 20 or more than 20 cigarettes a day. The concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined in whole blood, whilst the level of arsenic was determined in urine. The activities of GGT were determined in blood. We have observed a significant increase in the concentrations of lead, cadmium and arsenic in blood and urine of persons from control group who smoked 20 or over 20 cigarettes a day in comparison to the non-smoking persons from control group, which suggest, that tobacco smoking increase the heavy metals concentrations in the organisms. The results showed a 9-fold

  2. Mathematical models for predicting indoor air quality from smoking activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ott, W R

    1999-01-01

    Much progress has been made over four decades in developing, testing, and evaluating the performance of mathematical models for predicting pollutant concentrations from smoking in indoor settings. Although largely overlooked by the regulatory community, these models provide regulators and risk assessors with practical tools for quantitatively estimating the exposure level that people receive indoors for a given level of smoking activity. This article reviews the development of the mass balance model and its application to predicting indoor pollutant concentrations from cigarette smoke and derives the time-averaged version of the model from the basic laws of conservation of mass. A simple table is provided of computed respirable particulate concentrations for any indoor location for which the active smoking count, volume, and concentration decay rate (deposition rate combined with air exchange rate) are known. Using the indoor ventilatory air exchange rate causes slightly higher indoor concentrations and therefore errs on the side of protecting health, since it excludes particle deposition effects, whereas using the observed particle decay rate gives a more accurate prediction of indoor concentrations. This table permits easy comparisons of indoor concentrations with air quality guidelines and indoor standards for different combinations of active smoking counts and air exchange rates. The published literature on mathematical models of environmental tobacco smoke also is reviewed and indicates that these models generally give good agreement between predicted concentrations and actual indoor measurements. PMID:10350523

  3. Change in physical activity after smoking cessation: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Reto; Vittinghoff, Eric; Kiefe, Catarina; Reis, Jared P.; Rodondi, Nicolas; Khodneva, Yulia A.; Kertesz, Stefan G.; Cornuz, Jacques; Pletcher, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To estimate physical activity trajectories for persons who quit smoking, and compare them to what would have been expected, had smoking continued. Design, Setting and Participants 5115 participants to the CARDIA Study, a population-based study of African American and European American people recruited at age 18-30 years in 1985/6 and followed over 25 years. Measurements Physical activity was self-reported during clinical examinations at years 0(1985/6),2,5,7,10,15,20 and 25(2010/11); smoking status was reported each year (at examinations or by phone, and imputed where missing). We used mixed linear models to estimate trajectories of physical activity under varying smoking conditions, with adjustment for participant characteristics and secular trends. Findings We found significant interactions by race-sex (P=.02 for the interaction with cumulative years of smoking), hence we investigated the subgroups separately. Increasing years of smoking were associated with a decline in physical activity in black and white women and black men (e.g. coefficient for 10 years of smoking:−0.14; 95% CI:−0.20 to −0.07,P<0.001 for white women). An increase in physical activity was associated with years since smoking cessation in white men (coefficient 0.06;95%CI:0 to 0.13,P=0.05). The physical activity trajectory for persons who quit progressively diverged towards higher physical activity from the expected trajectory had smoking continued. For example, physical activity was 34% higher (95%CI:18%,52%;P<0.001) for white women 10 years after stopping compared with continuing smoking for those 10 years(P = 0.21 for race/sex differences). Conclusions Smokers who quit have progressively higher levels of physical activity in the years after quitting compared with continuing smokers. PMID:24690003

  4. Psychosocial and metabolic function by smoking status in individuals with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Morgan, Peter; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) report smoking to control appetite and weight. Smoking in BED is associated with increased risk for comorbid psychiatric disorders, but its impact on psychosocial functioning and metabolic function has not been evaluated. Participants were 429 treatment-seeking adults (72.4% women; mean age 46.2±11.0years old) with BED comorbid with obesity. Participants were categorized into current smokers (n=66), former smokers (n=145), and never smokers (n=218). Smoking status was unrelated to most historical eating/weight variables and to current eating disorder psychopathology. Smoking status was associated with psychiatric, psychosocial, and metabolic functioning. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were more likely to meet lifetime diagnostic criteria for alcohol (OR=5.51 [95% CI=2.46-12.33]) and substance use disorders (OR=7.05 [95% CI=3.37-14.72]), poorer current physical quality of life, and increased risk for metabolic syndrome (OR=1.80 [95% CI=0.97-3.35]) and related metabolic risks (reduced HDL, elevated total cholesterol). On the other hand, the odds of meeting criteria for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity or metabolic abnormalities were not significantly greater in former smokers, relative to never smokers. Our findings suggest the importance of promoting smoking cessation in treatment-seeking patients with BED and obesity for its potential long-term implications for psychiatric and metabolic functioning.

  5. Detection of Mutagenic Activity in Cigarette Smoke Condensates

    PubMed Central

    Kier, Larry D.; Yamasaki, Edith; Ames, Bruce N.

    1974-01-01

    The Salmonella typhimurium microsomal test system for mutagenic activity was successfully used to detect the presence of mutagenic compounds in the smoke condensates of several types of cigarettes. The condensates were shown to contain compounds which could cause frameshift mutations when activated by microsomal enzymes. An analysis of fractions of smoke condensate revealed that the detected mutagenic activity was distributed in several of the fractions. Most of the activity of the whole condensate was in basic fractions and in a weakly acidic fraction. Condensates from cigarettes treated with magnesium nitrate differed from other condensates in two respects. They contained frameshift mutagens which did not require microsomal activation and mutagens which could cause base-pair substitution mutations. Although the detection system usually employs rat liver microsomal preparations, a rat lung microsomal preparation was also found to be capable of converting smoke condensates and known chemical carcinogens into mutagenic forms. PMID:4610572

  6. Smoking and Early COPD as Independent Predictors of Body Composition, Exercise Capacity, and Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, André Luís; Garcia, Thaís; Mesquita, Carolina Bonfanti; Knaut, Caroline; Tanni, Suzana Erico

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tobacco smoke, mild/moderate COPD disease and their combined effect on health status (HS), body composition (BC), and exercise capacity (EC) impairment are still unclear. We hypothesized that smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on these outcomes. We evaluated 32 smokers (smoking history >10 pack/years), 32 mild/moderate COPD (current smokers or former smokers), and 32 never smokers. All individuals underwent medical and smoking status evaluations, pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry, BC [fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM index (FFMI)], EC [six-minute walk distance (6MWD)] and HS [Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36)]. FFM (p = 0.02) and FFMI (p = 0.008) were lower in COPD than never smokers. 6MWT, as a percentage of reference values for the Brazilian population, was lower in COPD and smokers than never smokers (p = 0.01). Smokers showed worse SF-36 score for functional capacity than never smokers (p<0.001). SF-36 score for physical functioning (p<0.001) and role-emotional (p<0.001) were impaired in COPD patients than smokers. SF-36 scores for physical functioning (p<0.001), role-physical (p = 0.01), bodily pain (p = 0.01), vitality (p = 0.04) and role-emotional (p<0.001) were lower in COPD than never smokers. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that both COPD diagnosis and smoking were inversely associated with FFMI, 6MWD and HS. Smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on body composition, exercise capacity and health status. PMID:27737010

  7. Active Smoking, Passive Smoking, and Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): A Population-Based Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Dai, Meng; Bi, Yufang; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Li, Mian; Wang, Tiange; Huang, Fei; Xu, Baihui; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiaoying; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of active smoking on development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is controversial, and there are limited clinical data on the relationship between passive smoking and NAFLD. We investigated whether active and passive smoking are associated with NAFLD. Methods A total of 8580 subjects (2691 men) aged 40 years or older participated in a community-based survey in Shanghai, China. Information on active and passive smoking was collected using a validated questionnaire. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal B-mode ultrasound testing and serum liver enzymes. Results NAFLD prevalence was 29.4% in never smokers, 34.2% in former smokers, 27.8% in light smokers (<20 cigarettes/day), 30.8% in moderate smokers (20–39 cigarettes/day), and 43.5% in heavy smokers (≥40 cigarettes/day). Fully adjusted logistic regression analyses revealed that, as compared with never smoking, former and heavy smoking were associated with increased risk of prevalent NAFLD, with odds ratios of 1.45 (95% CI 1.05–2.00) and 2.29 (95% CI 1.30–4.03), respectively. Active smoking and body mass index (BMI) had a synergistic effect on the risk of prevalent NAFLD; the combination of these risk factors was associated with the highest observed odds ratio for NAFLD: 8.58. In never-smoking women, passive smoking during both childhood and adulthood was associated with a 25% increase in the risk of prevalent NAFLD (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.05–1.50) as compared with no passive smoking. Conclusions Passive smoking and heavy active smoking are associated with prevalent NAFLD in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Active smoking and BMI have a synergistic effect on prevalent NAFLD. PMID:23399520

  8. Ambivalence about smoking and cue-elicited neural activity in quitting-motivated smokers faced with an opportunity to smoke.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen J; Creswell, Kasey G; Sayette, Michael A; Fiez, Julie A

    2013-02-01

    Many cigarette smokers appear to experience ambivalence about smoking, defined as the simultaneous co-occurrence of a strong desire to smoke and a strong wish to quit smoking. Research suggests that this ambivalence about smoking affects how smokers respond to cigarette-related stimuli, but many important questions remain about precisely how smoking ambivalence influences cognitive and affective processing during cigarette cue exposure. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to address this knowledge gap by examining the relation between self-reported ambivalence about smoking and cue-reactivity in quitting-motivated smokers presented with an opportunity to smoke. Eighty-two quitting-motivated cigarette smokers completed a measure assessing their ambivalence about smoking. Subsequently, participants initiated an attempt to quit smoking and underwent an fMRI session, during which they were asked to hold and view a cigarette. Consistent with hypotheses, results indicated that self-reported smoking ambivalence was negatively correlated with cigarette-related activation in brain areas linked to reward-related processing, motivation, and attention (i.e., rostral anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus, visual cortex). Self-reported ambivalence was not, however, correlated with activation in brain regions related to conflict processing. This pattern of results is discussed with respect to the process of change for those attempting to quit smoking.

  9. Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-09-01

    Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P < 0.001). Interestingly, people in any smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition. PMID:26339168

  10. Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-09-01

    Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P < 0.001). Interestingly, people in any smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition.

  11. Changes in Food Intake and Activity after Quitting Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated changes in food intake and activity levels among 95 subjects who quit smoking. Found significant increases in calories, sucrose, and fats 2 weeks after quitting. Total sugars changes were less consistent. Activity levels did not change significantly. At week 26, caloric intake for abstinent women was approximately equal to baseline…

  12. STABILITY OF SMOKING STATUS IN THE U.S. POPULATION: A LONGITUDINAL INVESTIGATION

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Pilver, Corey E.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To determine smoking transitions in a representative sample of United States (U.S.) adults. Design Longitudinal study using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (Wave 1, 2001–2002; Wave 2, 2004–2005). Setting The general U.S. adult population. Participants 33,309 adults (54% female) classified as Wave 1 Current Daily, Current Non-Daily, Former Daily, Former Non-Daily, or Never Smokers. Measurements Smoking transitions were determined from Wave 1 and Wave 2 data. Findings Smoking status remained stable for the majority of current daily (79.8%), former daily (95.8%), former non-daily (96.3%), and never (97.1%) smokers. Among current non-daily smokers, 54.5% quit smoking while 22.5% increased to daily smoking. Current daily smokers who were older (30–44, OR=0.62; 95% CI=0.49–0.87; 45+, OR=0.75; 95% CI=0.61–0.93) and unmarried (OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.66–0.96) were less likely to report smoking cessation. Current daily smokers who were Hispanic (OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.65–2.81) and college educated (OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.05–1.53) were more likely to report smoking cessation. Relapse in former daily smokers was greater in women (OR=1.44, 95% CI=0.27–0.74) and lower in older adults (OR=0.44; 95% CI=0.27–0.74). Smoking initiation occurred less in women (OR=0.65; 95% CI=0.49–0.87) and Hispanic adults (OR=0.57; 95% CI=0.36–0.91) and more in unmarried adults (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.09–2.44) and adults with less education (OR=1.63; 95% CI=1.09–2.44). Conclusions From 2001 to 2005, smoking status was extremely stable in the United States population. Specific gender, race, and educational groups need increased prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:24916157

  13. Correlation between urinary nicotine, cotinine and self-reported smoking status among educated young adults.

    PubMed

    Man, Che Nin; Fathelrahman, Ahmed Ibrahim; Harn, Gam Lay; Lajis, Razak; Samin, Ahmad Shalihin Mohd; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Bayanuddin, Nurulain Abdullah

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate, differentiate and validate the self-reported smoking status of educated young adults with urinary biomarkers (i.e. nicotine and cotinine). Freshmen students were recruited on voluntary basis. They filled-up self-administered questionnaire and their urine samples were collected for analysis. The urinary nicotine (UN) and cotinine (UC) were measured by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers were found to be both significantly correlated and different in their UN and UC levels. UC level of 25ng/ml was the optimal cut-off to differentiate smokers from non-smokers. Using this cut-off value, the prevalence of smoking among the students was found to be higher (15.4%) than the self-reported data (14.3%). UC is useful in validating individual recent smoking history and the cut-off could serve as a marker for assessing the clinical impact of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on human health.

  14. Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45) for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking) with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory) biomarker counterpart. PMID:22152006

  15. Associations of grandparental schooling with adult grandchildren's health status, smoking, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Lê-Scherban, Félice; Diez Roux, Ana V; Li, Yun; Morgenstern, Hal

    2014-09-01

    Despite persistent schooling-related health disparities in the United States, little is known about the multigenerational effects of schooling on adult health. As expected lifespans increase, direct influences of grandparental schooling on grandchildren's health may become increasingly important. We used multigenerational data spanning 41 years from a national sample of US families to investigate associations of grandparents' educational attainment with global health status, smoking, and obesity in their grandchildren who were aged 25-55 years in 2009. We estimated total effects of grandparental schooling and, by using marginal structural models, we estimated controlled direct effects that were independent of parents' and participants' schooling. Among whites, lower levels of grandparental schooling were monotonically associated with poor health status, current smoking, and obesity in adult grandchildren. There was also evidence suggesting direct effects, which was stronger for poor health status among participants whose highest-educated grandparent lived in the same state. Among blacks, the only association suggesting a total or direct effect of grandparental schooling was for smoking. Despite the relative imprecision of our estimates and possible residual bias, these results suggest that higher levels of grandparental schooling may benefit the health of grandchildren in adulthood, especially among whites. Furthermore, part of those apparent effects, especially for obesity, may not be mediated by parents' and grandchildren's schooling.

  16. Chasing the Bean: Prescription Drug Smoking among Socially Active Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Vuolo, Mike; Pawson, Mark; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alternative consumption practices of prescription drug misuse have been less well monitored than general prevalence. We describe prescription drug smoking among socially active youth and highlight correlates of this practice. We also examine its association with drug problems, drug dependence, and mental health. Methods We surveyed 404 young adults recruited from nightlife venues in New York via time-space sampling. We use linear and logistic regression models to examine the probability of smoking prescription drugs and its association with drug problems, dependence, and mental health. Qualitative findings supplement the survey data. Results Males have higher odds than females (OR=3.4) and heterosexuals have higher odds than sexual minority youth (OR=2.3) of smoking prescription drugs. Those involved in Electronic Dance Music nightlife have higher odds (OR=2.1) compared to those who do not participate in that scene, while those in college bar scenes have lower odds (OR=0.4) of having smoked prescription drugs. Prescription drug smokers report more drug problems (β=0.322) and greater symptoms of dependence (β=0.298) net of the frequency of misuse and other characteristics. Prescription drug smokers do not report greater mental health problems. Qualitative interview data support these survey findings. Conclusions Prescription drug smoking is a significant drug trend among socially active youth. It is associated with drug problems and symptoms of dependence net of frequency of misuse. Prevention and intervention efforts for youth who misuse prescription drugs should address the issue of prescription drug smoking, and this may be an area for clinicians to address with their adolescent patients. PMID:26003578

  17. Physical, psychological, social, and lifestyle differences among adolescents classified according to cigarette smoking intention status.

    PubMed

    Tucker, L A

    1985-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the extent to which multiple physical, psychological, social, and lifestyle measures differ among high school males classified according to cigarette smoking intention status including nonintenders, mild intenders, and strong intenders. The Physical Performance Test for California, to measure six traits of physical fitness and Cattell's 16PF Questionnaire to assess manifold dimensions of personality were administered to 386 high school males. Self-concept was measured by Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale and body build was assessed using Tucker's Perceived Somatotype Scale and the Body Mass Index. Data relative to marital status of parents, exercise experience, church attendance, participation in athletics, alcohol drinking habits, television viewing behavior, intention to attend college, dating behavior, as well as general demographic information and intention to smoke cigarettes were assessed by a written questionnaire. Results indicated that nonintenders were significantly more self-confident, intelligent, emotionally stable, moralistic, conservative, group oriented, self-controlled, relaxed, and more likely to respond in a socially desirable manner than were strong intenders. Nonintenders reported less dating, less television viewing, less alcohol consumption, and perceived themselves as and were determined to be less obese than strong intenders. Nonintenders also reported greater intentions to attend college, greater varsity athletic participation, were more likely to be residing with their natural mothers, and were more physically fit than were strong intenders. Possible health education and youth smoking prevention strategies are discussed.

  18. [Influence of tobacco smoking on lipase activity in patients with pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prove the influence of tobacco smoking on lipase activity in the blood of smoking and non-smoking health persons and in smoking and non-smoking patients with diagnosed acute (AP), chronic exaggerated (CEP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). The blood has been collected from 28 healthy persons and 55 patients with AP, CEP and CP. The enzyme activity has been determined using the colorimetric method with substrate 1,2-odilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid -(6-methylresorufin) ester. The exposures to tobacco smoke have been examined on the basic of concentration of cotinine in the serum of patients. The highest lipase activity has been found in smoking patients with CEP. It has been noted that the serum lipase activity is significantly higher in smoking and healthy persons (p<0,05) then in non-smoking and healthy patients. However no significant differences have been found between the lipase activity in smoking patients with CP and non-smoking patients with CP. Smoking patients with AP and CEP have been found to have a significantly increased enzyme activity (p>0.01; p>0.05 respectively) when compared to non-smoking patients. Results of examination indicate that tobacco smoking has a significant influence on exocrine function of pancreas.

  19. Mindfulness, Physical Activity and Avoidance of Secondhand Smoke: A Study of College Students in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Shi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To better understand the documented link between mindfulness and longevity, we examine the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke (SHS), as well as the association between mindfulness and physical activity. Method: In Shanghai University of Finance and Economics (SUFE) we surveyed a convenience sample of 1516 college freshmen. We measured mindfulness, weekly physical activity, and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, along with demographic and behavioral covariates. We used a multilevel logistic regression to test the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, and used a Tobit regression model to test the association between mindfulness and metabolic equivalent hours per week. In both models the home province of the student respondent was used as the cluster variable, and demographic and behavioral covariates, such as age, gender, smoking history, household registration status (urban vs. rural), the perceived smog frequency in their home towns, and the asthma diagnosis. Results: The logistic regression of consciously avoiding SHS shows that a higher level of mindfulness was associated with an increase in the odds ratio of conscious SHS avoidance (logged odds: 0.22, standard error: 0.07, p < 0.01). The Tobit regression shows that a higher level of mindfulness was associated with more metabolic equivalent hours per week (Tobit coefficient: 4.09, standard error: 1.13, p < 0.001). Discussion: This study is an innovative attempt to study the behavioral issue of secondhand smoke from the perspective of the potential victim, rather than the active smoker. The observed associational patterns here are consistent with previous findings that mindfulness is associated with healthier behaviors in obesity prevention and substance use. Research designs with interventions are needed to test the causal link between mindfulness and these healthy behaviors. PMID:26308029

  20. Pitfalls in the assessment of smoking status detected in a cohort of South African RA patients.

    PubMed

    Govind, Nimmisha; Ally, Mahmood M T M; Tikly, Mohammed; Anderson, Ronald; Hodkinson, Bridget; Meyer, Pieter W A

    2016-10-01

    This study was conceived in an attempt to explain the unexpectedly high frequency of elevated levels of serum cotinine measured retrospectively in a cohort of predominantly black South African females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), findings that were inconsistent with the smoking histories derived from health questionnaires. The discrepant findings suggested either a greater tendency towards underreporting of smoking status in the study cohort, or possible confounding effects of the use of smokeless tobacco products. In addition to the cohort of RA patients (n = 138, of whom 115 (83 %) were female), blood samples were also taken from a second cohort consisting of 29 declared smokers, 18 (62 %) of whom where females, 29 smokeless tobacco (SLT) users (all female), and 22 non-users of any tobacco products, 18 (82 %) of whom were females. Serum cotinine levels were determined using an ELISA procedure. Cotinine levels of >10.0 ng/ml were detected in serum specimens from 43 (31 %), RA patients of whom 35 (81 %) were female, with a median value of 50.1 ng/ml and interquartile range (iqr) of 68.6. Only 18 of the 35 females indicated that they smoked. The groups of declared smokers and SLT users had equivalent median serum cotinine levels of 88.0 ng/ml (iqr = 10.8 ng/ml) and 87.0 ng/ml (iqr = 15.6 ng/ml), respectively, while cotinine was undetectable in specimens from non-tobacco product users (<0.2 ng/ml). Users of SLT products in South Africa are predominantly female and have serum cotinine levels which are comparable with those of current smokers, raising concerns about the validity of measurement of cotinine as the sole objective marker of smoking status in populations with high usage of SLTs. This situation can be rectified by ensuring that usage of SLT products is accurately recorded in health questionnaires, while inclusion of measurement of one or more additional, objective biomarkers of smoking in combination with cotinine may enable reliable

  1. Dental patient's knowledge and perceptions about the effects of smoking and role of dentists in smoking cessation activities

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Poonam; Narang, Ridhi; Swathi, V.; Mittal, Litik; Jha, Kunal; Gupta, Anamika

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the following study is to assess the knowledge of patients about the consequences of smoking on the general and oral health, to analyze the patient's perceptions about the role of dentists in smoking prevention, counseling and cessation and to analyze the willingness of smokers to quit smoking following dentist's advice. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in a sample of 486 dental patients visiting Vokkaligara Sangha Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluruin the month of August 2011 using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was performed to analyze data. Results: The patients had good knowledge about the effects of smoking on general and oral health. Statistically significant difference was observed in the knowledge of smokers and non-smokers about the effects of smoking on ageing (P = 0.008) and oral cancer (P = 0.0012). Patients had a positive perception about the role of dentists in smoking cessation activities. Smokers exhibited a willingness to quit if suggested by the dentist. Conclusion: Patients perceive that dentists can play an important part in smoking cessation activities. Hence, dentists should not hesitate to give smoking cessation advice to their patients and grasp this opportunity to improve the general and oral health of the community. PMID:24966773

  2. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  3. School smoking policy characteristics and individual perceptions of the school tobacco context: are they linked to students' smoking status?

    PubMed

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Lovato, Chris Y; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K Stephen

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10-11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-level modeling results revealed that the school a student attended was associated with his/her smoking behavior. Individual-level variables that were associated with student smoking included lower school connectedness, a greater number of family and friends who smoked, higher perceptions of student smoking prevalence, lower perceptions of student smoking frequency, and stronger perceptions of the school tobacco context. School-level variables associated with student smoking included weaker policy intention indicating prohibition and assistance to overcome tobacco addiction, weaker policy implementation involving strategies for enforcement, and a higher number of students smoking on school property. These findings suggest that the school environment is important to tobacco control strategies, and that various policy dimensions have unique relationships to student smoking. School tobacco policies should be part of a comprehensive approach to adolescent tobacco use.

  4. Predictors of Marijuana Relapse in the Human Laboratory: Robust Impact of Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Status

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D.; Glass, Andrew; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Comer, Sandra D.; Foltin, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Few marijuana smokers in treatment achieve sustained abstinence, yet factors contributing to high relapse rates are unknown. Study 1: Methods Data from five inpatient laboratory studies assessing marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were combined to assess factors predicting the likelihood and severity of relapse. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (n=51; 10 ± 5 marijuana cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Results 49% of participants relapsed the first day active marijuana became available. Tobacco cigarette smokers (75%), who were not abstaining from cigarettes, were far more likely to relapse than non-cigarette smokers (OR=19, p<0.01). Individuals experiencing more positive subjective effects (i.e. feeling “high”) after marijuana administration and those with more negative affect and sleep disruption during marijuana withdrawal were more likely to have severe relapse episodes (p<0.05). Study 2: Methods To isolate the effects of cigarette smoking, marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were assessed in daily marijuana and cigarette smokers (n=15) under two within-subject, counter-balanced conditions: while smoking tobacco cigarettes as usual (SAU) and after at least 5 days without cigarettes (Quit). Results Most participants (87%) relapsed to marijuana whether in the SAU or Quit phase. Tobacco cigarette smoking did not significantly influence relapse, nor did it affect marijuana intoxication or most symptoms of withdrawal relative to tobacco cessation. Conclusions Daily marijuana smokers who also smoke cigarettes have high rates of marijuana relapse and cigarette smoking versus recent abstinence does not directly influence this association. These data indicate that current cigarette smoking is a clinically important marker for increased risk of marijuana relapse. PMID:22939992

  5. Tobacco Smoking Status and Perception of Health among a Sample of Jordanian Students

    PubMed Central

    Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A.; Weglicki, Linda S.; Ward, Kenneth D.; Al-Khawaldeh, Abdallah; Shotar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11–18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%). Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings. PMID:25019264

  6. Baseline adjustment and change revisited: effect of smoking on change in periodontal status following periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Preus, Hans R; Sandvik, Leiv; Gjermo, Per; Baelum, Vibeke

    2014-04-01

    Smokers have frequently been reported to have more severe periodontitis, to respond less favorably to periodontal therapy, and to show elevated rate of recurrence compared with non-smokers. The aims of this study was to compare the results of baseline-adjusted and -unadjusted analyses when assessing the effect of smoking on change in periodontal status following therapy and to discuss the methodological issues involved. This is a secondary analysis of data from 180 periodontitis patients enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical intervention trial. Information on smoking habits was elicited from the participants before, and 12 months after, therapy. The clinical parameters analyzed were probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, using both simple analysis of change (SAC) and analysis of covariance (ancova), adjusting for age, gender, and treatment group. The current smokers presented with more severe periodontitis at baseline than did former and never smokers. Results of the SAC indicated that the current smokers benefitted more from treatment than did former or never smokers, whereas the results of the baseline-adjusted ancova indicated no such differences. Both sets of results are likely to be biased with respect to valid conclusions regarding the 'causal' effect of smoking. Possible sources of bias are discussed.

  7. Tobacco smoking status and perception of health among a sample of Jordanian students.

    PubMed

    Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Weglicki, Linda S; Ward, Kenneth D; Al-Khawaldeh, Abdallah; Shotar, Ali

    2014-07-11

    Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11-18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%). Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings.

  8. The effect of a video character's smoking status on young females' perceptions of social characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Carroll, M

    1998-01-01

    Despite public warnings of the health risks associated with cigarette smoking, as well as advertising bans and educational programs in schools, the percentage of young females who smoke is on the rise. This study examined the effect of a video character's smoking status on young females' perceptions of social characteristics. University students were shown a video of a young woman in a socially oriented role-play. The video portrayed a smoker for the experimental group and a nonsmoker for the control group; in all other respects the video presentations were identical. Both groups answered a questionnaire pertaining to social characteristics they believed she possessed. The experimental group rated the character as more outgoing, more sophisticated, not as easy to manipulate, and less emotional about breaking up with her boyfriend than did the control group. There were no significant differences in ratings of her uncertainty in a crowd, her degree of unpopularity, her ability to be intimidated, the degree others admire her, and her attractiveness. The results are discussed in the light of previous studies, and implications for future research are explored. PMID:9831883

  9. Exploring the association of John Henry active coping and education on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks in the USA.

    PubMed

    Fernander, Anita F; Patten, Christi A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Stevens, Susanna R; Eberman, Kay M; Hurt, Richard D

    2005-02-01

    Although smoking is used as a coping tool in response to stress and Blacks have been found to report smoking more in response to stress than Whites, little research exists that has examined ethno-culturally specific constructs of stress and coping as they relate to smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks in the USA. This study explored the association between the ethno-culturally interactively defined construct of John Henryism, as well as the individual contributions of John Henry active coping and education on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence in a relatively urban-Midwestern Black population. Self-identified Black patients (n = 146) who had previously received a clinical intervention for nicotine dependence were followed to assess smoking status and John Henry active coping. Results revealed that patients with low levels of education who had low levels of John Henry active coping reported higher nicotine dependence scores than any other education by John Henry active coping group. Furthermore, low levels of John Henry active coping were associated with the use of menthol cigarettes and lower-educational level was associated with smoking greater than 20 cigarettes per day. Further community-based studies examining this construct among Black smokers in various socio-cultural contexts are needed to clarify the association between John Henry active coping and socioeconomic status on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks.

  10. Four-year prospective evaluation of the relationship between meaning in life and smoking status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, all investigations on the relationship between smoking and perceived level of meaning in life have used cross-sectional designs. Therefore, the purpose of the present prospective study, conducted with a four-year time lag, was to test the predictive power of the life meaning construct concerning changes in smoking status. Methods The data of 4,294 respondents (40.3% male, Mage = 54.7 ± 16.5 yrs) from the Hungarian Epidemiological Panel Survey were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann–Whitney U-test and structural equation modeling (SEM) with a nominal outcome variable. Gender, age, and educational level were included in the study as covariates. Results On the bivariate level, results showed that both baseline and follow-up meaning in life scores were higher in stable non-smokers when compared to stable smokers. However, quitters and starters differed from stable non-smokers in their baseline but not in follow-up life meaning scores. The other relationships (stable smokers vs. quitters; stable smokers vs. starters, starters vs. quitters) were non-significant in both time points. According to the SEM-analysis, a higher sense of meaning in life measured at baseline and follow-up is associated with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.54, z = 2.80, p = 0.005; OR = 0.64, z = 2.88, p = 0.004, respectively) of being a stable smoker compared to being a stable non-smoker, confirming the expected relationship between smoking and decreased level of meaning in life. However, neither baseline nor follow-up life meaning scores predicted significantly quitting and uptake of smoking. Conclusions If future research from other cultures verifies the protective role of a higher level of meaning in life against smoking, then smoking prevention and cessation programs will also have to include such components that help individuals experience more meaning in their lives. PMID:23433067

  11. Smoking Status and a Pulmonary Function Test in Patients with Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Chiharu; Uchida, Soushi; Noguchi, Shingo; Torii, Ryo; Shimabukuro, Ikuko; Yatera, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects one in several smokers, only a few patients are correctly diagnosed compared to the estimated number of patients. Several recent reports indicate that the development of rotator cuff tears is related to smoking. In this study, we investigated smoking status in patients with rotator cuff tears and evaluated the possibility of undiagnosed COPD by a pulmonary function test. The subjects were 150 consecutive patients over 40 years old, who had been diagnosed with rotator cuff tears and had been examined by a pulmonary function test before surgery in our orthopedic department between April 2011 and June 2015. They consisted of 96 men and 54 women, which included 59 non-smokers (39.3%), 62 ex-smokers (41.3%), and 29 smokers (19.3%). The smoking rate of the subjects was the same as that of the general Japanese population. However, the ever-smokers who smoked more than 21 cigarettes per day were 31.9%, which was high compared to the Japanese ever-smokers population, i.e. 15.2% of men and 5.5% of women. Twenty-five subjects (16.7%) showed airflow limitation, and they consisted of 7 cases of COPD, 3 cases of bronchial asthma, one case of bronchiectasis, and 14 undiagnosed cases. The undiagnosed cases consisted of 7 non-smokers, 5 ex-smokers, and 2 smokers. Their stages of COPD were stage 1 in 11 cases and stage 2 in 3 cases. The prevalence of airflow limitation increased with increasing age: 0% for 40's, 8.3% for 50's, 20.7% for 60's, and 25.6% for over 70's. From these results, we recognized that paying attention to the numbers of cigarettes smoked per day are important in addition to the smoking history, for the patients with rotator cuff tears. Also, sharing the data of a pulmonary function test before surgery can contribute to the early diagnosis of COPD. PMID:27627973

  12. The relationships among individual and regional smoking, socioeconomic status, and oral and pharyngeal cancer survival: a mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi; Logan, Henrietta L; Marks, John G; Shenkman, Elizabeth A

    2015-10-01

    Poorer survival from oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) has been reported for populations of lower socioeconomic status (SES), adjusting for risk factors such as patient and clinical characteristics. Beyond these risk factors, higher rates of tobacco use may be a mediator for the observed poorer OPC survival for low SES populations. In this study, we aimed to examine the impact of the relationships among SES, individual smoking status, and living in a region with a higher smoking rate on OPC survival. We obtained Florida Cancer Data System data from 1996 to 2010 and merged the data with US Census data and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 1996 to 2010. We built multivariable survival models to quantify the mediational effect of individual smoking on overall and OPC-specific survival, adjusting for regional smoking, demographics, and clinical characteristics. We found that lower SES, individual smoking, and living in a region with a higher smoking rate were all strongly associated with poorer survival. We estimated that the indirect effect of individual smoking accounted for a large part (ranged from 13.3% to 30.2%) of the total effect of SES on overall and OPC-specific survival. In conclusion, individual and regional smoking are both significant and independent predictors of poor cancer survival. Higher rate of individual smoking is partially responsible for poorer cancer survival in low SES populations. Results of this study provide rationale for considering a multi-level approach that simultaneously targets both individual and contextual factors for future smoking cessation interventions.

  13. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  14. Effects of acute cigarette smoking on total blood count and markers of oxidative stress in active and passive smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lymperaki, E; Makedou, K; Iliadis, S; Vagdatli, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Free radicals, as a product of cigarette smoke, are considered to have deleterious effects causing oxidative stress. Acute active smoking seems to be followed by transient leukocytosis and delayed increase in neutrophil activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the oxidative status of smokers and passive non-smokers, as well as the impact that acute cigarette smoking has on hematological parameters. Methods: Thirty-two healthy volunteers, 16 active smokers (Group A) aged 20-23 years and 16 age-matched, non-smokers (Group B), 18 women and 14 men in total, participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects did not have any food, drink, or cigarette smoking for eight hours before the study. Each time, two active smokers and two non-smokers were exposed simultaneously for half an hour to the smoke of two cigarettes smoked consecutively by the smokers. Blood was drawn before and after the exposure to cigarette smoke. Whole blood was analyzed immediately for total blood count parameters and serum was stored in -70◦C until serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E (VitE), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Results: No statistical significant difference was observed in the values of white blood cells and their subpopulations between the two groups and within the same group before and after exposure to cigarette smoke. In the group of smokers, granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio increased significantly, MDA levels showed significant elevation and protective VitE serum levels decreased significantly, whereas TAC was reduced, but not significantly, after the exposure. In the group of passive, non-smokers the results of the blood count parameters, MDA and VitE were similar to Group A, and there was a significant decrease in TAC, as well. Between the two groups, only hematocrit values and MDA levels differed significantly before the exposure to smoke, and no other significant difference was detected before or after the

  15. [The activity of thermolability amylase in serum nonsmoking and smoking healthy persons and patients with pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prove the influence of tobacco smoking on total and thermolability amylase activity in the serum of non-smoking and smoking health persons and patients with diagnosed acute (AP), chronic exaggerated (CEP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) and patients with diabetes. The blood has been collected from 28 healthy persons and 52 patients. The enzyme total activity has been determined using the colorimetric method with substrate 1,2-odilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid -(6-methylresorufin) ester. The thermolability activity has been determined using the thermolability test. The tobacco smoke has been examined on the basic of concentration of cotinine in the serum of health persons and patients. The highest amylase total activity and her thermolability form have been found in smoking patients with diabetes. It has been noted that the serum amylase activity is significantly higher in smoking and healthy persons (p < 0.0002; p < 0.002) then in non-smoking and healthy patients. However no significant differences have been found between the thermolability total activity, however it has been noted higher thermolability thermolability activity in smoking patients with CP and nonsmoking patients with CP. Smoking patients with AP and CEP have been found to have a significantly increased enzyme and her form thermolability activity (p > 0.001; p > 0.005 respectively) when compared to non-smoking patients. Results of examination indicate that tobacco smoking has a significant influence on pancreatic amylase activity.

  16. Identifying and extracting patient smoking status information from clinical narrative texts in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Rosa L; Soto, Diego A; Pino, Esteban J

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a system to identify and extract patient's smoking status from clinical narrative text in Spanish. The clinical narrative text was processed using natural language processing techniques, and annotated by four people with a biomedical background. The dataset used for classification had 2,465 documents, each one annotated with one of the four smoking status categories. We used two feature representations: single word token and bigrams. The classification problem was divided in two levels. First recognizing between smoker (S) and non-smoker (NS); second recognizing between current smoker (CS) and past smoker (PS). For each feature representation and classification level, we used two classifiers: Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Bayesian Networks (BN). We split our dataset as follows: a training set containing 66% of the available documents that was used to build classifiers and a test set containing the remaining 34% of the documents that was used to test and evaluate the model. Our results show that SVM together with the bigram representation performed better in both classification levels. For S vs NS classification level performance measures were: ACC=85%, Precision=85%, and Recall=90%. For CS vs PS classification level performance measures were: ACC=87%, Precision=91%, and Recall=94%. PMID:25570550

  17. Identifying and extracting patient smoking status information from clinical narrative texts in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Rosa L; Soto, Diego A; Pino, Esteban J

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a system to identify and extract patient's smoking status from clinical narrative text in Spanish. The clinical narrative text was processed using natural language processing techniques, and annotated by four people with a biomedical background. The dataset used for classification had 2,465 documents, each one annotated with one of the four smoking status categories. We used two feature representations: single word token and bigrams. The classification problem was divided in two levels. First recognizing between smoker (S) and non-smoker (NS); second recognizing between current smoker (CS) and past smoker (PS). For each feature representation and classification level, we used two classifiers: Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Bayesian Networks (BN). We split our dataset as follows: a training set containing 66% of the available documents that was used to build classifiers and a test set containing the remaining 34% of the documents that was used to test and evaluate the model. Our results show that SVM together with the bigram representation performed better in both classification levels. For S vs NS classification level performance measures were: ACC=85%, Precision=85%, and Recall=90%. For CS vs PS classification level performance measures were: ACC=87%, Precision=91%, and Recall=94%.

  18. Smoking further increases platelet activity in patients with mild hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gleerup, G; Winther, K

    1996-01-01

    In this study the authors examine whether smoking further heightens platelet activity and reduces fibrinolysis above that already present in mild hypertension. Ten smokers and 11 non-smokers, all with mild hypertension (defined as a diastolic pressure between 90 and 110 mm Hg) were compared for their platelet activity in vitro and in vivo and for their fibrinolytic activity. Successive measurements were made with the patients lying at rest after they had assumed the erect posture for 10 min and at the end of a 5-min moderately strenuous exercise test. The threshold for platelet aggregation by ADP in vitro was significantly lower in samples taken from the smokers at rest (1.4 +/- 0.9 mumol L(-1)) than in the non-smokers (3.5 +/- 2.5 mumol L(-1)), and the difference persisted both in the upright posture and after exercise. The level of platelet release of beta-thromboglobulin was, likewise, higher in the smokers in the upright posture. Neither standing up nor physical exercise had any significant influence on either of these two indices of platelet activity. The euglobulin clot lysis time was slightly longer in the smokers than in the non-smokers in all three experimental situations, but the differences were not significant. Inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator was not materially different in the two groups (Table 2). The results indicate that smoking adds a further element of heightened platelet activity to that inherently present in hypertension.

  19. Greater γ-tocopherol status during acute smoking abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy improved vascular endothelial function by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-prostaglandin F2α.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Masterjohn, Christopher; Ballard, Kevin D; Taylor, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) improves the long-term success rate of smoking cessation, but induces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that may delay the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). No studies have examined co-therapy of NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-tocopherol (γ-T), a vitamin E form with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on improvements in VEF. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy smokers (25 ± 1 y old; mean ± SEM) received NRT and abstained from smoking for 24 h with placebo (n = 12) or oral administration of γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT; n = 11) that provided 500 mg γ-T. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and biomarkers of nitric oxide metabolism, antioxidant status, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin F2α stereoisomers (8-iso-15(R)-PGF2α and 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α)] were measured prior to and after 24 h of smoking abstinence. Smoking abstinence with NRT regardless of γ-TmT similarly decreased urinary naphthol (P < 0.05) without affecting plasma cotinine. γ-TmT increased plasma γ-T by 4-times and the urinary metabolite of γ-T, γ-carboxyethyl-chromanol, by three times. Smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not smoking abstinence alone, increased FMD without affecting plasma nitrate/nitrite or the ratio of asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. Urinary 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α decreased only in those receiving γ-TmT and was inversely correlated to FMD (R = -0.43, P < 0.05). Circulating markers of inflammation were unaffected by smoking abstinence or γ-TmT. Short-term NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not NRT-assisted smoking abstinence alone, improved VEF by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α, a vasoconstrictor that was otherwise unaffected by NRT-assisted smoking abstinence. PMID:25361769

  20. Greater γ-tocopherol status during acute smoking abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy improved vascular endothelial function by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-prostaglandin F2α

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Masterjohn, Christopher; Ballard, Kevin D; Taylor, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) improves the long-term success rate of smoking cessation, but induces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that may delay the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). No studies have examined co-therapy of NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-tocopherol (γ-T), a vitamin E form with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on improvements in VEF. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy smokers (25 ± 1 y old; mean ± SEM) received NRT and abstained from smoking for 24 h with placebo (n = 12) or oral administration of γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT; n = 11) that provided 500 mg γ-T. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and biomarkers of nitric oxide metabolism, antioxidant status, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin F2α stereoisomers (8-iso-15(R)-PGF2α and 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α)] were measured prior to and after 24 h of smoking abstinence. Smoking abstinence with NRT regardless of γ-TmT similarly decreased urinary naphthol (P < 0.05) without affecting plasma cotinine. γ-TmT increased plasma γ-T by 4-times and the urinary metabolite of γ-T, γ-carboxyethyl-chromanol, by three times. Smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not smoking abstinence alone, increased FMD without affecting plasma nitrate/nitrite or the ratio of asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. Urinary 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α decreased only in those receiving γ-TmT and was inversely correlated to FMD (R = −0.43, P < 0.05). Circulating markers of inflammation were unaffected by smoking abstinence or γ-TmT. Short-term NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not NRT-assisted smoking abstinence alone, improved VEF by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α, a vasoconstrictor that was otherwise unaffected by NRT-assisted smoking abstinence. PMID:25361769

  1. Greater γ-tocopherol status during acute smoking abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy improved vascular endothelial function by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-prostaglandin F2α.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Masterjohn, Christopher; Ballard, Kevin D; Taylor, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) improves the long-term success rate of smoking cessation, but induces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that may delay the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). No studies have examined co-therapy of NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-tocopherol (γ-T), a vitamin E form with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on improvements in VEF. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy smokers (25 ± 1 y old; mean ± SEM) received NRT and abstained from smoking for 24 h with placebo (n = 12) or oral administration of γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT; n = 11) that provided 500 mg γ-T. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and biomarkers of nitric oxide metabolism, antioxidant status, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin F2α stereoisomers (8-iso-15(R)-PGF2α and 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α)] were measured prior to and after 24 h of smoking abstinence. Smoking abstinence with NRT regardless of γ-TmT similarly decreased urinary naphthol (P < 0.05) without affecting plasma cotinine. γ-TmT increased plasma γ-T by 4-times and the urinary metabolite of γ-T, γ-carboxyethyl-chromanol, by three times. Smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not smoking abstinence alone, increased FMD without affecting plasma nitrate/nitrite or the ratio of asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. Urinary 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α decreased only in those receiving γ-TmT and was inversely correlated to FMD (R = -0.43, P < 0.05). Circulating markers of inflammation were unaffected by smoking abstinence or γ-TmT. Short-term NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not NRT-assisted smoking abstinence alone, improved VEF by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α, a vasoconstrictor that was otherwise unaffected by NRT-assisted smoking abstinence.

  2. Smoking Behaviour, Involuntary Smoking, Attitudes towards Smoke-Free Legislations, and Tobacco Control Activities in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Gallus, Silvano; Martínez, Cristina; Sureda, Xisca; La Vecchia, Carlo; Clancy, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Background The six most important cost-effective policies on tobacco control can be measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS). The objective of our study was to describe the correlation between the TCS and smoking prevalence, self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and attitudes towards smoking restrictions in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). Methods/Principal Findings Ecologic study in the EU27. We used data from the TCS in 2007 and from the Eurobarometer on Tobacco Survey in 2008. We analysed the relations between the TCS and prevalence of smoking, self-reported exposure to SHS (home and work), and attitudes towards smoking bans by means of scatter plots and Spearman rank-correlation coefficients (rsp). Among the EU27, smoking prevalence varied from 22.6% in Slovenia to 42.1% in Greece. Austria was the country with the lowest TCS score (35) and the UK had the highest one (93). The correlation between smoking prevalence and TCS score was negative (rsp = −0.42, p = 0.03) and the correlation between TCS score and support to smoking bans in all workplaces was positive (rsp = 0.47, p = 0.01 in restaurants; rsp = 0.5, p = 0.008 in bars, pubs, and clubs; and rsp = 0.31, p = 0.12 in other indoor workplaces). The correlation between TCS score and self-reported exposure to SHS was negative, but statistically non-significant. Conclusions/Significance Countries with a higher score in the TCS have higher support towards smoking bans in all workplaces (including restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs, and other indoor workplaces). TCS scores were strongly, but not statistically, associated with a lower prevalence of smokers and a lower self-reported exposure to SHS. PMID:21079729

  3. Smoking and degree of occupational exposure: are internal analyses in cohort studies likely to be confounded by smoking status

    SciTech Connect

    Siemiatycki, J.; Wacholder, S.; Dewar, R.; Wald, L.; Begin, D.; Richardson, L.; Rosenman, K.; Gerin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Occupational cohort studies are usually carried out without the benefit of information on smoking habits of cohort members. One common approach to avoid confounding bias related to smoking habits is to carry out an internal analysis, comparing workers with different degrees of occupational exposure. The premise behind this approach is that within a cohort there is unlikely to be correlation between degree of exposure and smoking habits. If this were untrue, smoking could confound the disease-exposure relationships. Our purpose was to verify the premise. The study sample consisted of 857 French-Canadian men born between 1910 and 1930, with 11 or fewer years of education, and interviewed around 1980 in the context of an occupational cancer case-control study. For each man we had information on smoking habits, job history, and a history of the chemicals he was exposed to in each of his jobs. We computed two indices of the dirtiness of workers' job histories: one based on the job titles held by the man and a second based on the degree of exposures to workplace substances. There was no correlation between these indices of job dirtiness and smoking history. We also examined the smoking-exposure relationship among the subsets of men who had been occupationally exposed to ten especially noticeable substances. Within the subsets, there was no indication of a consistent difference among the smoking subgroups in level or duration of exposure to these index substances. These findings do not support the view that nonsmokers sought out cleaner job environments than smokers; they imply that internal analyses of dose-response in cohort studies are unlikely to be seriously confounded by smoking habits.

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  5. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  6. Nondisclosure of smoking status to health care providers among current and former smokers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Curry, Laurel Erin; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Niaura, Raymond S

    2013-06-01

    An unintended consequence of tobacco control's success in marginalizing smoking is that smokers may conceal their smoking from those who are best positioned to help them quit: health care providers (HCPs). The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of, and factors related to, nondisclosure of smoking to HCPs. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of adults from a nationally representative Knowledge Networks online panel in March to April 2011. Current and former smokers (n = 2,803) were asked questions about nondisclosure, tobacco use, cessation behavior, and perceived social unacceptability of smoking. All variables significantly related (p < .05) to nondisclosure in bivariate logistic regression were included in the multivariate logistic regression model, which also adjusted for gender, age, race, marital status, and education. Approximately 1 in 10 smokers (12.9%) and 5.8% of former smokers has withheld their smoking status from HCPs. Ever smokers who were 18 to 34 years, those who had used a prescription medication or behavioral therapy in their last quit attempt, and those who were uncomfortable discussing smoking with their HCP were more likely to report nondisclosure than those in their respective comparison groups. Respondents who perceived either medium or high smoker-related stigma (odds ratio [OR] = 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 2.77 and OR = 2.60, 95% CI = 1.51, 4.48, respectively) and those who reported concealing smoking to gain benefits from health insurance were also significantly more likely to have kept smoking a secret from an HCP (OR = 5.66, 95% CI = 1.88, 17.02). Smokers should be encouraged to be forthright about their smoking in order for practitioners to offer treatment and services that increase their chances of quitting. PMID:22984217

  7. Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

  8. The impact of the tobacco market opening on smoking status in Taiwan: findings from a secular smoking rates analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Lord, Asta Y Z; Tseng, Tung-Sung; Chen, Ted

    The forced opening of Taiwan's tobacco market in 1987 has changed the smoking environment. This study analyzes the effects this market opening had on Taiwan's secular smoking rates over 15 years. The data sources used were consumer surveys conducted by the Taiwan Tobacco & Wine Monopoly Bureau 1964-1996, the 2001 National Health Interview Survey, and a series of annual per capita gross national product (GNP) data reported by the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting & Statistics. After Taiwan's tobacco market was forced open in 1987 by the U.S. government in trade negotiations, smoking rates rose (7%-10% for males and 39%-75% for females) for the first three years. After the initial 3-year surge, smoking rates gradually declined to 1986 baseline rates or even lower for all groups except females aged 30 and younger, who have shown a small but steady increase in cigarette consumption. Results of multiple regression analysis showed per capita GNP and age to be the two major factors affecting smoking rate change after the Taiwan market opening. National tobacco control policies and campaigns seem to have an impact on tempering the effect of foreign tobacco imports in all groups, except young females, whose rise in smoking rate is significant and alarming. PMID:17686747

  9. Active and passive smoking in relation to lung cancer incidence in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study prospective cohort†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, A.; Kubo, J.; Luo, J.; Desai, M.; Hedlin, H.; Henderson, M.; Chlebowski, R.; Tindle, H.; Chen, C.; Gomez, S.; Manson, J. E.; Schwartz, A. G.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Cote, M.; Patel, M. I.; Stefanick, M. L.; Wakelee, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of worldwide cancer deaths. While smoking is its leading risk factor, few prospective cohort studies have reported on the association of lung cancer with both active and passive smoking. This study aimed to determine the relationship between lung cancer incidence with both active and passive smoking (childhood, adult at home, and at work). Patients and methods The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) was a prospective cohort study conducted at 40 US centers that enrolled postmenopausal women from 1993 to 1999. Among 93 676 multiethnic participants aged 50–79, 76 304 women with complete smoking and covariate data comprised the analytic cohort. Lung cancer incidence was calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by smoking status. Results Over 10.5 mean follow-up years, 901 lung cancer cases were identified. Compared with never smokers (NS), lung cancer incidence was much higher in current [hazard ratio (HR) 13.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.80–16.75] and former smokers (FS; HR 4.20, 95% CI 3.48–5.08) in a dose-dependent manner. Current and FS had significantly increased risk for all lung cancer subtypes, particularly small-cell and squamous cell carcinoma. Among NS, any passive smoking exposure did not significantly increase lung cancer risk (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.52–1.49). However, risk tended to be increased in NS with adult home passive smoking exposure ≥30 years, compared with NS with no adult home exposure (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.00–2.58). Conclusions In this prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, active smoking significantly increased risk of all lung cancer subtypes; current smokers had significantly increased risk compared with FS. Among NS, prolonged passive adult home exposure tended to increase lung cancer risk. These data support continued need for smoking prevention and cessation interventions, passive smoking research, and further study of lung cancer risk factors

  10. Prognostic impact of body mass index stratified by smoking status in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Cui; Ren, Chao; Bi, Xi-Wen; Yang, Hang; An, Xin; Wang, Feng-Hua; Jiang, Wen-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background As smoking affects the body mass index (BMI) and causes the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the prognostic impact of BMI in ESCC could be stratified by smoking status. We investigated the true prognostic effect of BMI and its potential modification by smoking status in ESCC. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 459 patients who underwent curative treatment at a single institution between January 2007 and December 2010. BMI was calculated using the measured height and weight before surgery. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationships between smoking status and other clinicopathological variables. The Cox proportional hazard models were used for univariate and multivariate analyses of variables related to overall survival. Results BMI <18.5 kg/m2 was a significantly independent predictor of poor survival in the overall population and never smokers after adjusting for covariates, but not in ever smokers. Among never smokers, underweight patients (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) had a 2.218 times greater risk of mortality than non-underweight (BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2) patients (P=0.015). Among ever smokers, BMI <18 kg/m2 increased the risk of mortality to 1.656 (P=0.019), compared to those having BMI ≥18 kg/m2. Conclusion Our study is likely the first to show that the prognostic effect of BMI was substantial in ESCC, even after stratifying by smoking status. Furthermore, the risk of death due to low BMI would be significantly increased in never smokers. We believe that the prognostic impact of BMI is modified but not eliminated by the smoking status in ESCC. PMID:27799787

  11. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061

  12. Active and passive smoking - New insights on the molecular composition of different cigarette smoke aerosols by LDI-FTICRMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, Sébastien; Carré, Vincent; Scheffler, Jean-Luc; Aubriet, Frédéric

    2014-08-01

    The aerosol generated when a cigarette is smoked is a significant indoor contaminant. Both smokers and non-smokers can be exposed to this class of pollutants. Nevertheless, they are not exposed to the same kind of smoke. The active smoker breathes in the mainstream smoke (MSS) during a puff, whereas the passive smoker inhales not only the smoke generated by the lit cigarette between two puffs (SSS) but also the smoke exhaled by active smokers (EXS). The aerosol fraction of EXS has until now been poorly documented; its composition is expected to be different from MSS. This study aims to investigate the complex composition of aerosol from EXS to better understand the difference in exposure between active and passive smokers. To address this, the in-situ laser desorption ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (LDI-FTICRMS) was used to characterise the aerosol composition of EXS from two different smokers. Results clearly indicated many similarities between EXS samples but also significant differences with MSS and SSS aerosol. The comparison of MSS and EXS aerosol allowed the chemicals retained by the active smoker's lungs to be identified, whereas the convolution of the EXS and SSS aerosol compositions were considered relevant to the exposition of a passive smoker. As a consequence, active smokers are thought to be mainly exposed to polar and poorly unsaturated oxygenated and nitrogenated organics, compared with poorly oxygenated but highly unsaturated compounds in passive smokers.

  13. Correlation of Prepulse Inhibition and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Schizophrenia and Controls: Effects of Smoking Status

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Rachel A.; Sacco, Kristi A.; George, Tony P.

    2009-01-01

    Background In schizophrenia, neurocognitive deficits associated with the illness are modulated by tobacco smoking. However, little is known about how smoking status modulates the relationships between neurocognitive measures in schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sensorimotor gating assessed by prepulse inhibition (PPI) and executive cognitive function using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in schizophrenia and controls as a function of smoking status. Method We studied PPI and neuropsychological function in four groups (N=50); smokers with schizophrenia (SS; n=15), control smokers (CS; n=13), non-smokers with schizophrenia (SNS; n=11) and control non-smokers (CNS; n=11). Results SNS demonstrated the poorest PPI, while SS showed comparably high levels of PPI to CNS. Non-psychiatric controls outperformed patients on WCST outcomes irrespective of smoking status. Several prefrontal outcome measures on the WCST (categories completed, percentage perseverative and non-perseverative errors) correlated significantly with PPI at the 60 and 120 msec prepulse intervals. In contrast, there were no significant correlations between PPI and any WCST outcomes in SNS, CS or CNS, and few significant correlations between PPI and other neuropsychological measures. Discussion Our preliminary data suggests that the correlation between sensorimotor gating (PPI) and prefrontal executive cognitive functioning (WCST) is enhanced by acute cigarette smoking in schizophrenia. PMID:19656658

  14. DNA methylation is differentially associated with environmental cadmium exposure based on sex and smoking status.

    PubMed

    Virani, Shama; Rentschler, Katie M; Nishijo, Muneko; Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan; Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Basu, Niladri; Rozek, Laura S

    2016-02-01

    The adverse health effects of cadmium (Cd) are well known in human populations; however, much of what is known about biological mechanisms of Cd comes from in vitro and animal studies. The adverse health outcomes due to high levels of Cd exposure in the population of Mae Sot, Thailand have been extensively characterized. Here, for the first time, this population is being studied in an epigenetic context. The objective of this study was to characterize the association between DNA methylation markers and Cd exposure, taking into account sex and smoking differences, in an adult population at an increased risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes from high body burden of Cd. One hundred and sixty-nine residents from known exposure areas of Mae Sot, Thailand and one hundred residents from non-exposed areas nearby were surveyed in 2012. Urine and blood samples were collected for measurement of urinary Cd (UCd) and DNA methylation of Cd-related markers (DNMT3B, MGMT, LINE-1, MT2A). UCd levels were 7 times higher in the exposed compared to the unexposed populations (exposed median: 7.4 μg/L, unexposed median: 1.0 μg/L, p < 0.001). MGMT hypomethylation was associated with increasing levels of UCd in the total population. Sex-specific associations included MT2A and DNMT3B hypomethylation in women and LINE-1 hypermethylation in men with increasing UCd. Upon subanalysis, these associations separated by smoking status. In summary, environmental Cd exposure is associated with gene-specific DNA methylation in a sex and smoking dependent manner.

  15. Driving kids to smoke? Children's reported exposure to smoke in cars and early smoking initiation.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Scragg, Robert; Min, Sandar; Kira, Anette; Nosa, Vili; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris

    2011-11-01

    The health risks associated with second hand smoke (SHS) are well-known. However, little is known about exposure to SHS in cars and risk of smoking uptake. This paper investigates the association between pre-adolescents reported exposure to smoking in cars and prevalence of early stage smoking activity. Data from Keeping Kids Smokefree baseline surveys of students were used to investigate smoking status and reported exposure to smoking in cars. Log binomial regression analyses were used to investigate if reported exposure to SHS in cars was associated with smoking prevalence. 83% of 5676 students invited took part. After controlling for all variables reported exposure to smoking in cars and homes were significantly associated with increased risk of initiated smoking (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.43-2.44, and RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.13-1.97, respectively). Exposure to smoking in cars was substantially and significantly associated with risk of current smoking (RR 3.21, 95% CI 1.45-7.08). Early smoking uptake is associated with students' reported exposure to smoking in cars which confirms the importance of protecting children from SHS. Smoking in cars is under parental control and therefore modifiable. Moreover, children's reports of SHlS exposure offer a simple way of identifying families who can be targeted for tobacco control interventions.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of smoking status among veterans affairs primary care patients with probable major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lombardero, Anayansi; Campbell, Duncan G; Harris, Kari J; Chaney, Edmund F; Lanto, Andrew B; Rubenstein, Lisa V

    2014-03-01

    In an attempt to guide planning and optimize outcomes for population-specific smoking cessation efforts, the present study examined smoking prevalence and the demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics associated with smoking among a sample of Veterans Affairs primary care patients with probable major depression. Survey data were collected between 2003 and 2004 from 761 patients with probable major depression who attended one of 10 geographically dispersed VA primary care clinics. Current smoking prevalence was 39.8%. Relative to nonsmokers with probable major depression, bivariate comparisons revealed that current smokers had higher depression severity, drank more heavily, and were more likely to have comorbid PTSD. Smokers with probable major depression were also more likely than nonsmokers with probable major depression to have missed a health care appointment and to have missed medication doses in the previous 5months. Smokers were more amenable than non-smokers to depression treatment and diagnosis, and they reported more frequent visits to a mental health specialist and less social support. Alcohol abuse and low levels of social support were significant concurrent predictors of smoking status in controlled multivariable logistic regression. In conclusion, smoking prevalence was high among primary care patients with probable major depression, and these smokers reported a range of psychiatric and psychosocial characteristics with potential to complicate systems-level smoking cessation interventions.

  17. Health risk behaviors of black male college students: seat belt use, smoking, and obesity status.

    PubMed

    Ajibade, Phoebe Butler

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined health behaviors (seatbelt use, tobacco use, and obesity status) of 127 black male college students using data obtained from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. The majority of the participants were freshmen and sophomores (70%), full time students (95%), and lived on campus (85%). The results indicated that black males often failed to use seatbelts while riding as a passenger (69%) or driving (48%). Although 15% of the students smoked, 1/3 of the smokers began smoking during college. Approximately 50% of the students were overweight or obese; among students attempting to lose weight, exercise versus nutrient intake was used as a means to lose weight. The study recommendations included the need to increase educational efforts to alert black males to their risks for a premature death, and to provide programming/mentoring initiatives to assist males in dealing with stress and discrimination that may impact their health-related decision making. The implications of this study suggest that even educated black males are at risk for premature disease and disability as a result of their health behaviors.

  18. [Effects of active and passive smoking during pregnancy on the blood flow in uterine artery in third trimester of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, Mariola; Napierała, Marta; Chuchracki, Marek; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Florek, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of active and passive maternal tobacco smoking on the parameters of blood flow in the uterine arteries in the third trimester. of pregnancy. The study was performed among 96 pregnant women in a single full-term pregnancy in the third trimester of pregnancy. A questionnaire assessing the status of the concentration of nicotine and nicotine metaboliteotinine in the serum of pregnant. The plasma was extracted technique of liquid-liquid, and then performed laboratory assays using high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection using norepinephrine as an internal standard. Based on the concentration of cotinine and interview patients were assigned to three groups: Group 1--patients smoking cigarettes during the entire pregnancy (23), group 2--patients exposed to environmental tobacco smoking (30) and a control group 3--nonsmokers and patients unexposed to passive smoking (43). In the third trimester of pregnancy blood flow in the uterine arteries was performed using "B-mode" technique with function of spectral Doppler. We analized the pulsatility index and resistance index in both uterine arteries, the presence of the indent diastolic "notch" and the scale of the uterine arteries. There were no statistically significant differences with regards to pulsatility index and index of resistance in blood flow in the uterine arteries in different groups of patients. The presence of the indent diastolic "notch" was significantly more frequent among active smokers, compared to women passively exposed to tobacco smoke and non-smoking women (39.1% vs. 20% vs. 4.6%; p = 0.012). The values in the scale of uterine arteries showed no significant difference between groups. Both active and passive smoking had no significant effect on the blood flow in uterine artery in pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. PMID:26946568

  19. [Effects of active and passive smoking during pregnancy on the blood flow in uterine artery in third trimester of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, Mariola; Napierała, Marta; Chuchracki, Marek; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Florek, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of active and passive maternal tobacco smoking on the parameters of blood flow in the uterine arteries in the third trimester. of pregnancy. The study was performed among 96 pregnant women in a single full-term pregnancy in the third trimester of pregnancy. A questionnaire assessing the status of the concentration of nicotine and nicotine metaboliteotinine in the serum of pregnant. The plasma was extracted technique of liquid-liquid, and then performed laboratory assays using high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection using norepinephrine as an internal standard. Based on the concentration of cotinine and interview patients were assigned to three groups: Group 1--patients smoking cigarettes during the entire pregnancy (23), group 2--patients exposed to environmental tobacco smoking (30) and a control group 3--nonsmokers and patients unexposed to passive smoking (43). In the third trimester of pregnancy blood flow in the uterine arteries was performed using "B-mode" technique with function of spectral Doppler. We analized the pulsatility index and resistance index in both uterine arteries, the presence of the indent diastolic "notch" and the scale of the uterine arteries. There were no statistically significant differences with regards to pulsatility index and index of resistance in blood flow in the uterine arteries in different groups of patients. The presence of the indent diastolic "notch" was significantly more frequent among active smokers, compared to women passively exposed to tobacco smoke and non-smoking women (39.1% vs. 20% vs. 4.6%; p = 0.012). The values in the scale of uterine arteries showed no significant difference between groups. Both active and passive smoking had no significant effect on the blood flow in uterine artery in pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy.

  20. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, Alcohol use, Physical Activity, and Dietary Behavior as Determinants of Obesity and Body Mass Index in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Raees A.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Singh, Gopal K.; Tibbits, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the United States, using a nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data from the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to adults 18 years and older (N=23,434). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between covariates and obesity and BMI. Results: Overall, 28.1% in the sample were obese and the mean BMI was 27.6 kg/m2. In adjusted models, we found that older age, non-Hispanic Black race, lower education and income levels, Midwestern and Southern region of residence, former smoking, infrequent alcohol use, physical inactivity, consumption of less fruits, vegetables, brown rice and more cheese, fried potato and meat, were associated with obesity. These factors were also associated with higher BMI, along with male gender and higher consumption of meat, fried potatoes and cheese. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The association of many of the socio-demographic and behavioral factors with obesity and higher BMI found in our study was consistent with previous findings. Persistence of such associations suggest a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanism as well as for evaluation of the current programs and policies targeted at reducing the obesity burden in the United States. In view of the rising global obesity epidemic, especially in the low- and middle-income countries, our findings could help guide development of effective health and social policies and programs aimed at reducing the obesity burden in other parts of the world.

  1. Characterization of the third component of complement (C3) after activation by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Kew, R.R.; Ghebrehiwet, B.; Janoff, A.

    1987-08-01

    Activation of lung complement by tobacco smoke may be an important pathogenetic factor in the development of pulmonary emphysema in smokers. We previously showed that cigarette smoke can modify C3 and activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. However, the mechanism of C3 activation was not fully delineated in these earlier studies. In the present report, we show that smoke-treated C3 induces cleavage of the alternative pathway protein, Factor B, when added to serum containing Mg-EGTA. This effect of cigarette smoke is specific for C3 since smoke-treated C4, when added to Mg-EGTA-treated serum, fails to activate the alternative pathway and fails to induce Factor B cleavage. Smoke-modified C3 no longer binds significant amounts of (/sup 14/C)methylamine (as does native C3), and relatively little (/sup 14/C)methylamine is incorporated into its alpha-chain. Thus, prior internal thiolester bond cleavage appears to have occurred in C3 activated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke components also induce formation of noncovalently associated, soluble C3 multimers, with a Mr ranging from 1 to 10 million. However, prior cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 with methylamine prevents the subsequent formation of these smoke-induced aggregates. These data indicate that cigarette smoke activates the alternative pathway of complement by specifically modifying C3 and that these modifications include cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 and formation of noncovalently linked C3 multimers.

  2. Characterization of the third component of complement (C3) after activation by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Kew, R R; Ghebrehiwet, B; Janoff, A

    1987-08-01

    Activation of lung complement by tobacco smoke may be an important pathogenetic factor in the development of pulmonary emphysema in smokers. We previously showed that cigarette smoke can modify C3 and activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. However, the mechanism of C3 activation was not fully delineated in these earlier studies. In the present report, we show that smoke-treated C3 induces cleavage of the alternative pathway protein, Factor B, when added to serum containing Mg-EGTA. This effect of cigarette smoke is specific for C3 since smoke-treated C4, when added to Mg-EGTA-treated serum, fails to activate the alternative pathway and fails to induce Factor B cleavage. Smoke-modified C3 no longer binds significant amounts of [14C]methylamine (as does native C3), and relatively little [14C]methylamine is incorporated into its alpha-chain. Thus, prior internal thiolester bond cleavage appears to have occurred in C3 activated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke components also induce formation of noncovalently associated, soluble C3 multimers, with a Mr ranging from 1 to 10 million. However, prior cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 with methylamine prevents the subsequent formation of these smoke-induced aggregates. These data indicate that cigarette smoke activates the alternative pathway of complement by specifically modifying C3 and that these modifications include cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 and formation of noncovalently linked C3 multimers.

  3. Parental smoking status, stress, anxiety, and depression are associated with susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking school adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Chong, Zhuolin; Khoo, Yi Yi; Kaur, Jasvindar

    2014-09-01

    Susceptibility to smoking is a reliable predictor of smoking initiation. This article describes its prevalence and associated factors among Malaysian school adolescents. Data were obtained from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012, a nationwide representative sample of school adolescents. The overall prevalence of susceptibility to smoking was 6.0% and significantly higher among males (9.5%) compared with females (3.6%). Multivariable analyses revealed that males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70-4.18) and school adolescents of indigenous Sabahan or Sarawakian descents (aOR 1.62, 95%CI 1.21-2.18) were significantly more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Susceptible school adolescents had a slightly higher likelihood to have symptoms of stress (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), anxiety (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40), depression (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.25-1.96), including those whose one or both parents/guardians were smokers (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.21-1.82; aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.22-4.44, respectively). The findings from this study point out the need for proactive measures to reduce smoking initiation among Malaysian adolescents with particular attention toward factors associated with susceptibility to smoking. PMID:25038194

  4. Effects of Smoking Intensity and Cessation on Inflammatory Markers in a Large Cohort of Active Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, Asha; Johnson, Heather M.; Piper, Megan E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.; Stein, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking has been associated with increases in C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocyte counts (WBC); however, the effects of smoking intensity and smoking cessation on inflammatory markers have not been evaluated prospectively in a large, modern cohort of current smokers. Methods WBC count and high-sensitivity CRP were measured in current smokers enrolled in a randomized, prospective clinical trial of five smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Smoking intensity parameters included: cigarettes/day, pack-years, Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels. CRP also was measured after 1 year with assessment of abstinence status. Results The 1,504 current smokers (58% female) were mean (standard deviation): 44.7 (11.1) years old, smoked 21.4 (8.9) cigarettes/day and had a smoking burden of 29.4 (20.4) pack-years. Log (CRP) was not associated with any marker of smoking intensity, except for a weak correlation with pack-years (r=0.05, p=0.047). In contrast, statistically significant correlations were observed between all 4 markers of smoking intensity and WBC count (all p≤0.011). In multivariable models, waist circumference (p<0.001) and triglycerides (p<0.05), but no markers of smoking intensity, were associated with log(CRP). However, pack-years (p=0.002), cigarettes/day (p=0.013), CO (p<0.001), and FTND (p<0.001) were independently associated with WBC count. After 1 year, log(CRP) (p=0.296) and changes in log(CRP) (p=0.455) did not differ between abstainers and continuing smokers. Conclusions Smoking intensity is associated with increased WBC count, but not CRP levels. Smoking cessation does not reduce CRP. The relationship between CRP and smoking intensity may be masked by CRP’s stronger relationship with adiposity. PMID:20826253

  5. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Yelena; Staines-Orozco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on their respiratory system. Objective To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students’ lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%–75%]) and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure) by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1) nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2) nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3) smokers. Results The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%), females (54%), who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%). Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49%) and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%). The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%–75% =66.35±12.55) than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%–75% =78.90±14.65) and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13.61; FEV1/FVC =94.88±21.88; and FEF25%–75% =87.36±17.02) (P<0.001). Similarly, respiratory complaints were more prevalent among smokers and those exposed to SHS when compared to nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS. Conclusion Our findings suggest that initiation of cigarette smoking and, to a

  6. School Smoking Policy Characteristics and Individual Perceptions of the School Tobacco Context: Are They Linked to Students' Smoking Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabiston, Catherine M.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W.; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H. Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10-11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from…

  7. Acute Immune-Inflammatory Responses to a Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise in Smokers; The Effect of Smoking History and Status

    PubMed Central

    Kastelein, Tegan Emma; Duffield, Rob; Marino, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the acute immune and inflammatory responses to exercise in smokers compared to non-smokers, and further, the effect of smoking history on these immune-inflammatory responses. Fifty-four recreationally active males who were either smokers (SM; n = 27) or non-smokers (NS; n = 27) were allocated into either young (YSM, YNS) or middle-aged groups (MSM, MNS) based on smoking status. Participants were matched for fitness and smoking habits and following familiarization and baseline testing, undertook an exercise protocol that involved 40 min of cycle ergometry at 50% of VO2peak. Venous blood was obtained pre- and post- (0 min, 1, and 4 h) exercise to measure circulating leukocytes and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Compared to MNS, MSM showed elevated basal concentrations of MCP-1, which were increased with a longer smoking history (P < 0.05). In response to exercise, YSM demonstrated an amplified IL-6 response from immediately- to 1 h-post compared to YNS. Furthermore, IL-1ra in YSM was elevated above that of YNS across all time points (P < 0.05). The MSM group had higher IL-1β at baseline when compared to YSM, although IL-1ra was greater for YSM at baseline (P < 0.05). Finally, the post-exercise leukocyte response was greater in MSM compared to YSM and non-smokers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, smoker’s exhibit elevated MCP-1 and IL-1β that seem to be evident with a longer smoking history (~15 years). Furthermore, the differences in exercise-induced inflammatory responses noted in YSM may be indicative tobacco smoke exposure priming circulating leukocytes to amplify inflammatory responses. PMID:26779179

  8. IL1RN and KRT13 Expression in Bladder Cancer: Association with Pathologic Characteristics and Smoking Status

    PubMed Central

    Worst, Thomas S.; Reiner, Verena; Gabriel, Ute; Weiß, Christel; Erben, Philipp; Martini, Thomas; Bolenz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To validate microarray data on cytokeratin 13 (KRT13) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) expression in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCB) and to correlate our findings with pathologic characteristics and tobacco smoking. Methods. UCB tissue samples (n = 109) and control samples (n = 14) were obtained from transurethral resection and radical cystectomy specimens. Immunohistochemical staining of KRT13 and IL1RN was performed and semiquantitative expression scores were assessed. Smoking status was evaluated using a standardized questionnaire. Expression scores were correlated with pathologic characteristics (tumor stage and grade) and with smoking status. Results. Loss of KRT13 and IL1RN expression was observed in UCB tissue samples when compared to controls (P = 0.007, P = 0.008) in which KRT13 and IL1RN expression were high. IL1RN expression was significantly reduced in muscle-invasive tumors (P = 0.003). In tissue samples of current smokers, a significant downregulation of IL1RN was found when compared to never smokers (P = 0.013). Conclusion. Decreased expressions of KRT13 and IL1RN are common features of UCB and are associated with aggressive disease. Tobacco smoking may enhance the loss of IL1RN, indicating an overweight of proinflammatory mediators involved in UCB progression. Further validation of the influence of smoking on IL1RN expression is warranted. PMID:25114677

  9. Long-term effects of adolescent smoking on depression and socioeconomic status in adulthood in an urban African American cohort.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carol; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2014-06-01

    Despite known adverse causal effects of cigarette smoking on mental health, findings for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later depression and socioeconomic status remain inconclusive. Previous studies have had shorter follow-up periods and did not have a representative portion of the African American population. Using an analytical method that matches adolescent smokers with nonsmokers on childhood and background variables, this study aims to provide evidence on the effects of adolescent regular smoking on adult depression and socioeconomic status. Our longitudinal study is from the Woodlawn Study that followed 1,242 African Americans in Chicago from 1966-1967 (at age 6-7) through 2002-2003 (at age 42-43). We used a propensity score matching method to find a regular and a non-regular adolescent smoking group with similar childhood socioeconomic and family background and first grade academic and behavioral performance. We compared the matched samples to assess the longitudinal effects of adolescent smoking on adult outcomes. Comparing the matched 199 adolescent regular smokers and 199 non-regular smokers, we found statistical support for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later educational attainment (OR, 2.13; 95 % CI, 1.34, 3.39) and long-term unemployment (OR, 1.74; 95 % CI, 1.11, 2.75), but did not find support for the effects on adulthood major depressive disorders. With a community population of urban African Americans followed for 40 years, our study contributes to the understanding of the relationships between adolescent smoking and later educational attainment and employment.

  10. Comment on "Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China".

    PubMed

    de Vries, Hein

    2007-01-01

    Chen and colleagues describe social factors that are related with Chinese adolescent smoking behaviors [Chen, W., Wen, X., Muscat, J., et al., 2007-this issue. Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China. Prev. Med. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.02.009]. These types of studies in China are very much needed given the fact that smoking is a significant health problem in China. Environmental factors may be more important than sometimes thought, since some studies suggest that smoking onset may not be such a 'reasoned' process by youngsters (Kremers, S.P., Mudde, A.N., de Vries, N.K., Brug, J., de Vries, H., 2004. Unplanned smoking initiation: new insights and implications for interventions. Patient Educ. Couns. 55 (3), 345-52.). Studies indicate that a multitude of factors are related to smoking onset, and thus deserve attention in a smoking prevention approach (see, e.g., [Tyas, S., Pederson, L., 1998. Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature. Tob. Control 7, 409-420; Lantz, P., Jacobson, P., Warner, K., et al., 2000. Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies. Tob. Control 9, 47-63]). The study conclusions were derived from a cross-sectional report. Consequently, one needs to be careful in making conclusions about causal pathways [Bauman, K., Fisher, L., 1986. On the measurement of friend behavior in research on friend influence and selection: findings from longitudinal studies of adolescent smoking and drinking. J. Youth Adolesc. 15 (4), 345-353]. Longitudinal studies also suggest the impact of selection mechanisms implying that adolescents were not pressured to start to smoke, but selected smoking friends. Chen, W., Wen, X., Muscat, J., et al.'s [2007-this issue. Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China. Prev. Med. doi:10

  11. [Tobacco smoking and self-assessment of health status among students from High School of Country Economy in Kutno--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Adamek, Renata; Kurzepa-Hasan, Edyta; Pietrzak, Anna; Zysnarska, Monika; Jagielska, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is still actual and common problem, which affects both students' high schools and their professors. In this study results are presented among students from one private schools in Poland, when students are educated in the following directions: geodesy, Europe science, pedagogy, computer science and nursing. The aim of the study was to assess prevalence of tobacco smoking among students and the awareness of health consequences. It is also decided to check which variables determinate self-assessment of health status of students and what motives of tobacco smoking are. Tobacco smoking was declared by 39% of students, 81.9% of them smoked regular and 18.1% - occasional. The biggest group of tobacco smoking students was noticed in geodesy - 35.4% students and nursing - 29%. Nearly 44% had opinion that tobacco smoking become addicted (22.9% students from nursing, 31.4% from geodesy, 8.6% from Europe science and 143% from pedagogy). Almost 36% students, in their opinion, become addicted to nicotine, over 32% students smoked because of relaxing effects of smoking, 129% smoked for company, The biggest group of surveyed group assess their health status as a good (56.3%) and very good (42%), one person as a very bad - 125%. There are statistical significant dependence between health status and gender, age, study, year of study and place of residence.

  12. The Relationship of Field of Study to Current Smoking Status among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Klatt, Colleen M.; Thomas, Janet L.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; An, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Problem: No research to date has examined smoking rates among the different fields of study and smoking among college students. Thus, this study aimed to determine if smoking prevalence vary among students in the different fields of study. Method: An online health behavior survey was administered to 25,000 students (n=6,492; 26% response rate).…

  13. Glutathione peroxidase activity in a healthy Canadian population. Effects of age, smoking and drinking habits, exercise and oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    L'abbe, M R; Collins, M W; Trick, K D; Laffey, P J

    1992-01-01

    The activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx) has been suggested as an indicator of selenium status. The purpose of this study was to measure the activity of this enzyme in a large sample of healthy, free-living Canadians to determine normal distributions and the effects of age, smoking, and drinking habits, exercise, and the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) or estrogen replacement therapy. The population consisted of 386 self-selected subjects between the ages of 24 and 75. Erythrocyte SeGSHPx activity was 21.5 +or- 7 (Mean +or- SD) and 33.6 +or- 8U/g Hb and plasma activity was 226 +or- 31 and 214 +or- 38 U/L for males (n=239) and females (n=147), respectively. Erythrocyte activity was significantly higher in females and males (p0.01). The Se form of GSHPx accounted for 76% and 54% of total activity in plasma and erythrocytes, respectively. No differences due to age were seen in males, although plasma SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and total GSHPx activities were elevated in females 65 years of age and older. Cigarette smoking significantly elevated erythrocyte SeGSHPx and total activity in male subjects. This elevation did not vary with the amount smoked and was not seen in ex-smokers. Drinking elevated erythrocyte non-SeGSHPx and total activity in male subjects with the highest activity seen in drinkers who also smoked. No significant differences were seen with level of exercise except for a slight elevation with vigorous exercise. Estrogen use significantly elevated erythrocyte SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and total activities in both pre- and postmenopausal women. These data suggest that some lifestyle factors can have small but significant effects of GSHPx activity and must be controlled for when population-based surveys are being conducted.

  14. The Association between Active and Passive Smoking and Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Adults and Children in the United States: Results from NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Ryan P.; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Garfein, Richard S.; Rusch, Melanie L. A.; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies assessing the relationship between active and passive smoking and tuberculosis have used biomarkers to measure smoke exposure. We sought to determine the association between active and passive smoking and LTBI in a representative sample of US adults and children. Methods We used the 1999–2000 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset with tuberculin skin test (TST) data to assess the association between cotinine-confirmed smoke exposure and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among adults ages ≥20 years (n = 3598) and children 3–19 years (n = 2943) and estimate the prevalence of smoke exposure among those with LTBI. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the associations between active and passive smoking and LTBI. Results LTBI prevalence in 1999–2000 among cotinine-confirmed active, passive, and non-smoking adults and children was 6.0%, 5.2%, 3.3% and 0.3%, 1.0%, 1.5%, respectively. This corresponds to approximately 3,556,000 active and 3,379,000 passive smoking adults with LTBI in the US civilian non-institutionalized population in 1999–2000. Controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, birthplace (US vs. foreign-born), household size, and having ever lived with someone with TB, adult active smokers were significantly more likely to have LTBI than non-smoking adults (AOR = 2.31 95% CI 1.17–4.55). Adult passive smokers also had a greater odds of LTBI compared with non-smokers, but this association did not achieve statistical significance (AOR = 2.00 95% CI 0.87–4.60). Neither active or passive smoking was associated with LTBI among children. Among only the foreign-born adults, both active (AOR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.20–5.45) and passive smoking (AOR = 2.27 95% CI 1.09–4.72) were significantly associated with LTBI. Conclusions Active adult smokers and both foreign-born active and passive smokers in the United States are at elevated risk for LTBI

  15. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-03-01

    Despite South Africa's history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans' experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents' close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.25-2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.07-2.29), close others only (RR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.12-3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others' political beliefs and the respondent's political beliefs (RR = 2.86, 95%CI: 1.70-4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions. PMID:24509050

  16. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-03-01

    Despite South Africa's history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans' experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents' close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.25-2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.07-2.29), close others only (RR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.12-3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others' political beliefs and the respondent's political beliefs (RR = 2.86, 95%CI: 1.70-4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions.

  17. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-01-01

    Despite South Africa’s history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans’ experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents’ close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR=1.76, 95%CI: 1.25–2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR=1.56, 95%CI: 1.07–2.29), close others only (RR=1.97, 95%CI: 1.12–3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others’ political beliefs and the respondent’s political beliefs (RR=2.86, 95%CI: 1.70–4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions. PMID:24509050

  18. Demographic, Mental Health, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking Status Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: The P18 Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    D'Avanzo, Paul A.; Yu, Kalvin; Kapadia, Farzana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Young sexual minority men smoke at higher rates relative to heterosexual peers. The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of smoking in a sample of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) who might differ from more general and age-diverse samples of sexual minority individuals and, thus, inform tailored approaches to addressing tobacco use within this population. Methods: Data on smoking status were examined in relation to demographics, mental health, substance use behavior, and psychosocial factors. Using multinomial logistic regression, factors were identified that differentiate current and former smokers from never smokers. Results: In bivariate analysis, smoking status was related to demographic, mental health, substance use, and psychosocial factors. Most significantly, smoking status was associated with school enrollment status, current alcohol and marijuana use, and symptoms of depression. Multivariate modeling revealed that, compared to being a never smoker, the odds of current or former smoking were highest among those currently using either alcohol or marijuana. The odds of both current and former smoking were also higher among those reporting greater levels of gay community affinity. Finally, the odds of being a former smoker were higher for those reporting internalized antihomosexual prejudice. Conclusion: This study identifies several factors related to smoking status in a diverse sample of young sexual minority males. These findings should encourage investigations of smoking disparities among younger MSM to look beyond common smoking risk factors in an attempt to understand etiologies that may be unique to this group. Such findings may indicate multiple points of potential intervention aimed at decreasing cigarette smoking within this vulnerable population. PMID:27158762

  19. Status report of RMS active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Mike; Demeo, Martha E.

    1993-01-01

    A status report of Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation is presented. Topics covered include: active damping augmentation; benefits of RMS ADA; simulated payload definition; sensor and actuator definition; ADA control law design; Shuttle Engineering Simulator (SES) real-time simulation; and astronaut evaluation.

  20. Association between smoking status and the parameters of vascular structure and function in adults: results from the EVIDENT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study analyses the relation between smoking status and the parameters used to assess vascular structure and function. Methods This cross-sectional, multi-centre study involved a random sample of 1553 participants from the EVIDENT study. Measurements: The smoking status, peripheral augmentation index and ankle-brachial index were measured in all participants. In a small subset of the main population (265 participants), the carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity were also measured. Results After controlling for the effect of age, sex and other risk factors, present smokers have higher values of carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0.011). Along the same lines, current smokers have higher values of pulse wave velocity and lower mean values of ankle-brachial index but without statistical significance in both cases. Conclusions Among the parameters of vascular structure and function analysed, only the IMT shows association with the smoking status, after adjusting for confounders. PMID:24289208

  1. Weight Status and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen; Blanco, Estela; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Wing, David; Godino, Job G.; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    We tested the independent and combined influence of overweight/obesity and meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (≥60 minutes per day) on cardiometabolic risk factors among healthy adolescents. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and activity by accelerometer in 223 adolescents. They were categorized as overweight/obese versus normal weight and meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for MVPA per day. Adolescents were 16.8 years, 41% overweight/obese, 30% met MVPA guidelines, 50% low high-density lipoprotein, 22% high triglycerides, 12% high blood pressure, and 6% high fasting glucose. Controlling for sex, overweight/obese adolescents who did not meet MVPA guidelines had 4.0 and 11.9 increased odds for elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure, respectively, compared to normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines. Overweight/obese and normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines did not differ in cardiometabolic risk factors. Among overweight/obese adolescents, being physically active attenuated the likelihood of high triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. PMID:27803943

  2. Fear of fatness and drive for thinness in predicting smoking status in college women.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Amy L; Spears, Claire A; Baillie, Lauren E; McVay, Megan A

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has identified fear of fatness (FF) as a related yet distinct construct from drive for thinness (DT). Whereas DT may be associated with need for approval and an "approach" tendency, FF may be more strongly related to avoidance of disapproval and an avoidant problem-solving style. Although no research has directly compared the influence of FF vs. DT with regard to smoking behavior, FF and DT might represent distinct motivations for smoking. We predicted that both FF and DT would be significantly associated with cigarette smoking, but that FF would be a stronger predictor of smoking behavior, even after controlling for variables such as body mass index (BMI) and nicotine dependence. Participants (N=289) were female college undergraduate students. Daily smokers had the highest scores on measures of DT and FF, followed sequentially by infrequent smokers, "triers," and never smokers. More frequent smokers also reported greater levels of body dissatisfaction and eating pathology than less frequent and never-smokers. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that greater DT predicted higher likelihood of smoking on a daily basis; however, higher FF predicted fewer cigarettes smoked per day. FF and DT may each play a role in the relationship between eating pathology and smoking, but they might be differentially related to specific smoking patterns. Both FF and DT and their coinciding coping styles should be further researched in the role of smoking initiation and maintenance. PMID:26656671

  3. Fear of fatness and drive for thinness in predicting smoking status in college women.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Amy L; Spears, Claire A; Baillie, Lauren E; McVay, Megan A

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has identified fear of fatness (FF) as a related yet distinct construct from drive for thinness (DT). Whereas DT may be associated with need for approval and an "approach" tendency, FF may be more strongly related to avoidance of disapproval and an avoidant problem-solving style. Although no research has directly compared the influence of FF vs. DT with regard to smoking behavior, FF and DT might represent distinct motivations for smoking. We predicted that both FF and DT would be significantly associated with cigarette smoking, but that FF would be a stronger predictor of smoking behavior, even after controlling for variables such as body mass index (BMI) and nicotine dependence. Participants (N=289) were female college undergraduate students. Daily smokers had the highest scores on measures of DT and FF, followed sequentially by infrequent smokers, "triers," and never smokers. More frequent smokers also reported greater levels of body dissatisfaction and eating pathology than less frequent and never-smokers. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that greater DT predicted higher likelihood of smoking on a daily basis; however, higher FF predicted fewer cigarettes smoked per day. FF and DT may each play a role in the relationship between eating pathology and smoking, but they might be differentially related to specific smoking patterns. Both FF and DT and their coinciding coping styles should be further researched in the role of smoking initiation and maintenance.

  4. Childhood Growth Trajectories According to Combinations of Pregestational Weight Status and Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kohta; Sato, Miri; Zheng, Wei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2015-01-01

    Pregestational weight status and maternal smoking during pregnancy are significantly associated with fetal and childhood growth. However, few studies have examined associations between childhood growth and combinations of these factors using multilevel analysis. This study aimed to describe differences in childhood growth trajectories according to these combinations, using data from a prospective cohort study in Japan. The study participants were 1,973 women and their singletons, who were born between April 1, 1991 and March 31, 2003. Children were categorized according to whether they were born to normal-weight, nonsmoking mothers (NN); normal-weight, smoking mothers (NS); underweight, nonsmoking mothers (UN); underweight, smoking mothers (US); overweight, nonsmoking mothers (ON); or overweight, smoking mothers (OS). Birth weight and anthropometric data were collected from 1,965 children at birth (99.6%), 1,655 aged 3 (83.9%), 1,527 aged 5 (77.4%), 1,497 aged 7–8 (75.9%), and 1,501 aged 9–10 (76.1%). Multilevel analysis examining both individual and age as different level variables according to sex was used to describe the trajectories of body mass index z scores for statistical analyses. Although children of the OS group were the leanest at birth, their body mass indices had increased rapidly by 3 years of age. Moreover, body mass index was also likely to increase in boys in the NS and ON groups. A different trend was observed in girls. Body mass index decreased from 5 years of age in girls in the US group. There were no remarkable differences in body mass index trajectories between children in the other groups. In conclusion, childhood growth trajectories differed according to combinations of pregestational weight status and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Further, there were sex-related differences in the associations between childhood growth and factor combinations. PMID:25680116

  5. Childhood growth trajectories according to combinations of pregestational weight status and maternal smoking during pregnancy: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kohta; Sato, Miri; Zheng, Wei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2015-01-01

    Pregestational weight status and maternal smoking during pregnancy are significantly associated with fetal and childhood growth. However, few studies have examined associations between childhood growth and combinations of these factors using multilevel analysis. This study aimed to describe differences in childhood growth trajectories according to these combinations, using data from a prospective cohort study in Japan. The study participants were 1,973 women and their singletons, who were born between April 1, 1991 and March 31, 2003. Children were categorized according to whether they were born to normal-weight, nonsmoking mothers (NN); normal-weight, smoking mothers (NS); underweight, nonsmoking mothers (UN); underweight, smoking mothers (US); overweight, nonsmoking mothers (ON); or overweight, smoking mothers (OS). Birth weight and anthropometric data were collected from 1,965 children at birth (99.6%), 1,655 aged 3 (83.9%), 1,527 aged 5 (77.4%), 1,497 aged 7-8 (75.9%), and 1,501 aged 9-10 (76.1%). Multilevel analysis examining both individual and age as different level variables according to sex was used to describe the trajectories of body mass index z scores for statistical analyses. Although children of the OS group were the leanest at birth, their body mass indices had increased rapidly by 3 years of age. Moreover, body mass index was also likely to increase in boys in the NS and ON groups. A different trend was observed in girls. Body mass index decreased from 5 years of age in girls in the US group. There were no remarkable differences in body mass index trajectories between children in the other groups. In conclusion, childhood growth trajectories differed according to combinations of pregestational weight status and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Further, there were sex-related differences in the associations between childhood growth and factor combinations.

  6. Effects of cigarette smoke on aerobic capacity and serum MDA content and SOD activity of animal

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Zhi; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Study the effects of cigarette smoke on aerobic capacity, serum MDA content and SOD activity of animal. Methods: 60 male mice are randomly divided into mild smoking group, heavy smoking group, and control group, and the exhausted swimming time, serum SOD activity and MDA content of the three groups of mice are respectively measured before and after the experiment. Results: After the experiment, the exhausted swimming time for the control group, mild smoking and heavy smoking groups is respectively 276.57 min, 215.57 min and 176.54 min, and the serum SOD activities for the three objects are 216.46 U/mL, 169.16 U/mL and 154.91 U/mL, and the MDA contents are respectively 16.41 mol/mL, 22.31 mol/mL and 23.55 mol/mL. According to the comparison, it is found that compared with the control group and pre-intervention, the exhausted swimming time and serum SOD activity of the smoking group decreases obviously, and its MDA content rises sharply, and the difference has significance (P < 0.05), moreover, the heavy smoking group has more obvious changes than the mild group. Conclusion: Cigarette smoke can significantly weaken the aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance of mice, and the more the smoking time is longer, the more the harmful effect is more serious, this is related to the SOD activity drops and MDA content rises due to smoking. PMID:25550969

  7. Active and passive cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk: results from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Gram, Inger T; Vilier, Alice; Fervers, Béatrice; Manjer, Jonas; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Sarantopoulou, Maria; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Bakker, Marieke F; Peeters, Petra Hm; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bjerkaas, Eivind; Braaten, Tonje; Menéndez, Virginia; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Barricarte, Aurelio; Butt, Salma; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; McCormack, Valerie; Romieu, Isabelle; Cox, David G; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2014-04-15

    Recent cohort studies suggest that increased breast cancer risks were associated with longer smoking duration, higher pack-years and a dose-response relationship with increasing pack-years of smoking between menarche and first full-term pregnancy (FFTP). Studies with comprehensive quantitative life-time measures of passive smoking suggest an association between passive smoking dose and breast cancer risk. We conducted a study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition to examine the association between passive and active smoking and risk of invasive breast cancer and possible effect modification by known breast cancer risk factors. Among the 322,988 women eligible for the study, 9,822 developed breast cancer (183,608 women with passive smoking information including 6,264 cases). When compared to women who never smoked and were not being exposed to passive smoking at home or work at the time of study registration, current, former and currently exposed passive smokers were at increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratios (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.16 [1.05-1.28], 1.14 [1.04-1.25] and 1.10 [1.01-1.20], respectively). Analyses exploring associations in different periods of life showed the most important increase in risk with pack-years from menarche to FFTP (1.73 [1.29-2.32] for every increase of 20 pack-years) while pack-years smoked after menopause were associated with a significant decrease in breast cancer risk (HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.82 for every increase of 20 pack-years). Our results provide an important replication, in the largest cohort to date, that smoking (passively or actively) increases breast cancer risk and that smoking between menarche and FFTP is particularly deleterious.

  8. Active and passive cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk: results from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Gram, Inger T; Vilier, Alice; Fervers, Béatrice; Manjer, Jonas; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Sarantopoulou, Maria; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Bakker, Marieke F; Peeters, Petra Hm; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bjerkaas, Eivind; Braaten, Tonje; Menéndez, Virginia; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Barricarte, Aurelio; Butt, Salma; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; McCormack, Valerie; Romieu, Isabelle; Cox, David G; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2014-04-15

    Recent cohort studies suggest that increased breast cancer risks were associated with longer smoking duration, higher pack-years and a dose-response relationship with increasing pack-years of smoking between menarche and first full-term pregnancy (FFTP). Studies with comprehensive quantitative life-time measures of passive smoking suggest an association between passive smoking dose and breast cancer risk. We conducted a study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition to examine the association between passive and active smoking and risk of invasive breast cancer and possible effect modification by known breast cancer risk factors. Among the 322,988 women eligible for the study, 9,822 developed breast cancer (183,608 women with passive smoking information including 6,264 cases). When compared to women who never smoked and were not being exposed to passive smoking at home or work at the time of study registration, current, former and currently exposed passive smokers were at increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratios (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.16 [1.05-1.28], 1.14 [1.04-1.25] and 1.10 [1.01-1.20], respectively). Analyses exploring associations in different periods of life showed the most important increase in risk with pack-years from menarche to FFTP (1.73 [1.29-2.32] for every increase of 20 pack-years) while pack-years smoked after menopause were associated with a significant decrease in breast cancer risk (HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.82 for every increase of 20 pack-years). Our results provide an important replication, in the largest cohort to date, that smoking (passively or actively) increases breast cancer risk and that smoking between menarche and FFTP is particularly deleterious. PMID:24590452

  9. Active Smoking May Negatively Affect Response Rate, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival of Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated With Sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Keizman, Daniel; Gottfried, Maya; Ish-Shalom, Maya; Maimon, Natalie; Peer, Avivit; Neumann, Avivit; Hammers, Hans; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Sinibaldi, Victoria; Pili, Roberto; Hayat, Henry; Kovel, Svetlana; Sella, Avishay; Boursi, Ben; Weitzen, Rony; Mermershtain, Wilmosh; Rouvinov, Keren; Berger, Raanan; Carducci, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes are risk factors for renal cell carcinoma development. Their presence has been associated with a worse outcome in various cancers. We sought to determine their association with outcome of sunitinib treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Methods. An international multicenter retrospective study of sunitinib-treated mRCC patients was performed. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between outcome and the pretreatment status of smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and other known prognostic factors. Results. Between 2004 and 2013, 278 mRCC patients were treated with sunitinib: 59 were active smokers, 67 were obese, 73 were diabetic, and 165 had pretreatment hypertension. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9 months, and overall survival (OS) was 22 months. Factors associated with PFS were smoking status (past and active smokers: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.17, p = .39; never smokers: HR: 2.94, p < .0001), non-clear cell histology (HR: 1.62, p = .011), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 3.51, p < .0001), use of angiotensin system inhibitors (HR: 0.63, p = .01), sunitinib dose reduction or treatment interruption (HR: 0.72, p = .045), and Heng risk (good and intermediate risk: HR: 1.07, p = .77; poor risk: HR: 1.87, p = .046). Factors associated with OS were smoking status (past and active smokers: HR: 1.25, p = .29; never smokers: HR: 2.7, p < .0001), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 2.95, p < .0001), and sunitinib-induced hypertension (HR: 0.57, p = .002). Conclusion. Active smoking may negatively affect the PFS and OS of sunitinib-treated mRCC. Clinicians should consider advising patients to quit smoking at initiation of sunitinib treatment for mRCC. PMID:24309979

  10. Active and passive smoking, IL6, ESR1, and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Karen; Giuliano, Anna R.; Sweeney, Carol; Baumgartner, Richard; Edwards, Sandra; Wolff, Roger K.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Byers, Tim

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the association between smoking and risk of breast cancer in non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Hispanic or American Indian (HAI) women living in the Southwestern United States. Data on lifetime exposure to active and passive smoke data were available from 1527 NHW cases and 1601 NHW controls; 798 HAI cases and 924 HAI controls. Interleukin 6 (IL6) and Estrogen Receptor alpha (ESR1) polymorphisms were assessed in conjunction with smoking. Pack-years of smoking (≥15) were associated with increased risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer among NHW women (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2. 4). Passive smoke increased risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer for HAI women (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.1 everyone; OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2–4.5 nonsmokers). HAI pre-menopausal women who were exposed to 10+ h of passive smoke per week and had the rs2069832 IL6 GG genotype had over a fourfold increased risk of breast cancer (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.5–12.8; P for interaction 0.01). Those with the ESR1 Xba1 AA genotype had a threefold increased risk of breast cancer if they smoked ≥15 pack-years relative to non-smokers (P interaction 0.01). These data suggest that breast cancer risk is associated with active and passive smoking. PMID:17594514

  11. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A.; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E. Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (n=79) 18–26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On two subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (p’s > .05). Physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms (β=−5.23, CI= −6.93, −3.52; p<0.001), negative mood (β=−2.92, CI= −4.13, −1.72; p<0.001), and urge to smoke (β=−7.13, CI= −9.39, −4.86; p<0.001). Also, physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted increased positive affect (β=3.08, CI= 1.87, 4.28; p<0.001) and pleasurable feelings (β=1.07, CI= 0.58, 1.55; p<0.001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=211.76, CI= 32.54, 390.98; p=0.02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings (β=0.22, CI= 0.01 – 0.43, p=0.045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=0.04, CI= 0.01, 0.08; p=0.02), and reduced time to first cigarette (β=−163.00, CI = −323.50, −2.49; p=0.047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produces effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. PMID:26348158

  12. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults.

    PubMed

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E Paul

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated-measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (N = 79) 18-26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On 2 subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (ps > .05). Physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms, β = -5.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-6.93, -3.52] (p < .001), negative mood, β = -2.92, 95% CI [-4.13, -1.72] (p < .001), and urge to smoke. β = -7.13, 95% CI [-9.39, -4.86] (p < .001). Also, physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted increased positive affect, β = 3.08, 95% CI [1.87, 4.28] (p < .001) and pleasurable feelings, β = 1.07, 95% CI [0.58, 1.55] (p < .001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad libitum smoking period, β = 211.76, 95% CI [32.54, 390.98] (p = .02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings, β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.01, 0.43] (p = .045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad libitum smoking period, β = 0.04, 95% CI [0.01, 0.08] (p = .02), and reduced time to first cigarette, β = -163.00, 95% CI [-323.50, -2.49] (p = .047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produced effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative.

  13. Sequential combination of self-report, breath carbon monoxide, and saliva cotinine to assess smoking status.

    PubMed

    Javors, M A; Hatch, J P; Lamb, R J

    2011-01-15

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an algorithm for the cost effective and accurate assessment of smoking during the previous few days by combining self-report, breath carbon monoxide (BCO), and saliva cotinine (sCOT). These measurements are convenient, quantitative, and do not require invasive procedures. The data used to devise the algorithm were gathered during a treatment trial of participants seeking to stop smoking. Self-report of smoking was determined using a written questionnaire, BCO was measured with a handheld breathalyzer, and sCOT was quantified using a high sensitivity ELISA. Participants were 130 males and 97 females between the ages of 19 and 67 years who reported smoking at least 15 cigarettes a day and had a BCO level ≥ 15 ppm. Self-reports and BCO levels were collected at each of 6 visits (V0-V5) and sCOT levels were determined at V0 and V5. Based on the data collected, we recommend that the sequential determination of self-reported smoking, BCO level, and sCOT level be employed to assess smoking during the previous few days to minimize the higher cost and longer turnaround time associated with the sCOT test while maximizing accuracy. PMID:20822867

  14. Discrepancy between Self-Reported and Urine-Cotinine Verified Smoking Status among Korean Male Adults: Analysis of Health Check-Up Data from a Single Private Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngju; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Oh, Seung-Won; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kwon, Hyuktae; Um, Yoo-Jin; Ahn, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background Enquiry into smoking status and recommendations for smoking cessation is an essential preventive service. However, there are few studies comparing self-reported (SR) and cotinine-verified (CV) smoking statuses, using medical check-up data. The rates of discrepancy and under-reporting are unknown. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study using health examination data from Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital in 2013. We analyzed SR and CV smoking statuses and discrepancies between the two in relation to sociodemographic variables. We also attempted to ascertain the factors associated with a discrepant smoking status among current smokers. Results In the sample of 3,477 men, CV smoking rate was 11.1% higher than the SR rate. About 1 in 3 participants either omitted the smoking questionnaire or gave a false reply. The ratio of CV to SR smoking rates was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38–1.61). After adjusting for confounding factors, older adults (≥60 years) showed an increased adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for discrepancy between SR and CV when compared to those in their twenties and thirties (aOR, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.69–10.96). Educational levels of high school graduation or lower (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.36–4.01), repeated health check-ups (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.03–2.06), and low cotinine levels of <500 ng/mL (aOR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.33–3.09), were also associated with discordance between SR and CV smoking status. Conclusion Omissions and false responses impede the accurate assessment of smoking status in health check-up participants. In order to improve accuracy, it is suggested that researcher pay attention to participants with greater discrepancy between SR and CV smoking status, and formulate interventions to improve response rates. PMID:27274388

  15. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sorak-Pokrajac, M.; Dermelj, M.; Slejkovec, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extremely important. As one of the volatile elements it can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis.

  16. Characteristics of Jamaicans who smoke marijuana before sex and their risk status for sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Simeon, D T; Bain, B C; Wyatt, G E; LeFranc, E; Ricketts, H; Chambers, C C; Tucker, M B

    1996-03-01

    Because of the high prevalence of marijuana smoking in Jamaica, it is important to know if this practice is associated with increased risk for STD infections. A national sample of 2 580 randomly selected Jamaicans, aged 15 to 49 years were administered a questionnaire to measure a number of health and behavioural variables. The results indicated that more persons who smoked marijuana before sex had a history of STD infections than non-marijuana smokers, the difference was significant among men (46% vs 26%, p < 0.001) but not among women (19% vs 8%, p = 0.09). There was no difference in age, however, more of the smokers were unmarried, poorly educated and unemployed than persons who did not smoke marijuana before sex. They were also more likely to engage in high risk sex behaviours and other risk taking behaviors than non-smokers. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that marijuana smoking before sex was an independent risk factor for STDs among men (Odds Ratio = 2.0, p = 0.04). Although it was not possible to determine if the association was causal, the increased risk for STDs among men who smoke marijuana before sex should be incorporated into the Jamaican STD/AIDS control programme by making special efforts to encourage condom use among marijuana smokers.

  17. Physical activity, smoking, and exercise-induced fatigue.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J R; Crow, R S; Jacobs, D R; Mittelmark, M B; Leon, A S

    1984-06-01

    This study determined whether persons with coronary risk factors have increased fatigue during or after exercise. Ratings of perceived exertion were first shown to be a valid measure of fatigue; i.e., ratings of perceived exertion correlated with heart rate both during and after exercise and at each of three exercise tests (all within-subjects r greater than 0.88). Physical inactivity and smoking were associated with increased fatigue. Inactive men and smokers had higher levels of fatigue during both exercise and recovery conditions and at each of three exercise test. The increased fatigue of men who were inactive and smoked was not entirely due to their lower level of fitness. The risk factors of age, Type A behavior pattern, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein, and obesity were not associated with increased fatigue. The increased fatigue experienced by inactive persons and smokers may account for their decreased compliance to exercise programs.

  18. Exposure to Hookah and Cigarette Smoke in Children and Adolescents According to Their Socio-Economic Status: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Shahsanai, Armindokht; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ardalan, Gelayol; Poursafa, Parinaz; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking or passive smoking is one of serious health problems especially in the pediatric age group. Objectives To compare the prevalence and determinants of passive smoking in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents according to their socioeconomic status (SES). Materials and Methods This nationwide study was conducted in 2011 - 2012 among 14880 students aged 6 - 18 years, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Exposure to the smoke of hookah or cigarette was documented by using validated questionnaires. Possible influencing factors were determined and the frequency of passive smoking was compared according to the regional and familial SES. Results Participants consisted of 13,486 children and adolescents including 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban inhabitants (90.6% participation rate). The mean age of participants was 12.47 ± 3.36 years. Overall, 43.87% of them (44.07% of boys and 43.66% of girls) were exposed to second hand smoke at home. Exposures to hookah or cigarette smoke at home were respectively reported in 21.46% and 34.49% of participants. The prevalence of passive smoking was lower in children of families with higher SES level, but higher in high SES regions of the country than in low SES ones, and ranged from 39.2% in the region with lowest SES to 49.05% in the highest SES region. Higher education levels of fathers and mothers were significantly associated with lower frequency of passive smoking. Conclusions Exposure to second hand smoke is a major problem among Iranian children and adolescents. Low family SES and low parental education increased the frequency of passive smoking. Appropriate public health education and legislation for smoke free home as well as family-centered counseling should be strengthened. PMID:27781078

  19. The Association of Recreational Space with Youth Smoking in Low Socio-Economic Status Neighborhoods in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Andrade, Fernando H.; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the relationship of neighborhood recreational space with youth smoking in mid- to low- income areas in the capital of Chile, Santiago. Methods A unique data set of adolescents (n=779, mean age=14, 51% male) provided home addresses of study participants which were geocoded and mapped. Satellite maps of neighborhoods were used to identify open spaces for recreational use (e.g., soccer fields and plazas). Thiessen polygons were generated to associate study participants with the nearest available open space using ArcGIS. Regression models, with smoking as a dependent variable, were estimated in which age, sex, family socioeconomic status, peer substance usage, neighborhood crime, and accessibility of open space were covariates. Results The results show that residential proximity to recreational space was associated with decreases in tobacco consumption among female adolescents but this association was not statistically significant among male adolescents. Age and neighborhood crime were the common contributing factors for tobacco consumption across both male and female adolescents. Conclusions This study suggests that recreational spaces in proximity to residences may have a positive impact on reducing adolescents’ inclination to consume tobacco. The relationship of the accessibility to such spaces with smoking appears to vary by adolescents’ sex. PMID:23722521

  20. Cigarette smoking adversely affects disease activity and disease-specific quality of life in patients with Crohn’s disease at a tertiary referral center

    PubMed Central

    Quezada, Sandra M; Langenberg, Patricia; Cross, Raymond K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Smoking has a negative impact on disease activity in Crohn’s disease (CD). Smoking may also affect the quality of life, but this has not been evaluated using validated measures over time. We assessed the relationship between smoking and disease-specific quality of life over time in a tertiary referral inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Patients and methods Retrospective cohort study from July 2004 to July 2009 in patients with CD identified from the University of Maryland, Baltimore, Institutional Review Board-approved University of Maryland School of Medicine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Program database. Smoking status was classified as current, former, and never. Age was categorized as <40 years, 40–59 years, and ≥60 years. Index visit disease activity and quality of life was measured with the Harvey–Bradshaw index, and the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ). Repeated measures linear regression was used to assess the association between smoking and quality of life over time after adjustment for confounding variables. Results A total of 608 patients were included, of whom 42% were male; 80% were Caucasian; 22% were current smokers; 24% were former smokers; and 54% were never smokers. Over time, adjusted Harvey–Bradshaw index scores declined in all patients, but current smokers had consistently higher scores. After adjustment for sex, age, and disease duration, never smokers had higher mean SIBDQ scores at index visit compared to former and current smokers (P<0.0001); all increased over time but SIBDQ scores for never smokers remained consistently highest. Conclusion Smoking has a negative impact on disease activity and quality of life in patients with CD. Prospects of improved disease activity and quality of life should be proposed as an additional incentive to encourage smoking cessation in patients with CD. PMID:27703391

  1. A cross-sectional exploration of smoking status and social interaction in a large population-based Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Chiew, May; Weber, Marianne F; Egger, Sam; Sitas, Freddy

    2012-07-01

    We used cross-sectional data to investigate whether current, past and never smokers report different levels of social interaction and whether the level of social interaction varied according to the type of interaction being measured. Self-reported questionnaire data were obtained from 239,043 men and women aged 45 years or older living in Australia between February 2006 and February 2010. The study participation rate was 18%. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the percentage differences in the mean values of four social interaction outcomes according to smoking status after adjusting for age, place of residence, income, education, health insurance status, physical limitation, psychological distress and exposure to passive smoke: number of times 1) spent with friends/family, 2) spoken on the telephone, 3) attended social meetings in the past week, and 4) number of people outside of home that can be depended upon. 7.6% of males and 6.9% of females were current smokers, 43.6% of males and 28.6% of females were ex-smokers and 48.8% of males and 64.5% of females had never smoked. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported significantly fewer social interactions in the past week and had fewer people outside the home that they could depend on. Men and women current smokers attended 24.0% (95% CI, 20.3, 27.5) and 31.1% (95% CI, 28.1, 34.1) fewer social group meetings on average than never smokers. Smokers exposed to passive smoke reported higher levels of social interaction than those not exposed. Past smokers reported levels of social interaction that were intermediate to those of current and never smokers and the more years they had abstained from smoking, the more social interaction they reported on average. Our data are in line with previous research showing that smokers are not only worse off economically, physically and mentally, but are also less likely to be socially connected.

  2. A cross-sectional exploration of smoking status and social interaction in a large population-based Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Chiew, May; Weber, Marianne F; Egger, Sam; Sitas, Freddy

    2012-07-01

    We used cross-sectional data to investigate whether current, past and never smokers report different levels of social interaction and whether the level of social interaction varied according to the type of interaction being measured. Self-reported questionnaire data were obtained from 239,043 men and women aged 45 years or older living in Australia between February 2006 and February 2010. The study participation rate was 18%. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the percentage differences in the mean values of four social interaction outcomes according to smoking status after adjusting for age, place of residence, income, education, health insurance status, physical limitation, psychological distress and exposure to passive smoke: number of times 1) spent with friends/family, 2) spoken on the telephone, 3) attended social meetings in the past week, and 4) number of people outside of home that can be depended upon. 7.6% of males and 6.9% of females were current smokers, 43.6% of males and 28.6% of females were ex-smokers and 48.8% of males and 64.5% of females had never smoked. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported significantly fewer social interactions in the past week and had fewer people outside the home that they could depend on. Men and women current smokers attended 24.0% (95% CI, 20.3, 27.5) and 31.1% (95% CI, 28.1, 34.1) fewer social group meetings on average than never smokers. Smokers exposed to passive smoke reported higher levels of social interaction than those not exposed. Past smokers reported levels of social interaction that were intermediate to those of current and never smokers and the more years they had abstained from smoking, the more social interaction they reported on average. Our data are in line with previous research showing that smokers are not only worse off economically, physically and mentally, but are also less likely to be socially connected. PMID:22495512

  3. Smoking Cessation among Low-Socioeconomic Status and Disadvantaged Population Groups: A Systematic Review of Research Output

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Ryan J.; Naicker, Sundresan; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Clare, Philip; Martire, Kristy A.; Mattick, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking cessation research output should move beyond descriptive research of the health problem to testing interventions that can provide causal data and effective evidence-based solutions. This review examined the number and type of published smoking cessation studies conducted in low-socioeconomic status (low-SES) and disadvantaged population groups. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted for two time periods: 2000–2004 (TP1) and 2008–2012 (TP2). Publications that examined smoking cessation in a low-SES or disadvantaged population were coded by: population of interest; study type (reviews, non-data based publications, data-based publications (descriptive, measurement and intervention research)); and country. Intervention studies were coded in accordance with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care data collection checklist and use of biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence was assessed. Results: 278 citations were included. Research output (i.e., all study types) had increased from TP1 27% to TP2 73% (χ² = 73.13, p < 0.001), however, the proportion of data-based research had not significantly increased from TP1 and TP2: descriptive (TP1 = 23% vs. TP2 = 33%) or intervention (TP1 = 77% vs. TP2 = 67%). The proportion of intervention studies adopting biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence had significantly decreased from TP1 to TP2 with an increased reliance on self-reported abstinence (TP1 = 12% vs. TP2 = 36%). Conclusions: The current research output is not ideal or optimal to decrease smoking rates. Research institutions, scholars and funding organisations should take heed to review findings when developing future research and policy. PMID:26062037

  4. Evaluation of HPV Infection and Smoking Status Impacts on Cell Proliferation in Epithelial Layers of Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Guillaud, Martial; Buys, Timon P. H.; Carraro, Anita; Korbelik, Jagoda; Follen, Michele; Scheurer, Michael; Storthz, Karen Adler; van Niekerk, Dirk; MacAulay, Calum E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesion grading is needed for effective patient management. We applied computer-assisted scanning and analytic approaches to immuno-stained CIN lesion sections to more accurately delineate disease states and decipher cell proliferation impacts from HPV and smoking within individual epithelial layers. A patient cohort undergoing cervical screening was identified (n = 196) and biopsies of varying disease grades and with intact basement membranes and epithelial layers were obtained (n = 261). Specimens were sectioned, stained (Mib1), and scanned using a high-resolution imaging system. We achieved semi-automated delineation of proliferation status and epithelial cell layers using Otsu segmentation, manual image review, Voronoi tessellation, and immuno-staining. Data were interrogated against known status for HPV infection, smoking, and disease grade. We observed increased cell proliferation and decreased epithelial thickness with increased disease grade (when analyzing the epithelium at full thickness). Analysis within individual cell layers showed a ≥50% increase in cell proliferation for CIN2 vs. CIN1 lesions in higher epithelial layers (with minimal differences seen in basal/parabasal layers). Higher rates of proliferation for HPV-positive vs. -negative cases were seen in epithelial layers beyond the basal/parabasal layers in normal and CIN1 tissues. Comparing smokers vs. non-smokers, we observed increased cell proliferation in parabasal (low and high grade lesions) and basal layers (high grade only). In sum, we report CIN grade-specific differences in cell proliferation within individual epithelial layers. We also show HPV and smoking impacts on cell layer-specific proliferation. Our findings yield insight into CIN progression biology and demonstrate that rigorous, semi-automated imaging of histopathological specimens may be applied to improve disease grading accuracy. PMID:25210770

  5. Modification of LCAT activity and HDL structure. New links between cigarette smoke and coronary heart disease risk.

    PubMed

    McCall, M R; van den Berg, J J; Kuypers, F A; Tribble, D L; Krauss, R M; Knoff, L J; Forte, T M

    1994-02-01

    The mechanism(s) through which smoking influences the progression of atherosclerosis is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that oxidants present in the gas phase of cigarette smoke are involved. We exposed human plasma to the filtered gas phase of cigarette smoke to assess its effects on plasma components involved in the antiatherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. In our model, freshly isolated plasma (24 mL) was exposed to filtered air or gas-phase cigarette smoke for up to 6 hours at 37 degrees C. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity was dramatically inhibited by cigarette smoke. A single 15-minute exposure to the smoke from an eighth of a cigarette was sufficient to reduce LCAT activity by 7%; additional exposures resulted in further decreases in activity. At 6 hours, only 22% of control LCAT activity remained in plasma exposed to smoke. Compared with control, gas-phase cigarette smoke-exposed plasma possessed high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with increased (16%) negative charge and with cross-linked apolipoproteins AI and AII. These data demonstrate that gas-phase cigarette smoke can inhibit a key enzyme (LCAT) and modify an integral lipid transport particle (HDL) that are essential components for the normal function of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Gas-phase cigarette smoke-induced modification of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway may provide a new mechanistic link between cigarette smoke and coronary heart disease risk.

  6. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  7. Defining Cigarette Smoking Status in Young Adults: A Comparison of Adolescent vs Adult Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among young adults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 young adults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…

  8. Modeling the activation of tobacco smoking expectancies in memory in relation to use patterns.

    PubMed

    Linkovich-Kyle, Tiffany Leigh; Schreiner, Amy M; Dunn, Michael E

    2012-04-01

    Methodology that has led to successful strategies to reduce alcohol use was applied to tobacco smoking expectancies. Individual differences scaling was used to empirically model a semantic network of associations stored in memory and preference mapping was used to model likely paths of expectancy activation for groups with different smoking histories. Smokers emphasized an external appearance-internal experience dimension and were more likely to activate expectancies of negative affect reduction. Nonsmokers emphasized a positive-negative dimension and were more likely to activate expectancies of health risks and reduced physical attractiveness. Proportionate frequencies of first associates' validated findings of the MDS-based solutions. Future efforts to alter likely activation patterns may successfully reduce the onset of smoking, enhance quit rates, and reduce relapse. PMID:22178600

  9. Online social activity reflects economic status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  10. Active and passive smoking and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Macacu, Alina; Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu; Boyle, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Studies on active and passive tobacco smoking and breast cancer have found inconsistent results. A meta-analysis of observational studies on tobacco smoking and breast cancer occurrence was conducted based on systematic searches for studies with retrospective (case-control) and prospective (cohort) designs. Eligible studies were identified, and relative risk measurements were extracted for active and passive tobacco exposures. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to compute summary relative risks (SRR). Heterogeneity of results between studies was evaluated using the (I (2)) statistics. For ever active smoking, in 27 prospective studies, the SRR for breast cancer was 1.10 (95 % CI [1.09-1.12]) with no heterogeneity (I (2) = 0 %). In 44 retrospective studies, the SRR was 1.08 (95 % CI [1.02-1.14]) with high heterogeneity (I (2) = 59 %). SRRs for current active smoking were 1.13 (95 % CI [1.09-1.17]) in 27 prospective studies and 1.08 (95 % CI [0.97-1.20]) in 22 retrospective studies. The results were stable across different subgroup analyses, notably pre/post-menopause, alcohol consumption adjustments, including/excluding passive smokers from the referent group. For ever passive smoking, in 11 prospective studies, the SRR for breast cancer was 1.07 (95 % CI [1.02-1.13]) with no heterogeneity (I (2) = 1 %). In 20 retrospective studies, the SRR was 1.30 (95 % CI [1.10-1.54]) with high heterogeneity (I (2) = 74 %). Too few prospective studies were available for meaningful subgroup analyses. There is consistent evidence for a moderate increase in the risk of breast cancer in women who smoke tobacco. The evidence for a moderate increase in risk with passive smoking is more substantial than a few years ago.

  11. Active and passive smoking and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Macacu, Alina; Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu; Boyle, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Studies on active and passive tobacco smoking and breast cancer have found inconsistent results. A meta-analysis of observational studies on tobacco smoking and breast cancer occurrence was conducted based on systematic searches for studies with retrospective (case-control) and prospective (cohort) designs. Eligible studies were identified, and relative risk measurements were extracted for active and passive tobacco exposures. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to compute summary relative risks (SRR). Heterogeneity of results between studies was evaluated using the (I (2)) statistics. For ever active smoking, in 27 prospective studies, the SRR for breast cancer was 1.10 (95 % CI [1.09-1.12]) with no heterogeneity (I (2) = 0 %). In 44 retrospective studies, the SRR was 1.08 (95 % CI [1.02-1.14]) with high heterogeneity (I (2) = 59 %). SRRs for current active smoking were 1.13 (95 % CI [1.09-1.17]) in 27 prospective studies and 1.08 (95 % CI [0.97-1.20]) in 22 retrospective studies. The results were stable across different subgroup analyses, notably pre/post-menopause, alcohol consumption adjustments, including/excluding passive smokers from the referent group. For ever passive smoking, in 11 prospective studies, the SRR for breast cancer was 1.07 (95 % CI [1.02-1.13]) with no heterogeneity (I (2) = 1 %). In 20 retrospective studies, the SRR was 1.30 (95 % CI [1.10-1.54]) with high heterogeneity (I (2) = 74 %). Too few prospective studies were available for meaningful subgroup analyses. There is consistent evidence for a moderate increase in the risk of breast cancer in women who smoke tobacco. The evidence for a moderate increase in risk with passive smoking is more substantial than a few years ago. PMID:26546245

  12. Smoking automaticity and tolerance moderate brain activation during explore-exploit behavior.

    PubMed

    Addicott, Merideth A; Pearson, John M; Froeliger, Brett; Platt, Michael L; McClernon, F Joseph

    2014-12-30

    The adaptive trade-off between exploration and exploitation is a key component in models of reinforcement learning. Over the past decade, these models have been applied to the study of reward-seeking behavior. Drugs of addiction induce reward-seeking behavior and modify its underlying neurophysiological processes. These neurophysiological changes may underlie a behavioral shift from a flexible, exploratory mode to a focused, exploitative mode, which precedes the development of inflexible, habitual drug use. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between explore/exploit behavior and drug addiction by examining the neural correlates of this behavior in cigarette smokers. Participants (n=22) with a range of smoking behaviors completed a smoking dependence motives questionnaire and played a 6-armed bandit task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Exploratory behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior parietal and bilateral frontal cortices than exploitative behavior. Exploitative behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri than exploratory behavior. fMRI data and orthogonalized smoking dependence motive scores were entered into multiple linear regression analyses. After controlling for nicotine tolerance, smoking automaticity positively correlated with activation in the same bilateral parietal regions preferentially activated by exploratory choices. These preliminary results link smoking dependence motives to variation in the neural processes that mediate exploratory decision making.

  13. Insights into social disparities in smoking prevalence using Mosaic, a novel measure of socioeconomic status: an analysis using a large primary care dataset

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking. Methods We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database, linked via patients' postcodes to Mosaic classifications (11 groups and 61 types) and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients' current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence. Results As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99). There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49). Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV viewing behaviour. Conclusion Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions. PMID:21138555

  14. Impacts of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation on cigarette smoke-induced exacerbated response to bacteria.

    PubMed

    Morissette, Mathieu C; Shen, Pamela; Thayaparan, Danya; Stämpfli, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by a state of chronic pulmonary inflammation punctuated by microbial exacerbations. Despite advances in treatment options, COPD remains difficult to manage. In this study, we investigated the potential of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ activation as a new therapy against cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and its associated bacterial exacerbation. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke for either 4 days or 4 weeks and treated either prophylactically or therapeutically with rosiglitazone. The impact of rosiglitazone on cigarette smoke-induced exacerbated response to the bacterial pathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) was studied using the therapeutic treatment protocol. We found that rosiglitazone was able to reduce cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia both when administered prophylactically or therapeutically. Therapeutic intervention with rosiglitazone was also effective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia exacerbation following NTHi infection. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects of rosiglitazone did not lead to an increase in the pulmonary bacterial burden, unlike dexamethasone. Altogether, our data suggest that pharmacological activation of PPARγ may be an effective therapeutic approach to improve COPD management, as it is able to reduce cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and decrease the magnitude of bacterial exacerbations, without compromising the ability of the immune system to control the infection. PMID:25034559

  15. Active Smoking and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that smoking has been associated with emergence of metabolic syndrome. However, data on this issue are inconsistent and controversial. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association between smoking and metabolic syndrome. Methodology and Principal Findings We searched the Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library database up to March 2012 to identify prospective cohort studies related to smoking and metabolic syndrome. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Summary effect estimates were derived using a random-effects model and stratified by gender, smoking dose, follow-up duration and geographical area. Primary analysis of 13 studies involving 56,691 participants and 8,688 cases detected a significant positive association between active smoking and risk of metabolic syndrome (pooled relative risk [RR] 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10–1.44). Estimates of effects were substantially consistent in the stratified analyses. In the dose-response analysis, risk of metabolic syndrome was stronger for active male smokers (pooled RR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.20–1.50) than it was for former male smokers (pooled RR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.00–1.42), and greater for heavy smokers (pooled RR 1.42, 95% CI: 1.27–1.59) compared with light smokers (pooled RR 1.10, 95% CI: 0.90–1.35). No evidence of statistical publication bias was found (Egger' s test P = 0.227, Begg' s test P = 0.113). Conclusions Active smoking is associated with development of metabolic syndrome. Smoking cessation appears to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:23082217

  16. Alveolar Macrophage Recruitment and Activation by Chronic Second Hand Smoke Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ellwanger, Almut; Solon, Margaret; Cambier, Christopher J.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Koth, Laura L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 15% of cases of COPD occur in non-smokers. Among the potential risk factors for COPD in non-smokers is second hand smoke (SHS) exposure. However, the Surgeon General reported in 2006 that the evidence linking second hand smoke and COPD is insufficient to infer a causal relationship, largely because current evidence does not establish a biological link. Objectives The goal of this study was to determine whether SHS exposure can induce alveolar macrophage recruitment and expression of activation markers that we have previously demonstrated in human smokers and in mouse models of emphysema. To achieve these goals, we studied mice exposed to an ambient mixture of predominantly [89%] sidestream smoke at increasing doses over 3 months. Results We found that second hand smoke exposure induced a dose-dependent increase in alveolar macrophage recruitment (mean ± sd; 224,511 ± 52,330 vs 166,152 ± 47,989 macrophages/ml of bronchoalveolar lavage in smoke-exposed vs air-exposed controls at 3 months, p=0.003). We also found increased expression of several markers of alveolar macrophage activation (PLA2g7, dkfzp434l142, Trem-2, and pirin, all p<0.01 at 3 months) and increased lavage levels of two inflammatory mediators associated with COPD (CCL2 [MCP-1], 58 ± 12 vs. 43 ± 22 pg/ml, p=0.03; and TNFα, 138 ± 43 vs 88 ± 78 pg/ml, p=0.04 at 3 months). Conclusions These findings indicate that second smoke exposure can cause macrophage recruitment and activation, providing a biological link between second hand smoke exposure and the development of inflammatory processes linked to COPD. PMID:19378221

  17. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  18. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  19. Metal status in human endometrium: Relation to cigarette smoking and histological lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Rzymski, Piotr; Rzymski, Paweł; Tomczyk, Katarzyna; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Jakubowski, Karol; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Opala, Tomasz

    2014-07-15

    Human endometrium is a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue which undergoes cyclic changes and is potentially sensitive to the various endogenous and exogenous compounds supplied via the hematogenous route. As recently indicated, several metals including Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni represent an emerging class of potential metalloestrogens and can be implicated in alterations of the female reproductive system including endometriosis and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the content of five metals: Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in 25 samples of human endometrium collected from Polish females undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic curettage of the uterine cavity. The overall mean metal concentration (analyzed using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry MIP-OES) decreased in the following order: Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd. For the first time it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking significantly increases the endometrial content of Cd and Pb. Concentration of these metals was also positively correlated with years of smoking and the number of smoked cigarettes. Tissue samples with recognized histologic lesions (simple hyperplasia, polyposis and atrophy) were characterized by a 2-fold higher Cd level. No relation between the age of the women and metal content was found. Our study shows that human endometrium can be a potential target of metal accumulation within the human body. Quantitative analyses of endometrial metal content could serve as an additional indicator of potential impairments of the menstrual cycle and fertility. - Highlights: • Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are detectable in human endometrium. • Mean metal content in human endometrium decreases in Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd order. • Cigarettes smoking increases endometrial content of Cd and Pb. • Lesioned endometrial tissue was characterized by higher metal contents.

  20. Motivational effects of smoked marijuana: behavioral contingencies and low-probability activities.

    PubMed Central

    Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V; Bernstein, D J; Capriotti, R M; Nellis, M J; Kelly, T H

    1990-01-01

    Six adult male research volunteers, in two groups of 3 subjects each, lived in a residential laboratory for 15 days. All contact with the experimenters was through a networked computer system, and subjects' behavior was monitored continuously and recorded. During the first part of each day, they were allowed to socialize. Two cigarettes containing active marijuana (2.7% delta 9-THC) or placebo were smoked during the private work period and the period of access to social activities. Three-day contingency conditions requiring subjects to engage in a low-probability work activity (instrumental activity) in order to earn time that could be spent engaging in a high-probability work activity (contingent activity) were programmed during periods of placebo and active-marijuana smoking. During placebo administration, the contingency requirement reliably increased the amount of time that subjects spent engaged in the low-probability instrumental activity and decreased the time spent engaged in the high-probability activity. During active-marijuana administration, however, the increases in instrumental activity were consistently larger than observed under placebo conditions. The decreases in contingent activity were similar to those seen under placebo conditions. Smoking active marijuana was thus observed to produce increments in instrumental activity under motivational conditions involving contingencies for "work activities." PMID:2299291

  1. Andrographolide protects against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative lung injury via augmentation of Nrf2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Guan, SP; Tee, W; Ng, DSW; Chan, TK; Peh, HY; Ho, WE; Cheng, C; Mak, JC; Wong, WSF

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cigarette smoke is a major cause for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Andrographolide is an active biomolecule isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata. Andrographolide has been shown to activate nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a redox-sensitive antioxidant transcription factor. As Nrf2 activity is reduced in COPD, we hypothesize that andrographolide may have therapeutic value for COPD. Experimental Approach Andrographolide was given i.p. to BALB/c mice daily 2 h before 4% cigarette smoke exposure for 1 h over five consecutive days. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs were collected for analyses of cytokines, oxidative damage markers and antioxidant activities. BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and used to study the antioxidant mechanism of action of andrographolide. Key Results Andrographolide suppressed cigarette smoke-induced increases in lavage fluid cell counts; levels of IL-1β, MCP-1, IP-10 and KC; and levels of oxidative biomarkers 8-isoprostane, 8-OHdG and 3-nitrotyrosine in a dose-dependent manner. Andrographolide promoted inductions of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in lungs from cigarette smoke-exposed mice. In BEAS-2B cells, andrographolide markedly increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation, promoted binding to antioxidant response element (ARE) and total cellular glutathione level in response to CSE. Andrographolide up-regulated ARE-regulated gene targets including glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) subunit, GCL modifier (GCLM) subunit, GPx, GR and heme oxygenase-1 in BEAS-2B cells in response to CSE. Conclusions Andrographolide possesses antioxidative properties against cigarette smoke-induced lung injury probably via augmentation of Nrf2 activity and may have therapeutic potential for treating COPD. PMID:23146110

  2. [Influence of smoking intoxicants on dental status. Literature search and own experience].

    PubMed

    Hilt, Aleksandra; Rybarczyk-Townsend, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Amphetamines are phenylpropane derivatives belonging to the group of psychostimulating substances. Within the space of years, on account of their stimulating properties, they were used as treatment substances, e.g. in Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD ), in obesity as slimming substances, in preventing of paroxysmal drowsiness, as dilating bronchi substances, used as some dope in sports and willingly abused among drug addicts because of long lasting exciting euphoria after use. Methamphetamine, an amphetamine derivative, has even stronger and longer lasting effect. The study presents characteristics of a popular, among teenagers, addictive substance - amphetamine and its derivative- methamphetamine and its influence on teeth after using it in a smoking form. The condition of oral cavity of a 17-year-old patient, who has been using methamphetamine in a smoking form for about 3 years, was described. In the oral cavity of the patient numerous and extensive caries lesions were noticed, placed mainly in the labial cervical area of teeth as well as, a considerable damage of teeth's crowns and teeth loss. The patient needed complex dental treatment: conservative, endodontic, surgical and prosthetic. The use of intoxicating substances, derivatives of amphetamine in form of regular smoking caused a considerable damage of tooth tissues, leading to their loss.

  3. Feasibility and Quit Rates of the Tobacco Status Project: A Facebook Smoking Cessation Intervention for Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thrul, Johannes; Chavez, Kathryn; Delucchi, Kevin L; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-01-01

    Background Young adult smokers are a challenging group to engage in smoking cessation interventions. With wide reach and engagement among users, Facebook offers opportunity to engage young people in socially supportive communities for quitting smoking and sustaining abstinence. Objective We developed and tested initial efficacy, engagement, and acceptability of the Tobacco Status Project, a smoking cessation intervention for young adults delivered within Facebook. Methods The intervention was based on the US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Transtheoretical Model and enrolled participants into study-run 3-month secret Facebook groups matched on readiness to quit smoking. Cigarette smokers (N=79) aged 18-25, who used Facebook on most days, were recruited via Facebook. All participants received the intervention and were randomized to one of three monetary incentive groups tied to engagement (commenting in groups). Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up. Analyses examined retention, smoking outcomes over 12 months (7-day point prevalence abstinence, ≥50% reduction in cigarettes smoked, quit attempts and strategies used, readiness to quit), engagement, and satisfaction with the intervention. Results Retention was 82% (65/79) at 6 months and 72% (57/79) at 12 months. From baseline to 12-months follow-up, there was a significant increase in the proportion prepared to quit (10/79, 13%; 36/79, 46%, P<.001). Over a third (28/79, 35%) reduced their cigarette consumption by 50% or greater, and 66% (52/79) made at least one 24-hour quit attempt during the study. In an intent-to-treat analysis, 13% (10/79) self-reported 7-day abstinence (6/79, 8% verified biochemically) at 12-months follow-up. In their quit attempts, 11% (9/79) used a nicotine replacement therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration, while 18% (14/79) used an electronic nicotine delivery system to quit (eg, electronic cigarette). A majority

  4. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan; Huang, Yu-Bei; Liu, Xue-Ou; Gao, Ying; Dai, Hong-Ji; Song, Feng-Ju; Li, Wei-Qin; Wang, Jing; Yan, Ye; Wang, Pei-Shan; Wang, Yao-Gang; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especially for Chinese females. Thus, we systematically searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort studies and 48 case-control studies) covering 17 provinces of China were finally included in this systematic review. Among Chinese females, there was significant association between passive smoking and this risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-1.85; I2 = 75.8%, P < 0.001; n = 26] but no significant association between active smoking and the risk of breast cancer (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.89-1.20; I2 = 13.9%, P = 0.248; n = 31). The OR of exposure to husband's smoking and to smoke in the workplace was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07-2.59), respectively. The OR of light and heavy passive smoking was 1.11 and 1.41, respectively, for women exposed to their husband's smoke (< 20 and ≥ 20 cigarettes per day), and 1.07 and 1.87, respectively, for those exposed to smoke in the workplace (< 300 and ≥ 300 min of exposure per day). These results imply that passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and the risk seems to increase as the level of passive exposure to smoke increases among Chinese females. Women with passive exposure to smoke in the workplace have a higher risk of breast cancer than those exposed to their husband's smoking.

  5. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan; Huang, Yu-Bei; Liu, Xue-Ou; Gao, Ying; Dai, Hong-Ji; Song, Feng-Ju; Li, Wei-Qin; Wang, Jing; Yan, Ye; Wang, Pei-Shan; Wang, Yao-Gang; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especially for Chinese females. Thus, we systematically searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort studies and 48 case-control studies) covering 17 provinces of China were finally included in this systematic review. Among Chinese females, there was significant association between passive smoking and this risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-1.85; I2 = 75.8%, P < 0.001; n = 26] but no significant association between active smoking and the risk of breast cancer (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.89-1.20; I2 = 13.9%, P = 0.248; n = 31). The OR of exposure to husband's smoking and to smoke in the workplace was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07-2.59), respectively. The OR of light and heavy passive smoking was 1.11 and 1.41, respectively, for women exposed to their husband's smoke (< 20 and ≥ 20 cigarettes per day), and 1.07 and 1.87, respectively, for those exposed to smoke in the workplace (< 300 and ≥ 300 min of exposure per day). These results imply that passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and the risk seems to increase as the level of passive exposure to smoke increases among Chinese females. Women with passive exposure to smoke in the workplace have a higher risk of breast cancer than those exposed to their husband's smoking. PMID:24823992

  6. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuan; Huang, Yu-Bei; Liu, Xue-Ou; Gao, Ying; Dai, Hong-Ji; Song, Feng-Ju; Li, Wei-Qin; Wang, Jing; Yan, Ye; Wang, Pei-Shan; Wang, Yao-Gang; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especially for Chinese females. Thus, we systematically searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort studies and 48 case-control studies) covering 17 provinces of China were finally included in this systematic review. Among Chinese females, there was significant association between passive smoking and this risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39–1.85; I2 = 75.8%, P < 0.001; n = 26] but no significant association between active smoking and the risk of breast cancer (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.89–1.20; I2 = 13.9%, P = 0.248; n = 31). The OR of exposure to husband's smoking and to smoke in the workplace was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07–1.50) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07–2.59), respectively. The OR of light and heavy passive smoking was 1.11 and 1.41, respectively, for women exposed to their husband's smoke (< 20 and ≥ 20 cigarettes per day), and 1.07 and 1.87, respectively, for those exposed to smoke in the workplace (< 300 and ≥ 300 min of exposure per day). These results imply that passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and the risk seems to increase as the level of passive exposure to smoke increases among Chinese females. Women with passive exposure to smoke in the workplace have a higher risk of breast cancer than those exposed to their husband's smoking. PMID:24823992

  7. Effect of pregnancy and tobacco smoke on the antioxidant activity of rutin in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Florek, Ewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a source of free radicals and causes oxidative stress in smokers' tissues. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of rutin on the total antioxidant status (TAS) in pregnant and non-pregnant rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke. TAS in brain, lungs, liver, kidneys and plasma were measured by the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) radical-cation decolorization assay. In pregnant rats, a diversified distribution of endogenous antioxidants was found in comparison to the matched non-pregnant animals. In pregnant rats, TAS was higher in plasma (by 33%) and kidney (by 76%), and lower in brain (by 48%) and liver (by 50%) compared with non-pregnant rats. Generally (except liver), exposure to tobacco smoke caused an increase in the antioxidative status of pregnant compared to non-pregnant animals (by 29, 16, 18 and 87% in plasma, brain, lung and kidney, respectively). Overall, rutin had little (plasma, non-pregnant rats) or a no protective effect in the examined tissues.

  8. Radiological hazards of Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza) smoking: activity concentrations and dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E M; Abd El-Aziz, Nawal S; Al-Sewaidan, Hamed A; Chaouachi, Kamal

    2008-12-01

    Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza, "water-pipe") smoking has become fashionable worldwide. Its tobacco pastes, known as moassel and jurak, are not standardized and generally contain about 30-50% (sometimes more) tobacco, molasses/juice of sugarcane, various spices and dried fruits (particularly in jurak) and, in the case of moassel, glycerol and flavoring essences. Tobacco contains minute amounts of radiotoxic elements such as (210)Pb, (210)Po and uranium, which are inhaled via smoking. Only very few data have been published on the concentrations of natural radionuclides in narghile tobacco mixtures. Consequently, the aim of this study was to draw first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in moassel tobacco in relation to narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range in the radioactivity contents where the average (range) activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)Th (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (232)Th and (40)K, in Bq/kg dry weight were 55 (19-93), 11 (3-23), 3 (1.2-8), 14 (3-29), 13 (7-32), 7 (4-10) and 719 (437-1044)Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. The average concentrations of natural radionuclides in moassel tobacco pastes are comparable to their concentration in Greek cigarettes and tobacco leaves, and lower than that of Brazilian tobacco leaves. The distribution pattern of these radionuclides after smoking, between smoke, ash and filter, is unknown, except for (210)Po during cigarette smoking and from one existing study during moassel smoking. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of natural radionuclides was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radionuclides is briefly discussed. PMID:18768240

  9. Family roles and smoking.

    PubMed

    Waldron, I; Lye, D

    1989-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships of cigarette smoking and smoking histories to marital and parental status. Data from a large, representative sample of U.S. adults in 1985 were analyzed separately for white men, white women, black men, and black women, with controls for age, education, and marital status included in the analyses. Divorced and separated adults were the most likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking; currently married adults and widowed adults were intermediate; and never married adults were the least likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking. (There were some exceptions to these patterns for never married and widowed blacks). The differences in smoking adoption had begun during adolescence, before the usual age of marriage, which suggests that the differences in smoking, adoption were not caused by marriage or divorce. Rather, it appears that personal characteristics or early experiences influenced both the likelihood of smoking adoption and the likelihood of marriage or divorce. Currently married adults were more likely to have quit smoking than never married, divorced and separated, or widowed adults. It may be that the social support provided by marriage increases smoking cessation. In contrast to the strong relationships between marital status and smoking, relationships between parental status and smoking were relatively weak and variable. Among white women, mothers of preschoolers were less likely to be smokers than women without children. The mothers of preschoolers were more likely to have quit smoking, possibly as a result of increased smoking cessation during pregnancy.

  10. Suomi NPP VIIRS active fire product status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellicott, E. A.; Csiszar, I. A.; Schroeder, W.; Giglio, L.; Wind, B.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-12-01

    We provide an overview of the evaluation and development of the Active Fires product derived from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite during the first year of on-orbit data. Results from the initial evaluation of the standard SNPP Active Fires product, generated by the SNPP Interface Data Processing System (IDPS), supported the stabilization of the VIIRS Sensor Data Record (SDR) product. This activity focused in particular on the processing of the dual-gain 4 micron VIIRS M13 radiometric measurements into 750m aggregated data, which are fundamental for active fire detection. Following the VIIRS SDR product's Beta maturity status in April 2012, correlative analysis between VIIRS and near-simultaneous fire detections from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Earth Observing System Aqua satellite confirmed the expected relative detection rates driven primarily by sensor differences. The VIIRS Active Fires Product Development and Validation Team also developed a science code that is based on the latest MODIS Collection 6 algorithm and provides a full spatially explicit fire mask to replace the sparse array output of fire locations from a MODIS Collection 4 equivalent algorithm in the current IDPS product. The Algorithm Development Library (ADL) was used to support the planning for the transition of the science code into IDPS operations in the future. Product evaluation and user outreach was facilitated by a product website that provided end user access to fire data in user-friendly format over North America as well as examples of VIIRS-MODIS comparisons. The VIIRS fire team also developed an experimental product based on 375m VIIRS Imagery band measurements and provided high quality imagery of major fire events in US. By August 2012 the IDPS product achieved Beta maturity, with some known and documented shortfalls related to the processing of

  11. Dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking among pregnant Puerto Rican women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have examined predictors of meeting health guidelines in pregnancy among Latina women. We assessed dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking in the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective cohort of 1231 prenatal care patients. Self-reported information...

  12. Testing a Conceptual Model Related to Weight Perceptions, Physical Activity and Smoking in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bercovitz, Kim; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model based on theoretical and empirically supported relationships related to the influences of weight perceptions, weight concerns, desires to change weight, friends, age and location in relation to physical activity (PA) and smoking in adolescents. A total of 1242 males and 1446 females (mean…

  13. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

  14. Effects of smoke inhalation on surfactant phospholipids and phospholipase A2 activity in the mouse lung

    SciTech Connect

    Oulton, M.; Moores, H.K.; Scott, J.E.; Janigan, D.T.; Hajela, R. )

    1991-01-01

    The effects of smoke inhalation on the pulmonary surfactant system were examined in mice exposed for 30 minutes to smoke generated from the burning of polyurethane foam. At 8 or 12 hours after exposure, surfactants were isolated separately from lung lavage (extracellular surfactant) and residual lung tissue (intracellular surfactant) for phospholipid analysis. Calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was measured on a microsomal fraction prepared from the tissue homogenate. Smoke inhalation produced a twofold increase in extracellular surfactant total phospholipid. While there was no change in the total phospholipid or phosphatidylcholine (PC) content of the intracellular surfactant, smoke inhalation significantly decreased the disaturated species of PC (DSPC). The specific activity of PLA2 was reduced by more than 50% in both groups of exposed mice. Smoke inhalation appears to result in selective depletion of the DSPC of intracellular surfactant and PLA2 involved in its synthesis. This depletion may be compensated for by increased secretion or slower breakdown of the material present in the extracellular compartment.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of reuterin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri on Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon.

    PubMed

    Montiel, R; Martín-Cabrejas, I; Langa, S; El Aouad, N; Arqués, J L; Reyes, F; Medina, M

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P579 was used for the production and purification of reuterin. The purity of reuterin was assessed by high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. After purification, reuterin concentration obtained was 1.3 M. The inhibitory activity using Escherichia coli K12 as indicator strain was estimated to be 510 AU/ml. Survival curves in tryptic soy broth revealed that reuterin required to inhibit the growth of three Listeria monocytogenes strains was in the range of 2-4 AU/ml. Purified reuterin (10 AU/g) significantly reduced the growth of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon kept under moderate or strong temperature abuse conditions. After 15 d at 8 °C, cold-smoked salmon with added reuterin exhibited L. monocytogenes counts 2.0 log CFU/g lower than control smoked salmon with no reuterin added. At 30 °C, reuterin also controlled the growth of the pathogen, with counts 1.4 and 0.9 log CFU/g lower than those observed in control smoked salmon after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The addition of purified reuterin might be used as a hurdle technology to improve the safety and extend the shelf-life of lightly preserved seafood products such as cold-smoked salmon.

  16. Burn and smoke injury activates poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase in circulating leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bartha, Eva; Asmussen, Sven; Olah, Gabor; Rehberg, Sebastian W.; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Traber, Daniel L.; Szabo, Csaba

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of various forms of critical illness. DNA strand breaks induced by oxidative and nitrative stress trigger the activation of PARP, and PARP, in turn, mediates cell death and promotes pro-inflammatory responses. Until recently, most studies focused on the role of PARP in solid organs such as heart, liver, kidney. Here we investigated the effect of burn and smoke inhalation on the levels of poly(ADP-ribosylated) proteins (PAR) in circulating sheep leukocytes ex vivo. Adult female merino sheep were subjected to burn injury (2×20% each flank, 3 degree) and smoke inhalation injury (insufflated with a total of 48 breaths of cotton smoke) under deep anesthesia. Arterial and venous blood were collected at baseline, immediately after the injury and 1-24 hours after the injury. Leukocytes were isolated with the Histopaque method. The levels of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins were determined by Western blotting. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were quantified by the Oxyblot method. To examine whether PARP activation continues to increasing ex vivo in the leukocytes, blood samples were incubated at room temperature or at 37°C for 3h with or without the PARP inhibitor PJ34. To investigate whether the plasma of burn/smoke animals may trigger PARP activation, burn/smoke plasma was incubated with control leukocytes in vitro. The results show that burn and smoke injury induced a marked PARP activation in circulating leukocytes. The activity was the highest immediately after injury and at 1 hour, and decreased gradually over time. Incubation of whole blood at 37°C for 3 hours significantly increased PAR levels, indicative of the presence of an on-going cell activation process. In conclusion, PARP activity is elevated in leukocytes after burn and smoke inhalation injury and the response parallels the time-course of reactive oxygen species generation in these cells. PMID

  17. Smoking status and anti-inflammatory macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum in COPD

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. M1 and M2 macrophages constitute subpopulations displaying pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that smoking cessation affects macrophage heterogeneity in the lung of patients with COPD. Our aim was to study macrophage heterogeneity using the M2-marker CD163 and selected pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and induced sputum from current smokers and ex-smokers with COPD. Methods 114 COPD patients (72 current smokers; 42 ex-smokers, median smoking cessation 3.5 years) were studied cross-sectionally and underwent sputum induction (M/F 99/15, age 62 ± 8 [mean ± SD] years, 42 (31-55) [median (range)] packyears, post-bronchodilator FEV1 63 ± 9% predicted, no steroids past 6 months). BAL was collected from 71 patients. CD163+ macrophages were quantified in BAL and sputum cytospins. Pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were measured in BAL and sputum supernatants. Results Ex-smokers with COPD had a higher percentage, but lower number of CD163+ macrophages in BAL than current smokers (83.5% and 68.0%, p = 0.04; 5.6 and 20.1 ×104/ml, p = 0.001 respectively). The percentage CD163+ M2 macrophages was higher in BAL compared to sputum (74.0% and 30.3%, p < 0.001). BAL M-CSF levels were higher in smokers than ex-smokers (571 pg/ml and 150 pg/ml, p = 0.001) and correlated with the number of CD163+ BAL macrophages (Rs = 0.38, p = 0.003). No significant differences were found between smokers and ex-smokers in the levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-8), and anti-inflammatory (elafin, and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor [SLPI]) mediators in BAL and sputum. Conclusions Our data suggest that smoking cessation partially changes the macrophage polarization in vivo in the periphery of the lung towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, which is not accompanied by a decrease in inflammatory parameters. PMID:21426578

  18. Epidemiology of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guba, Christianne J.; McDonald, James L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the latest statistics relative to tobacco consumption, the health consequences of cigarette use, and future U.S. smoking trends projected through the year 2000. Smoking statistics are presented by ethnicity, gender, educational status, and brand preferences. Also provided are factors contributing to smoking initiation. (GLR)

  19. Adolescents' leisure activities, parental monitoring and cigarette smoking - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample. Methods Randomly selected schools (n = 145) participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years). School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built. Results and Discussion Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5%) than males (6.5%). In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively), parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among Māori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-Māori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females and Māori which

  20. Nondisclosure of Smoking Status to Health Care Providers among Current and Former Smokers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Laurel Erin; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2013-01-01

    An unintended consequence of tobacco control's success in marginalizing smoking is that smokers may conceal their smoking from those who are best positioned to help them quit: health care providers (HCPs). The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of, and factors related to, nondisclosure of smoking to HCPs. Data were obtained from…

  1. [Chewing gum as an additional agent in maintaining oral hygiene versus smoking status--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Bachanek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays chewing gum is widely used in different age groups, so complying with proper duration and frequency of chewing is an important factor influencing the state of masticatory system. The study involved 112 dental students of the Medical University of Lublin. Everyday use of chewing gum declared 47,32% of cases. Chewing time up to 10 minutes was stated in 23,08% of respondents, 11-20 minutes in 40,38% of interviewees. Among the examined students 17,3% smoked cigarettes. In smokers group 83,33% of questioned chewed the gum every day, while among non-smokers - 43,37%. Chewing time shorter than 10 minutes declared 22,22% of smokers and 23,26% of non-smokers, while chewing time between 11-20 minutes - 27,78% i 44,35% of smokers and non-smokers respectively. Obtained results indicate the need of carrying out further studies aimed at the nicotine influence on saliva parameters with respect to development of diseases of hard tooth tissues.

  2. Self-reported oral cancer screening by smoking status in Maryland: trends over time

    PubMed Central

    Viswanath, Archana; Kerns, Timothy J.; Sorkin, John D.; Dwyer, Diane M.; Groves, Carmela; Steinberger, Eileen K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The study aims to examine whether a higher proportion of current and former smokers reported having an oral cancer screening (OCS) exam in the past year compared with never smokers in Maryland between 2002 and 2008. Methods Secondary analysis of the Maryland Cancer Surveys (conducted in 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008), population-based, random-digit-dial surveys on cancer screening among adults age 40 years and older. Of 20,197 individuals who responded to the surveys, 19,054 answered questions on OCS and smoking. Results are weighted to the Maryland population. Results Self-reported OCS in the past year increased from 33 percent in 2002 to 40 percent in 2008. Screening among never and former smokers increased from about 35 percent to 42 percent and from 35 percent to 43 percent, respectively; screening among current smokers remained between 23 percent and 25 percent. In the adjusted analysis, current smokers had decreased odds of screening compared with never smokers; no significant difference was observed between former and never smokers. When the variable dental visit in the last year was included in the adjusted analysis, it became the strongest predictor of OCS. Conclusions Between 2002 and 2008, self-reported OCS in the last year increased among former and never smokers, but remained unchanged for current smokers. A visit to a dental professional attenuated the difference in OCS between current and never smokers. Dental visit in the last year was the strongest predictor of OCS. PMID:23521183

  3. Smoking, mental illness and socioeconomic disadvantage: analysis of the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High rates of smoking and lower rates of smoking cessation are known to be associated with common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, and with individual and community measures of socioeconomic status. It is not known to what extent mental illness and socioeconomic status might be jointly associated with smoking behaviour. We set out to examine the relationship between mental illness, measures of socioeconomic disadvantage and both current smoking and smoking cessation rates. Methods We used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between mental illness, socioeconomic status and both current smoking and smoking cessation. We used cross-classified tables and logistic regression to examine the relationship between psychosocial and sociodemographic predictors and current smoking. We also used proportional hazards regression to examine the relationship between the factors and smoking cessation. Results Both mental illness and socioeconomic status were independently associated with current smoking and with lower likelihood of smoking cessation, with gradients in smoking by mental health status being observed within levels of socioeconomic indicators and vice versa. Having a mental illness in the past 12 months was the most prevalent factor strongly associated with smoking, affecting 20.0% of the population, associated with increased current smoking (OR 2.43; 95% CI: 1.97-3.01) and reduced likelihood of smoking cessation (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.65-0.91). Conclusions The association between mental illness and smoking is not explained by the association between mental illness and socioeconomic status. There are strong socioeconomic and psychosocial gradients in both current smoking and smoking cessation. Incorporating knowledge of the other adverse factors in smokers’ lives may increase the penetration of tobacco control interventions in population groups that have historically

  4. Association of active and passive smoking with risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Juhua; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Horn, Kimberly; Messina, Catherine; Stefanick, Marcia L; Tindle, Hilary A; Tong, Elisa; Rohan, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between smoking and risk of invasive breast cancer using quantitative measures of lifetime passive and active smoking exposure among postmenopausal women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 40 clinical centres in the United States. Participants 79 990 women aged 50–79 enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study during 1993–8. Main outcome measures Self reported active and passive smoking, pathologically confirmed invasive breast cancer. Results In total, 3520 incident cases of invasive breast cancer were identified during an average of 10.3 years of follow-up. Compared with women who had never smoked, breast cancer risk was elevated by 9% among former smokers (hazard ratio 1.09 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.17)) and by 16% among current smokers (hazard ratio 1.16 (1.00 to 1.34)). Significantly higher breast cancer risk was observed in active smokers with high intensity and duration of smoking, as well as with initiation of smoking in the teenage years. The highest breast cancer risk was found among women who had smoked for ≥50 years or more (hazard ratio 1.35 (1.03 to1.77) compared with all lifetime non-smokers, hazard ratio 1.45 (1.06 to 1.98) compared with lifetime non-smokers with no exposure to passive smoking). An increased risk of breast cancer persisted for up to 20 years after smoking cessation. Among women who had never smoked, after adjustment for potential confounders, those with the most extensive exposure to passive smoking (≥10 years’ exposure in childhood, ≥20 years’ exposure as an adult at home, and ≥10 years’ exposure as an adult at work) had a 32% excess risk of breast cancer compared with those who had never been exposed to passive smoking (hazard ratio 1.32 (1.04 to 1.67)). However, there was no significant association in the other groups with lower exposure and no clear dose response to cumulative passive smoking exposure. Conclusions Active smoking was associated with an

  5. Alteration of human hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by cigarette smoke condensate.

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Katia; Vee, Marc Le; Abdel-Razzak, Ziad; Jouan, Elodie; Stieger, Bruno; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Smoking is well-known to impair pharmacokinetics, through inducing expression of drug metabolizing enzymes. In the present study, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) also alters activity and expression of hepatic drug transporters, which are now recognized as major actors of hepatobiliary elimination of drugs. CSC thus directly inhibited activities of sinusoidal transporters such as OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1 and NTCP as well as those of canalicular transporters like P-glycoprotein, MRP2, BCRP and MATE1, in hepatic transporters-overexpressing cells. CSC similarly counteracted constitutive OATP, NTCP and OCT1 activities in human highly-differentiated hepatic HepaRG cells. In parallel, CSC induced expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in HepaRG cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B1, OATP2B1, OAT2, NTCP, OCT1 and BSEP, and enhanced that of MRP4. Such changes in transporter gene expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway, and were counteracted, for some of them, by siRNA-mediated AhR silencing. This suggests that CSC alters hepatic drug transporter levels via activation of the AhR cascade. Importantly, drug transporter expression regulations as well as some transporter activity inhibitions occurred for a range of CSC concentrations similar to those required for inducing drug metabolizing enzymes and may therefore be hypothesized to be relevant for smokers. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of cigarette smoke, which could contribute to known alteration of pharmacokinetics and some liver adverse effects caused by smoking. PMID:27450509

  6. Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) in lung cells by wood smoke particulate material.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Darien; Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Romero, Erin G; Hughen, Ronald W; Light, Alan R; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2013-05-20

    Cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, and other combustion-derived particles activate the calcium channel transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), causing irritation and inflammation in the respiratory tract. It was hypothesized that wood smoke particulate and select chemical constituents thereof would also activate TRPA1 in lung cells, potentially explaining the adverse effects of wood and other forms of biomass smoke on the respiratory system. TRPA1 activation was assessed using calcium imaging assays in TRPA1-overexpressing HEK-293 cells, mouse primary trigeminal neurons, and human adenocarcinoma (A549) lung cells. Particles from pine and mesquite smoke were less potent agonists of TRPA1 than an equivalent mass concentration of an ethanol extract of diesel exhaust particles; pine particles were comparable in potency to cigarette smoke condensate, and mesquite particles were the least potent. The fine particulate (PM < 2.5 μm) of wood smoke were the most potent TRPA1 agonists and several chemical constituents of wood smoke particulate, 3,5-ditert-butylphenol, coniferaldehyde, formaldehyde, perinaphthenone, agathic acid, and isocupressic acid, were TRPA1 agonists. Pine particulate activated TRPA1 in mouse trigeminal neurons and A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. TRPA1 activation by wood smoke particles occurred through the electrophile/oxidant-sensing domain (i.e., C621/C641/C665/K710), based on the inhibition of cellular responses when the particles were pretreated with glutathione; a role for the menthol-binding site of TRPA1 (S873/T874) was demonstrated for 3,5-ditert-butylphenol. This study demonstrated that TRPA1 is a molecular sensor for wood smoke particulate and several chemical constituents thereof, in sensory neurons and A549 cells, suggesting that TRPA1 may mediate some of the adverse effects of wood smoke in humans.

  7. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ...

  8. Public opinion about smoking and smoke free legislation in a district of North India.

    PubMed

    Goel, S; Singh, R J; D, Sharma; A, Singh

    2014-01-01

    Context: A growing number of cities, districts, counties and states across the globe are going smoke-free. While an Indian national law namely Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) exists since 2003 and aims at protecting all the people in our country; people still smoke in public places. Aim: This study assessed knowledge and perceptions about smoking, SHS and their support for Smoke-free laws among people residing in Mohali district, Punjab. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mohali district of Punjab, India. A sample size of 1600 people was obtained. Probability Proportional to Size technique was used for selecting the number of individuals to be interviewed from each block and also from urban and rural population. Statistical Analysis Used: We estimated proportions and tested for significant differences by residence, smoking status, literacy level and employment level by means of the chi-square statistics. Statistical software SPSS for Windows version 20 was used for analysing data . Results: The overall prevalence of current smoking among study participants was 25%. Around 96% were aware of the fact that smoking is harmful to health, 45% viewed second-hand smoke to be equally harmful as active smoking, 84.2% knew that smoking is prohibited in public places and 88.3% wanted the government to take strict actions to control the menace of public smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that people aged 20 years and above, unemployed, urban, literate and non-smokers had significantly better perception towards harms of smoking. The knowledge about smoke free provisions of COTPA was significantly better among males, employed individuals, urban residents, and literate people. Conclusions: There was high knowledge about deleterious multi-dimensional effects of smoking among residents and a high support for implementation of COTPA. Efforts should be taken to make Mohali a "smoke-free district". PMID:25494132

  9. Public opinion about smoking and smoke free legislation in a district of North India.

    PubMed

    Goel, S; Singh, R J; D, Sharma; A, Singh

    2014-01-01

    Context: A growing number of cities, districts, counties and states across the globe are going smoke-free. While an Indian national law namely Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) exists since 2003 and aims at protecting all the people in our country; people still smoke in public places. Aim: This study assessed knowledge and perceptions about smoking, SHS and their support for Smoke-free laws among people residing in Mohali district, Punjab. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mohali district of Punjab, India. A sample size of 1600 people was obtained. Probability Proportional to Size technique was used for selecting the number of individuals to be interviewed from each block and also from urban and rural population. Statistical Analysis Used: We estimated proportions and tested for significant differences by residence, smoking status, literacy level and employment level by means of the chi-square statistics. Statistical software SPSS for Windows version 20 was used for analysing data . Results: The overall prevalence of current smoking among study participants was 25%. Around 96% were aware of the fact that smoking is harmful to health, 45% viewed second-hand smoke to be equally harmful as active smoking, 84.2% knew that smoking is prohibited in public places and 88.3% wanted the government to take strict actions to control the menace of public smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that people aged 20 years and above, unemployed, urban, literate and non-smokers had significantly better perception towards harms of smoking. The knowledge about smoke free provisions of COTPA was significantly better among males, employed individuals, urban residents, and literate people. Conclusions: There was high knowledge about deleterious multi-dimensional effects of smoking among residents and a high support for implementation of COTPA. Efforts should be taken to make Mohali a "smoke-free district".

  10. Prostate cancer risk and diet, recreational physical activity and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Darlington, Gerarda Ann; Kreiger, Nancy; Lightfoot, Nancy; Purdham, James; Sass-Kortsak, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Associations between prostate cancer and dietary factors, physical activity and smoking were assessed based on data from a population-based case-control study. The study was conducted among residents of northeastern Ontario. Cases were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry and diagnosed between 1995 and 1998 at ages 50 to 84 years (N=752). Male controls were identified from telephone listings and were frequency matched to cases on age (N=1,613). Logistic regression analyses investigated history of diet, physical activity and smoking as potential risk factors. Tomato intake had a significant positive association with prostate cancer risk for highest versus lowest quartiles (OR=1.6; 95 percent CI: 1.2-2.0). Associations were observed for tomato or vegetable juices and ketchup (OR=1.5; 95 percent CI: 1.2-1.9; OR=1.2; 95 percent CI: 1.0-1.5, respectively). Neither other dietary variables nor smoking were associated with prostate cancer risk. Strenuous physical activity by men in their early 50s was associated with reduced risk (OR=0.8; 95 percent CI: 0.6-0.9). While the recreational physical activity association was consistent with results from previous studies, the tomato products association was not. PMID:17623560

  11. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, p<0.001). The crude relationship between movie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098

  12. The relative roles of types of extracurricular activity on smoking and drinking initiation among tweens

    PubMed Central

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Gibson Chambers, Jennifer J.; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Youth involvement in extracurricular activities may help prevent smoking and drinking initiation. However, the relative roles of types of extracurricular activity on these risks are unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between substance use and participation in team sports with a coach, other sports without a coach, music, school clubs, and other clubs in a nationally representative sample of US tweens. Methods We conducted telephone surveys with 6,522 U.S. students (ages 10-14) in 2003. We asked participants if they had ever tried smoking or drinking and about their participation in extracurricular activities. We used sample weighting to produce response estimates that were representative of the population of adolescents aged 10-14 years at the time of data collection. Logistic regression models that adjusted for appropriate sampling weights using Jackknife variance estimation tested associations with trying smoking and drinking, controlling for sociodemographics, child and parent characteristics, friend/sibling/parent substance use, and media use. Results A little over half of the students reported participating in team sports with a coach (55.5%) and without a coach (55.4%) a few times per week or more. Most had minimal to no participation in school clubs (74.2%), however most reported being involved in other clubs (85.8%). A little less than half participated in music, choir, dance, and/or band lessons. Over half of participants involved in religious activity did those activities a few times per week or more. In the multiple regression analysis, team sport participation with a coach was the only extracurricular activity associated with lower risk of trying smoking (adjusted OR = 0.68, 95% C.I. 0.49, 0.96) compared to none or minimal participation. Participating in other clubs was the only extracurricular activity associated with lower risk of trying drinking (adjusted OR = 0.56, 95% C.I. 0.32, 0.99) compared to none or minimal participation

  13. Active Debris Removal: Current Status of Activities in CNES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnal, Christophe; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Desjean, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-01

    Most of the ongoing studies led at worldwide level, mainly through IADC Actions, conclude that in order to keep a stable Low Earth Orbit environment in the coming decades, it may be necessary to retrieve some 5 to 10 large objects annually. These operations, known as Active Debris Removal (ADR), raise a huge amount of difficulties in numerous domains: political, legal, insurance, defense, financing and, last but not least, technical questions. The current paper aims at reviewing the current status of the ADR activities led by CNES both at National and Multi-lateral level. The first question which is raised is that of the high level requirements to be applied. What are the requirements coming from the operators; do we want to stabilize the environment, decrease it or could we accept some increase over the years; when do we have to act; can we baseline random reentry of such large objects or do we have to stick to controlled destructive reentries?… There may not yet be clear answers to these points, so efforts at international level are required. The second part of the paper deals with the potential solutions at system level. Numerous possibilities can be identified, depending on the size of the launcher and of the strategy selected to de-orbit the debris. Large space tugs visiting some 10 debris or small dedicated chasers launched as piggyback are among the solutions which have been traded. The currently preferred solution is described in details. The third part of the paper is devoted to the chaser-debris operations themselves, following five key functions; - the long range rendezvous, - the short range rendezvous up to contact, - the mechanical interfacing of the debris, - its control by the chaser, when required, - the de-orbiting maneuver itself. For each of these functions, the current status of available technologies is described, enabling the identification of the most critical ones requiring additional R&T effort and subsequent demonstrations. Among them

  14. Prevalence of Active and Passive Smoking among Adult Population: Findings of a Population-Based Survey in Kerman (KERCADRS), Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Najafipour, Hamid; Mirzaiepour, Fatemeh; Navadeh, Soodabeh; Shadkam-Farrokhi, Mitra; Mirzazadeh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is one of the major modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Our aim was to report the pattern of active and passive smoking using the data collected through a population-base household survey in Kerman, Iran [(KERCADRS) Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Study]. Methods Using a cluster random sampling design, we recruited 5900 adult persons (15-75 years old) into our survey. After consenting, every participant was interviewed by a trained interviewer. The section for smoking included questions about daily (smoking at least one cigarette per day), non-daily, past and passive cigarette smoking as well as the duration of the exposure. We used Kerman population distribution (as the target population) to adjust our estimates using direct standardization method. Findings Overall, 8.3% of study participants (15.5% in men vs. 0.8% in women, P = 0.010) reported themselves as daily smokers and an additional 1.7% (2.9% in men vs. 0.4% in women, P = 0.010) as non-daily smokers. The passive smoking was common in total (27.5%), while women experienced more exposure than men (30.1% vs. 25.0%, P = 0.010). In daily smokers, 3.2% smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day. Among passive smokers, 62.6% were exposed to cigarette smoke more than 6 days per week. Conclusion Smoking is pretty common among adult populations, particularly in men. A majority of tobacco-free young adult women are exposed to passive smoking. Age and gender oriented interventions are required to change this risk pattern in Kerman community to prevent from further smoking related morbidities and mortalities. PMID:27274789

  15. Modification of the association between smoking status and severity of coronary stenosis by vitamin D in patients suspected of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kuibao; Yang, Xiyan; Wang, Lefeng; Chen, Mulei; Zhao, Wenshu; Xu, Li; Yang, Xinchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Given both smoking and vitamin D are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) via inflammation and smoking may interfere with the local antiinflammatory effects of vitamin D. We hypothesized that the relationship between smoking and severity of CHD may be modified by vitamin D. A cross-sectional study was conducted. 25-OH vitamin D values were determined in 348 consecutive patients (mean age 62.4 ± 10.5 years; 56.3% male) undergoing coronary angiography at the Heart Center of Chaoyang Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University between the period of September 2014 and May 2015. We categorized the patients into 2 groups based on 25-OH vitamin D levels, that is, severe hypovitaminosis D (25-OH vitamin D < 10 ng/mL) and higher vitamin D (25-OH vitamin D > =  10 ng/mL). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of severe coronary stenosis or higher Gensini score across three smoking status, that is, never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers in severe hypovitaminosis D and higher vitamin D groups, respectively. Of these patients, we identified 212 (60.9%) cases of severe CHD and 161 (46.3%) cases of severe hypovitaminosis D. Multivariable logistic regression model showed the ORs of severe CHD were 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47, 7.98) for former smokers and 2.62 (95% CI: 0.83, 8.24) for current smokers, compared with never smokers in group with severe hypovitaminosis D (P-trend = 0.005). In contrast, smoking was not found to be significantly associated with severe CHD in group with higher 25-OH vitamin D (P-trend = 0.115). We found a significant interaction between smoking status and vitamin D on presence of severe CHD (P-interaction = 0.015). In terms of Gensini score as a dependent variable, similar results were identified. Our finding indicated the association between smoking and severity of CHD appeared to be substantially stronger among patients with severe hypovitaminosis

  16. Modification of the association between smoking status and severity of coronary stenosis by vitamin D in patients suspected of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuibao; Yang, Xiyan; Wang, Lefeng; Chen, Mulei; Zhao, Wenshu; Xu, Li; Yang, Xinchun

    2016-09-01

    Given both smoking and vitamin D are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) via inflammation and smoking may interfere with the local antiinflammatory effects of vitamin D. We hypothesized that the relationship between smoking and severity of CHD may be modified by vitamin D.A cross-sectional study was conducted. 25-OH vitamin D values were determined in 348 consecutive patients (mean age 62.4 ± 10.5 years; 56.3% male) undergoing coronary angiography at the Heart Center of Chaoyang Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University between the period of September 2014 and May 2015. We categorized the patients into 2 groups based on 25-OH vitamin D levels, that is, severe hypovitaminosis D (25-OH vitamin D < 10 ng/mL) and higher vitamin D (25-OH vitamin D > =  10 ng/mL). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of severe coronary stenosis or higher Gensini score across three smoking status, that is, never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers in severe hypovitaminosis D and higher vitamin D groups, respectively.Of these patients, we identified 212 (60.9%) cases of severe CHD and 161 (46.3%) cases of severe hypovitaminosis D. Multivariable logistic regression model showed the ORs of severe CHD were 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47, 7.98) for former smokers and 2.62 (95% CI: 0.83, 8.24) for current smokers, compared with never smokers in group with severe hypovitaminosis D (P-trend = 0.005). In contrast, smoking was not found to be significantly associated with severe CHD in group with higher 25-OH vitamin D (P-trend = 0.115). We found a significant interaction between smoking status and vitamin D on presence of severe CHD (P-interaction = 0.015). In terms of Gensini score as a dependent variable, similar results were identified.Our finding indicated the association between smoking and severity of CHD appeared to be substantially stronger among patients with severe hypovitaminosis D as

  17. Coronary CT angiography findings based on smoking status: Do ex-smokers and never-smokers share a low probability of developing coronary atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Yi, Minkyung; Chun, Eun Ju; Lee, Min Su; Lee, Jaebong; Choi, Sang Il

    2015-12-01

    The relationship of coronary artery disease (CAD) in ex-smokers has not been elucidated, although smoking is considered to be one of the major risk factors of CAD. We investigate subclinical coronary atherosclerosis (SCA) in asymptomatic subjects with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), according to smoking status, and determine whether ex-smokers share a low probability of developing CAD with never-smokers. We retrospectively enrolled 6930 self-referred asymptomatic adults who underwent both coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and CCTA. The prevalence and characteristics of SCA were assessed according to smoking status (never-, ex- and current smokers). After adjusting for variable risk factors, we used multivariate logistic regression for adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of high CACS (>100), SCA (any plaque), significant stenosis (>50 % in luminal stenosis) and each plaque type (non-calcified, mixed and calcified plaque) among the three groups. The prevalence of SCA was highest in the ex-smokers (35.4 %) and the prevalence of significant stenosis in ex-smokers (6.9 %) was as high as in current smokers (6.4 %). However, after adjusting for variable risk factors, SCA was significantly correlated with both ex-smokers (AOR; 1.21) and current smokers (AOR; 1.25), whereas significant stenosis was correlated only with current smokers (AOR; 1.91). The association between SCA and ex-smokers is as strong as with current smokers, although significant stenosis is only correlated with current smokers; thus, not only quitting smoking but also never initiating smoking would be helpful to reduce the progression of the SCA.

  18. Association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and smoking status with bone density and vertebral fractures in male lung cancer screening participants.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Werner U; de Jong, Pim A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Isgum, Ivana; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Oudkerk, Matthijs; van der Aalst, Carlijn; de Koning, Harry J; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A

    2014-10-01

    We studied the vertebral fracture prevalence on low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in male lung cancer screening participants and the association of fractures and bone density with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and smoking. 1140 male current and former smokers with ≥ 16.5 packyears from the NELSON lung cancer screening trial were included. Age, body mass index, and smoking status were registered. CT scans and pulmonary function tests were obtained on the same day. On CT, vertebral fractures and bone density were measured. The cohort had a mean age of 62.5 years (standard deviation 5.2) old; 531 (46.6%) had quit smoking; and 437 (38.3%) had COPD. Of the group, 100 (8.8%) participants had a vertebral fracture. Fracture prevalence was higher in current compared to former smokers (11.3% versus 5.8%, p = 0.001), but similar in participants with COPD compared to those without (9.6% versus 8.3%, p = 0.430). The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for fracture presence was 1.79 (95% CI: 1.13-2.84) in current smokers and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.69-1.67) in COPD participants. Bone density was lower in current compared to former smokers (103.2 HU versus 108.7 HU, p = 0.006) and in participants with COPD compared to those without [100.7 Hounsfield Units (HU) versus 108.9 HU, p < 0.001]. In multivariate analysis, smoking status and COPD status were independently associated with bone density, corrected for age and body mass index. In conclusion, our study shows that lung cancer screening participants have a substantial vertebral fracture burden. Fractures are more common in current smokers, who also have lower bone density. We could not confirm that COPD is independently associated with vertebral fractures.

  19. Active and passive smoking and the risk of breast cancer in women aged 36–45 years: a population based case–control study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Roddam, A W; Pirie, K; Pike, M C; Chilvers, C; Crossley, B; Hermon, C; McPherson, K; Peto, J; Vessey, M; Beral, V

    2007-01-01

    Active smoking has little or no effect on breast cancer risk but some investigators have suggested that passive smoking and its interaction with active smoking may be associated with an increased risk. In a population based case–control study of breast cancer in women aged 36–45 years at diagnosis, information on active smoking, passive smoking in the home, and other factors, was collected at interview from 639 cases and 640 controls. Women were categorised jointly by their active and passive smoking exposure. Among never smoking controls, women who also reported no passive smoking exposure were significantly more likely to be nulliparous and to be recent users of oral contraceptives. Among those never exposed to passive smoking, there was no significant association between active smoking and breast cancer, relative risk (RR) of 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72–1.73) for past smokers and RR of 1.19 (95% CI 0.72–1.95) for current smokers, nor was there an association with age started, duration or intensity of active smoking. Compared with women who were never active nor passive smokers, there was no significant association between passive smoking in the home and breast cancer risk in never smokers, RR of 0.89 (95% CI 0.64–1.25), in past smokers, RR of 1.09 (95% CI 0.75–1.56), or in current smokers, RR of 0.93 (95% CI 0.67–1.30). There was no trend with increasing duration of passive smoking and there was no heterogeneity among any of the subgroups examined. In this study, there was no evidence of an association between either active smoking or passive smoking in the home and risk of breast cancer. PMID:17579618

  20. Smoking in Australian University Students and Its Association with Socio-Demographic Factors, Stress, Health Status, Coping Strategies, and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David; Farquhar, Lynette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of smoking amongst university students in Brisbane, Australia and associated risk factors. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional design was used for the study. A sample of 2,414 university students aged 18-30 was examined to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use. Smoking was measured by…

  1. Pulmonary hypertension in smoking mice over-expressing protease-activated receptor-2.

    PubMed

    De Cunto, G; Cardini, S; Cirino, G; Geppetti, P; Lungarella, G; Lucattelli, M

    2011-04-01

    The mechanism(s) involved in the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in COPD is still the object of investigation. Cigarette smoke (CS) may lead to remodelling of intrapulmonary vessels and dynamic changes in vascular function, at least in some smokers. A role for proteases in PH has been recently put forward. We investigated, in smoking mice, the role of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 in the pathogenesis of PH associated with emphysema. We demonstrated that CS exposure can modulate PAR-2 expression in mouse lung. Acute CS exposure induces in wildtype (WT) and in transgenic mice over-expressing PAR-2 (FVB(PAR-2-TgN)) a similar degree of neutrophil influx in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. After chronic CS exposure WT and FVB(PAR-2-TgN) mice show emphysema, but only transgenic mice develop muscularisation of small intrapulmonary vessels that precedes the development of PH (~45% increase) and right ventricular hypertrophy. Smoking in FVB(PAR-2-TgN) mice results in an imbalance between vasoconstrictors (especially endothelin-1) and vasodilators (i.e. vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and enhanced production of growth factors involved both in fibroblast-smooth muscle cell transaction (i.e. platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor β) and vascular cell proliferation (PDGF). PAR-2 signalling can influence the production and release of many factors, which may play a role in the development of PH in smokers. PMID:20693251

  2. Interaction between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and smoking on cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiang; Wang, Rong; Liu, Li; Yu, Qiushi; Wang, Zhiquan; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Qiming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) genotype and additional gene-smoking interaction on cardiovascular disease (CVD) based on a Chinese population. A total of 1248 subjects (613 men, 635 women), with a mean age of 55.5±11.8 years old, were selected, including 620 CVD patients and 628 normal controls. Logistic regression was performed to investigate association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and CVD. Generalized MDR (GMDR) was used to analysis the gene-environment interaction, cross-validation consistency, the testing balanced accuracy, and the sign test, to assess each selected interaction were calculated. The carriers of homozygous mutant of two SNP revealed increased CVD risk than those with wild-type homozygotes, OR (95% CI) were 1.31 (1.16-1.95) and 1.68 (1.29-2.06), respectively. GMDR analysis for one- to three-locus models indicated that there was a significant two-locus model (p=0.0107) involving rs1805192 and smoking, indicating a potential gene-gene interaction between rs1805192 and smoking. Overall, the two- locus models had a cross-validation consistency of 10 of 10, and had the testing accuracy of 62.17%. We found that smokers with Pro/Ala or Ala/Ala genotype have highest CVD risk, compared to non-smokers with Pro/Pro genotype, OR (95% CI) was 3.46 (1.31-3.42), after covariates adjustment. We found a significant association between genotypes of variants in rs10865710 and rs1805192 with increased CVD risk and a potential gene-gene interaction between rs1805192 and smoking.

  3. Social status modulates neural activity in the mentalizing network

    PubMed Central

    Muscatell, Keely A.; Morelli, Sylvia A.; Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Galinsky, Adam D.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Dapretto, Mirella; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2013-01-01

    The current research explored the neural mechanisms linking social status to perceptions of the social world. Two fMRI studies provide converging evidence that individuals lower in social status are more likely to engage neural circuitry often involved in ‘mentalizing’ or thinking about others' thoughts and feelings. Study 1 found that college students' perception of their social status in the university community was related to neural activity in the mentalizing network (e.g., DMPFC, MPFC, precuneus/PCC) while encoding social information, with lower social status predicting greater neural activity in this network. Study 2 demonstrated that socioeconomic status, an objective indicator of global standing, predicted adolescents' neural activity during the processing of threatening faces, with individuals lower in social status displaying greater activity in the DMPFC, previously associated with mentalizing, and the amygdala, previously associated with emotion/salience processing. These studies demonstrate that social status is fundamentally and neurocognitively linked to how people process and navigate their social worlds. PMID:22289808

  4. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617

  5. Active and passive smoking and development of glucose intolerance among young adults in a prospective cohort: CARDIA study

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Thomas K; Kiefe, Catarina I; Person, Sharina D; Pletcher, Mark J; Liu, Kiang; Iribarren, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess whether active and passive smokers are more likely than non-smokers to develop clinically relevant glucose intolerance or diabetes. Design Coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) is a prospective cohort study begun in 1985-6 with 15 years of follow-up. Setting Participants recruited from Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California, USA. Participants Black and white men and women aged 18-30 years with no glucose intolerance at baseline, including 1386 current smokers, 621 previous smokers, 1452 never smokers with reported exposure to secondhand smoke (validated by serum cotinine concentrations 1-15 ng/ml), and 1113 never smokers with no exposure to secondhand smoke. Main outcome measure Time to development of glucose intolerance (glucose ≥ 100 mg/dl or taking antidiabetic drugs) during 15 years of follow-up. Results Median age at baseline was 25, 55% of participants were women, and 50% were African-American. During follow-up, 16.7% of participants developed glucose intolerance. A graded association existed between smoking exposure and the development of glucose intolerance. The 15 year incidence of glucose intolerance was highest among smokers (21.8%), followed by never smokers with passive smoke exposure (17.2%), and then previous smokers (14.4%); it was lowest for never smokers with no passive smoke exposure (11.5%). Current smokers (hazard ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27 to 2.13) and never smokers with passive smoke exposure (1.35, 1.06 to 1.71) remained at higher risk than never smokers without passive smoke exposure after adjustment for multiple baseline sociodemographic, biological, and behavioural factors, but risk in previous smokers was similar to that in never smokers without passive smoke exposure. Conclusion These findings support a role of both active and passive smoking in the development of glucose intolerance in young adulthood. PMID:16603565

  6. Brief report: the theory of planned behaviour applied to physical activity in young people who smoke.

    PubMed

    Everson, Emma S; Daley, Amanda J; Ussher, Michael

    2007-04-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical activity and all TPB components. Physical activity behaviour was significantly explained by both intention and perceived behavioural control (PBC), with both intention and PBC making significant contributions to the model. Intention was significantly explained by attitude, subjective norm (SN) and PBC, with attitude, SN and PBC all making significant contributions to the model. The TPB may be a useful framework for guiding physical activity interventions among young smokers.

  7. Long term environmental tobacco smoke activates nuclear transcription factor-kappa B, activator protein-1, and stress responsive kinases in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Manna, Sunil K; Rangasamy, Thirumalai; Wise, Kimberly; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Shishodia, Shishir; Biswal, Shyam; Ramesh, Govindarajan T

    2006-05-28

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a key mediator of several diseases. Tobacco smoke contains a mixture of over 4700 chemical components many of which are toxic and have been implicated in the etiology of oxidative stress related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Parkinson's disease, asthma, cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism of action of cigarette smoke in the onset of these diseases is still largely unknown. Previous studies have revealed that the free radicals generated by cigarette smoke may contribute to many of these chronic health problems and this study sought to address the role of environmental tobacco smoke in oxidative stress related damage in different regions of the mouse brain. In this study, male mice were exposed for 7h/day, 7 days/week, for 6 months. Our results show that tobacco smoke led to increased generation of reactive oxygen species with an increase in NF-kappaB activation. Gel shift analysis also revealed the elevated level of the oxidative stress sensitive proinflammatory nuclear transcription factor-kappa B and activator protein-1 in different regions of the brain of cigarette smoke exposed mice. Tobacco smoke led to activation of COX-2 in all the regions of the brain. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase were also observed in various regions of brain of ETS exposed mice. Overall our results indicate that exposure to long-term cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress leading to activation of stress induced kinases and activation of proinflammatory transcription factors.

  8. Bhas 42 cell transformation activity of cigarette smoke condensate is modulated by selenium and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Gu; Pant, Kamala; Bruce, Shannon W; Gairola, C Gary

    2016-04-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a major health risk worldwide. Development of newer tobacco products requires the use of quantitative toxicological assays. Recently, v-Ha-ras transfected BALB/c3T3 (Bhas 42) cell transformation assay was established that simulates the two-stage animal tumorigenesis model and measures tumor initiating and promoting activities of chemicals. The present study was performed to assess the feasibility of using this Bhas 42 cell transformation assay to determine the initiation and promotion activities of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and its water soluble fraction. Further, the modulating effects of selenium and arsenic on cigarette smoke-induced cell transformation were investigated. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water extracts of CSC (CSC-D and CSC-W, respectively) were tested at concentrations of 2.5-40 µg mL(-1) in the initiation or promotion assay formats. Initiation protocol of the Bhas 42 assay showed a 3.5-fold increase in transformed foci at 40 µg mL(-1) of CSC-D but not CSC-W. The promotion phase of the assay yielded a robust dose response with CSC-D (2.5-40 µg mL(-1)) and CSC-W (20-40 µg mL(-1)). Preincubation of cells with selenium (100 nM) significantly reduced CSC-induced increase in cell transformation in initiation assay. Co-treatment of cells with a sub-toxic dose of arsenic significantly enhanced cell transformation activity of CSC-D in promotion assay. The results suggest a presence of both water soluble and insoluble tumor promoters in CSC, a role of oxidative stress in CSC-induced cell transformation, and usefulness of Bhas 42 cell transformation assay in comparing tobacco product toxicities and in studying the mechanisms of tobacco carcinogenesis.

  9. Forsythiaside inhibits cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Li, Fan; Ma, Rui; Hu, Xianping

    2015-09-01

    Cigarette smoke has been reported to be the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It causes persistent inflammation by regulating the redox-sensitive pathways. Forsythiaside, an active constituent isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Forsythia suspensa, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Thus, in this study, we investigated the protective effects of forsythiaside against cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation in mice. COPD mice model was established by cigarette smoke. Forsythiaside was given 2h before cigarette smoke exposure for five consecutive days. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissues were collected to assess pathological changes, lipid peroxidation, inflammatory cytokine production, Nrf-2, and NF-κB expression. Our results showed that forsythiaside attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, NO and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production, and reversed the CS-induced decrease of glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Western blot analysis showed that forsythiaside inhibited cigarette smoke-induced NF-κB activation. In addition, forsythiaside dose-dependently up-regulated the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. In conclusion, forsythiaside protected against cigarette smoke-induced lung injury through activating Nrf2 and inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway.

  10. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitude, Social Pressure, and Environmental Constraints among New Undergraduates in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. Objective: This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. Method: A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Results: Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of “Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better”, the social pressure “Smoking brings comfort during celebration”, and the environmental constraints “How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?” are significantly associated with smoking. Conclusions: The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China. PMID:25607600

  11. Close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking: reevaluating their influence on children's smoking.

    PubMed

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Peterson, Arthur V; Robyn Andersen, M; Leroux, Brian G; Bharat Rajan, K; Sarason, Irwin G

    2006-04-01

    A number of longitudinal studies have explored the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking acquisition. A reasonable implication of this previous research is that intervention efforts could be beneficially directed toward countering the potential influence of friends' and possibly older siblings' smoking but not parents' smoking. However, methodological limitations of this previous research motivated our reevaluation of the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking. Close friends' smoking status was assessed when children were in 5th grade, whereas parents' and older siblings' smoking status was assessed when children were in 3rd grade. The outcome, children's daily smoking status, was assessed in 12th grade. The setting was 40 Washington state school districts that participated in the long-term Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project. Participants were the 4,576 families for whom close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking status as well as children's smoking status were available. The probability that each close friend's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 9% (95% CI = 6%-12%), the probability that each parent's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 11% (95% CI = 9%-14%), and the probability that each older sibling's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 7% (95% CI = 1%-13%). These results suggest that close friends', parents', and siblings' smoking were similarly important influences on children's smoking. Family-focused interventions could be a valuable future direction of prevention research. PMID:16766414

  12. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed.

  13. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  14. Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity, Protein, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prospective Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Min Soo; Han, Jun Hyun; Shin, Tae Young; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Sang Kon; Lee, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate risk factors for deterioration of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly men in a community-based, prospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods: In a suburban area in Korea, 1,514 subjects aged ≥45 years were randomly selected by systematic sampling. A total of 918 elderly subjects were enrolled in this in-depth clinical study in 2004. Of these, 547 participants were followed up for 3 years and the data was analyzed in 2014. Standard questionnaires were administered face-to-face by trained interviewers. After excluding women, 224 male participants with complete data including transrectal ultrasonography were included in the final analysis. LUTS were diagnosed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Symptom deterioration was defined as a score of ≥8 points during the 3-year follow-up period. Results: LUTS prevalence increased to 13.1% and the mean IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. After adjusting for confounders, a smoking history of ≥50 pack-years was an independent risk factor for deterioration of LUTS and storage subsymptoms compared with no history of smoking (3.1 and 5.1 odds, respectively). Physical activity had a protective effect on voiding subsymptoms. However, high protein diet and alcohol intake were not associated with LUTS deterioration. Conclusions: The LUTS prevalence among elderly men living in a suburban area increased to 13.1% and the IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. A history of heavy smoking, low physical activity, and high protein intake were associated with LUTS deterioration. However, there was no significant association between alcohol intake and LUTS deterioration. PMID:26620903

  15. Status of EPRI's waterside corrosion activities

    SciTech Connect

    Chexal, V.K.; Torok, R.C. ); Shevde, V.C.; Randall, G.A. ); Horowitz, J.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has instituted a program in the area of waterside corrosion. This program is designed to develop methodologies to: identify the specific corrosion problem, and then analyze the situation to help utility personnel develop a cost- effective inspection and remedial action program. To do this, there is an overview program - CHEXPERT - which identifies the types of corrosion which are likely to occur in a given situation. CHEXPERT is an expert system providing advisory and diagnostic services in this area. A number of analytical modules under CHEXPERT have been and are continuing to be developed. These modules are designed to enable utility personnel to perform the quantitative evaluations necessary in order to develop an optimum inspection program. CHEC, CHECMATE, and CHEC-CAV are inspection planning tools for single phase erosion corrosion, two-phase erosion, and cavitation, respectively. CHEC-NDE and CHEC-THK facilitate management of inspection data and assessment of worn component adequacy. CHEC and CHECMATE are currently complete and in wide use; the other modules are at various stages of development. The status, technical basis and use of all the analytical models are presented.

  16. Bronchial epithelial cells release monocyte chemotactic activity in response to smoke and endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, S.; Rennard, S.I.; Leikauf, G.D.; Robbins, R.A. )

    1991-08-01

    An increase in mononuclear phagocytes occurs within the airways during airway inflammation. Bronchial epithelial cells could release monocyte chemotactic activity and contribute to this increase. To test this hypothesis, bovine bronchial epithelial cells were isolated and maintained in culture. Bronchial epithelial cell culture supernatant fluids were evaluated for monocyte chemotactic activity. Epithelial cell culture supernatant fluids attracted significantly greater numbers of monocytes compared to media alone and the number of monocytes attracted increased in a time dependent manner. Endotoxin and smoke extract induced a dose and time dependent release of monocyte chemotactic activity compared with cells cultured in media (52.5 {plus minus} 2.6 (endotoxin), 30.5 {plus minus} 2.3 (smoke) vs 20.5 {plus minus} 2.2 cells/high power field (HPF) p less than 0.001). The released activity was chemotactic by checkerboard analysis. Stimulation of the epithelial cells by opsonized zymosan, calcium ionophore (A23187), and PMA also resulted in an increase in monocyte chemotactic activity (p less than 0.01). Because the release of activity was blocked by the lipoxygenase inhibitors, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and diethycarbamazine, epithelial cell monolayers were cultured with 3 microCi (3H)arachidonic acid for 24 h and then exposed to A23187, PMA, or both stimuli, for 4, 8, and 24 h. Analysis of the released 3H activity was performed with reverse-phase HPLC and revealed that the major lipoxygenase product was leukotriene B4. These data suggest that monocytes may be recruited into airways in response to chemotactic factors released by bronchial epithelial cells.

  17. [Smoking in the workplace: role of occupational physicians].

    PubMed

    Dell'Omo, M; Baccolo, T P; Marcolina, D; Roscelli, F; Muzi, G; Murgia, N

    2010-01-01

    In many industrialized countries smokers have been observed in high prevalence among workers with poor educational status, who are usually exposed to major occupational risks. The smoking habit and passive smoking may by themselves, or through interactions with other occupational risk factors, cause the onset of serious diseases. Therefore health reasons and the legal obligation to observe the smoking ban in the workplace make it essential to prevent and combat smoking in the workplace and to promote smoking cessation in workers who smoke. This initiative should benefit not only workers' health and well-being but also company finances. The Occupational Physician should engage in diverse activities ranging from encouraging young people not to start smoking to providing programmes to encourage workers who smoke to abandon the habit. For example, he or she should i) inform managers, supervisors and workers about the high risks linked to smoking, passive smoking and obligations established by law ii) collect information about the smoking habit among workers and supply workers with the so-called minimal clinical intervention during routine health surveillance appointments and iii) collaborate with specific health promotion programmes in the workplace.

  18. [Smoking and smoking weaning].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F; Bucher, H

    1994-10-01

    Stop-smoking counselling is a challenging task in primary health care, its efficacy being often underestimated by the physician. Health care physicians are not very inclined to advise their smoking patients to stop smoking and give specific counselling. This is in contradiction with the expectations of more than two thirds of the smoking patients, who expect their physicians to help them. The present article discusses the therapeutical methods for stop-smoking counselling in primary health care. In particular, the article illustrates the importance for this support (including the possibilities for nicotin substitution in the weaning stage). PMID:7839325

  19. Smoke Detectors and Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This manual, one of a series for use in public education, provides an in-depth review of the current status of state and local smoke detector legislation. First, for the community considering a smoke detector law or ordinance, six decision points are discussed: which residential occupancy sub-classes will be affected; what the time factors are for…

  20. Educational Disadvantage and Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Badger, Gary J.; Skelly, Joan M.; Solomon, Laura J.; Bernstein, Ira M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of education on smoking status in a cohort (n = 316) of pregnant women who were smokers at the time they learned of the current pregnancy. Subjects were participants in clinical trials examining the efficacy of monetary-based incentives for smoking cessation and relapse prevention. In multivariate analyses, educational achievement was a robust predictor of smoking status upon entering prenatal care, of achieving abstinence antepartum among those still smoking at entry into prenatal care, and of smoking status at 6-months postpartum in the entire cohort and the subsample who received smoking-cessation treatment. In addition to educational attainment, other predictors of smoking status included smoking-related characteristics (e.g., number of cigarettes/day smoked pre-pregnancy), treatment, maternal age, and stress ratings. We suggest that strategies to increase educational attainment be included with more conventional tobacco-control policies in efforts to reduce smoking among girls and young women. PMID:19442460

  1. Information management strategies within conversations about cigarette smoking: parenting correlates and longitudinal associations with teen smoking.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current experimenters, escalators). Parental solicitation, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent information management were coded from direct observations of 528 video-recorded parent-adolescent discussions about cigarette smoking with 344 teens (M age = 15.62 years) with a history of smoking experimentation (321 interactions with mothers, 207 interactions with fathers). Adolescent initiation of discussions concerning their own smoking behavior (21% of interactions) was predicted by lower levels of maternal observed disapproval of cigarette smoking and fewer teen-reported communication problems with mothers. Maternal initiation in discussions (35% of interactions) was associated with higher levels of family rules about illicit substance use. Three categories of adolescent information management (full disclosure, active secrecy, incomplete strategies) were coded by matching adolescents' confidential self-reported smoking status with their observed spontaneous disclosures and responses to parental solicitations. Fully disclosing teens reported higher quality communication with their mothers (more open, less problematic). Teens engaged in active secrecy with their mothers when families had high levels of parental rules about illicit substance use and when mothers expressed lower levels of expectancies that their teen would smoke in the future. Adolescents were more likely to escalate their smoking over 2 years if their parents initiated the discussion of adolescent smoking behavior (solicited) and if adolescents engaged in active secrecy.

  2. Information Management Strategies Within Conversations About Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations With Teen Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent–adolescent discussion concerning adolescents’ cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current experimenters, escalators). Parental solicitation, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent information management were coded from direct observations of 528 video-recorded parent–adolescent discussions about cigarette smoking with 344 teens (M age = 15.62 years) with a history of smoking experimentation (321 interactions with mothers, 207 interactions with fathers). Adolescent initiation of discussions concerning their own smoking behavior (21% of interactions) was predicted by lower levels of maternal observed disapproval of cigarette smoking and fewer teen-reported communication problems with mothers. Maternal initiation in discussions (35% of interactions) was associated with higher levels of family rules about illicit substance use. Three categories of adolescent information management (full disclosure, active secrecy, incomplete strategies) were coded by matching adolescents’ confidential self-reported smoking status with their observed spontaneous disclosures and responses to parental solicitations. Fully disclosing teens reported higher quality communication with their mothers (more open, less problematic). Teens engaged in active secrecy with their mothers when families had high levels of parental rules about illicit substance use and when mothers expressed lower levels of expectancies that their teen would smoke in the future. Adolescents were more likely to escalate their smoking over 2 years if their parents initiated the discussion of adolescent smoking behavior (solicited) and if adolescents engaged in active secrecy. PMID:23148939

  3. Effect of Cigarette Smoking and Passive Smoking on Hearing Impairment: Data from a Population–Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jiwon; Ryou, Namhyung; Jun, Hyung Jin; Hwang, Soon Young; Song, Jae-Jun; Chae, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of both active and passive smoking on the prevalence of the hearing impairment and the hearing thresholds in different age groups through the analysis of data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Study Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods The KNHANES is an ongoing population study that started in 1998. We included a total of 12,935 participants aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES, from 2010 to 2012, in the present study. Pure-tone audiometric (PTA) testing was conducted and the frequencies tested were 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz. Smoking status was categorized into three groups; current smoking group, passive smoking group and non-smoking group. Results In the current smoking group, the prevalence of speech-frequency bilateral hearing impairment was increased in ages of 40−69, and the rate of high frequency bilateral hearing impairment was elevated in ages of 30−79. When we investigated the impact of smoking on hearing thresholds, we found that the current smoking group had significantly increased hearing thresholds compared to the passive smoking group and non-smoking groups, across all ages in both speech-relevant and high frequencies. The passive smoking group did not have an elevated prevalence of either speech-frequency bilateral hearing impairment or high frequency bilateral hearing impairment, except in ages of 40s. However, the passive smoking group had higher hearing thresholds than the non-smoking group in the 30s and 40s age groups. Conclusion Current smoking was associated with hearing impairment in both speech-relevant frequency and high frequency across all ages. However, except in the ages of 40s, passive smoking was not related to hearing impairment in either speech-relevant or high frequencies. PMID:26756932

  4. Toxicant content, physical properties and biological activity of waterpipe tobacco smoke and its tobacco-free alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan; Schubert, Jens; Klaiany, Joanne; El Sabban, Marwan; Luch, Andreas; Saliba, Najat A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking using sweetened, flavoured tobacco products has become a widespread global phenomenon. In this paper, we review chemical, physical and biological properties of waterpipe smoke. Data sources Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major databases between 1991 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, narghile, hookah, shisha along with names of chemical compounds and classes of compounds, in addition to terms commonly used in cellular biology and aerosol sizing. Study selection The search was limited to articles published in English which reported novel data on waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) toxicant content, biological activity or particle size and which met various criteria for analytical rigour including: method specificity and selectivity, precision, accuracy and recovery, linearity, range, and stability. Data extraction Multiple researchers reviewed the reports and collectively agreed on which data were pertinent for inclusion. Data synthesis Waterpipe smoke contains significant concentrations of toxicants thought to cause dependence, heart disease, lung disease and cancer in cigarette smokers, and includes 27 known or suspected carcinogens. Waterpipe smoke is a respirable aerosol that induces cellular responses associated with pulmonary and arterial diseases. Except nicotine, smoke generated using tobacco-free preparations marketed for ‘health conscious’ users contains the same or greater doses of toxicants, with the same cellular effects as conventional products. Toxicant yield data from the analytical laboratory are consistent with studies of exposure biomarkers in waterpipe users. Conclusions A sufficient evidence base exists to support public health interventions that highlight the fact that WTS presents a serious inhalation hazard. PMID:25666550

  5. Estimating cotinine associations and a saliva cotinine level to identify active cigarette smoking in alaska native pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia J; Robinson, Renee F; Khan, Burhan A; Sosnoff, Connie S; Dillard, Denise A

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate nicotine metabolism varies by race and can change during pregnancy. Given high rates of tobacco use and limited studies among Alaska Native (AN) women, we estimated associations of saliva cotinine levels with cigarette use and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and estimated a saliva cotinine cutoff to distinguish smoking from non-smoking pregnant AN women. Using questionnaire data and saliva cotinine, we utilized multi-variable linear regression (n = 370) to estimate cotinine associations with tobacco use, SHS exposure, demographic, and pregnancy-related factors. Additionally, we estimated an optimal saliva cotinine cutoff for indication of active cigarette use in AN pregnant women using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (n = 377). Saliva cotinine significantly decreased with maternal age and significantly increased with cigarettes smoked per day, SHS exposure, and number of previous full term pregnancies. Using self-reported cigarette use in the past 7 days as indication of active smoking, the area under the ROC curve was 0.975 (95 % CI: 0.960-0.990). The point closest to 100 % specificity and sensitivity occurred with a cotinine concentration of 1.07 ng/mL, which corresponded to sensitivity of 94 % and specificity of 94 %. We recommend using a saliva cotinine cutoff of 1 ng/mL to distinguish active smoking in pregnant AN women. This cutoff is lower than used in other studies with pregnant women, most likely due to high prevalence of light or intermittent smoking in the AN population. Continued study of cotinine levels in diverse populations is needed.

  6. Estimating cotinine associations and a saliva cotinine level to identify active cigarette smoking in alaska native pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia J; Robinson, Renee F; Khan, Burhan A; Sosnoff, Connie S; Dillard, Denise A

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate nicotine metabolism varies by race and can change during pregnancy. Given high rates of tobacco use and limited studies among Alaska Native (AN) women, we estimated associations of saliva cotinine levels with cigarette use and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and estimated a saliva cotinine cutoff to distinguish smoking from non-smoking pregnant AN women. Using questionnaire data and saliva cotinine, we utilized multi-variable linear regression (n = 370) to estimate cotinine associations with tobacco use, SHS exposure, demographic, and pregnancy-related factors. Additionally, we estimated an optimal saliva cotinine cutoff for indication of active cigarette use in AN pregnant women using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (n = 377). Saliva cotinine significantly decreased with maternal age and significantly increased with cigarettes smoked per day, SHS exposure, and number of previous full term pregnancies. Using self-reported cigarette use in the past 7 days as indication of active smoking, the area under the ROC curve was 0.975 (95 % CI: 0.960-0.990). The point closest to 100 % specificity and sensitivity occurred with a cotinine concentration of 1.07 ng/mL, which corresponded to sensitivity of 94 % and specificity of 94 %. We recommend using a saliva cotinine cutoff of 1 ng/mL to distinguish active smoking in pregnant AN women. This cutoff is lower than used in other studies with pregnant women, most likely due to high prevalence of light or intermittent smoking in the AN population. Continued study of cotinine levels in diverse populations is needed. PMID:23423858

  7. Physician Counseling of Pregnant Women About Active and Second-hand Smoking in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Raul; Martinez, Valeria Guil; Gregorich, Steven E.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Describe physicians' practices of smoking cessation and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure counseling during prenatal visits. Design Cross-sectional survey Setting 13 public and private hospitals from three cities in Argentina Population 300 obstetrician/gynecologists Methods Self-administered survey included knowledge and attitudes about tobacco use during pregnancy, frequency, type and duration of smoking cessation counseling, barriers to counseling, communication skills, level of understanding, and personal smoking history. Main Outcome Measures Composite outcomes of 4 items, each representative of counseling on smoking cessation and SHS exposure. Results 235 (78.3%) questionnaires were completed; 54.5% men, mean age 45, 35% current smokers. Only 22% had received training in smoking cessation counseling and 48.5% reported insufficient knowledge to provide smoking cessation advice. Although 88.9% always or almost always advised women to stop smoking, 75% believed it was acceptable for pregnant women to smoke up to 6 cigarettes per day. The risk of SHS exposure was “always or almost always discussed” by only 34.5% of physicians. Multivariate logistic regression showed that lack of training was associated with less counseling about smoking cessation (OR 0.18; 95%CI 0.04-0.82) and SHS exposure (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.12-0.59). Current compared to never smokers had lower odds of smoking cessation counseling (OR 0.39; 95%CI 0.05-0.82). Current smokers were less likely than former smokers to counsel about SHS (OR 0.25, 95%CI 0.11-0.62). Conclusions Smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina occurs infrequently, interventions are needed to assist physicians motivate and counsel women to quit smoking and avoid SHS exposure. Physicians taking care of pregnant women also need to quit smoking. PMID:20367427

  8. Quit smoking advice from health professionals in Taiwan: the role of funding policy and smoker socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lo, Shu-ying; Yu, Po-tswen; Chao, Kun-yu; Hsiao, Mei-ling

    2009-01-01

    Objectives In 2002, Taiwan launched a program to encourage doctors to provide brief cessation counselling to their patients during routine outpatient visits. This study is to compare and analyse the annual prevalence rate of receiving advice to quit smoking from health professionals before (2004) and after (2005, 2006) the increase in funding and the withdrawal of additional funding (2007). Methods We analysed pooled data from 2004 to 2007 Taiwan Adult Tobacco Survey, an annual random digit dialling telephone survey, to estimate the prevalence of receiving quit advice among ever smokers across these years. Smoking characteristics and the socioeconomic factors of smokers associated with receipt of advice to quit smoking were also examined. Results The prevalence rate of receiving quit advice increased from 21.1% in 2004 to 28.2% in 2006, and then decreased slightly to 27.6% in 2007 after the funds were cut. Multivariate analyses results indicated that increasing financing for smoking cessation services in 2005, being male, older, a daily cigarette user, having previously attempted to quit, perceiving oneself as having poor health and being aware of the benefits of smoking cessation services were significantly positively associated with receiving quit advice from health professionals. In contrast, smokers who were younger, female and occasional cigarette users were less likely to receive quit advice. Also, smokers with socioeconomic disadvantages were not less likely to receive quit advice. Conclusions During the period of increased funding for smoking cessation services, the rates of receiving quit advice increased among all smokers and across different socioeconomic groups. PMID:19965797

  9. Field Operations Program Activities Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Francfort; D. V. O'Hara; L. A. Slezak

    1999-05-01

    The Field Operations Program is an electric vehicle testing and evaluation program sponsored by US Department of Energy and managed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Program's goals are to evaluate electric vehicles in real-world applications and environments, support electric vehicle technology advancement, develop infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use, support increased use of electric vehicles in federal fleets, and increase overall awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles. This report covers Program activities from fiscal year 1997 through mid-fiscal year 1999. The Field Operations Program succeeded the Site Operator Program, which ended in September 1996. Electric vehicle testing conducted by the Program includes baseline performance testing (EV America testing), accelerated reliability (life-cycle) testing, and fleet testing. The baseline performance parameters include accelerations, braking, range, energy efficiency, and charging time. The Program collects accelerated reliability and fleet operations data on electric vehicles operated by the Program's Qualified Vehicle Testing (QVT) partners. The Program's QVT partners have over 3 million miles of electric vehicle operating experience.

  10. Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sherson, D; Sigsgaard, T; Overgaard, E; Loft, S; Poulsen, H E; Jongeneelen, F J

    1992-01-01

    An increased lung cancer risk has been described among foundry workers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica are possible aetiological factors. This study describes a urinary PAH metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene (hpU), as well as the degree of cytochrome P450IA2 activity/induction as reflected by the urinary caffeine ratio (IA2) in 45 foundry workers and 52 controls; IA2 was defined as the ratio of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (1,7-dimethyluric acid). Mean exposure concentrations for foundry workers were defined by breathing zone hygienic samples (respirable dust 1.2 to 3.52 mg/m3 (93 samples)) and as total PAH (0.46 micrograms/m3) and pyrene concentrations (0.28 micrograms/m3) (six samples). Non-smoking controls and foundry workers had similar IA2 ratios (5.63, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4.56-6.70 and 4.40, 95% CI 3.56-5.24). The same was true for smoking controls and foundry workers (9.10, 95% CI 8.00-10.20 and 8.69, 95% CI 7.37-10.01). Both smoking groups had raised IA2 ratios compared with non-smokers (p less than 0.01). Non-smoking controls and foundry workers had similar hpU concentrations (0.16, 95% CI 0.10-0.22 and 0.11, 95% CI 0.09-0.13 mumol/mol creatinine). Smoking foundry workers had raised hpU concentrations (0.42, 95% CI 0.25-0.59) compared with smoking controls (0.26, 95% CI 0.18-0.34) (p less than 0.01). A small subgroup of smoking foundry workers with the highest exposures to both silica and PAH also had the highest hpU concentrations (0.70, 95% CI - 0.07-1.47 mumol/mol creatinine) (p less than 0.04). Increased hpU concentrations in smoking foundry workers suggest a more than additive effect from smoking and foundry exposures resulting in increased PAH uptake. Increased P450IA2 enzyme activity was only found in smokers and no additional effect of foundry exposures was seen. These data suggest that smoking as well as work related PAH exposure may be casually related to increased risk

  11. The influence of active and passive smoking during pregnancy on umbilical cord blood levels of vitamins A and E and neonatal anthropometric indices.

    PubMed

    Titova, Olga E; Ayvazova, Elena A; Bichkaeva, Fatima A; Brooks, Samantha J; Chumakova, Galina N; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2012-10-28

    Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be detrimental for the developing fetus. The effects of active and passive maternal smoking on umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E were examined. Secondary measures included anthropometric parameters in the newborn. Maternal and umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E were measured at delivery. The mothers were assigned to three groups: non-smoking (n 12); passive smoking (n 13); active smoking (n 18). Based on multivariate linear regressions, active smoking during pregnancy was associated with increased umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E. While enhanced circulating levels of vitamin A in cord blood were also found in non-smoking mothers exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, those of vitamin E were not influenced. Further, an inverse association between smoking behaviour during pregnancy and birth length was observed, with shortest length in active smokers followed by passive smoking mothers. Active and passive maternal smoking behaviour during pregnancy increases the fetal demand for antioxidant compounds in order to counteract the oxidative burden by cigarette smoke. Against this background, the observed increase in umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E may subserve antioxidative processes in response to tobacco smoke-induced oxidative stress. This would reduce the availability of vitamins A and E for fetal maturation, which is critical inasmuch as both compounds are indispensable for the developing fetus. However, due to the cross-sectional nature of our observation, this line of reasoning definitely requires validation in cause-effect experiments in the future.

  12. Effects of active and passive smoking on the development of cardiovascular disease as assessed by a carotid intima-media thickness examination in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Miao; Peng, Danfeng; Sun, Xue; Yan, Jing; Luo, Yi; Tang, Shanshan; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-05-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness has been widely used as a surrogate end-point for cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. This study aimed to assess the effects of active and passive smoking exposure on the development of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seven hundred twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited for the study. A standardized questionnaire on smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and the number of years of smoking cessation was provided to the patients, and their responses were collected for analysis. The carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and the internal diameter of the common carotid artery were determined by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Compared to non-smokers, passive female smokers had a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (odds ratio = 3.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.29-9.49, P = 0.009); they also had a significantly larger common carotid artery (P = 0.041) and risk of carotid plaque (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.1980-4.0505, P = 0.01). Both active and passive male smokers had a significantly greater carotid intima-media thickness than non-smokers (P = 0.003 and P = 0.005, respectively). Male active smokers had a significantly higher risk of carotid plaque (odds ratio = 2.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.4788-5.6094, P = 0.001). In conclusion, cumulative active and passive smoking exposures are significant risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our results highlight the importance of endorsing a smoke-free environment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25708055

  13. Effects of active and passive smoking on the development of cardiovascular disease as assessed by a carotid intima-media thickness examination in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Miao; Peng, Danfeng; Sun, Xue; Yan, Jing; Luo, Yi; Tang, Shanshan; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-05-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness has been widely used as a surrogate end-point for cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. This study aimed to assess the effects of active and passive smoking exposure on the development of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seven hundred twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited for the study. A standardized questionnaire on smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and the number of years of smoking cessation was provided to the patients, and their responses were collected for analysis. The carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and the internal diameter of the common carotid artery were determined by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Compared to non-smokers, passive female smokers had a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (odds ratio = 3.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.29-9.49, P = 0.009); they also had a significantly larger common carotid artery (P = 0.041) and risk of carotid plaque (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.1980-4.0505, P = 0.01). Both active and passive male smokers had a significantly greater carotid intima-media thickness than non-smokers (P = 0.003 and P = 0.005, respectively). Male active smokers had a significantly higher risk of carotid plaque (odds ratio = 2.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.4788-5.6094, P = 0.001). In conclusion, cumulative active and passive smoking exposures are significant risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our results highlight the importance of endorsing a smoke-free environment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. [Effects of active and passive smoking during pregnancy on the development of gestational hypertension and fetal hypotrophy].

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, Mariola; Dera-Szymanowska, Anna; Napierała, Marta; Chuchracki, Marek; Markwitz, Wiesław; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Florek, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    In prenatal life the fetus can be exposed to more incentires which affect the mother. In case of both active and passive smoking by pregnant women many pernicious substances contained in tobacco smoke can influence the foetus. The components of tobacco smoke can contribute to various antenatal complications. The aim of present work was to assess if the data given by the patient in anonymous questionnaire go along with the real exposure to components of smoke assessed on the basis of concentration of nicotine metabolite- cotinine in mother's serum and next to assess the risk of development of gestational hypertension and hypotrophy. The biological material was extracted with means of liquid-liquid technique and next we performed laboratory determinations with means of liquid chro- matography with sectrophotometric detection, in which norephedrine is used as inner sample. The study was carried out on 106 women in perinatal period who give birth from single, full term pregnancy. On the basis of questionnaire data considering the concentration of cotinine, the patients were divided into three groups: I group--active smokers (n = 27), II group--passive smokers (n = 32), III group--not exposed to tobacco smoke (n = 41). The average concentration of cotinine in blood serum in the first group was 129.6 ng/ml, second group--5.1 ng/ ml, but in all patients from the control group the concentration of cotinine was below the detection level. Gestational hypertension was diagnosed in 17 women (16%) and hypotrophy of the foetus was diagnosed in 15 patients (14%). Tobacco smoking didn't influence the development of gestational hypertension and hypotrophy showered it is more often observed in women exposed to components of tobacco smoke during pregnancy.

  15. [Effects of active and passive smoking during pregnancy on the development of gestational hypertension and fetal hypotrophy].

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, Mariola; Dera-Szymanowska, Anna; Napierała, Marta; Chuchracki, Marek; Markwitz, Wiesław; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Florek, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    In prenatal life the fetus can be exposed to more incentires which affect the mother. In case of both active and passive smoking by pregnant women many pernicious substances contained in tobacco smoke can influence the foetus. The components of tobacco smoke can contribute to various antenatal complications. The aim of present work was to assess if the data given by the patient in anonymous questionnaire go along with the real exposure to components of smoke assessed on the basis of concentration of nicotine metabolite- cotinine in mother's serum and next to assess the risk of development of gestational hypertension and hypotrophy. The biological material was extracted with means of liquid-liquid technique and next we performed laboratory determinations with means of liquid chro- matography with sectrophotometric detection, in which norephedrine is used as inner sample. The study was carried out on 106 women in perinatal period who give birth from single, full term pregnancy. On the basis of questionnaire data considering the concentration of cotinine, the patients were divided into three groups: I group--active smokers (n = 27), II group--passive smokers (n = 32), III group--not exposed to tobacco smoke (n = 41). The average concentration of cotinine in blood serum in the first group was 129.6 ng/ml, second group--5.1 ng/ ml, but in all patients from the control group the concentration of cotinine was below the detection level. Gestational hypertension was diagnosed in 17 women (16%) and hypotrophy of the foetus was diagnosed in 15 patients (14%). Tobacco smoking didn't influence the development of gestational hypertension and hypotrophy showered it is more often observed in women exposed to components of tobacco smoke during pregnancy. PMID:26731869

  16. Assessing the mutagenic activities of smoke from different cigarettes in direct exposure experiments using the modified Ames Salmonella assay.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shinkichi; Kanemaru, Yuki; Nara, Hidenori; Erami, Kazuo; Nagata, Yasufumi

    2016-06-01

    The Ames assay is useful for evaluating the mutagenic potentials of chemicals, and it has been used to evaluate the mutagenic potential of cigarette smoke (CS). In vitro direct exposure systems have been developed to mimic CS exposure in the human respiratory tract, and the Ames assay has been used with such systems. Ames tests were performed using the Vitrocell(®) direct exposure system in this study. The mutagenic potentials of whole mainstream CS and gas/vapor phase fractions produced by conventional combustible cigarettes under two smoking regimens were compared. Salmonella Typhimurium TA98 and TA100 were used with and without metabolic activation, and the number of revertants induced by exposure to each CS was determined. The amount of smoke particles to which cells were exposed were also determined, and dose-response curves describing the relationships between exposure to smoke particles and the number of revertants induced were plotted. The slopes of linear regressions of the dose-response curves were determined, and the slope for each CS was used as a mutagenic activity index for that CS. A new heated cigarette was also tested and smoke from the heated cigarette had a lower mutagenic activity in TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation than did the conventional CS. The results indicate that the direct exposure system and the Ames test can be used to determine the mutagenic potentials of CS produced by different cigarettes under different conditions (i.e., using different Salmonella Typhimurium strains with and without metabolic activation, and using different smoking conditions). PMID:27265375

  17. Effect of smoke on the transmissivity of photosynthetically active radiation inside the canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasoe, M.; von Randow, C.; Manzi, A.; Schafer, J.; Eck, T.; Holben, B.

    2005-08-01

    Biomass burning activities emit high concentrations of aerosol particles to the atmosphere. Such particles can interact with solar radiation, decreasing the amount of light reaching the surface and increasing the fraction of diffuse radiation through scattering processes. This work reports results from photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements conducted simultaneously at Reserva Biológica do Jaru (Rondonia State, Brazil) during LBA/SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia/ Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate) and RaCCI (Radiation, Cloud, and Climate Interactions in the Amazon during the Dry-to-Wet Transition Season) field experiments from 15 September to 15 November 2002. AOD values were retrieved from an AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) radiometer, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer) and a portable sunphotometer from the United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service. Daily mean downward PAR irradiance at the top of canopy was reduced by up to 50% due to the smoke aerosol particles. This radiation reduction affected turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heats at the surface, observed particularly for high values of aerosol optical depth. The increase of aerosol optical depth also enhanced the transmission of photosynthetic active radiation inside the canopy. This result was a consequence of enhanced availability of diffuse radiation due to light scattering by the aerosol particles. A complex relationship was identified between light availability inside the canopy and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). The results showed that the increase of aerosol optical depth corresponded to an increase on CO2 exchange, indicating more CO2 uptake by the vegetation. However, for a higher AOD value, the corresponding NEE was lower than for intermediate values. Further studies are needed to better understand these findings, which were reported for the first time for the Amazon region under

  18. Cigarette smoke exposure triggers the autophagic cascade via activation of the AMPK pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Hayley C; Stämpfli, Martin R; Gannon, Anne M; Foster, Warren G

    2015-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure decreases primordial follicle counts and induces autophagy in ovarian granulosa cells in preference to apoptosis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate molecular targets underlying smoke-induced activation of the reparative autophagy pathway in the ovary. Briefly, ovarian homogenates were prepared from adult female mice exposed to mainstream CS twice daily for 8 wk, using a whole-body exposure system. A gene array revealed that CS exposure induced a greater than 2-fold significant increase in the expression of proautophagic genes Cdkn1b, Map1lc3a, Bad, and Sqstm1/p62. A significant increase in Prkaa2, Pik3c3, and Maplc31b expression, as well as a significant decrease in Akt1 and Mtor expression, was detected by quantitative PCR. The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit (AMPK) alpha1 + alpha2 and ATG7 protein expression was significantly increased, whereas AKT1, mTOR, CDKN1B/p27, and CXCR4 proteins were significantly decreased in CS exposed versus control ovaries. Up-regulation of AMPK alpha1 + alpha2, a known initiator of autophagic signaling, and ATG7 further suggests activation of the autophagy cascade. Two prosurvival factors, AKT and mTOR, were decreased in expression, an outcome that favors induction of the autophagy pathway, whereas decreased levels of CDKN1B is suggestive of cell cycle dysregulation. In summary, our data suggest that CS exposure induces ovarian follicle loss through induction of the autophagic cascade via the AMPK pathway together with inhibition of antiautophagic markers AKT and mTOR. We further postulate that toxicant-induced dysregulation of reparative autophagy is a novel pathway central to impaired follicle development and subfertility.

  19. Cigarette Smoke Exposure Triggers the Autophagic Cascade via Activation of the AMPK Pathway in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, Hayley C.; Stämpfli, Martin R.; Gannon, Anne M.; Foster, Warren G.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure decreases primordial follicle counts and induces autophagy in ovarian granulosa cells in preference to apoptosis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate molecular targets underlying smoke-induced activation of the reparative autophagy pathway in the ovary. Briefly, ovarian homogenates were prepared from adult female mice exposed to mainstream CS twice daily for 8 wk, using a whole-body exposure system. A gene array revealed that CS exposure induced a greater than 2-fold significant increase in the expression of proautophagic genes Cdkn1b, Map1lc3a, Bad, and Sqstm1/p62. A significant increase in Prkaa2, Pik3c3, and Maplc31b expression, as well as a significant decrease in Akt1 and Mtor expression, was detected by quantitative PCR. The 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit (AMPK) alpha1 + alpha2 and ATG7 protein expression was significantly increased, whereas AKT1, mTOR, CDKN1B/p27, and CXCR4 proteins were significantly decreased in CS exposed versus control ovaries. Up-regulation of AMPK alpha1 + alpha2, a known initiator of autophagic signaling, and ATG7 further suggests activation of the autophagy cascade. Two prosurvival factors, AKT and mTOR, were decreased in expression, an outcome that favors induction of the autophagy pathway, whereas decreased levels of CDKN1B is suggestive of cell cycle dysregulation. In summary, our data suggest that CS exposure induces ovarian follicle loss through induction of the autophagic cascade via the AMPK pathway together with inhibition of antiautophagic markers AKT and mTOR. We further postulate that toxicant-induced dysregulation of reparative autophagy is a novel pathway central to impaired follicle development and subfertility. PMID:26377221

  20. Bullied Status and Physical Activity in Texas Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Case, Kathleen R; Pérez, Adriana; Saxton, Debra L; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Springer, Andrew E

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the association between having been bullied at school during the past 6 months ("bullied status") and not meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations of 60 minutes of daily PA during the past week among 8th- and 11th-grade Texas adolescents. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine this association, adjusted for weight status, grade, race/ethnicity, and stratified by gender; furthermore, a significant interaction was found between bullied status and weight status. Results are presented by interaction status. Results indicated that overweight girls who reported never being bullied, as well as those who reported being bullied more than twice, had higher odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight girls who were never bullied (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.12, 3.99]; AOR = 9.18, 95% CI [2.26, 37.27], respectively). Obese girls who were bullied once or twice had higher odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight girls who were never bullied (AOR = 2.89, 95% CI [1.06, 7.89]). Overweight boys who reported never being bullied had lower odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight boys who were never bullied (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI [0.39, 0.97]). Conversely, obese boys who were bullied once or twice reported higher odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight boys who were never bullied (AOR = 3.61, 95% CI [1.22, 10.67]). Findings from this study indicate that the association between bullied status and meeting PA recommendations is complex and may differ by gender and the interaction between bullied status and weight status.

  1. The influence of active and passive smoking on the cardiorespiratory fitness of adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of active and passive smoking on cardiorespiratory responses in asymptomatic adults during a sub-maximal-exertion incremental test. Methods The participants (n = 43) were divided into three different groups: active smokers (n = 14; aged 36.5 ± 8 years), passive smokers (n = 14; aged 34.6 ± 11.9 years) and non-smokers (n = 15; aged 30 ± 8.1 years). They all answered the Test for Nicotine Dependence and underwent anthropometric evaluation, spirometry and ergospirometry according to the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Results VO2max differed statistically between active and non-smokers groups (p < 0.001) and between non-smokers and passive group (p=0.022). However, there was no difference between the passive and active smokers groups (p=0.053). Negative and significant correlations occurred between VO2max and age (r = - 0.401, p = 0.044), percentage of body fat (r = - 0.429, p = 0.011), and waist circumference (WC) (r = - 0.382, p = 0.025). Conclusion VO2max was significantly higher in non-smokers compared to active smokers and passive smokers. However, the VO2max of passive smokers did not differ from active smokers. PMID:25009739

  2. Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior: A Sociological Case Study in Ankara, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Aytul; Ozerkmen, Necmettin

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss important predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior, such as their sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic status, mother's and father's educational level, and school type), health-promoting behavior (healthy nutrition, physical activities), risk behavior (cigarette smoking and alcohol…

  3. Bullied Status and Physical Activity in Texas Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kathleen R.; Pérez, Adriana; Saxton, Debra L.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Springer, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between having been bullied at school during the past 6 months ("bullied status") and not meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations of 60 minutes of daily PA during the past week among 8th- and 11th-grade Texas adolescents. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine this…

  4. Smoke-free homes, smoking susceptibility and familial smoking among never-smoking high school students: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gregoire, Bruce; Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that living in a smoke-free home has a positive effect on adolescents' perceived acceptance of smoking. However, the relationship between smoke-free homes and adolescent smoking behaviours remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between smoke-free homes and smoking susceptibility among high school students, and to determine whether these associations persist when analyses are stratified by familial smoking status. Methods: We conducted a random cross-sectional survey (2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey) of primary, junior and high school students in Canada (n = 47 203). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between smoke-free homes and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking high school students, with and without stratification by familial smoking. Results: Analyses showed that adolescents living in a smoke-free home had reduced odds of being susceptible to smoking (odds ratio [OR] 0.582, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.428-0.791) compared with their peers living in households where smoking was permitted. When adolescents had other family members who were smokers, having a smoke-free home was not significantly associated with reduced smoking susceptibility (OR 0.878, 95% CI 0.721-1.071). Interpretation: Our results suggest that smoke-free homes may influence future smoking initiation. Optimal success in preventing youth smoking uptake necessitates having a coherent antismoking message between the home smoking environment and familial smoking behaviour. PMID:27398377

  5. Smoking: attitudes of Costa Rican physicians and opportunities for intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, D. W.; Knox, J. J.; Nash, C.; Jiménez, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information, using a written questionnaire, on the knowledge, smoking behaviour, and attitudes of Costa Rican physicians about smoking as a health issue. A random sample of 650 physicians was chosen from a list of active physicians; 287 of them were covered by survey between August 1993 and October 1994, and 217 (76%) responded with data for the study. While 40% of the physicians who participated were ex-smokers, 19% were current smokers; 67% of these two groups combined reported smoking in the workplace. Only 49% believed that physicians could be a nonsmoking role model; the majority (87%) had asked patients about their smoking status. The only cessation technique consistently used (90%) was counselling about the dangers of smoking. Measures such as setting a date to quit smoking and nicotine replacement were rarely recommended (< or = 2%). Nearly all the physicians (99%) considered smoking to be a major health issue. These results showed a high prevalence of smoking among Costa Rican physicians, with little recognition of the need for them to set an example as a role model. While they were knowledgeable about the health risks of smoking, they did not recommend any of the proven techniques to help their patients to quit smoking. A clear consensus for more strict tobacco regulation exists, but to date little has been done to act on this. PMID:10327710

  6. Effect of smoke and clouds on the transmissivity of photosynthetically active radiation inside the canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasoe, M. A.; von Randow, C.; Manzi, A. O.; Schafer, J. S.; Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.

    2006-05-01

    Biomass burning activities emit high concentrations of aerosol particles to the atmosphere. Such particles can interact with solar radiation, decreasing the amount of light reaching the surface and increasing the fraction of diffuse radiation through scattering processes, and thus has implications for photosynthesis within plant canopies. This work reports results from photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements conducted simultaneously at Reserva Biológica do Jaru (Rondonia State, Brazil) during LBA/SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia/ Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate) and RaCCI (Radiation, Cloud, and Climate Interactions in the Amazon during the Dry-to-Wet Transition Season) field experiments from 15 September to 15 November 2002. AOD values were retrieved from an AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) radiometer, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer) and a portable sunphotometer from the United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Service. Significant reduction of PAR irradiance at the top of the canopy was observed due to the smoke aerosol particles layer. This radiation reduction affected turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heats. The increase of AOD also enhanced the transmission of PAR inside the canopy. As a consequence, the availability of diffuse radiation was enhanced due to light scattering by the aerosol particles. A complex relationship was identified between light availability inside the canopy and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). The results showed that the increase of aerosol optical depth corresponded to an increase of CO2 uptake by the vegetation. However, for even higher AOD values, the corresponding NEE was lower than for intermediate values. As expected, water vapor pressure deficit (VPD), retrieved at 28m height inside the canopy, can also affect photosynthesis. A decrease in NEE was observed as VPD increased. Further studies are needed to better

  7. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 1. Particle detection by active photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Markus; Strelnikova, Irina

    2009-03-01

    We present a new design of an in situ detector for the study of meteor smoke particles (MSPs) in the middle atmosphere. This detector combines a classical Faraday cup with a xenon-flashlamp for the active photoionization/photodetachment of MSPs and the subsequent detection of corresponding photoelectrons. This instrument was successfully launched in September 2006 from the Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway. A comparison of photocurrents measured during this rocket flight and measurements performed in the laboratory proves that observed signatures are truly due to photoelectrons. In addition, the observed altitude cut-off at 60 km (i.e., no signals were observed below this altitude) is fully understood in terms of the mean free path of the photoelectrons in the ambient atmosphere. This interpretation is also proven by a corresponding laboratory experiment. Consideration of all conceivable species which can be ionized by the photons of the xenon-flashlamp demonstrates that only MSPs can quantitatively explain the measured currents below an altitude of 90 km. Above this altitude, measured photocurrents are most likely due to photoionization of nitric oxide. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the active photoionization and subsequent detection of photoelectrons provides a promising new tool for the study of MSPs in the middle atmosphere. Importantly, this new technique does not rely on the a priori charge of the particles, neither is the accessible particle size range severely limited by aerodynamical effects. Based on the analysis described in this study, the geophysical interpretation of our measurements is presented in the companion paper by Strelnikova, I., et al. [2008. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. results. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.011].

  8. Communication about Smoking in Dutch Families: Associations between Anti-Smoking Socialization and Adolescent Smoking-Related Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Willemsen, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the development of young people's smoking behavior, through the modeling effects of their own smoking status, through the ways they raise their children and through the ways they deal with smoking at home. The present study focused on anti-smoking socialization by, first, comparing the perspectives of both parents…

  9. Effects of long-term smoking on the activity and mRNA expression of CYP isozymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiao-Meng; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Ming-Zhen; Li, Yang; Li, Hu-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of long-term smoking on the activity and mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to passive smoking 6 cigarettes per day for 180 days. A cocktail solution which contained phenacetin (20 mg/kg), tolbutamide (5 mg/kg), chlorzoxazone (20 mg/kg) and midazolam (10 mg/kg) was given orally to rats. Blood samples were collected at pre-specified time points and the concentrations of probe drugs in plasma were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 3.0. In addition, real-time RT-PCR was used to analyze the mRNA expression of CYP1A2, CYP2C11, CYP2E1 and CYP3A1 in rat liver. Results There were no significant influences of pharmacokinetic profiles of chlorzoxazone in long-term smoking pretreated rats. But many pharmacokinetic profiles of phenacetin, tolbutamide, and midazolam in long-term smoking pretreated rats were affected significantly (P<0.05). The results suggested that long-term smoking had significant inhibition effects on CYP2C11 and CYP3A1 while CYP1A2 enzyme activity was induced. Furthermore, Long-term smoking had no effects on rat CYP2E1. The mRNA expression results were consistent with the pharmacokinetic results. Conclusions Alterations of CYP450 enzyme activities may fasten or slow down excretion with corresponding influence on drug efficacy or toxicity in smokers compared to nonsmokers, which may lead to clinical failures of lung cancer therapy or toxicity in smokers. PMID:26623094

  10. Application of MODIS-Derived Active Fire Radiative Energy to Fire Disaster and Smoke Pollution Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Hao, Wei Min; Habib, Shahid

    2004-01-01

    The radiative energy emitted by large fires and the corresponding smoke aerosol loading are simultaneously measured from the MODIS sensor from both the Terra and Aqua satellites. Quantitative relationships between the rates of emission of fire radiative energy and smoke are being developed for different fire-prone regions of the globe. Preliminary results are presented. When fully developed, the system will enable the use of MODIS direct broadcast fire data for near real-time monitoring of fire strength and smoke emission as well as forecasting of fire progression and smoke dispersion, several hours to a few days in advance.

  11. The independent role of prenatal and postnatal exposure to active and passive smoking on the development of early wheeze in children.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, C I; Hohmann, C; Patelarou, E; Martinez, D; Henderson, A J; Granell, R; Sunyer, J; Torrent, M; Fantini, M P; Gori, D; Annesi-Maesano, I; Slama, R; Duijts, L; de Jongste, J C; Aurrekoetxea, J J; Basterrechea, M; Morales, E; Ballester, F; Murcia, M; Thijs, C; Mommers, M; Kuehni, C E; Gaillard, E A; Tischer, C; Heinrich, J; Pizzi, C; Zugna, D; Gehring, U; Wijga, A; Chatzi, L; Vassilaki, M; Bergström, A; Eller, E; Lau, S; Keil, T; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Kogevinas, M

    2016-07-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases childhood asthma risk, but health effects in children of nonsmoking mothers passively exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy are unclear. We examined the association of maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and wheeze in children aged ≤2 years.Individual data of 27 993 mother-child pairs from 15 European birth cohorts were combined in pooled analyses taking into consideration potential confounders.Children with maternal exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy and no other smoking exposure were more likely to develop wheeze up to the age of 2 years (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20) compared with unexposed children. Risk of wheeze was further increased by children's postnatal passive smoke exposure in addition to their mothers' passive exposure during pregnancy (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.19-1.40) and highest in children with both sources of passive exposure and mothers who smoked actively during pregnancy (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.59-1.88). Risk of wheeze associated with tobacco smoke exposure was higher in children with an allergic versus nonallergic family history.Maternal passive smoking exposure during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for wheeze in children up to the age of 2 years. Pregnant females should avoid active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke for the benefit of their children's health.

  12. The independent role of prenatal and postnatal exposure to active and passive smoking on the development of early wheeze in children.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, C I; Hohmann, C; Patelarou, E; Martinez, D; Henderson, A J; Granell, R; Sunyer, J; Torrent, M; Fantini, M P; Gori, D; Annesi-Maesano, I; Slama, R; Duijts, L; de Jongste, J C; Aurrekoetxea, J J; Basterrechea, M; Morales, E; Ballester, F; Murcia, M; Thijs, C; Mommers, M; Kuehni, C E; Gaillard, E A; Tischer, C; Heinrich, J; Pizzi, C; Zugna, D; Gehring, U; Wijga, A; Chatzi, L; Vassilaki, M; Bergström, A; Eller, E; Lau, S; Keil, T; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Kogevinas, M

    2016-07-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases childhood asthma risk, but health effects in children of nonsmoking mothers passively exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy are unclear. We examined the association of maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and wheeze in children aged ≤2 years.Individual data of 27 993 mother-child pairs from 15 European birth cohorts were combined in pooled analyses taking into consideration potential confounders.Children with maternal exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy and no other smoking exposure were more likely to develop wheeze up to the age of 2 years (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20) compared with unexposed children. Risk of wheeze was further increased by children's postnatal passive smoke exposure in addition to their mothers' passive exposure during pregnancy (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.19-1.40) and highest in children with both sources of passive exposure and mothers who smoked actively during pregnancy (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.59-1.88). Risk of wheeze associated with tobacco smoke exposure was higher in children with an allergic versus nonallergic family history.Maternal passive smoking exposure during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for wheeze in children up to the age of 2 years. Pregnant females should avoid active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke for the benefit of their children's health. PMID:26965294

  13. μ suppression as an indicator of activation of the perceptual-motor system by smoking-related cues in smokers.

    PubMed

    Dickter, Cheryl L; Kieffaber, Paul D; Kittel, Julie A; Forestell, Catherine A

    2013-07-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether activation of the mirror neuron system, as measured by mu rhythm desynchronization, varied as a function of image content in smokers compared with nonsmokers. EEG activity was recorded while participants passively viewed images depicting smoking-related and nonsmoking-related stimuli. In half of the images, cues were depicted alone (inactive), while for the remaining images, cues were depicted with humans interacting with them (active). For the nonsmoking stimuli, smokers and nonsmokers showed greater mu suppression to the active cues compared to the inactive cues. However, for the smoking-related stimuli, smokers showed greater perception-action coupling for the active cues as reflected in their enhanced mu suppression, compared to nonsmokers. The results of the current study support the involvement of the perceptual-motor system in the activation of motivated drug use behaviors.

  14. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on the Activation of Oxidative Stress-Related Transcription Factors in Female A/J Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Tharappel, Job C.; Cholewa, Jill; Espandiari, Parvaneh; Spear, Brett T.; Gairola, C. Gary; Glauert, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains a high concentration of free radicals and induces oxidative stress in the lung and other tissues. Several transcription factors are known to be activated by oxidative stress, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Studies were therefore undertaken to examine if cigarette smoke could activate these transcription factors, as well as other transcription factors that may be important in lung carcinogenesis. Female A/J mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 42, or 56 days (6 hr/day, 5 days/wk). Cigarette smoke did not increase NF-κB activation at any of these times, but NF-κB DNA binding activity was lower after 15 days and 56 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activity of AP-1 was lower after 10 days and 56 days but was not changed after 42 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activity of HIF was quantitatively increased after 42 days of smoke exposure but decreased after 56 days. Whether the activation of other transcription factors in the lung could be altered after exposure to cigarette smoke was subsequently examined. The DNA binding activities of FoxF2, myc-CF1, RORE, and p53 were examined after 10 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activities of FoxF2 and p53 were quantitatively increased, but those of myc-CF1 and RORE were unaffected. These studies show that cigarette smoke exposure leads to quantitative increases in DNA binding activities of FoxF2 and p53, while the activations of NF-κB, AP-1, and HIF are largely unaffected or reduced. PMID:20711931

  15. Indirectly estimated absolute lung cancer mortality rates by smoking status and histological type based on a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background National smoking-specific lung cancer mortality rates are unavailable, and studies presenting estimates are limited, particularly by histology. This hinders interpretation. We attempted to rectify this by deriving estimates indirectly, combining data from national rates and epidemiological studies. Methods We estimated study-specific absolute mortality rates and variances by histology and smoking habit (never/ever/current/former) based on relative risk estimates derived from studies published in the 20th century, coupled with WHO mortality data for age 70–74 for the relevant country and period. Studies with populations grossly unrepresentative nationally were excluded. 70–74 was chosen based on analyses of large cohort studies presenting rates by smoking and age. Variations by sex, period and region were assessed by meta-analysis and meta-regression. Results 148 studies provided estimates (Europe 59, America 54, China 22, other Asia 13), 54 providing estimates by histology (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma). For all smoking habits and lung cancer types, mortality rates were higher in males, the excess less evident for never smokers. Never smoker rates were clearly highest in China, and showed some increasing time trend, particularly for adenocarcinoma. Ever smoker rates were higher in parts of Europe and America than in China, with the time trend very clear, especially for adenocarcinoma. Variations by time trend and continent were clear for current smokers (rates being higher in Europe and America than Asia), but less clear for former smokers. Models involving continent and trend explained much variability, but non-linearity was sometimes seen (with rates lower in 1991–99 than 1981–90), and there was regional variation within continent (with rates in Europe often high in UK and low in Scandinavia, and higher in North than South America). Conclusions The indirect method may be questioned, because of variations in definition of smoking and

  16. Onset of Smoking Behaviors and Participation in Leisure Physical Activities of Turkish Adolescents Attending Vocational Health Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subasi, Feryal; Hey, William; Mumcu, Gonca; Koksal, Leyla; Luleci, Emel; Sur, Haydar

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim of examining the relationships between smoking behavior and leisure physical activity habits of adolescents (n=170, 85F & 85M, mean age= 15.42 [plus or minus] 0.58, age range=15-17 years) attending vocational health schools in Turkey. Participants were randomly selected from four provinces of…

  17. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p < 0.001); 43.2% in auxiliaries, 26.1% in nurses, 18.9% among physicians, and 34.7% among other non-health professionals (p = 0.024). The findings showed a very high level of agreement with smoking bans, even among smokers, despite the fact that 70.3% of the smokers smoked on the premises and 76% of staff reported being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). In addition 42.8% reported that SHS was unpleasant and 28.3% admitted complaining. MLR showed that smoking behaviour was the most important predictor of TC attitudes. Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low

  18. Linalool inhibits cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianqun; Xu, Hai; Wu, Jun; Qu, Changfa; Sun, Fenglin; Xu, Shidong

    2015-12-01

    Linalool, a natural compound that exists in the essential oils of several aromatic plants species, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of linalool on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced acute lung inflammation have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of linalool on CS-induced acute lung inflammation in mice. Linalool was given i.p. to mice 2h before CS exposure daily for five consecutive days. The numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. The production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1 were detected by ELISA. The expression of NF-κB was detected by Western blotting. Our results showed that treatment of linalool significantly attenuated CS-induced lung inflammation, coupled with inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1 production. Meanwhile, treatment of linalool inhibited CS-induced lung MPO activity and pathological changes. Furthermore, linalool suppressed CS-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that linalool protected against CS-induced lung inflammation through inhibiting CS-induced NF-κB activation.

  19. Paraoxonase Activity and Oxidative Status in Patients with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Akyüz, Servet; Somuk, Battal Tahsin; Soyalic, Harun; Yılmaz, Beyhan; Taskin, Abdullah; Bilinc, Hasan; Aksoy, Nurten

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate serum paraoxanase-1 (PON) activity, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and the oxidative stress index (OSI) in tinnitus; and to compare the results with data from healthy subjects. Subjects and Methods A total of 114 subjects-54 patients with tinnitus and 60 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum PON activity, TOS, TAS, and OSI levels were measured. Results In the tinnitus group, TAS, and PON were significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.001). However, the TOS, and OSI levels were significantly higher in the tinnitus group than in the control group (p<0.001). Conclusions According to the data obtained from the present study, patients with tinnitus were exposed to potent oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may be the key contributing factor to the pathogenesis of tinnitus. PMID:27144229

  20. Smoking increases risk of pain chronification through shared corticostriatal circuitry.

    PubMed

    Petre, Bogdan; Torbey, Souraya; Griffith, James W; De Oliveira, Gildasio; Herrmann, Kristine; Mansour, Ali; Baria, Alex T; Baliki, Marwan N; Schnitzer, Thomas J; Apkarian, Apkar Vania

    2015-02-01

    Smoking is associated with increased incidence of chronic pain. However, the evidence is cross-sectional in nature, and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In a longitudinal observational study, we examined the relationship between smoking, transition to chronic pain, and brain physiology. In 160 subjects with subacute back pain (SBP: back pain lasting 4-12 weeks, and no prior back pain [BP] for at least 1 year) pain characteristics, smoking status, and brain functional properties were measured repeatedly over 1 year. Sixty-eight completed the study, subdivided into recovering (SBPr, n = 31) and persisting (SBPp, n = 37), based on >20% decrease in BP over the year. Thirty-two chronic back pain (CBP: duration > 5 years) and 35 healthy controls were similarly monitored. Smoking prevalence was higher in SBP and CBP but not related to intensity of BP. In SBP, smoking status at baseline was predictive of persistence of BP 1 year from symptom onset (differentiating SBPp and SBPr with 0.62 accuracy). Smoking status combined with affective properties of pain and medication use improved prediction accuracy (0.82). Mediation analysis indicated the prediction of BP persistence by smoking was largely due to synchrony of fMRI activity between two brain areas (nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, NAc-mPFC). In SBP or CBP who ceased smoking strength of NAc-mPFC decreased from precessation to postcessation of smoking. We conclude that smoking increases risk of transitioning to CBP, an effect mediated by corticostriatal circuitry involved in addictive behavior and motivated learning.

  1. Motivating Low Socioeconomic Status Smokers to Accept Evidence-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment: A Brief Intervention for the Community Agency Setting

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Kevin M.; TerBeek, Erin G.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES), smoke at very high rates but make fewer and less successful quit attempts than do other smokers. Low-SES smokers have specific beliefs about smoking and quitting that may serve as barriers to making quit attempts. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of a brief intervention addressing these beliefs on making calls to a telephone quit line. Methods: Of 522 smokers entering the study at 5 Wisconsin Salvation Army (SA) sites, 102 expressed motivation to quit and served as a comparison group. The remaining 420 smokers were not motivated to quit and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: an intervention group who received brief counseling focused on cessation goals and beliefs, an attention-control group, and a low contact control group. The primary outcome was the rate at which smokers made a call to the Wisconsin tobacco quit line (WTQL) during their SA visit. Secondary outcome measures included motivational variables, stage of change, changes in beliefs about smoking and quitting, and self-reported abstinence. Results: Unmotivated participants in the intervention condition called the WTQL at a significantly higher rate (12.2%) than did those in the 2 control conditions (2.2% and 1.4%) (p < .01) and approached the rate of calling by participants who were initially motivated to quit (15.7%). Intervention condition participants also showed improved motivation to quit and stage of change. Conclusions: A brief, targeted motivational intervention focusing on cessation goals and beliefs increased the initiation of an evidence-based tobacco cessation treatment by low-SES smokers. PMID:26180226

  2. Zinc and copper status of women by physical activity and menstrual status

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Deuster, P.A.; Kyle, S.B.; Moser, P.B.

    1986-03-01

    The zinc and copper status of 33 eumenorrheic (EU) and 12 amenorrheic (AM) female marathon runners and 19 EU and 8 AM nonrunners were determined from 3-day diet records and plasma and erythrocyte (RBC) levels. The study was conducted as a completely randomized 2 x 2 factorial. Mean daily zinc intakes of all groups fell below the recommended dietary allowances. Copper intakes of runners (EU = 1.3 mg; AM = 1.3 mg) were not significantly different. Menstrual status did not affect plasma zinc, RBC zinc or plasma copper levels. Physical activity however, affected RBC zinc and plasma copper levels. Both these parameters were significantly higher in runners. These findings suggest that exercise influences blood zinc and copper levels.

  3. Inhibitory activity of cigarette-smoke condensate on the mutagenicity of heterocyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Munoz, J A; Fulp, C; Chang, K M; Rogers, J C; Borgerding, M F; Doolittle, D J

    1994-07-01

    Cigarette-smoke condensate (CSC) is a complex mixture containing over 3800 identified chemicals including nicotine, water, mutagens, antimutagens, cytotoxins and inert chemicals. Although CSC is mutagenic in the Ames test, its effect on the activity of other mutagens has not been characterized. Using the Ames Salmonella bacterial mutagenesis assay, we found CSC exerts a significant inhibitory effect on mutagens requiring bioactivation. Those studied included heterocyclic amines (Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, IQ, MeIQ, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and aflatoxin B1. However, CSC had no effect on the activity of direct-acting mutagens (2-nitrofluorene, sodium azide, 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine, 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and methyl methanesulfonate). With indirect-acting mutagens, the reduced number of revertants observed in the presence of CSC was not attributable to cytotoxicity. CSC exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on the cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenases, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and B[a]P hydroxylase. This suggests inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 isozymes as one possible mechanism for the antimutagenicity of CSC. Fractionation studies of CSC revealed that the neutral, weakly acidic (phenolic) and basic fractions are all effective as antimutagens against Glu-P-1, a representative heterocyclic amine. This indicates that several classes of chemicals contribute to the inhibitory effect of CSC on the mutagenicity of the heterocyclic amines. PMID:7517501

  4. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    Secondhand smoke is a mixture of the smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, ... about 70 can cause cancer. Health effects of secondhand smoke include Ear infections in children More frequent and ...

  5. Cadmium in blood and urine--impact of sex, age, dietary intake, iron status, and former smoking--association of renal effects.

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Ing-Marie; Bensryd, Inger; Lundh, Thomas; Ottosson, Helena; Skerfving, Staffan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2002-01-01

    We studied determinants of cadmium status and kidney function in nonsmoking men and women living on farms in southern Sweden. Median blood Cd (BCd) was 1.8 nmol/L (range, 0.38-18) and median urinary Cd (UCd) was 0.23 nmol/mmol creatinine (range, 0.065-0.99). The intake of Cd per kilogram body weight did not significantly differ between sexes and did not correlate with BCd or UCd, which may be explained by a low and varying bioavailibility of Cd from food items. However, when a subgroup of the study population, couples of never-smoking men and women, were compared, a lower intake per kilogram body weight was found in the women, but the women had a 1.8 times higher BCd and a 1.4 times higher UCd. The higher female BCd and UCd may be explained by higher absorption due to low iron status. BCd and UCd both increased with age and were higher in the ex-smokers, who had stopped smoking more than 5 years before the study, compared to never-smokers. The contribution of locally produced food to the total Cd intake was relatively low and varied. Males living in areas with low soil Cd had lower UCd than the others. However, Cd levels in kidneys from pigs, fed locally produced cereals, did not predict BCd or UCd in humans at the same farms. The kidney function parameter ss2-microglobulin-creatinine clearance was related to UCd, whereas urinary protein-HC, N-acetyl-ss-glucoseaminidase or albumin-creatinine clearance was not when age was accounted for. Hence, even at the low exposure levels in this study population, there was an indication of effect on biochemical markers of renal function. PMID:12460796

  6. Nitrated Fatty Acids Reverse Cigarette Smoke-Induced Alveolar Macrophage Activation and Inhibit Protease Activity via Electrophilic S-Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Aravind T.; Lakshmi, Sowmya P.; Muchumarri, Ramamohan R.; Reddy, Raju C.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids (NFAs), endogenous products of nonenzymatic reactions of NO-derived reactive nitrogen species with unsaturated fatty acids, exhibit substantial anti-inflammatory activities. They are both reversible electrophiles and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists, but the physiological implications of their electrophilic activity are poorly understood. We tested their effects on inflammatory and emphysema-related biomarkers in alveolar macrophages (AMs) of smoke-exposed mice. NFA (10-nitro-oleic acid or 12-nitrolinoleic acid) treatment downregulated expression and activity of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB while upregulating those of PPARγ. It also downregulated production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and of the protease cathepsin S (Cat S), a key mediator of emphysematous septal destruction. Cat S downregulation was accompanied by decreased AM elastolytic activity, a major mechanism of septal destruction. NFAs downregulated both Cat S expression and activity in AMs of wild-type mice, but only inhibited its activity in AMs of PPARγ knockout mice, pointing to a PPARγ-independent mechanism of enzyme inhibition. We hypothesized that this mechanism was electrophilic S-alkylation of target Cat S cysteines, and found that NFAs bind directly to Cat S following treatment of intact AMs and, as suggested by in silico modeling and calculation of relevant parameters, elicit S-alkylation of Cys25 when incubated with purified Cat S. These results demonstrate that NFAs’ electrophilic activity, in addition to their role as PPARγ agonists, underlies their protective effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and support their therapeutic potential in this disease. PMID:27119365

  7. Physical activity as a protective factor in relapse following smoking cessation in participants with a depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Paquito; Ninot, Gregory; Guillaume, Sebastien; Fond, Guillaume; Courtet, Philippe; Christine Picot, Marie; Quantin, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The factors predicting smoking abstinence in depressive smokers, and the role of physical activity in precessation, were investigated. One hundred thirty-three smokers with current major depressive disorders (score ≥10 on the Depression subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were recruited from a large prospective cohort of smokers (n = 1,119). Over a maximum period of 3 years, regression modeling, adjusted for potential confounders, showed that physical activity was associated with relapse (relapse rate = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.34-0.85, p = .008). Also, antidepressants, anxiolytics, level of education, and number of attempts to quit were associated with relapse. The protective role of physical activity on relapse rate could be a modifiable factor in smoking cessation for smokers with depressive disorders.

  8. EGCG Suppresses ERK5 Activation to Reverse Tobacco Smoke-Triggered Gastric Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ling; Chen, Jia; Tang, Hua; Bai, Ling; Lu, Chun; Wang, Kehuan; Li, Manli; Yan, Yinmei; Tang, Ling; Wu, Rui; Ye, Yang; Jin, Longtao; Liang, Zhaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is an important risk factor of gastric cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a crucial pathophysiological process in cancer development. ERK5 regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition may be sensitive to cell types and/or the cellular microenvironment and its role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process remain elusive. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a promising chemopreventive agent for several types of cancers. In the present study we investigated the regulatory role of ERK5 in tobacco smoke-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the stomach of mice and the preventive effect of EGCG. Exposure of mice to tobacco smoke for 12 weeks reduced expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, ZO-1, and CK5, while the expression of mesenchymal markers Snail-1, Vimentin, and N-cadherin were increased. Importantly, we demonstrated that ERK5 modulated tobacco smoke-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mice stomach, as evidenced by the findings that tobacco smoke elevated ERK5 activation, and that tobacco smoke-triggered epithelial-mesenchymal transition was reversed by ERK5 inhibition. Treatment of EGCG (100 mg/kg BW) effectively attenuated tobacco smoke-triggered activation of ERK5 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition alterations in mice stomach. Collectively, these data suggested that ERK5 was required for tobacco smoke-triggered gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition and that EGCG suppressed ERK5 activation to reverse tobacco smoke-triggered gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition in BALB/c mice. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of tobacco smoke-associated gastric tumorigenesis and the chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-associated gastric cancer. PMID:27447666

  9. Active and Passive Smoking and Risk of Narcolepsy in People with HLA DQB1*0602: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ton, Thanh G.N.; Longstreth, W.T.; Koepsell, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background We examined the risk of narcolepsy associated with active and passive smoking among genetically susceptible individuals. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study in King County, Wash., USA. Between 2001 and 2005, we enrolled 67 cases through physicians and public outreach, and 95 controls through random-digit dialing. Subjects were aged between 18 and 50 years and positive for HLA DQB1*0602. All subjects were administered in-person interviews about their history of active and passive smoking. Results We observed an increased risk of narcolepsy associated with having lived with two or more household smokers (odds ratio, OR = 5.1; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.6, 12.1); with a grandparent or a sibling who smoked (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 8.3); with a non-family household member who smoked (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.6, 8.6); and with an unrelated smoker for 1–2 years (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.0, 9.0). The risk of narcolepsy was not associated with exposure to smoke at work or with active smoking before age 21 or before age of narcolepsy onset. Conclusion Passive smoking may be a risk factor for narcolepsy in subjects with HLA DQB1*0602. Future studies could help clarify whether passive smoking is an important etiologic component of narcolepsy among genetically susceptible individuals. PMID:19039244

  10. Physical activity alters antioxidant status in exercising elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Margaritis, Irène; Arnaud, Josiane; Faure, Henri; Roussel, Anne-Marie

    2006-07-01

    Nutritional adequacy and physical activity are two aspects of a health-promoting lifestyle. Not much is known about antioxidant nutrient requirements for exercising elderly (EE) subjects. The question of whether exercise training alters the status of antioxidant vitamins as well as trace elements in elderly subjects and fails to balance the age-related increase in oxidative stress is addressed in this study. There were 18 EE (68.1+/-3.1 years), 7 sedentary elderly (SE; 70.4+/-5.0 years), 17 exercising young (EY; 31.2+/-7.1 years) and 8 sedentary young (SY; 27.1+/-5.8 years) subjects who completed 7-day food and activity records. Each subject's blood was sampled on Day 8. A similar selenium (Se) status but a higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were found in EE subjects as compared with EY and SE subjects. Blood oxidized glutathione was higher and plasma total thiol was lower in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. Mean vitamin C (167 vs. 106 mg/day), vitamin E (11.7 vs. 8.3 mg/day) and beta-carotene (4 vs. 2.4 mg/day) intakes were higher in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. However, EE subjects exhibited the lowest plasma carotenoid concentrations, especially in beta-carotene, which was not related to intakes. Despite high intakes of antioxidant micronutrients, no adaptive mechanism able to counteract the increased oxidative stress in aging was found in EE subjects. Results on GSH-Px activity illustrate that the nature of the regulation of this biomarker of Se status is different in response to training and aging. These data also strongly suggest specific antioxidant requirements for athletes with advancing age, with a special attention to carotenoids.

  11. Smoking cessation results in a clinical lung cancer screening program

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Andrea B.; Regis, Shawn M.; Wald, Christoph; Flacke, Sebastian; McKee, Brady J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer screening may provide a “teachable moment” for promoting smoking cessation. This study assessed smoking cessation and relapse rates among individuals undergoing follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in a clinical CT lung screening program and assessed the influence of initial screening results on smoking behavior. Methods Self-reported smoking status for individuals enrolled in a clinical CT lung screening program undergoing a follow-up CT lung screening exam between 1st February, 2014 and 31st March, 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and compared to self-reported smoking status using a standardized questionnaire at program entry. Point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were calculated across the entire population and compared with exam results. All individuals undergoing screening fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Lung Cancer Screening v1.2012® high-risk criteria and had an order for CT lung screening. Results A total of 1,483 individuals underwent a follow-up CT lung screening exam during the study interval. Smoking status at time of follow-up exam was available for 1,461/1,483 (98.5%). A total of 46% (678/1,461) were active smokers at program entry. The overall point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were 20.8% and 9.3%, respectively. Prior positive screening exam results were not predictive of smoking cessation (OR 1.092; 95% CI, 0.715–1.693) but were predictive of reduced relapse among former smokers who had stopped smoking for 2 years or less (OR 0.330; 95% CI, 0.143–0.710). Duration of program enrollment was predictive of smoking cessation (OR 0.647; 95% CI, 0.477–0.877). Conclusions Smoking cessation and relapse rates in a clinical CT lung screening program rates are more favorable than those observed in the general population. Duration of participation in the screening program correlated with increased smoking cessation rates

  12. Smoking cessation results in a clinical lung cancer screening program

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Andrea B.; Regis, Shawn M.; Wald, Christoph; Flacke, Sebastian; McKee, Brady J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer screening may provide a “teachable moment” for promoting smoking cessation. This study assessed smoking cessation and relapse rates among individuals undergoing follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in a clinical CT lung screening program and assessed the influence of initial screening results on smoking behavior. Methods Self-reported smoking status for individuals enrolled in a clinical CT lung screening program undergoing a follow-up CT lung screening exam between 1st February, 2014 and 31st March, 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and compared to self-reported smoking status using a standardized questionnaire at program entry. Point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were calculated across the entire population and compared with exam results. All individuals undergoing screening fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Lung Cancer Screening v1.2012® high-risk criteria and had an order for CT lung screening. Results A total of 1,483 individuals underwent a follow-up CT lung screening exam during the study interval. Smoking status at time of follow-up exam was available for 1,461/1,483 (98.5%). A total of 46% (678/1,461) were active smokers at program entry. The overall point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were 20.8% and 9.3%, respectively. Prior positive screening exam results were not predictive of smoking cessation (OR 1.092; 95% CI, 0.715–1.693) but were predictive of reduced relapse among former smokers who had stopped smoking for 2 years or less (OR 0.330; 95% CI, 0.143–0.710). Duration of program enrollment was predictive of smoking cessation (OR 0.647; 95% CI, 0.477–0.877). Conclusions Smoking cessation and relapse rates in a clinical CT lung screening program rates are more favorable than those observed in the general population. Duration of participation in the screening program correlated with increased smoking cessation rates

  13. Estimates of nondisclosure of cigarette smoking among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Patricia M; Homa, David; England, Lucinda J; Burley, Kim; Tong, Van T; Dube, Shanta R; Bernert, John T

    2011-02-01

    Although clinic-based studies have used biochemical validation to estimate the percentage of pregnant women who deny smoking but are actually smokers, a population-based estimate of nondisclosure of smoking status in US pregnant women has not been calculated. The authors analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and estimated the percentage of 994 pregnant and 3,203 nonpregnant women 20-44 years of age who did not report smoking but had serum cotinine levels that exceeded the defined cut point for active smoking (nondisclosure). Active smoking was defined as self-reporting smoking or having a serum cotinine concentration that exceeded the cut point for active smoking. Overall, 13.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.8, 17.1) of pregnant women and 29.7% (95% CI: 27.3, 32.1) of nonpregnant women were active smokers. Nondisclosure was higher among pregnant active smokers (22.9%, 95% CI: 11.8, 34.6) than among nonpregnant smokers (9.2%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.2). Among pregnant active smokers, nondisclosure was associated with younger age (20-24 years). Among nonpregnant active smokers, nondisclosure was associated with Mexican-American and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity. Studies and surveillance systems that rely on self-reported smoking status are subject to underestimation of smoking prevalence, especially among pregnant women, and underreporting may vary by demographic characteristics.

  14. Do cognitive attributions for smoking predict subsequent smoking development?

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian; Unger, Jennifer B; Azen, Stanley P; MacKinnon, David P; Johnson, C Anderson

    2012-03-01

    To develop more effective anti-smoking programs, it is important to understand the factors that influence people to smoke. Guided by attribution theory, a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate how individuals' cognitive attributions for smoking were associated with subsequent smoking development and through which pathways. Middle and high school students in seven large cities in China (N=12,382; 48.5% boys and 51.5% girls) completed two annual surveys. Associations between cognitive attributions for smoking and subsequent smoking initiation and progression were tested with multilevel analysis, taking into account plausible moderation effects of gender and baseline smoking status. Mediation effects of susceptibility to smoking were investigated using statistical mediation analysis (MacKinnon, 2008). Six out of eight tested themes of cognitive attributions were associated with subsequent smoking development. Curiosity (β=0.11, p<0.001) and autonomy (β=0.08, p=0.019) were associated with smoking initiation among baseline non-smokers. Coping (β=0.07, p<0.001) and social image (β=0.10, p=<.0001) were associated with smoking progression among baseline lifetime smokers. Social image (β=0.05, p=0.043), engagement (β=0.07, p=0.003), and mental enhancement (β=0.15, p<0.001) were associated with smoking progression among baseline past 30-day smokers. More attributions were associated with smoking development among males than among females. Susceptibility to smoking partially mediated most of the associations, with the proportion of mediated effects ranging from 4.3% to 30.8%. This study identifies the roles that cognitive attributions for smoking play in subsequent smoking development. These attributions could be addressed in smoking prevention programs.

  15. The relationship between memory complaints, activity and perceived health status.

    PubMed

    Lee, P-L

    2014-04-01

    Subjective memory complaints (SMC) is a possible symptom of mild cognitive impairment which may progress to dementia. The present study examines the relationship of physical activity (PA), cognitive activity (CA), social activity (SA), and perceived health status (HS) with SMC for middle age and older adults. Participants were from the MIDUS II study (Midlife in the United States) recruited in 2004-2006 (Mean age = 55.99; N = 3030). Hierarchical multiple regression was performed with SMC as the dependent variable, along with PA, CA, SA, and HS as the independent variables. The study revealed that SMC was strongly related to PA, CA, and HS, while controlling covariates. Further, HS had the strongest link with SMC among these predictors while interaction effects (PA × HS, CA × HS, and SA × HS) were insignificant. In addition, different results were achieved in younger versus older groups. Participants with more CA, PA and perception of better health had lower frequency of memory complaints. PMID:24646046

  16. Who smokes in Hollywood? Characteristics of smokers in popular films from 1940 to 1989.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, W D; Bazzini, D G; Smith, S M; Wayne, S M

    1998-01-01

    We examined how smokers were depicted in 100 popular films spanning 5 decades. Smokers were depicted as more romantically and sexually active than nonsmokers and as marginally more intelligent than nonsmokers. Smokers and nonsmokers did not differ in terms of attractiveness, goodness, socioeconomic status, aggression, friendliness, or outcome at film's end. Thus, if anything, smokers are depicted a bit more positively than nonsmokers. We compared Hollywood's depiction of smokers to real-world demographics on smoking and found that Hollywood's depiction of smoking tends to ignore the negative consequences and correlates (e.g., ill health, low socioeconomic status, aggressive behavior) of smoking. PMID:9668937

  17. FY15 Status Report on NEAMS Neutronics Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C. H.; Shemon, E. R.; Smith, M. A.; Connaway, H. M.; Aliberti, G.

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the current status of NEAMS activities in FY2015. The tasks this year are (1) to improve solution methods for steady-state and transient conditions, (2) to develop features and user friendliness to increase the usability and applicability of the code, (3) to improve and verify the multigroup cross section generation scheme, (4) to perform verification and validation tests of the code using SFRs and thermal reactor cores, and (5) to support early users of PROTEUS and update the user manuals.

  18. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare. PMID:26658480

  19. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  20. Effect of a cigarette smoke extract on the metabolism of the proinflammatory autacoid, platelet-activating factor.

    PubMed

    Miyaura, S; Eguchi, H; Johnston, J M

    1992-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of a number of diseases. Minimal information is available at the molecular level concerning the mechanism of action of cigarette smoke. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is one of the most potent proinflammatory agents described. PAF concentration may be regulated by the degradation of PAF as catalyzed by the plasma enzyme, PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH). This enzyme is associated with the lipoprotein fraction. The exposure of low density lipoprotein to a cigarette smoke extract (CSE) has been shown to alter the charge of low density lipoprotein and its uptake by macrophages. The activity of PAF-AH in the lipoprotein fraction has been assayed after exposure to CSE. The activity of PAF-AH was inhibited by the CSE in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of PAF-AH by the CSE was not altered by superoxide dismutase or catalase addition. Sulfhydryl compounds prevented and reversed the inhibition of PAF-AH caused by CSE. The inhibitor present in CSE was not nicotine, its major metabolic product, (-)-cotinine, or several compounds known to be present in the extract. The charge alteration reaction(s) and PAF-AH inhibition appear to be localized at different sites of the lipoprotein molecule. The observed inhibition may account for the increase in the plasma PAF concentration that is known to occur in smokers. The increase of PAF may contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular and lung diseases known to be present in smokers. PMID:1735133

  1. Lifestyle intervention in general practice for physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet in elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vrdoljak, Davorka; Marković, Biserka Bergman; Puljak, Livia; Lalić, Dragica Ivezić; Kranjčević, Ksenija; Vučak, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of programmed and intensified intervention on lifestyle changes, including physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and diet, in patients aged ≥ 65 with the usual care of general practitioners (GP). In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 738 patients aged ≥ 65 were randomly assigned to receive intensified intervention (N = 371) or usual care (N = 367) of a GP for lifestyle changes, with 18-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. The study was conducted in 59 general practices in Croatia between May 2008 and May 2010. The patients' mean age was 72.3 ± 5.2 years. Significant diet correction was achieved after 18-month follow-up in the intervention group, comparing to controls. More patients followed strictly Mediterranean diet and consumed healthy foods more frequently. There was no significant difference between the groups in physical activity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption or diet after the intervention. In conclusion, an 18-month intensified GP's intervention had limited effect on lifestyle habits. GP intervention managed to change dietary habits in elderly population, which is encouraging since elderly population is very resistant regarding lifestyle habit changes. Clinical trial registration number. ISRCTN31857696.

  2. Recent Extreme Forest Fire Activity in Western Russia: Fire Danger Conditions, Fire Behavior and Smoke Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, B. J.; Fromm, M.; Goldammer, J.; Carr, R.; Sukhinin, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    During the summer of 2010, widespread forest and peatland fires in western Russia burned over hundreds of thousands of hectares, burning over croplands, destroying hundreds of homes, and directly causing the death of more than 50 people. Unprecedented drought conditions, combined with an extended heat wave, resulted in extreme fire danger conditions and explosive fire behavior in a region of Russia not noted for large fires. Several fires exhibited pyroconvection, injecting smoke directly into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, while deep-burning fires created major regional smoke problems. This smoke persisted in the heavily-populated areas around Moscow, exposing millions to high levels of ozone and particulate matter, and creating both immediate and longer-term health risks. This presentation will explore the drought conditions leading to the catastrophic fire behavior experienced in western Russia, and analyze fire behavior in terms of fuel consumption, smoke production, fire intensity levels, and pyroconvection. Impacts of regional and long-range smoke transport will also be discussed.

  3. Differences in the Influence of Family Background and Social Activities on Smoking of Minority and White High School Seniors, 1976–2004

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2009-01-01

    This population-based study of high school seniors examines differences in the influence of several important determinants of smoking among white, African-American, Hispanic, and other teens. With national survey data for each year from 1976 to 2004, logistic regression is used to test for differences across race and ethnic groups (averaged over all years) in the effects on daily smoking of background factors such as living arrangements and parents’ education and social activities such as academic performance and religiosity. The results show similarity in effects across racial categories, but some determinants have weaker or reversed effects for African-American and Hispanic youth than for white youth. For example, high parents’ education increases smoking among Hispanic youth, has little influence among African Americans, and decreases smoking among whites. These results suggest that smoking patterns of minority teens differ in some ways from those of white teens. PMID:18401717

  4. [Smoking cessation for COPD].

    PubMed

    Uruma, Reiko

    2016-05-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention to prevent the annual decline in lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All primary healthcare providers should routinely ask all patients whether tobacco use is active or not, and advise tobacco users to stop smoking. In Japan a treatment of nicotine addiction with varenicline or nicotine patch has been started under health insurance coverage since 2006. About half of the patients taking varenicline could stop smoking. Education on the health risks of smoking in schools for younger ages is essential for prevention of COPD. PMID:27254947

  5. 210Po and 210Pb Activity Concentrations in Cigarettes Produced in Vietnam and Their Estimated Dose Contribution Due to Smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thuy-Ngan N.; Le, Cong-Hao; Chau, Van-Tao

    Smoking cigarettes contributes significantly to the increase of radiation in human body because 210Po and 210Pb exist relatively high in tobacco leaves. Therefore, these two radioisotopes in eighteen of the most frequently sold cigarette brands produced in Vietnam were examined in this study. 210Po was determined by alpha spectroscopy using a passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector after a procedure including radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of polonium on a copper disc (the deposition efficiency of 210Po on a copper disc was approximately 94%). Sequentially, 210Pb was determined through the ingrowth of 210Po after storing the sample solutions for approximately six months. The activity concentrations of 210Po in cigarettes ranged from 13.8 to 82.6 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 26.4 mBq/cigarette) and the activity concentrations of 210Pb in cigarettes ranged from 13.9 to 78.8 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 25.8 mBq/cigarette). The annual committed effective dose for smokers who smoke one pack per day was also estimated to be 295.4 µSv/year (223.0 µSv/year and 72.4 µSv/year from 210Po and 210Pb, respectively). These indicated that smoking increased the risk of developing lung cancer was approximately 60 times greater for smokers than for non-smokers.

  6. Predictors of physical activity, healthy eating and being smoke-free in teens: a theory of planned behaviour approach.

    PubMed

    Murnaghan, Donna A; Blanchard, Chris M; Rodgers, Wendy M; LaRosa, Jennifer N; MacQuarrie, Colleen R; MacLellan, Debbie L; Gray, Bob J

    2010-10-01

    This paper elicited context specific underlying beliefs for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoke-free behaviour from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and then determined whether the TPB explained significant variation in intentions and behaviour over a 1 month period in a sample of grade 7-9 (age 12-16 years) adolescents. Eighteen individual interviews and one focus group were used to elicit student beliefs. Analyses of this data produced behavioural, normative and control beliefs which were put into a TPB questionnaire completed by 183 students at time 1 and time 2. The Path analyses from the main study showed that the attitude/intention relationship was moderately large for fruit and vegetable consumption and small to moderate for being smoke free. Perceived behavioural control had a large effect on being smoke free and a moderately large effect for fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Intention had a large direct effect on all three behaviours. Common (e.g. feel better, more energy) and behaviour-specific (e.g., prevent yellow fingers, control my weight) beliefs emerged across the three health behaviours. These novel findings, to the adolescent population, support the importance of specific attention being given to each of the behaviours in future multi-behavioural interventions.

  7. Predictors of physical activity, healthy eating and being smoke-free in teens: a theory of planned behaviour approach.

    PubMed

    Murnaghan, Donna A; Blanchard, Chris M; Rodgers, Wendy M; LaRosa, Jennifer N; MacQuarrie, Colleen R; MacLellan, Debbie L; Gray, Bob J

    2010-10-01

    This paper elicited context specific underlying beliefs for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoke-free behaviour from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and then determined whether the TPB explained significant variation in intentions and behaviour over a 1 month period in a sample of grade 7-9 (age 12-16 years) adolescents. Eighteen individual interviews and one focus group were used to elicit student beliefs. Analyses of this data produced behavioural, normative and control beliefs which were put into a TPB questionnaire completed by 183 students at time 1 and time 2. The Path analyses from the main study showed that the attitude/intention relationship was moderately large for fruit and vegetable consumption and small to moderate for being smoke free. Perceived behavioural control had a large effect on being smoke free and a moderately large effect for fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Intention had a large direct effect on all three behaviours. Common (e.g. feel better, more energy) and behaviour-specific (e.g., prevent yellow fingers, control my weight) beliefs emerged across the three health behaviours. These novel findings, to the adolescent population, support the importance of specific attention being given to each of the behaviours in future multi-behavioural interventions. PMID:20204952

  8. Smoking Beliefs and Behavior Among Youth in Malaysia and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Carla M.; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Awang, Rahmat; Driezen, Pete; Thompson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize smoking beliefs among Thai and Malaysian youth and to examine associations with gender, antismoking media exposure, and smoking status. Methods Nationally representative samples of youth completed self-administered questionnaires. Results A substantial proportion of youth reported positive beliefs about smoking. Those reporting positive beliefs were more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Youth who noticed antismoking media were less likely to report positive beliefs about smoking. Conclusions As in Western countries, beliefs about smoking held by youth in Southeast Asia are associated with smoking status. Antismoking media may be an important means of targeting beliefs about smoking among youth. PMID:19182982

  9. Active Cigarette Smoking in Cognitively-Normal Elders and Probable Alzheimer's Disease is Associated with Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid Oxidative Stress Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Korecka, Magdalena; Trojanowski, John Q; Weiner, Michael W; O' Hara, Ruth; Ashford, John W; Shaw, Leslie M

    2016-07-25

    Neurodegenerative diseases and chronic cigarette smoking are associated with increased cerebral oxidative stress (OxS). Elevated F2-isoprostane levels in biological fluid is a recognized marker of OxS. This study assessed the association of active cigarette smoking with F2-isoprostane in concentrations in cognitively-normal elders (CN), and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Smoking and non-smoking CN (n = 83), MCI (n = 164), and probable AD (n = 101) were compared on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) iPF2α-III and 8,12, iso-iPF2α-VI F2-isoprostane concentrations. Associations between F2-isoprostane levels and hippocampal volumes were also evaluated. In CN and AD, smokers had higher iPF2α-III concentration; overall, smoking AD showed the highest iPF2α-III concentration across groups. Smoking and non-smoking MCI did not differ on iPF2α-III concentration. No group differences were apparent on 8,12, iso-iPF2α-VI concentration, but across AD, higher 8,12, iso-iPF2α-VI level was related to smaller left and total hippocampal volumes. Results indicate that active cigarette smoking in CN and probable AD is associated with increased central nervous system OxS. Further investigation of factors mediating/moderating the absence of smoking effects on CSF F2-isoprostane levels in MCI is warranted. In AD, increasing magnitude of OxS appeared to be related to smaller hippocampal volume. This study contributes additional novel information to the mounting body of evidence that cigarette smoking is associated with adverse effects on the human central nervous system across the lifespan. PMID:27472882

  10. Japanese spousal smoking study revisited: how a tobacco industry funded paper reached erroneous conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Yano, E

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a participant's account of the development of a paper commissioned by the tobacco industry examining the reliability of self reported smoking status; to redress the distorted report of this Japanese spousal smoking study which evaluated the reliability and validity of self reported smoking status, and estimated confounding by diet and lifestyle factors. Design: Repeated interviews on smoking status and its verification by environmental and biological markers for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Setting: Urban wives in Osaka City and Sizuoka City, Japan Participants: Semi-random sampling of 200 wives in each city. From the Osaka subjects, 100 non-smoking wives were selected for the validity study. Main outcome measures: Kappa coefficient for reliability of self reported smoking status. Correlation coefficients between environmental nicotine concentration, cotinine in saliva and urine, and self reported smoking status. Results: The κ coefficient for the repeated interview was high suggesting sufficient reliability of the response. The proportion of self reported current smokers misclassified as non-smokers was equivalent to the misclassified self reported non-smokers. Ambient concentration of nicotine and personal exposure to nicotine correlated with each other and also with salivary cotinine and self reported ETS exposure but not with urinary cotinine/creatinine ratio (CCR). There was no major difference in diet and lifestyle related to husband's smoking status. Conclusion: Self reported smoking status by Japanese wives shows high reliability. It also shows high validity when verified by both nicotine exposure and salivary cotinine, but not by CCR. A previous report questioning the credibility of self reported smoking status, based on questionable CCR, could thus be of dubious validity. In addition, possible dietary and lifestyle confounding factors associated with smoking husbands were not demonstrable, a finding not reported

  11. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15–17, 18–19 and 20–24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on ‘protecting others’ from breast cancer to catch smokers’ attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  12. Effects of smoking on asthma.

    PubMed

    Jindal, S K

    2014-03-01

    Tobacco smoking has several adverse associations with asthma.The odds ratios for prevalence of asthma are high for both active smoking and ETS exposures. In-utero exposure of foetus from maternal smoking, as well as its tertiary exposure from maternal passive-smoking are also known to be responsible for development of asthma in childhood. Smoking adversely affects the health and treatment-outcomes of asthma. There are increased requirements of drugs for smoker and ETS exposed asthmatics. Smoking is also an important factor in the development of airway remodelling, fixed airway obstruction and an exaggerated lung function decline. PMID:25327058

  13. Smoke Inhalation Lung Injury: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Demling, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to present a multifaceted, definitive review of the past and current status of smoke inhalation injury. History along with current understanding of anatomical, physiology, and biologic components will be discussed. Methods: The literature has been reviewed from the early onset of the concept of smoke inhalation in the 1920s to our current understanding as of 2007. Results: The results indicate that the current pathophysiologic concept is of a disease process that leads to immediate and delayed pulmonary injury best managed by aggressive physiologic support. Management approaches for the biochemical changes have not kept up with current knowledge. The lung injury process is activated by toxins in the smoke's gas and particle components and perpetuated by a resulting lung inflammation. This inflammatory process becomes self-perpetuating through the activation of a large number of inflammatory cascades. In addition, smoke injury leads to significant systemic abnormalities injuring other organs and accentuating the burn injury process and subsequently leading to mediator-induced cellular injury leading potentially to multisystem organ failure. Conclusions: Smoke inhalation injury results in the anatomic finding of denuded and sometimes sloughed airways mucosa. Physiologic findings include small airways containing fibrin casts of mucosa and neutrophils. Airway hyper-reactivity results as well, leading to further decreased collapse, causing obstruction. PMID:18552974

  14. Vegetation fire smoke, indigenous status and cardio-respiratory hospital admissions in Darwin, Australia, 1996–2005: a time-series study

    PubMed Central

    Hanigan, Ivan C; Johnston, Fay H; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2008-01-01

    Background Air pollution in Darwin, Northern Australia, is dominated by smoke from seasonal fires in the surrounding savanna that burn during the dry season from April to November. Our aim was to study the association between particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microns diameter (PM10) and daily emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory diseases for each fire season from 1996 to 2005. We also investigated whether the relationship differed in indigenous Australians; a disadvantaged population sub-group. Methods Daily PM10 exposure levels were estimated for the population of the city from visibility data using a previously validated model. We used over-dispersed Poisson generalized linear models with parametric smoothing functions for time and meteorology to examine the association between admissions and PM10 up to three days prior. An interaction between indigenous status and PM10 was included to examine differences in the impact on indigenous people. Results We found both positive and negative associations and our estimates had wide confidence intervals. There were generally positive associations between respiratory disease and PM10 but not with cardiovascular disease. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in same-day estimated ambient PM10 was associated with a 4.81% (95%CI: -1.04%, 11.01%) increase in total respiratory admissions. When the interaction between indigenous status and PM10 was assessed a statistically different association was found between PM10 and admissions three days later for respiratory infections of indigenous people (15.02%; 95%CI: 3.73%, 27.54%) than for non-indigenous people (0.67%; 95%CI: -7.55%, 9.61%). There were generally negative estimates for cardiovascular conditions. For non-indigenous admissions the estimated association with total cardiovascular admissions for same day ambient PM10 and admissions was -3.43% (95%CI: -9.00%, 2.49%) and the estimate for indigenous admissions was -3.78% (95%CI: -13.4%, 6.91%), although ambient PM

  15. Prospective associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, maternal satisfaction, and parental and childhood body mass index at 6.5 years with later problematic eating attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Wade, K H; Skugarevsky, O; Kramer, M S; Patel, R; Bogdanovich, N; Vilchuck, K; Sergeichick, N; Richmond, R; Palmer, T; Davey Smith, G; Gillman, M; Oken, E; Martin, R M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have prospectively investigated whether early-life exposures are associated with pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Objective: The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured childhood BMI, assessed between birth and 6.5 years, with problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years. Methods: Observational cohort analysis nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, a cluster-randomised trial conducted in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Our primary outcome was a Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) score ⩾22.5 (85th percentile), an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. We employed multivariable mixed logistic regression models, which allow inference at the individual level. We also performed instrumental variable (IV) analysis using parents' BMIs as instruments for the child's BMI, to assess whether associations could be explained by residual confounding or reverse causation. Subjects: Of the 17 046 infants enrolled between 1996 and 1997 across Belarus, 13 751 (80.7%) completed the ChEAT test at 11.5 years. Results: In fully adjusted models, overweight children at age 6.5 years had a 2.14-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.52) increased odds of having ChEAT scores ⩾85th percentile at age 11.5 years, and those who were obese had a 3.89-fold (95% CI: 2.95, 5.14) increased odds compared with normal-weight children. Children of mothers or fathers who were themselves overweight or obese were more likely to score ⩾85th percentile (P for trend ⩽0.001). IV analysis was consistent with a child's BMI causally affecting future eating attitudes. There was little evidence that parental smoking, alcohol use, or marital status or maternal satisfaction were associated with eating attitudes. Conclusion: In our

  16. 75 FR 62636 - Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Status of Dependents Questionnaire,...

  17. 78 FR 24469 - Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY... information technology. Title: Marital Status Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number:...

  18. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity.

    PubMed

    Burt, Morton G; Mangelsdorf, Brenda L; Stranks, Stephen N; Mangoni, Arduino A

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m², 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L) underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02) independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002) independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54). Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001) but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12). We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies. PMID:27649235

  19. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Morton G.; Mangelsdorf, Brenda L.; Stranks, Stephen N.; Mangoni, Arduino A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2, 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L) underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02) independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002) independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54). Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001) but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12). We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies. PMID:27649235

  20. Suggested Activities on Sociological Health Problems: Drugs, Alcoholism, Smoking for Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalonis, Bernice

    This is a list of recommendations for a neophyte teacher for discussions with students on drugs, alcoholism, and smoking. Included are suggested readings, suggested questions for the school's drug education coordinator, recommended readings, and New York sources of information. (Related document is SP 006 468.) (JA)

  1. Development of a Conceptual Model for Smoking Cessation: Physical Activity, Neurocognition, and Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Herod, Skyla M.; Walker, Jerome F.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Mahoney, Sara E.; Kane, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable research has shown adverse neurobiological effects of chronic alcohol use, including long-term and potentially permanent changes in the structure and function of the brain; however, much less is known about the neurobiological consequences of chronic smoking, as it has largely been ignored until recently. In this article, we…

  2. Reduced toxicological activity of cigarette smoke by the addition of ammonia magnesium phosphate to the paper of an electrically heated cigarette: subchronic inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed

    Moennikes, O; Vanscheeuwijck, P M; Friedrichs, B; Anskeit, E; Patskan, G J

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex chemical mixture that causes a variety of diseases, such as lung cancer. With the electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), temperatures are applied to the tobacco below those found in conventional cigarettes, resulting in less combustion, reduced yields of some smoke constituents, and decreased activity in some standard toxicological tests. The first generation of electrically heated cigarettes (EHC) also resulted in increased formaldehyde yields; therefore, a second generation of EHC was developed with ammonium magnesium phosphate (AMP) in the cigarette paper in part to address this increase. The toxicological activity of mainstream smoke from these two generations of EHC and of a conventional reference cigarette was investigated in two studies in rats: a standard 90-day inhalation toxicity study and a 35-day inhalation study focusing on lung inflammation. Many of the typical smoke exposure-related changes were found to be less pronounced after exposure to smoke from the second-generation EHC with AMP than to smoke from the first-generation EHC or the conventional reference cigarette, when compared on a particulate matter or nicotine basis. Differences between the EHC without AMP and the conventional reference cigarette were not as prominent. Overall, AMP incorporated in the EHC cigarette paper reduced the inhalation toxicity of the EHCSS more than expected based on the observed reduction in aldehyde yields. PMID:18464053

  3. [Smoking prevalence in Kocaeli].

    PubMed

    Bariş, Serap Argun; Yildiz, Füsun; Başyiğit, Ilknur; Boyaci, Haşim

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was performed in order to determine smoking prevalence in the target population just before the initiation of a social responsibility project which is aimed to increase the smoking cessation rates in Kocaeli. The sample selection was made based on population numbers in 12 town of Kocaeli city and smoking habits of population over the age of 18 were evaluated by a questionnaire survey by phone. There was 2721 person included in the study. The overall prevalence of active smokers was 32.3% (n= 902) and ex-smokers was 21.5% (n= 587). There was no statistical significance of smoking prevalence among towns except the lower smoking rates in Gebze (25.7%). The percentage of the current smokers was 42.5% in male population which was significantly higher than females (21.8%). The highest smoking prevalence was found between the ages of 35-44 (41.2%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in the subjects older than 55 years (19.8%). The mean age for smoking initiation was 19 years (17-20) and daily cigarette consumption was 17 sticks. Previous attempts for quitting smoking were found in 67.7% of current smokers. The mean number of smoking cessation attempts was 3 times and the mean duration of cessation was 5 months. The most common reason for smoking cessation was health issues. Eighty percent of cases harnessed their willpower to stop smoking while only 5% of them received medical treatment. It is suggested that determination of demographic features of the smokers might constitute a corner stone for smoking cessation projects.

  4. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  5. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  6. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  7. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  8. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  9. Smoking and damages of reproduction: evidence of ELSPAC.

    PubMed

    Kukla, L; Hrubá, D; Tyrlík, M

    2001-05-01

    The international longitudinal prospective ELSPAC study also includes women from the Czech Republic: the results sum up data from 4530 women from City of Brno and District of Znojmo who had different exposure to active and passive smoking. Anamnestic data were collected by fulfilling the internationally unified questionnaires during pregnancy and at the 2nd month after delivery. Gynaecologists, obstetricians and pediatricians, using the unified procedures, were collecting objective data in the course of the pregnancy, delivery, monitoring health status of women and newborns. Significant differences were found between smoking and non-smoking women in the prevalence of alcohol and marihuana consumers both before and during pregnancy and after delivery. In personal health history, smoking women more often reported their self-perceived poor health, panic and loss of self-control during the delivery. In the current pregnancies, smoking women suffer more often with placenta praevia, placental abnormalities, fetal growth retardation and fetal malformations. On the other hand, the prevalence of preeclampsia was decreased among smokers. The children of mothers who were moderate/heavy smokers during pregnancy, had on average by 245 g lower birth weight, 1.22 cm shorter body length and by 0.66 cm smaller head circumference than those of non-smokers. These measures were on average also decreased in the groups of newborns whose mothers were light smokers or non-smokers heavy exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. On the contrary, the average gestational age was similar both in case of active smoking, passive smoking, and non-smoking women. In spite of the fact that most of smokers would give up smoking after getting pregnant, it is necessary to place the antismoking interventions and nutrition advisory service within the routine duty of physicians. PMID:11503275

  10. Social Norms and Smoking Bans on Campus: Interactions in the Canadian University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter-Scherdtel, Amy; Collins, Damian

    2013-01-01

    Smoking bans offer practical protection against environmental tobacco smoke and highlight the decreasing normative status of smoking. At Canadian universities, indoor smoking is now completely prohibited, but regulations vary with respect to outdoor smoking. The purpose of this research was to conceptualize the interactions of smoking bans on…

  11. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of “motivation to change:” 1) current treatment status (i.e., currently receiving vs. not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and 2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES; Miller and Tonigan, 1996). Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal, and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue-reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients. PMID:22458561

  12. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T

    2014-03-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of 'motivation to change': (1) current treatment status (i.e. currently receiving versus not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and (2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients.

  13. Compliance monitoring of prohibition of smoking (under section-4 of COTPA) at a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Goel, Sonu; Patro, Binod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: India enacted a comprehensive tobacco control law known as cigarettes and other tobacco products act (COTPA) in 2003. However, enforcement of the provisions under the law is still a matter of concern. Compliance survey is an effective tool to measure the status of implementation of the law at various public places. Smoke-free hospital campus demonstrates commitment to good health and sends a pro-healthy signal to the community. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the compliance to the prohibition of smoking at public places (under section-4 of COTPA) in a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at 40 different venues within a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India. These places were observed for certain parameters of assessment by a structured checklist, which included evidence of active smoking, evidence of recent smoking, display of signages, presence of smoking aids, cigarette butts and bidi ends. Results: Overall compliance rate for section-4 of COTPA was found to be mere 23%. Evidence of active smoking was observed in 21 (52.5%) venues. Signages were seen at only 8 places (20%). Butt ends and other smoking aids were seen in 37 (92.5%) and 26 (65%) places respectively. Conclusion: These dismal findings suggest non-compliance to the provisions under COTPA, which calls for a sensitization workshop and advocacy for all the stakeholders. PMID:24339489

  14. The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril inhibits poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activation and exerts beneficial effects in an ovine model of burn and smoke injury

    PubMed Central

    Asmussen, Sven; Bartha, Eva; Olah, Gabor; Sbrana, Elena; Rehberg, Sebastian W.; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Hawkins, Hal K.; Ito, Hiroshi; Cox, Robert A.; Traber, Lillian D.; Traber, Daniel L.; Szabo, Csaba

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril in a clinically relevant ovine model of smoke and burn injury, with special reference to oxidative stress, activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in the lung and in circulating leukocytes. Female, adult sheep (28–40 kg) were divided into 3 groups. After tracheostomy and under deep anesthesia both vehicle-control (n=5) and captopril (20 mg/kg/d, iv., starting 0.5 hour before the injury) treated (n=5) groups were subjected to 2×20%, third degree burn injury and were insufflated with 48 breaths of cotton smoke. A sham group not receiving burn/smoke was also studied (n=5). Animals were mechanically ventilated and fluid resuscitated for 24 h in the awake state. Burn and smoke injury resulted in an upregulation of ACE in the lung, evidenced by immunohistochemical determination and Western blotting. Burn and smoke injury resulted in pulmonary dysfunction, as well as systemic hemodynamic alterations. Captopril treatment of burn and smoke animals improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio and pulmonary shunt fraction and reduced the degree of lung edema. There was a marked increase in PAR levels in circulating leukocytes after burn/smoke injury, which was significantly decreased by captopril. The pulmonary level of ACE and the elevated pulmonary levels of TGF-β in response to burn and smoke injury were significantly decreased by captopril treatment. Our results suggest that the ACE inhibitor captopril exerts beneficial effects on the pulmonary function in burn/smoke injury. The effects of the ACE inhibitor may be related to the prevention of ROS-induced PARP over-activation. ACE inhibition may also exert additional beneficial effects by inhibiting the expression of the pro-fibrotic mediator TGF-β. PMID:21701415

  15. Asia Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Smoke from Asian Fires Traverses the Pacific     ... Russia and northeast China, and produced a large amount of smoke that rose to form a thick layer of tiny atmospheric particles, or ... northern portion of the Pacific Ocean, the thickness of the smoke passing over an area south of the Aleutian Islands was measured by the ...

  16. [Youth Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stare, Russell K., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention and anti-smoking activists;…

  17. Fossil and active fumaroles in the 1912 eruptive deposits, Valley of ten thousand smokes, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Terry E. C.

    1991-04-01

    Fumaroles in the ash-flow sheet emplaced during the 1912 eruption of Novarupta were intensely active throughout the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) when first studied in 1917. Fumarole temperatures recorded in 1919 were as hot as 645°C. Influx of surface waters into the hot ash-flow sheet provided the fluid flow to sustain the fumaroles but also enhanced cooling so that by the mid-1930's vigorous activity survived only in the vent region. Configuration and distribution of high-temperature fissure fumaroles tens of meters long, that are prevalent in the middle and upper VTTS, were controlled largely by sintering and degree of welding, which in turn controlled fracturing and permeability of the ash-flow tuff. One fracture type developed parallel to the enclosing valley walls during compaction of the ash-flow sheet. Another type extends across the VTTS nearly perpendicular to the flow direction. A third type of randomly oriented fractures developed as cooling contraction cracks during vapor-phase devitrification. In distal parts of the ash-flow sheet where the tuff is nonwelded, prominent fumaroles have irregular funnel-shaped morphologies. Fumarole distribution in the nonwelded part of the ash-flow sheet is concentrated above pre-emplacement river channels. The hottest, longest-lived fumaroles occurred in the upper VTTS near the 1912 vent where the ash-flow sheet is thicker, more indurated, and on average more mafic (richer in dacite and andesite) in contrast to the thinner, nonwelded rhyolitic tuff in the distal part of the sheet. Fumarolic activity was less intense in the distal part of the tuff because of lower emplacement temperatures, more diffuse fumarole conduits in the nonwelded tuff, and the thinness of the ash-flow sheet. Chemical leaching of ash-flow tuff by hot rising fluids took place adjacent to fumarolic conduits in deep parts of the fumaroles. Deposition of incrustation minerals, the components of which were carried upward by fumarolic gases

  18. Fossil and active fumaroles in the 1912 eruptive deposits, Valley of ten thousand smokes, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.

    1991-01-01

    Fumaroles in the ash-flow sheet emplaced during the 1912 eruption of Novarupta were intensely active throughout the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) when first studied in 1917. Fumarole temperatures recorded in 1919 were as hot as 645??C. Influx of surface waters into the hot ash-flow sheet provided the fluid flow to sustain the fumaroles but also enhanced cooling so that by the mid-1930's vigorous activity survived only in the vent region. Configuration and distribution of high-temperature fissure fumaroles tens of meters long, that are prevalent in the middle and upper VTTS, were controlled largely by sintering and degree of welding, which in turn controlled fracturing and permeability of the ash-flow tuff. One fracture type developed parallel to the enclosing valley walls during compaction of the ash-flow sheet. Another type extends across the VTTS nearly perpendicular to the flow direction. A third type of randomly oriented fractures developed as cooling contraction cracks during vapor-phase devitrification. In distal parts of the ash-flow sheet where the tuff is nonwelded, prominent fumaroles have irregular funnel-shaped morphologies. Fumarole distribution in the nonwelded part of the ash-flow sheet is concentrated above pre-emplacement river channels. The hottest, longest-lived fumaroles occurred in the upper VTTS near the 1912 vent where the ash-flow sheet is thicker, more indurated, and on average more mafic (richer in dacite and andesite) in contrast to the thinner, nonwelded rhyolitic tuff in the distal part of the sheet. Fumarolic activity was less intense in the distal part of the tuff because of lower emplacement temperatures, more diffuse fumarole conduits in the nonwelded tuff, and the thinness of the ash-flow sheet. Chemical leaching of ash-flow tuff by hot rising fluids took place adjacent to fumarolic conduits in deep parts of the fumaroles. Deposition of incrustation minerals, the components of which were carried upward by fumarolic gases

  19. Association of active and passive smoking with occupational injury in manual workers: a cross-sectional study of the 2011 Korean working conditions survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Jung, Dal-Young; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Choi, Eun-Hee; Oh, Sung-Soo; Kang, Hee-Tae; Rhee, Kyung-Yong; Chang, Sei-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of active and passive smoking with occupational injury among manual workers. Data from the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey were analyzed for 12,507 manual workers aged ≥15 yr. Overall, 60.4% of men and 5.8% of women were current smokers. The prevalence of injury was higher among never smokers who were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) (7.7% in men and 8.1% in women) than current smokers (4.2% in men and 4.1% in women). After controlling for potential confounders, in men, compared to those who never smoked and were not exposed to SHS, people who never smoked and were exposed to SHS (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.7, 2.2-6.4) and current smokers (aOR=2.5, 1.6-3.8) were more likely to experience injury. Among women, the aORs of occupational injury were 8.4 (4.2-16.7) for never smoking women with occasional exposure to SHS and 3.5 (95% CI: 1.4-8.7) for current smokers, in comparison to never smoking women who were never exposed to SHS at work (reference group). The present study suggests that exposure to SHS is a possible risk factor of occupational injury for never smoking men and women. PMID:26051290

  20. Association of active and passive smoking with occupational injury in manual workers: a cross-sectional study of the 2011 Korean working conditions survey

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Hwan-Cheol; LAMICHHANE, Dirga Kumar; JUNG, Dal-Young; KIM, Hyoung-Ryoul; CHOI, Eun-Hee; OH, Sung-Soo; KANG, Hee-Tae; RHEE, Kyung-Yong; CHANG, Sei-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of active and passive smoking with occupational injury among manual workers. Data from the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey were analyzed for 12,507 manual workers aged ≥15 yr. Overall, 60.4% of men and 5.8% of women were current smokers. The prevalence of injury was higher among never smokers who were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) (7.7% in men and 8.1% in women) than current smokers (4.2% in men and 4.1% in women). After controlling for potential confounders, in men, compared to those who never smoked and were not exposed to SHS, people who never smoked and were exposed to SHS (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.7, 2.2–6.4) and current smokers (aOR=2.5, 1.6–3.8) were more likely to experience injury. Among women, the aORs of occupational injury were 8.4 (4.2–16.7) for never smoking women with occasional exposure to SHS and 3.5 (95% CI: 1.4–8.7) for current smokers, in comparison to never smoking women who were never exposed to SHS at work (reference group). The present study suggests that exposure to SHS is a possible risk factor of occupational injury for never smoking men and women. PMID:26051290

  1. Mental health status can reflect disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sokolovic, Sekib; Dervisevic, Vedina; Fisekovic, Saida

    2014-01-01

    Objective A significant number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) link the start of illness with psychological trauma or severe stress. Impaired mental health (IMH), defined as depression and anxiety with psychoneuroimmunological factors, can play a significant role in RA. The main objective of this research was to investigate the mutual correlation of IMH and RA activity, estimated by the laboratory and clinical parameters in RA patients. Material and Methods An open clinical prospective study that lasted for 6 months was designed. There were 72 patients included, 58 women and 14 men, aged 34 to 80 years and screened for mental health status. The study population was randomized following the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI) scale, comprised of 53 questions with a range from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (severe). This mental test was done only once during the study. Following the results from the BSI scale, RA patients were divided into mentally stable and mentally unstable patients to investigate the influence of RA activity on mental health. The following laboratory and clinical parameters were analyzed: sex, age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and disease activity score (DAS28). All RA patients did not express extra-articular manifestations or Sjögren’s syndrome. The chi-square test, ANOVA, Pearson’s coefficient, and IBM Statistics - SPSS v19 were used. Results From a total of 72 RA patients, there were 44 mentally stable and 28 mentally unstable patients. All patients had either moderate or severe active disease. The only significant correlation of IMH and activity of RA was found in CRP and DAS28, but no significance was observed in ESR, RF, and anti-CCP. The DAS28 showed high disease activity with an average of 5.3 and CRP of 20.9 mg/L in patients with unstable mental health compared to stable mental health patients, where RA was associated with

  2. A review of current smoke constituent measurement activities and aspects of yield variability.

    PubMed

    Purkis, Stephen W; Meger, Michael; Wuttke, Roland

    2012-02-01

    An increasing number of initiatives to regulate cigarette smoke constituents beyond 'tar', nicotine and carbon monoxide are being launched. The objective of existing and proposed regulation is presumably either to gain a better understanding of product performance, to be able to discriminate between products, or to impose limits for selected constituents. However, without standardized analytical methods and measurement tolerances a meaningful comparison of data or verification against regulated limits is challenging if not impossible. Hence, an understanding of the validity and limitations of generated data is important for industry and regulators alike to avoid unjustified 'out-of-compliance' situations, and consequent competitive and reputational concerns for manufacturers. This paper reviews smoke constituent regulation and provides examples of technical challenges and good practice. It discusses approaches used to standardize measurements; the role of the International Organization for Standardization; factors influencing result variability and limitations and possible misinterpretations of generated data. If smoke constituents regulation is to be introduced, a standardized, science-based approach must be the pre-requisite for the generation and comparison of data. Potential analytical and technical issues must be resolved in discussion, both before and after the implementation of regulation, to the benefit of the public, regulators and manufacturers.

  3. Understanding the links between education and smoking.

    PubMed

    Maralani, Vida

    2014-11-01

    This study extends the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between education and smoking by focusing on the life course links between experiences from adolescence and health outcomes in adulthood. Differences in smoking by completed education are apparent at ages 12-18, long before that education is acquired. I use characteristics from the teenage years, including social networks, future expectations, and school experiences measured before the start of smoking regularly to predict smoking in adulthood. Results show that school policies, peers, and youths' mortality expectations predict smoking in adulthood but that college aspirations and analytical skills do not. I also show that smoking status at age 16 predicts both completed education and adult smoking, controlling for an extensive set of covariates. Overall, educational inequalities in smoking are better understood as a bundling of advantageous statuses that develops in childhood, rather than the effect of education producing better health.

  4. The Relationship between Occupational Status and Physical Activity in Korea.

    PubMed

    So, Wi-Young; Yoo, Byoung-Wook; Sung, Dong Jun

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between occupational status and physical activity (PA) in Korea. A total of 9,000 Koreans age 10 to 89 years participated in the Korean Survey of Citizens' Sports Participation project in 2012. However, 3,851 participants were excluded from the analysis (housewives, students, and the jobless), providing a sample size of 5,149 participants (3,165 men and 1,984 women) for this study. The association between occupational status and PA was then evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for reporting at least weekly PA according to job intensity, after adjusting for sex and age, were as follows: moderate-intensity jobs, 1.164 [1.026, 1.320], p = .018; and vigorous-intensity jobs, 1.591 [1.318, 1.921], p < .001, compared with low-intensity jobs as a reference category. For PA intensity in low- and moderate-intensity jobs, after adjusting for sex and age, the ORs (95% CI) were as follows: low-intensity PA, 1.355 [1.033, 1.778], p = .028, moderate PA, 1.227 [1.096, 1.487], p = .002, and vigorous PA, 1.570 [1.213, 2.032], p < .001, compared with sedentary as a reference category. For the intensity of PA among participants with low- or vigorous-intensity jobs, after adjusting for sex and age, the ORs (95% CI) were as follows: low-intensity PA, 1.015 [0.649, 1.586], p = .948, moderate-intensity PA, 1.890 [1.416, 2.522], p < .001, and vigorous-intensity PA, 2.403 [1.395, 4.139], p = .002, compared with sedentary as a reference category. For the intensity of PA between moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity jobs, after adjusting for sex and age, the ORs (95% CI) were as follows: low-intensity PA, 1.010 [0.759, 1.344], p = .945, moderate-intensity PA, 1.381 [1.136, 1.678], p = .001, and vigorous-intensity PA, 1.595 [1.023, 2.486], p = .039, compared to sedentary as a reference category. The presented findings show a strong association between

  5. Genotoxicity testing of 3,4,5-trimethylfuran-2(5H)-one, a compound from plant-derived smoke with germination inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Light, Marnie E; Anthonissen, Roel; Maes, Annemarie; Verschaeve, Luc; Pošta, Martin; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-01-15

    Plant-derived smoke and certain smoke compounds improve seed germination and enhance seedling growth of many species. Thus, smoke-infused water and the active smoke-derived compounds have the potential to be used in different agricultural and horticultural applications. However, despite these interesting and potentially practical properties, it should also be ascertained whether such compounds may pose a health risk, particularly if they are to be used in the production of food or fodder crops. Amongst some of the aspects that would be important to understand are any possible genotoxic properties that the compounds may possess due to potential carry-over effects. Here, we report on a genotoxicity study of 3,4,5-trimethylfuran-2(5H)-one, a compound from plant-derived smoke previously shown to have germination inhibitory activity. Using two in vitro tests, namely the bacterial VITOTOX® test (with/without S9 metabolic activation) and the cytome assay on human C3A cells, no genotoxicity or toxicity was found. Furthermore, these results support a previous study where a related smoke-derived compound with germination promoting properties was investigated.

  6. Heavy Smoking Is More Strongly Associated with General Unhealthy Lifestyle than Obesity and Underweight

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Tina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking and obesity are major causes of non-communicable diseases. We investigated the associations of heavy smoking, obesity, and underweight with general lifestyle to infer which of these risk groups has the most unfavourable lifestyle. Methods We used data from the population-based cross-sectional Swiss Health Survey (5 rounds 1992–2012), comprising 85,575 individuals aged≥18 years. Height, weight, smoking, diet, alcohol intake and physical activity were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to analyse differences in lifestyle between the combinations of body mass index (BMI) category and smoking status. Results Compared to normal-weight never smokers (reference), individuals who were normal-weight, obese, or underweight and smoked heavily at the same time had a poorer general lifestyle. The lifestyle of obese and underweight never smokers differed less from reference. Regardless of BMI category, in heavy smoking men and women the fruit and vegetable consumption was lower (e.g. obese heavy smoking men: relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.30;2.21]) and high alcohol intake was more common (e.g. normal-weight heavy smoking women 5.51 [3.71;8.20]). In both sexes, physical inactivity was observed more often in heavy smokers and obese or underweight (e.g. underweight never smoking 1.29 [1.08;1.54] and heavy smoking women 2.02 [1.33;3.08]). A decrease of smoking prevalence was observed over time in normal-weight, but not in obese individuals. Conclusions Unhealthy general lifestyle was associated with both heavy smoking and BMI extremes, but we observed a stronger association for heavy smoking. Future smoking prevention measures should pay attention to improvement of general lifestyle and co-occurrence with obesity and underweight. PMID:26910775

  7. 76 FR 67556 - Proposed Information Collection (Notice of Change in Student Status) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... comments for information needed to report changes in students' enrollment status. DATES: Written comments... collection. Abstract: Educational institutions use VA Form 22-1999b to report a student's enrollment status... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Notice of Change in Student Status) Activity: Comment...

  8. Status report on the survey and alignment activities at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Oshinowo, Babatunde O'Sheg; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The surveying and alignment activities at Fermilab are the responsibility of the Alignment and Metrology Group. The Group supports and interacts with physicists and engineers working on any particular project, from the facility construction phase to the installation and final alignment of components in the beam line. One of the goals of the Alignment and Metrology Group is to upgrade the old survey networks in the tunnel using modern surveying technology, such as the Laser Tracker for tunnel networks and GPS for the surface networks. According to the job needs, all surveys are done with Laser Trackers and/or Videogrammetry (V-STARS) systems for spatial coordinates; optical and electronic levels are used for elevations, Gyro-Theodolite for azimuths, Mekometer for distances and GPS for baseline vectors. The group has recently purchased two new API Laser Trackers, one INCA3 camera for the V-Stars, and one DNA03 digital level. This report presents the projects and major activities of the Alignment and Metrology Group at Fermilab during the period of 2000 to 2004. It focuses on the most important current projects, especially those that have to be completed during the currently scheduled three-month shutdown period. Future projects, in addition to the status of the current projects, are also presented.

  9. [Consent to smoking in public places and at home the opinions of smokers and nonsmokers girls].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was researching of dependence between current status of smoking and opinions about smoking tobacco in public places and at home of girls at the age 18. We examined 2246 girls who graduated junior high schools and were continuing their education in four types of schools: high schools, profiled high schools, technical secondary schools and vocational schools. Two-stage sampling method was used, with the team stratification by type of school. The study was conducted in November and December 2008, the auditorium method. The results show that although more than half of the girls, do not agree with smoking in various public places and by parents at home, about one quarter of them accept smoking in cafes, restaurants, pubs and bus stops, and less than 1/5 have no opinion on the subject. Applied analysis using logistic regression analysis indicate a close relationship between smoking trials undertaken by the girls examined, and their opinion about the approval for smoking by students at the school. The model attempts to smoking was a significant predictor of acceptance of smoking in cafes and pubs, and the model of the current consensus on tobacco smoking at bus stops. The presented results indicate the need for prevention activities among children and adolescents, which will contribute to the education of attitudes and skills necessary to take measures aimed at creating environments free from tobacco smoke. PMID:21360935

  10. Is household smoking status associated with expenditure on food at restaurants, alcohol, gambling and insurance? Results from the 1998–99 Household Expenditure Survey, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, M; Borland, R; Scollo, M

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To examine how household expenditure on food at restaurants, alcohol, gambling and insurance vary between smoking and non-smoking households. Design: Cross sectional survey of households from private dwellings, conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), using a stratified multistage area sample design. Setting: Australia, 1998–99. Participants: Nationally representative sample of households (n = 6892). Main outcome measures: Expenditure on meals at restaurants, alcohol, alcoholic beverages at licensed premises, gambling, and insurance. Results: The odds of reporting expenditure on restaurant food and health insurance were 20% and 40% smaller for smoking than non-smoking households, respectively. The odds of reporting expenditure on alcohol (not including expenditure at licensed premises), drinking at licensed premises, and gambling were 100%, 50%, and 40% greater for smoking than for non-smoking households, respectively. Conclusions: The study suggests that smokers are more likely to engage in risky behaviour. Implementing smoking bans in licensed premises and gambling venues can provide an opportunity to reduce smoking prevalence. Quitting or cutting down smoking can provide opportunities for expenditure on other products or services, and enhance standards of living. PMID:15564627

  11. Risk Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior: A Turkish Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil

    2015-01-01

    Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were

  12. Cigarette smoke reversibly activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Daijo, Hiroki; Hoshino, Yuma; Kai, Shinichi; Suzuki, Kengo; Nishi, Kenichiro; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Harada, Hiroshi; Hirota, Kiichi

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major contributor to the development of a large number of fatal and debilitating disorders. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of CS in lung disease are largely unknown. To elucidate these pathophysiological processes, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of CS extract (CSE) and CS on the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). CSE induced concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of HIF-1α protein in human lung epithelial-like cells under non-hypoxic conditions. Genes upregulated by HIF-1, including vascular endothelial growth factor and regulated in development and DNA damage response 1, both of which are involved in smoking-induced emphysematous changes, were increased by CSE treatment under non-hypoxic conditions in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation revealed that reactive oxygen species were generated in cells exposed to CSE and were required for CSE-mediated induction of HIF-1α protein, as was activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. In conclusion, we demonstrated that CSE and CS induced HIF-1 activation in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The evidence warrants further investigation to indicate that HIF-1 plays an important role in CS-induced gene expression, which is deeply involved in pulmonary cellular stress and small airway remodelling. PMID:27680676

  13. Analyzing Cigarette Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Griffin, Dale; Ricker, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students use their natural inquisitiveness about their personal environment to investigate the composition of cigarette smoke. Includes techniques for measuring tar and carbon monoxide content. (DDR)

  14. The role of cognitive attributions for smoking in subsequent smoking progression and regression among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian; Unger, Jennifer B; Palmer, Paula H; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, C Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have documented that cognitive attributions are correlated with adolescent smoking. The present study further explored whether cognitive attributions for smoking influenced adolescents' future smoking behaviors, especially transitions to more advanced stages of smoking. Participants were 12,382 middle and high school students (48.5% males and 51.5% females) in seven large cities in China. They completed two waves of surveys one year apart. Cognitive attributions for smoking and three smoking behavior outcomes (lifetime smoking, past 30-day smoking, and daily smoking) were assessed. Changes in smoking, including progression from lower stages to higher stages and regression from higher stages to lower stages, over a one-year period, were defined longitudinally. Polychotomous logistic regression was used to examine associations between cognitive attributions for smoking and changes in smoking status over one year, adjusting for demographic characteristics and other plausible confounders. Seven out of eight cognitive attributions for smoking were associated with subsequent smoking behaviors (p<0.05). Curiosity, autonomy, social image, social belonging, and coping influenced earlier stages of smoking, whereas mental enhancement and engagement influenced later stages of smoking. Curiosity, autonomy, social image, and mental enhancement preceded smoking progression; social belonging prevented smoking regression; and coping and engagement both preceded smoking progression and prevented smoking regression. This study demonstrates that different cognitive attributions influence smoking at different stages in different ways. These findings could inform smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting Chinese adolescents.

  15. Smoking and Health

    PubMed Central

    Steinfeld, Jesse L.

    1984-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking is the number one public health problem in the United States, physicians have failed to take the lead either in convincing youngsters not to begin smoking or in aiding adults to quit smoking. To be most effective and convincing in combating the smoking epidemic, practicing physicians must have the same basic fund of knowledge about the short- and long-term consequences of smoking as they do about other commonly encountered medical problems. By acting on such knowledge and adopting a definite set of attitudes and activities in their offices and with patients, physicians can make a significant contribution to their patients and to the entire community in which they practice. PMID:6523863

  16. Personal and social determinants sustaining smoking practices in rural China: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use in China is disproportionally distributed among rural and urban populations with rural people smoking more. While there is a wealth of evidence on the association between tobacco use among rural people and their lower socio-economic status (SES), how social structural factors contribute to rural smoking is not well understood. Guided by a socio-ecological model, the objective of this study was to explore the personal and social determinants that play a key role in sustaining smoking practices among Chinese rural people. Methods An ethnographic study was conducted in a rural area of Central Jiangsu, China. Participants (n = 29) were recruited from families where there was at least one smoking resident and there were young children. In-depth interviews and unstructured observations were used to collect data, which were then analyzed with an interpretive lens. Results Although individuals had limited knowledge about the risks of smoking and lack of motivation to quit, social factors were in effect the main barriers to quitting smoking. Cigarette exchange and cigarette gifting permeated every aspect of rural family life, from economic activities to leisure pastimes, in family and wider social interactions. Traditional familism and collectivism interplayed with the pro-smoking environment and supported rural people’s smoking practices at the community level. Living in the rural area was also a barrier to quitting smoking because of the lack of information on smoking cessation and the influence of courtyard-based leisure activities that facilitated smoking. Conclusion Development of comprehensive smoking cessation interventions in rural China needs to extend beyond an individual level to take into account the social determinants influencing smoking practices. PMID:24484610

  17. Factors affecting smoking in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Beratis, S; Katrivanou, A; Gourzis, P

    2001-01-01

    There is an increased frequency of smoking among patients with schizophrenia. However, it is unknown whether the smoking behavior of the patients is similar in all schizophrenia subtypes, as well as which is the relationship between smoking initiation and disease onset. Four hundred six patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia were interviewed to determine the smoking status in relationship to gender and schizophrenic subtype, and to other factors that could affect or be affected by smoking. The frequency of smoking among patients (58%) was significantly greater than in subjects from the general population (42%) (P =.000005). Male patients smoked significantly more frequently (70%) than the corresponding control subjects (50%) (P =.000006), whereas the difference failed to reach significance between female patients (41%) and control subjects (32%). Among male patients, the number of smokers was significantly greater than in the controls in the paranoid (77%), undifferentiated (72%), and residual (78%) subtypes, whereas there was no significant difference in the disorganized (44%) and catatonic (22%) subtypes. The findings show that the frequency of smoking in schizophrenia patients increases with increasing positive symptoms and decreases with increasing negative symptoms. Male and female smoking patients consumed approximately 10 cigarettes per day more than the corresponding control subjects (P <.000001). In 86% of the patients, smoking initiation occurred before the disease onset. Among patients who smoked, smoking initiation and disease onset occurred at age 18.7 +/- 4.4 and 24.1 +/- 6.1 years, respectively (P <.000001). It appears that smoking in schizophrenia is influenced by gender and subtype. However, the nature of this association remains uncertain because in the vast majority of the patients smoking initiation occurs earlier than the disease onset.

  18. The Influence of Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Childhood and Active Cigarette Smoking on Crohn’s Disease Phenotype Defined by the Montreal Classification Scheme in a Western Cape Population, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chivese, Tawanda; Esterhuizen, Tonya M.; Basson, Abigail Raffner

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking may worsen the disease outcomes in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), however the effect of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is unclear. In South Africa, no such literature exists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease phenotype, at time of diagnosis of CD, was associated with exposure to second-hand cigarette during childhood and active cigarette smoking habits. Methods A cross sectional examination of all consecutive CD patients seen during the period September 2011-January 2013 at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease centers in the Western Cape, South Africa was performed. Data were collected via review of patient case notes, interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination by the attending gastroenterologist. Disease phenotype (behavior and location) was evaluated at time of diagnosis, according to the Montreal Classification scheme. In addition, disease behavior was stratified as ‘complicated’ or ‘uncomplicated’, using predefined definitions. Passive cigarette smoke exposure was evaluated during 3 age intervals: 0–5, 6–10, and 11–18 years. Results One hundred and ninety four CD patients were identified. Cigarette smoking during the 6 months prior to, or at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with ileo-colonic (L3) disease (RRR = 3.63; 95%CI, 1.32–9.98, p = 0.012) and ileal (L1) disease (RRR = 3.54; 95%CI, 1.06–11.83, p = 0.040) compared with colonic disease. In smokers, childhood passive cigarette smoke exposure during the 0–5 years age interval was significantly associated with ileo-colonic CD location (RRR = 21.3; 95%CI, 1.16–391.55, p = 0.040). No significant association between smoking habits and disease behavior at diagnosis, whether defined by the Montreal scheme, or stratified as ‘complicated’ vs ‘uncomplicated’, was observed. Conclusion Smoking habits were associated with ileo-colonic (L3) and ileal (L1) disease at time of diagnosis in

  19. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union--Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  20. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union--Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups.

  1. Effects of cigarette smoke on Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) macrophages.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, H J; Lea, S; Hughes, D; Khalaf, R; Abbott-Banner, K; Singh, D

    2014-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an abnormal innate immune response. We have investigated the changes in the innate immune response of COPD alveolar macrophages exposed to both cigarette smoke and Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. COPD and control alveolar macrophages were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) followed by TLR-2, -4 and -5 ligands [Pam3CSK4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phase I flagellin (FliC), respectively] or non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). CSE exposure suppressed TLR-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) production in both COPD and control alveolar macrophages, but had no effect on interleukin 8 (CXCL8) production. Similarly, CSE suppressed NTHi-induced TNF-α but not NTHi-induced CXCL8 production in COPD alveolar macrophages. Gene expression analysis showed that CSE suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α transcription but not CXCL8 transcription in COPD alveolar macrophages. The dampening effect of CSE on LPS-induced cytokine production was associated with a reduction in p38, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and p65 activation. In conclusion, CSE caused a reduced innate immune response in COPD alveolar macrophages, with the exception of persistent CXCL8 production. This could be a mechanism by which alveolar macrophages promote neutrophil chemotaxis under conditions of oxidative stress and bacterial exposure.

  2. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  3. Methods for Quantification of Exposure to Cigarette Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Focus on Developmental Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Florescu, Ana; Ferrence, Roberta; Einarson, Tom; Selby, Peter; Soldin, Offie; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Active and passive smoking have been associated with an array of adverse effects on health. The development of valid and accurate scales of measurement for exposures associated with health risks constitutes an active area of research. Tobacco smoke exposure still lacks an ideal method of measurement. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. However, some groups of people are more reluctant than others to disclose their smoking status and exposure to tobacco. This is particularly true for pregnant women and parents of young children, whose smoking is often regarded as socially unacceptable. For others, recall of tobacco exposure may also prove difficult. Because relying on self-report and the various biases it introduces may lead to inaccurate measures of nicotine exposure, more objective solutions have been suggested. Biomarkers constitute the most commonly used objective method of ascertaining nicotine exposure. Of those available, cotinine has gained supremacy as the biomarker of choice. Traditionally, cotinine has been measured in blood, saliva, and urine. Cotinine collection and analysis from these sources has posed some difficulties, which have motivated the search for a more consistent and reliable source of this biomarker. Hair analysis is a novel, noninvasive technique used to detect the presence of drugs and metabolites in the hair shaft. Because cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although hair analysis of cotinine holds great promise, a detailed evaluation of its potential as a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is needed. No studies have been published that address this issue. Because the levels of cotinine in the body are dependent on nicotine metabolism, which in turn is affected by factors such as age and pregnancy, the characterization of hair cotinine should be population specific. This review aims at

  4. Public Support for Smoke-Free Air Strategies Among Smokers and Nonsmokers, New York City, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Mandel-Ricci, Jenna; Kansagra, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction From 2010 through 2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene engaged in multiple smoke-free-air activities in collaboration with community, institution, and government partners. These included implementing a law prohibiting smoking in all parks and beaches as well as working to increase compliance with existing Smoke-free Air Act provisions. Methods We investigated trends in awareness of existing smoke-free rules publicized with new signage and public support for new smoke-free air strategies by using 3 waves of survey data from population-based samples of smoking and nonsmoking adults in New York City (2010–2012). Analyses adjusted for the influence of sociodemographic characteristics. Results Among both smokers and nonsmokers, we observed increased awareness of smoke-free regulations in outdoor areas around hospital entrances and grounds and in lines in outdoor waiting areas for buses and taxis. Regardless of smoking status, women, racial/ethnic minorities, and adults aged 25 to 44 years were more likely than men, non-Hispanic whites, and adults aged 65 years or older to support smoke-free air strategies. Conclusion New signage was successful in increasing population-wide awareness of rules. Our analysis of the association between demographic characteristics and support for tobacco control over time provide important contextual information for community education efforts on secondhand smoke and smoke-free air strategies. PMID:24480633

  5. Placental cadmium as an additional noninvasive bioindicator of active maternal tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Piasek, Martina; Jurasović, Jasna; Sekovanić, Ankica; Brajenović, Nataša; Brčić Karačonji, Irena; Mikolić, Anja; Grgec, Antonija Sulimanec; Stasenko, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a mixture of chemicals that is known to exert carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting effects, as well as adverse effects on various systems. In TS nicotine is the major alkaloid and cadmium (Cd) the most abundant metal ion. The aim of this investigation was to assess exposure to Cd attributed to TS in healthy postpartum subjects (mean age 28 years) after term vaginal delivery in a clinical hospital by determining metal levels in maternal blood, placenta, and cord blood in relation to nicotine in maternal hair (12-cm-long samples). Two study groups were compared based upon self-reporting data: smokers (n = 32; continual cigarette smoking 3 months before and 9 months during pregnancy) and nonsmokers (n = 54; including passive smokers whose parameters did not differ from unexposed nonsmokers). In smokers compared to nonsmokers maternal hair nicotine concentrations increased approximately sevenfold, while Cd levels rose fourfold in maternal blood and up to twofold in placenta. Significant positive correlations were noted between maternal hair nicotine and placental Cd, maternal hair nicotine and maternal blood Cd, and placental Cd and maternal blood Cd. Levels of cord blood Cd were low in both study groups (<0.1 ng/ml). Data indicate that Cd in placenta may serve as a noninvasive bioindicator in addition to commonly used noninvasive hair nicotine in maternal TS assessment, especially in cases where unavailable or inappropriate (short or chemically treated) hair samples occur. PMID:27210017

  6. Placental cadmium as an additional noninvasive bioindicator of active maternal tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Piasek, Martina; Jurasović, Jasna; Sekovanić, Ankica; Brajenović, Nataša; Brčić Karačonji, Irena; Mikolić, Anja; Grgec, Antonija Sulimanec; Stasenko, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a mixture of chemicals that is known to exert carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting effects, as well as adverse effects on various systems. In TS nicotine is the major alkaloid and cadmium (Cd) the most abundant metal ion. The aim of this investigation was to assess exposure to Cd attributed to TS in healthy postpartum subjects (mean age 28 years) after term vaginal delivery in a clinical hospital by determining metal levels in maternal blood, placenta, and cord blood in relation to nicotine in maternal hair (12-cm-long samples). Two study groups were compared based upon self-reporting data: smokers (n = 32; continual cigarette smoking 3 months before and 9 months during pregnancy) and nonsmokers (n = 54; including passive smokers whose parameters did not differ from unexposed nonsmokers). In smokers compared to nonsmokers maternal hair nicotine concentrations increased approximately sevenfold, while Cd levels rose fourfold in maternal blood and up to twofold in placenta. Significant positive correlations were noted between maternal hair nicotine and placental Cd, maternal hair nicotine and maternal blood Cd, and placental Cd and maternal blood Cd. Levels of cord blood Cd were low in both study groups (<0.1 ng/ml). Data indicate that Cd in placenta may serve as a noninvasive bioindicator in addition to commonly used noninvasive hair nicotine in maternal TS assessment, especially in cases where unavailable or inappropriate (short or chemically treated) hair samples occur.

  7. Heavy smoking and liver.

    PubMed

    El-Zayadi, Abdel-Rahman

    2006-10-14

    Smoking causes a variety of adverse effects on organs that have no direct contact with the smoke itself such as the liver. It induces three major adverse effects on the liver: direct or indirect toxic effects, immunological effects and oncogenic effects. Smoking yields chemical substances with cytotoxic potential which increase necro-inflammation and fibrosis. In addition, smoking increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF- alpha) that would be involved in liver cell injury. It contributes to the development of secondary polycythemia and in turn to increased red cell mass and turnover which might be a contributing factor to secondary iron overload disease promoting oxidative stress of hepatocytes. Increased red cell mass and turnover are associated with increased purine catabolism which promotes excessive production of uric acid. Smoking affects both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses by blocking lymphocyte proliferation and inducing apoptosis of lymphocytes. Smoking also increases serum and hepatic iron which induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation that lead to activation of stellate cells and development of fibrosis. Smoking yields chemicals with oncogenic potential that increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with viral hepatitis and are independent of viral infection as well. Tobacco smoking has been associated with suppression of p53 (tumour suppressor gene). In addition, smoking causes suppression of T-cell responses and is associated with decreased surveillance for tumour cells. Moreover, it has been reported that heavy smoking affects the sustained virological response to interferon (IFN) therapy in hepatitis C patients which can be improved by repeated phlebotomy. Smoker's syndrome is a clinico-pathological condition where patients complain of episodes of facial flushing, warmth of the palms and soles of feet, throbbing headache, fullness in the head, dizziness, lethargy, prickling

  8. [Smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Maekura, Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Smoking has been determined as a cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in most patients. Smoking cessation should be stressed above everything else for COPD patients under all conditions. A smoking habit is determined not as a preference but as a dependency on tobacco; therefore, smoking cessation is difficult solely based on one's motivation. Smoking cessation therapy is employed with cessation aids. Now, we can use nicotine-containing gum, patches, and the nicotine-receptor partial agonist varenicline. First, nicotine from tobacco is replaced with a nicotin patch, or a nicotine-free condition is induced by varenicline. Subsequently, the drugs are gradually reduced. In Japan, smoking cessation therapy is covered by public health insurance as definite requirements. PMID:22073582

  9. Cigarette Smoking and Anti-Smoking Counselling: Dilemmas of Chinese Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Han Z.; Sun, Huisheng; Liu, Zhenqi; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Qingchun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out the anti-smoking counselling frequency and its correlates in a sample of Chinese physicians. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, 268 physicians in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a questionnaire asking about their own smoking status, their anti-smoking behaviors as well as their…

  10. Effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on disease activity and physical functioning in ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengli; Li, Yan; Xu, Xiangjin; Feng, Xiugao; Yang, Dawei; Lin, Guiying

    2015-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on the disease activity and physical functioning in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is currently understated. Present study aims to investigate the relationship between them. A total of 425 patients with AS were recruited in the study and their smoking and drinking habit were investigated with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Metrology Index (BASMI) were evaluated. Parameters including fingertip-to-floor distance, overall assessment of health, nocturnal pain, total back pain and morning stiffness were analyzed as well. Blood erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined. For 118 (27.8%) AS patients with smoking habit, the scorings of BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI and other physical parameters (including fingertip-to-floor, overall assessment of health, nocturnal pain and total back pain) were higher than those in patients without smoking. 101 (23.8%) AS patients with alcohol consumption demonstrated significantly higher scores in BASMI (P < 0.05). In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, the cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption variables contributed to the variance in BASDAI scores, adding an additional 1.6% to the overall R-square, resulting in a final R-square of 5.1%. Smoking has a negative effect on disease activity of patients with AS and the patients' physical functioning. Alcohol consumption would aggravate the overall physical functioning of AS patient. The results indicated the potential benefit of quitting smoking and drinking for AS patients. PMID:26550348

  11. Relationship Status and Activated Kin Support: The Role of Need and Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazelis, Joan Maya; Mykyta, Laryssa

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examined whether mothers' (N = 4,127) and fathers' (N = 3,405) relationship status influenced their activation of financial support from relatives over time. We found that relationship status influenced the activation of financial support from relatives but that the effects…

  12. Carcinogenic activity of cigarette smoke gas phase and its modulation by beta-carotene and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Witschi, Hanspeter

    2005-03-01

    Male strain A/J mice were exposed for six hours a day, five days a week for six months to either full tobacco smoke or to tobacco smoke drawn through a HEPA filter that removed more than 99% of particulate matter. After another four months in air, the animals were sacrificed and lung tumors were counted for calculation of multiplicities and incidences. Analysis of the chamber atmospheres showed that in the filtered smoke the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and tobacco smoke specific nitrosamines were reduced to from below 18% to even nondetectable levels of the original values measured in the unfiltered smoke. Aldehydes and other volatile organic compounds such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, or acrolein were reduced to about 50 to 90% of the concentrations found in unfiltered smoke. Some potentially carcinogenic metals reached levels in filtered smoke ranging from 77% to less than 1% found in full smoke. The mice exposed to the filtered smoke atmosphere had practically identical lung tumor multiplicities and incidence as had the animals exposed to full smoke, significantly higher than in air exposed controls. Diets containing 0.5% beta-carotene or 0.4% N-acetylcysteine afforded some chemoprevention. It was tentatively concluded that 1,3-butadiene might be an important contributor to lung tumorigenesis in this mouse model of tobacco smoke carcinogenesis. PMID:15564316

  13. Are interventions for low-income groups effective in changing healthy eating, physical activity and smoking behaviours? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Eleanor R; Dombrowski, Stephan U; McCleary, Nicola; Johnston, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting diet, physical activity or smoking in low-income adults. Design Systematic review with random effects meta-analyses. Studies before 2006 were identified from a previously published systematic review (searching 1995–2006) with similar but broader inclusion criteria (including non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies from 2006 to 2014 were identified from eight electronic databases using a similar search strategy. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials, Cochrane Systematic Review and DARE. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies RCTs and cluster RCTs published from 1995 to 2014; interventions targeting dietary, physical activity and smoking; low-income adults; reporting of behavioural outcomes. Main outcome measures Dietary, physical activity and smoking cessation behaviours. Results 35 studies containing 45 interventions with 17 000 participants met inclusion criteria. At postintervention, effects were positive but small for diet (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.22, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.29), physical activity (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.36) and smoking (relative risk (RR) of 1.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.89). Studies reporting follow-up results suggested that effects were maintained over time for diet (SMD 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25) but not physical activity (SMD 0.17, 95% CI −0.02 to 0.37) or smoking (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.34). Conclusions Behaviour change interventions for low-income groups had small positive effects on healthy eating, physical activity and smoking. Further work is needed to improve the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions for deprived populations. PMID:25432903

  14. Social status and mating activity in elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Le Boeuf, B J; Peterson, R S

    1969-01-01

    Individually marked male elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, observed on an island off central California participate in a social hierarchy resembling the peck order of domestic chickens. Individuals achieve status by fighting and maintain it by stereotyped threat displays. The higher the status of a male, the more readily he approaches and copulates with females. Four percent of the males inseminated 85 percent of the females.

  15. Wood smoke exposure induces a decrease in respiration parameters and in the activity of respiratory complexes I and IV in lung mitochondria from guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Granados-Castro, Luis Fernando; Rodríguez-Rangel, Daniela Sarai; Montaño, Martha; Ramos, Carlos; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2015-04-01

    Domestic exposure to biomass smoke represents the second cause of chronic obstructive lung disease. Previous studies have shown that exposure of guinea pigs to wood smoke is capable of generating oxidative stress in lung tissue, and this may involve a failure at a mitochondrial level, given its close relation with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in guinea pigs exposed to wood smoke, the lung mitochondrial functionality through O2 consumption measurement and the determination of the mitochondrial complexes enzymatic activity. We found that normal and maximum respiration decreased at 15 and 30 min of wood smoke exposure, recovering its normal values at 180 min. The same behavior was observed for the respiratory control rate (RCR) and the ADP/O value. Complex I activity decreased significantly after 30 min of exposure and it returned to baseline after 180 min. The greatest alteration was observed by the decrease of 85% on complex IV activity at 30 min of exposure, which returned to control values after 180 min of exposure. It is concluded that even when wood smoke exposure induces severe mitochondrial respiration alterations at the first 30 min, it seems that there is one or many ways by which mitochondria can reinstate its normal function after 180 min of exposure.

  16. Effects of cigarette smoking on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dechanet, C; Anahory, T; Mathieu Daude, J C; Quantin, X; Reyftmann, L; Hamamah, S; Hedon, B; Dechaud, H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking is associated with lower fecundity rates, adverse reproductive outcomes and a higher risk of IVF failures. Over the last few decades, prevalence of smoking among women of reproductive age has increased. This review focuses on current knowledge of the potential effects of smoke toxicants on all reproductive stages and the consequences of smoke exposure on reproductive functions. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature on the impact of cigarette smoking and smoke constituents on the different stages of reproductive function, including epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies. We attempted to create hypotheses and find explanations for the deleterious effects of cigarette smoke observed in experimental studies. RESULTS Cigarette smoke contains several thousand components (e.g. nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cadmium) with diverse effects. Each stage of reproductive function, folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesis, uterine blood flow and uterine myometrium is a target for cigarette smoke components. The effects of cigarette smoke are dose-dependent and are influenced by the presence of other toxic substances and hormonal status. Individual sensitivity, dose, time and type of exposure also play a role in the impact of smoke constituents on human fertility. CONCLUSIONS All stages of reproductive functions are targets of cigarette smoke toxicants. Further studies are necessary to better understand the deleterious effects of cigarette smoke compounds on the reproductive system in order to improve health care, help to reduce cigarette smoking and provide a better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive toxicology.

  17. Jumping the gun: Smoking constituent BaP causes premature primordial follicle activation and impairs oocyte fusibility through oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Pye, V.; Nixon, B.; Roman, S.D.; McLaughlin, E.A.

    2012-04-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is an ovotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke associated with pre-mature ovarian failure and decreased rates of conception in IVF patients. Although the overall effect of BaP on female fertility has been documented, the exact molecular mechanisms behind its ovotoxicity remain elusive. In this study we examined the effects of BaP exposure on the ovarian transcriptome, and observed the effects of in vivo exposure on oocyte dysfunction. Microarray analysis of BaP cultured neonatal ovaries revealed a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving a small cohort of genes associated with follicular growth, cell cycle progression, and cell death. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis supported these results, with BaP exposure causing increased primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia in vitro and in vivo. Functional analysis of oocytes obtained from adult Swiss mice treated neonatally revealed significantly increased levels of mitochondrial ROS/lipid peroxidation, and severely reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion in both low (1.5 mg/kg/daily) and high (3 mg/kg/daily) dose treatments. Our results reveal a complex mechanism of BaP induced ovotoxicity involving developing follicle atresia and accelerated primordial follicle activation, and suggest short term neonatal BaP exposure causes mitochondrial leakage resulting in reduced oolemma fluidity and impaired fertilisation in adulthood. This study highlights BaP as a key compound which may be partially responsible for the documented effects of cigarette smoke on follicular development and sub-fertility. -- Highlights: ► BaP exposure up-regulates canonical pathways linked with follicular growth/atresia. ► BaP causes primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia. ► BaP causes oocyte mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation, impairing fertilisation. ► Short term neonatal BaP exposure compromises adult oocyte quality.

  18. Girls, pecking order and smoking.

    PubMed

    Michell, L; Amos, A

    1997-06-01

    Against a background of growing concern about the failure to reduce cigarette smoking amongst young people, particularly girls, this paper attempts to unravel the complex interrelationships between smoking, peer group structure and gender. We were particularly intrigued to explore a recent hypothesis in the literature that suggests that girls who smoke, far from lacking self-esteem, are more self-confident and socially skilled than their non-smoking peers. Sociometric and qualitative analyses revealed that smoking behaviour was indeed shaped by gender, and that the psychosocial processes involved in smoking uptake may be different for boys and than for girls. Peer group structure, consistently described by young people as hierarchical, was closely related to smoking behaviour. Girls at the top of the social pecking order who projected an image of high self-esteem were identified as most likely to smoke, while only a small minority of girls fitted the stereotype of the young female smoker who has poor social skills and low self-esteem. Boys of high social status were less vulnerable, since sport and a desire to be fit to some extent protected them. Our findings raise fundamental questions about the meaning of self-esteem in relation to smoking uptake, arguing instead for an exploration of the term "self-worth". They suggest the need for health education programmes which are sensitive both to gender and to peer group structures.

  19. Urinary and blood cadmium levels in relation to types of food and water intake and smoking status in a Thai population residing in cadmium-contaminated areas in Mae Sot.

    PubMed

    Boonprasert, Kanyarat; Kongjam, Panida; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2011-11-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) produces a wide variety of toxic effects involving many organs and systems, but the kidney is the main organ affected among long-term Cd-exposed people. In the general population, the primary sources of Cd exposure are cigarette smoke and food (shellfish, offal and certain vegetables). The aims of the study were to investigate the association between urinary and blood Cd levels and personal habits relating to Cd intake (consumption of food stuff, water and tobacco smoking), levels of renal biomarkers in the urine or serum of 314 Thai subjects (85 males, 229 females) who resided in Cd-contaminated areas of Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Based on the cut-off levels of 1 microg/g creatinine and 5 microg/l for urinary and blood Cd levels, respectively, nearly all subjects had urinary Cd levels lower than cut-off values for urine and blood (88.2 and 77.7%, respectively). Binary logistic backward stepwise regression analysis with five covariates (gender, residential areas, consumption of bamboo or chicken, and smoking status), and eight covariates (residential areas, consumption of beans, pork, fish or liver, types and sources of rice consumed and smoking status) best predicted urinary and blood Cd levels, respectively. For renal biomarkers, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) best predicted both urinary and blood Cd with good accuracy. A larger sample size with equal distribution of subjects with low (< 2 microg/g creatinine) and high (> 2 microg/g creatinine) urinary Cd levels should be studied to obtain the regression equation that would best predict Cd body burden.

  20. Urinary and blood cadmium levels in relation to types of food and water intake and smoking status in a Thai population residing in cadmium-contaminated areas in Mae Sot.

    PubMed

    Boonprasert, Kanyarat; Kongjam, Panida; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2011-11-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) produces a wide variety of toxic effects involving many organs and systems, but the kidney is the main organ affected among long-term Cd-exposed people. In the general population, the primary sources of Cd exposure are cigarette smoke and food (shellfish, offal and certain vegetables). The aims of the study were to investigate the association between urinary and blood Cd levels and personal habits relating to Cd intake (consumption of food stuff, water and tobacco smoking), levels of renal biomarkers in the urine or serum of 314 Thai subjects (85 males, 229 females) who resided in Cd-contaminated areas of Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Based on the cut-off levels of 1 microg/g creatinine and 5 microg/l for urinary and blood Cd levels, respectively, nearly all subjects had urinary Cd levels lower than cut-off values for urine and blood (88.2 and 77.7%, respectively). Binary logistic backward stepwise regression analysis with five covariates (gender, residential areas, consumption of bamboo or chicken, and smoking status), and eight covariates (residential areas, consumption of beans, pork, fish or liver, types and sources of rice consumed and smoking status) best predicted urinary and blood Cd levels, respectively. For renal biomarkers, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) best predicted both urinary and blood Cd with good accuracy. A larger sample size with equal distribution of subjects with low (< 2 microg/g creatinine) and high (> 2 microg/g creatinine) urinary Cd levels should be studied to obtain the regression equation that would best predict Cd body burden. PMID:22299424

  1. Cigarette smoke extract-induced p120-mediated NF-κB activation in human epithelial cells is dependent on the RhoA/ROCK pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Qin, Shenghui; Qin, Lingzhi; Liu, Liwei; Sun, Wenjia; Li, Xiyu; Li, Naping; Wu, Renliang; Wang, Xi

    2016-09-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the underlying molecular inflammatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previous studies have found that smoke disrupts cell-cell adhesion by inducing epithelial barrier damage to the adherens junction proteins, primarily E-cadherin (E-cad) and p120-catenin (p120). Recently, the anti-inflammatory role of p120 has drawn increasing attention. In this study, we demonstrate that p120 has a role in the cigarette smoke extract-induced inflammatory response, presumably by regulating NF-κB signaling activation. Mechanistically, we show that p120-mediated NF-κB signaling activation in airway epithelial inflammation is partially RhoA dependent and is independent of E-cad. These results provide novel evidence for the role of p120 in the anti-inflammatory response.

  2. Cigarette smoke extract-induced p120-mediated NF-κB activation in human epithelial cells is dependent on the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Qin, Shenghui; Qin, Lingzhi; Liu, Liwei; Sun, Wenjia; Li, Xiyu; Li, Naping; Wu, Renliang; Wang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the underlying molecular inflammatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previous studies have found that smoke disrupts cell-cell adhesion by inducing epithelial barrier damage to the adherens junction proteins, primarily E-cadherin (E-cad) and p120-catenin (p120). Recently, the anti-inflammatory role of p120 has drawn increasing attention. In this study, we demonstrate that p120 has a role in the cigarette smoke extract-induced inflammatory response, presumably by regulating NF-κB signaling activation. Mechanistically, we show that p120-mediated NF-κB signaling activation in airway epithelial inflammation is partially RhoA dependent and is independent of E-cad. These results provide novel evidence for the role of p120 in the anti-inflammatory response. PMID:27586697

  3. Cigarette smoke extract-induced p120-mediated NF-κB activation in human epithelial cells is dependent on the RhoA/ROCK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Qin, Shenghui; Qin, Lingzhi; Liu, Liwei; Sun, Wenjia; Li, Xiyu; Li, Naping; Wu, Renliang; Wang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the underlying molecular inflammatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previous studies have found that smoke disrupts cell-cell adhesion by inducing epithelial barrier damage to the adherens junction proteins, primarily E-cadherin (E-cad) and p120-catenin (p120). Recently, the anti-inflammatory role of p120 has drawn increasing attention. In this study, we demonstrate that p120 has a role in the cigarette smoke extract-induced inflammatory response, presumably by regulating NF-κB signaling activation. Mechanistically, we show that p120-mediated NF-κB signaling activation in airway epithelial inflammation is partially RhoA dependent and is independent of E-cad. These results provide novel evidence for the role of p120 in the anti-inflammatory response. PMID:27586697

  4. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Following Rape

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Minhinnett, Robin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Although prior research has identified increases in cigarette smoking following trauma exposure, no studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of smoking following rape. The present investigation identifies and characterizes longitudinal (< 3 months, 3-6 months, and > 6 months post-assault) trajectories of smoking (N = 152) following a rape in a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in a forensic medical exam. Further, we examine acute predictors of subsequent smoking trajectories. Of participants endorsing smoking post-rape, a two-class solution was identified, with the majority of participants (74.6%) evidencing moderate smoking with a slight decrease over time and remaining participants showing heavy smoking with a slight increase over time. Having sustained an injury, minority status, and post-exam distress all predicted subsequent smoking trajectory. PMID:19370699

  5. Surgical smoke.

    PubMed

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown. PMID:19892630

  6. Metabolic activation of organic extracts from diesel, coke oven, roofing tar, and cigarette smoke emissions in the Ames assay

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.; Lewtas, J.

    1985-01-01

    The role of metabolic activation in the difference between a microbial and mammalian bioassays in the ranking of genotoxic potency of several environmental emissions was investigated. Although the relative potency in the Ames assay correlated well with the relative potency in mammalian cell and mouse skin for a series of automotive emissions (diesel and gasoline), this was not the case for the coke oven, roofing tar, and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) emissions. The study examined several parameters of the metabolic activation with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 including S9 concentration and a comparison of Aroclor-1254 induced with uninduced S9 from both rat and hamster liver. The diesel-emissions sample was direct acting while the other samples required activation. The standard S9 concentration (approximately 1.25 mg protein/plate) also produced the maximum mutagenic activity. Induced S9s produced higher mutagenic activity than uninduced. The hamster S9 gave significantly higher mutagenic activies than rat S9 for the coke oven and CSC.

  7. Jumping the gun: smoking constituent BaP causes premature primordial follicle activation and impairs oocyte fusibility through oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sobinoff, A P; Pye, V; Nixon, B; Roman, S D; McLaughlin, E A

    2012-04-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is an ovotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke associated with pre-mature ovarian failure and decreased rates of conception in IVF patients. Although the overall effect of BaP on female fertility has been documented, the exact molecular mechanisms behind its ovotoxicity remain elusive. In this study we examined the effects of BaP exposure on the ovarian transcriptome, and observed the effects of in vivo exposure on oocyte dysfunction. Microarray analysis of BaP cultured neonatal ovaries revealed a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving a small cohort of genes associated with follicular growth, cell cycle progression, and cell death. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis supported these results, with BaP exposure causing increased primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia in vitro and in vivo. Functional analysis of oocytes obtained from adult Swiss mice treated neonatally revealed significantly increased levels of mitochondrial ROS/lipid peroxidation, and severely reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion in both low (1.5mg/kg/daily) and high (3mg/kg/daily) dose treatments. Our results reveal a complex mechanism of BaP induced ovotoxicity involving developing follicle atresia and accelerated primordial follicle activation, and suggest short term neonatal BaP exposure causes mitochondrial leakage resulting in reduced oolemma fluidity and impaired fertilisation in adulthood. This study highlights BaP as a key compound which may be partially responsible for the documented effects of cigarette smoke on follicular development and sub-fertility.

  8. Active or Passive Exposure to Tobacco Smoking and Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Dermatitis, and Food Allergy in Adults and Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saulyte, Jurgita; Regueira, Carlos; Montes-Martínez, Agustín; Khudyakov, Polyna; Takkouche, Bahi

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases, especially among children, and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for an association between active smoking (AS) or passive exposure to secondhand smoke and allergic conditions. Methods and Findings We retrieved studies published in any language up to June 30th, 2013 by systematically searching Medline, Embase, the five regional bibliographic databases of the World Health Organization, and ISI-Proceedings databases, by manually examining the references of the original articles and reviews retrieved, and by establishing personal contact with clinical researchers. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) estimates and confidence intervals of smoking and allergic conditions, first among the general population and then among children. We retrieved 97 studies on allergic rhinitis, 91 on allergic dermatitis, and eight on food allergy published in 139 different articles. When all studies were analyzed together (showing random effects model results and pooled ORs expressed as RR), allergic rhinitis was not associated with active smoking (pooled RR, 1.02 [95% CI 0.92–1.15]), but was associated with passive smoking (pooled RR 1.10 [95% CI 1.06–1.15]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with both active (pooled RR, 1.21 [95% CI 1.14–1.29]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.07 [95% CI 1.03–1.12]). In children and adolescent, allergic rhinitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.40 (95% CI 1.24–1.59) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.09 [95% CI 1.04–1.14]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.36 [95% CI 1.17–1.46]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.06 [95% CI 1.01–1

  9. [Smoking among nursing students].

    PubMed

    Kolleck, Bernd

    2004-04-01

    Smoking as a major public-health concern is still a widespread habit among nurses and young students of nursing. The hypothesis however, that professional environment positively influences smoking habit, could not be supported: smoking is less influenced by vocational training and practice than by the social environment of the students. The results of the survey also show, that a great part of the smokers have a critical attitude towards their habit and would agree to counteractions. Nursing schools could play an important role therein. The conception of nursing as a responsible health profession would demand to take over a more active part in considering the consequences, in smoking prevention and in supporting cessation. PMID:15137673

  10. Cigarette smoking contagion.

    PubMed

    Einstein, S; Epstein, A

    1980-01-01

    A ministudy was carried out with 50 male and female adults who are "regular" cigarette smokers to investigate the potential role(s) which contagion plays in smoking. Notwithstanding their reports that they were introduced to smoking by others 40% of the time, only 12% reported-remembered initiating someone else to smoking. The report of self-activated cigarette use is congruent with with most views about smoking, but not regarding drug use. As long as drug use intervention utilizes contagion as a concept, deviance as a classification and varieties of isolation as control techniques will be associated with drugs, users, and drug use. By definition, social substances have no source of contagion by others. The decision to use or abstain is viewed as being personal notwithstanding the reality that is related among other factors to a variety of market economies. PMID:7450935

  11. How Do Friends Influence Smoking Uptake? Findings from Qualitative Interviews with Identical Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Kim; White, Victoria; Mullins, Robyn; Davey, Claire; Wakefield, Melanie; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    The smoking behavior of friends is a major risk factor for adolescent smoking uptake. To explore the social context of smoking experimentation and consolidation with a particular focus on friends, the authors interviewed both members of 14 young adult identical twin pairs who were discordant for smoking. The different smoking status of twins was…

  12. Tobacco smoking, epilepsy, and seizures.

    PubMed

    Rong, Lingling; Frontera, Alfred T; Benbadis, Selim R

    2014-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered the greatest risk factor for death caused by noncommunicable diseases. In contrast to extensive research on the association between tobacco smoking and diseases such as heart attack, stroke, and cancers, studies on the association between tobacco smoking and seizures or epilepsy are insufficient. The exact roles tobacco smoking and nicotine use play in seizures or epilepsy have not been well reviewed. We reviewed available literature and found that 1) there are vast differences between tobacco smoke and nicotine based on their components and their effects on seizures or epilepsy; 2) the seizure risk in acute active tobacco smokers, women who smoke during pregnancy, electronic cigarette smokers, and the role of smoking in sudden unexplained/unexpected death in epilepsy remain unclear; 3) seizure risks are higher in acute secondhand smokers, chronic active smokers, and babies whose mothers smoke; 4) tobacco smoke protects against seizures in animal models whereas nicotine exerts mixed effects in animals; and 5) tobacco smoking agents can be noneffective, proconvulsant, or anticonvulsant. Finally, the opportunities for future research on this topic is discussed.

  13. The association of individual and neighborhood social cohesion, stressors, and crime on smoking status among African-American women in southeastern US subsidized housing neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jeannette O; Mueller, Martina; Newman, Susan D; Magwood, Gayenell; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; White, Kellee; Tingen, Martha S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between individual and neighborhood social contextual factors and smoking prevalence among African-American women in subsidized neighborhoods. We randomly sampled 663 adult women in 17 subsidized neighborhoods in two Southeastern US states. The smoking prevalence among participants was 37.6%, with an estimated neighborhood household prevalence ranging from 30 to 68%. Smokers were more likely to be older, have lower incomes, have lower BMI, and live with other smokers. Women with high social cohesion were less likely to smoke, although living in neighborhoods with higher social cohesion was not associated with smoking prevalence. Women with higher social cohesion were more likely to be older and had lived in the neighborhood longer. Women with high stress (related to violence and disorder) and who lived in neighborhoods with higher stress were more likely to smoke. Younger women were more likely to have higher stress than older women. There were no statistically significant associations with objective neighborhood crime data in any model. This is the first study to examine both individual and neighborhood social contextual correlates among African-American women in subsidized neighborhoods. This study extends findings about smoking behaviors and neighborhood social contexts in this high-risk, urban population. Future research is needed to explore age and residential stability differences and perceptions of social cohesion, neighborhood disorder, and perceived violence in subsidized housing. Further research is also warranted on African-American women, subsidized housing, smoking, social context, health disparities' effective strategies to address these individual and contextual factors to better inform future ecological-based multilevel prevention, and cessation intervention strategies.

  14. Parenting practices and adolescent smoking in mainland China: the mediating effect of smoking-related cognitions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect associations of general and smoking-specific parenting practices with Chinese adolescents' smoking behaviors. Adolescents aged 14-17 years (N = 658) and their parents were recruited from three high schools in mainland China. Adolescents completed an anonymous online survey on their smoking behaviors, perceptions of parenting behaviors, and smoking-related cognitions including attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Parents completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire on their parenting behaviors. Results indicated that psychological control and frequency of communication about smoking were positively linked to adolescent smoking through the mediation of two smoking-related cognitions-attitude and subjective norm. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities, disapproval of adolescent smoking, and home rules were negatively linked to adolescent smoking through the mediation of attitude and subjective norm. Results suggest that parenting practices and smoking-related cognitions are critical components to be incorporated in prevention and intervention programs for adolescent smoking in China.

  15. [Passive smoking].

    PubMed

    Grandjean, E; Weber, A; Fischer, T

    1979-03-01

    Passive smoking is the involuntary inspiration of smoky indoor air. Based on the information available today, it may be assumed that passive smoking normally is no health hazard as far as the classical smoker's diseases (lung cancer, myocardial infarct, etc.) are concerned. Nevertheless, it is probable that irritations caused by tobacco smoke have an unfavorable influence on the health of small children and that of already sick persons. The main problem of passive smoking is annoyance due to odor and irritations of eyes and respiratory organs. Our investigations in a climatic chamber with healthy subjects show that air pollution caused by tobacco smoke as indicated by 5 ppm CO leads to marked eye irritations--objectively as well as subjectively--in 15 to 20% of the subjects. This corresponds to smoking 10 cigarettes per hour in a small room with an air ventilation rate of four times per hour. If air pollution caused by tobacco smoke lies below the level of 2 ppm CO, irritations and annoyance for healthy persons are regarded as low and tolerable. This corresponds to about four cigarettes per hour under the same circumstances.

  16. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Financial Status Report) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Financial Status Report) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0165.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Financial Status Report... Management, Department of Veterans Affairs, has submitted the collection of information abstracted below...

  17. 77 FR 38650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status, OMB Control Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee... Services Statistical Data for Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status; OMB Control No.1615-0070. The Department of.../Collection: Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component...

  18. Idle Hands and Empty Pockets?: Youth Involvement in Extracurricular Activities, Social Capital, and Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Amanda M.; Gager, Constance T.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Survey of Adults and Youth, the authors examine the effect of economic status on youths' involvement in both school- and nonschool-related extracurricular activities. Specifically, they assess the association between four alternative measures of economic status--recipiency of food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent…

  19. 75 FR 80114 - Agency Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Title: Status of Dependents Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0538. OMB Control Number: 2900-0500....

  20. 75 FR 26346 - Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...: Marital Status Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number: 2900-0495. Type of Review: Extension...

  1. 75 FR 10027 - Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY.... Title: Marital Status Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number: 2900-0495. Type of...

  2. Measured Effect of Sexual Activities, Alcohol Consumption, Smoking and Aggression on Health Risk of Students in Rural Communities in Ikenne, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…

  3. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Onscreen Smoking Is a Form of Tobacco Marketing Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents’ exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE) for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies. Effect of Smoking in Movies on New Zealand Youth Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents’ likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05). The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18) with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand’s smokefree 2025 goal. PMID:26960189

  4. See Me Smoke-Free: Protocol for a Research Study to Develop and Test the Feasibility of an mHealth App for Women to Address Smoking, Diet, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Thienne; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper presents the protocol for an ongoing research study to develop and test the feasibility of a multi-behavioral mHealth app. Approximately 27 million women smoke in the US, and more than 180,000 women die of illnesses linked to smoking annually. Women report greater difficulties quitting smoking. Concerns about weight gain, negative body image, and low self-efficacy may be key factors affecting smoking cessation among women. Recent studies suggest that a multi-behavioral approach, including diet and physical activity, may be more effective at helping women quit. Guided imagery has been successfully used to address body image concerns and self-efficacy in our 3 target behaviors—exercise, diet and smoking cessation. However, it has not been used simultaneously for smoking, diet, and exercise behavior in a single intervention. While imagery is an effective therapeutic tool for behavior change, the mode of delivery has generally been in person, which limits reach. mHealth apps delivered via smart phones offer a unique channel through which to distribute imagery-based interventions. Objective The objective of our study is to evaluate the feasibility of an mHealth app for women designed to simultaneously address smoking, diet, and physical activity behaviors. The objectives are supported by three specific aims: (1) develop guided imagery content, user interface, and resources to reduce weight concern, and increase body image and self-efficacy for behavior change among women smokers, (2) program a prototype of the app that contains all the necessary elements of text, graphics, multimedia and interactive features, and (3) evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the app with women smokers. Methods We created the program content and designed the prototype application for use on the Android platform in collaboration with 9 participants in multiple focus groups and in-depth interviews. We programmed and tested the application

  5. The Effect of Habitual Smoking on VO2max

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Suminski, Richard R.; Poston, Walker S.; Randles, Anthony M.; Arenare, Brian; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    VO2max is associated with many factors, including age, gender, physical activity, and body composition. It is popularly believed that habitual smoking lowers aerobic fitness. PURPOSE: to determine the effect of habitual smoking on VO2max after controlling for age, gender, activity and BMI. METHODS: 2374 men and 375 women employed at the NASA/Johnson Space Center were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER>=1.1), activity by the 11 point (0-10) NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS), BMI and smoking pack-yrs (packs day*y of smoking). Age was recorded in years and gender was coded as M=1, W=0. Pack.y was made a categorical variable consisting of four levels as follows: Never Smoked (0), Light (1-10), Regular (11-20), Heavy (>20). Group differences were verified by ANOVA. A General Linear Models (GLM) was used to develop two models to examine the relationship of smoking behavior on VO2max. GLM #1(without smoking) determined the combined effects of age, gender, PASS and BMI on VO2max. GLM #2 (with smoking) determined the added effects of smoking (pack.y groupings) on VO2max after controlling for age, gender, PASS and BMI. Constant errors (CE) were calculated to compare the accuracy of the two models for estimating the VO2max of the smoking subgroups. RESULTS: ANOVA affirmed the mean VO2max of each pack.y grouping decreased significantly (p<0.01) as the level of smoking exposure increased. GLM #1 showed that age, gender, PASS and BMI were independently related with VO2max (R2 = 0.642, SEE = 4.90, p<0.001). The added pack.y variables in GLM #2 were statistically significant (R2 change = 0.7%, p<0.01). Post hoc analysis showed that compared to Never Smoked, the effects on VO2max from Light and Regular smoking habits were -0.83 and -0.85 ml.kg- 1.min-1 respectively (p<0.05). The effect of Heavy smoking on VO2max was -2.56 ml.kg- 1.min-1 (p<0.001). The CE s of each smoking group in GLM #2 was smaller than the CE s of the smoking group counterparts in GLM #1

  6. The brain activations for both cue-induced gaming urge and smoking craving among subjects comorbid with Internet gaming addiction and nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Chen

    2013-04-01

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA) has been classified as an addictive disorder in the proposed DSM 5 draft. However, whether its underlying addiction mechanism is similar to other substance use disorders has not been confirmed. The present functional magnetic resonance images study is aimed at evaluating the brain correlates of cue-induced gaming urge or smoking craving in subjects with both IGA and nicotine dependence to make a simultaneous comparison of cue induced brain reactivity for gaming and smoking. For this purpose, 16 subjects with both IGA and nicotine dependence (comorbid group) and 16 controls were recruited from the community. All subjects were made to undergo 3-T fMRIs scans while viewing images associated with online games, smoking, and neutral images, which were arranged according to an event-related design. The resultant image data was analyzed with full factorial and conjunction analysis of SPM5. The results demonstrate that anterior cingulate, and parahippocampus activates higher for both cue-induced gaming urge and smoking craving among the comorbid group in comparison to the control group. The conjunction analysis demonstrates that bilateral parahippocampal gyrus activates to a greater degree for both gaming urge and smoking craving among the comorbid group in comparison to the control group. Accordingly, the study demonstrates that both IGA and nicotine dependence share similar mechanisms of cue-induced reactivity over the fronto-limbic network, particularly for the parahippocampus. The results support that the context representation provided by the parahippocampus is a key mechanism for not only cue-induced smoking craving, but also for cue-induced gaming urge.

  7. Status of LHC crab activity simulations and beam studies

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga,R.; Assman, R.; Barranco, J.; Barranco, J.; Calaga, R.; Caspers, F.; Ciapala, E.; De-Maria, R.; Koutchouk, J. P.; Linnecar, T.; Metral, E.; Morita, A.; Solyak, N.; Sun, Y.; Tomas, R.; Tuckmantel, J.; Weiler, T.; Zimmermann, F.

    2009-05-04

    The LHC crab cavity program is advancing rapidly towards a first prototype which is anticipated to be tested during the early stages of the LHC phase I upgrade and commissioning. The general project status and some aspects related to crab optics, collimation, aperture constraints, impedances, noise effects. beam transparency and machine protection critical for a safe and robust operation of LHC beams with crab cavities are addressed here.

  8. Physical activity and nutritional status of children of low socioeconomic status. Two interrelated problems: undernutrition and overweight.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; de Faria, Ricardo Campos; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the level of habitual physical activity (HPA) and nutritional status of children attending selected public schools in Brazil. The sample comprised 1719 participants who ranged in age from 11 to 14 yrs with 861 females (F) aged 12.7+/-1.0 yr and 858 males (M) aged 12.7+/-1.0 yr. The short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure HPA. Nutritional status was assessed using the body mass index (BMI). Statistical analyses included ANOVA followed by the post-hoc Tukey-test (P<0.05) which showed a statistically significant difference between M and F in time spent in moderate intensity physical activity. F completed more moderate intensity physical activity than M whereas time in vigorous physical activities was higher in M than F. Analyses of BMI and IPAQ categorical score using Pearson product moment correlations with subsequent Fisher Z transformation showed values of Z = 0.49 for females and Z = 0.44 for males, indicating a low relationship between these variables. HPA levels showed 93.7% of the M and 91.1% of the F were at least minimally active. According to BMI values, 7.3% of the cohort was underweight; 83.0% normal weight; 8.3% overweight and 1.3% obese. These results demand attention, particularly for children at the lower end of nutritional status and HPA levels due to the potential negative impact on their growth and development. At the other end of the nutritional spectrum, one needs to be concerned regarding the levels of excess body weight, mainly considering the poor region in which the children live.

  9. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients' access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre-post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy's smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  10. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients’ access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre–post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy’s smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  11. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  12. Japan Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     View larger image ... northeastern Japan at 2:46 p.m. local time on March 11, 2011, and its subsequent tsunami, several oil refineries and industrial ...

  13. 78 FR 46422 - Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request... of Dependents Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0538. OMB Control Number: 2900-0500. Type of...

  14. Quitting smoking.

    PubMed

    Tunstall, C D; Ginsberg, D; Hall, S M

    1985-01-01

    Four factors which influence smoking treatment outcome are identified: environmental variables, client characteristics, process variables, and specific treatment approaches. Important environmental factors are stress and social support. Of client characteristics, sex is the best predictor of treatment success. Men are more likely to quit and maintain abstinence than women. However, the majority of women alter their smoking habits during pregnancy. Low-income persons and ethnic minorities are underrepresented among subjects in treatment studies and have larger percentages of smokers in the population at large. Extraverted smokers are more likely to begin to smoke and have difficulty quitting. Also, the more anxious, poorly adjusted smoker has more trouble quitting than the less troubled smoker. The higher the client's sense of self-efficacy, the better the chance of that person entering treatment and doing well. Furthermore, smokers who take in lower levels of nicotine are more successful at quitting. Many process questions are suggested. Few have been approached empirically. The effectiveness of ex-smokers as therapists in smoking cessation programs has not been systematically investigated, even though the smoking history of therapists is a question frequently asked by clients. We suggest that the skill and empathy of group leaders is more important than smoking history. Smoking therapists should be aware of nonspecific treatment factors such as positive expectations, social reinforcement, and self-disclosure which may have a powerful influence on the efficacy of smoking treatment. Specific treatment approaches were classified into three categories: low-contact approaches, including educational, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches; psychological treatments; and pharmacological treatment. Education, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches are thought to be accretively effective when the large size of the audience is considered. Also, innovative

  15. Social Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy. PMID:19589449

  16. Seizures, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block as endogenous brain activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Houssaini, Kenza; Ivanov, Anton I.; Bernard, Christophe; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block are pathological brain activities whose mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a generic mathematical model of seizure activity, we show that these activities coexist under certain conditions spanning the range of possible brain activities. We perform a detailed bifurcation analysis and predict strategies to escape from some of the pathological states. Experimental results using rodent data provide support of the model, highlighting the concept that these pathological activities belong to the endogenous repertoire of brain activities.

  17. P2X7 receptor and caspase 1 activation are central to airway inflammation observed after exposure to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Eltom, Suffwan; Stevenson, Christopher S; Rastrick, Joseph; Dale, Nicole; Raemdonck, Kristof; Wong, Sissie; Catley, Matthew C; Belvisi, Maria G; Birrell, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a cigarette smoke (CS)-driven inflammatory airway disease with an increasing global prevalence. Currently there is no effective medication to stop the relentless progression of this disease. It has recently been shown that an activator of the P2X7/inflammasome pathway, ATP, and the resultant products (IL-1β/IL-18) are increased in COPD patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether activation of the P2X7/caspase 1 pathway has a functional role in CS-induced airway inflammation. Mice were exposed to CS twice a day to induce COPD-like inflammation and the role of the P2X7 receptor was investigated. We have demonstrated that CS-induced neutrophilia in a pre-clinical model is temporally associated with markers of inflammasome activation, (increased caspase 1 activity and release of IL-1β/IL-18) in the lungs. A selective P2X7 receptor antagonist and mice genetically modified so that the P2X7 receptors were non-functional attenuated caspase 1 activation, IL-1β release and airway neutrophilia. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the role of this pathway was not restricted to early stages of disease development by showing increased caspase 1 activation in lungs from a more chronic exposure to CS and from patients with COPD. This translational data suggests the P2X7/Inflammasome pathway plays an ongoing role in disease pathogenesis. These results advocate the critical role of the P2X7/caspase 1 axis in CS-induced inflammation, highlighting this as a possible therapeutic target in combating COPD. PMID:21915284

  18. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  19. Cigarette smoking leads to persistent and dose-dependent alterations of brain activity and connectivity in anterior insula and anterior cingulate.

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur L; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Kopel, Rotem; Emmert, Kirsten; Preti, Maria Giulia; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Haller, Sven

    2015-11-01

    Although many smokers try to quit smoking, only about 20-25 percent will achieve abstinence despite 6 months or more of gold-standard treatment. This low success rate suggests long-term changes in the brain related to smoking, which remain poorly understood. We compared ex-smokers to both active smokers and non-smokers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore persistent modifications in brain activity and network organization. This prospective and consecutive study includes 18 non-smokers (29.5 ± 6.7 years of age, 11 women), 14 smokers (≥10 cigarettes a day >2 years of smoking, 29.3 ± 6.0 years of age, 10 women) and 14 ex-smokers (>1 year of quitting 30.5 ± 5.7 years of age, 10 women). Participants underwent a block-design fMRI study contrasting smoking cue with control (neutral cue) videos. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, seed-based functional connectivity, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray matter and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) of white matter. Smoking cue videos versus control videos activated the right anterior insula in ex-smokers compared with smokers, an effect correlating with cumulative nicotine intake (pack-years). Moreover, ex-smokers had a persistent decrease in functional connectivity between right anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) compared with control participants, but similar to active smokers. Potentially confounding alterations in gray or white matter were excluded in VBM and TBSS analyses. In summary, ex-smokers with long-term nicotine abstinence have persistent and dose-dependent brain network changes notably in the right anterior insula and its connection to the ACC.

  20. Exploring Links to Unorganized and Organized Physical Activity during Adolescence: The Role of Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Weight Status, and Enjoyment of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Ahmed, Rashid; Farnoush, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    There is limited research on participation context in studies of physical activity correlates during adolescence. Using an ecological approach, this study explored the association of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), weight status, and physical education enjoyment with participation in organized and unorganized physical activity contexts in a…

  1. Neurobehavioral effects of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Benignus, V.A.

    1987-05-01

    In order to try to predict effects of environmental tobacco smoke, neurobehavioral effects of mainstream smoke were reviewed and, in conjunction with what is known about body uptake of components of environmental tobacco smoke, conjectures were made about the probable effect of environmental tobacco smoke. Effects of mainstream smoke differ in smokers and nonsmokers. Mainstream smoke has a beneficial effect on vigilance in habitual smokers. The effect in nonsmokers is less clear and may be disruptive. In both smokers and nonsmokers mainstream smoke produces increased tremor and reduced fine motor skills. The neurobehaviorally active substances in mainstream smoke appear to be nicotine and carbon monoxide. It appears that COHb is the more important consequence of environmental tobacco smoke for neurobehavioral effects, since nicotine levels in nonsmokers only reach a small fraction of those in smokers.

  2. [The relationship between passive smoking, breast cancer risk and n-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2)].

    PubMed

    Avraham, Zipora; Baron-Epel, Orna; Boker, Lital Keinan

    2014-01-01

    Invasive breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality as well as the most common malignancy among Israeli women. Over 3,800 Israeli women are diagnosed with invasive breast cancer every year and around 3400 women are diagnosed with breast carcinoma in-situ. Although smoking, either active or passive, is a controversial risk factor for breast cancer, cigarette smoking involves exposure to substrates of the NAT2 gene. The NAT2 genotype may modify the risk of cancer by activating or detoxifying heterocyclic and aromatic amines. Identification of a potential, modifiable risk factor for common and serious disease is very important for prevention and identification of high risk groups. This literature review aims to describe published studies and increase attention to measures of exposure to tobacco smoke, as well as to aspects of the NAT2 genotype that may modify the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk. The results suggest that the NAT2 status has a differential effect on the association of active and passive smoking with breast cancer and demonstrates the need to consider possible different mechanisms associated with exposure to main and side-stream tobacco smoke. However, methodological limitations, such as small sample size, and varying definitions of smoking, are likely to have contributed to the inconsistent findings. PMID:24791559

  3. Activity of α1-Antitrypsin and Some Lysosomal Enzymes in the Blood Serum of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease after Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Bartosz; Woźniak, Alina; Konca, Jacek; Górecki, Dariusz; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szpinda, Michał; Sutkowy, Paweł; Wesołowski, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The activity of α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and the lysosomal enzymes, cathepsin D (CTS D), arylsulfatase (ASA), and acid phosphatase, (AcP) was determined in patients with COPD (GOLD category A). Moreover, the diagnostic usefulness of these parameters in blood serum was assessed along with establishing whether smoking cessation affects these parameters. The study included 70 patients with COPD who ceased smoking (study group) and two control groups of 33 subjects each: nonsmokers without COPD (control I) and patients with COPD who continued smoking (control II). In control I, blood was taken once and in control II, at the start of the experiment and after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd months. AAT in the patients exhibited higher activity than in the healthy subjects at all time points. AAT activity in the patients before the start of the experiment was ~80% higher (P < 0.001) than in control I. No statistically significant differences in CTS D, ASA, and AcP activity were found. COPD involves increased AAT activity and unchanged activities of the assessed lysosomal enzymes. Three-month tobacco abstinence does not affect these parameters in peripheral blood. Determining the AAT levels in blood serum can be used in the diagnostics of COPD. PMID:25802837

  4. DDE-MITR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; J.D. Wiest; J.W. Nielsen; G.A. Roth; S.D. Snow

    2012-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (DDE-MITR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the MITR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in the Advanced Test Reactor center flux trap. At the time this report was prepared the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. As such, the conceptual design effort to date is summarized herein in order to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. These demonstrate that the DDE-MITR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also exhibits several challenges for which timely resolution is recommend in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign and ultimate conversion of the MITR.

  5. DDE-MURR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; M.H. Sprenger; G.K. Housley

    2012-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (DDE-MURR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the MURR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in a 200mm channel at the Belgium Reactor 2. At the time this report was prepared the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. As such, the conceptual design effort to date is summarized herein in order to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. These demonstrate that the DDE-MURR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also exhibits several challenges for which timely resolution is recommend in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign and ultimate conversion of the MURR.

  6. DDE-NBSR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; B.P. Durtschi; C.R. Glass; G.A. Roth; D.T. Clark

    2012-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the National Bureau of Standard Reactor (DDE-NBSR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the NBSR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in the Advanced Test Reactor center flux trap. At the time this report was prepared the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. As such, the conceptual design effort to date is summarized herein in order to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. These demonstrate that the DDE-NBSR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also exhibits several challenges for which timely resolution is recommend in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign and ultimate conversion of the NBSR.

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of Antiviral Signature Genes in Porcine Macrophages at Different Activation Statuses

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Yongming; Brichalli, Wyatt; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Blecha, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages (MФs) can be polarized to various activation statuses, including classical (M1), alternative (M2), and antiviral states. To study the antiviral activation status of porcine MФs during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, we used RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) for transcriptomic analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation showed that our RNA-Seq data met the criteria for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. Comparisons of any two activation statuses revealed more than 20,000 DEGs that were normalized to filter out 153–5,303 significant DEGs [false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.001, fold change ≥2] in each comparison. The highest 5,303 significant DEGs were found between lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) and interferon (IFN)γ-stimulated M1 cells, whereas only 153 significant DEGs were detected between interleukin (IL)-10-polarized M2 cells and control mock-activated cells. To identify signature genes for antiviral regulation pertaining to each activation status, we identified a set of DEGs that showed significant up-regulation in only one activation state. In addition, pathway analyses defined the top 20–50 significantly regulated pathways at each activation status, and we further analyzed DEGs pertinent to pathways mediated by AMP kinase (AMPK) and epigenetic mechanisms. For the first time in porcine macrophages, our transcriptomic analyses not only compared family-wide differential expression of most known immune genes at different activation statuses, but also revealed transcription evidence of multiple gene families. These findings show that using RNA-Seq transcriptomic analyses in virus-infected and status-synchronized macrophages effectively profiled signature genes and gene response pathways for antiviral regulation, which may provide a framework for optimizing antiviral immunity and immune homeostasis. PMID:24505295

  8. Characterizing Internet Searchers of Smoking Cessation Information

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L

    2006-01-01

    Background The Internet is a viable channel to deliver evidence-based smoking cessation treatment that has the potential to make a large population impact on reducing smoking prevalence. There is high demand for smoking cessation information and support on the Internet. Approximately 7% (10.2 million) of adult American Internet users have searched for information on quitting smoking. Little is known about these individuals, their smoking status, what type of cessation services they are seeking on the Internet, or how frequently these searches for cessation information are conducted. Objective The primary goal of this study was to characterize individuals who search for smoking cessation information on the Internet to determine appropriate triage and treatment strategies. The secondary goal was to estimate the incidence of searches for cessation information using publicly available search engine data. Methods We recruited individuals who clicked on a link to a leading smoking cessation website (QuitNet) from within the results of a search engine query. Individuals were “intercepted” before seeing the QuitNet home page and were invited to participate in the study. Those accepting the invitation were routed to an online survey about demographics, smoking characteristics, preferences for specific cessation services, and Internet search patterns. To determine the generalizability of our sample, national datasets on search engine usage patterns, market share, and keyword rankings were examined. These datasets were then used to estimate the number of queries for smoking cessation information each year. Results During the 10-day study period, 2265 individuals were recruited and 29% (N = 655) responded. Of these, 59% were female and overall tended to be younger than the previously characterized general Internet population. Most (76%) respondents were current smokers; 17% had quit within the last 7 days, and 7% had quit more than 7 days ago. Slightly more than half of

  9. Smoking in Teenagers: Some Psychological Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooreman, J.; Perdrizet, S.

    1980-01-01

    The influences of home and school environment on teenage smoking were assessed according to sex differences, age differences, influence of adults, socioeconomic status, and coeducation v same sex grouping. (Author/DB)

  10. Activation of respiratory epithelial cells by wood smoke particles persists beyond immediate exposure.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological effect of particles on epithelial cells involves, in part, oxidant generation and a cascade of reactions culminating in inflammatory mediator release. Whether there is an immediate short-lived activation or continued persistent response of the cells to the particle...

  11. The ADHD Spectrum and Everyday Life: Experience Sampling of Adolescent Moods, Activities, Smoking, and Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; Jamner, Larry D.; Henker, Barbara; Delfino, Ralph J.; Lozano, Jorie M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the everyday lives of adolescents with low, middle, or high levels of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as assessed by either parent or teen. Found that adolescents with high ADHD levels recorded more negative moods, lower alertness, more entertaining activities relative to achievement-oriented pursuits, more time with…

  12. Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Robert D.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M.

    2016-08-01

    The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events.

  13. Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought.

    PubMed

    Field, Robert D; van der Werf, Guido R; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M

    2016-08-16

    The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events. PMID:27482096

  14. Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought.

    PubMed

    Field, Robert D; van der Werf, Guido R; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M

    2016-08-16

    The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events.

  15. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  16. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  17. Secondhand smoke exposure, indoor smoking bans and smoking-related knowledge in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Wang, Ling; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K

    2014-12-01

    Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2) the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3) geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations,and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China.Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high,particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.

  18. Secondhand smoke exposure, indoor smoking bans and smoking-related knowledge in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Wang, Ling; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2) the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3) geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places. PMID:25514143

  19. Secondhand smoke exposure, indoor smoking bans and smoking-related knowledge in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Wang, Ling; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K

    2014-12-01

    Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2) the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3) geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations,and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China.Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high,particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places. PMID:25587607

  20. Secondhand smoke exposure, indoor smoking bans and smoking-related knowledge in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Wang, Ling; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K

    2014-12-11

    Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2) the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3) geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.

  1. Infrared spectroscopy study of the influence of inhaled vapors/smoke produced by cigarettes of active smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    While much is known about the effect of smoke and vapors on the composition of blood, little is known about their impact on the composition of breath. When tobacco from traditional cigarettes (T) is burned, it produces harmful smoke compared with the vapor produced when using electronic cigarettes (E). Using a noninvasive, safe, and rapid CO2 laser-photoacoustic method, this study aimed to examine the ethylene changes at different time intervals in the exhaled breath composition of E-cigarette smokers and T-cigarette smokers, before and after the consecutive exposures to cigarettes. Oxidative stress from exposure to tobacco smoke has a role in the pathogenic process, leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evidence on the mechanisms by which T-smoking causes damage indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke. The study revealed that the ethylene level (in the E-cigarette smoker's case) was found to be in smaller concentrations (compared with T-cigarette smoker's case) and that E-cigarettes may provide an alternative to T-cigarette smoking.

  2. Smoking and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... 28, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 803 Smoking and HIV WHY IS SMOKING MORE DANGEROUS FOR ... It can also worsen liver problems like hepatitis. Smoking and Side Effects People with HIV who smoke ...

  3. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... also provide ongoing support for staying away from tobacco. Be wary of programs that: Are short and ...