Mendonça, Gerfeson; Júnior, José Cazuza de Farias
Little is known about the influence of different types and sources of social support on physical activity in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between physical activity and different types and sources of social support in adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,859 adolescents between 14-19 years of age in the city of João Pessoa, in Northeastern Brazil. Physical activity was measured with a questionnaire and social support from parents and friends using a 10-item scale five for each group (type of support: encouragement, joint participation, watching, inviting, positive comments and transportation). Multivariable analysis showed that the types of support provided by parents associated with physical activity in adolescents were encouragement for females (P < 0.001) and adolescents between 14-16 years of age (P = 0.003), and transportation (P = 0.014) and comments (P = 0.037) for males. The types of social support provided by friends were: joint participation in male adolescents (P < 0.001) and in these 17-19-year-olds (P < 0.001), and comments in both genders (males: P = 0.009; females: P < 0.001) and 14-16-year-olds (P < 0.001). We conclude that the type of social support associated with physical activity varies according to its source, as well as the gender and age of the adolescents.
Hostinar, Camelia E.; Gunnar, Megan R.
Social support from close relationship partners is an important resource for coping with stress, particularly during childhood. We discuss ethical challenges associated with studying stress and its social buffering in the laboratory, as well as emerging evidence regarding two potential neural substrates for the social buffering of stress: hypothalamic oxytocin activity and activation of areas in the prefrontal cortex associated with effective self-regulation. We also address the role of early-life social experiences in shaping brain development, as well as recommendations for practice and policy that would advance the ethical treatment of children and reduce social inequalities in early-life experiences and opportunities–e.g., investing in programs that prevent child maltreatment and facilitating access to high-quality child care for economically disadvantaged families. We also debate the ethical implications of using oxytocin nasal sprays to simulate the stress-reducing properties of social support and advise waiting for more evidence before recommending their use. PMID:26478822
Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.
The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…
van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys
Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults’ preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public ‘third’ places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults. PMID:26343690
van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys
Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults' preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public 'third' places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults.
Beets, Michael W.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Alderman, Brandon L.
Social support from parents serves as one of the primary influences of youth physical activity-related behaviors. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship of parental social support to the physical activity-related behaviors of youth. Four categories of social support were identified, falling under two distinct mechanisms--tangible…
Beets, Michael W.; Vogel, Randy; Forlaw, Loretta; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.
Objective: To examine provider and type variation in social support (SS) for activity. Methods: Three hundred sixty-three fifth to eighth-grade students completed a questionnaire assessing self-reported activity and social support (SS) from 3 providers: mom, dad, and peers. Important covariates of activity were included in the analysis: age, BMI,…
Story, Chandra R.; Knutson, Douglas; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.
Religious belief has been linked to a variety of positive mental and physical health outcomes. This exploratory study will address the relationship between religious involvement and social connectedness among African American women. Results from a physical activity intervention research project (N = 465) found that total religious support and social support were significantly negatively correlated with total religiosity, while total general social support was significantly positively correlated with total religious support. Overall, the study indicates that more research is needed on ways to encourage interaction between the positive dimensions of both religiosity and social support to bring about healthy behaviors. PMID:25673181
Han, Sohyun C; Castro, Frank; Lee, Lewina O; Charney, Meredith E; Marx, Brian P; Brailey, Kevin; Proctor, Susan P; Vasterling, Jennifer J
Research suggests that military unit support and community postdeployment social support are associated with fewer PTSD symptoms following military deployment. This study extended prior research by examining the associations among predeployment unit support and PTSD symptoms before Iraq deployment as well as unit support, PTSD symptoms, and postdeployment social support after deployment among 835 U.S. Army and 173 National Guard soldiers. Multiple regression analyses indicated that predeployment unit support was not significantly associated with postdeployment PTSD severity in either group of soldiers, whereas higher unit support during deployment was significantly associated with lower postdeployment PTSD severity among active duty soldiers only. Among both groups, higher levels of postdeployment social support were associated with lower levels of postdeployment PTSD symptom severity. These findings suggest that postdeployment social support is a particularly strong buffer against postdeployment PTSD symptoms among both groups of soldiers whereas the effects of unit support may be limited.
Hirano, Michiyo; Saeki, Kazuko; Ueda, Izumi; Honda, Hikaru; Mizuno, Yoshiko
Objectives The purpose of this study was to analyze the social activities of older men who require daily support, and to clarify the purpose of such activities, in order to develop effective living support and preventive long-term care service, suitable for this population.Methods Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 older men. Data were analyzed using inductive and qualitative methods.Results Four categories of social activities were identified, and four categories of purposes of these social activities were extracted. The following were the identified social activities: maintenance of "comfortable relationships with others," including family, relatives, friends, and neighbors; "participation and use of services and programs with clear objectives and relationships with others," such as long-term care insurance system services, clubs for the elderly, and hobby groups; maintenance of "relationships with former colleagues, depending on their experience of working with them," where some individuals actively participated in gatherings with former colleagues, while others did not keep in touch at all; and participation in "activities to enrich their feelings and quality of life within their living space," such as reading, watching TV, and doing household chores. The purposes of the observed social activities were to build "relationships with society through communication with other people" and to have a "sense of security by spending time with people of the same age and with those older than them." Hence, participants engaged in clubs for the elderly, as well as in hobby groups. In addition, participants made time for exercising regularly, which maintained their cognitive function and was intended for the "maintenance and activation of their physical functions by continuing to exercise," and "continuing to learn by thinking." Furthermore, participants engaged in the exercise or hobby groups that they were interested in, in order to
Heser, Kathrin; Wagner, Michael; Wiese, Birgitt; Prokein, Jana; Ernst, Annette; König, Hans-Helmut; Brettschneider, Christian; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Luppa, Melanie; Weyerer, Siegfried; Eifflaender-Gorfer, Sandra; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Eisele, Marion
Background Social relations and depressive symptoms are intertwined. They both predict subsequent dementia, but only few studies on the association between social life aspects and subsequent dementia exist. Methods The risk of subsequent dementia was estimated over 2 follow-up assessments, each 18 months apart, depending on leisure activity, social support (general scale and the 3 factors emotional support, practical support, and social integration), and depressive symptoms, using proportional hazard models in a cohort of elderly patients (n = 2,300, with a mean age of 82.45 years) recruited for the study by their general practitioners. Results Higher depressive symptoms and lower cognitive and physical activity were associated with an increased risk of subsequent all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). While neither social engagement nor the general social support scale was associated with subsequent dementia, a higher level of social integration was associated with a lower dementia risk. In combined models, the results for activity variables remained similar, but the strength of the association between depressive symptoms and the subsequent risk of dementia decreased, and the association with social integration disappeared. Conclusions Depressive symptoms increased and activity variables decreased the risk of subsequent dementia; however, activity variables, namely cognitive and physical activity, partly mediated the effect of depressive symptoms on the subsequent risk of all-cause dementia and AD. In many cases, social support was not associated with a risk of subsequent dementia. PMID:25685139
Suh, Yoojin; Weikert, Madeline; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Sandroff, Brian; Motl, Robert W
The present study examined the pattern of associations among physical activity, social support, mobility disability, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Persons (N = 218) with RRMS completed a battery of questionnaires that was sent and returned through the United States Postal Service (USPS). Bivariate correlation analysis indicated that physical activity and social support were both inversely associated with depressive symptoms (r's = -0.288 and -0.386, p ≤ 0.05, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that physical activity (β = -0.21, p = 0.002) and social support (β = -0.37, p = 0.0001) were independently associated with depressive symptoms. Path analysis confirmed that the associations between physical activity and social support with depressive symptoms were indirect via mobility disability and perceived stress. Collectively, the evidence indicates that physical activity and social support are independently and indirectly associated with depression via mobility disability and perceived stress in relapsing-remitting MS. This supports the design of interventions and programs that target physical activity and social support for reducing depressive symptoms among persons with MS.
Oliveira, Aldair J; Lopes, Claudia S; Rostila, Mikael; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Griep, Rosane Härter; de Leon, Antônio Carlos Monteiro Ponce; Faerstein, Eduardo
OBJECTIVE To identify gender differences in social support dimensions’ effect on adults’ leisure-time physical activity maintenance, type, and time. METHODS Longitudinal study of 1,278 non-faculty public employees at a university in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Southeastern Brazil. Physical activity was evaluated using a dichotomous question with a two-week reference period, and further questions concerning leisure-time physical activity type (individual or group) and time spent on the activity. Social support was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale. For the analysis, logistic regression models were adjusted separately by gender. RESULTS A multinomial logistic regression showed an association between material support and individual activities among women (OR = 2.76; 95%CI 1.2;6.5). Affective support was associated with time spent on leisure-time physical activity only among men (OR = 1.80; 95%CI 1.1;3.2). CONCLUSIONS All dimensions of social support that were examined influenced either the type of, or the time spent on, leisure-time physical activity. In some social support dimensions, the associations detected varied by gender. Future studies should attempt to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these gender differences. PMID:25210819
Cavallo, David N; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; DeVellis, Robert F; Thayer, Linden M; Ammerman, Alice S
Despite their widespread use and extensive technical features, little is known about how to use online social networking sites to increase physical activity. This study aims to examine Facebook engagement among participants in the online social networking arm of a randomized controlled physical activity promotion trial (n = 67). Facebook communications were double coded and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Regression procedures were used to determine predictors of Facebook use and associations between types of use and changes in perceived social support and physical activity. Changes in perceived social support and physical activity were more strongly associated with participants' individual Facebook use than use of the Facebook intervention group. The way social media sites are used in intervention design could have an impact on their effects. Including existing friends in interventions and using applications that incorporate intervention activities into a more naturalistic use of Facebook may improve the efficacy of future interventions.
Bozo, Ozlem; Toksabay, N Ece; Kürüm, Oya
The authors examined the effects of activities of daily living (ADL) and perceived social support on the level of depression among elderly Turkish people. Participants were 102 adults older than the age of 60 years. The authors hypothesized that (a) lower levels of ADL would predict a higher level of depression, (b) a higher level of perceived social support would predict a lower level of depression, and (c) perceived social support would moderate the relation between ADL and depression. Although hierarchical multiple regression analysis did not yield a significant effect for an ADL-perceived social support interaction, ADL and perceived social support significantly predicted depression among elderly people. Thus, perceived social support did not moderate the relation between ADL and depression among elderly people; however, higher ADL functioning and higher perceived social support predicted lower depression. The nonsignificant effect of an ADL-perceived social support interaction on the level of depression among elderly people was incongruent with the stress-buffering model (S. Cohen & T. A. Willis, 1985). The authors discuss the strengths, limitations, and possible implications of the findings.
Wright, Marcie S; Wilson, Dawn K; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra
This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed and coded by independent raters. Inter-rater reliabilities indicated adequate agreement [inter-rater reliability (r) = 0.84]. Themes were identified for parental role modeling and parental social support. Regarding parental role modeling, adolescents reported that parents engaged in a variety of different types of physical activities with their children such as walking, cycling and playing basketball; however, activity was infrequent. Sex differences were noted in parental social support indicating that female adolescents reported receiving more emotional and negative support for physical activity (being required to play outside with a sibling), while boys reported receiving more tangible types of support for physical activity. Adolescents also generated ideas on how to increase parental social support and in particular tangible support was highlighted as important by both males and females. This study suggests that future interventions should focus on improving parental engagement and tangible support that involve direct participation from parents in physical activities with their adolescents.
Marquez, Becky; Dunsiger, Shira I.; Pekmezi, Dori; Larsen, Britta A.; Marcus, Bess H.
Objective Family responsibilities and poor social support are barriers to physical activity among Latinas. This study evaluated the effects of a home- and print-based intervention on social support, moderating effects of familial ties on support and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and mediating effects of support on MVPA. Methods Participants were randomized to receive through the mail either individually tailored physical activity intervention or general wellness print materials. Familial ties and social support were assessed by marital and child status and the social support for physical activity measure, respectively. MVPA was measured using the 7-day Physical Activity Recall Interview and accelerometer. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months post-treatment, and 12 months follow-up. Results Participants (n=266; 40.6 ± 9.9 years old) were mostly immigrant and Spanish-speaking Latinas. The intervention group achieved greater increases in family and friend support compared to the wellness control group from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up (p<0.05). Intervention changes in support did not depend on marital or child status. The intervention also increased minutes per week of MVPA more than the wellness control (p<0.05) and the effect did not depend on marital or child status. There were significant indirect effects of treatment, indicating the intervention achieved greater increases in MVPA by increasing family (ab=5.21, SE=2.94, 95% CI=0.91–14.11) and friend (ab=6.83, SE=5.15, 95% CI=0.16–20.56) support. Conclusions The intervention improved and sustained support from family and friends and MVPA irrespective of familial ties. Social support mediated increases in MVPA. PMID:26863464
Murrock, Carolyn J.; Madigan, Elizabeth
Culturally specific dance has the potential to generate health benefits but is seldom used even among studies advocating culturally specific interventions. This study examined the components of self-efficacy and social support as mediators between culturally specific dance and lifestyle physical activity in African American women (N = 126). An experimental design compared intervention and control groups for mediating effects of self-efficacy and social support on lifestyle physical activity. Findings indicated that only outcome expectations and social support from friends mediated effects. Culturally specific dance is a first step in encouraging African American women to become more physically active and improve health outcomes. The implications are that culturally specific dance programs can improve health outcomes by including members of underserved populations. PMID:18763475
Zhang, Jingwen; Brackbill, Devon; Yang, Sijia; Becker, Joshua; Herbert, Natalie; Centola, Damon
To identify what features of online social networks can increase physical activity, we conducted a 4-arm randomized controlled trial in 2014 in Philadelphia, PA. Students (n = 790, mean age = 25.2) at an university were randomly assigned to one of four conditions composed of either supportive or competitive relationships and either with individual or team incentives for attending exercise classes. The social comparison condition placed participants into 6-person competitive networks with individual incentives. The social support condition placed participants into 6-person teams with team incentives. The combined condition with both supportive and competitive relationships placed participants into 6-person teams, where participants could compare their team's performance to 5 other teams' performances. The control condition only allowed participants to attend classes with individual incentives. Rewards were based on the total number of classes attended by an individual, or the average number of classes attended by the members of a team. The outcome was the number of classes that participants attended. Data were analyzed using multilevel models in 2014. The mean attendance numbers per week were 35.7, 38.5, 20.3, and 16.8 in the social comparison, the combined, the control, and the social support conditions. Attendance numbers were 90% higher in the social comparison and the combined conditions (mean = 1.9, SE = 0.2) in contrast to the two conditions without comparison (mean = 1.0, SE = 0.2) (p = 0.003). Social comparison was more effective for increasing physical activity than social support and its effects did not depend on individual or team incentives.
Zhang, Ni; Campo, Shelly; Yang, Jingzhen; Janz, Kathleen F; Snetselaar, Linda G; Eckler, Petya
Despite the physical and mental health benefits of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), only about half of college students participate in the recommended amount of LTPA. While college students are avid users of social network sites (SNSs), whether SNSs would be an effective channel for promoting LTPA through peer social support is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of social support from students' contacts on SNSs on their intention to participate in LTPA, applying the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants were recruited through a mass e-mail sent to undergraduate students at a large Midwestern university in fall 2011. In total, 439 surveys were analyzed. Descriptive analyses and analysis for mediating effects were conducted. Social support about LTPA from contacts on SNSs has indirect effect on intention through affective attitude, instrumental attitude, and perceived behavioral control (PBC). The results indicate that social support about LTPA from contacts on SNSs might not be effective to change students' intention unless attitudes and PBC are changed. Future interventions aiming to promote students' intention to participate in LTPA by increasing support from contacts on SNSs should increase affective attitude, instrumental attitude, and PBC at the same time.
Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra
This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…
Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.
Prado, Crisley Vanessa; Lima, Alex Vieira; Fermino, Rogério César; Añez, Ciro Romelio Rodriguez; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira
The aim of this study was to verify the association between different types and sources of social support and physical activity among adolescents from Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. A school-based survey was conducted with a representative sample of adolescents from public schools (n = 1,469). Multiple regression models were used to test the association between weekly frequency and sources of social support from family and friends and weekly frequency of physical activity. Among boys, frequent company of family (PR: 2.88; 95%CI: 2.00-4.13) and friends (PR: 5.46; 95%CI: 2.33-12.78) and positive reinforcement from friends (PR: 1.81; 95%CI: 1.18-2.77) were positively associated with physical activity. Sporadic invitation by the family was negatively associated with physical activity (PR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.46-1.14). For girls, frequent company of family (PR: 3.39; 95%CI: 1.49-7.69) and friends (PR: 4.06; 95%CI: 2.22-7.45) increased the likelihood of physical activity. Company of friends was the most important type of social support for physical activity among these adolescents.
Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian
This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…
Fan, Yingling; Das, Kirti V; Chen, Qian
We estimate the cumulative stress mitigating impact of neighborhood greenness by investigating whether neighborhood green mitigates stress directly, and indirectly by encouraging physical activity and/or fostering social support. Using data from a recent community health survey in Chicago and two-stage instrumental variables regression modeling, we find that different components of neighborhood green play distinct roles in influencing stress. Park spaces are found to indirectly mitigate stress by fostering social support. Overall neighborhood vegetation is found to have direct stress mitigation impact, yet the impact is counteracted by its negative effect on social support. When comparing the effect size, park spaces show a more positive impact on health and well-being than the overall neighborhood vegetation level. Policy makers are recommended to focus on creating structured green spaces with public recreation and socialization opportunities rather than simply conserving green spaces in the neighborhood. Previous studies, as they often investigate the direct impact only and rarely use multiple measures of greenness, may have mis-estimated health benefits of neighborhood green.
Draper, C E; Grobler, L; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A
The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood is rapidly increasing, and it is essential that risk factors for NCDs be addressed in adolescence, both for the health of individuals during adolescence and for their health in later life. These risk factors include diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. No literature has been published that comprehensively summarizes the impact of social norms and social support on these behaviours among adolescents. Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to determine the extent of recent (since 2000) literature available on this topic. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search PubMed and EMBASE for eligible reviews. Review papers (narrative reviews, systematic and non-systematic reviews) published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to February 2013 were included in the overview. Two of the authors screened the titles and abstracts of the search results independently. Thirty reviews were included in the scoping review. This scoping review has shown sufficient evidence for parental influences, and especially the positive impact of an authoritative parenting style, on healthy behaviours of adolescents, although the evidence is somewhat more compelling for diet than for physical activity and sedentary behaviour. More research is needed to investigate parental and family influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. And the effect of peer influences on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents requires further investigation. The evidence presented affirms the consideration of social norms and social support in the development of interventions to address these behaviours in adolescents. The evidence regarding parenting style provides some concrete guidance for such interventions.
Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E
We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps < .05. Effects were observed for men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.
Saunders, Ruth P.; Motl, Robert W.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.
Objective To test whether self-efficacy for overcoming barriers to physical activity has direct, indirect (i.e., mediated), or moderating relations with naturally occurring change in perceived social support and declines in physical activity during high school. Methods Latent growth modeling was used with measures completed in the 8th, 9th, and 12th grades by a cohort of 195 Black and White girls. Results Self-efficacy was stable and moderated the relation between changes in physical activity and perceived social support. Girls who maintained a perception of strong social support had less of a decline in physical activity if they also had high self-efficacy. However, girls having high self-efficacy had a greater decline in physical activity if they perceived declines in social support. Conclusions Randomized controlled trials of physical activity interventions based on social cognitive theory should consider that the influence of girls’ perceptions of social support on their physical activity may differ according to their efficacy beliefs about barriers to physical activity. PMID:18812410
Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian
This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this study. Structural equation modeling using LISREL 8.71 was performed to assess the effects of stress, support, and physical activity on mental health. The findings indicate that perceived stress predicted higher levels of depression, social support predicted lower levels of loneliness and fatigue, and physical activity predicted lower levels of fatigue among older adults. Social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health, except depression. In conclusion, the relative impacts of perceived stress, social support, and physical activity on types of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression) were different. Furthermore, stress had direct and indirect effects on each construct of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression).
Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Forlaw, Loretta
Objective: To examine the role of social support (SS) and self-efficacy (SE) for physical activity (PA) in rural high school girls (N = 259, 15.5+1.2yrs). Methods: Using structural equation modeling, the relationships among PA, SS for PA from mother, father, and peers, and SE for overcoming barriers, seeking support, and resisting competing…
Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish
Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care.
The "new student activism," as it is often called, is a hot topic in higher education as well as in the popular press and social media. As a college student in the late '60s and early '70s, a long-time student affairs professional, a scholar and practitioner of service-learning, and an academic teaching a course on social change, the…
Maercker, A; Heim, E; Hecker, T; Thoma, M V
The classical concept of social support has recently become of relevance again, particularly in the context of traumatized patient groups, which include refugees and migrants. This article summarizes the evidence from social support research, e. g. different types of positive effects as well as context, gender and cultural aspects. These aspects are highlighted by means of studies stemming from applied healthcare research and thus describe a wide range of health effects, e.g. increased well-being and reduced depressive symptoms, improved functional abilities, better immune status and longevity. Two new trauma-specific differentiations of the social support concept are introduced: societal acknowledgement as a trauma survivor and disclosure of traumatic experiences. Against this background several implications for working with refugees arise: promotion of self-efficacy and posttraumatic maturation as well as the treatment of mental disorders show considerable benefits from focusing on social support. Finally, possibilities emerging from digital communication media are discussed, which are particularly relevant in this context.
Peterson, Jana J.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Nothwehr, Faryle K.
Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities are not sufficiently active for availing health benefits. Little is known about correlates of physical activity among this population on which to build health promotion interventions. Materials and Methods: We developed scales for measurement of self-efficacy and social support for…
Maibach, Edward W
The lack of routine physical activity has become an all too pervasive health threat in the United States. Social marketing can be used directly to promote increased physical activity among people who have access to active living options (e.g., safe and convenient sidewalks or bike paths). A second, albeit indirect, use of social marketing to promote physical activity--and the focus of this article--involves promoting behaviors that influence the built environment for the purpose of increasing people's access to active living options. This use of social marketing involves changing the behavior of consumers, developers, distribution channels (e.g., real estate agents) and policy makers. The approach offers public health and other organizations a disciplined, consumer-focused means of mobilizing their available resources in a manner that maximizes the odds of creating active living communities. These means include understanding the competition, understanding target markets, creating mutually beneficial exchanges, segmenting markets and targeting them based on anticipated return. This article identifies specific opportunities for applying the social marketing approach to create active living communities, and identifies opportunities at the state and national level that will enhance the effectiveness of local efforts.
Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...
Matthews, Anne Martin
The role of social support in helping elderly people deal with stressful life events is quite complex. This complexity exists because it is difficult to define exactly what social support is, and because the experiences of `normal' aging vary. This article uses the example of adaptation to widowhood to examine the relationship between normal aging and sources, types, and patterns of social support. These factors influence the extent to which support lessens the impact of age-related stressful events. The physician has a role in primary social support, and also in facilitating the supportive functions of family and others. PMID:21279087
The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child's questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between “general friend support,” “friends' activity norms,” and physical activity (r = 0.343 and 0.333 resp., p < 0.001) and between “general friend support” and time spent outside (r = 0.460, p < 0.001). Obtaining information relating to parental and friends' influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children's physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends' influences may have a stronger impact on children's behaviors. PMID:28348605
Schumacher, Leah M; Arigo, Danielle; Thomas, Coco
Many women fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Limited research has examined women's barriers to PA adoption during attempts to increase PA-in particular, how often they experience PA lapses (i.e., failure to meet PA goals), their cognitive-affective responses to lapses, and the role of social support in preventing or responding to lapses. The present study assessed weekly variability in PA lapses, cognitive-affective responses to lapses, and social support related to PA among women participating in a partner-based PA program (n = 20). Multilevel modeling showed that greater PA self-efficacy and more frequent partner communication predicted fewer lapses during the concurrent or subsequent week (ps < 0.02). Interestingly, greater self-forgiveness for lapsing also predicted more lapses the subsequent week (p = 0.04), though greater perceived partner support appeared to buffer the negative effect of self-forgiveness on future lapses (p = 0.04). These findings demonstrate the importance of cognitive-affective responses to PA lapses for future PA, as well as the potential benefit of social support for preventing PA lapses among women.
... a good person to be around. Feeling of security. Your social network gives you access to information, ... Here are some ideas for building your social network: Volunteer. Pick ... your area or check the local community center. Or, start a walking group at ...
Test, David W.
Thirty studies on supported employment for people with disabilities were evaluated using a proposed Social Validity Matrix. Results suggested further research should investigate alternative strategies for assessing social validity, develop systematic procedures for collecting and using social validity data, and establish functional variables…
Neill, James T.; Dias, Katica L.
Social support, a key factor in determining physical and mental health, strongly predicted changes in outdoor adventure participants' psychological resilience. The support received from the least supportive person best predicted gains in resilience. Outdoor education programs should provide a learning environment that is both challenging and…
Trent, J T; Smith, A L; Wood, D L
Occupational stress and social support were measured in adults, 15 working as telecommuters, 9 working at home, and 14 working in a company office. Analysis showed telecommuters and office workers perceived more support than those working at home. Telecommuters also reported less stress and a stronger preference for this new work option.
A strong social support system can help you manage your cancer treatment and day-to-day life. Use this action deck to get information on dealing with different parts of a support network and learn how to make the most of the people who play a role in your life and cancer care.
Wenger, G. Clare; Dykstra, Pearl A.; Melkas, Tuula; Knipscheer, Kees C. P. M.
This article focuses on the ways in which patterns of marriage and fertility shape older people's involvement in community groups and their support networks. The data are from Australia, Finland, Germany, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Findings show that childless older adults, regardless of…
Cavallo, David N; Brown, Jane D; Tate, Deborah F; DeVellis, Robert F; Zimmer, Catherine; Ammerman, Alice S
The primary objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between social support and physical activity within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) theoretical framework. This study used data from the Internet Support for Healthy Associations Promoting Exercise randomized controlled trial. A total of 134 female undergraduate students participated in the study, which included baseline and post measures of perceived social support for physical activity (esteem, informational, and companionship), TPB variables related to physical activity (perceived behavioral control, intention, and attitude), and physical activity behavior. Path analysis revealed a significant indirect relationship between change in companionship support and physical activity mediated by change in intention (.13, p < .01) and a significant direct relationship between change in esteem support and change in physical activity (.26, p = .03). The model explained 27% of the variance in physical activity and 59% of the variance in intention. Overall, change in social support exerted a small to medium amount of influence on change in physical activity in this modified TPB model when controlling for traditional model constructs. Encouraging companionship and esteem support should be considered as a strategy for increasing physical activity in this population.
Yu, Ge; Renton, Adrian; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Bertotti, Marcello; Watts, Paul; Lais, Shahana
There has been extensive conceptual and empirical work on the associations between social relations and health in recent years. However, the specific pathways through which social interactions impact on health have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this paper is to estimate associations between Leisure Time Physical Activity (LTPA) and social networks and support. Using data from a cross-sectional household survey in 40 disadvantaged lower super-output areas in London, we applied a multilevel model to investigate psychosocial and environmental determinants of physical activity in these populations. Our findings present a strong case for the influence of individual-level social networks on the level of LTPA, although the associations between the types of social support and LTPA were insignificant. We also found that crime rate was an important area-level correlates of LTPA.
Pérez-Cruzado, David; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.
Background: People with intellectual disability have poor levels of physical activity, quality of life, fitness condition and self-efficacy and social support when they want to undertake physical activity so it is very important to improve these parameters in this population. Method: A prospective study was conducted. Data were measured before and…
Murayama, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Atsuko; Murashima, Sachiyo
Health promotion volunteers (HPVs) working to promote community health in Japan feel both satisfaction and burden with their community engagement activities. This study examined the relationship between their satisfaction and burden toward their activities and social support. A mail-in self-check questionnaire survey was distributed to 604 HPVs in…
Sherman, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Fingerman, Karen L; Schnyer, David M
Social support benefits health and well-being in older individuals, however the mechanism remains poorly understood. One proposal, the stress-buffering hypothesis states social support 'buffers' the effects of stress on health. Alternatively, the main effect hypothesis suggests social support independently promotes health. We examined the combined association of social support and stress on the aging brain. Forty healthy older adults completed stress questionnaires, a social network interview and structural MRI to investigate the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuitry, which is implicated in social and emotional processing and negatively affected by stress. Social support was positively correlated with right medial prefrontal cortical thickness while amygdala volume was negatively associated with social support and positively related to stress. We examined whether the association between social support and amygdala volume varied across stress level. Stress and social support uniquely contribute to amygdala volume, which is consistent with the health benefits of social support being independent of stress.
Paech, Juliane; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Lippke, Sonia
Background: Although many people know that an active lifestyle contributes to health they fail to translate their intentions into action. This has been explained by deficits in self-management and resources, such as enabling social support, planning, and self-regulation in the face of barriers. The present study examines the role of perceived social support, planning, and self-regulation in facilitating physical activity. Methods: In a prospective online study, intention was assessed at baseline (Time 1), planning and social support at 4-week follow-up (Time 2), self-regulation and physical activity at 6-month follow-up (Time 3). A path analysis was conducted to shed light on mediating psychological mechanisms contributing to maintenance of physical activity. Results: Perceived support (Time 2), planning (Time 2), and self-regulation (Time 3) mediated the link from intention (Time 1) to physical activity (Time 3); the specific and total indirect effects were significant. Conclusions: Findings suggest that perceived social support, planning, and self-regulation can bridge the intention-behavior gap. Behavior change interventions should target those mechanisms in vulnerable individuals. PMID:27458417
Martinez, Ray Earl
This investigation is an exploratory study of the use of a metacognitive software tool in a social supportive learning environment. The tool combined metacognitive knowledge and regulation functionality embedded within the content of an eight week online graduate education course. Twenty-three learners, who were practicing teachers, used the tool.…
Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Snook, Erin M.; Gliottoni, Rachael C.
Physical activity has been associated with a small improvement in quality of life (QOL) among those with multiple sclerosis (MS). This relationship may be indirect and operate through factors such as disability, fatigue, mood, pain, self-efficacy and social support. The present study examined variables that might account for the relationship between physical activity and QOL in a sample (N = 292) of individuals with a definite diagnosis of MS. The participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days and then completed self-report measures of physical activity, QOL, disability, fatigue, mood, pain, self-efficacy and social support. The data were analysed using covariance modelling in Mplus 3.0. The model provided an excellent fit for the data (χ2 = 51.33, df = 18, p < 0.001, standardised root mean squared residual = 0.03, comparative fit index = 0.98). Those who were more physically active reported lower levels of disability (γ = -0.50), depression (γ = -0.31), fatigue (γ = -0.46) and pain (γ = -0.19) and higher levels of social support (γ = 0.20), self-efficacy for managing MS (γ = 0.41), and self-efficacy for regular physical activity (γ = 0.49). In turn, those who reported lower levels of depression (β = -0.37), anxiety (β = -0.15), fatigue (β = -0.16) and pain (β = -0.08) and higher levels of social support (β = 0.26) and self-efficacy for controlling MS (β = 0.17) reported higher levels of QOL. The observed pattern of relationships supports the possibility that physical activity is indirectly associated with improved QOL in individuals with MS via depression, fatigue, pain, social support and self-efficacy for managing MS. PMID:19085318
Mohler, M Jane; D'Huyvetter, Karen; Tomasa, Lynne; O'Neill, Lisa; Fain, Mindy J
Medical students underestimate the health and functional status of community-dwelling older adults and have little experience in health promotion interviewing or prescribing physical activity. The goal was to provide third-year University of Arizona medical students with an opportunity to gain a broader and evidence-based understanding of healthy aging, with specific focus on physical activity and social engagement. Students engaged in one-on-one conversations with healthy older adult mentors and practiced assessment, interviewing and prescription counseling for physical activity and social support. This 2-hour mandatory interactive educational offering improved student attitudes and knowledge about healthy aging and provided hands-on health promotion counseling experience.
Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Paz-Lourido, Berta; Lee, Miyoung; Peterson-Besse, Jana J.
Background: In this study we aimed to develop a Spanish version of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support Scales for Activity for persons with Intellectual Disability (SE/SS-AID). Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 117 individuals with intellectual disability (ID). The SE/SS-AID scales were translated into Spanish and their…
Krause, Neal; Borawski-Clark, Elaine
Tested for social class differences in social support among older adults. Data suggest social class differences emerge when measures of contact with friends, support provided to others, and satisfaction with support are examined. Significant differences failed to emerge with indicators of contact with family, support received from others, and…
Quaresma, A M; Palmeira, A L; Martins, S S; Minderico, C S; Sardinha, L B
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of social support and behavioral regulation of exercise on physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL), in a Portuguese school-based intervention. We hypothesized that serial mediation effects would be present leading to greater levels of PA and QoL. The sample comprised 1042 students (549 boys), aged 10-16 years, BMI = 19.31 ± 3.51, allocated to two groups of schools: control (n = 207) and intervention (n = 835). This study will report the 24 months results of the program, which aimed to develop healthy lifestyles. Questionnaires were used to measure PA, QoL, motivation to exercise and social support. There was no direct impact of the intervention on QoL or PA. Serial mediation analyses were conducted. Social support (P < 0.019) and intrinsic motivation (P = 0.085) increased more on intervention group. Indirect effects were observed in all serial mediation models. The positive indirect effects on PA and QoL were explained by the increase on peer/parent support in serial with the increase in intrinsic motivation (P < 0.01). Parental support led to an increase on external motivation (P < 0.05), which buffered the effects of the intervention. This school-based intervention promoted the development of social support and motivational mechanisms that explained higher levels of PA and QoL.
Eisenberger, Naomi I; Taylor, Shelley E; Gable, Shelly L; Hilmert, Clayton J; Lieberman, Matthew D
It is well established that a lack of social support constitutes a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality, comparable to risk factors such as smoking, obesity, and high blood pressure. Although it has been hypothesized that social support may benefit health by reducing physiological reactivity to stressors, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Moreover, to date, no studies have investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms that translate experiences of social support into the health outcomes that follow. To investigate these processes, thirty participants completed three tasks in which daily social support, neurocognitive reactivity to a social stressor, and neuroendocrine responses to a social stressor were assessed. Individuals who interacted regularly with supportive individuals across a 10-day period showed diminished cortisol reactivity to a social stressor. Moreover, greater social support and diminished cortisol responses were associated with diminished activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and Brodmann's area (BA) 8, regions previously associated with the distress of social separation. Lastly, individual differences in dACC and BA 8 reactivity mediated the relationship between high daily social support and low cortisol reactivity, such that supported individuals showed reduced neurocognitive reactivity to social stressors, which in turn was associated with reduced neuroendocrine stress responses. This study is the first to investigate the neural underpinnings of the social support-health relationship and provides evidence that social support may ultimately benefit health by diminishing neural and physiological reactivity to social stressors.
Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Washington, Karla; Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Shaunfield, Sara
Despite the abundance of research on social support, both as a variable in larger studies and as a central focus of examination, there is little consensus about the relationship between social support and health outcomes. Current social support measures typically account only for frequency and size of network, and a paucity of research exists that has explained social support burden, defined as the burden associated with accessing and receiving support from others. We analyzed audio-recorded discussions by hospice family caregivers about their caregiving problems and potential solutions to examine social relationships within networks and identify the processes that influence social support seeking and receiving. Using qualitative thematic analysis, we found that caregivers providing hospice care experience social support burden resulting from perceived relational barriers between friends and family, the inclination to remain in control, recognition of the loss of the patient as a source of social support and guidance in decision making, family dynamics, and decreased availability of emotional support. Social support researchers should consider how the quality of communication and relationships within social networks impacts the provision and subsequent outcomes of social support in varying contexts. Findings from this study suggest that hospice social support resources should be tailored to the caregiver's support needs and include assessment on the type of support to be offered.
Mansbach, William; Heller, Kenneth
Despite evidence that levels of social support can affect health, there has been little work isolating the factors which actually mediate the relationship between social support and health. In an attempt to analyze the role of nutrition as a mediating factor of health and social support among the elderly, female older adults (N=43) responded to an…
Loper, Ann Booker; Gildea, Jennifer Whitney
Incarcerated women at a maximum security state facility (N= 216) completed a questionnaire concerning their perceived social support within the prison, structured activities, and perceived support from prison surrogate families. A series of regression analyses evaluated the relationship between social support measures and anger, as measured by the…
Ditzen, Beate; Heinrichs, Markus
Social integration and social support have a substantial influence on individual health and longevity, an effect assumed to be mediated through reduced stress reactivity in support recipients. However, considerable variability in individual responses to social support has been documented, suggesting that the beneficial effect of social support interacts with early experiences, genetically influenced differences in biological systems mediating social behavior, personality traits, and psychopathology. Here we outline the historical background of social support research, including epidemiological studies, laboratory studies, and field studies on the subject of social support and health, with regard to different psychobiological effector systems. Most recent research has focused on brain mechanisms which link social integration or social support with reduced neural threat responses. As numerous mental disorders are associated with considerable social impairment, understanding the potentially underlying mechanisms of neural plasticity in relation to social support, stress buffering and health in these disorders can help tailor new diagnostic and treatment strategies. Thus, theories of socially-driven emotional learning and memory, as presented in this review, might eventually lead to psychobiology-based treatment concepts for mental disorders involving social deficits.
Ihlenfeld, J T
A meta-analysis of 125 nurses in three types of nursing roles investigated whether these nurses received social support from their administrators, the types of social support received, and whether more or less social support from these managers was desired. The Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ASSIS) was used to assess these questions. Results showed that home health nurses received social participation and physical assistance, whereas staff nurses received positive feedback and physical assistance. Nursing faculty received little support from their managers. Social exchange theory predicts that intangibles such as social support should exist in equitable relationships. It is possible that the difference in the nurses' and administrators' statuses and power levels affected staff nurses' results. Mental health clinical nurse specialists can use these results to help nurses understand their work relationships.
Langston, P. Kent; Shibata, Munehiko; Horng, Tiffany
Macrophages are found in most tissues of the body, where they have tissue- and context-dependent roles in maintaining homeostasis as well as coordinating adaptive responses to various stresses. Their capacity for specialized functions is controlled by polarizing signals, which activate macrophages by upregulating transcriptional programs that encode distinct effector functions. An important conceptual advance in the field of macrophage biology, emerging from recent studies, is that macrophage activation is critically supported by metabolic shifts. Metabolic shifts fuel multiple aspects of macrophage activation, and preventing these shifts impairs appropriate activation. These findings raise the exciting possibility that macrophage functions in various contexts could be regulated by manipulating their metabolism. Here, we review the rapidly evolving field of macrophage metabolism, discussing how polarizing signals trigger metabolic shifts and how these shifts enable appropriate activation and sustain effector activities. We also discuss recent studies indicating that the mitochondria are central hubs in inflammatory macrophage activation. PMID:28197151
Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takanao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Jinnin, Ran; Takagaki, Koki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto
Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46) showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others. PMID:26000902
Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takanao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Jinnin, Ran; Takagaki, Koki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto
Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46) showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others.
The perception that support is available is central to a person's well being. Nonetheless, naturalistic studies and experimental manipulations of support visibility have uncovered that receiving specific acts of support can entail an emotional cost and that a supportive act is most effective when it is accomplished outside of the recipient's…
te Velde, Saskia J.; Abbott, Gavin; Timperio, Anna; Brug, Johannes; Ball, Kylie
Background Levels of physical activity (PA) decrease when transitioning from adolescence into young adulthood. Evidence suggests that social support and intrapersonal factors (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, PA enjoyment) are associated with PA. The aim of the present study was to explore whether cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of social support from family and friends with leisure-time PA (LTPA) among young women living in disadvantaged areas were mediated by intrapersonal factors (PA enjoyment, outcome expectations, self-efficacy). Methods Survey data were collected from 18–30 year-old women living in disadvantaged suburbs of Victoria, Australia as part of the READI study in 2007–2008 (T0, N = 1197), with follow-up data collected in 2010–2011 (T1, N = 357) and 2012–2013 (T2, N = 271). A series of single-mediator models were tested using baseline (T0) and longitudinal data from all three time points with residual change scores for changes between measurements. Results Cross-sectional analyses showed that social support was associated with LTPA both directly and indirectly, mediated by intrapersonal factors. Each intrapersonal factor explained between 5.9–37.5% of the associations. None of the intrapersonal factors were significant mediators in the longitudinal analyses. Conclusions Results from the cross-sectional analyses suggest that the associations of social support from family and from friends with LTPA are mediated by intrapersonal factors (PA enjoyment, outcome expectations and self-efficacy). However, longitudinal analyses did not confirm these findings. PMID:28301538
Vlasova, Vera K.; Simonova, Galina I.; Soleymani, Nassim
The urgency of the problem stated in the article is caused by the need of pedagogical support of students' social adaptation on the basis of systematicity, which is achieved if we correctly define the components of the process. The aim of the article is to determine the pedagogical support components of students' social adaptation. The leading…
understanding, and intellectual curiosity, this process would have been a much lonelier and more stressful experience. I feel especially indebted to my...39 3.4. Mean Values of Scales at Baseline ........................... 40 3.5. Mean Values of Scales at One Year...Support Only .............................. . ......................... .. 53 4.4. Outcome: Health Status; Scale Combining Social Support and Social
Gamble, Wendy C; Woulbroun, E. Jeanne
Examined how young children participating in early childhood programs perceive the social support they receive. Results indicated that pre- and early elementary school-age children can respond to questions about their social support networks in reasonably reliable and valid ways. Significant correlations with indices of perceived competence and…
Prochaska, Judith J.; Rodgers, Miki W.; Sallis, James F.
Investigated the association between social support and adolescent physical activity when assessing physical activity using different methods and when separating social support into parent and peer support. Self-report and accelerometer data indicated that parent and peer support significantly correlated with physical activity. Perceived social…
Barton, Christopher; Effing, Tanya W; Cafarella, Paul
A scoping review was conducted to determine the size and nature of the evidence describing associations between social support and networks on health, management and clinical outcomes amongst patients with COPD. Searches of PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL were undertaken for the period 1966-December 2013. A descriptive synthesis of the main findings was undertaken to demonstrate where there is current evidence for associations between social support, networks and health outcomes, and where further research is needed. The search yielded 318 papers of which 287 were excluded after applying selection criteria. Two areas emerged in which there was consistent evidence of benefit of social support; namely mental health and self-efficacy. There was inconsistent evidence for a relationship between perceived social support and quality of life, physical functioning and self-rated health. Hospital readmission was not associated with level of perceived social support. Only a small number of studies (3 articles) have reported on the social network of individuals with COPD. There remains a need to identify the factors that promote and enable social support. In particular, there is a need to further understand the characteristics of social networks within the broader social structural conditions in which COPD patients live and manage their illness.
Harada, Ken; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Sugihara, Yoko; Yanagisawa, Shizuko; Shimmei, Masaya
This study examined the additive effects of social support and negative interactions in various relationship domains and the cross-domain buffering effects of social support on the detrimental impact of negative interactions on mental health among older adults in Japan. Data were obtained from a survey of residents of 30 municipalities in the Tokyo metropolitan area ( N = 1,592). The results indicated that family members living together may share ambivalent social ties, anchored in positive sentiments and serving as sources of support but where criticism and excessive demands may occur. We found that negative interactions had a more potent additive effect on mental health. Moreover, the interaction effects of negative interactions with family and social support from other relatives suggested reverse buffering. Our findings suggest that interventions might be more necessary to cope with the negative social exchanges of close kin relationships among the elderly Japanese.
The aim of the present study was to gain additional information about the relationship between emotional intelligence, social support, and affectivity. The subjects were 64 university students who completed the short form of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-30), the Social Support Questionnaire, and the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL). The results show that Social Support is high and significantly related with both Mood Repair, on one hand, and more Positive Affects and Sensation Seeking, on the other. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that social support can be considered, somehow, as a way of mood repair; and thus not surprisingly is also associated with more Positive Affects and Sensation Seeking.
Levine, Ellen G.; Aviv, Caryn; Ewing, Cheryl; Au, Alfred
Introduction One in ten women over the age of 65 will develop breast cancer. Despite this high incidence of breast cancer among older women, social support for them is often inadequate. This paper describes a qualitative study of the impact of a breast cancer diagnosis on older women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and their subsequent need for social support. Methods Forty-seven older African American, Asian American, Caucasian and Latina women between the ages of 65 to 83 participated in a larger study examining the impact of breast cancer on women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and the meaning and nature of social support. The women completed an in-depth qualitative interview on the psychosocial impact of breast cancer and the meaning and nature of social support. Results and Conclusion The results indicate that there are variations in reactions to a breast cancer diagnosis among older women, and that these reactions impact their experiences with seeking social support at diagnosis and during treatment. Respondents were concerned about their aging bodies, potential dependency on others, and loss of autonomy. At the same time, the severity of cancer treatment and existing co-morbidities often meant they needed to learn to receive support, and to reach out if they had no support. The implications of these findings underscore the older cancer patient’s need to strengthen her supportive networks at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and post-treatment. PMID:20967554
social experience. jurna 9L Raragnan _E Social F .. 1982, 4 979-996. Russell, D.W., Peplau, L.A., & Cutrona, C.E. The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale ...constructed rating manual and two questionnaires, the UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire p 13 (Russell, Peplau & Cutrona, 1980) and a specially constructed...groups differed significantly in their scores on the UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire [7(1,161)-46.00, p<.OO1. Those low in social support reported much
Liu, Su; Stapleton, David C
We present longitudinal employment and work-incentive statistics for individuals who began receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) benefits from 1996 through 2006. For the longest-observed cohort, 28 percent returned to work, 6.5 percent had their benefits suspended for work in at least 1 month, and 3.7 percent had their benefits terminated for work. The corresponding percentages are much higher for those who were younger than age 40 when they entered the DI program. Most first suspensions occurred within 5 years after entry. Cross-state variation in outcomes is high, and, to the extent observed, statistics for more recent cohorts are lower.
Lindle, Jane Clark; Miller, Linda Demarco
This study maintains that social support systems alleviate the physical and psychological effects of stress; however, the school administrator often has no peers in the same building and therefore stands apart from any of the built in support systems developed by the subculture within his school. Further, as discovered through interviews with 35…
Müller, Rachel; Rauch, Alexandra; Cieza, Alarcos; Geyh, Szilvia
This study reports on a patient with spinal cord injury (SCI) in whom the interaction between social skills and social support seems to influence functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used as a reference framework. Qualitative (i.e. observation, structured, and open interviews with the patient and health professionals) and quantitative data (i.e. spinal cord independence measure, medical records) were collected. Content analysis of the interviews was carried out to identify aspects of social skills and social support. An ICF-based documentation tool (i.e. ICF Assessment Sheet) was used to structure information about the level of functioning of body functions and structures, activity and participation, and environmental and personal factors of a 57-year-old man with incomplete paraplegia during first rehabilitation. The patient presented a variety of effective social skills (i.e. assertiveness, goal direction). However, the adaptation of skills, such as asking for help social problem-solving, sensitivity, and expressivity in social relations, became necessary to acquire. The patient received different types of social support (i.e. emotional, informational, and instrumental) from different sources (e.g. family and friends). The qualitative interviews provided indications for an interaction between social skills and social support. The impact of social skills and social support on functioning is discussed. Social skills can mobilize social support and enhance functioning. However, better understanding of social skills, social support, and their interaction in relation to functioning in SCI is required to develop targeted and effective interventions to strengthen psychosocial resources for the enhancement of functioning in patients with SCI.
Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Tremblay, Angelo; Barnett, Tracie A.; Lambert, Marie
Purpose: Identification of factors that relate to physical activity behavior in children at higher risk for weight problems--namely, children with obese parents--is key to informing the development of effective interventions to promote physical activity and reduce obesity. The purpose of our study was to examine children's perceptions of parental…
Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu
During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747
Eng, E; Hatch, J; Callan, A
The positive influence of social support on such health related outcomes as patient adherence to medical regimens and stress reduction at the worksite has captured the attention of public health researchers and practitioners alike. Yet, the broader social outcome of building community competency to undertake and sustain health related solutions without constant intervention from professionals still remains elusive. The difficulty may lie with the need to uncover on each occasion the various roles and functions of social support structures that may or may not exist in a given community. The intent would then be to graft an intervention onto these existing roles and functions in order to mirror the naturally occurring social support structures. A conceptual framework that has been used to institutionalize health related activities through the role and function of the black Church, as a social unit of identity and solution for rural black communities in North Carolina, is put forth for consideration.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the difference in physical activity participation, awareness of exercise facilities, institutional physical education requirements, number of physical education classes taken, perceptions of current exercise habits, perceived current physical fitness level, perceived body weight, and selected demographic…
Calsyn, Robert J.; Winter, Joel P.; Burger, Gary K.
This study compared the strength of competing causal models in explaining the relationship between perceived support, enacted support, and social anxiety in adolescents. The social causation hypothesis postulates that social support causes social anxiety, whereas the social selection hypothesis postulates that social anxiety causes social support.…
psychological support The absence of the military may induce anxiety, tensions, a feeling of isolation among the family; the support of competent ...social de la formation, dans le respect du secret professionnel . L’assistant de service social exerce ses fonctions tant au profit des personnels, qu’à...familles ont exprimé au travers de diverses enquêtes le souhait de bénéficier de conférences tenues par des professionnels traitant des problématiques
Leeves, Sylvia; Banerjee, Robin
Social support-seeking is recognised as an important strategy used by children to cope with negative emotions. However, there are important gaps in our knowledge about children's perceptions of different sources of social support, and the associations that these perceptions have with individual differences in socio-emotional functioning. The…
Gruber, Kenneth J.
An assessment inventory (the Friend/Peer Support-Health Eating Physical Activity Scale-FPS-HEPAS) was developed to measure social influence patterns of college student physical activity and food consumption habits. Principal components analysis of 50 items with two referent sets (friends and peers) produced two scales with common factors:…
Giddan, Norman S.
This overview of peer counseling and self-help groups in contemporary higher education examines current practices and offers recommendations for program development. Section I looks at the historical background and current context of campus peer counseling and social support programs; types and functions of self-help groups; student…
Haeseler, Lisa Ann
At-risk families cope with many issues simultaneously and are often overwhelmed. To assist families, early childhood professionals must offer community- and family-centered support through collaborations with social service providers and outreach professionals. Educational professionals working in high-needs schools must re-examine their funding…
Anxiety and anger . New York: Basic Books, 1973. Cobb, S. Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1976, 38 (5), 300-313...for Manpowerg Personnel, and Training HQ Naval Material Command (Code 08D22) 678 Crystal Plata 15 Washington, DC 20370 4aval Material Command
Woodley, Carolyn; Meredith, CaAtherine
Views about the role of Facebook and other social networking sites in education are extremely varied. Facebook threatens academic success and yet "certain kinds of Facebook use" can support study; indeed, Facebooking students may perform better than their unwired peers (Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe 2007). Facebook is emphatically a…
Schwartz, Tatiane; Vieira, Renata; Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter
This descriptive-exploratory study using a qualitative approach was undertaken to describe the perceptions of pregnant adolescents in relation to social support provided during pregnancy. Twelve adolescents in their first pregnancy who frequented the outpatient health service in Passo Fundo in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) participated in the study. The data was obtained by semi-structured interviews, genograms and ecomaps and was assessed by thematic analysis. It highlighted the need for support to overcome the fears and challenges of motherhood. The mothers and partners were perceived as the main sources of support in affective and material terms. Common sense knowledge prevailed in the information dimension and pregnancy as a mediator in the reconciliation with the father fulfilled the emotional dimension. The perception of the dimension of positive social interaction was blurred by self-imposed isolation. Thus the adolescent's perception of the social support received is clear in relation to the family nucleus and includes the people in the family circle. The network of care outside the family, including the healthcare services, is tenuous and generated the perception of psychosocial difficulties. This reveals the need for greater investment of primary healthcare professionals in the inclusion of first-time-pregnancy adolescents in social care groups, which ensure the healthy progress of the pregnancy.
Al-Kandari, Yagoub Y; Crews, Douglas E
The aim of this study was to examine differences in several aspects of health between Kuwaiti men and women aged 60 years and over across three age categories (60-69, 70-79, 80+ years). The relationships between several social support variables, somatic symptoms and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were examined. A total of 1427 adult men (472) and women (955) aged 60 years and over representing all six governorates were selected. Data were collected during 2008-2009 by interview and completion of a questionnaire by participants in their own homes, after obtaining their informed consent. The Social Support Scale (SSS), Frequency of Contact Scale (FOC), Strength of Relations (SOR), Somatic Symptoms Inventory (SSI) and self-rated scales of general health were included. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured. The data show that self-rated health and health in the last year differ significantly across age groups. Glycaemia differed significantly across the three age groups for the total sample. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in older respondents than younger ones, but no significant differences were observed between men and women. No significant differences in somatic symptoms were observed across the three age groups. Strength of relationship, frequency of contact, social support and children living with an elderly adult were all associated with fewer somatic symptoms, and all, except social support, were associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Having children, the perception of social support, frequency of contact with, and strength of, relationships with kin are important modulators of somatic symptoms and blood pressure among elderly Kuwaitis.
Anker, Ashley E; Akey, Jessica E; Feeley, Thomas Hugh
Eighty-five organ procurement coordinators (OPCs) completed face-to-face interviews designed to elicit the emotional and instrumental social support strategies communicated to potential donor families throughout the request for deceased organ donation. OPCs identified six forms of emotional support and eight forms of instrumental support, with greater reported use of instrumental support strategies. In terms of instrumental support, OPCs most frequently ensured in-hospital comfort (61.2%) or met the nutritional needs of family members (51.8%). With respect to emotional support, OPCs most often expressed sympathy (31.8%) to families and provided support in the form of physical contact (27.1%) with family members. Identifying the forms of social support used by OPCs is a first step toward understanding the strategies that are more (or less) effective in achieving persuasive and support goals.
Kaiser, Bonnie N; Keys, Hunter M; Foster, Jennifer; Kohrt, Brandon A
This mixed-method study explored the social world of Haitian migrants, examining forms of social support and social stress, as well as their relationship to mental health. Among six Haitian migrant communities in the Cibao Valley of the Dominican Republic, a community-based survey (n = 127) was conducted to assess migration experiences, current stressors, mental health, and functioning. In addition, to explore perceptions and experiences of migration, social interactions, and mental health, the study drew upon in-depth interviews and free-listing activities among Haitian migrants, as well as cognitive interviews with select survey participants. Depressive, anxiety, and mental distress survey scores were associated with 1) negative social interactions (including interrogation or deportation, perceived mistreatment by Dominicans, and overcrowding) and 2) lack of social support, including migrating alone. Mental distress scores were higher among women, and being married was associated with higher anxiety scores, potentially reflecting unmet social expectations. In qualitative data, participants emphasized a lack of social support, often referred to as tèt ansanm (literally meaning "heads together" in Haitian Creole or Kreyòl and roughly defined as solidarity or reciprocal social collaboration). The authors of the study propose that the practice of tèt ansanm-also termed konbit, and, in the Dominican Republic, convite-could be used as a means of facilitating positive-contact events among Haitians and Dominicans. These interactions could help counteract social stress and build social capital in settings similar to those of the study.
Hsiao, I.-Han; Bakalov, Fedor; Brusilovsky, Peter; König-Ries, Birgitta
The increased volumes of online learning content have produced two problems: how to help students to find the most appropriate resources and how to engage them in using these resources. Personalized and social learning have been suggested as potential ways to address these problems. Our work presented in this paper combines the ideas of personalized and social learning in the context of educational hypermedia. We introduce Progressor, an innovative Web-based tool based on the concepts of social navigation and open student modeling that helps students to find the most relevant resources in a large collection of parameterized self-assessment questions on Java programming. We have evaluated Progressor in a semester-long classroom study, the results of which are presented in this paper. The study confirmed the impact of personalized social navigation support provided by the system in the target context. The interface encouraged students to explore more topics attempting more questions and achieving higher success rates in answering them. A deeper analysis of the social navigation support mechanism revealed that the top students successfully led the way to discovering most relevant resources by creating clear pathways for weaker students.
Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Schwartz, Sharon
This paper reports a study of the function and composition of social support networks among diverse lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) men and women (n = 396) in comparison to their heterosexual peers (n = 128). Data were collected using a structured social support network matrix in a community sample recruited in New York City. Our findings show that gay and bisexual men may rely on “chosen families” within LGBT communities more so than lesbian and bisexual women. Both heterosexuals and LGBs relied less on family and more on other people (e.g., friends, co-workers) for everyday social support (e.g., recreational and social activities, talking about problems). Providers of everyday social support were most often of the same sexual orientation and race/ethnicity as participants. In seeking major support (e.g., borrowing large sums of money), heterosexual men and women along with lesbian and bisexual women relied primarily on their families, but gay and bisexual men relied primarily on other LGB individuals. Racial/ethnic minority LGBs relied on LGB similar others at the same rate at White LGBs but, notably, racial/ethnic minority LGBs reported receiving fewer dimensions of support. PMID:26752447
Crump, William J.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.
During the period from April 10, 1990 to April 9, 1991, the Consortium for the Space Life Sciences provided technical assistance to the NASA/MSFC water recovery efforts. This assistance was in the form of literature reviews, technical recommendations, and presentations. This final report summarizes the activities completed during this period and identifies those areas requiring additional efforts. The tasks which the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) water recovery team addressed were either identified by MSFC technical representatives or chosen from those outlined in the subject statement of work.
Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.
This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…
Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance of variable severity occurring or diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Numerous epidemiological studies show that this disorder affects between 1 and 18% of pregnancies, depending on the ethnicity of the populations studied, the diagnostic criteria, or the body mass index (BMI). Its incidence is constantly rising worldwide. Patients with GDM have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the months after delivery. For this reason, GDM patients are encouraged to practice specific health behaviors (dietary habits, physical activity) during the postpartum period. It is important to identify the factors that may impact adherence to these behaviors. Methods/Design A targeted sample size of 200 eligible pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM will be enrolled in this prospective, cohort study. They will be recruited from 30-36 weeks of gestation as part of their diabetes consultation in Geneva University Hospital (GUH) maternity unit. Psychosocial variables that could impact adherence to health behaviors in the postpartum period (behavioral intentions, risk perceptions, general knowledge about diabetes, health beliefs, social support, self-efficacy) will be evaluated using specific tools at the end of pregnancy, at 6 weeks postpartum and at 6 months postpartum. Multiple regression analyses will be performed on SPSS. Discussion For the first time in Europe, the objective of this research is to study in women with very recent GDM the link between dietary habits, physical activity levels, and psychosocial and cognitive factors possibly involved in the adoption of health behaviors in the postpartum period. These factors have been identified in the literature, but to date have never been combined in a single study. The study will allow a predictive theoretical model of health behavior to be established and used as a basis for reflection to optimize interventions carried out on
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Delgado, Jeannette; Medina, Lissette
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of yoga (physical activity) versus social support (verbal activity) on prenatal and postpartum depression. Ninety-two prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to a yoga or a social support control group at 22 weeks gestation. The yoga group participated in a 20-min group session (only physical poses) once per week for 12 weeks. The social support group (a leaderless discussion group) met on the same schedule. At the end of the first and last sessions the yoga group reported less depression, anxiety, anger, back and leg pain as compared to the social support group. At the end of the last session the yoga group and the support group did not differ. They both had lower depression (CES-D), anxiety (STAI), and anger (STAXI) scores and improved relationship scores. In addition, cortisol levels decreased for both groups following each session. Estriol and progesterone levels decreased after the last session. At the postpartum follow-up assessment depression and anxiety levels were lower for both groups.
Cawyer, Carol Stringer; Smith-Dupre, Athena
Describes supportive episodes in an HIV/AIDS support group and the role of social support for group members. Finds that members used communication as a healing agent, as a preparatory mechanism for living with AIDS, as an outlet for expressing emotions, and as a means for changing society. Identifies feedback and self-disclosure as essential…
Feather, B L; Wainstock, J M; Remington, A; Ringenberg, Q S
Due to shorter hospitalization periods and changes in surgical procedures, breast cancer patients have less inpatient contact with rehabilitation resources. A questionnaire related to educational needs and social support was mailed statewide to 2,000 postmastectomy women who had received a Reach to Recovery visit. The findings are based on quantitative data reported by 933 women and from 27 women in follow-up interviews. Respondents ranked their educational needs in six categories from greatest to least importance as follows: (1) information about breast cancer, (2/3) personal hygiene/exercise and nutrition/weight control (both ranked of equal importance), (4) prosthesis/clothing information, (5) social support, and (6) sexual issues. Performance on the knowledge assessment correlated directly with the amount of educational experience and inversely with age. Respondents who lived in communities of less than 2,500 were less informed than those from other locations. Participation in formalized support groups was infrequent (11%). The major source of information was the media, with 88% indicating they would watch television programs about breast cancer. Thirty-three percent of the respondents indicated they owned a video cassette recorder (VCR); about 93% said VCRs were available for rent in their community. Work associates were identified as a group that encouraged information seeking; health care professionals were the most successful in motivating women to participate in support groups.
Sherman, David K; Kim, Heejung S; Taylor, Shelley E
Social support is an effective means by which people cope with stressful events, and consequently, it beneficially affects health and well-being. Yet there are profound cultural differences in the effectiveness of different types of support and how people use their support networks. In this paper, we examine research on the impact of culture on social support, the neural underpinnings of social support, and how cultural differences in social support seeking are manifested biologically. We focus on cultural factors that may affect individuals' decisions to seek or not to seek social support and how culture moderates the impact of support seeking on biological and psychological health outcomes. We also examine recent research on the interaction between genes and culture in social support use. Discussion centers on the importance of developing an overarching framework of social support that integrates health psychology, cultural psychology, social neuroscience, and genetics.
Hauge, Hilde; Kvalem, Ingela L.; Berget, Bente; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Braastad, Bjarne O.
In this project, we examined the effect of a 4-month intervention with horses on perceived social support, self-esteem and general self-efficacy among Norwegian adolescents aged 12–15 years. The intervention took place at farm-based stables and included work with the horses and riding. A waiting-list crossover design was used and the participants answered questionnaires at three time periods. Study I (N = 49) examined the effect of the intervention compared with the control group. Study II (N = 41) examined the relationship between the same psychological variables and change in mastering skills with horse. The intervention group reported a significant increase in perceived social support compared with the control group. There were no differences in self-esteem and general self-efficacy between the groups. The results from study II showed that a lower level of perceived social support prior to the intervention predicted an increase in mastering skills with the horse during the intervention. PMID:24833811
Hardesty, Patrick H.; Richardson, George B.
The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire, a brief measure of perceived social support for use with adolescents, was examined. Findings suggest that four dimensions of perceived social support may yield more information than assessments of the unitary construct of support. (Contains 8 tables…
Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene
The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…
Miller-Graff, Laura E; Howell, Kathryn H; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Grein, Katherine
Children's social competence is a key characteristic of resilience, yet little research has assessed contributing factors to this construct. The objectives of this study were to examine direct and indirect effects of maltreatment on children's social competence, the promotive role of child and caregiver social support, and factors contributing to reports of child social competence across informants. Structural equation modeling evaluated the influence of CPS report history, child adjustment, and child and caregiver social support on child social competence in n = 783 caregiver-child dyads. CPS report history (age 0-8) was indirectly related to low social competence through child adjustment problems. Social support was a significant promotive factor of child social competence, with caregiver social supports predicting higher levels of parent-reported child social competence. Child social support predicted self-reported child social competence. Findings reinforce the assertion that both caregiver and child social support networks are critical to promoting child well-being after adversity.
Dominguez-Fuentes, Juan Manuel; Hombrados-Mendieta, María Isabel
The association between perceived social support and happiness was investigated in women who are members of various associations in Malaga (Spain) that work with immigrant women. Based on the Social Convoy model, the association between sources of support, frequency of support, satisfaction with support, and happiness reported by women were examined. The main social support predictor of happiness was satisfaction with the support received. Thus, the best predictors of happiness were emotional support from the family and instrumental support from the indigenous population and associations. The best predictor of frequency of support was the frequency of informational support received from social services. These results may prove useful for developing lines of action or interventions centred on the social network and the functions that social support can fulfil among immigrant women.
Research on loneliness and research on social support offer complementary perspectives on how social relationships affect health and well being. However, despite considerable overlap, loneliness and lack of social support reflect deficits of different kinds of social exchanges and these deficits have distinct consequences for well being. Social…
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
Rash, Elizabeth M.
The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of social support and the influencing factors on social support in nursing home environments. Observations and staff questionnaires from two central Florida nursing homes were used in this grounded theory study to answer the following questions: (1) How is social support manifested? and…
An, Zheng; Chou, Chih-Ping
This study examined the influence of social support on perceived stress and online support activities in two relationship contexts. In 2013, we surveyed 366 first-time mothers between the ages of 26 and 30 years from mainland China about their social support experiences with their mothers and mothers-in-law in regard to child rearing. Women who received higher levels of support from their mothers reported lower levels of perceived stress and higher levels of online support activities. Receiving support from mothers-in-law was not associated with either perceived stress or online support activities. The findings demonstrate the importance of considering relationship contexts when examining social support outcomes. Implications for future research on social support and interpersonal relationships are discussed.
Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.
Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…
Wrosch, Carsten; Rueggeberg, Rebecca; Hoppmann, Christiane A
A 6-year longitudinal study of 180 older adults (M age at baseline = 72.12 years) examined whether goal adjustment capacities (i.e., goal disengagement and goal reengagement) moderate the associations between transient and long-term longitudinal changes in social support partners with social support satisfaction. Results from hierarchical linear models show that high levels of, and increases in, goal disengagement capacities buffered the adverse effect of transient declines in perceptions of social support partners on satisfaction with social support. Moreover, increases in goal disengagement buffered the effect of long-term longitudinal declines in perceived social support on reduced levels of social support satisfaction. However, when participants perceived longitudinal increases in the number of social support partners, low levels of, and declines in, goal reengagement capacities were associated with high levels or increases in social support satisfaction. This pattern of findings suggests that goal disengagement can ameliorate social support satisfaction if older adults perceive a reduction in their social support network. Withdrawing from engagement in new goals, by contrast, may contribute to social support satisfaction if older adults perceive an increase in the number of social support partners.
Tyler, Kimberly A
The current study uses longitudinal data from the 1993 U.S. Midwest floods to examine the influence of support received and support provision on changes in perceived social support among older adults exposed to an acute stressor. Results indicated that flood exposure and higher levels of social support at Time 1 were positively associated with both receiving social support and providing social support specific to the food. Individuals with higher levels of support provision and received support in turn reported higher levels of perceived support post disaster. Women were more likely to have received flood specific support and to have perceived higher social support post flood. This study provides support and elaboration of earlier findings that link disaster exposure to post-disaster changes in perceived social support.
Dixon, Kelly Elizabeth
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) face the unknown as they negotiate their multiple roles and identities within the graduate school and classroom setting as teachers, students, and researchers. The purpose of this study is to identify the role that institutionalized socialization, social support, and behavioral observation and modeling play for…
Kirsch, Julie A; Lehman, Barbara J
Previous research suggests that in contrast to invisible social support, visible social support produces exaggerated negative emotional responses. Drawing on work by Bolger and colleagues, this study disentangled social support visibility from negative social evaluation in an examination of the effects of social support on negative emotions and cardiovascular responses. As part of an anticipatory speech task, 73 female participants were randomly assigned to receive no social support, invisible social support, non-confounded visible social support or visible social support as delivered in a 2007 study by Bolger and Amarel. Twelve readings, each for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were taken at 5-min intervals throughout the periods of baseline, reactivity and recovery. Cardiovascular outcomes were tested by incorporating a series of theoretically driven planned contrasts into tests of stress reactivity conducted through piecewise growth curve modelling. Linear and quadratic trends established cardiovascular reactivity to the task. Further, in comparison to the control and replication conditions, the non-confounded visible and invisible social support conditions attenuated cardiovascular reactivity over time. Pre- and post-speech negative emotional responses were not affected by the social support manipulations. These results suggest that appropriately delivered visible social support may be as beneficial as invisible social support.
The current study examined the impact of size of social network on subjective well-being of elderly, mainly focused on confirmation of the mediator role of perceived social support. The results revealed that both size of social network and perceived social support were significantly correlated with subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling indicated that perceived social support partially mediated size of social network to subjective well-being. The final model also revealed significant both paths from size of social network to subjective well-being through perceived social support. The findings extended prior researches and provided valuable evidence on how to promote mental health of the elderly.
Ruppel, Erin K; McKinley, Christopher J
This study used the frameworks of social compensation and social enhancement to examine how social anxiety and social support were related to college students' (N=443) use and perceptions of online mental health resources (Web sites and online support groups). Potential interactions between social support and social anxiety were also examined. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, perceived usefulness of Web sites was positively associated with social support. Perceived usefulness of online support groups was positively associated with social support when participants reported average or high, but not low, social anxiety. In contrast, previous use of Web sites was consistent with the social compensation hypothesis. Participants who reported less social support were more likely to have used a Web site for a mental or emotional problem. These findings suggest that college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources vary as a function of social support and social anxiety, and that patterns suggestive of social compensation and social enhancement depend on whether perceptions or actual use of resources are examined. Combined with the significant interaction between social support and social anxiety on perceived usefulness of online support groups, these findings highlight the potential complexity of social compensation and enhancement phenomena.
Burton, Charles L.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Bonanno, George A.
Social support has been repeatedly associated with mental and physical health outcomes, with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity posited as a potential mechanism. The influence of social bonds appears particularly important in the face of stigma-related stress; however, there is a dearth of research examining social support and HPA axis response among members of a stigmatized group. To address this gap in the literature, we tested in a sample of 70 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults whether family support or peer support differentially predict cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. While greater levels of family support were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity, neither peer support nor overall support satisfaction was associated with cortisol response. These findings suggest that the association between social support and neuroendocrine functioning differs according to the source of support among members of one stigmatized group. PMID:24972382
Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung
This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties.
Choi, Namkee G.; Wodarski, John S.
Analyzes a sample of 695 elderly adults to determine the elasticity of informal social support systems in response to declining health and the effects of such support on their health outcomes. Findings indicate that the extent of informal support is more likely to be bound by the social support network size than by the demand for care associated…
Howie, Laura Odell; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Newman, Ann M.
Successful aging has been associated with adequate social support. However, impaired functionality, increased dependence, multiple comorbidities, and reduced social interactions place older assisted living community (ALC) residents at risk for poorer social support and less successful aging. This cross-sectional descriptive study used the revised…
HUH, JINA; LIU, LESLIE S.; NEOGI, TINA; INKPEN, KORI; PRATT, WANDA
Studies have shown positive impact of video blogs (vlogs) on patient education. However, we know little on how patient-initiated vlogs shape the relationships among vloggers and viewers. We qualitatively analyzed 72 vlogs on YouTube by users diagnosed with HIV, diabetes, or cancer and 1,274 comments posted to the vlogs to understand viewers’ perspectives on the vlogs. We found that the unique video medium allowed intense and enriched personal and contextual disclosure to the viewers, leading to strong community-building activities and social support among vloggers and commenters, both informationally and emotionally. Furthermore, the unique communication structure of the vlogs allowed ad hoc small groups to form, which showed different group behavior than typical text-based social media, such as online communities. We provide implications to the Health Care Industry (HCI) community on how future technologies for health vlogs could be designed to further support chronic illness management. PMID:26146474
Psychological distress in high-school students was examined in relation to negative life events, long-lasting adversities and perceived social support from the family, friends and the school class. Academic problems increased the symptom levels of psychological distress, and social support from family and social support from friends reduced the symptoms among males and females. For females, social support from school class-mates and problems with parents and friends also had direct independent effects on symptom levels. An effect of the total number of long-lasting adversities was significantly stronger for females than males. The buffer hypothesis was supported: both an increase in social support from parents and social support from peers reduced the effect of negative life events.
Majer, John M; Salina, Doreen D; Jason, Leonard A
Social support types (abstinence, appraisal, belonging, tangible) were analyzed among a sample of women with criminal justice involvement and substance use disorders (n = 200). Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine social support types in relation to changes in abstinence self-efficacy while controlling for incarceration histories. Only abstinence social support and tangible social support predicted significant increases in abstinence self-efficacy, with tangible support accounting for more variance in the analytic model. Findings suggest women with criminal justice involvement who have substance use disorders have basic needs that if met would have an indirect effect on their recovery. Implications for treatment and research are discussed.
Poor social support is a risk factor for the development of eating disorders (Ghaderi, 2003). We designed this study to investigate the relationship between social support and eating disorder symptomatology among a female, nonclinical population. The work is of international interest because disordered eating behavior is common across many nations. The results of this research should help build a better understanding of the links between social support and participants at risk of developing an eating disorder. In this study, family support was not correlated with disordered eating, but satisfaction with social support was.
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung
Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues.
Seagull, Elizabeth A. W.
Review of the research found little evidence that lack of social support plays a significant role in the etiology of physical child abuse. Stronger evidence exists which suggests that neglectful parents are socially isolated. (Author/DB)
support 11 Social Support and Health 13 Conceptual models linking social support and health 14 Main effect hypothesis 14 Stress-buffering...Stress Process Integrating Environmental, Psychological, and Biological Approaches to Stress Measurement Figure 2. Conceptual Model Outlining...including definitions of these variables as well as conceptual models and evidence linking each construct to health outcomes. Then, aims of the study will
presence of other people alters initial perceptions of objective social stimuli (Lazarus, 1966; Tajfel , 1968). Thus, social support could "buffer" the...workers discriminate between people in reporting their level of support. Many workers perceive one source as supportive but not another. Supervisor
Pilgram, Mary D.
This exploratory study examines veterinarians' perceptions of how they offer social support to grieving clients. Because many clients cannot find the social support they would like from other sources when grieving the death of a pet, the role of the vet in offering support becomes increasingly important. The results indicate that vets perceive…
Investigates social support for older adults in the computer-mediated environment. Finds that: satisfaction with Internet providers of social support was significantly higher for high Internet users than for low Internet users, whereas low Internet users were more satisfied with their non-Internet support networks than high Internet users; and…
Rankin, Sally H.; Monahan, Patricia
Compared patient and spousal perceived support during the cardiac surgery recovery period and explored effects of social support on patient/spouse subjective mood states for 117 couples. Social support buffered the impact of caregiving burden on mood disturbance for caregiving spouses but did not significantly impact physical or mental health…
Bowling, Nathan A; Beehr, Terry A; Johnson, Adam L; Semmer, Norbert K; Hendricks, Elizabeth A; Webster, Heather A
Effects of social support are an important topic in occupational stress theories and research, yet little is known about support's potential antecedents. Based on reciprocity theory, the authors hypothesized that the social support received is related to the extent the employee performs organizational citizenship behaviors directed at individuals and to one's social competence; based on the notion of personal attraction, the authors hypothesized that employees' physical attractiveness and sense of humor would be associated with the amount of social support received. In a survey of 123 high school employees and separate ratings of their attractiveness, reciprocity variables were related but attraction variables were not related to social support availability. Further research should examine reciprocity in predicting social support.
Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris
This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.
Rapee, Ronald M; Peters, Lorna; Carpenter, Leigh; Gaston, Jonathan E
Support from social networks is generally considered to protect against mental disorder but in some circumstances support for negative behaviours (such as avoidance) may be counterproductive. Given the critical interplay between social anxiety disorder and social interactions, it is surprising that the relationship of support from significant others to this disorder has received so little attention. The current study evaluated the reciprocal relationships between perceived social support and perceived partner support for avoidance behaviours (avoidance support) among a sample of 131 participants with social anxiety disorder who were assessed three times within the context of a treatment outcome study. A new measure of partner support for avoidance behaviours was developed, called the Avoidance Support Measure, and showed adequate internal consistency and construct validity. Correlations at baseline showed significant negative relationships between perceived social support and social anxiety and significant positive relationships between avoidance support and social anxiety. Path analysis showed that perceived social support at Times 1 and 2 negatively predicted future social anxiety at Times 2 and 3. On the other hand, only a single predictive relationship involving avoidance support was significant and showed that social anxiety at Time 1 positively predicted avoidance support at Time 2. These early results point to the different ways that support from significant others might relate to social anxiety and suggest that further work in this area may be fruitful.
Gerdenitsch, Cornelia; Scheel, Tabea E.; Andorfer, Julia; Korunka, Christian
Coworking spaces are shared office environments for independent professionals. Such spaces have been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and provide, in addition to basic business infrastructure, the opportunity for social interaction. This article explores social interaction in coworking spaces and reports the results of two studies. Study 1 (N = 69 coworkers) finds that social interaction in coworking spaces can take the form of social support. Study 2 further investigates social support among coworkers (N = 154 coworkers) and contrasts these results with those of social support among colleagues in traditional work organizations (N = 609). A moderated mediation model using time pressure and self-efficacy, based on the conservation of resources theory, is tested. Social support from both sources was positively related to performance satisfaction. Self-efficacy mediated this relationship in the employee sample, while in the coworking sample, self-efficacy only mediated the relationship between social support and performance satisfaction if time pressure was high. Thus, a mobilization of social support seems necessary in coworking spaces. We conclude that coworking spaces, as modern social work environments, should align flexible work infrastructure with well-constructed opportunities for social support. PMID:27199816
Gerdenitsch, Cornelia; Scheel, Tabea E; Andorfer, Julia; Korunka, Christian
Coworking spaces are shared office environments for independent professionals. Such spaces have been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and provide, in addition to basic business infrastructure, the opportunity for social interaction. This article explores social interaction in coworking spaces and reports the results of two studies. Study 1 (N = 69 coworkers) finds that social interaction in coworking spaces can take the form of social support. Study 2 further investigates social support among coworkers (N = 154 coworkers) and contrasts these results with those of social support among colleagues in traditional work organizations (N = 609). A moderated mediation model using time pressure and self-efficacy, based on the conservation of resources theory, is tested. Social support from both sources was positively related to performance satisfaction. Self-efficacy mediated this relationship in the employee sample, while in the coworking sample, self-efficacy only mediated the relationship between social support and performance satisfaction if time pressure was high. Thus, a mobilization of social support seems necessary in coworking spaces. We conclude that coworking spaces, as modern social work environments, should align flexible work infrastructure with well-constructed opportunities for social support.
Barnes, Donelle M; Aguilar, Rocio
Social support has been linked to positive health outcomes for many populations across multiple health issues. The interactional approach defines social support as a complex, transactional process between the person and his or her social environment. Being part of a community enhances the likelihood of social bonding, leading to increased perceived support. In this study, the authors describe recently arrived adult Cuban refugees' perceptions of community-level support in Texas. Practical and emotional support needs included jobs and companionship away from everyday problems. The two major sources of practical support were resettlement agencies and other Cubans. The two major sources of emotional support were other Cubans and English-speaking friends. There were no local Cuban clubs or associations where Cubans could meet. Besides receiving support, many Cubans were also supporting other Cubans locally and in Cuba, and some experienced discrimination.
Beach, Scott R; Schulz, Richard; Sneed, Rodlescia
Social support and social networks are important correlates of elder mistreatment. This study tests hypothesized associations between perceived social support, social network size, and financial exploitation (FE). A population-based survey of 903 older adults (60+) in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) found that lower perceived social support and larger social networks were simultaneously associated with higher risk for FE since age 60, controlling for known risk factors. The same associations were found for FE in the last 6 months. Older adults with larger social networks combined with lower perceived social support were most likely to report FE. When it comes to the role of social relationships and risk for FE, "more may not always be better." Encouragement to widen the social network by "making new friends" should be stressed less than making sure these new network members will truly be supportive of the older adult.
Tyler, Kimberly A.
The current study uses longitudinal data from the 1993 U.S. Midwest floods to examine the influence of support received and support provision on changes in perceived social support among older adults exposed to an acute stressor. Results indicated that flood exposure and higher levels of social support at Time 1 were positively associated with…
Sadovaya, Victoriya V.; Simonova, Galina I.
The relevance of the problem stated in the article is determined by the need of developing technological approaches to pedagogical support of students' social adaptation. The purpose of this paper is to position the technological sequence of pedagogical support of students' social adaptation in the activities of the socio-pedagogical complex. The…
Hunter, Lisa; Lloyd-Kolkin, Donna
Traditionally, the medical field has researched the physical components of health but neglected interpersonal, social factors such as the quality of supportive relationships. To communicate the critical importance of social support to health maintenance, and to stimulate community activities which connect people and provide opportunities to…
Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed. PMID:27516753
Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed.
Thompson, Ross A
Social support has been a topic of research for nearly 50 years, and its applications to prevention and intervention have grown significantly, including programs advancing child protection. This article summarizes the central conclusions of the 1994 review of research on social support and the prevention of child maltreatment prepared for the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, and surveys advances in the field since its publication. Among the lessons learned twenty years ago are (a) the diversity of the social support needs of at-risk families and their association with child endangerment, (b) the need to supplement the emotionally affirmative aspects of social support with efforts to socialize parenting practices and monitor child well-being, (c) the desirability of integrating formal and informal sources of social support for recipients, and (d) the importance of considering the complex recipient reactions to receiving support from others. The lessons we are now learning derive from research exploring the potential of online communication to enhance social support, the neurobiology of stress and its buffering through social support, and the lessons of evaluation research that are identifying the effective ingredients of social support interventions.
Arnault, Denise Saint
Research shows that social support is essential for healthy psychological functioning. Help seeking and social support are social processes shaped by cultural understandings about how need should be expressed, to whom, and in what circumstances. This study used grounded theory methodology to examine how cultural factors regulate help seeking and social support in a sample of 25 Japanese sojourners' wives living in America. Culturally based social edicts such as mutual responsibility and in-group solidarity were found to promote help seeking and social support. In contrast, culturally specific factors such as enryo (polite deference), hierarchy, and the cultural rules governing reciprocity inhibited these behaviors. From these data, a cultural model of social exchange, allowing for cultural diversity, is proposed. This model can increase the effectiveness of nursing interventions aimed at community-based health promotion. PMID:11911381
Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Neugut, Alfred I; Ergas, Isaac J; Wright, Jaime D; Caan, Bette J; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H
We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006 to 2011 and provided data on social networks (the presence of a spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible support, emotional/informational support, affection, positive social interaction), and QOL, measured by the FACT-B, approximately 2 months post diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower versus higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR = 2.18, 95 % CI: 1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI: 1.65-2.63), social WB (OR = 3.46, 95 % CI: 2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.87) compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was "positive social interaction." However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status.
Audet, Marie-Claude; McQuaid, Robyn J.; Merali, Zul; Anisman, Hymie
Stressful events have been implicated in the evolution of mood disorders. In addition to brain neurotransmitters and growth factors, the view has been offered that these disorders might be provoked by the activation of the inflammatory immune system as well as by de novo changes of inflammatory cytokines within the brain. The present review describes the impact of social stressors in animals and in humans on behavioral changes reminiscent of depressive states as well as on cytokine functioning. Social stressors increase pro-inflammatory cytokines in circulation as well as in brain regions that have been associated with depression, varying with the animal's social status and/or behavioral methods used to contend with social challenges. Likewise, in humans, social stressors that favor the development of depression are accompanied by elevated circulating cytokine levels and conversely, conditions that limit the cytokine elevations correlated with symptom attenuation or reversal. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the potentially powerful effects of social support, social identity, and connectedness in maintaining well-being and in diminishing symptoms of depression. PMID:25565946
Audet, Marie-Claude; McQuaid, Robyn J; Merali, Zul; Anisman, Hymie
Stressful events have been implicated in the evolution of mood disorders. In addition to brain neurotransmitters and growth factors, the view has been offered that these disorders might be provoked by the activation of the inflammatory immune system as well as by de novo changes of inflammatory cytokines within the brain. The present review describes the impact of social stressors in animals and in humans on behavioral changes reminiscent of depressive states as well as on cytokine functioning. Social stressors increase pro-inflammatory cytokines in circulation as well as in brain regions that have been associated with depression, varying with the animal's social status and/or behavioral methods used to contend with social challenges. Likewise, in humans, social stressors that favor the development of depression are accompanied by elevated circulating cytokine levels and conversely, conditions that limit the cytokine elevations correlated with symptom attenuation or reversal. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the potentially powerful effects of social support, social identity, and connectedness in maintaining well-being and in diminishing symptoms of depression.
Reid, Keshia M; Taylor, Miles G
A large body of literature documents the link between social support, stress, and women's mental health during pregnancy and the postpartum period; however, uncertainty remains as to whether a direct effect or stress mediating pathway best describes the relationship between these factors. Moreover, specific dimensions of social support that may be influential (family type, sources of support) have largely been neglected. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N=4150), we examine the pathway between social support, stress exposure, and postpartum depression in greater detail. Findings reveal that social support is a significant, protective factor for postpartum depression, and the variety of support providers in a woman's social network is important, especially in the context of family type. Findings also reveal the importance of considering social support and stress exposure as part of a larger causal pathway to postpartum mental health.
Throughout the literature, teacher education is often described as being based on a specific tradition, paradigm, or agenda. Examples of these descriptions include: behavioristic, personalistic, inquiry-oriented, social reconstructionist, academic, developmentalist, and social-efficiency. These approaches are closely linked to the "beliefs and…
Negron, Rennie; Martin, Anika; Almog, Meital; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, Elizabeth A
Research has indicated that social support is a major buffer of postpartum depression. Yet little is known concerning women's perceptions on social support during the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to explore postpartum women's views and experiences with social support following childbirth. Four focus groups were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of women (n = 33) in a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. Participants had completed participation in a postpartum depression randomized trial and were 6-12 months postpartum. Data transcripts were reviewed and analyzed for themes. The main themes identified in the focus group discussions were mother's major needs and challenges postpartum, social support expectations and providers of support, how mothers mobilize support, and barriers to mobilizing support. Women across all groups identified receipt of instrumental support as essential to their physical and emotional recovery. Support from partners and families was expected and many women believed this support should be provided without asking. Racial/ethnic differences existed in the way women from different groups mobilized support from their support networks. Instrumental support plays a significant role in meeting women's basic needs during the postpartum period. In addition, women's expectations surrounding support can have an impact on their ability to mobilize support among their social networks. The results of this study suggest that identifying support needs and expectations of new mothers is important for mothers' recovery after childbirth. Future postpartum depression prevention efforts should integrate a strong focus on social support.
Social contact through informal speech, a basic adolescent need, can be most effectively developed in secondary schools through the learning, working, and creating situations of drama activities. Since drama is conflict and living language is action, the process of making a play is as important as the play. Thus, drama creation within a small…
Rossi, Giovanna; Boccacin, Lucia; Bramanti, Donatella; Meda, Stefania G
This contribution is a reflection on the concept of active ageing from the perspective of relational sociology. At the same time, it offers practical implications and outlines possible future courses of action, in the face of demographic and relational scenarios rapidly changing, and the challenges that each day people of all generations are called to cope with. Active ageing is quite a recent concept and indicates an attitude towards ageing that enhances the quality of life as people become older. The goal of active ageing is to enable people to realise their potential for physical, social and mental well-being and to participate in social life also in the last stage of the life cycle. In this phase, the presence of a network of support, security and care adequate to the possible onset of problems and criticalities is crucial. Relational sociology frames the phenomenon of an ageing population in a dense network of social relations, primarily at the level of family and community. For this reason, as supported by the most recent sociological literature and evidence from studies conducted in Italy and abroad (cf. SHARE), it is extremely important to investigate the link between active ageing, intergenerational orientation (solidarity and exchanges) and practices of prosociality (i.e. engagement in third-sector activities and volunteering in later life).
Mallinckrodt, Brent; Wei, Meifen
In this survey study of 430 undergraduates, elements of the social competencies and interpersonal processes model (B. Mallinckrodt, 2000) were tested. Two social competencies were hypothesized to mediate the direct effects of 2 independent variables, attachment anxiety and avoidance, on 2 outcomes, psychological distress and perceived social…
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…
Mason, Gillian E.; Ullman, Sarah; Long, Susan E.; Long, LaDonna; Starzynski, Laura
Limited research on revictimization has examined the role of social support, which is known to affect sexual assault survivors' psychological recovery. Measuring social support also provides a more ecological approach to understanding revictimization, as it assesses the possible role of those in the survivors' environment. The current study…
Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee
The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…
El-Bishouty, Moushir M.; Ogata, Hiroaki; Rahman, Samia; Yano, Yoneo
Social networks are helpful for people to solve problems by providing useful information. Therefore, the importance of mobile social software for learning has been supported by many researches. In this research, a model of personalized collaborative ubiquitous learning environment is designed and implemented in order to support learners doing…
Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph
Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among stress, social support, negative interaction, and mental health in a sample of African American men and women between ages 18 and 54 (N = 591) from the National Comorbidity Study. The study findings indicated that social support decreased the number of depressive symptoms,…
Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Thompson, Julia E.; Geary, Meghan A.; Schexnaildre, Mark A.; Lai, Betty S.; Kelley, Mary Lou
The Social Support Questionnaire for Children (SSQC) is a 50-item scale that assesses children's social support from parents, relatives, nonrelative adults, siblings, and peers. The SSQC demonstrates good psychometric properties (e.g., internal consistency, factorial validity). Furthermore, the SSQC appears to be an ethnically sensitive measure of…
Aquino, Juan A.; And Others
Examined the role of stressful life experiences and social support in the health of 292 community-living elderly. Findings suggest that the number of hours worked at a paying job, lower levels of depression, and greater perceived social support were directly related to higher levels of life satisfaction. (RJM)
Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.
This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…
Walsh, Anthony; Walsh, Patricia Ann
The twin processes of migration and assimilation are highly stressful. This stress can be manifested in elevated blood pressure. According to this study, immigrants receiving high levels of social support had significantly lower blood pressure levels than those receiving less social support. (VM)
Ye, Yanming; Yin, Jianwei; Xu, Yueshen
Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.
Laszig, P; Clement, U; Gramatikov, L
An explorative meta-analytic study analysed all published empirical studies on social support of HIV/AIDS patients (n = 57 studies with 347 data sets). Empirical and conceptual questions are addressed. The focus of the empirical questions is to identify meta-analytically confirmed correlates of social support. The conceptual question aims at differentiating the large-scale construct "social support". Results indicate that social support 1. is independent of objective physical parameters, 2. is positively correlated with approach coping and negatively with avoidance coping, 3. shows a substantial negative correlation with indicators of psychological distress, 4. is positively correlated with condom use. The conceptual analysis shows that 5. there is no consensus on how to operationalise the construct of "social support".
Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Pawlowski, Josiane; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto
This study investigated the different ways of evaluating the social support in Brazilian studies. A surveying of scientific Brazilian publications from 1987 to 2007 was done in the Indexpsi, Pepsic, SciELO and Lilacs databases according to keywords social support and social network. Fifty-five studies included some type of assessing social support in Brazilian samples. The results indicated a rise in the number of studies about social support assessment in the last years using interviews to investigate received and perceived support, predominantly. However, the construction was applied without theoretical basis and was associated with many other concepts, sometimes without an appropriate articulation. Besides, there were evidences of lacking reliable, valid and standardized instruments to Brazilian population by considering the instruments currently used and revised by this study.
The goal of the current project was to examine whether engaging in social activity may moderate or mediate the relation between age and cognitive functioning. A large age range sample of adults performed a variety of cognitive tests and completed a social activities questionnaire. Results did not support the moderator hypothesis, as age…
Chhabra, Surbhi; Falciglia, Grace A; Lee, Seung-Yeon
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between food security, social capital, and social support among urban food pantry users in Cincinnati. In-person interviews with 53 participants were completed using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module, Social Capital questionnaire, and Social Support questionnaire. Social capital was assessed through four subscales using a Likert scale, with a response range 1 to 4, and social support was measured by rating significant others' emotional, informational, and instrumental support as well as companionship (ranged from 0 to 4). The findings suggested that there were no significant associations among them. This may be due to a small sample size. Thus, the associations need to be examined with a larger sample. Further, a qualitative approach may be necessary to explore the contextual nature of social capital and social support related to food security.
The Association Between Physical Activity, Mental Status, and Social and Family Support with Five Major Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases Among Elderly People: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Rural Population in Southern China
Huang, Xiang; Yang, Huajie; Wang, Harry H.X.; Qiu, Yongjun; Lai, Xiujuan; Zhou, Zhiheng; Li, Fangjian; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Jiaji; Lei, Jimin
Background: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) have become the top threat in China. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of major NCDs among the elderly population in rural areas in southern China and explore its associated social determinants. Methods: A multistage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to select a total of 9245 rural elderly people from 3860 rural households in Guangdong Province. Interviews and physical examinations were performed to collect patient information. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore factors associated with the presence of major NCDs. Results: Over one-third (38.5%) of the study population suffered from five major NCDs. The grade of activities of daily living (ADL), mental status, and social relationship of elderly people without NCDs were better than those with NCDs. The major factors associated with the presence of NCDs among the elderly people included age (70–79 years group and 80–89 years group), education level (senior high/technical secondary school and junior college and above), mental status (concentration, enrichment and happy life and memory), relationship with neighbours, activities of daily living (ADL) (being able to climb three floors and bend over), physical activity, marital status (bereft), and living conditions (with offspring and family members). Conclusions: The study identified several social determinants associated with the presence of major NCDs. A higher level of family support and physical exercise might contribute to improved physical condition, mental status, and ADL among the elderly people in rural areas in southern China. PMID:26506364
Rathner, G; Schulte, P; Dunkel, D
The ISEL scale (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List) has been developed to assess social support. Despite good reliability and validity of the original scale the German version has been rately applied. Thus, perceived social support as measured by the ISEL scale was studied in a general population sample of Tyrol/Austria (n = 216). The reliability of the German ISEL version is as high as the original version. Our results showed that sociodemographic variables significantly influence scale scores: Males and rural subjects indicated more tangible support than females and urban subjects, respectively. Elder people (50-70 years) reported the lowest scale scores, except in tangible support. With the exception of tangible support, significant socioeconomic status differences were found in all dimensions of social support. However, the middle classes showed less social support than upper and lower class subjects. Income only increased tangible support, as higher educational degrees did with self-esteem support. Marital status showed no influence on scale scores, whereas unemployment decreased tangible and belonging support. Our results can be used as preliminary German language norm data for evaluating social support in epidemiological and clinical studies.
Domínguez-Fuentes, Juan Manuel; Hombrados-Mendieta, María Isabel; García-Leiva, Patricia
Since the early 1960s, social support has been a topic of interest and study among social psychologists and other professionals investigating social issues. In spite of this growing interest by the scientific community, there are few studies on social support in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community, and even fewer on the impact of social support on life satisfaction. In this regard, in Spain, there are very few psychosocial studies on homosexual groups. In the present study, the authors analyze social support data and life satisfaction in a sample of 220 gay residents of Málaga and Sevilla. The results show that friends are the most important source of overall social support, and that, in the family, sisters provide the most support and contribute to increased life satisfaction. On the other hand, social support had an effect on the level of life satisfaction, although the results indicate that factors associated with homosexual identity are the best predictors of life satisfaction. The implications of these results are discussed as well as potential future research.
Ceballo, Rosario; McLoyd, Vonnie C
This study investigated how stressful environmental conditions influence the relation between mothers' social support and parenting strategies, utilizing interview data from a sample of 262 poor, African American single mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, as well as objective data about respondents' neighborhoods. In general, the results indicated that neighborhood conditions moderate the relation between social support and parenting behaviors. Specifically, as neighborhood conditions worsened, the positive relation between emotional support and mothers' nurturant parenting was weakened. In a similar fashion, the negative relation between instrumental social support and punishment was stronger in better neighborhoods. As the surrounding environments became poorer and more dangerous, the relation between greater instrumental support and a lower reliance on punishment was weakened. Thus, on the whole, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the positive influences of social support on parenting behavior were strained and attenuated in poorer, high-crime environments.
Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis
Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.
Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Goldstein, Sara E
Social support protects individuals against adversity throughout the lifespan, and is especially salient during times of intense social change, such as during the transition to adulthood. Focusing on three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners), the current study examined the stress-buffering function of social support against loneliness and whether the association between social support and loneliness with stress held constant would vary by its source. The role of gender in these associations was also considered. The sample consisted of 636 ethnically diverse college youth (age range 18-25; 80 % female). The results suggest that the stress-buffering role of social support against loneliness varies by its source. Only support from friends buffered the association between stress and loneliness. Further, when stress was held constant, the association between social support and loneliness differed by the sources, in that support from friends or romantic partners (but not from family) was negatively associated with loneliness. Regarding gender differences, the adverse impact of lower levels of familial or friends' support on loneliness was greater in females than in males. This research advances our understanding of social support among college-aged youth; implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda
OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence. PMID:26018786
Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda
OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence.
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papakonstantinou, Doxa; Montgomery, Anthony; Solomou, Argyro
Relatively little research exists with regard to the relationship between social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Such a gap is noteworthy when one considers that individuals become more dependent on others as they enter middle and late adulthood. The present research will examine the association between social networks, social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Seventy-seven adults with visual impairments participated in the study. Depression, social network and emotional/practical social support were measured with self-report measures. Additionally, the degree to which emotional/practical social support received were positive or negative and the ability of respondents to self-manage their daily living were assessed. Less than a third of respondents scored above the threshold for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not related to gender or vision status. Depression was correlated with age, educational level, less positive practical support, more negative practical support and more negative emotional support, with lower perceptions of self-management representing the most robust predictor of depression. Age moderated the relationship between depression and self-management, and between depression and negative emotional support. Lower perceptions of self-management and negative emotional support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms.
Beck, Stephenson J; Paskewitz, Emily A; Anderson, Whitney A; Bourdeaux, Renee; Currie-Mueller, Jenna
Online support groups are attractive to individuals suffering from various types of mental and physical illness due to their accessibility, convenience, and comfort level. Individuals coping with depression, in particular, may seek social support online to avoid the stigma that accompanies face-to-face support groups. We explored how task and relational messages created social support in online depression support groups using Cutrona and Suhr's social support coding scheme and Bales's Interaction Process Analysis coding scheme. A content analysis revealed emotional support as the most common type of social support within the group, although the majority of messages were task rather than relational. Informational support consisted primarily of task messages, whereas network and esteem support were primarily relational messages. Specific types of task and relational messages were associated with different support types. Results indicate task messages dominated online depression support groups, suggesting the individuals who participate in these groups are interested in solving problems but may also experience emotional support when their uncertainty is reduced via task messages.
Prokhvatilov, A Iu
The differences in using a "social isolation" concept in the psychological literature are presented. The term of "relative social isolation" is clarified. A relationship between human adaptation to the relative social isolation environments and the development of his social qualities and social activities is presented. The "social context", dictating motivation attitudes of a man to the isolation situation, emotional experiences, self-appraisal of activity is of crucial importance for evaluating the real environments of relative social isolations. Social activity of a personality is studied as the relations of a man with the conditions of his activity. The results of studying the dynamics of the psychic state of a man during individual and group isolation are compared. It is concluded that social activity of man and his functional state are interrelated. The particular manifestations and direction of the changes in the social activity of the subject depend on the duration of isolation and are determined first of all by social significance and meaningful and balanced work for a person as well as by the amount and frequency of direct and mediated social contacts under specific conditions of relative social isolation.
Social support has multiple dimensions, the context of which can be explored by qualitative methods. In this study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 local senior center members (9 men and 12 women aged 65 and older) in Seoul, South Korea, in order to explore how they perceive and desire social support in an aging society. The qualitative methods in this study also included thematic analysis and constant comparison to identify three main themes: "no or denied support," "not to be greedy and shameless," and "justification and hopelessness." In the interviews, perceived and desired support did not emerge immediately as the participants were reluctant to share personal concerns with or to seek support from others. Nevertheless, they would turn to spouses and children for both emotional and instrumental support when in dire need. A shared norm among the participants was that seeking support would be an embarrassing and shameless act for themselves and a burden to others. They justified the discrepancy between the perceived and desired support as part of aging and felt hopelessness about it. The findings of this study have implications that implicit, individual social support may be effective than explicit, group support activities for those who are passive in recognizing the need for and seeking social support. In assessing and interpreting social support in old age, both perceived and desired support should be included and contextual approaches can be useful in so doing. The senior centers should be a more active advocate of successful aging that would offset hopelessness, negative attitude toward life, and social disconnection. Future research should focus on identifying effective strategies to bridge the gap between perceived and desired social support in older adults in this society of changing values and social norms.
Finn, Seth; Gorr, Mary Beth
Explores relationships between motivations for television viewing, including shyness, loneliness, self-esteem, and three measures of social support. Suggests viewing motivations are related to needs arising from two distinct sources: social compensation and mood management. (MS)
Castillo, Jason T.; Sarver, Christian M.
Literature and research examining non-resident fathers’ involvement with their chidren has focused primarily on the fathers’ relationship with their child’s mother. Receiving limited attention in the literature has been the inclusion of examining non-resident fathers’ social support networks, the function of these social networks—perceived and received social support, and how these social support networks affect non-resident fathers’ involvement with their children. Using data from Wave One of the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study, this study examined the social support networks non-resident fathers (n = 895) utilized in their involvement with their children. Results of the regression analyses indicate that non-resident fathers’ relationship with their child’s mother and perceived social support from their social networks contributed positively to their involvement with their children. Policy and practice implications are discussed. PMID:23288998
McDonough, Meghan H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Ullrich-French, Sarah
Physical activity experiences may contribute to psychological and social wellbeing among breast cancer survivors. The main purpose of the current study was to qualitatively explore the development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth among breast cancer survivors participating in a dragon boat program over 19 months. Guided by interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009), semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 breast cancer survivors on five occasions over their first two seasons of dragon boating. Narrative accounts were developed for each participant, and four profiles emerged describing processes of social and posttraumatic growth development over time: "developing a feisty spirit of survivorship," "I don't want it to be just about me," "it's not about the pink it's about the paddling," and "hard to get close." Profiles were discussed in terms of developing social relationships and support, providing support to others, physicality and athleticism, and negative interactions and experiences.
Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Norris, Fran H
The authors examined social causation and social selection explanations for the association between perceptions of social support and psychological distress. Data came from a sample of 557 victims of natural disaster in Mexico. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that social causation (more social support leading to less posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) explained the support-to-distress relationship in the earlier postdisaster phase, 6 to 12 months after the impact. Both causal mechanisms emerged as significant paths in the midpoint of the study (12 and 18 months). Only social selection (more PTSD leading to less social support) accounted for the support-to-distress relationship at 18 to 24 months after the event. Interpersonal and social dynamics of disasters may explain why these two contrasting causal mechanisms emerged over time.
van Well, Sonja; Kolk, Annemarie M
The objective of the present study was to examine moderating effects of gender role identification, sex, and type of support on the buffering role of social support on cardiovascular responses. We hypothesized that (a) gender role identification, more than sex, would moderate the effect of social support and (b) to obtain optimal attenuating effects of social support, type of support provided should match type of support preferred in terms of one's gender role identification. That is, feminine participants would benefit more from relatively direct support, whereas masculine participants would benefit more from indirect support. Healthy participants (N = 100) performed a psychological stressor in the presence of a friend, after mental activation of a friend, or alone. Results revealed no moderating effects of gender role identification whether or not in combination with type of support. Nevertheless, results demonstrated an attenuating effect of mental support on heart rate and cardiac output in men. It is concluded that pathways linking social relationships and health may differ between women and men.
Luther, Edith H; Canham, Daryl L; Young Cureton, Virginia
Autism in children has increased significantly in the past 15 years. The challenges and stressors associated with providing services and caring for a child with autism affect families, educators, and health professionals. This descriptive study used a survey to collect data on parents' perceptions of coping strategies and social support. Instruments included the Social Support Index and the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales. One half of the families identified serious stressors in addition to autism. Acquiring social support and reframing were the most frequently used coping strategies. The school nurse is in a position to identify needs and refer families to local support groups and agencies, facilitating social support and development of coping strategies.
Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with social phobia, depression, and comorbid social phobia and depression among girls and boys. The study sample consisted of 2070 15-year-old adolescents at baseline. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, social phobia by the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), and perceived social support by the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R). Girls reported higher scores on the PSSS-R than boys in total scores and in friend and significant other subscales. Cross-sectional PSSS-R scores were lower among adolescents with social phobia, depression, and comorbid disorder than among those without these disorders. Low PSSS-R total score and significant other subscale were risk factors for depression among both genders, and low support from friends among girls only. Low perceived social support from any source was not a risk factor for social phobia or comorbid social phobia and depression. As conclusion of the study, low perceived social support was a risk factor for depression, but not a shared risk factor for depression and social phobia. Interventions enhancing perceived social support should be an important issue in treatment of depression. PMID:25750832
Brannan, Debi; Bleistein, Tasha
As new teachers navigate the challenging first years of work, they need positive support providers (Villani, 2002). The impact of support providers on novice educators' beliefs about teaching efficacy previously went unexplored. This study examined novice English to speakers of other languages (ESOL) teachers' perceptions of social support and…
Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Schneider-Rosen, Karen
Differences in 4- and 6-year-old children's perceptions of their inner social circle, their major sources of emotional and problem solving support, their reasons for choosing a particular source of support, and the types of behaviors they view as supportive in various stressful situations were studied. Mother, father, siblings, grandparents,…
Perez, Lilli Ann; Natividad, Lisalinda; Chung, William; Haddock, Robert L.; Wenzel, Lari; Hubbell, F. Allan
Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the types of social support used by Chamorro (indigenous) breast cancer survivors on Guam. Methods We assessed social support use among 25 self-reported Chamorro women with a diagnosis of breast cancer through interviews and construction of genograms and ecomaps -pictorial displays of the women's family relationships, medical history, and their social networks. Results The mean age of the participants was 54.5 years. The average number of years since the diagnosis of breast cancer was 7.8 years. Respondents indicated that the nuclear family was the most important form of social support (34.2%). Indeed, nuclear family and other types of informal systems were the most common type of social support used by the women (60.2%). Formal support services, clubs, and organizations were reported by 17.9% of participants while spiritual and/or religious resources were reported by 21.9% of them. Conclusion These Chamorro breast cancer survivors depended largely on family for social support. Support from family, although informal, should be recognized as a pivotal factor in recovery and survivorship. Future directions could incorporate formal and informal mechanisms to utilize this natural support resource. PMID:25866489
Yli-Uotila, Tiina; Rantanen, Anja; Suominen, Tarja
Patient education in the public healthcare system does not necessarily meet the needs of patients with cancer. Because of this, they may turn to the Internet, or they are guided to electronic sources of social support. The purposes of this study were to describe what kind of social support patients with cancer receive from the Internet and its meaning for them. The data were collected using an online survey that consisted of open-ended questions based on a theory of online social support. The data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis. Online social support consisted of three categories: disease-related information from reliable sources, supportive interaction enhancing positive emotions, and practical tips for daily life with cancer. Three major categories related to the meaning of online social support were identified: peers helping make life easier, empowerment, and inadequate support. The findings can be utilized in tailoring educational interventions for patients with cancer. In the future, the long-lasting effects of online social support need to be examined.
Shirey, Maria R
The state of the science as it relates to the stress-mediating role of social support in the health care work environment is explored. The ability to build a nursing leadership workforce is dependent upon a type of social support mechanism that mediates the inherent stress that comes along with managerial positions. Independent of the inevitable work-related stress associated with the nurse manager role, social support provided to current and aspiring nurse leaders is assumed to assist with coping and thriving in the work environment.
Eisenberger, Naomi I
Decades of research have demonstrated strong links between social ties and health. Although considerable evidence has shown that social support can attenuate downstream physiological stress responses that are relevant to health, the neurocognitive mechanisms that translate perceptions of social ties into altered physiological responses are still not fully understood. This review integrates research from social and affective neuroscience to illuminate some of the neural mechanisms involved in social support processes, which may further our understanding of the ways in which social support influences health. This review focuses on two types of social support that have been shown to relate to health: receiving and giving social support. As the neural basis of receiving support, this article reviews the hypothesis that receiving support may benefit health through the activation of neural regions that respond to safety and inhibit threat-related neural and physiological responding. This article will then review neuroimaging studies in which participants were primed with or received support during a negative experience as well as studies in which self-reports of perceived support were correlated with neural responses to a negative experience. As the neural basis of giving support, this article reviews the hypothesis that neural regions involved in maternal caregiving behavior may be critical for the health benefits of support-giving through the inhibition of threat-related neural and physiological responding. Neuroimaging studies in which participants provided support to others or engaged in other related forms of prosocial behavior will then be reviewed. Implications of these findings for furthering our understanding of the relationships between social support and health are discussed.
Mechanisms supporting a shared representation of activities — or awareness—within a group of people are an important prerequisite for successful computer supported collaborative activities. This article highlights the design of awareness support from a social psychological viewpoint of human behaviour in and within groups. Based on this, design guidelines for awareness support in distributed collaboration—with an emphasis on promoting social awareness—are proposed and evaluated empirically. Results show that users awareness was influenced positively as predicted by the design guidelines.
Burkert, Silke; Kendel, Friederike; Kiep, Henriette; Holtkamp, Martin; Gaus, Verena
The present study focused on social support as a key feature of the enhancement and maintenance of mental health. So far, literature on gender differences in social support and its effects on the experience of stress in individuals with epilepsy is scarce. We hypothesized that in individuals with epilepsy, social support buffers detrimental effects of stressors (e.g., unpredictable occurrence of seizures) on mental health. Additionally, we explored the role of gender in this process. In 299 individuals with epilepsy, data from validated questionnaires on seizures in the last 3months, perceived support, social network size, and depressive symptoms were analyzed. Women reported higher depressive symptoms (t=2.51, p<.01) and higher perceived support (t=2.50, p<.01) than men. Women and men did not differ in social network size (t=-0.46, p=64), nor in experiencing seizures (χ(2)=0.07, p=.82). Regression analyses revealed no buffer effects. Perceived support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms (B=-0.49, p<.001, 95% CI [-0.67; -0.32]). With regard to depressive symptoms, social integration was slightly more beneficial for women (Bcond.=-0.06, p<.001; 95% CI [-0.09; -0.03]) than for men (Bcond.=-0.02, p=.09; 95% CI [-0.04; 0.01]). Findings present perceived support and social integration as general health resources in individuals with epilepsy regardless of previously experienced seizures. They also encourage further research on gender-specific effects in individuals with epilepsy and move towards recommendations for practitioners and gender-specific interventions. Future aims will be to enhance social integration in order to support adjustment to the chronic condition of epilepsy and to improve individuals' confidence in support interactions.
Schnall, Simone; Harber, Kent D.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.
The visual perception of geographical slant is influenced by physiological resources, such as physical fitness, age, and being physically refreshed. In two studies we tested whether a psychosocial resource, social support, can also affect the visual perception of slants. Participants accompanied by a friend estimated a hill to be less steep when compared to participants who were alone (Study 1). Similarly, participants who thought of a supportive friend during an imagery task saw a hill as less steep than participants who either thought of a neutral person or a disliked person (Study 2). In both studies, the effects of social relationships on visual perception appear to be mediated by relationship quality (i.e., relationship duration, interpersonal closeness, warmth). Artifacts such as mood, social desirability, and social facilitation did not account for these effects. This research demonstrates that an interpersonal phenomenon, social support, can influence visual perception. PMID:22389520
Cavallo, David N.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ries, Amy V.; Brown, Jane D.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Ammerman, Alice S.
Background Online social networks, such as Facebook™, have extensive reach, and they use technology that could enhance social support, an established determinant of physical activity. This combination of reach and functionality makes online social networks a promising intervention platform for increasing physical activity. Purpose To test the efficacy of a physical activity intervention that combined education, physical activity monitoring, and online social networking to increase social support for physical activity compared to an education-only control. Design RCT. Students (n=134) were randomized to two groups; education-only controls receiving access to a physical activity–focused website (n=67) and intervention participants receiving access to the same website with physical activity self-monitoring and enrollment in a Facebook group (n=67). Recruitment and data collection occurred in 2010 and 2011; data analyses were performed in 2011. Setting/participants Female undergraduate students at a large Southeastern public university. Intervention Intervention participants were encouraged through e-mails, website instructions, and moderator communications to solicit and provide social support related to increasing physical activity through a physical activity–themed Facebook group. Participants received access to a dedicated website with educational materials and a physical activity self-monitoring tool. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was perceived social support for physical activity; secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity. Results Participants experienced increases in social support and physical activity over time but there were no differences in perceived social support or physical activity between groups over time. Facebook participants posted 259 times to the group. Two thirds (66%) of intervention participants completing a post-study survey indicated that they would recommend the program to friends. Conclusions Use of an
Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal
Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…
DeFreese, J D; Smith, Alan L
Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress-burnout and burnout-well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress-burnout or burnout-well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes.
Chen, Yu; Hicks, Allan; While, Alison E
China has an ageing population with the number of older people living alone increasing. Living alone may increase the risk of loneliness of older people, especially for those in China where collectivism and filial piety are emphasised. Social support may fill the need for social contacts, thereby alleviating loneliness. However, little is known about loneliness and social support of older people living alone in China. This study investigated loneliness and social support of older people living alone, by conducting a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a stratified random cluster sample of 521 community-dwelling older people living alone in a county of Shanghai. Data were collected from November 2011 to March 2012. The instruments used included the UCLA Loneliness Scale version 3 and the Social Support Rate Scale. The participants reported a moderate level of loneliness. Their overall social support level was low compared with the Chinese norm. Children were the major source of objective and subjective support. Of the participants, 53.9% (n = 281) and 47.6% (n = 248) asked for help and confided when they were in trouble, but 84.1% (n = 438) never or rarely attended social activities. The level of loneliness and social support differed among the participants with different sociodemographic characteristics. There were negative correlations between loneliness and overall social support and its three dimensions. The findings suggest that there is a need to provide more social support to older people living alone to decrease their feelings of loneliness. Potential interventions include encouraging more frequent contacts from children, the development of one-to-one 'befriending' and group activity programmes together with identification of vulnerable subgroups.
Irvine, Angela; Lupart, Judy
Inclusion has increased the participation rates of individuals with disabilities in school, employment and recreation activities. Proper supports are needed in these environments to encourage adequate self-esteem and successful social interactions. Without positive social interactions, individuals may experience loneliness and isolation that could…
Social scientists tend to adopt either a qualitative or a quantitative perspective in research on social support. As single methods, each perspective has unique distinctions, limitations, and trade-offs. These approaches are based on differing epistemological assumptions. Qualitative research attempts to understand human behavior from the…
Väyrynen, Sai; Kesälahti, Essi; Pynninen, Tanja; Siivola, Jenny; Flotskaya, Natalia; Bulanova, Svetlana; Volskaya, Olga; Usova, Zoya; Kuzmicheva, Tatyana; Afonkina, Yulia
We argue that a key aspect of inclusive pedagogy is the interaction between the learners, their teachers and the environment. For effective interaction, learners need to develop social competence. This study explores how teachers support the development of the key social skills in schools in Finland and in Russia. The data were collected by…
Krause, Neal; Keith, Verna
Studies exposure to life stress as an explanation for gender differences in older adults' utilization of social support. Results suggest that, as stressful events increase, elderly men and women are equally likely to become more involved in their social network, while gender differences emerge in response to chronic financial strain. (JS)
Anderson, Dale Robert
A review of the clinically relevant literature on prevention of child maltreatment was conducted in an attempt to provide: (1) a definition and theoretical understanding of some aspects of prevention, child maltreatment, and social support systems; (2) a proposal of the usefulness of social isolation as an important theme in interpreting the…
High rates of lifetime trauma experiences exist among men incarcerated in US state and federal prisons. Because lifetime trauma experiences have been linked to problematic behavioral and psychiatric outcomes for incarcerated populations, trauma-informed interventions could improve post-release well-being of releasing men prisoners with trauma histories. Social support has consistently been found to have a positive impact on trauma-related outcomes in non-incarcerated populations. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that social support may be an important intervention component for releasing men prisoners with trauma experiences; yet, the relationship between trauma experiences, psychiatric and behavioral factors, and social support has received almost no attention in research with men prisoners. Using a probability sample of 165 soon-to-be-released men, the present study examined differences in certain demographic, criminal justice history, mental health, substance abuse, and social support (type, quality, amount, and source) variables between releasing men prisoners with and without lifetime trauma experiences. Results indicate that men with trauma histories had more negative social support experiences and fewer positive social support resources before prison than their counterparts. Men with trauma histories also had more lifetime experiences with mental health and substance use problems. On further investigation of the subsample of men with trauma histories, those who were older, had substance use disorders, and histories of mental health problems anticipated fewer post-release social support resources. Study findings underscore the nuances of social support for men prisoners with trauma experiences and point to implications for future directions in targeted trauma-informed intervention development for releasing men prisoners.
Dixon, Denise; Cruess, Stacy; Kilbourn, Kristin; Klimas, Nancy; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Ironson, Gail; Baum, Andrew; Schneiderman, Neil; Antoni, Michael H
The current study investigated the impact of a severe environmental stressor and the role that declining social integration played in mediating its effect on loneliness and immune status. Increased loneliness and decreased social support in the months following the stressor (storm) were significantly associated with increased HHV-6 antibody titers, reflecting poorer control over the virus. Poorer social integration mediated the relationship between loneliness and HHV-6, even after controlling for nonspecific polyclonal B-cell activation, disease status (CD3+CD4+ cell counts), living arrangements, acute social losses (bereavement), and potential disruptions in social-support resources. These findings suggest that specific elements of social support may explain the oft-noted negative effects of loneliness on the immune system, and generalized to a medically vulnerable population.
Hynie, Michaela; Crooks, Valorie A; Barragan, Jackeline
Recent immigrants and refugees (newcomers) vary on many dimensions but do share similar challenges. Newcomers must rebuild social networks to obtain needed social support but often face social exclusion because of their race, language, religion, or immigrant status. In addition, most have limited access to personal, social, and community resources. Effects of situational and personal variables on the benefits and limitations associated with the social networks of female newcomers were explored through interviews and focus groups with 87 women from 7 communities. Using thematic analysis, the authors identify 5 sources of informal support across all 7 communities, which were almost exclusively limited to co-ethnic relationships, and the types of support, limitations, and reciprocity within each. Perceived support was strongest from family and close friends and, when support from close relationships was unavailable, from primary care providers. The results suggest that co-ethnic peer support networks may be overwhelmed in newcomer communities because of their limited size and resources.
Clinton, M; Lunney, P; Edwards, H; Weir, D; Barr, J
Prompted by the continuing transition to community care, mental health nurses are considering the role of social support in community adaptation. This article demonstrates the importance of distinguishing between kinds of social support and presents findings from the first round data of a longitudinal study of community adaptation in 156 people with schizophrenia conducted in Brisbane, Australia. All clients were interviewed using the relevant subscales of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule to confirm a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia. The study set out to investigate the relationship between community adaptation and social support. Community adaptation was measured with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Life Skills Profile (LSP) and measures of dissatisfaction with life and problems in daily living developed by the authors. Social support was measured with the Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ASSIS). The BPRS and ASSIS were incorporated into a client interview conducted by trained interviewers. The LSP was completed on each client by an informal carer (parent, relative or friend) or a professional carer (case manager or other health professional) nominated by the client. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between community adaptation and four sets of social support variables. Given the order in which variables were entered in regression equations, a set of perceived social support variables was found to account for the largest unique variance of four measures of community adaptation in 96 people with schizophrenia for whom complete data are available from the first round of the three-wave longitudinal study. A set of the subjective experiences of the clients accounted for the largest unique variance in measures of symptomatology, life skills, dissatisfaction with life, and problems in daily living. Sets of community support, household support and functional variables accounted for less variance
Keating, David M; Rains, Stephen A
The reported study explored the implications of informal computer-mediated social support for the well-being of individuals coping with illness over the course of 3 years. A panel study was conducted in which respondents--bloggers writing about their experiences living with a health condition--reported on their perceptions of social support and well-being during 2010 and again during 2013. Among respondents who completed both questionnaires (n = 49), increases in support availability from family and friends were related to improvements in bloggers' health self-efficacy as well as improvements in bloggers' loneliness, particularly among those who also experienced increased support availability from blog readers. Increased blog reader support availability was associated with improvements in bloggers' health-related uncertainty. Among respondents who completed the initial questionnaire (N = 121), a survival analysis showed that neither support available from family and friends nor support from blog readers predicted continued health blogging over the 3-year period.
McKimmie, Blake M; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Mathews, Rebecca; Moffat, Kieren
Workers who experience fire in the workplace are faced with disruption to their work routine, as well as the emotional strain of the fire. In the broader occupational stress literature, researchers have suggested that social support will be most effective at reducing the negative effects of stressors on strain when the type of support matches the type of stressor being experienced (either instrumental or emotional). This study was a preliminary investigation into employee responses to less routine stressors, such as workplace fires, and the role of different sources of social support in predicting coping effectiveness. This study also was a first attempt at considering the influence of the social context (in terms of group identification) on the effectiveness of social support as a predictor of coping effectiveness. Specifically, it was predicted that social support would be more effective when it came from multiple sources within the organization, that it would be especially effective when provided from a group that workers identified more strongly with, and that simply feeling part of a group would improve adjustment. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 33 employees who had recently experienced a significant fire in their workplace. Results suggested that the type of stressors experienced and the type of support were mismatched, but despite this, coping effectiveness was generally moderate to high. There was mixed support for predictions about the effects of social support-no moderating effect of group identification on coping effectiveness was observed for measures of workplace support, although it did moderate the effects of family support on this adjustment indicator.
Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin; Krick, Kathrin
Social development may vary depending on contextual factors, such as attending a day school or a boarding school. The present study compares students from these school types with regard to the achievement of specific social goals, perceived social support, and reported prosocial behaviour. A sample of 701 students was examined. Students from…
Potoczniak, Daniel J.; Aldea, Mirela A.; DeBlaere, Cirleen
This study examined a model in which the relationship between social anxiety and two dimensions of ego identity (commitment and exploration) was expected to be mediated by social support and self-concealment for a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals (N=347). Statistically significant paths were found from social anxiety to social…
Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie
This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…
Elias, Maurice J.; Haynes, Norris M.
Despite living in disadvantaged urban communities experiencing social and economic hardships, many children emerge with positive outcomes. Social-emotional competence and social support were hypothesized to have strong influences on academic trajectories during the critical period of academic skill acquisition. Participants were 282 third-grade…
This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…
Johnson, Jennifer E.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Miranda, Robert; Rizzo, Christie J.; Justus, Alicia N.; Clum, George
Knowing where criminal justice involved teens look for support and whether those supports reduce depression has important and possibly gender-specific treatment implications for this vulnerable population. This study examines the relationships between social support and depression in a mixed-gender sample of 198 incarcerated adolescents. Greater support from families and overall and greater satisfaction with supports predicted lower depression for boys and girls. Support from siblings and extended family strongly predicted lower depression; support from parents and from friends was either not related or only weakly related to depression. Girls reported higher levels of depression, more support from friends and extended family, and less support from parents than did boys. Family, sibling, and overall support were stronger predictors of depression for girls than for boys. Results suggest that non-parent family members, especially siblings and extended family, provide important emotional resources for teens in the criminal justice system. PMID:20937728
Barth, James L.
Tested in secondary schools and college classrooms, these social studies activities illustrate an integrated social studies curriculum as advocated by "The Social Studies Curriculum Guidelines" of the National Council for the Social Studies. There are four major chapters dealing with (1) civics and U.S. government, (2) global and international…
Angley, Meghan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace
Depression is known to mediate the association between low social support and parenting competence in adult mothers, but this relationship is rarely assessed in adolescent mothers and fathers. The primary aim of this study was to identify the association between social support, family functioning and social capital on parenting competence, including self-efficacy and satisfaction in adolescent mothers and their partners. Secondary aims included identifying potential partner effects (e.g. whether a partner's social support influenced the respondent's parenting efficacy). Data was obtained from a subset of participants from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescent females and their partners. Couples completed individual structured interviews via audio computer-assisted self-interview during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. To measure the influence of support on parenting outcomes, multi-level modeling was used to assess the Actor-Partner Interdependence model, which examines responses from both members of a dyad in a single analysis. Greater social support was associated with increased parenting self-efficacy (B = 0.062, p = 0.006) and parenting satisfaction (B = 0.111, p < 0.001). Higher family functioning was also associated with greater parenting satisfaction (B = 0.05, p = 0.035). Greater partner family functioning was associated with higher parenting satisfaction (B = 0.047, p = 0.026). This study found the importance of a strong support structure during pregnancy on perceived parenting competence in the early postpartum period for young mothers and fathers. Both social support and family functioning during pregnancy were associated with a greater sense of parenting competence, and these associations were mediated by parental depression. The results of this study underscore the importance of providing social support for young expectant fathers as well as mothers.
Many universities implement programs and interventions to increase students' perceived instrumental social support within the classroom setting, yet to date, no measures exist to adequately assess such perceptions. In response to this need, the current research developed an operational definition of instrumental classroom social support and also…
Stevenson, Howard C.; And Others
Explores the relationship between adolescent reports of the level of kinship support they experience as members of an extended family network and racial socialization beliefs. Responses from 229 African American adolescents support the hypothesis that adolescent perceptions of the importance of racial socialization relate directly to perceived…
Heightened levels of support provision are systematically observed in adults immediately following natural disasters, yet knowledge about adolescents' social support provision is less extensive. This longitudinal study of 262 adolescents assessed their help-providing behaviors during and after a flood. It was hypothesized that social support provided by adolescents would relate to subsequent perceptions of their relationships with others and perceptions of the self. Descriptive analyses demonstrated that the majority of respondents reported that they provided tangible, emotional, and informational support to others in need. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that higher levels of support provided following the flood were subsequently associated with higher levels of perceived social support, a stronger sense of community at school, and greater propensity to engage in proactive coping. These associations were statistically significant, controlling for the impact of exposure to disaster stressors, age, gender, and received social support. Theoretical considerations and practical implications related to processes of social support provisions in times of stress are discussed.
McKay, Mary McKernan; Atkins, Marc S; Hawkins, Tracie; Brown, Catherine; Lynn, Cynthia J
Parents (n = 161) and teachers (n = 18) from an urban elementary school serving primarily African American children completed questionnaires regarding racial socialization, social support, and involvement in activities that support youth educational achievement at home and school. Parental reports of racism awareness, and contact with school staff were significantly correlated with parent reports of at-home involvement and at-school involvement. Parent reports of social support from the parent community were significantly related to at-home involvement only. Relative to teacher reports, parents reported more formal contacts with school staff, and higher levels of racism awareness, religiosity, and African American cultural pride. Teachers and parents agreed on school climate and parental levels of at-home and at-school involvement. The results suggest that racial socialization processes are related to parent involvement in children's schooling and that increased efforts are needed to bridge a cultural gap between parents and teachers in inner-city communities.
Schmidt, Steven D; Blank, Thomas O; Bellizzi, Keith M; Park, Crystal L
This cross-sectional study investigated attachment style, coping strategies, social support, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in 54 cancer survivors. Secure attachment was significantly associated with active coping, positive reframing, and religion, and these were all associated with PTG. Insecure types of attachment and social support variables were unrelated to PTG. Regression analysis suggests that positive reframing and religion as coping strategies may mediate the relationship between secure attachment and PTG.
Gauthier, Alain P.; Lariviere, Michel; Pong, Raymond; Snelling, Susan J.; Young, Nancy L.
Researchers have found important differences among population sub-groups when considering their "determinants of physical activity". The health of Francophones and Northern Ontario residents in Canada has been assessed as relatively poorer than the general population. Understanding the determinants of physical activity in these…
Frisch, Johanna U; Häusser, Jan A; van Dick, Rolf; Mojzisch, Andreas
In many situations humans are influenced by the behavior of other people and their relationships with them. For example, in stressful situations supportive behavior of other people as well as positive social relationships can act as powerful resources to cope with stress. In order to study the interplay between these variables, this protocol describes two effective experimental manipulations of social relationships and supportive behavior in the laboratory. In the present article, these two manipulations are implemented in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)-a standard stress induction paradigm in which participants are subjected to a simulated job interview. More precisely, we propose (a) a manipulation of the relationship between different protagonists in the TSST by making a shared social identity salient and (b) a manipulation of the behavior of the TSST-selection committee, which acts either supportively or unsupportively. These two experimental manipulations are designed in a modular fashion and can be applied independently of each other but can also be combined. Moreover, these two manipulations can also be integrated into other stress protocols and into other standardized social interactions such as trust games, negotiation tasks, or other group tasks.
Moeller, Christin; Chung-Yan, Greg A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how various types of workplace social support from different support sources interact with occupational stressors to predict the psychological well-being of university professors. Design/method/approach: A total of 99 full-time professors participated via an online or paper questionnaire. Findings:…
Dolan, Pat; Brady, Bernadine
Youth mentoring can be an effective way of supporting troubled youth, helping them sustain positive mental health, cope with stress, and lead successful lives through adolescence and into adulthood. This book is a comprehensive guide to youth mentoring programmes, illustrating how, if managed well, they can increase the social support available to…
Ceballo, Rosario; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
This study investigated how stressful environmental conditions influence the relation between mothers' social support and parenting strategies among poor, African American single mothers and their young adolescent children. Findings indicated that as neighborhood conditions worsened, the positive relation between emotional support and mothers'…
necessary for altering threat evaluation and enhancing self - esteem . Informational support, also referred to as appraisal support, describes the availability...1994). Social connections have been shown to enhance mood, reinforce self - esteem , and introduce adaptive coping resources for stress (Spiegel, Bloom...6MWT), self -reported symptoms as indicated by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), and levels of the biomarker BNP). Methods. Ninety
Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.
The influence of isolation and confinement on social support and depressed mood was examined in a study of 235 men and women who spent a year at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and a study of 77 men and women who spent a year at the Amundson-Scott South Pole Station. Although availability of support remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in reported satisfaction with support obtained, as well as a significant increase in depressed mood. Satisfaction with support was inversely associated with depressed mood at the beginning and end of isolation and confinement. At the end of winter, this association varied by source of support. High levels of tension-anxiety, depression and anger preceded an increase in advice seeking, but high levels of advice seeking also preceded an increase in tension-anxiety and depression. Results suggest a significant erosion of social support under conditions of prolonged isolation and confinement, leading to an increase in depressed mood.
Chaichanawirote, Uraiwan; Higgins, Patricia A
The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed snapshot of the diversity of social support networks of 95 independent-living older adults (mean age = 76). Participants in the convenience sample were recruited from senior centers and a retirement community. Using the Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule and egocentric network analysis, participants' networks are described in terms of patterns, density, size of positive networks (available and utilized), size of negative networks (available and utilized), support need, and support satisfaction. Each participant and the identified members of his or her network were considered a complex adaptive system. Network boundary was 7 members; average network size was 6.22 members (SD = 1.50); network density was moderate (mean = 0.53, SD = 0.33); positive interaction networks were larger than negative networks; and overall, participants reported moderate support need (mean = 2.5, SD = 0.7) and high support satisfaction (mean = 5.9, SD = 1.0).
Howard, Siobhán; Creaven, Ann-Marie; Hughes, Brian M; O'Leary, Éanna D; James, Jack E
The benefits of perceived social support for physical and psychological health are well-established. However, little research has explored associations between perceived social support and cardiovascular reactivity in older adults. This exploratory study recruited a sample of older adults (Mage=69years, SD=5.62) and examined quality and quantity of perceived social support as predictors of cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory-based stress (N=39 participants) and ambulatory cardiovascular activity in everyday life (n=28). The results suggest that quality, but not quantity, of perceived social support predicts reduced blood pressure reactivity to stress in the laboratory. Although quality of support was not associated with ambulatory blood pressure, results suggest that quantity of daily social support may be associated with higher ambulatory heart rate, but not with social contact during measurement. This preliminary study extends prior work on social support and cardiovascular function to a group of older adults in both laboratory and field settings. Challenges for much-needed future research in this area are discussed.
Watkins, Christopher D; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C
Most previous studies of individual differences in women's and men's preferences for sexually dimorphic physical characteristics have focused on the importance of mating-related factors for judgments of opposite-sex individuals. Although studies have suggested that people may show stronger preferences for feminine individuals of both sexes under conditions where social support may be at a premium (e.g., during phases of the menstrual cycle where raised progesterone prepares women's bodies for pregnancy), these studies have not demonstrated that perceptions of available social support directly influence femininity preferences. Here we found that (1) women and men randomly allocated to low social support priming conditions demonstrated stronger preferences for feminine shape cues in own- and opposite-sex faces than did individuals randomly allocated to high social support priming conditions and (2) that people perceived men and women displaying feminine characteristics as more likely to provide them with high-quality social support than those displaying relatively masculine characteristics. Together, these findings suggest that social support influences face preferences directly, potentially implicating facultative responses whereby people increase their preferences for pro-social individuals under conditions of low social support.
Boudewyns, Vanessa; Himelboim, Itai; Hansen, Derek L; Southwell, Brian G
Stigmatized topics, such as HIV/STD, likely constrain related information sharing in ways that should be apparent in social interactions both on and off the Internet. Specifically, the authors predicted that the more people perceive an issue as stigmatized, the less likely they are to talk about the issue both privately (with sexual partners and peers) and publicly (on Twitter). Study 1 tested the effect of stigma on conversations at the individual level: The authors asked a group of participants (N = 138) about perceived STD-testing stigma, interactions with a sexual partner, and conversations with peers about STD testing. Study 2 assessed whether health conditions, in the aggregate, were less likely to generate social media activity as a function of current stigmatization. Using 259,758 archived Twitter posts mentioning 13 medical conditions, the authors tested whether level of stigma predicted the volume of relevant social media conversation, controlling for each condition's amount of advocacy and Google search popularity from a user's perspective. Findings supported our hypotheses. Individuals who reported perceiving a given health conditions in more stigmatic ways also reported interacting less with others about that topic; Twitter results showed a similar pattern. Results also suggest a more complex story of influence, as funding from the National Institutes of Health (i.e., each conditions amount of advocacy) associated with the examined health conditions also predicted Twitter activity. Overall, these results indicated that stigma had a similar, dampening effect on face-to-face and Twitter interactions. Findings hold theoretical and practical implications, which are discussed.
Interviewed elite skiers who had recovered from serious injuries about stress associated with injury and the role of social support in recovery. Skiers needed various types of emotional, informational, and tangible support from the occurrence of injury through the return to full activity. Treatment team members, ski team members and home support…
Pilcher, June J.; Bryant, Stewart A.
Self-control is an intricate component of decision making and effectively managing day-to-day life. Failing to maintain adequate self-control can have negative effects on many desired goals and social experiences. As such, understanding how different facets of the human experience may affect self-control is an important undertaking. One area that is yet unclear is the possible relationships between social support and self-control. Research suggests that social support can be an effective resource in reducing stress and promoting health and well-being. Research has also indicated that stress can be a limiting factor on self-control. In contrast, few studies have focused on social support as a potential resource for self-control. The goal of this mini-review article is to explore the intersections between self-control and social support and encourage integration of these two relatively independent areas of research. This review will help provide a broader understanding of self-control resources and how we can better understand the relationships between social well-being and our ability to monitor and utilize our capacity to maintain self-control. PMID:27965551
Gray, Jennifer B
Pregnancy is a time of uncertainty and stress for many women, and these aspects are compounded for those facing unplanned pregnancies. Social support communication is considered a vital part of healthy outcomes in pregnancy but is largely unexplored in the unplanned pregnancy context, particularly for college-aged young women. The present study aimed to identify various dimensions of social support in unplanned pregnancy for this population, including support types desired and enacted, sources of support, support types helpful in various stages of this health experience, and message strategies used in helpful support communication. Results of an online semi-structured survey exploring message content and these other elements were analyzed through qualitative and quantitative content analysis as well as statistical analysis. Nurturing support, specifically network support, was found to be most desired in this health context, and the message strategies found in the most helpful support messages differed according to support type. Source and timing of support were also factors in the most helpful types of support in this context. Implications of these results will be discussed in terms of future research in social support in the unplanned pregnancy context.
Simioni, Angelita Dos Santos; Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter
This study of qualitative approach aimed at knowing the perception of mothers of premature newborn concerning the social support received in the home care. The sample included 12 mothers of premature, older than 20 years, in the coverage area of Family Health Units of Passo Fundo-RS. The data were collected through semi-structured interview, genogram and echomap. The thematic analysis evidenced the grandmothers as builders and maintaining of the social nest; the discouragement of the abandonment; the safe base; and the social inclusion promoted by the friends. The social support not supplied is centered in the care to the newborn and in the activities of the home. This way, the mothers' perception reveals a predominant intrafamiliar support, whose expansion would allow configuring a more effective social net for the strengthness of the maternal care.
Atukunda, Esther C; Musiimenta, Angella; Musinguzi, Nicholas; Wyatt, Monique A; Ashaba, Justus; Ware, Norma C; Haberer, Jessica E
SMS is a widely used technology globally and may also improve ART adherence, yet SMS notifications to social supporters following real-time detection of missed doses showed no clear benefit in a recent pilot trial. We examine the demographic and social-cultural dynamics that may explain this finding. In the trial, 63 HIV-positive individuals initiating ART received a real-time adherence monitor and were randomized to two types of SMS reminder interventions versus a control (no SMS). SMS notifications were also sent to 45 patient-identified social supporters for sustained adherence lapses. Like participants, social supporters were interviewed at enrollment, following their matched participant's adherence lapse and at exit. Social supporters with regular income (RR = 0.27, P = 0.001) were significantly associated with fewer adherence lapses. Instrumental support was associated with fewer adherence lapses only among social supporters who were food secure (RR = 0.58, P = 0.003). Qualitative interview data revealed diverse and complex economic and relationship dynamics, affecting social support. Resource availability in emotionally positive relationships seemingly facilitated helpful support, while limited resources prevented active provision of support for many. Effective social support appeared subject to social supporters' food security, economic stability and a well-functioning social network dependent on trust and supportive disclosure.
Paterson, Barbara L; Brewer, Joan; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg
The purpose of this scoping review was to determine what the relevant research informs us about which parents of children with chronic disease and/or disability are likely to engage in an on-line social support program and why they choose to be engaged. The review included 16 peer-reviewed research reports about on-line social support offered to parents of children with chronic disease and/or disability. It was conducted using scoping review approaches recommended by H. Arskey and L. O'Malley (2005). A key finding of this review is that it appears that the development of on-line social support interventions for parents may not have integrated what is known in the field of Internet technology as necessary to engage users. This has implications for nurses wishing to provide on-line social support for parents. As well, it highlights future directions for research, including investigations of which parents are likely to engage in on-line social support interventions and the features of the intevention that will attract and sustain them as participants.
Hefner, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Daniel
This study is the first, to our knowledge, to evaluate the relationship between mental health and social support in a large, random sample of college students. A Web-based survey was administered at a large, public university, with 1,378 students completing the measures in this analysis (response rate = 57%). The results support our hypothesis that students with characteristics differing from most other students, such as minority race or ethnicity, international status, and low socioeconomic status, are at greater risk of social isolation. In addition, the authors found that students with lower quality social support, as measured by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, were more likely to experience mental health problems, including a sixfold risk of depressive symptoms relative to students with high quality social support. These results may help administrators and health providers to identify more effectively the population of students at high risk for mental illness and develop effective interventions to address this significant and growing public health issue.
One of the most intriguing characteristics of interpersonal dependency is its ability to predict elevated levels of social support. Yet studies of interpersonal dependency use various measures to assess this effect. In this study, I compared 3 commonly used measures of interpersonal dependency in terms of their prediction of social support: Hirschfield's Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI; Hirschfeld et al., 1977), the dependency factor of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D'Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976), and the Dependency subscale of the Personal Style Inventory (PSI; Robins et al., 1994). A total of 152 undergraduates were administered these measures as well as measures of depressive symptoms and social support a week prior to their first exam period and a week after this period (interval time = 8 weeks). DEQ-dependency predicted an increase in social support, whereas PSI-Dependency and IDI predicted a decrease in social support over time. DEQ-dependency appears to capture better than the other 2 measures the dialectic tension between risk and resilience in interpersonal dependency.
Guiry, John J; van de Ven, Pepijn; Nelson, John; Warmerdam, Lisanne; Riper, Heleen
In this paper, the authors describe a method of accurately detecting human activity using a smartphone accelerometer paired with a dedicated chest sensor. The design, implementation, testing and validation of a custom mobility classifier are also presented. Offline analysis was carried out to compare this custom classifier to de-facto machine learning algorithms, including C4.5, CART, SVM, Multi-Layer Perceptrons, and Naïve Bayes. A series of trials were carried out in Ireland, initially involving N=6 individuals to test the feasibility of the system, before a final trial with N=24 subjects took place in the Netherlands. The protocol used and analysis of 1165min of recorded activities from these trials are described in detail in this paper. Analysis of collected data indicate that accelerometers placed in these locations, are capable of recognizing activities including sitting, standing, lying, walking, running and cycling with accuracies as high as 98%.
Canesqui, Ana Maria; Barsaglini, Reni Aparecida
This article analyses the themes and conceptual-theoretical approaches of the social support in the literature from important international journals about social sciences and medicine, and in from 1983 to 2005 are analyzed. 259 international and 57 national abstracts was reading for the identification and computing the relations of the social support with health/disease/care. A deeper conceptual analysis about social support and the theories of social science were reported in an intentional sample of 56 international and 18 national texts. The international literature is based on the social psychology, in the several trends of the sociology and of the political science and less in the anthropology. The national literature dialogues less with the psychosocial theories and more with the sociological and anthropological theories. In this latter literature the social support approaches are concerned with social network theories; reciprocity, exchanges and cultural values. It is concluded that different trends guide the conceptual-theoretical analyses of the social support, being the international literature older, wider, more diversified and empirical, but with scarce anthropological production. The national literature is more reflexive them empirical.
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A.
Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18–35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. PMID:27297612
Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Wu, Liyun; Lewis, Marilyn W
HIV/AIDS, a chronic burden in Ghana, poses social and health outcome concerns to those infected. Examining the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) instrument among 300 Ghanaians from a cross-sectional design, Principal Component Analysis yielded four factors (positive interaction, trust building, information giving, and essential support), which accounted for 85.73% of the total variance in the MOS-SSS. A logistic regression analysis showed that essential support was the strongest predictor of the length of time an individual stayed in the support group, whereas positive interaction indicated negative association. The study's implications for policy, research, and practice were discussed.
Arrington, Michael Irvin
This article inquires into whether and how uncertainty reduction theory and problematic integration theory, two theories relevant to social support as enacted within a chapter of the Man-to-Man prostate cancer support group, inform us of how such groups can assist group members most effectively. Interview data from members of a prostate cancer support group shed light on theoretical assumptions about uncertainty. Although the group applies elements of both theories, prostate cancer survivors likely would benefit from a more comprehensive and flexible treatment of social support theory.
Haslam, S Alexander; O'Brien, Anne; Jetten, Jolanda; Vormedal, Karine; Penna, Sally
The social identity/self-categorization model of stress suggests that social identity can play a role in protecting group members from adverse reactions to strain because it provides a basis for group members to receive and benefit from social support. To examine this model, two studies were conducted with groups exposed to extreme levels of strain: patients recovering from heart surgery (Study 1), bomb disposal officers and bar staff (Study 2). Consistent with predictions, in both studies there was a strong positive correlation between social identification and both social support and life/job satisfaction and a strong negative correlation between social identification and stress. In both studies path analysis also indicated that social support was a significant mediator of the relationship between (a) social identification and stress and (b) social identification and life/job satisfaction. In addition, Study 2 revealed that group membership plays a significant role in perceptions of how stressful different types of work are. Implications for the conceptualization of stress and social support are discussed.
McDougall, Matthew A; Walsh, Michael; Wattier, Kristina; Knigge, Ryan; Miller, Lindsey; Stevermer, Michalene; Fogas, Bruce S
This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use.
Jia, Cunxian; Zhang, Jie
The study is aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Duke Social Support Scale (DSSI) in young rural Chinese individuals (379 suicides, 411 controls) aged 15-34 years. Social support was measured by 23-item DSSI, which included Social Interaction Scale, Subjective Social Support, and Instrumental Social Support. DSSI had high…
Arnberg, Filip K; Hultman, Christina M; Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom
Social support buffers the negative impact of stressful events. Less, however, is known about the characteristics of this association in the context of disaster and findings have been discrepant regarding direct and buffering effects. This study tested whether the protective effects of social support differed across levels of exposure severity (i.e., buffered distress) and assessed whether the buffering effect differed between event-specific and general distress. Participants were 4,600 adult Swedish tourists (44% of invited; 55% women) repatriated within 3 weeks after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. A survey 14 months after the disaster included the Crisis Support Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Social support buffered the negative impact of exposure on both outcomes. The support and distress association ranged from very small in participants with low exposure to moderate in those with high exposure (η(p)(2) = .004 to .053). The buffering effect was not found to differ between the IES-R and GHQ-12, F(2, 4589) = 0.87, p = .42. The findings suggest that social support moderates the stressor-distress relationship after disasters. This study might help explain discrepant findings and point to refinements of postdisaster interventions.
Kroenke, Candyce H; Michael, Yvonne; Tindle, Hilary; Gage, Elizabeth; Chlebowski, Rowan; Garcia, Lorena; Messina, Catherine; Manson, Joann E; Caan, Bette J
Though larger social networks are associated with reduced breast cancer mortality, there is a need to clarify how both social support and social burden influence this association. We included 4,530 women from the Women's Health Initiative who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1993 and 2009, and provided data on social networks (spouse or intimate partner, religious ties, club ties, and number of first-degree relatives) before diagnosis. Of those, 354 died during follow-up, with 190 from breast cancer. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations of social network members with risk of post-diagnosis mortality, further evaluating associations by social support and social burden (caregiving, social strain). In multivariate-adjusted analyses, among women with high but not low social support, being married was related to lower all-cause mortality. By contrast, among women with high but not low social burden, those with a higher number of first-degree relatives, including siblings, parents, and children, had higher all-cause and breast cancer mortality (among caregivers: 0-3 relatives (ref), 4-5 relatives, HR = 1.47 (95% CI: 0.62-3.52), 6-9 relatives, HR = 2.08 (95% CI: 0.89-4.86), 10+ relatives, HR = 3.55 (95% CI: 1.35-9.33), P-continuous = 0.02, P-interaction = 0.008). The association by social strain was similar though it was not modified by level of social support. Other social network members were unrelated to mortality. Social relationships may have both adverse and beneficial influences on breast cancer survival. Clarifying these depends on understanding the context of women's relationships.
Charyton, Christine; Elliott, John O; Lu, Bo; Moore, J Layne
Previous studies have found that psychosocial factors have the greatest impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Social support can buffer the negative impact of stressful events and chronic health conditions. To date, no population studies have examined the association between social support and epilepsy. In the 2003 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), four questions were used to assess social support. A set of survey weight-adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted with self-rated health status as the outcome. In those regression models, we examined the effect of epilepsy status, social support, and their interactions, after controlling for demographics. Analyses examining the interaction between epilepsy and social support showed a significant interaction between epilepsy and "availability of someone to love you and make you feel wanted." Once demographics were controlled for, persons without epilepsy and poor affectionate support reported fair/poor self-rated health status (odds ratio=1.7). Persons with epilepsy and good affectionate support also reported fair/poor self-rated health status (odds ratio=3.3). Persons with epilepsy and poor affectionate support were the most likely to report fair/poor self-rated health status (odds ratio=9.1). Persons with epilepsy need encouragement to actively seek and sustain supportive personal relationships that may help improve their quality of life.
Riches, Vivienne C.; Harman, Anthony D.; Keen, Deb; Pennell, Donna; Harley, Jane H.; Walker, Michelle
Background: Active support is being introduced in many residential and respite homes in an effort to improve engagement in meaningful activity of people with intellectual disability. Method: A train-the-trainer approach was used in a large government organisation that supports people with intellectual disability in Australia. Five apprentice…
Keating, David M
This study examined supportive messages in spiritual and non-spiritual online support groups for depression. Both social support and religiosity have been associated with reduced depressive symptomology. Proportions of three types of support (i.e., informational, emotional, and network) were considered; messages were further delineated as being either religious or non-religious in nature. Messages (N=2,674) from two Christian and two unaffiliated online groups were analyzed. Results indicated that Christian groups communicated more informational support and General groups communicated more network support. Christian groups communicated more religious messages. This and future research is valuable to practitioners and clergy aiding depressed individuals and to the literature on social support and religion.
Leininger, Lindsey Jeanne; Ryan, Rebecca M; Kalil, Ariel
This study examined the association between low-income mothers' perceived social support and the prevalence of their children's medically treated accidents and injuries. Data were drawn from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS), an experimental evaluation of 11 welfare-to-work programs in seven U.S. cities. In regression models, maternal social support was significantly associated with the likelihood that children experienced an accident or injury between the ages of 8 and 10 such that children of mothers with very limited support were at the highest risk. This association was robust to the inclusion of a wide range of controls, including a prior measure of accident and injury occurrence. A primary finding was that only children whose mothers had the lowest levels of social support, characterized here as socially isolated, suffered significantly higher rates of injury. This suggests that social isolation presents a meaningful threat to child safety and may play an important role in the etiology of child injury among low-income families.
Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G
The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and
Hooley, Tristram; Matheson, Jesse; Watts, A. G.
Career guidance describes activities that support individuals in learning about education and employment, and in planning for their future lives, learning, and work. These activities contribute to social mobility, which helps people discover and access opportunities that might exist outside of their immediate networks. Changes in funding and in…
Ellenberg, Eytan; Sasporte, Jacob; Bar-On, Zvia; Sfez, Rolland; Cohen, Osnat; Taragin, Mark; Ostfeld, Ishay
Since its foundation, the State of Israel has been affected by terror violence toward its civilian population. For more than 45 years, the Israeli legislation has built a legal insurance allowing citizens casualties of such violence to benefit from specific coverage and support. The objective of this article is to describe the history, legal framework, and organization of social support for terror victims in Israel.
Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies
Drawing from social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), this study explored social supports' influence on the career choice consideration of farmers during China's current process of urbanization. A questionnaire was designed based on interviews with 140 people and a pretest with a sample of 419 participants. A total of 628…
Israel, Barbara A.
Focuses on the linkage between social support and social networks and health educational programs that involve interventions at the network and community level. Addresses programs enhancing entire networks through natural helpers; and programs strengthening overlapping networks/communities through key opinion and informal leaders who are engaged…
The purpose of the study was to examine direct and indirect effects of social support, social connectedness, and loneliness in predicting adjustment difficulties. The sample of the study was 404 university students (212 females and 192 males) studying in different departments of the Faculty of Education at Pamukkale University. The ages of the…
Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Mathiesen, Kristin S.
The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers,…
Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara
This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2) = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.
Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo
With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed.
Chu, Samuel K. W.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.; Warning, Peter
The functions and possibilities afforded by blogging have been suggested to be relevant to learning and information management. Its increasing use in the business and education sectors is documented, but currently its use in professional education or internship is limited. The social nature of blogging appears to support the applicability of blogs…
Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook
Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean…
Danielsen, Anne G.; Samdal, Oddrun; Hetland, Jorn; Wold, Bente
The authors examined the effect of school-related social support from teachers, classmates, and parents on students' life satisfaction that school satisfaction, scholastic competence, and general self-efficacy, respectively, mediated. The authors based the analyses on data from a nationally representative sample of 13- and 15-year-old students (N…
Nahouraii, Helen; Wasserman, Melanie; Bender, Deborah E; Rozier, R Gary
Latino children use fewer professional dental services and experience more dental decay than non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black children. This study tested the association between four types of social support (information, influence, material aid, emotional aid) and dental use among children of Latina immigrants in North Carolina. Latina mothers age 15-44 years (N=174) were sampled from four counties using a multistage church-based sampling design. Each mother reported dental care use for her oldest child younger than 11 years of age. Instrumental aid (information) alone was not associated with dental care use, but receiving any of the other types of social support was associated with dental care use at the bivariate level (p<.01) and at the multivariate level (OR=3.13; 95% CI=1.67-5.87). Over half of the women (65.2%) received at least one of these forms of social support. Interventions expanding dental-related social support could help Latina immigrant mothers overcome barriers to dental care for their children.
Cosio, Saharay E.
Occupational stress creates a negative impact both at the microlevel (i.e., individuals) and at the macrolevel (i.e., organization). This study investigated the role of protective factors of social support and religiosity on occupational stress among university employees. The study used data collected from participants ( N = 72) in a private…
Orte, Carmen; March, Marti X.; Vives, Margarita
In addition to educating and extending knowledge, university programs for seniors, at least the university program for seniors at the University of the Balearic Islands during the period analyzed, also fulfil physical and psychological health-related functions specifically related to our analysis of social support. This article reaches several…
Kojima, Hideo; Miyakawa, Juji
This poster presentation examined the structure of Japanese elementary school children's social support systems to demonstrate how they are related to: (1) academic achievement; (2) teacher evaluations; and (3) the children's own sense of self-esteem. A total of 91 fifth and sixth graders, along with their teachers, were interviewed and surveyed.…
Addonizio, Frank Patrick
The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…
Pedrosa, Ignacio; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Pérez Sánchez, Blanca
Social support is a variable that has a great influence in the sport context. In fact, this variable not only affects the athlete's performance but it has also shown to be related to psychological disorders such as Burnout Syndrome. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the Spanish adaptation of a social support scale in the sport context. The normative group who took part in the final version of the research was composed of 397 athletes aged between 13 and 64 years old (mean= 19.23 and standard deviation= 6.67). The scale shows: adequate factorial and construct validity, acceptable fit indexes (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin= 0.785, Root Mean Square Residual= 0.078; Kelly's criterion= 0.075), a negative correlation with the dimensions of burnout and no relationship with respect to self-esteem. In addition, it also shows high reliability (a= 0.88). Furthermore, statistically significant differences have been found in relation to genders - where women require greater social support. In contrast, males tend to display a lower level of social support with team players and international athletes. Moreover, differential item functioning (DIF) was carried out to explore sex bias, however, none of the items exhibit DIF problems.
Hochstetler, Andy; DeLisi, Matt; Pratt, Travis C.
There is broad consensus that the strains of imprisonment and unsupported release affect offenders' mental health and operate to the detriment of their chances of successful reintegration. Drawing on data from 208 male inmates, the authors examine the mediating and moderating influences of social support on the links between inmates' perceptions…
McIntosh, William Alex; And Others
Investigated effects of recent life events, psychological adjustment, and social support on lymphocyte count among 192 older adults. For males, recent sexual dysfunction lowered lymphocyte count, whereas psychological adjustment and percentage kin in intimate network elevated it. For females, family or legal problems elevated count as did frequent…
Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin
New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…
Monahan, Deborah J.; Hooker, Karen
Examines whether spouse caregivers of people either with noncognitive disorders (Parkinson's disease) or cognitive disorders (Alzheimer's disease) differed in their use and perception of social support resources. Results indicate that caregivers of spouses diagnosed with cognitive disorders were older, had fewer children, and had fewer financial…
Lesbians may face unique challenges when building friendships. The intersection of culturally sanctioned discrimination and familial rejection may intensify the role friendships play for lesbians and the development of social support networks. The author discusses existing research and qualitative findings and provides suggestions for counselors…
Shonkoff, Jack P.
Discusses the interactive effect of social networks and support systems on parent-child relationships and early childhood development. Suggests that greater attention to family ecology is needed, and raises a number of questions regarding the delivery of comprehensive health services for children and their families. (CJM)
Shavazi, Masoumeh Abbasi; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Shavazi, Mohammad Taghi Abbasi; Mirzaei, Masoud; Ardekani, Ali Mellat
Background: Currently with the emergence of the Internet, patients have an opportunity to exchange social support online. However, little attention has been devoted to different dimensions of online social support exchanged in virtual support communities for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: To provide a rich insight, the aim of this qualitative study was to explore and categorize different dimensions of online social support in messages exchanged in a virtual support community for patients with MS. A total of 548 posted messages created during one year period were selected using purposive sampling to consider the maximum variation sampling. Prior-research-driven thematic analysis was then conducted. In this regard, we used the Cutruna and Suhr’s coding system. The messages that could not be categorized with the used coding system were thematically analyzed to explore new additional social support themes. Results: The results showed that various forms of social support including informational, emotional, network, esteem and tangible support were exchanged. Moreover, new additional social support themes including sharing personal experiences, sharing coping strategies and spiritual support emerged in this virtual support community. Conclusion: The wide range of online social support exchanged in the virtual support community can be regarded as a supplementary source of social support for patients with MS. Future researches can examine online social support more comprehensively considering additional social support themes emerging in the present study. PMID:27382585
Cadena, Jose; Korkmaz, Gizem; Kuhlman, Chris J.; Marathe, Achla; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Vullikanti, Anil
Social unrest is endemic in many societies, and recent news has drawn attention to happenings in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Civilian populations mobilize, sometimes spontaneously and sometimes in an organized manner, to raise awareness of key issues or to demand changes in governing or other organizational structures. It is of key interest to social scientists and policy makers to forecast civil unrest using indicators observed on media such as Twitter, news, and blogs. We present an event forecasting model using a notion of activity cascades in Twitter (proposed by Gonzalez-Bailon et al., 2011) to predict the occurrence of protests in three countries of Latin America: Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The basic assumption is that the emergence of a suitably detected activity cascade is a precursor or a surrogate to a real protest event that will happen “on the ground.” Our model supports the theoretical characterization of large cascades using spectral properties and uses properties of detected cascades to forecast events. Experimental results on many datasets, including the recent June 2013 protests in Brazil, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26091012
Marks, Susan Unok; Schrader, Carl; Levine, Mark; Hagie, Chris; Longaker, Trish; Morales, Maggie; Peters, Iris
This article shares some educational principles and strategies for teaching social skills to adolescents with Asperger's syndrome. Educators are urged to teach coping strategies, how to read social cues, and how to interpret social behavior. Also, they are encouraged to provide ample social opportunities and to create a safe and accepting learning…
This article describes the strategic activism of educational leaders who promote social justice. Given the risks, educational leaders need to be strategic about the ways in which they pursue their activism. Citing current research, this article explores the ways in which leaders strategically pursue their social justice agendas within their own…
Garrahan, David P.
The hypothesized curvilinear relationship between powerlessness and social activism was not supported; however, when social activism is defined as a nonviolent "within-the-system" intervention, there is a direct linear relationship between the variables--with the powerful students exhibiting a tendency to embrace this form of social activism.…
Pomaki, Georgia; DeLongis, Anita; Frey, Daniela; Short, Kathy; Woehrle, Trish
We examined the role of social support in turnover intention among new teachers. First, we tested and found evidence for a direct negative relationship between social support and turnover intention. Second, we tested the social support buffer hypothesis, and found that teachers with higher social support had lower turnover intention in the face of…
Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Karpiak, Stephen E
Social networks of older adults with HIV have been characterized as fragile, with a greater reliance on friends as compared to family. However, we know little about the subgroup differences in the social network constellations of this population, how such characteristics are related to social support resources, and their relationship with psychosocial well-being. We developed a typology of social networks of older HIV-positive adults and examined if they would be related to receipt of informal assistance, perceptions of support sufficiency, and psychosocial well-being. Data were obtained from Research on Older Adults with HIV (n = 914). Participants were 50 years and older, HIV positive, and diverse in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation. Cluster analysis identified Isolated, Friend-centered, and Integrated social network types. The Isolated reported significantly lower levels of assistance, lower perceptions of support availability and adequacy, greater stigma and psychological distress, and lower well-being compared to their peers. While friends dominate many social networks in this population, a more nuanced interpretation is needed; many have no friends and a substantial proportion receive significant family support. Those with Isolated network types will likely need to access a high volume of community-based services as they age as they lack informal support resources.
Stanford, Jevetta; Webb, Fern J.; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen
The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12–17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha=0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B=0.421, p<0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B=0.227, p<0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study’s findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels. PMID:26863465
Stanford, Jevetta; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Webb, Fern J; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen
The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12-17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha = 0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B = 0.421, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B = 0.227, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study's findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels.
Arthur, Heather M
Research evidence related specifically to psychosocial issues in older adults with cardiovascular disease remains sparse; however, widespread recognition of the impact of the changing population demographic is spurring new research in this important area. National guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention in several countries include recommendations related to psychosocial issues; authors are beginning to address the older cardiac patient in their recommendations. The purpose of this article is to highlight some key psychosocial factors that have been independently associated with coronary heart disease but to do so with a focus on the older adult in the secondary prevention setting. The selected psychosocial factors are social support, social isolation, and depression. Although evidence supports a relationship between psychosocial factors and coronary heart disease, the issue addressed in this article is whether such relationships hold true in the older adult and whether rehabilitation and secondary prevention interventions are targeted to address these factors. As much as possible, current recommendations (related to psychosocial issues) from worldwide Clinical Practice Guidelines are highlighted. Finally, any examination of psychosocial factors and coronary heart disease must consider the possibility of sex and/or gender differences. Therefore, a commentary on reported differences between men and women with respect to social support, social isolation, and depression is included.
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten
This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding exercise. Manipulating group dynamics may be a promising intervention tool in the promotion of leisure-time physical activity.
Bédard, Karine; Bouffard, Thérèse; Pansu, Pascal
This study conducted among 544 adolescents (M = 15.1 years, SD = .82) examined whether perceived social support from parents and peers mediated the relationship between biased self-evaluations of social competence and internalizing problems. The results showed negative links between bias in self-evaluation and depressive symptoms, social anxiety and social avoidance. Bias in self-evaluation of social competence was more strongly related to perceived peer support than perceived parental support. Gender differences were observed in the mediating role of social support. Among boys, parental support was a partial mediator only of the link between bias in self-evaluation and depressive symptoms. While perceived peer support was a partial mediator of the links between bias in self-evaluation and depressive symptoms, social anxiety and social avoidance in girls, this was the case only for social avoidance in boys. These findings suggest that girls may show vulnerability to peer emotional support at an earlier age than boys.
Fitzpatrick, Tanya R; Gitelson, Richard J; Andereck, Kathleen L; Mesbur, Ellen Sue
Past research on senior centers has mainly focused on utilization, frequency, duration of attendance, participation or various activities and services. This study strives to go beyond previous research by examining social support factors and their relationship to mental and physical health across a senior center population in southern Ontario, Canada. Data were collected at two large senior centers in the Kitchener, Waterloo area. We used a self-administered survey among a sample of older participants (n=186). One-way ANOVA with post-hoc Duncan's multiple range tests, t-tests, and linear regression analyses were used to examine the influence of social support (friendship, caregiving and advice) on mental and physical health. The results indicated that caregiving is significantly related to physical health, how respondents feel in general, and happiness with personal life. Advice from others is significantly related to perceptions of having a life full of interesting things. Additionally, respondents who are volunteers perceive better health and social support than non-volunteers, those who eat at the center perceive better health and caregiving support, and those that started a new activity perceived better health and social support from friendships. Implications for social work practice, policy and future research are discussed.
Wollocko, Arthur B.; Farry, Michael P.; Stark, Robert F.
Modern military environments place an increased emphasis on the collection and analysis of intelligence at the tactical level. The deployment of analytical tools at the tactical level helps support the Warfighter's need for rapid collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence. However, given the lack of experience and staffing at the tactical level, most of the available intelligence is not exploited. Tactical environments are staffed by a new generation of intelligence analysts who are well-versed in modern collaboration environments and social networking. An opportunity exists to enhance tactical intelligence analysis by exploiting these personnel strengths, but is dependent on appropriately designed information sharing technologies. Existing social information sharing technologies enable users to publish information quickly, but do not unite or organize information in a manner that effectively supports intelligence analysis. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to structuring and supporting tactical intelligence analysis that combines the benefits of existing concepts, and provide detail on a prototype system embodying that approach. Since this approach employs familiar collaboration support concepts from social media, it enables new-generation analysts to identify the decision-relevant data scattered among databases and the mental models of other personnel, increasing the timeliness of collaborative analysis. Also, the approach enables analysts to collaborate visually to associate heterogeneous and uncertain data within the intelligence analysis process, increasing the robustness of collaborative analyses. Utilizing this familiar dynamic collaboration environment, we hope to achieve a significant reduction of time and skill required to glean actionable intelligence in these challenging operational environments.
Ayubi, Soleh U; Parmanto, Bambang
Advances in physical activity (PA) monitoring devices provide ample opportunities for innovations in the way the information produced by these devices is used to encourage people to have more active lifestyles. One such innovation is expanding the current use of the information from self-management to social support. We developed a Persuasive social network for physical Activity (PersonA) that combines automatic input of physical activity data, a smartphone, and a social networking system (SNS). This paper describes the motivation for and overarching design of the PersonA and its functional and non-functional features. PersonA is designed to intelligently and automatically receive raw PA data from the sensors in the smartphone, calculate the data into meaningful PA information, store the information on a secure server, and show the information to the users as persuasive and real-time feedbacks or publish the information to the SNS to generate social support. The implementation of self-monitoring, social support, and persuasive concepts using currently available technologies has the potential for promoting healthy lifestyle, greater community participation, and higher quality of life. We also expect that PersonA will enable health professionals to collect in situ data related to physical activity. The platform is currently being used and tested to improve PA level of three groups of users in Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Tighe, Maria; Peters, Jane; Skirton, Heather
Global trends in public health nursing (PHN) suggest the value of community-based social research. However, it is not always clear how social research relationships may be of benefit to PHN or how such skills can best be learned and applied. To advance this understanding, we present a qualitative analysis of the development of social research relationships in PHN. Using a background literature review as a foundation, our qualitative mixed method strategy involved a comparative case-study analysis based on the authors' participant observation in two distinct postnatal group settings. Our findings suggest that participant observation facilitates the advancement of social research relationships through practitioner-research management of role conflict. Reflexivity and reciprocity is an emergent relational process, which relies upon a de-professionalization of the traditional PHN role. Conversely, social research relationships help build PHN capacity for family health needs assessment. Thus, we contend that the application of participant observation enables the development of social research relationships, which advance the practice of PHN in postnatal support settings.
Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali
The authors examined cyberbullying victimization in the context of issues of key importance to youth: body esteem, social support, and social self-efficacy. Research has found that traditional peer-bullying victimization is significantly correlated with low body esteem in Western societies, especially pertaining to weight (R. Puhl & J. Luedicke, 2012 ). Studies have also found a relationship among bullying victimization, appearance-related bullying, low body esteem, and psychosocial difficulties among youth (L. E. Park, R. M. Calogero, A.F. Young, & A. Diraddo, 2010 ). However, the emergence of cyberbullying, characterized by its own special features (P. K. Smith et al., 2008 ), has raised a salient need to explore the relationship between cyber victimization and body esteem, no less important with social framework, because both are key components in adolescents' lives that may be associated with cyberbullying victimization. The authors examined these relationships among 204 Israeli adolescents 14-16 years old. The results indicate a noteworthy prevalence (45%) of cyber victims. Cyber victimization is significantly correlated with low body esteem and low social support and social self-efficacy. Low body esteem and low social support predicted the probability of being a cyber victim. The results extend the knowledge about potential personal and social risk factors for cyber victimization during adolescence. Implications for specific intervention programs are discussed.
Harris, J. Irene; Winskowski, Ann Marie; Engdahl, Brian E.
Research on social support and job satisfaction has yielded mixed results, partly because studies have rarely examined different types of workplace social support, such as collegial support, task support, coaching, and career mentoring. This study identified the relative contributions of different types of social support to job satisfaction and…
Allahdadian, Maryam; Irajpour, Alireza; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza
Background: Stillbirth is one of the deepest losses that can inflict a broad range of cognitive, mental, spiritual, and physical turmoil. Many researchers believe that the failure to provide the care required by health teams during the hard times is the main determinant of maternal mental health in the future. In other words, social support can significantly improve the mental health outcomes of mothers after stillbirth. This study aimed to explore social support to aid mothers in adaptation after the experience of stillbirth. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis in which 15 women who had experienced stillbirth participated. They were selected through purposeful sampling method. Data were gathered by individual interviews recorded on audiotapes, transcribed, and analyzed. Interview transcriptions were coded and then classified. Finally, two main categories and five subcategories emerged. Results: Analysis of participants’ viewpoints and their statements about social support led to the emergence of the two main categories of support from relatives and support from social support systems with two and three subcategories, respectively. Analysis of findings showed that mothers experiencing stillbirth need the support of their spouse and family and friends through sympathizing, in performing everyday activities and to escape loneliness. These women require support from a peer group to exchange experiences and from trauma counseling centers to meet their needs. Conclusions: It seems necessary to revise and modify the care plan in the experience of stillbirth using these results and, of course, to be considered by a panel of experts in order to provide social support to these women. Thus, midwives and healthcare provider can act, based on the development and strengthening of social protection of women experiencing stillbirth, to provide these women with effective and appropriate care. PMID:26257802
Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Rodenburg, T Bas
The presence of a conspecific during a stressful situation, i.e. social support, can considerably lower the stress response of an individual compared to experiencing the stressful situation alone. Pigs also benefit from social support, but it is not known whether the extent to which they benefit is dependent on their personality or coping style. In this study, therefore, the effect of social support on behavioral and physiological (i.e. salivary cortisol, heart rate and the heart rate variability parameters standard deviation (SDNN) and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD)) stress responses was studied in pigs with different coping styles. Based on the backtest, piglets were classified as high-resisting (HR) or low-resisting (LR). At 11weeks of age, 12 gilts of each coping style were subjected to a 15min restraint test in a weighing cage without a pen mate present (i.e. no support treatment) and 12 other gilts of each coping style were subjected to this test with a pen mate, a boar with the same coping style, present (i.e. support treatment). With the pen mate present, LR gilts showed less standing alert behavior and they had their ears back less often than without the pen mate present. On the other hand, HR gilts seemed to spend less time on escaping the cage and more HR gilts seemed to urinate in the situation when the pen mate was present than without the pen mate present, but this was not significant. Independently of the test situation, HR gilts grunted more than LR gilts and they were more likely to urinate than LR gilts. Salivary cortisol concentrations were not affected by treatment or coping style, but were increased at 30min after the start of the test after which concentrations decreased again to starting levels. The heart rate and heart rate variability parameters RMSSD and RMSSD/SDNN ratio were not affected by treatment or coping style, but the SDNN was lower in the LR pigs during the first and last 5min of the test when a pen mate was
McCloskey, Wilfred; Iwanicki, Sierra; Lauterbach, Dean; Giammittorio, David M; Maxwell, Kendal
Greater social support is predictive of lower depression and higher quality of life (QOL). However, the way in which social support is provided has changed greatly with the expanding role of social networking sites (e.g., Facebook). While there are numerous anecdotal accounts of the benefits of Facebook-based social support, little empirical evidence exists to support these assertions, and there are no empirically validated measures designed to assess social support provided via this unique social networking medium. This study sought to develop an empirically sound measure of Facebook-based social support (Facebook Measure of Social Support [FMSS]) and to assess how this new measure relates to previously established measures of support and two outcome variables: depression and QOL. Following exploratory factor analysis, the FMSS was determined to assess four factors of social support on Facebook (Perceived, Emotional, Negative, Received/Instrumental). The Negative Support factor on the FMSS was most strongly related to both depression and QOL with magnitudes (and direction of relationships) comparable to a traditional measure of perceived social support. However, two FMSS factors (Received/Instrumental and Perceived) were unrelated to both mental health outcomes. Contrary to expectations, elevations in one FMSS factor (Emotional) was associated with worse symptoms of depression and poorer psychological QOL. When taken together, only the absence of negative social support on Facebook is significantly predictive of mental health functioning. Consequently, those hoping to use Facebook as a medium for reducing depression or improving QOL are unlikely to realize significant therapeutic benefits.
Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Denholm, Carey; Wyld, Colin
A large-scale study conducted in Tasmania, Australia, of teenage risk-taking across 26 potentially harmful risk activities has examined a range of factors that encourage or inhibit risk-taking. Among these factors, the degree of social and professional support the teenage students say they would access for personal, study or health problems has…
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten
This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and…
Farmer-Hinton, Raquel L.
Through analyses of focus group transcripts, the author highlights key school-based supports and resources students viewed as helpful in their college-planning activities and explores the challenges students' expressed about being exposed to school-based social capital while living in disadvantaged community contexts. The findings suggest the…
Leavy, Richard L; Adams, Eve M.
Women (N=123) respondents contacted through lesbian, gay, and feminist organizations and establishments completed a research questionnaire. Results showed that age and current involvement in a lesbian relationship were significantly related to self-esteem, self-acceptance, and social support. Participation in feminist activities also correlated…
Drake, Robert E.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Bond, Gary R.; Goldman, Howard H.
Social Security Administration disability programs are expensive, growing, and headed toward bankruptcy. People with psychiatric disabilities now constitute the largest and most rapidly expanding subgroup of program beneficiaries. Evidence-based supported employment is a well-defined, rigorously tested service model that helps people with psychiatric disabilities obtain and succeed in competitive employment. Providing evidence-based supported employment and mental health services to this population could reduce the growing rates of disability and enable those already disabled to contribute positively to the workforce and to their own welfare, at little or no cost (and, depending on assumptions, a possible savings) to the government. PMID:19414885
Declercq, Frédéric; Vanheule, Stijn; Markey, Samuel; Willemsen, Jochem
This study investigates the effects of six types of social support on distress and posttraumatic stress disorders in security guards who did and did not encounter a critical incident. Three types of social support were significantly related to distress and posttraumatic stress disorder: emotional support in problem situations, instrumental support, and social companionship. Emotional support in problem situations paradoxically appeared to have an aggravating effect on distress and posttraumatic stress, whereas instrumental support and social companionship had a mitigating outcome.
Adolescent Prenatal Program has been in existence since 1981. The prenatal portion of the clinic enrolls teenagers who conceive prior to age 16 1/2... Adolescent Mothers Karen McClure, Master of Science, 1988 Thesis directed by: Susan E. Hetherington, C.N.M., Dr. P.H. Professor Department of Maternal Child... adolescent mothers at three points in time; 2) identify changes that occur in coping strategies and social support over time; 3) determine whether changes
demographics of those gang-hosting areas. Such demographics vary widely. We identified gang culture differences that corresponded with defined...be applied to code-switched African language social media data in Zulu and Swahili to support the Army’s needs and to understand how identity in...20 implicit tracking of language use and demographic associations between physical and virtual cultures . Tuning techniques for Army-relevant
Levine, Ellen G.; Vong, Stephen; Yoo, Grace J.
While spirituality and religious practices are important in coping with illness or other crises, there are few ways of assessing support that people receive from members of their spiritual communities. The goal of this study was to validate a new spiritual support subscale for the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support scale (MOS-SSS). Questions for the subscale were formed based on responses of 135 breast cancer survivors who were interviewed about their cancer experience. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in four specific factors of the MOS-SSS: emotional/informational, tangible, affectionate, and spiritual support. The new spiritual support subscale has adequate reliability and validity and may be useful in assessing an area of support that is not always addressed. PMID:25680423
Karfopoulou, Eleni; Anastasiou, Costas A; Avgeraki, Evangelia; Kosmidis, Mary H; Yannakoulia, Mary
The role of social support in weight management is not fully understood, as more support has been linked to both favorable and unfavorable outcomes. We examined social support in relation to weight loss maintenance, comparing between maintainers and regainers of weight loss. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of people who have intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and are either maintaining this loss for over a year (maintainers), or have regained weight (regainers). Demographics and lifestyle habits questionnaires are completed online. Dietary assessment is carried out by two telephone 24 h recalls. Perceived social support was assessed by validated scales examining support from family and friends regarding healthy eating and exercise. 289 maintainers and 122 regainers participated. Regainers received more support compared to maintainers. However, maintainers reported receiving compliments and active participation, whereas regainers receiving verbal instructions and encouragements. Maintainers who received diet support displayed improved dietary intakes, such as lower energy intake; regainers' diet was unaffected by support. Positive, rather than instructive, support appears beneficial in weight loss maintenance.
McLeod, Angela; Baker, Deborah; Black, Mary
Young mothers often require support to remain socially 'included' after becoming pregnant and this, in its turn, could protect their health. In this context, new policy initiatives aimed at tackling social exclusion, such as those implemented under the National Teenage Pregnancy Strategy, could be working to build social support mechanisms. The present paper addresses the issue of whether statutory services do in fact deliver 'social inclusion', through the provision of appropriate social support for young mothers. Data are drawn from semistructured interviews with service providers from a variety of different settings. The questionnaire was structured around an established model of social support, developed by M. Barrera, called the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviours. The study took place in a deprived inner city in North West England. Eleven participants were interviewed from seven separate organisations. The findings indicate that there were well-developed referral systems between services, with services adopting a social model of health. Much informational and emotional support was provided. What was less clear is how services are enabling social support to be developed amongst peer groups accessing the services particularly at community level. It is questionable to what extent services are able to foster the development of social support through social activities and support groups, and even whether it is appropriate to expect them to do so. In some sense, services go some way to delivering social inclusion, in that they are providing advice about income, housing and other opportunities. However, services appear to be missing an opportunity to foster social inclusion through the lack of development of supportive networks amongst groups of peers, which may have implications for the health of young mothers.
Shurgot, Gia Robinson; Knight, Bob G
In this study we assessed the new transactional stress and social support model, postulating the role of neuroticism, ethnicity, familism, and social support in perceived burden in dementia caregivers. We used a convenience sample (N=77) of African American and White dementia caregivers. Results substantiated interrelationships among social support variables, and the influence of perceived positive social support on burden. Neuroticism was related to the perception of positive social support and burden. Results corroborated the model, focusing on neuroticism and quality of social support in modeling perceived burden in family caregivers. Findings call attention to the role of presumably long-standing individual differences in neuroticism that influence caregiver appraisals of stress and social support.
Albarracin, Dolores; And Others
A study of 101 Argentinean mothers of children who were hospitalized or attended an outpatient medical clinic examined the social support functions, sources, and temporal contexts of the mothers in relation to child abuse and neglect. Low-abuse/neglect mothers were found to have a stronger kin network than high-abuse/neglect mothers. (CR)
Siporin, Sheldon; Baron, Lisa
"Contingency Management programs (CMP) and non-drug social and recreational activities (NDSRA) are interventions premised on behavior theory that rely on external sources of reinforcement alternative to drug-based forms to decrease drug use. CMP usually employs vouchers as reinforcement for negative toxicologies. Despite research support, CMP…
Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde
Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…
Matsue, Regina Yoshie
This paper analyzes the role of religiosity and the impact of social support in the lives of Brazilian migrants in Japan. Despite being in Japan for over two decades, the Brazilians are not integrated into the local society. This social alienation has a negative effect on the health of the migrants, making them prone to mental and physical distress. The lack of language skills prevents the migrants from looking for professional help, and even if they seek for it they cannot express themselves properly. In this context, the migrants found support among their compatriots and religious groups. This essay is based on ethnographic research carried out in Japan between 2003 and 2006 and focuses on the work and activities of the Catholics among the Brazilian migrants. The data collection was based on 15 semi-structured interviews, which were conducted among the members. Besides the religious support, the group offers the migrants a social support space for their daily lives in Japan. Therefore, the group represents a place of socialization and social support for many Brazilians, which helps them to overcome their feelings of vulnerability. The ecclesiastic power, on the other hand, regulates the migrants' behavior through an ethos and a world view legitimized by the group.
Social networking sites such as Facebook provide a new way to seek and receive social support, a factor widely recognized as important for one's health. However, few studies have used actual conversations from social networking sites to study social support for health related matters. We studied 3,899 Facebook users, among a sample of 33,326 monitored adults, who initiated a conversation that referred to surgery on their Facebook Wall during a six-month period to explore predictors of social support as measured by number of response posts from “friends.” Among our sample, we identified 8,343 Facebook conversation threads with the term “surgery” in the initial post with, on average, 5.7 response posts (SD 6.2). We used a variant of latent semantic analysis to explore the relationship between specific words in the posts that allowed us to develop three thematic categories of words related to family, immediacy of the surgery, and prayer. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the association between characteristics of the Facebook user as well as the thematic categories on the likelihood of receiving response posts following the announcement of a surgery. Words from the three thematic categories were used in 32.5% (family), 39.5 (immediacy), and 50.7% (prayer) of root posts. Surprisingly, few user characteristics were associated with response in multivariate models [rate ratios, RR, 1.08 (95% CI 1.01,1.15) for married/living with partner; 1.10 (95% CI 1.03,1.19) for annual income ≥ $75,000]. In multivariate models adjusted for Facebook user characteristics and network size, use of family and prayer words were associated with significantly higher number of response posts, RR 1.40 (95% CI 1.37,1.43) and 2.07 (95% CI 2.02,2.12) respectively. We found some evidence of social support on Facebook for surgery and that the language used in the initial post of a conversation thread is predictive of overall response. PMID:25753284
Davis, Matthew A; Anthony, Denise L; Pauls, Scott D
Social networking sites such as Facebook provide a new way to seek and receive social support, a factor widely recognized as important for one's health. However, few studies have used actual conversations from social networking sites to study social support for health related matters. We studied 3,899 Facebook users, among a sample of 33,326 monitored adults, who initiated a conversation that referred to surgery on their Facebook Wall during a six-month period. We explored predictors of social support as measured by number of response posts from "friends." Among our sample, we identified 8,343 Facebook conversation threads with the term "surgery" in the initial post with, on average, 5.7 response posts (SD 6.2). We used a variant of latent semantic analysis to explore the relationship between specific words in the posts that allowed us to develop three thematic categories of words related to family, immediacy of the surgery, and prayer. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the association between characteristics of the Facebook user as well as the thematic categories on the likelihood of receiving response posts following the announcement of a surgery. Words from the three thematic categories were used in 32.5% (family), 39.5 (immediacy), and 50.7% (prayer) of root posts. Few user characteristics were associated with response in multivariate models [rate ratios, RR, 1.08 (95% CI 1.01, 1.15) for married/living with partner; 1.10 (95% CI 1.03, 1.19) for annual income > $75,000]. In multivariate models adjusted for Facebook user characteristics and network size, use of family and prayer words in the root post were associated with significantly higher number of response posts, RR 1.40 (95% CI 1.37, 1.43) and 2.07 (95% CI 2.02, 2.12) respectively. We found some evidence of social support on Facebook for surgery and that the language used in the root post of a conversation thread is predictive of overall response.
Golden, Jeannette; Conroy, Ronán M; Lawlor, Brian A
Social networks have been associated with a wide variety of health outcomes in older people. We examined the dimensions underlying the Wenger social support network type assessment to identify dimensions associated with mental and physical health. We interviewed 1334 community-dwelling participants aged 65+. The Geriatric Mental State automated geriatric examination for computer-assisted taxonomy interview was used to rate psychiatric symptoms and quality of life. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score of <24 on the mini mental state examination. Clustering around latent variables identified two uncorrelated social support network domains: family (distance from and contact with relatives) and social engagement. Social engagement was associated with a lower age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of depression (odds ratio for a one-tertile increase 0.48), generalised anxiety disorder (OR 0.60), cognitive impairment (OR 0.68) and physical disability (OR 0.62) all p < 0.001. Adjusted for age, sex, depression, cognitive impairment and disability, the social engagement domain was also associated with better quality of life (OR 1.5) self-rated happiness (OR 1.3) and rating life as worth living (OR 1.4). The family domain, on the other hand, was not significantly associated with any health outcome. The results suggest that elective relationships and social engagement are the 'active ingredients' of social networks which promote health in later life.
Littlewood, Kerry; Swanke, Jayme R; Strozier, Anne; Kondrat, David
The scope of research about kinship care has expanded. One area of interest is the impact social support has on kinship caregivers (Kelley, Whitley, & Campos, 2011). The Family Support Scale (FSS) has been used to measure social support among kinship caregivers (Kelley et al., 2011; Leder et al., 2007); however, there has been no rigorous examination of the psychometric properties of the FSS when administered to kinship caregivers. This study used a sample of 255 kinship caregivers to conduct a principal component analysis and developed a four-component structure for the FSS. The results suggest that the four-component structure identifies four sub-scales that have adequate face validity and internal consistency validity with this population.
Davidson, L; Haglund, K E; Stayner, D A; Rakfeldt, J; Chinman, M J; Tebes, J K
This report describes the qualitative component of a large-scale study of supported socialization. Paralleling the recent advances made through supported housing, supported employment, and supported education, this approach seeks to increase the involvement of individuals with psychiatric disabilities in naturally occurring social and recreational activities in community settings of their choice. After a review of social relationships and psychiatric disability, we describe the Partnership Project and present findings from a series of qualitative interviews conducted with a subsample of participants. We then discuss the implications of these findings for the community integration of individuals with psychiatric disabilities.
... fullstory_163679.html Staying Socially Active Nourishes the Aging Brain Researchers suggest making friends of all ages ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Healthy Aging Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Healthy ...
O'Hanlon, James; Troshynski, Hugh
This article outlines an innovative selection program to hire politically responsible social studies teachers. The objective is to produce aware and active citizens who know how to participate in the political process. (Editor)
Brehm, Julia L.
Describes a graphing activity that promotes mathematical connections with social studies lessons. Students should be familiar with graphing on the Cartesian coordinate system to play this variation of the game Battleship on maps of various regions of the world. (AIM)
Saunders, Ruth P.; Motl, Robert W.; Dowda, Marsha; Dishman, Rod K.; Pate, Russell R.
Objective : To evaluate social support and theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs in explaining physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods : One thousand seven hundred ninety-seven 8 th -grade girls completed a survey measuring social provisions, family support, TPB constructs, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and team sport…
Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C
Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.
Quas, Jodi A; Bauer, Amy; Boyce, W Thomas
The interactive effects of physiological reactivity and social support on children's memory were examined. Four- to 6-year-olds completed a laboratory protocol during which autonomic responses and salivary cortisol were measured. Memory was assessed shortly afterward and 2 weeks later. During the second interview, children were questioned by a supportive or nonsupportive interviewer. Few significant relations emerged between reactivity and children's short-term memory. Following a 2-week delay, cortisol reactivity was associated with poorer memory and autonomic reactivity was associated with increased accuracy among children questioned in a supportive manner but decreased accuracy among children questioned in a nonsupportive manner. Results question traditional conceptualizations of reactivity as a risk factor and instead suggest that reactivity may only confer risk in certain environmental contexts.
Wills, T A; Cleary, S D
This research tested how the effect of parental emotional and instrumental support on substance (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana) use in adolescents is mediated. Data were from a sample of 1,702 adolescents surveyed between the 7th and 9th grades. Parental support was inversely related to substance use, and stress-buffering interactions were found at all assessment points. Structural modeling analyses indicated the effect of support was mediated through more behavioral coping and academic competence and less tolerance for deviance and behavioral undercontrol; these mediators were related to negative life events and deviant peer affiliations. Multiple-group analyses suggested buffering effects occurred because high support reduced the effect of risk factors and increased the effect of protective factors. Implications for the theory of social support effects and resilience mechanisms are discussed.
Zinsser, Katherine M; Christensen, Claire G; Torres, Luz
Preschool teachers across the country have been charged to prepare children socially and emotionally for kindergarten. Teachers working in preschool centers are supporting children's social and emotional learning (SEL) within a rich ecology of emotion and social relationships and the present study considers how the supports implemented for children's SEL at the center-level are associated with teachers' psychological health and workplace experiences. Hierarchical linear models were constructed using data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort. Results indicate that although teachers work in individual classrooms, they share common perceptions at the center-level of their workplace climate, access to support, and, although to a lesser extent, experience commonalities in psychological health and job satisfaction. Furthermore, in centers that had implemented more supports for children's SEL (including access to mental health consultants, classroom curriculum, and training and resources for teachers) teachers were less depressed, more satisfied with their jobs, felt more supported in managing challenging behavior, and viewed the workplace climate of their center as more positive. Findings are discussed in light of the national efforts to increase and retain a high-quality early childhood workforce.
Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura Je; White, Martin; Errington, Linda; Mathers, John C; Moffatt, Suzanne
Context The marked demographic change toward greater proportions of older people in developed nations poses significant challenges for health and social care. Several studies have demonstrated an association between social roles in later life and positive health and well-being outcomes. After retiring from work, people may lose roles that provide purpose and social contacts. The outcomes of interventions to promote social roles in retirement have not been systematically reviewed. Methods We examined three research questions: (1) What kinds of intervention have been developed to promote social roles in retirement? (2) How much have they improved perceived roles? (3) Have these roles improved health or well-being? We included those studies that evaluated the provision of social roles; used a control or comparison group; targeted healthy retirement-transition adults who were living in the community; provided an abstract written in English; took place in a highly developed nation; and reported social role, health, or well-being outcomes. We searched eight electronic databases and combined the results with hand searches. Findings Through our searches, we identified 9,062 unique publications and eleven evaluative studies of acceptable quality, which reported seven interventions that met our inclusion criteria. These interventions varied in year of inception and scope, but only two were based outside North America. The studies rarely reported the quality or meaning of roles. Only three studies used random allocation, thus limiting inferences of causality from these studies. Interventions providing explicit roles and using supportive group structures were somewhat effective in improving one or more of the following: life satisfaction, social support and activity, physical health and activity, functional health, and cognition. Conclusions Social role interventions may improve health and well-being for people in retirement transition. Future research should improve the
Educators increasingly support the use of computer-supported instruction in social studies education. However few studies have been conducted to study teacher use of computer-supported instruction in social studies education. This study was therefore designed to examine the use of exemplary social studies teachers' computer-supported instruction…
Baumgartner, Jennifer; Burnett, Lauren; DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Buchanan, Teresa
Background: Children receive support for their learning and development from multiple sources and within various developmental contexts. The extant literature investigating children's social supports has uncovered multiple benefits to positive and complex social support system. However, the measurement of children's social supports has largely…
Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M
This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p < .001) and with increased religious social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p < .001), emotional support provided (p < .001), negative interaction (p < .001), and anticipated support (p < .001). Religious beliefs did not predict change in any type of support, and neither beliefs nor behaviors predicted change in general social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives.
Barker, Gary; Olukoya, Adepeju; Aggleton, Peter
This paper contributes to understanding of young people's help-seeking behaviour. A conceptual framework is proposed that seeks to integrate differing sources of influence and their implications for policy and programme development. Data was collected by means of an international literature review followed by a purposive international survey of expert informants. Findings suggest that it is important to distinguish between individual and structural determinants of young people's help-seeking behaviour. Policy and programme influences also impact upon the demand for help and the supply of social support that is available. It is important to focus on the normative needs of young people as well as specific health needs and problems. Creating trust, rethinking adult attitudes toward young people, and reducing the stigma associated with seeking help are key to promoting help-seeking behaviour. Many young people are hindered from seeking help, or are not offered help because of social exclusion, violence, poverty, prejudice (including homophobia) and gender inequalities. Future actions to promote help-seeking and enhance social support must consider these structural barriers, making special efforts to reach and work with excluded populations.
Kleiman, Evan M; Riskind, John H; Schaefer, Karen E
This study examines the role of social support and positive events as protective factors in suicide. Participants (n = 379) were administered measures of social support, life events, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation. Results indicated that (1) social support had a direct protective effect on suicide ideation, (2) social support and positive events acted as individual buffers in the relationship between negative events and suicide ideation, and (3) social support and positive events synergistically buffered the relationship between negative events and suicide ideation. Our results provide evidence that positive events and social support act as protective factors against suicide individually and synergistically when they co-occur.
Creative Associates International, Inc., Washington, DC.
The Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity is a multi-year, worldwide, indefinite quantity contract by which the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Global Bureau Center for Human Capacity (G/HCD) can work to achieve four objectives: (1) improve the quality, efficiency, access, and equity of education, particularly basic…
Ogata, Hiroaki; Saito, Nobuji A.; Paredes J., Rosa G.; San Martin, Gerardo Ayala; Yano, Yoneo
This paper presents the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom settings, in order to provide basic support for classrooms and field activities. We have developed web application components using Java technology and configured a classroom with wireless network access and a web camera for our purposes. In this classroom, the…
Chung, Jae Eun
An increasing number of online support groups (OSGs) have embraced the features of social networking. So far, little is known about how patients use and benefit from these features. By implementing the uses-and-gratifications framework, the author conducted an online survey with current users of OSGs to examine associations among motivation, use of specific features of OSG, and support outcomes. Findings suggest that OSG users make selective use of varied features depending on their needs, and that perceptions of receiving emotional and informational support are associated more with the use of some features than others. For example, those with strong motivation for social interaction use diverse features of OSG and make one-to-one connections with other users by friending. In contrast, those with strong motivation for information seeking limit their use primarily to discussion boards. Results also show that online social networking features, such as friending and sharing of personal stories on blogs, are helpful in satisfying the need for emotional support. The present study sheds light on online social networking features in the context of health-related OSGs and provides practical lessons on how to improve the capacity of OSGs to serve the needs of their users.
Kana'iaupuni, Shawn Malia; Donato, Katharine M.; Thompson-Colon, Theresa; Stainback, Melissa
This article presents the results of new data collection in Mexico about the relationship between child well-being and social networks. Two research questions guide the analysis. First, under what conditions do networks generate greater (lesser) support? Second, what kinds of networks are associated with healthier children? We explore the health…
Namkoong, Kang; Shah, Dhavan V; Gustafson, David H
This study investigates how social support and family relationship perceptions influence breast cancer patients' online communication networks in a computer-mediated social support (CMSS) group. To examine social interactions in the CMSS group, we identified two types of online social networks: open and targeted communication networks. The open communication network reflects group communication behaviors (i.e., one-to-many or "broadcast" communication) in which the intended audience is not specified; in contrast, the targeted communication network reflects interpersonal discourses (i.e., one-to-one or directed communication) in which the audience for the message is specified. The communication networks were constructed by tracking CMSS group usage data of 237 breast cancer patients who participated in one of two National Cancer Institute-funded randomized clinical trials. Eligible subjects were within 2 months of a diagnosis of primary breast cancer or recurrence at the time of recruitment. Findings reveal that breast cancer patients who perceived less availability of offline social support had a larger social network size in the open communication network. In contrast, those who perceived less family cohesion had a larger targeted communication network in the CMSS group, meaning they were inclined to use the CMSS group for developing interpersonal relationships.
Suzuki, Tomoko; Kitaike, Tadashi; Ikezaki, Sumie
The purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to explore relationships between life-space mobility and the related factors in elderly Japanese people who attend orthopaedic clinics. The study measures included surveys of life-space mobility (Life-space Assessment (LSA) score), social support (social network diversity and social ties), physical ability (instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, social role), orthopaedic factors (diseases and symptoms) and demographic information. The questionnaire was distributed to 156 subjects; 152 persons responded, yielding 140 valid responses. Mean age of the sample was 76.0 ± 6.4 (range, 65-96 years), with 57.9% women (n = 81). In a multiple regression analysis, the six factors were significantly associated with LSA. Standardized partial regression coefficients (β) were gender (0.342), instrumental self-maintenance (0.297), social network diversity (0.217), age (-0.170), difficulty of motion (-0.156) and intellectual activity (0.150), with an adjusted R(2) = 0.488. These results suggest that outpatient health-care providers need to intervene in not only addressing orthopaedic factors but also promoting social support among elderly Japanese.
Meng, Jingbo; Martinez, Lourdes; Holmstrom, Amanda; Chung, Minwoong; Cox, Jeff
The article presents a narrative review of scholarship on social support through social networking sites (SNSs) published from 2004 to 2015. By searching keywords related to social support and SNSs in major databases for social sciences, we identified and content analyzed directly relevant articles (N = 88). The article summarizes the prevalence of theory usage; the function of theory usage (e.g., testing a theory, developing a theory); major theories referenced; and methodologies, including research designs, measurement, and the roles of social support and SNS examined in this literature. It also reports four themes identified across the studies, indicating the trends in the current research. Based on the review, the article presents a discussion about study sites, conceptualization of social support, theoretical coherence, the role of social networks, and the dynamic relationships between SNS use and social support, which points out potential avenues for shaping a future research agenda.
Whitney, Helen, Comp.
Based on the environment and directed at elementary and intermediate level students, 5 field trips are a significant part of the 12 social studies activities in the sixth booklet by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center outlining environmental and outdoor education activities. Most of the activities include objectives, activity description,…
SARACINO, REBECCA; KOLVA, ELISSA; ROSENFELD, BARRY; BREITBART, WILLIAM
Objective To date, no measure of social support has been developed specifically for either palliative care or oncology settings. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Duke–University of North Carolina Functional Social Support Questionnaire (DUFSS) in order to (1) assess the adequacy of the scale in the context of severe medical illness and (2) evaluate whether a brief subset of items might generate roughly comparable utility. Method The 14-item DUFSS was administered to 1,362 individuals with advanced cancer or AIDS. Classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) analyses were utilized to develop an abbreviated version of the DUFSS that maintained adequate reliability and validity and might increase the feasibility of its administration in a palliative care setting. The reliability and concurrent validity of the DUFSS-5 were evaluated in a separate validation sample of patients with advanced cancer. Results Analyses generated a five-item version of the DUFSS (the DUFSS-5) that collapsed response levels into only three options, instead of five. Correlations between the DUFSS-5 and measures of depression, quality of life, and desire for hastened death, as well as regression models testing the main-effect and buffering models of social support, provided support for the utility of the DUFSS-5. Significance of results Both the DUFSS and the abbreviated DUFSS-5 appear to have adequate reliability and validity in this setting. Moreover, the DUFSS-5 represents a potentially important option for healthcare researchers, particularly for those working in palliative care settings where issues of patient burden are paramount. Such analyses are critical for advancing the development and refinement of psychosocial measures, but have often been neglected. PMID:25201170
Lippold, T.; Burns, J.
Background: Social support has been identified as a major protective factor in preventing mental health problems and also as a major contributor to quality of life. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been identified as having limited social support structures. Interventions have been focused on promoting their social presence and…
Art. 9 of the Polish Mental Health Act provides two forms of community-based social support--specialist social help services and community self-help houses for persons who, due a to serious mental illness or severe mental retardation, face considerable difficulties in their daily life, especially with respect to interpersonal relations, employment and welfare matters. The first form could only be implemented after coming into force of the suitable regulation of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy of December 18, 1996 (Dz. U. z 1997 r., nr. 2, poz. 12). Hence, it may be understood that information on these services is exceptionally scarce. The author presents: a draft of legal evolution of the specialist services, from the vague idea of "community care" provided by psychiatric care facilities to the present regulation of community specialist social help services run by social help agencies in consultation with psychiatric facilities, main guidelines for staff to be observed in performing community specialist social help services (training in maintenance and development of basic skills necessary to independent living and others), the first promising experiences of a team rendering community specialist social help services in one of the communes in Warsaw.
Gallagher, Peggy A; Malone, D Michael; Ladner, Jana R
This article used a mixed methods design to analyze attitudes and perceptions of social-psychological support personnel serving on school-based teams supporting children with disabilities. Results suggest that the 76 respondents held a generally positive attitude about teamwork. Qualitative analyses of open-ended responses found discipline collaboration and sharing information and perspectives as benefits of the team process. Perceived limitations of the team process included time constraints and a lack of commitment to the process. Recommendations for improving the team process centered on time management, communication and cooperation, and team organization.
Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Rueger, Sandra Yu; Brown, Sarah E; Summers, Kelly Hodgson
The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the perceived frequency and perceived importance of social support with youth's self-concept. Data from a large representative sample of 921 children and adolescents in grades 3 through 12 were analyzed. Results indicated that the relationships between the frequency of social support from parents, teachers, classmates, and close friends with self-concept were significant. However, only the perceived importance of social support from teachers was significantly related to self-concept. Finally, an interaction was found between the frequency of social support and the importance of social support from classmates and close friends on self-concept. These results suggest that self-evaluations of the importance of teacher support may be especially influential for youths' self-concept, and that the ability to discount the value of support from classmates and friends, when it is lacking, may be protective to the self-concept of children and adolescents.
Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Antonucci, Toni
The Convoy Model suggests that at different stages of the lifespan the makeup of the social support network varies in step with developmental and contextual needs. Cultural norms may shape the makeup of social convoys as well as denote socio-demographic differences in social support. This study examines the social convoys of adults in Mexico.…
Much of the leg ulcer literature focuses on clinical assessment and management of chronic venous leg ulceration in order to achieve healing. Chronic venous leg ulceration, however, should be classed as a chronic or long-term condition, defined as a condition,'that is currently not curable and therefore can only be managed', although it is not generally acknowledged as such. There is an extensive body of literature which focuses on the psychosocial issues that impact negatively on the quality of life of patients with long-term conditions, such as diabetes or arthritis. These include the emotional impact of pain, social support, coping mechanisms and response to stress and treatment adherence. Health care professionals are becoming increasingly aware of the impact psychosocial issues may have on wound healing in general, but particularly, in chronic venous leg ulceration and prevention of recurrence. This article reviews the current literature on the role of social support and its impact on venous ulcer healing/recurrence and concludes that health professionals caring for patients with chronic venous ulceration need to consider alternative outcome intervention measures for patients for whom healing may not be a realistic option.
Sterrett, E. M.; Jones, D. J.; McKee, L. G.; Kincaid, C.
Supportive Non-Parental Adults (SNPAs), or non-parental adults who provide social support to youth, are present in the lives of many adolescents; yet to date, a guiding framework for organizing the existing literature on the provision of support provided by multiple types of SNPAS, such as teachers, natural mentors, and extended family members, as well as to inform future research efforts, is lacking. The aim of the current paper is to utilize the well-established lens of social support to integrate, across this broad range of literatures, recent findings regarding associations between SNPAs and four indices of adolescent psychosocial adjustment: academic functioning, self-esteem, and behavioral and emotional problems. Beyond offering an integrative framework for understanding the link between SNPAs and adolescent functioning, the issues reviewed here have potentially far-reaching consequences for adolescents and their families, as well as the professionals working with adolescents and their families in the health care, school, and community settings. PMID:21384233
McMahon, Susan D.; Felix, Erika D.; Nagarajan, Thara
Although neighborhood stressors have a negative impact on youth, and social support can play a protective role, it is unclear what types and sources of social support may contribute to positive outcomes among at-risk youth. We examined the influences of neighborhood disadvantage and social support on global self-worth among low-income, urban…
Sheets, Raymond L., Jr.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which perceived social support was associated with depression, life satisfaction, and internalized binegativity in a sample of 210 bisexual young adult college students. Two types of social support (general and sexuality specific) and 2 sources of social support (family and friends) were…
Popliger, Mina; Toste, Jessica R.; Heath, Nancy L.
The perceived availability of social support has been documented as a protective mechanism among adults and adolescents. However, little research has explored the role of social support among children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (E/BD). The current study sought to investigate the effects of perceived social support from family,…
Richards, Tara N.; Branch, Kathryn A.
Although much research has focused on the function of social support in adult intimate partner violence, little is known about the role of social support in adolescent dating violence. This study is an exploratory analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and family on the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and…
Song, Juyeon; Bong, Mimi; Lee, Kyehyoung; Kim, Sung-il
We examined (a) the relative importance of perceived social support from parents, peers, and teachers; (b) the consequences associated with different types of perceived social support; and (c) the mediation by achievement goals in the relationship between perceived social support and academic outcomes. We analyzed the first 3 waves of the Korean…
Inglehart, Marita; Brown, Donald R.
This study investigated the influence of social support on a person's career choice and its impact on later achievement, testing the hypotheses that social support that pressures a person into entering a given field will lead to lower achievement, and that social support that contributes to the person's development of a professional identity will…
Wayment, Heidi A.; Peplau, Letitia Anne
Examines the types of social support that lesbian and heterosexual women receive from their social networks and the link between support and psychological well-being. Results indicate that both groups reported receiving equivalent overall amounts of support from their social networks, and that coupled women reported greater well-being than single…
Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
This study of perceived social support and weapon possession surveyed 461 students in an urban middle school. Students who reported carrying weapons to school reported less overall or total perceived social support (from peers, parents, teachers, classmates, and school) than did their peers who did not carry weapons. Perceived social support was a…
Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Abler, William
A detailed review of research was conducted on the relationship of social support of older adults to their general health and well being, and the findings were applied to educational outcomes and performance. The following dimensions of social support were examined: (1) an ecological framework or perspective of social support, (2) definitions and…
Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao
To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.
Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A
Neighborhood characteristics have been linked to healthy behavior, including effective parenting behaviors. This may be partially explained through the neighborhood's relation to parents' access to social support from friends and family. The current study examined associations of neighborhood characteristics with parenting behaviors indirectly through social support. The sample included 614 mothers of 11-12 year old youths enrolled in a health care system in the San Francisco area. Structural equations modeling shows that neighborhood perceptions were related to parenting behaviors, indirectly through social support, while archival census neighborhood indicators were unrelated to social support and parenting. Perceived neighborhood social cohesion and control were related to greater social support, which was related to more effective parenting style, parent-child communication, and monitoring. Perceived neighborhood disorganization was unrelated to social support. Prevention strategies should focus on helping parents build a social support network that can act as a resource in times of need.
Lunsky, Yona; Neely, Lynn C
The extra-individual social support responses provided by adults with intellectual disabilities on a social support survey were examined. Felton and Berry (1992) argued that extra-individual social support, support from larger than individual entities, is a valid source of social support for older adults. We hypothesized that extra-individual support would also be relevant to adults with intellectual disabilities. Results showed that 43% of participants with intellectual disabilities listed extra-individual support sources in their social networks or as providers of one of several support functions. The most popular forms of extra-individual support were those from "staff" and "work." Findings are discussed in terms of implications for social support measurement for persons with intellectual disabilities.
Sustainable remediation requires a balanced decision-making process in which environmental, economic and social aspects of different remediation options are all considered together and the optimum remediation solution is selected. More attention has been paid to the evaluation of environmental and economic aspects, in particular to reduce the human and environmental risks and the remediation costs, to the exclusion of social aspects of remediation. This paper investigates how social aspects are currently considered in sustainability assessments of remediation projects. A selection of decision support tools (DSTs), used for the sustainability assessment of a remediation project, is analyzed to define how social aspects are considered in those tools. The social indicator categories of the Sustainable Remediation Forum - United Kingdom (SuRF-UK), are used as a basis for this evaluation. The consideration of social aspects in the investigated decision support tools is limited, but a clear increase is noticed in more recently developed tools. Among the five social indicator categories defined by SuRF-UK to facilitate a holistic consideration of social aspects of a remediation project only "Human health and safety" is systematically taken into account. "Neighbourhood and locality" is also often addressed, mostly emphasizing the potential disturbance caused by the remediation activities. However, the evaluation of 'Ethics and Equality', Communities and community involvement', and 'Uncertainty and evidence' is often neglected. Nevertheless, concrete examples can be found in some of the investigated tools. Specific legislation, standard procedures, and guidelines that have to be followed in a region or country are mainly been set up in the context of protecting human and ecosystem health, safety and prevention of nuisance. However, they sometimes already include some of the aspects addressed by the social indicators. In this perspective the use of DST to evaluate the
McBeath, Bowen; Briggs, Harold E; Aisenberg, Eugene
Federal, state, and local policymakers and funders have increasingly organized human service delivery functions around the selection and implementation of empirically supported interventions (ESIs), under the expectation that service delivery through such intervention frameworks results in improvements in cost-effectiveness and system performance. This article examines the validity of four premises undergirding the ESI approach: ESIs are effective, relevant to common client problems and needs, culturally appropriate, and replicable and sustainable in community-based settings. In reviewing available literature, the authors found insufficient support for the uniform application of an ESI approach to social work practice in the human service sector, particularly as applied within agency contexts serving ethnic minority clients. The authors recommend that greater attention be devoted to the development and dissemination of social work interventions that respond to needs that are broadly understood and shared across diverse cultural groups, have proven clinical efficacy, and can be translated successfully for use across different agency and cultural environments. Such attention to the research and development function of the social work profession is increasingly necessary as policymakers and human service system architects require reduced costs and improved performance for programs serving historically oppressed client populations.
Rui, Jian Raymond; Chen, Yixin; Damiano, Amanda
Providing and seeking social support are important aspects of social exchange. New communication technologies, especially social network sites (SNSs), facilitate the process of support exchange. An increasing number of health organizations are using SNSs. However, how they provide and seek social support via SNSs has yet to garner academic attention. This study examined the types of social support provided and sought by health organizations on Twitter. A content analysis was conducted on 1,500 tweets sent by a random sample of 58 health organizations within 2 months. Findings indicate that providing informational and emotional support, as well as seeking instrumental support, were the main types of social support exchanged by health organizations through Twitter. This study provides a typology for studying social support exchanges by health organizations, and recommends strategies for health organizations regarding the effective use of Twitter.
This study examined the working mechanisms of social support for victims of bullying. Structural equation modeling analyses based on retrospective survey data (N = 448) revealed that the effects of supportive messages varied distinctively, depending on the content of the messages; emotional and esteem support enhanced, but network support impeded,…
Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B; Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B
This literature review of research on health-related computer-mediated support groups links features of these groups to existing theory from the areas of social support and computer-mediated communication research. The article exams computer-mediated support groups as weak tie networks, focuses on how these support groups facilitate participant similarity and empathic support and identifies changes in supportive communication due to characteristics of the medium.
Seawell, Asani H.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Russell, Daniel W.
The present longitudinal study examined the role of general and tailored social support in mitigating the deleterious impact of racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and optimism in a large sample of African American women. Participants were 590 African American women who completed measures assessing racial discrimination, general social support, tailored social support for racial discrimination, depressive symptoms, and optimism at two time points (2001–2002 and 2003–2004). Our results indicated that higher levels of general and tailored social support predicted optimism one year later; changes in both types of support also predicted changes in optimism over time. Although initial levels of neither measure of social support predicted depressive symptoms over time, changes in tailored support predicted changes in depressive symptoms. We also sought to determine whether general and tailored social support “buffer” or diminish the negative effects of racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and optimism. Our results revealed a classic buffering effect of tailored social support, but not general support on depressive symptoms for women experiencing high levels of discrimination. PMID:24443614
Yu, Juyoun; Bang, Kyung-Sook
This descriptive study was performed to identify the relationships among alienation, general social support, and nurses' support for the siblings of children with cancer. The participants were 84 siblings of children with cancer. Alienation was measured by the revised version of Dean's Alienation Scale, and general social support was quantified by the revised version of Dubow and Ullman's Social Support Appraisal Scale. For nurses' support, Murray's Nurse-Sibling Social Support Questionnaire was used. Data were collected from July 2011 to December 2011. The participants' alienation was not particularly high (mean = 42.24 ± 12.72), but psychosocial vulnerability was identified from their answers to open-ended questions. The participants' perceived alienation showed a negative correlation with general social support, but no relationship with nurses' support. Although direct relationships between nurses' support and the siblings' alienation were not found in this study, the siblings perceived that the support of nurses was moderately helpful. Nurses can help siblings by providing support.
Anderson, Paul J; Wang, Zhen; Beebe, Timothy J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan
Objectives Regular exercise is a key component of obesity prevention and 48% of Americans do not meet minimum guidelines for weekly exercise. Social support has been shown to help individuals start and maintain exercise programmes. We evaluated social support among endurance athletes and explored the relationship between social support for exercise, health behaviours and health status. Design Survey. Setting The largest Nordic ski race in North America. Participants 5433 past participants responded to an online questionnaire. Outcome measures Social support, health behaviours and health status. Results The mean overall support score was 32.1 (SD=16.5; possible range=−16.0 to 88.0). The most common forms of social support were verbal such as discussing exercise, invitations to exercise and celebrating the enjoyment of exercise. We found that an increase of 10 points in the social support score was associated with a 5 min increase in weekly self-reported exercise (5.02, 95% CI 3.63 to 6.41). Conclusions Physical activity recommendations should incorporate the importance of participation in group activities, especially those connected to strong fitness cultures created by community and competitive events. PMID:27338876
Lee, Youjung; Choi, Sunha
The purpose of this study was to explore how Korean American family caregivers view the services they offer to patients with dementia. It also investigated the roles of social networks and satisfaction with social support on attitudes toward caregiving. Social network, satisfaction with social support, demographic characteristics, caregiving-related stress factors, and cultural factors were examined. We used a convenience sample of 85 Korean American dementia caregivers. The results from hierarchical multiple regression models show that the level of satisfaction with social support significantly contributed to Korean American caregivers' attitudes toward working with patients with dementia, while no statistically significant associate was found for social network. Higher levels of satisfaction with social support were associated with greater positive attitudes toward caregiving among Korean American caregivers (b = 0.26, p = .024). The implications for mental health professionals and policy makers are discussed.
Mansell, Jim; Beadle-Brown, Julie; Bigby, Christine
Background: Active support is an effective intervention to support engagement of residents with intellectual disability in group homes. This survey explored resident characteristics of the people supported by organisations implementing active support, the provision of active support, its procedures and systems, and resident engagement in…
Hung, Chou P.; Cui, Ding; Chen, Yueh-peng; Lin, Chia-pei; Levine, Matthew R.
Visual recognition is a computational challenge that is thought to occur via efficient coding. An important concept is sparseness, a measure of coding efficiency. The prevailing view is that sparseness supports efficiency by minimizing redundancy and correlations in spiking populations. Yet, we recently reported that “choristers”, neurons that behave more similarly (have correlated stimulus preferences and spontaneous coincident spiking), carry more generalizable object information than uncorrelated neurons (“soloists”) in macaque inferior temporal (IT) cortex. The rarity of choristers (as low as 6% of IT neurons) indicates that they were likely missed in previous studies. Here, we report that correlation strength is distinct from sparseness (choristers are not simply broadly tuned neurons), that choristers are located in non-granular output layers, and that correlated activity predicts human visual search efficiency. These counterintuitive results suggest that a redundant correlational structure supports efficient processing and behavior. PMID:25610392
Tinsley, B J; Parke, R D
The role of grandparents in infancy was examined in a comparative analysis of grandparent-infant grandchild and parent-infant interaction patterns. A second focus of the study was an exploration of the extent to which grandparents function as social support agents for their adult children and infant grandchildren. Grandparents (30 grandmothers and 21 grandfathers) and parents (30 mothers and 30 fathers) of seven-month-old infants were observed in individual five-minute dyadic play sessions with the infant in the parents' homes, yielding twenty minutes of agent-infant interaction. The observations were scored using both time-sampling and global coding schemes. Information on grandparental support to the young parents and infants, relative to other social support sources, were also obtained from grandparents and parents. Results indicated that both grandmothers and grandfathers are active interactive and support agents, with a pattern of similarities and differences in interactive style across generation and gender. Although there was a high degree of overlap in parent and grandparent interaction styles, parents were rated as more competent. Gender consistencies were found between female agents (mothers and grandmothers) and male agents (fathers and grandfathers). High levels of intergenerational contact were reported, with both parents and grandparents highly satisfied with the contact. The results of this study support an expanded view of the effects of various agents in young children's social environment.
Theeke, Laurie A; Goins, R Turner; Moore, Julia; Campbell, Heather
This study's purpose was to describe loneliness and to examine the relationships between loneliness, depression, social support, and QOL in chronically ill, older Appalachians. In-person interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 60 older, chronically ill, community-dwelling, and rural adults. Those with dementia or active grief were excluded. The UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1985), Geriatric Depression Scale (Shiekh & Yesavage, 1986), Katz ADL scale (Katz, Down, & Cash, 1970), MOS Social Support Scale (Sherbourne & Stewart, 1991), and a visual analog scale for Quality of Life (Spitzer et al., 1981) scale were used. Diagnoses were obtained through chart reviews. SPSS was used for data analyses. The majority of the 65% female sample (M age = 75 years) were married and impoverished. Participants' number of chronic illnesses averaged more than 3. Over 88% of participants reported at least 1 area of functional impairment. Loneliness was prevalent with UCLA loneliness scores indicating moderate to high loneliness, ranging from 39 to 62 (possible scores were 20-80). Higher loneliness scores correlated with depression, lower Qol, and lower social support, particularly lower emotional support. This study provides evidence that loneliness is a significant problem for older chronically ill Appalachian adults and that it may be related to low emotional support. Further, it provides evidence that this population may be significantly lonely and may not self-identify as lonely. Screening for loneliness and designing interventions that target the emotional aspects of loneliness could be important in this population.
Martinez, Damian J; Abrams, Laura S
Informal social support has long been touted as a key to success for young offenders, but little empirical work has concretized these benefits. This article explores the dynamics of informal social support for returning young offenders (ages 14-24), particularly in the context of peers and family members. The authors use a metasynthesis methodology to examine 13 qualitative articles and dissertations published in the United States from 1998 through 2010. Analysis of these texts found two major themes related to informal support from peers and family members. Young offenders "walked a fine line" with their peers, who provided not only a sense of belonging and possibly a route to material assistance but also temptations and opportunities to reengage with criminal activity. Family members provided the supports and comforts of "the ties that bind" but with potentially unrealistic expectations and reenactment of old roles and negative dynamics. Through this metasynthesis, the authors forge an understanding of informal social support that complicates its presumed benefits for the reentry of young offenders.
Lee, Kyung-Tag; Noh, Mi-Jin; Koo, Dong-Mo
Most previous studies assert the negative effect of loneliness on social life and an individual's well-being when individuals use the Internet. To expand this previous research tradition, the current study proposes a model to test whether loneliness has a direct or indirect effect on well-being when mediated by self-disclosure and social support. The results show that loneliness has a direct negative impact on well-being but a positive effect on self-disclosure. While self-disclosure positively influences social support, self-disclosure has no impact on well-being, and social support positively influences well-being. The results also show a full mediation effect of social support in the self-disclosure to well-being link. The results imply that even if lonely people's well-being is poor, their well-being can be enhanced through the use of SNSs, including self-presentation and social support from their friends.
Lee, Rebecca; Whitley, Heather P
The prevalence of diabetes is increasing, especially in the elderly population. Unfortunately, many seniors have limited access to ongoing health care, which may hinder improvements in these chronic disease states. Use of social media continues to increase among all populations. Thus, use of this venue to reach patients, including those with diabetes, is a reasonable undertaking. Countryside Diabetes is a Facebook page created and administered by Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy faculty and students to reach this growing and often underserved demographic. The aim is to provide ongoing education and support for people affected by diabetes. Information posted on the Web site began addressing usual diabetes-related topics such as nutrition, exercise, and selfcare. Each week the site focused on an individual topic, and specialists collaborated on these efforts, fortifying the site content through a multidisciplinary approach. Membership in the senior population continues to grow and garner participation.
Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn
Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…
Ellonen, Noora; Kaariainen, Juha; Autio, Ville
This study invokes the ecological approach to social support by examining how school social support relates to moderate or severe adolescent depression. School is seen as not only a place for supportive individual-level relationships, but also as a source of community support created by teachers and other students. The main purpose of the study is…
Farajtabar, Mehrdad; Du, Nan; Rodriguez, Manuel Gomez; Valera, Isabel; Zha, Hongyuan; Song, Le
Events in an online social network can be categorized roughly into endogenous events, where users just respond to the actions of their neighbors within the network, or exogenous events, where users take actions due to drives external to the network. How much external drive should be provided to each user, such that the network activity can be steered towards a target state? In this paper, we model social events using multivariate Hawkes processes, which can capture both endogenous and exogenous event intensities, and derive a time dependent linear relation between the intensity of exogenous events and the overall network activity. Exploiting this connection, we develop a convex optimization framework for determining the required level of external drive in order for the network to reach a desired activity level. We experimented with event data gathered from Twitter, and show that our method can steer the activity of the network more accurately than alternatives. PMID:26005312
Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
Existing empirical evidence has well documented the role of social support in both physical and psychological well-being among various populations. In the context of HIV prevention, the rapid increase of studies on social support merits a systematic review to synthesize the current global literature on association between social support and HIV-related risk behaviors. The current review reveals a complex picture of this relationship across diverse populations. Existing studies indicate that higher levels of social support are related to fewer HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers and people living with HIV/AIDS and heterosexual adults in general. However, influences of social support on HIV-related risk behaviors are inconsistent within drug users, men who have sex with men and adolescents. These variations in findings may be attributed to different measurement of social support in different studies, specific context of social support for diverse population, or various characteristics of the social networks the study population obtained support from. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism of how social support affects HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV prevention intervention efforts need to focus on the positive effect of social support for various vulnerable and at-risk populations. Future efforts also need to incorporate necessary structure change and utilize technical innovation in order to maximize the protective role of social support in HIV risk prevention or reduction.
Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.
The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…
Arnon, Sara; Shamai, Shmuel; Ilatov, Zinaida
Research examined the relative importance of peer groups for young adolescents as compared with diverse adult socialization agents--family, school, and community. The factors involved were teenagers' activities, preferences, feelings, and thoughts as to how they spend their leisure time, their preferences for help providers, and their sense of…
Shelby, Rebecca A; Crespin, Tim R; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla M; Lamdan, Ruth M; Siegel, Jamie E; Taylor, Kathryn L
Past studies show that optimism and social support are associated with better adjustment following breast cancer treatment. Most studies have examined these relationships in predominantly non-Hispanic White samples. The present study included 77 African American women treated for nonmetastatic breast cancer. Women completed measures of optimism, social support, and adjustment within 10-months of surgical treatment. In contrast to past studies, social support did not mediate the relationship between optimism and adjustment in this sample. Instead, social support was a moderator of the optimism-adjustment relationship, as it buffered the negative impact of low optimism on psychological distress, well-being, and psychosocial functioning. Women with high levels of social support experienced better adjustment even when optimism was low. In contrast, among women with high levels of optimism, increasing social support did not provide an added benefit. These data suggest that perceived social support is an important resource for women with low optimism.
Cheng, Zhen Hadassah; Tu, Ming-Che; Yang, Lawrence Hsin
Limited research has investigated how culture impacts expressions of social support, which is crucial in developing culturally sensitive care. Using a classification based on theories of social support, we examined the social support experiences of 49 Chinese immigrant mental health consumers with psychosis, paying particular attention to frequency and sources. We found that the most common forms of social support were belonging and companionship, perceived emotional support, social control, and perceived instrumental support, while self-esteem and sense of mastery were the least common forms. Family and friends were the main sources of support. These results demonstrate the influence of Confucian values of renqing (or fulfillment of relational obligations) and guanxi (or social networks) and the negative effects of stigma in diminishing the social standing of these consumers by compromising 'personhood.' Clinical implications for increasing the cultural competency of clinicians and improving the mental health outcomes of Chinese immigrants are discussed.
Wohn, Donghee Yvette; Carr, Caleb T; Hayes, Rebecca A
A national survey asked 323 U.S. adults about paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs) and how these forms of lightweight feedback within social media were associated with their perceived social support. People perceived PDAs (e.g., Likes, Favorites, and Upvotes) as socially supportive both quantitatively and qualitatively, even without implicit meaning associated with them. People who are highly sensitive about what others think of them and have high self-esteem are more likely to perceive higher social support from PDAs.
Brooks, Alyssa T; Andrade, Regina E; Middleton, Kimberly R; Wallen, Gwenyth R
Chronic diseases, including rheumatic diseases, can cause immense physical and psychosocial burden for patients. Many Hispanics suffering with arthritis face activity limitations. Social support, or the functional content of relationships, may be important to consider when examining treatment and outcomes for Hispanic individuals. Participants were recruited from an urban community health center (CHC) as part of a larger health behavior study. A cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods analysis was conducted to explore the role of social support in the sample. Only Hispanic/Latino patients (n = 46) were included in this analysis. Interviews were conducted in both English and Spanish. The majority of the sample (87%) perceived some presence of social support in their lives. The two most commonly cited types of social support were emotional and instrumental. The two most common sources of social support were family members other than spouses (52.2%) and spouses (32.6%). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly correlated with the number of perceived sources of support. The presence or absence and the role of social support in supporting optimal health outcomes should be considered for Hispanics with chronic rheumatic diseases. Involving family members and spouses in the plan of care for this population could facilitate health promotion and chronic disease management.
Conte, Kathleen P.; Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner
Objectives This study examined social support and identified demographic and health correlates among American Indians aged 55 years and older. Methods Data were derived from the Native Elder Care Study, a cross-sectional study of 505 community-dwelling American Indians aged ≥55 years. Social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey measure (MOS-SSS) of which psychometric properties were examined through factor analyses. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations between age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, depressive symptomatology, lower body physical functioning, and chronic pain and social support. Results Study participants reported higher levels of affectionate and positive interaction social support (88.2% and 81.8%, respectively) than overall (75.9%) and emotional (69.0%) domains. Increased age, being married/partnered, and female sex were associated with high social support in the final model. Decreased depressive symptomatology was associated with high overall, affectionate, and positive interaction support, and decreased chronic pain with affectionate support. The count of chronic conditions and functional disability were not associated with social support. Conclusions Overall, we found high levels of social support for both men and women in this population, with the oldest adults in our study exhibiting the highest levels of social support. Strong cultural values of caring for older adults and a historical tradition of community cooperation may explain this finding. Future public health efforts may be able to leverage social support to reduce health disparities and improve mental and physical functioning. PMID:25322933
This study investigated the extent and sources of perceived social support among international students attending a northeastern university in the United States. Using the Index of Sojourner Social Support Scale, international students reported perceiving greater socioemotional and instrumental support from other international people than from Americans. Results also indicated that younger international students perceived more socioemotional and instrumental support from others than did older international students. The findings point to sources of social support available to international students in the host culture and the important role such types of social support may play in helping international students make adjustments to living and studying in a new cultural context.
Taylor, Zoe E; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F
Social bonds and supportive relationships are widely recognized as being indispensable to healthy psychological functioning and well-being. Social support is a psychological resource that is expected to also contribute positively to parenting practices. The present study longitudinally examined the relations between mothers' (N = 674) and fathers' (N = 430) perceived social support and parenting behaviors, and their relations with children's social competence during early adolescence in Mexican-origin single and two-parent families. Our constructs of interest (warm parenting, monitoring, perceived social support, and children's social competence) were significantly correlated at T1, and demonstrated significant stability across time for both parental models. Parental warmth (as reported by the child, and opposite parent) and parental monitoring (self-reported by mothers and fathers) were correlated and also showed bidirectional associations across time. Parental monitoring at T2 positively predicted change in children's social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for mothers. Parental warmth at T2 positively predicted change in children's social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for fathers. For mothers, the indirect effect of social support at T1 on children's social competence at T3 via parental monitoring at T2 (and controlling for prior levels) was significant. Findings suggest that maternal perceived social support contributes to children's social competence due to its positive relation to maternal monitoring. Results may also suggest that mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors differentially relate to children's social competence in Latino families, although additional work focused on comparing parenting behaviors in two-parent families is needed.
Taylor, Zoe E.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.
Social bonds and supportive relationships are widely recognized as being indispensable to healthy psychological functioning and well-being. Social support is a psychological resource that is expected to also contribute positively to parenting practices. The present study longitudinally examined the relations between mothers’ (N = 674) and fathers’ (N = 430) perceived social support and parenting behaviors, and their relations with children’s social competence during early adolescence in Mexican-origin single and two-parent families. Our constructs of interest (warm parenting, monitoring, perceived social support, and children’s social competence) were significantly correlated at T1, and demonstrated significant stability across time for both parental models. Parental warmth (as reported by the child, and opposite parent) and parental monitoring (self-reported by mothers and fathers) were correlated and also showed bidirectional associations across time. Parental monitoring at T2 positively predicted change in children’s social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for mothers. Parental warmth at T2 positively predicted change in children’s social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for fathers. For mothers, the indirect effect of social support at T1 on children’s social competence at T3 via parental monitoring at T2 (and controlling for prior levels) was significant. Findings suggest that maternal perceived social support contributes to children’s social competence due to its positive relation to maternal monitoring. Results may also suggest that mothers’ and fathers’ parenting behaviors differentially relate to children’s social competence in Latino families, although additional work focused on comparing parenting behaviors in two-parent families is needed. PMID:26751039
Farren, G. L.; Zhang, T.; Martin, S. B.; Thomas, K. T.
Objective: To examine the relations of sex, exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and social support with meeting physical activity guidelines (PAGs). Participants: Three hundred ninety-six college students participated in this study in the summer 2013. Methods: Students completed online questionnaires that assessed physical activity…
Wu, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Jing; Li, Yi-Feng; Bi, Linda; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Hu, Cai-Yun; Gong, Feng-Feng; Sun, Ye-Huan
A cross-sectional study design was applied amongst a random sample (n = 10158) of Chinese adolescents. Self-completed questionnaires, including demographic characteristics, Internet use situation, Youth Internet Addiction Test, Youth Social Support Rating Scale and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale were utilized to examine the study objectives. Among the study population, the prevalence rate of Internet addiction was 10.4%, with 1038 (10.2%) moderately and 21 (0.2%) severely addicted to the Internet. Results from the multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that a variety of related factors have significant effects on Internet addiction (parental control, per capita annual household income, academic performance, the access to Internet, online activities). The correlation coefficients showed that Internet addiction was negatively correlated with social support and positively associated with depression. Social support had a significant negative predictive effect on Internet addiction. The mediating effect of depression between social support and Internet addiction was remarkable.
Fisher, Kristi; Haufe, Theresa
The purpose of this action research project was to improve the social skills of eight preschool students and four first grade and second grade students through the use of Social Stories and visual supports to create a more positive learning environment. The teacher researchers wanted to increase the social skills of students who had been diagnosed…
Objectives. Despite increases in social support following widowhood, loneliness is among the most frequently reported challenges of bereavement. This analysis explores the dynamic relationship between social support and loneliness among recently bereaved older adults. Methods. Using longitudinal data from “Living After Loss” (n = 328), latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate changes in loneliness and social support during the first year and a half of bereavement among older adults aged 50+. Results. Both loneliness and social support declined over the first year and a half of bereavement. Greater social support was associated with lower levels of loneliness overall, but the receipt of social support did not modify one’s expression of loneliness over time. Loneliness was more highly correlated with support from friends than family. Together, social support from both friends and family accounted for 36% of the total variance in loneliness. Discussion. There is conceptual and empirical overlap between the concepts of loneliness and social support, but results suggest that loneliness following widowhood cannot be remedied by interventions aimed only at increasing social support. Social support, especially that from friends, appears to be most effective if it is readily accessible and allows the newly bereaved an opportunity to express him/herself. PMID:24056690
Baumgartner, Robert; Heberlein, Thomas A.
Two recreational activities, deer hunting and goose hunting, both similar in form, are compared. It was hypothesized that the activity for which participants rated the process, the goal, and the social interaction as most important to the experience and for which participants showed the strongest family ties and social support for participation…
Popova, Irina N.
The article is devoted to the analysis of technological support of the educational process in solving the problem of forming the socially active individual. The authors studied the value of the category "social activity" and analyzed educational technologies that have an impact on its formation. The obtained results gave the possibility…
Wedgeworth, Monika; LaRocca, Michael A; Chaplin, William F; Scogin, Forrest
The mental health of elderly individuals in rural areas is increasingly relevant as populations age and social structures change. While social support satisfaction is a well-established predictor of quality of life, interpersonal sensitivity symptoms may diminish this relation. The current study extends the findings of Scogin et al by investigating the relationship among interpersonal sensitivity, social support satisfaction, and quality of life among rural older adults and exploring the mediating role of social support in the relation between interpersonal sensitivity and quality of life (N = 128). Hierarchical regression revealed that interpersonal sensitivity and social support satisfaction predicted quality of life. In addition, bootstrapping resampling supported the role of social support satisfaction as a mediator between interpersonal sensitivity symptoms and quality of life. These results underscore the importance of nurses and allied health providers in assessing and attending to negative self-perceptions of clients, as well as the perceived quality of their social networks.
Crockett, Lisa J; Iturbide, Maria I; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; McGinley, Meredith; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo
This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well as the protective role of social support and coping style, in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (67% female, 33% male; mean age = 23.05 years, SD = 3.33). In bivariate analyses, acculturative stress was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, active coping was associated with better adjustment (lower depression), whereas avoidant coping predicted poorer adjustment (higher levels of depression and anxiety). Tests of interaction effects indicated that parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative stress among Mexican American college students are discussed.
Appleyard, Karen; Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L Alan
This study is unique in addressing developmental correlates of direct social support for young children in a high risk sample, in contrast to previous studies addressing social support for caregivers. Participants were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of at-risk children. Social support was rated from maternal interviews throughout early childhood. Support from the mother was assessed from mother-child observations. Outcomes included internalizing and externalizing behavior problems measured from first through tenth grades. The most common support providers were biological fathers, followed by grandparents and other providers. Using multilevel modeling, higher quantity, higher quality, and lower disruption of support predicted lower starting levels of behavior problems, controlling for support from the mother. Disruption was associated with change in slope. Gender differences were found for externalizing behavior intercepts. Social support provides a promotive factor for young high risk children. Implications include involving children's social support providers in prevention and intervention programs.
Guerette, Amy R.; Smedema, Susan Miller
The relationship between perceived social support and multiple indicators of well-being in adults with visual impairments was investigated. The results included significant correlation of social support and depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, as well as with physical, psychological, economic, family, and social well-being. Implications…
Awang, Mohd Mahzan; Kutty, Faridah Mydin; Ahmad, Abdul Razaq
The current study explored first-year student experience in receiving social support and its relation to their ability to adapt with university ethos. It also explored how social support on academic adjustment, social adjustment and emotional adjustment among students were significantly associated with student well-being. This qualitative research…
Tennant, Jaclyn E.; Demaray, Michelle K.; Malecki, Christine K.; Terry, Melissa N.; Clary, Michael; Elzinga, Nathan
Data on students' perceptions of teacher social support, academic functioning, and social-emotional functioning were collected from a sample of 796 7th and 8th grade middle school students using the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS; Malecki, Demaray, & Elliott, 2000), Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) and school records, and…
Tabbah, Rhonda; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Wheaton, Joe E.
The purpose of this study was to investigate three domains (Scholastic Competence, Social Acceptance, and Global Self-Worth) of self-concept in Arab American adolescents in relation to their school experiences, including discrimination, self-perceived teacher social support, and self-perceived classmate social support. Half of the sample either…
Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl
We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…
Hamilton, Kyra; Warner, Lisa M.; Schwarzer, Ralf
Objectives: Physical activity, including some form of vigorous activity, is a key component of a healthy lifestyle in young people. Self-efficacy and social support have been identified as key determinants of physical activity; however, the mechanism that reflects the interplay of these two factors is not well understood. The aim of the current…
Schreurs, K M; de Ridder, D T
In this article, empirical studies dealing with the relationship between coping and social support are discussed in order to identify promising themes for research on adaptation to chronic diseases. Although only few studies deal with this issue explicitly, the review reveals that four ways to study the relationship between coping and social support can be distinguished: (a) seeking social support as a coping strategy; (b) social support as a coping resource; (c) social support as dependent on the way individual patients cope; and (d) coping by a social system. It is argued that all four ways of integrating coping and social support contribute to a better understanding of adaptation to chronic diseases. However, exploring the interrelatedness of both concepts by studying social support as a coping resource and social support as dependent on the patient's own coping behavior appear to be especially fruitful in the short term, as they: (a) provide a better insight in the social determinants of coping, and (b) may help to clarify the way social support affects health and well-being.
Objectives. This study examined whether or not direct social support is associated with long-term health among middle-aged and older adults with diabetes mellitus. Method. Direct social support was assessed at baseline (2003) for 1,099 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Health and Retirement Study. Self-reported health status was examined at baseline and in 4 biennial survey waves (2003–2010). A series of ordinal logistic regression models examined whether or not the 7-item Diabetes Care Profile scale was associated with a subsequent change in health status over time. Additional analyses examined whether or not individual components of direct social support were associated with health status change. Results. After adjusting for baseline covariates, greater direct social support as measured by the Diabetes Care Profile was associated with improved health outcomes over time; however, this trend was not significant (p = .06). The direct social support measures that were associated with improved health over follow-up were support for taking medicines (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22), physical activity (OR = 1.26), and going to health care providers (OR = 1.22; all p < .05). Discussion. Interventions that specifically target improving specific aspects of diabetes social support may be more effective in improving long-term health than less targeted efforts. PMID:24150176
Schellekens, Melanie P J; Tamagawa, Rie; Labelle, Laura E; Speca, Michael; Stephen, Joanne; Drysdale, Elaine; Sample, Sarah; Pickering, Barbara; Dirkse, Dale; Savage, Linette Lawlor; Carlson, Linda E
Despite growing evidence in support of mindfulness as an underlying mechanism of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), it has been suggested that nonspecific therapeutic factors, such as the experience of social support, may contribute to the positive effects of MBIs. In the present study, we examined whether change in mindfulness and/or social support mediated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) compared to another active intervention (i.e. Supportive Expressive Group Therapy (SET)), on change in mood disturbance, stress symptoms and quality of life. A secondary analysis was conducted of a multi-site randomized clinical trial investigating the impacts of MBCR and SET on distressed breast cancer survivors (MINDSET). We applied the causal steps approach with bootstrapping to test mediation, using pre- and post-intervention questionnaire data of the participants who were randomised to MBCR (n = 69) or SET (n = 70). MBCR participants improved significantly more on mood disturbance, stress symptoms and social support, but not on quality of life or mindfulness, compared to SET participants. Increased social support partially mediated the impact of MBCR versus SET on mood disturbance and stress symptoms. Because no group differences on mindfulness and quality of life were observed, no mediation analyses were performed on these variables. Findings showed that increased social support was related to more improvement in mood and stress after MBCR compared to support groups, whereas changes in mindfulness were not. This suggests a more important role for social support in enhancing outcomes in MBCR than previously thought.
Carstens, Jason Ned
At present, there is considerable interest in utilizing methane more efficiently as both a fuel source and as a starting material for the production of other, more valuable products. However, methane is a very stable molecule with strong C-H bonds that are difficult to break. This makes methane combustion or the formation of carbon-carbon bonds quite difficult. The present work focuses on the use of supported transition metal catalysts as a means of activating methane (i.e. breaking C-H bonds) at low temperatures to produce valuable products or energy. The conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. A low temperature (<750 K), direct process to effectively convert methane into higher hydrocarbons would be quite desirable. Such a process is thermodynamically feasible if the reaction is broken up into two separate steps. The first step is the adsorption of methane onto a transition metal catalyst at temperatures above about 600 K to produce a surface carbon species. The second step is a low temperature (<373 K) hydrogenation to convert the carbon species into higher hydrocarbons. T. Koerts et al. have pursued this approach by dissociatively absorbing methane onto silica supported transition metal catalysts at temperatures ranging between 573 K and 773 K. The result was a surface carbonaceous species and hydrogen. In the second step, the carbonaceous intermediates produced small alkanes upon hydrogenation around 373 K. A maximum yield to higher hydrocarbons of 13% was obtained on a ruthenium catalyst. The present study was conducted to further investigate the nature of the carbonaceous species reported by Koerts. Methane combustion. This investigation was conducted in an effort to better understand the mechanism of methane combustion on Pd catalysts. In the first part of this study, temperature programmed reduction (TPR) was used to investigate the oxidation and reduction dynamics of a 10 wt% Pd/ZrOsb2 catalyst used for methane combustion. TPR experiments indicate
Marshall, Sarah L; Parker, Phillip D; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L
Considerable research has been devoted to examining the relations between self-esteem and social support. However, the exact nature and direction of these relations are not well understood. Measures of self-esteem, and social support quantity and quality were administered to 961 adolescents across five yearly time points (M(age) = 13.41 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to test between a self-esteem antecedent model (self-esteem precedes changes in social support), self-esteem consequence model (social support precedes change in self-esteem), and a reciprocal influence model. Self-esteem reliably predicted increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time. In contrast, the consequence model was not supported. The implications of this for helping adolescents to develop higher quality social support structures are discussed.
LACKNER, J. M.; BRASEL, A. M.; QUIGLEY, B M.; KEEFER, L.; KRASNER, S. S.; POWELL, C.; KATZ, L. A.; SITRIN, M. D.
Background This study assessed the association between social support and the severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms in a sample of severely affected IBS patients recruited to an NIH-funded clinical trial. In addition, we examined if the effects of social support on IBS pain are mediated through the effects on stress. Methods Subjects were 105 Rome II diagnosed IBS patients (F = 85%) who completed seven questionnaires which were collected as part of a pretreatment baseline assessment. Key Results Partial correlations were conducted to clarify the relationships between social support and clinically relevant variables with baseline levels of psychopathology, holding constant number of comorbid medical diseases, age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, and education. Analyses indicated that social support was inversely related to IBS symptom severity. Social support was positively related with less severe pain. A similar pattern of data was found for perceived stress but not quality of life impairment. Regression analyses examined if the effects of social support on pain are mediated by stress. The effects of social support on bodily pain were mediated by stress such that the greater the social support the less stress and the less pain. This effect did not hold for symptom severity, quality of life, or psychological distress. Conclusions & Inferences This study links the perceived adequacy of social support to the global severity of symptoms of IBS and its cardinal symptom (pain). It also suggests that the mechanism by which social support alleviates pain is through a reduction in stress levels. PMID:20465594
Stanaway, Fiona F; Kendig, Hal L; Blyth, Fiona M; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasi; Waite, Louise M
This paper describes differences in subjective social support between older male Italian-born immigrants in Australia and their Australian-born counterparts. Data came from 335 Italian-born and 849 Australian-born men aged 70 years and over who participated in the baseline phase of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) in inner suburban Sydney, Australia. Social support was measured using the shortened (11 item) version of the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI). This index measures both social interactions and expressive social support. Logistic regression was used to examine differences in subjective social support between the two groups of men after controlling for other related factors. Italian-born men were about twice as likely to report low subjective social support compared to Australian-born men (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, p = 0.0002). This difference remained after adjustment for sociodemographic, socioeconomic, social network and health factors (adjusted OR = 2.1, p = 0.0007). Italian-born men were more likely to report that they had no non-family members in the local area to rely on. However, lack of non-family supports did not remain significantly associated with perceived social support after adjustment for social interactions and depressive symptoms. Italian-born men were more likely to report low subjective support despite the presence of several protective factors such as a greater number of local family supports and a high rate of home ownership.
Applebaum, Allison J.; Stein, Emma M.; Lord-Bessen, Jennifer; Pessin, Hayley; Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William
Objective Optimism and social support serve as protective factors against distress in medically ill patients. Very few studies have specifically explored the ways in which these variables interact to impact quality of life (QOL), particularly among patients with advanced cancer. The present study examined the role of optimism as a moderator of the relationship between social support and anxiety, depression, hopelessness, and QOL among patients with advanced cancer. Methods Participants (N = 168) completed self-report assessments of psychosocial, spiritual, and physical well-being, including social support, optimism, hopelessness, depressive and anxious symptoms, and QOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the extent to which social support and optimism were associated with depressive and anxious symptomatology, hopelessness and QOL, and the potential role of optimism as a moderator of the relationship between social support and these variables. Results Higher levels of optimism were significantly associated with fewer anxious and depressive symptoms, less hopelessness and better QOL. Higher levels of perceived social support were also significantly associated with better QOL. Additionally, optimism moderated the relationship between social support and anxiety, such that there was a strong negative association between social support and anxiety for participants with low optimism. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of optimism and social support in the QOL of patients with advanced cancer. As such, interventions that attend to patients’ expectations for positive experiences and the expansion of social support should be the focus of future clinical and research endeavors. PMID:24123339
Farmer, Thomas W.; Chen, Chin-Chih; Hamm, Jill V.; Moates, Meredith M.; Mehtaji, Meera; Lee, David; Huneke, Michelle R.
This describes the "scouting report" as an approach that social and behavior intervention specialists can use to help middle-level teachers create social contexts that support productive social roles and relationships of students with disabilities. Building from research on early adolescent social dynamics and context-based interventions…
Sattler, Frank A.; Wagner, Ulrich; Christiansen, Hanna
Objective According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1) it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2) group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively. Methods Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity), group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism), and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support). A moderated multiple regression was conducted. Results Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems. Conclusions The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men. PMID:26943785
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , INTERACTIONS), (*ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY , GROUP DYNAMICS, REACTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERCEPTION... PSYCHOLOGY ), SOCIAL COMMUNICATION, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, VERBAL BEHAVIOR
Takahashi, Tsubasa; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Keita
Social bookmarking services have recently made it possible for us to register and share our own bookmarks on the web and are attracting attention. The services let us get structured data: (URL, Username, Timestamp, Tag Set). And these data represent user interest in web pages. The number of bookmarks is a barometer of web page value. Some web pages have many bookmarks, but most of those bookmarks may have been posted far in the past. Therefore, even if a web page has many bookmarks, their value is not guaranteed. If most of the bookmarks are very old, the page may be obsolete. In this paper, by focusing on the timestamp sequence of social bookmarkings on web pages, we model their activation levels representing current values. Further, we improve our previously proposed ranking method for web search by introducing the activation level concept. Finally, through experiments, we show effectiveness of the proposed ranking method.
Bryan, Craig J; Hernandez, Ann Marie
This study examined various functions of social support (i.e., tangible, esteem, belonging, and appraisal) were examined as protective factors for suicidal ideation in a sample of 273 active duty Air Force Security Forces personnel. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted to determine if various social support functions were differentially associated with the presence and severity of suicidal ideation, both as main effects and as moderators of emotional distress. None of the four social support functions differentiated suicidal from nonsuicidal Airmen, but esteem support (i.e., feeling respected, encouraged, and valued by others) was associated with significantly less severe suicidal ideation (B = -.074, SE = .025, p = .003). A significant interaction of tangible support (i.e., access to material resources) with emotional distress indicated that emotional distress was associated with more severe suicidal ideation only among Airmen reporting low levels of tangible support (B = .006, SE = .003, p = .018). When considered concurrently, both tangible and self-esteem functions of social support are differentially associated with decreased suicidal ideation among Airmen, but belonging (i.e., having someone to do things with) and appraisal (i.e., having someone to talk to about problems) functions were not. Findings suggest that different aspects of social support affect suicidal ideation in different ways.
Waterworth, Pippa; Rosenberg, Michael; Braham, Rebecca; Pescud, Melanie; Dimmock, James
The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians continue to be poorly understood. Despite this, studies confirm that social connections are a very important part of Indigenous life, and it is likely these connections play an important role in influencing health outcomes among this population. Examining the support provided by social connections in relation to health behaviour may assist our understanding of health outcomes among Indigenous Australians. The current study is focused on exploring Indigenous participants' impressions of their social network and social support using Participatory Action Research methodology and qualitative methods. The objective was to identify the influence of social support on the health outcomes of Indigenous people within a Western Australian metropolitan community. Seventeen members of the community were interviewed during the study. The participants had extensive social networks that mainly comprised members of their kinship group. The consequences of this social network included: (1) the positive effects of social support from bonded relationships; (2) the negative effects of social support produced by over-obligation and unidirectional support involving bonded relationships; (3) limited or inadequate social support caused by withdrawal from bonded relationships; (4) lack of social support from bridging relationships; and (5) a strong desire for connection and a sense of belonging.
Arndt, Katrina; Lieberman, Lauren; James, Alisa
Seven adolescents who are blind and seven of their parents were interviewed about the adolescents' social lives. Adolescent and parent perspectives are reviewed, followed by implications for teachers to support the social connections of students who are blind.
Chuah, Julie S. C.; Singh, Manjet Kaur M.
Students pursuing studies in a foreign land experience a disruption or loss of familiar support networks that function as powerful coping mechanisms in times of stress. Loss of social support has been associated with negative consequences such as depression, anxiety and loneliness. Researchers have categorized social support as emotional,…
Turkpour, Azita; Mehdinezhad, Vali
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relation between social and academic support on student ability to adapt to college. Results demonstrated a weak and reverse relation between expression of support and personal ability to adapt and total adaptation. A direct relation was determined between emotional support and social adaptation and…
Jaeckel, Dalit; Seiger, Christine P.; Orth, Ulrich; Wiese, Bettina S.
The present study assesses the effects of a lack of social support reciprocity at work on employees' occupational self-efficacy beliefs. We assume that the self-efficacy effects of received support and support reciprocity depend on the specific work context (e.g., phase in the process of organizational socialization). 297 women who returned to…
Fiorilli, Caterina; Albanese, Ottavia; Gabola, Piera; Pepe, Alessandro
This study explored the relationships among teachers' emotional competence, burnout as a mediator, and social support. Teachers' emotional competence was assessed via measures of emotional intensity and emotional regulation. Social support was evaluated in terms of external versus internal support, and teacher dissatisfaction with support…
Casañas i Comabella, Carolina; Wanat, Marta
Difficulties relating to supportive and palliative care research are often reported. However, studies have highlighted that people near the end of life are happy to participate in research and want their voices heard. Thus, one may raise a twofold question: are we limiting the free will of people who are seriously ill? And are we missing important data, which probably cannot be obtained from other sources? In light of this landscape, a new opportunity has emerged: the use of social media (SM). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of SM, including its theoretical underpinnings, and recent examples of successful uses of SM in healthcare research. It also outlines the opportunities (wider reach, direct access, the potential of Big Data, readiness of research data, empowered participants) and challenges (anonymity of participants, digital divide, sample bias, screening and 'saying no' to participants, data analysis) of using SM in end-of-life care research. Finally, it describes the practical steps that a researcher could follow to recruit patients using SM. Implications for palliative care clinicians, researchers and policymakers are also discussed, with a focus on the need to facilitate patient-centred care through the use of SM. The need for relevant and updated guidelines in this new, emerging field is highlighted.
Hayes, Richard L.; Lin, Heng-Rue
Notes that increasing numbers of international students are coming to America to pursue their education, causing new challenges for college counselors to be more culturally sensitive to the unique experience of these students in developing satisfying social relationships. Looks at social loss, patterns of social response, strategies for coping…
Nurius, Paula; Cnaan, Ram A.
Notes that, as social work gradually enters electronic information era, interface between social work practice and computer world is often accompanied by disharmony. Presents current classification and terminology of software, identifies drawbacks, and proposes new classification approach based on needs of social workers. Discusses how combination…
Larance, Lisa Young; Porter, Maryann Lane
This article explores the authors' practice observations of female domestic violence survivors' journey from first agency contact to active participation in a support group process. The authors have witnessed female victims of domestic violence challenging the social isolation imposed by their dominant partners as they search for meaning in their lives. As practitioners, they have observed women building trustful relationships and establishing supportive networks during the group process. In this article, the authors suggest that the support group process facilitates trust and network formation indicative of social capital.
Almeida, Joanna; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V
Research has demonstrated a protective effect of social support on health. Social support is most often treated as an independent variable. However, as with disease risk factors, which are not randomly distributed, health-promoting resources such as social support are also systematically patterned. For example, in the USA, family support is thought to be high among Latinos, Mexican Americans in particular. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, we explored the relationships between ethnicity/nativity status, socioeconomic status (SES) and perceived social support from family and friends. We also assessed the role of retention of culture-measured as primary language spoken at home-on social support. Finally, we tested whether SES moderated the relationship between ethnicity/nativity status and social support. Foreign and US-born Latinos, most notably, foreign-born Mexicans, reported higher family support compared to non-Latino whites. Primary language spoken at home seems to account for the relationship between ethnicity/nativity and familial social support. Mexican-born and US-born Latino immigrants reported lower social support from family at higher levels of SES. Each ethnic minority group reported lower perception of friend support compared to non-Latino whites. There was a strong SES gradient in subjective support from friends with higher support reported among those with higher SES. This study provides evidence for the notion that Latinos in the USA, specifically foreign-born Mexicans, may rely on family ties for support more than do non-Latino whites. Findings also help identify ethnicity/nativity status, primary language spoken and SES as determinants of social support. Specifically, the higher familial social support found among Latino immigrants may be due to retention of culture. Effect modification by SES suggests that Latinos of lower and higher SES may differ with regard to the traditionally-held value of familism.
Trueba, Ana F; Rosenfield, David; Smith, Noelle Bassi; Gorena, Tabitha L; Ritz, Thomas
Psychosocial factors such as social support and depression have long been associated with health outcomes. Elevated depressive symptoms are usually associated with worse health outcomes, whereas social support has been related to improvements in health. Nitric oxide levels are an important marker of both cardiovascular health and immune function. Research suggests that exhaled nitric oxide is affected by stress, negative affect, and depression; however, the effect of social support has not been previously explored. Thus, we sought to examine the association of social support, negative affect, and depression with exhaled nitric oxide in a group of 35 healthy individuals (10 males and 25 females) with a mean age of 20.5years across five weekly assessments. Results showed that changes in social support within individuals were positively associated with levels of exhaled nitric oxide independent of other psychosocial factors. Further exploration of the health implications of this positive relationship between airway nitric oxide and social support is necessary.
Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy S
Although previous research has documented that social support acts as a protective factor for individuals exposed to trauma, most research relies on assessments of social support at one point in time. The present study used data from a prospective cohort design study to examine the stability of social support from childhood through middle adulthood in individuals with documented histories of childhood abuse and neglect and matched controls (aged 0-11) and assessed the impact of social support on allostatic load, a composite measure of physiological stress response assessed through blood tests and physical measurements, in middle adulthood. Maltreated children are more likely to have unstable social support across the life span, compared to matched controls. Social support across the life span partially mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and allostatic load in adulthood, although there were differences by race and sex. These findings have implications for interventions to prevent the negative consequences of child maltreatment.
Fabio, Annamaria Di
Social support represents an important individual resource that has been associated with multiple indices of adaptive functioning and resiliency. Existing research has also identified an association between emotional intelligence (EI) and social support. The present study builds on prior research by investigating the contributions of ability based EI to social support, beyond the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. The Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, the Mayer Salovey Caruso EI test (MSCEIT), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were administered to 149 Italian high school students. The results showed that ability based EI added significant incremental variance in explaining perceived social support, beyond the variance due to fluid intelligence and personality traits. The results underline the role of ability based EI in relation to perceived social support. Since ability based EI can be increased through specific training, the results of the present study highlight new possibilities for research and intervention in a preventive framework.
Fabio, Annamaria Di
Social support represents an important individual resource that has been associated with multiple indices of adaptive functioning and resiliency. Existing research has also identified an association between emotional intelligence (EI) and social support. The present study builds on prior research by investigating the contributions of ability based EI to social support, beyond the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. The Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, the Mayer Salovey Caruso EI test (MSCEIT), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were administered to 149 Italian high school students. The results showed that ability based EI added significant incremental variance in explaining perceived social support, beyond the variance due to fluid intelligence and personality traits. The results underline the role of ability based EI in relation to perceived social support. Since ability based EI can be increased through specific training, the results of the present study highlight new possibilities for research and intervention in a preventive framework. PMID:25904886
Jia, Cunxian; Zhang, Jie
The study is aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Duke Social Support Scale (DSSI) in young rural Chinese individuals (379 suicides, 411 controls) aged 15-34 years. Social support was measured by 23-item DSSI, which included Social Interaction Scale, Subjective Social Support, and Instrumental Social Support. DSSI had high internal consistency (alphas all over .79) and correlated with hopelessness and anxiety in both samples. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the structure models of DSSI were basically suitable for the original structure of DSSI but some items should be modified or deleted. Altogether, these findings support that DSSI has high reliability and validity, which makes it an acceptable measure for social support in young Chinese populations. However, further model tests should be carried out by deleting or modifying some items or being used in different populations.
Ai, Hongshan; Hu, Junmin
This study examined the moderator effect of psychological resilience on the relationship between social support and loneliness of the "left-behind" children. A total of 200 left-behind girls and 214 left-behind boys completed the measures of psychological resilience, social support, and loneliness. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that psychological resilience moderated the association between social support and loneliness. When left-behind children reported a low level of psychological resilience, those with high social support reported lower scores in loneliness than those with low social support. However, the impact of social support on loneliness was much smaller in the high psychological resilience group, compared with that in low psychological resilience group.
Hou, Wen-Li; Chen, Chia-En; Liu, Hsiao-Ying; Lai, Yi-Yin; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Lee, Nan-Yao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Po-Lin; Ko, Wen-Chien; Shu, Bih-Ching; Ko, Nai-Ying
Few empirical studies have evaluated the mediating effects of quality of life (QoL) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The purposes of this study were to identify the predictors of QoL and to test the mediating effects of social support on depression and QoL among patients enrolled in an HIV case-management program in Taiwan. A cross-sectional, descriptive correlation design collected data from 108 HIV-infected individuals. Individuals were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II, the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support between September 2007 and April 2010. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics (including age, gender, and mode of transmission) and clinical information (including CD4 count and time since diagnosis with HIV), the study findings showed that QoL was significantly and positively correlated with both social support and the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and was negatively correlated with depression and time since diagnosis with HIV. The strongest predictors for QoL were depression followed by the initiation of HAART and social support, with an R(2) of 0.40. Social support partially mediated the relationship between depression and QoL. Health professionals should enhance HIV-infected individuals' social support to alleviate the level of depression and further increase the QoL among PLWHA.
Tong, Stephanie Tom; Heinemann-Lafave, Daria; Jeon, Jehoon; Kolodziej-Smith, Renata; Warshay, Nathaniel
The aim of this research was to document the content on pro-ana blogs and to uncover how the unique socio-technical features of blogs (interactivity, self-disclosure, masspersonal communication) facilitate social support among members. A final sample of 48 pro-ana blogs provided 624 individual units for coding. Results indicate that prevalent forms of social support were emotional support, esteem support, and informational support. A new category, reciprocal self-disclosure, was also revealed to be quite frequent. Blogs are spaces where social support is sought and communicated among members of the pro-ana network. Interpretation of blog communication and implications for treatment and research are discussed.
Childs, Geoff; Goldstein, Melvyn C; Wangdui, Puchung
This paper focuses on assistance that externally-resident daughters provide for their aging parents in rural Tibet, China, to challenge the notion that rapid modernization invariably threatens family-based care systems for the elderly. The authors discuss social and economic changes associated with modernization that have created new opportunities for parents to send daughters out of their natal households in ways that can benefit them in old age. By investing in a daughter's education so she can secure salaried employment, or by helping a daughter establish a small business so she can earn an independent livelihood, the authors demonstrate how some externally-resident daughters represent a novel form of social capital that parents can draw on for social support. Daughters with income and freedom from extended family obligations are now providing elderly parents with (1) leverage against co-resident children who do not treat them well, (2) temporary places of refuge from ill-treatment at home, (3) caretaking services and financial support when they require hospitalization, and (4) financial resources independent of their household which they can use to pursue age-appropriate activities like pilgrimage. The authors conclude that this new form of social capital vested in externally-resident daughters is having a positive impact on the lives of the elderly in rural Tibet.
Chen, Liang; Shi, Jingyuan
In recent years, social media has become an important source of social support. People living with HIV/AIDS in China created an online support group (the HIV/AIDS Weibo Group) on Weibo, the Chinese version of Twitter, in January 2011. The current study examined how social support transmitted in this social media community. First, messages over five successive weeks (2 May 2011 to 13 June 2011) were randomly selected from the HIV/AIDS Weibo Group on Weibo. Next, we employed social network analysis to map the HIV/AIDS Weibo Group's structure and to measure the study variables. After that, a multivariate analysis of variance was applied to examine the influence of frequency of contact and reciprocity on informational and emotional social support exchanged in each dyad. The results revealed that pairs with a high level of contact frequency or reciprocity exchanged more informational support than do pairs with a low level of contact frequency or reciprocity. Moreover, dyadic partners with high frequency of contact exchanged a larger amount of emotional support than those with a low level frequency of contact; but strongly reciprocal dyads did not exchange significantly more emotional social support than their counterparts with a low level of reciprocity.
THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND CAREER PROGRESSION IN STEM...in the United States. v AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-204 THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND CAREER PROGRESSION IN...UNLIMITED. vi vii AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-204 THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND CAREER PROGRESSION IN STEM
Piferi, Rachel L; Lawler, Kathleen A
The relationship between the social network and physical health has been studied extensively and it has consistently been shown that individuals live longer, have fewer physical symptoms of illness, and have lower blood pressure when they are a member of a social network than when they are isolated. Much of the research has focused on the benefits of receiving social support from the network and the effects of giving to others within the network have been neglected. The goal of the present research was to systematically investigate the relationship between giving and ambulatory blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded every 30 min during the day and every 60 min at night during a 24-h period. Linear mixed models analyses revealed that lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were related to giving social support. Furthermore, correlational analyses revealed that participants with a higher tendency to give social support reported greater received social support, greater self-efficacy, greater self-esteem, less depression, and less stress than participants with a lower tendency to give social support to others. Structural equation modeling was also used to test a proposed model that giving and receiving social support represent separate pathways predicting blood pressure and health. From this study, it appears that giving social support may represent a unique construct from receiving social support and may exert a unique effect on health.
Cox, Daniel W; Owen, Jess J; Ogrodniczuk, John S
One of the most potent protective factors against psychiatric symptoms after military trauma is perceived social support. Although group psychotherapy has been linked with increasing social support, no research has evaluated which therapeutic mechanisms are associated with this increase beyond symptom reduction. We investigated which interpersonal therapeutic factors were related to changes in social support, beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom reduction. Participants were 117 veterans in a multimodal outpatient group psychotherapy treatment designed to reduce PTSD symptoms and interpersonal difficulties. Generally, therapeutic factors were related to improvements in social support from baseline to posttreatment beyond the effects of PTSD symptom reduction. Specifically, social learning was associated with changes in appraisal support, secure emotional expression was associated with changes in tangible support, and neither was associated with changes in belonging support. Depending on the goals of treatment, understanding these variations are important so clinicians and researchers can appropriately design and target their interventions to facilitate desired changes.
da Silva, Simone Márcia; Braido, Natalia Fernanda; Ottaviani, Ana Carolina; Gesualdo, Gabriela Dutra; Zazzetta, Marisa Silvana; Orlandi, Fabiana de Souza
ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the instrumental and emotional social support of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample was sized for convenience and included 103 participants under treatment in a Renal Replacement Therapy Unit. Data were collected through individual interviews, using the Social Support Scale. Results: the mean scores of the emotional and instrumental social support were 3.92 (± 0.78) and 3.81 (± 0.69) respectively, an indication of good support received. The most frequent sources of instrumental and emotional social support mentioned by participants were partners, spouse, companion or boyfriend and friends. Conclusion: patients with chronic kidney disease have high social support, both instrumental and emotional, and the main support comes from the family. PMID:27508920
Davison, Kirsten K; Nishi, Akihiro; Kranz, Sibylle; Wyckoff, Lynae; May, John J; Earle-Richardson, Giulia B; Strogatz, David S; Jenkins, Paul L
While emerging research supports a positive relationship between social capital and youth physical activity (PA), few studies have examined possible mechanisms explaining this relationship and no studies have focused on rural youth. In this study, we examined parents' support of children's PA as an intermediary factor linking social capital and youth PA in a largely rural cross sectional sample of American children aged 6- to 19-years and their parents/guardians (N=767 families) living in upstate New York. Parents completed a self-administered survey assessing demographic factors, perceived social capital, support for children's PA, and children's PA including time spent outdoors and days per week of sufficient PA. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that higher social capital is linked with higher parental support for PA and, in turn, higher PA in children. Analyses were conducted separately for younger (6-12 years) and older (13-19 years) children and controlled for demographic factors (child age, household education, participation in a food assistance program) and perceived neighborhood safety. Anticipated relationships among social capital, parents' activity-related support, and children's PA were identified for older, but not younger children. Findings suggest that parent support for children's PA is one possible mechanism linking social capital and youth PA and the parents of adolescents may rely more heavily on cues from their social environment to shape their approaches to supporting their children's PA than parents of younger children.
Weiss, Brandon J; Garvert, Donn W; Cloitre, Marylène
This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related symptoms among sexual minority (SM) and heterosexual women and the influence of social support on the relationship between SM status and symptoms. We hypothesized that SM women would endorse higher symptoms of PTSD and related difficulties and that social support would moderate the relationship between SM status and symptoms. The sample, women seeking treatment for PTSD related to interpersonal violence (n = 477; mean age = 36.07 years; 22.9% SM) completed clinician-administered measures of PTSD and self-report measures of trauma-related difficulties and social support. The rate of PTSD diagnosis was higher for SM women. Social support and SM status were significantly associated with suicidality, self-perceptions, depression, somatic complaints, and functional impairment. The interaction between social support and SM status was significant for both functional impairment (β = -.26) and somatic complaints (β = -.39). High social support had an equal, positive effect among SM and nonminority women, whereas low social support had a greater negative impact among SM women. Results suggested the particular salience of social support on functioning and symptom severity among SM women and the potential importance of including interventions addressing social support into PTSD treatments for SM women.
Brand, Charles; Barry, Lorna; Gallagher, Stephen
The psychosocial pathways underlying associations between benefit finding and quality of life are poorly understood. Here, we examined associations between benefit finding, social support, optimism and quality of life in a sample of 84 caregivers. Results revealed that quality of life was predicted by benefit finding, optimism and social support. Moreover, the association between benefit finding and quality of life was explained by social support, but not optimism; caregivers who reported greater benefit finding perceived their social support be higher and this, in turn, had a positive effect on their overall quality of life. These results underscore the importance of harnessing benefit finding to enhance caregiver quality of life.
Robins, Alee; Fiske, Amy
Religiousness has been associated with decreased risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide, but the mechanisms underlying these associations are not well characterized. The present study examined the roles of religious beliefs and social support in that relation. A survey measuring religiousness, social support, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts was administered to 454 undergraduate students. Involvement in public, but not private, religious practices was associated with lower levels of both suicidal ideation and history of suicide attempts. Social support mediated these relations but religious beliefs did not. Results highlight the importance of social support provided by religious communities. PMID:19792980
Longman, Huon; O'Connor, Erin; Obst, Patricia
Previous research examining players of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) suggests that players form meaningful relationships with each other. Other research indicates that people may derive social support from online sources, and this social support has been associated with greater well-being. This study used an online survey of players (N = 206) of the MMOG World of Warcraft (WoW) to examine if social support can be derived from MMOGs and to examine its relationship with negative psychological symptoms. Players of WoW were found to derive social support from playing and a positive relationship was found between game engagement and levels of in-game social support. Higher levels of in-game social support were associated with fewer negative psychological symptoms, although this effect was not maintained after accounting for social support derived from the offline sources. Additionally, a small subsample of players (n = 21) who played for 44 to 82 hours per week (M = 63.33) was identified. These players had significantly lower levels of offline social support and higher levels of negative symptoms compared to the rest of the sample. This study provides evidence that social support can be derived from MMOGs and the associated potential to promote well-being but also highlights the potential harm from spending excessive hours playing.
Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Severson, Nicolette; Perry, Ashley; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent
The role of social support in the mental health of formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) is an issue overlooked in public health prevention efforts. The objectives of this analysis were to (a) describe the levels of social support perceived and received by FILM; (b) identify the associations, if any, between levels of social support and mental health indicators such as depression and anxiety; and (c) explore the impact of familism and hypermasculinity on the receptivity of social support and the potential role of these factors in mediating associations between social support and mental health indicators. To accomplish the objectives, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with FILM (n = 259), ages 18 to 59, in New York City, and one nominated member of their social network (n = 130 dyads). In this analysis, we examined four dimensions of social support (instrumental, informational, appraisal, and emotional) from two perspectives: provided (as reported by members of the social networks) and perceived (as reported by FILM). The major outcome variables for this analysis were the presence/absence of major anxiety and depressive symptoms. Our logistic regression analyses suggest that perceived emotional support was inversely associated with both anxiety and depression. Our findings suggest that familism mediated the association between perceived emotional support and anxiety/depression. Therefore, we must consider designing network enhancement interventions that focus on both FILM and their social support systems. PMID:24323767
Feeney, Brooke C; Collins, Nancy L
Close and caring relationships are undeniably linked to health and well-being at all stages in the life span. Yet the specific pathways through which close relationships promote optimal well-being are not well understood. In this article, we present a model of thriving through relationships to provide a theoretical foundation for identifying the specific interpersonal processes that underlie the effects of close relationships on thriving. This model highlights two life contexts through which people may potentially thrive (coping successfully with life's adversities and actively pursuing life opportunities for growth and development), it proposes two relational support functions that are fundamental to the experience of thriving in each life context, and it identifies mediators through which relational support is likely to have long-term effects on thriving. This perspective highlights the need for researchers to take a new look at social support by conceptualizing it as an interpersonal process with a focus on thriving.
Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R; Wolf, Jennifer Price
The purpose of this study is to examine how parental drinking behavior, drinking locations, alcohol outlet density, and types of social support (tangible, emotional, and social companionship) may place children at greater risk for physical abuse. Data on use of physical abuse, drinking behaviors, types of social support, social networks, and demographic information were collected via telephone interviews with 3,023 parent respondents in 50 cities in California. Data on alcohol outlet density were obtained by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control. Multilevel Poisson models were used to analyze data for the drinking levels in the entire sample and dose-response drinking models for drinkers. Social companionship support was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Having a higher percentage of social companionship support network living within the neighborhood was related to more frequent physical abuse in the full sample. This relationship was moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density. With regards to drinking behaviors, drinking behaviors from ex-drinkers to frequent heavy drinkers used physically abusive parenting practices more often than lifetime abstainers. The dose-response models show that each additional drinking event at a bar or home/party was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Practitioners working with parents who abuse their children should be aware that not all social support is beneficial. Findings build evidence that child maltreatment is influenced by the interaction between individual and ecological factors.
Chauhan, Vinay Singh; Azad, Sudip
Introduction Social factors play vital role in unfolding of alcohol use disorders in any given population. Several factors beyond the confines of treatment settings influence treatment outcome in alcohol dependence syndrome. Social support has positive effect in treatment outcome of alcohol dependence syndrome. This has not been much studied in India in past. Therefore we decided to study the perception of social support in cases of alcohol dependence syndrome admitted in a busy hospital in armed forces. Aim The aim was to study the perception of social support across relapsed and abstinent group and see if it reached any statistical proportion and also to see if any socio-demographic variables also affected perception of social support. Materials and Methods Fifty five consecutive male patients of alcohol dependent syndrome without a co-morbid neurological/psychiatric diagnosis were assessed for their perception of social support after taking informed consent. They were explained the procedure and their alcoholic milestones were recorded in specially designed pro-forma. Subjects were then divided in abstinent and relapsed group. Subsequently they were assessed for their perception of social support by administering Social provision scale and Social support questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated and statistically analysed by using chi square test, Mann Whitney U-Test and Rank ANOVA test where applicable p-value <.05 was taken as significant. Results Results indicated that perception of social support across abstinent (n=18) and relapsed (n= 37) group reached significant statistical proportion as measured by social provision scale and social support questionnaire. Duration of use, dependence and family history of alcoholism did not influence perception of social support across patient population. There was inverse relationship between patients with alcohol related problem and their perception of social support. Professional and qualified soldiers
Li, Jie; Chen, Sheying
Bereavement can be an extremely stressful experience while the protective effect of social support is expected to facilitate the adjustment after loss. The ingredients or elements of social support as illustrated by a new model of Social Support in Bereavement (SSB), however, requires empirical evidence. Who might be the most effective providers of social support in bereavement has also been understudied, particularly within specific cultural contexts. The present study uses both qualitative and quantitative analyses to explore these two important issues among bereaved Chinese families and individuals. The results show that three major types of social support described by the SSB model were frequently acknowledged by the participants in this study. Aside from relevant books, family and friends were the primary sources of social support who in turn received support from their workplaces. Helping professionals turned out to be the least significant source of social support in the Chinese cultural context. Differences by gender, age, and bereavement time were also found. The findings render empirical evidence to the conceptual model of Social Support in Bereavement and also offer culturally relevant guidance for providing effective support to the bereaved.
Massé, Marjolaine; Lecomte, Tania
Poorer metacognitive abilities are recognized as strong predictors of social functioning deficits in individuals with schizophrenia, but have not been studied in relation to perceived social support. Furthermore, traditional measures of metacognition fail to consider ecological aspects such as the interaction between thinking of one's own or other's mind, and mastery. As a constellation, these abilities may influence domains of social functioning and perceived social support differently. Therefore, this study aimed to establish whether distinct metacognitive profiles exist within a population of individuals with a first psychotic episode, and to determine how such profiles influence individual domains of social functioning and perceived social support. Participants (n=50) were recruited from two early psychosis outpatient clinics in Montreal, Canada. Demographic information, social functioning and perceived social support were measured using self-reported questionnaires, and metacognition was scored from the transcripts of a semi-structured interview designed to avoid leading responses. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct metacognitive profiles: (1) overall better abilities; (2) poor abilities on thinking of one's own and other's mind, but better mastery; and (3) overall poorer abilities. Analyses showed significant differences between profiles only for self-reported intimacy and independent living abilities, with the second profile showing better abilities than the third. Profiles did not simply represent consistently higher or lower functioning across subscales. Although mastery was predictive of social functioning, the ability to think in an increasingly complex manner of one's self and others did not seem to improve functioning in individuals with a first episode of psychosis.
Fagg, James; Curtis, Sarah; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Cattell, Vicky; Tupuola, Ann-Marie; Arephin, Muna
This paper uses national survey data for young adults in England to explore empirically the relationships between social fragmentation in communities (measured for geographical areas), social support experienced by individuals from their immediate social circle, and psychosocial health of young adults. After reviewing previous research about these associations, we adopted an empirical approach to these questions, which was innovative in using data on area social fragmentation from a different source to the survey data on individuals. Also, we have examined the relevance for mental health of interactions between individual social support and area social fragmentation, as well as their independent associations with health. To test these ideas empirically, we present a statistical analysis, using survey data from the national Health Survey for England on young people aged 16-24 years, linked to a geographical indicator of social fragmentation, derived from the population census and with a measure of material poverty. The outcome variable was distress measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). In a logistic regression model that controls for grouping of individuals within areas we included data on individuals' sex, ethnic group, employment status, social class and educational level. Controlling for these indicators, we demonstrate that risk of individual distress (indicated by GHQ score of 3+) was significantly and positively associated with area social fragmentation and there was a significant association with social support received within the individual's immediate social circle, which was negative ('protective'). An index of material poverty in one's area of residence did not predict individual distress. There was no evidence that social support was more 'protective' in areas of greatest social fragmentation. We also note that while being in employment was associated with better mental health in this sample, higher educational level was associated with
Saleh, Lena D.; Chambers, Christopher S.; Operario, Don
Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support, and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviors. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multi-level interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional, and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM. PMID:26588945
Saleh, Lena D; van den Berg, Jacob J; Chambers, Christopher S; Operario, Don
Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviours. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multilevel interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM.
Background Many studies have determined the existence of an extremely close association between Internet addiction and depression. However, the reasons for the depression of Internet addicts have not been fully investigated. Aim This cross-sectional study aims to explore the factors that influence depression among Internet addicts. Methods A total of 162 male Internet addicts completed the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results Loneliness and lack of social support are significantly correlated with depression among Internet addicts. Structural Equation Modeling results indicate that social support partially mediates loneliness and depression. Conclusions Both social support and loneliness were negatively associated with depression of Internet addicts whereas loneliness plays a mediating role between social support and depression. PMID:25147581
Ramaswamy, Megha; Kelly, Patricia J; Li, Xuan; Berg, Karina M; Litwin, Alain H; Arnsten, Julia H
HIV-infected current and former drug users utilize primary care and preventive health services at suboptimal rates, but little is known about how social support networks are associated with health services use. We investigated the relationship between social support networks and the use of specific types of health services by HIV-infected drug users receiving methadone maintenance. We found that persons with greater social support, in particular more social network members or more network members aware of their HIV status, were more likely to use primary care services. In contrast, social support networks were not related to emergency room or inpatient hospital use. Interventions that build social support might improve coordinated and continuous health services utilization by HIV-infected persons in outpatient drug treatment.
Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Elenor; Jacobson, Leanne; Rodriguez, Antoinette U.; Dominguez, Antonio
Social support from kin has been discussed as an important feature of family life among Puerto Rican families. This study examines the association between kinship support, family organization, and adolescent adjustment in Puerto Rican families. (Author)
Myrick, Jessica Gall; Holton, Avery E; Himelboim, Itai; Love, Brad
Social network sites (SNSs) like Twitter continue to attract users, many of whom turn to these spaces for social support for serious illnesses like cancer. Building on literature that explored the functionality of online spaces for health-related social support, we propose a typology that situates this type of support in an SNS-based open cancer community based on the type (informational or emotional) and the direction (expression or reception) of support. A content analysis applied the typology to a 2-year span of Twitter messages using the popular hashtag "#stupidcancer." Given that emotions form the basis for much of human communication and behavior, including aspects of social support, this content analysis also examined the relationship between emotional expression and online social support in tweets about cancer. Furthermore, this study looked at the various ways in which Twitter allows for message sharing across a user's entire network (not just among the cancer community). This work thus begins to lay the conceptual and empirical groundwork for future research testing the effects of various types of social support in open, interactive online cancer communities.
Messina, Catherine R; Lane, Dorothy S; Glanz, Karen; West, Delia Smith; Taylor, Vicky; Frishman, William; Powell, Lynda
Direct and interactive effects of social support, social burden (caregiving, negative life events, and social strain), education, and income on repeated use of breast cancer screening among a large (N=55,278), national sample of postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative observational study were examined. Repeated screening decreased as emotional/informational support and positive social interactions decreased (ps<.01). Repeated mammography decreased with frequent caregiving (p<.01). Less social strain reduced the frequency of repeated breast self-examinations (BSEs; ps<.01), but frequent caregiving and more negative life events increased repeated use of BSE (ps<.01). Interactive effects suggested that emotional/informational but not tangible support is associated with repeated mammography and clinical breast examinations (ps<.01) and may be particularly important among low-income older women, especially those burdened by caregiving.
Steffens, Niklas K; Jetten, Jolanda; Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander
We examine the extent to which multiple social identities are associated with enhanced health and well-being in retirement because they provide a basis for giving and receiving social support. Results from a cross-sectional study show that retirees (N = 171) who had multiple social identities following (but not prior to) retirement report being (a) more satisfied with retirement, (b) in better health, and (c) more satisfied with life in general. Furthermore, mediation analyses revealed an indirect path from multiple social identities to greater satisfaction with retirement and better health through greater provision, but not receipt, of social support to others. These findings are the first to point to the value of multiple group membership post-retirement as a basis for increased opportunities to give meaningful support to others. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the management of multiple identities in the process of significant life transitions such as retirement.
Steffens, Niklas K.; Jetten, Jolanda; Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S. Alexander
We examine the extent to which multiple social identities are associated with enhanced health and well-being in retirement because they provide a basis for giving and receiving social support. Results from a cross-sectional study show that retirees (N = 171) who had multiple social identities following (but not prior to) retirement report being (a) more satisfied with retirement, (b) in better health, and (c) more satisfied with life in general. Furthermore, mediation analyses revealed an indirect path from multiple social identities to greater satisfaction with retirement and better health through greater provision, but not receipt, of social support to others. These findings are the first to point to the value of multiple group membership post-retirement as a basis for increased opportunities to give meaningful support to others. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the management of multiple identities in the process of significant life transitions such as retirement. PMID:27799916
Liqun Cao; Ruohui Zhao; Ling Ren; Zhao, Jihong Solomon
On the basis of the reasoning of social support theory, the authors examine the macro effect of social support on anomie at the individual level. Data from international surveys have documented wide variation in anomie across nations, but to what extent this variation among nations can be contributed to structural characteristics has not been explored before. Using hierarchical linear modeling techniques to sort out the effects of structural context and personal characteristics on anomie across 31 European and North American nations, the authors test the hypothesis that variation in social support at the national level is inversely related to individuals' sense of anomie. The study results support the hypothesis that structural characteristics of a nation, such as social support and population growth, influence individuals' sense of anomie. At the individual level, the results are consistent with Merton's predictions about anomie and the reasoning of social support theory. Policy implication is discussed within the limitations of data.
Oh, Hyun Jung; Lee, Byoungkwan
In the context of diabetes, this study tested a mechanism through which Korean diabetes patients' exchange of computer-mediated social support (CMSS) in diabetes online communities influences their sense of empowerment and intention to actively communicate with the doctor. Analysis of data from 464 Korean diabetes patients indicates significant relationships among diabetes patients' online community activities, perceived CMSS, sense of empowerment, and their intention to actively communicate with the doctor. Diabetes patients who have engaged more in online community activities perceived greater social support from other members of the community. Perceived CMSS significantly predicted their intention to actively communicate with the doctor through sense of empowerment. Sense of empowerment was a valid underlying mechanism that explains how patients' perceived CMSS influences their intention to actively communicate with the doctor. The implications for health communication research and practice are discussed.
Evans, Sarah E.; Steel, Anne; DiLillo, David
Objectives The current study investigates the moderating effect of perceived social support on associations between child maltreatment severity and adult trauma symptoms. We extend the existing literature by examining the roles of severity of multiple maltreatment types (i.e., sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and gender in this process. Methods The sample included 372 newlywed individuals recruited from marriage license records. Participants completed a number of self-report questionnaires measuring the nature and severity of child maltreatment history, perceived social support from friends and family, and trauma-related symptoms. These questionnaires were part of a larger study, investigating marital and intrapersonal functioning. We conducted separate, two-step hierarchical multiple regression models for perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends. In each of these models, total trauma symptomatology was predicted from each child maltreatment severity variable, perceived social support, and the product of the two variables. In order to examine the role of gender, we conducted separate analyses for women and men. Results As hypothesized, increased severity of several maltreatment types (sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) predicted greater trauma symptoms for both women and men, and increased physical abuse severity predicted greater trauma symptoms for women. Perceived social support from both family and friends predicted lower trauma symptoms across all levels of maltreatment for men. For women, greater perceived social support from friends, but not from family, predicted decreased trauma symptoms. Finally, among women, perceived social support from family interacted with child maltreatment such that, as the severity of maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse, emotional neglect) increased, the buffering effect of perceived social support from family on
Miller, Joan G; Akiyama, Hiroko; Kapadia, Shagufa
Whereas an interdependent cultural view of self has been linked to communal norms and to socially supportive behavior, its relationship to social support has been called into question in research suggesting that discomfort in social support is associated with an interdependent cultural view of self (e.g., Taylor et al., 2004). These contrasting claims were addressed in 2 studies conducted among Japanese, Indian, and American adults. Assessing everyday social support, Study 1 showed that Japanese and Americans rely on exchange norms more frequently than Indians among friends, whereas American rely on exchange norms more frequently than Indians and Japanese among siblings. Assessing responses to vignettes, Study 2 demonstrated that Japanese and Americans rely more frequently on exchange norms than Indians, with greatest relational concerns and most negative outlooks on social support observed among Japanese, less among Americans, and least among Indians. Results further indicated that relational concerns mediated the link between exchange norms and negative social support outlooks. Supporting past claims that relational concerns explain cultural variation in discomfort in social support (e.g., Kim, Sherman, & Taylor, 2008), the findings underscore the need to take into account as well the role of exchange norms in explaining such discomfort. The findings also highlight the existence of culturally variable approaches to exchange and call into question claims that discomfort in social support can be explained in terms of the global concept of an interdependent cultural view of self. (PsycINFO Database Record
Nguyen, Ann W.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.
An emerging body of research notes the importance of church-based social support networks in the daily lives of Americans. However, few studies examine church-based support, and especially among ethnic subgroups within the U.S. Black population, such as Caribbean Blacks. This study uses data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) to examine demographic and religious participation (e.g., attendance, interaction) correlates of church-based social support (e.g., receipt of emotional support, receipt of general support, provision of support to others, and negative interaction) among Caribbean Blacks residing in the U.S. Multiple regression analyses indicated that religious participation was associated with all four dependent variables. Church attendance was positively associated with receiving emotional support, general social support, and providing support to others, but was not associated with negative interaction. Frequency of interaction with fellow congregants was positively associated with receiving emotional support, receiving general support, providing support to others and negative interaction. Demographic findings indicated that women provided more support to church members and experienced more negative interactions with members than did men. Education was positively associated with frequency of support; household income was negatively associated with receiving emotional support and providing social support to others. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of church-based support networks in the lives of Caribbean Black immigrants and communities. PMID:27942078
Nguyen, Ann W; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M
An emerging body of research notes the importance of church-based social support networks in the daily lives of Americans. However, few studies examine church-based support, and especially among ethnic subgroups within the U.S. Black population, such as Caribbean Blacks. This study uses data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) to examine demographic and religious participation (e.g., attendance, interaction) correlates of church-based social support (e.g., receipt of emotional support, receipt of general support, provision of support to others, and negative interaction) among Caribbean Blacks residing in the U.S. Multiple regression analyses indicated that religious participation was associated with all four dependent variables. Church attendance was positively associated with receiving emotional support, general social support, and providing support to others, but was not associated with negative interaction. Frequency of interaction with fellow congregants was positively associated with receiving emotional support, receiving general support, providing support to others and negative interaction. Demographic findings indicated that women provided more support to church members and experienced more negative interactions with members than did men. Education was positively associated with frequency of support; household income was negatively associated with receiving emotional support and providing social support to others. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of church-based support networks in the lives of Caribbean Black immigrants and communities.
Wong, Sabrina T.; Yoo, Grace J.; Stewart, Anita L.
This study explored social support domains and actual sources of support for older Chinese and Korean immigrants and compared them to the traditional domains based on mainly White, middle class populations. Fifty-two older Cantonese and Korean speaking immigrants participated in one of eight focus groups. We identified four similar domains:…
Biggerstaff, Michael T; Lashley, Marcus A; Chitwood, M Colter; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S
Nearly all species of sexually dimorphic ungulates sexually segregate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including the social-factors hypothesis (SFH) and the predation hypothesis (PH). Interestingly, previous studies have accepted and rejected each hypothesis within and across species but few studies have simultaneously tested both hypotheses in the same population. In August 2011 and 2012 using 7680 photographs taken with camera traps in standardized forage patches, we tested two predictions of the SFH: 1) foraging efficiency of both sexes would decrease when foraging rate in mixed-sex groups relative to single-sex groups, and 2) activity patterns (i.e., the pattern of temporal use of forage patches on a diel scale) of the sexes would decrease in temporal overlap at the forage patch level (i.e., social segregation) compared to the overall temporal overlap of activity patterns of the population. Also, we tested two predictions of the +PH : 1) the relationship between feeding rates of each sex, and 2) temporal activity overlap would change with changing risk level of forage patches as a result of differing risk perception between sexes. In support of the SFH for temporal segregation, when in mixed-sex groups, mature males and all females decreased feeding rate 30% and 10%, respectively; further, the sexes had similar activity patterns overall (94-95% overlap), though temporal overlap was lower in individual forage patches (68-74% overlap). In multi-male mixed sex groups, at least one male exhibited aggressive posture toward females during all foraging bouts suggesting intersex aggression was the cause of the observed decrease in foraging rates. In support of the PH , the sexes adjusted feeding rate differently in response to changing risk level of a forage patch, encouraging spatial segregation; however, the PH was not supported for temporal segregation because temporal activity pattern overlap did not vary as a function of predation
Laws, Jason; Parish, Susan L.; Scheyett, Anna M.; Egan, Christopher
We examine how well schools of social work prepare students to work with people with developmental disabilities (DD). Using websites of 50 U.S. schools of social work, we examine their curricula to determine the number and nature of disability studies courses. We examine tenure-line faculty to identify potential for current staff to expand DD…
The human potential for language is based in human biology but makes requirements of the social environment to be realized. This paper reports evidence regarding (1) the nature of those environmental requirements, (2) the ways in which the varied social contexts in which children live meet those requirements, and (3) the effects of environmental…
Sulkowski, Michael L.; Demaray, Michelle K.; Lazarus, Philip J.
Students get by with a little help from their friends; students try with a little help from their friends. When their social needs are met, students tend to be better adjusted and perform more effectively in school. A strong social network serves to protect students and mitigates the effects of a variety of risk factors. Due to the rich empirical…
Tennant, Jaclyn E; Demaray, Michelle K; Malecki, Christine K; Terry, Melissa N; Clary, Michael; Elzinga, Nathan
Data on students' perceptions of teacher social support, academic functioning, and social-emotional functioning were collected from a sample of 796 7th and 8th grade middle school students using the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS; Malecki, Demaray, & Elliott, 2000), Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) and school records, and the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children, Second Edition, Adolescent Version, (BASC-2 SRP-A; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). The purpose of the current study was to examine possible gender differences in perceptions of the frequency and importance of different types of teacher support and the related academic and social-emotional outcomes. Girls rated Emotional and Appraisal Support as more important than did boys. Teacher Emotional Support was significantly and positively related to grade point average (GPA) for boys and girls. For girls only, Emotional and Informational Support were significantly related to ITBS Reading scores, and Emotional, Informational, and Instrumental Support were significantly related to ITBS Math scores. Regarding social-emotional variables, Emotional Support was significantly and negatively related to School Problems, Internalizing Problems, Inattention/Hyperactivity, and overall Emotional Symptoms and positively related to Personal Adjustment for both boys and girls. Furthermore, Emotional Support from teachers was more strongly related to Inattention/Hyperactivity for girls than boys. These results emphasize the importance of providing teacher social support, especially emotional support, to students in early adolescence and recognizing gender differences in the function of specific types of teacher support.
Hwang, Kevin O; Ottenbacher, Allison J; Lucke, Joseph F; Etchegaray, Jason M; Graham, Amanda L; Thomas, Eric J; Bernstam, Elmer V
Although overweight and obese individuals are turning to Internet communities for social support for weight loss, there is no validated online instrument for measuring the subjective social support experiences of participants in these communities. The authors' objective was to determine whether an online version of a validated paper questionnaire, the Weight Management Support Inventory, is appropriate for measuring social support among members of Internet weight loss communities. The authors administered the paper and online versions of the questionnaire in random, counterbalanced fashion to 199 members of a large Internet weight loss community. Scores for the paper and online versions were comparable in between-subjects and within-subjects comparisons. Convergent validity is suggested by the finding that participants who posted messages on Internet forums several times per day reported more social support than those who posted less frequently. However, the instrumental (tangible) support items did not load significantly on the instrumental support factor, suggesting that instrumental support is not relevant to the social support exchanged among participants in these communities. The authors conclude that the online, modified Weight Management Support Inventory, without items for instrumental support, is an appropriate instrument for measuring social support for weight loss among members of Internet weight loss communities.
Gage, Elizabeth A
A large body of research has revealed that social support helps buffer the negative consequences of stressful life events. Yet research also suggests that social support exchanges involve complex interpersonal dynamics. Using in-depth interview data from 76 parents of paediatric cancer patients in the US, the findings demonstrate that parents experienced difficulty sustaining support after the diagnosis crisis, uncertainty about how to ask for the support they needed and challenges managing support efforts. Given these complexities in negotiating social support, this article examines the mechanics of effective social support exchanges. The findings show the importance of the nature of the pre-existing relationship between the support recipient and provider, as well as the interactions throughout the period of support. For example, parents found support efforts that involved frequent interactions and involvement in families' daily lives (such as help with childcare) most effective when the support provider was a close network member. In contrast, support offered from members of extended networks was most effective when the effort required little marshalling from the parents, did not need to be asked for and did not intrude in the families' private lives. These findings contribute to the medical sociology and social support literature by analysing the conditions under which effective support efforts are marshalled.
Yang, Joyce P.; Leu, Janxin; Simoni, Jane M.; Chen, Wei-ti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Zhao, Hongxin
China faces a growing HIV epidemic; psychosocial needs of HIV-positive individuals remain largely unaddressed. Research is needed to consider the gap between need for mental healthcare and lack of sufficiently trained professionals, in a culturally acceptable manner. This study assessed explicit and implicit forms of social support and mental health symptoms in 120 HIV-positive Chinese. Explicit social support refers to interactions involving active disclosure and discussion of problems and request for assistance, whereas implicit social support refers to the emotional comfort one obtains from social networks without disclosing problems. We hypothesized and found using multiple linear regression, that after controlling for demographics, only implicit, but not explicit social support positively predicted mental health. Future research is warranted on the effects of utilizing implicit social support to bolster mental health, which has the potential to circumvent the issues of both high stigma and low professional resources in this population. PMID:25801475
Yang, Joyce P; Leu, Janxin; Simoni, Jane M; Chen, Wei Ti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Zhao, Hongxin
China faces a growing HIV epidemic; psychosocial needs of HIV-positive individuals remain largely unaddressed. Research is needed to consider the gap between need for mental healthcare and lack of sufficiently trained professionals, in a culturally acceptable manner. This study assessed explicit and implicit forms of social support and mental health symptoms in 120 HIV-positive Chinese. Explicit social support refers to interactions involving active disclosure and discussion of problems and request for assistance, whereas implicit social support refers to the emotional comfort one obtains from social networks without disclosing problems. We hypothesized and found using multiple linear regression, that after controlling for demographics, only implicit, but not explicit social support positively predicted mental health. Future research is warranted on the effects of utilizing implicit social support to bolster mental health, which has the potential to circumvent the issues of both high stigma and low professional resources in this population.
Thorsheim, Howard I.; Roberts, Bruce B.
The "Bottled Pain" project, a drug abuse prevention program in 24 Lutheran congregations in southern Minnesota, is based on a social ecology paradigm designed to prevent drug abuse through the development of socially supportive relationshps and through using the environment as a natural strength within the community. According to the…
Vickers, Margaret; Finger, Linda; Barker, Katrina; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian
A significant body of literature attests to the influence of social contexts on students' engagement with school. A review of this literature led to the construction of a self-report instrument designed to measure Social-Relational Support for Education (SRSE). The conceptual framework underlying the SRSE instrument focuses on the factors that can…
Green-Hamann, Sara; Sherblom, John C
The optimal matching and social capital perspectives frame present research expectations and interpretations of the network, esteem, informational, and emotional support communication of 3 computer-mediated communication social support groups, each having a different health-promoting purpose. Past research has shown differences in the support communication provided by different groups but has offered little explanation for these differences. The present study uses a comparative analysis of optimal matching and social capital influences to compare and analyze differences in the support communication provided by Alcoholics Anonymous, cancer caregivers, and transgender identity support groups. Results show different patterns of support communication enacted in each. These results provide support for optimal matching and social capital predictions, indicating that the life stressor and group structure affect the social support provided. However, results also demonstrate a need for greater refinement in interpreting the effects of these influences. Each group communicates network, esteem, informational, and emotional support somewhat differently in response to the life stressor and in enacting bridging and bonding social capital. The present comparisons provide a fuller analysis of the optimal matching and social capital influences upon the support communicated in groups than afforded by past research studies and suggests research opportunities for future research.
Donnelly, Elizabeth A.; Hinterlong, James E.
Purpose: Widowhood eliminates a key source of support that may trigger greater involvement in social activities and volunteer participation, which are related to better late-life health and functioning. We reexamine and build upon 2 recent studies exploring recent widowhood and social participation. Using different data, we perform a…
Pejic, Tanja; Hermann, Andrea; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf
Aversive social learning experiences might play a significant role in the aetiology of social anxiety disorder. Therefore, we investigated emotional learning and unlearning processes in healthy humans using a social conditioning paradigm. Forty-nine healthy subjects participated in a 2-day fMRI differential conditioning protocol. Acquisition and extinction were conducted on Day 1 and extinction recall on Day 2. BOLD responses, ratings and skin conductance responses were collected. Our data indicate successful conditioning and extinction on the neural and subjective level. As a main result, we observed a positive correlation of social anxiety and conditioning responses on the subjective level (valence and fear) as well as on the neural level with significant CS(+)/CS(-) differentiation in the left amygdala and the left hippocampus. Further, significant CS(+)/CS(-) differentiation in the left amygdala was found during extinction and was associated with lower scores in social anxiety. During extinction recall, we found a tendentially negative correlation of social anxiety and CS(+)/CS(-) differentiation in the vmPFC. In sum, we were able to show that social anxiety is related to conditionability with socially threatening stimuli. This could point to an important aspect in the aetiology of social anxiety disorder.
Shiba, Koichiro; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori
Background We examined the associations of informal (eg, family members and friends) and formal (eg, physician and visiting nurses) social support with caregiver’s burden in long-term care and the relationship between the number of available sources of social support and caregiver burden. Methods We conducted a mail-in survey in 2003 and used data of 2998 main caregivers of frail older adults in Aichi, Japan. We used a validated scale to assess caregiver burden. Results Multiple linear regression demonstrated that, after controlling for caregivers’ sociodemographic and other characteristics, informal social support was significantly associated with lower caregiver burden (β = −1.59, P < 0.0001), while formal support was not (β = −0.30, P = 0.39). Evaluating the associations by specific sources of social support, informal social supports from the caregiver’s family living together (β = −0.71, P < 0.0001) and from relatives (β = −0.61, P = 0.001) were associated with lower caregiver burden, whereas formal social support was associated with lower caregiver burden only if it was from family physicians (β = −0.56, P = 0.001). Compared to caregivers without informal support, those who had one support (β = −1.62, P < 0.0001) and two or more supports (β = −1.55, P < 0.0001) had significantly lower burden. This association was not observed for formal support. Conclusions Social support from intimate social relationships may positively affect caregivers’ psychological wellbeing independent of the receipt of formal social support, resulting in less burden. PMID:27180934
Walsh, R Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen; Fortune, Donal G
Social support is an important factor in rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI). Research indicates that social identity makes social support possible and that social identity is made possible by social support. In order to further investigate the reciprocity between social identity and social support, the present research applied the concepts of affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities to an analysis of relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst a cohort of 53 adult survivors of ABI engaged in post-acute community neurorehabilitation. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesised mediated model whereby affiliative identities have a significant indirect relationship with emotional status via social support and self-as-doer identification. Results support the hypothesised model. Evidence supports an "upward spiral" between social identity and social support such that affiliative identity makes social support possible and social support drives self-as-doer identity. Our discussion emphasises the importance of identity characteristics to social support, and to emotional status, for those living with ABI.
Kalkan, Melek; Epli-Koc, Hatice
The peer group is the important social network in children's lives and has a high predictive value of an individual's later social and emotional adjustment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the perceived social support from friends as predictor of the loneliness for primary school students. Two tools were used for data gathering.…
Analysis of data on 1,121 older adolescents and young adults from a national longitudinal survey examined effects of community involvement, social satisfaction, social network size, race, gender, and age on use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Social support did influence use of alcohol and other drugs, but the direction of influence varied by…