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Sample records for activity spatial learning

  1. Active and Passive Spatial Learning in Human Navigation: Acquisition of Graph Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R.; Warren, William H.

    2015-01-01

    It is known that active exploration of a new environment leads to better spatial learning than does passive visual exposure. We ask whether specific components of active learning differentially contribute to particular forms of spatial knowledge--the "exploration-specific learning hypothesis". Previously, we found that idiothetic…

  2. Active and Passive Spatial Learning in Human Navigation: Acquisition of Survey Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R.; Warren, William H.

    2013-01-01

    It seems intuitively obvious that active exploration of a new environment would lead to better spatial learning than would passive visual exposure. It is unclear, however, which components of active learning contribute to spatial knowledge, and previous literature is decidedly mixed. This experiment tests the contributions of 4 components to…

  3. Novel role and mechanism of protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 in spatial learning

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Derek J C; Hsu, Wei L; Liu, Yen C; Ma, Yun L; Lee, Eminy H Y

    2011-01-01

    By using differential display PCR, we have previously identified 98 cDNA fragments from rat dorsal hippocampus, which are expressed differentially between the fast learners and slow learners from water-maze learning task. One cDNA fragment, which showed a higher expression level in fast learners, encodes the rat protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (pias1) gene. Spatial training induced a significant increase in PIAS1 expression in rat hippocampus. Transient transfection of the wild-type (WT) PIAS1 plasmid to CA1 neurons facilitated, whereas transfection of PIAS1 siRNA impaired spatial learning in rats. Meanwhile, PIAS1WT increased STAT1 sumoylation, decreased STAT1 DNA binding and decreased STAT1 phosphorylation at Tyr-701 associated with spatial learning facilitation. But PIAS1 siRNA transfection produced an opposite effect on these measures associated with spatial learning impairment. Further, transfection of STAT1 sumoylation mutant impaired spatial acquisition, whereas transfection of STAT1 phosphorylation mutant blocked the impairing effect of PIAS1 siRNA on spatial learning. In this study, we first demonstrate the role of PIAS1 in spatial learning. Both posttranslational modifications (increased sumoylation and decreased phosphorylation) mediate the effect of PIAS1 on spatial learning facilitation. PMID:21102409

  4. Spontaneous fast gamma activity in the septal hippocampal region correlates with spatial learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, B R; Overstreet, C; Grillon, C

    2014-03-15

    Hippocampal neuronal populations exhibit multiple kinds of activity patterns, from the dominant theta rhythm during active exploration to high-frequency ripple-like activity during periods of relative inactivity. In animals, evidence is rapidly accruing that these high-frequency ripple activity patterns subserve retention of spatial learning performance. In a translational effort to address the possible function of offline hippocampal processes in humans, we measured spontaneous gamma activity during an awake rest period within a virtual spatial learning context. Whole-head magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings were taken while healthy participants (N=24) quietly rested (eyes open) between encoding and retrieval phases of a hippocampal-dependent virtual Morris water maze task. Results are that fast gamma activity (80-140 Hz) in the septal or posterior region of the hippocampus (bilaterally) was positively correlated across participants with subsequent within-session spatial learning rate. Fast gamma did not predict initial retrieval performance following rest, failing to provide evidence of a direct link between spontaneous high-frequency activity patterns during awake rest and consolidation of previous spatial memories. The findings nevertheless are consistent with a prospective role for offline human hippocampal processes in spatial learning and indicate that higher spontaneous gamma activity in the septal hippocampal region is related to faster updating of spatial knowledge in familiar virtual surroundings. PMID:24388977

  5. Effects of a cognitive training on spatial learning and associated functional brain activations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both cognitive and physical exercise have been discussed as promising interventions for healthy cognitive aging. The present study assessed the effects of cognitive training (spatial vs. perceptual training) and physical training (endurance training vs. non-endurance training) on spatial learning and associated brain activation in 33 adults (40–55 years). Spatial learning was assessed with a virtual maze task, and at the same time neural correlates were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results Only the spatial training improved performance in the maze task. These behavioral gains were accompanied by a decrease in frontal and temporal lobe activity. At posttest, participants of the spatial training group showed lower activity than participants of the perceptual training group in a network of brain regions associated with spatial learning, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. No significant differences were observed between the two physical intervention groups. Conclusions Functional changes in neural systems associated with spatial navigation can be induced by cognitive interventions and seem to be stronger than effects of physical exercise in middle-aged adults. PMID:23870447

  6. Active and passive spatial learning in human navigation: acquisition of graph knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Warren, William H

    2015-07-01

    It is known that active exploration of a new environment leads to better spatial learning than does passive visual exposure. We ask whether specific components of active learning differentially contribute to particular forms of spatial knowledge-the exploration-specific learning hypothesis. Previously, we found that idiothetic information during walking is the primary active contributor to metric survey knowledge (Chrastil & Warren, 2013). In this study, we test the contributions of 3 components to topological graph and route knowledge: visual information, idiothetic information, and cognitive decision making. Four groups of participants learned the locations of 8 objects in a virtual hedge maze by (a) walking or (b) watching a video, crossed with (1) either making decisions about their path or (2) being guided through the maze. Route and graph knowledge were assessed by walking in the maze corridors from a starting object to the remembered location of a test object, with frequent detours. Decision making during exploration significantly contributed to subsequent route finding in the walking condition, whereas idiothetic information did not. Participants took novel routes and the metrically shortest routes on the majority of both direct and barrier trials, indicating that labeled graph knowledge-not merely route knowledge-was acquired. We conclude that, consistent with the exploration-specific learning hypothesis, decision making is the primary component of active learning for the acquisition of topological graph knowledge, whereas idiothetic information is the primary component for metric survey knowledge. PMID:25419818

  7. Active sensing associated with spatial learning reveals memory-based attention in an electric fish.

    PubMed

    Jun, James J; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Active sensing behaviors reveal what an animal is attending to and how it changes with learning. Gymnotus sp, a gymnotiform weakly electric fish, generates an electric organ discharge (EOD) as discrete pulses to actively sense its surroundings. We monitored freely behaving gymnotid fish in a large dark "maze" and extracted their trajectories and EOD pulse pattern and rate while they learned to find food with electrically detectable landmarks as cues. After training, they more rapidly found food using shorter, more stereotyped trajectories and spent more time near the food location. We observed three forms of active sensing: sustained high EOD rates per unit distance (sampling density), transient large increases in EOD rate (E-scans) and stereotyped scanning movements (B-scans) were initially strong at landmarks and food, but, after learning, intensified only at the food location. During probe (no food) trials, after learning, the fish's search area and intense active sampling was still centered on the missing food location, but now also increased near landmarks. We hypothesize that active sensing is a behavioral manifestation of attention and essential for spatial learning; the fish use spatial memory of landmarks and path integration to reach the expected food location and confine their attention to this region. PMID:26961107

  8. Spatial learning-related changes in metabolic activity of limbic structures at different posttask delays.

    PubMed

    Méndez-López, M; Méndez, M; Sampedro-Piquero, P; Arias, J L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the functional contribution of brain limbic system regions at different moments after the acquisition of a short-term spatial memory task performed in the Morris water maze. Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to a matching-to-sample procedure with a hidden platform. The trials were made up of two daily identical visits to the platform, sample (swim-1) and retention (swim-2). To study oxidative metabolic activity, we applied cytochrome oxidase (COx) histochemistry. Densitometric measurements were taken at 1.5, 6, 24, and 48 hr posttask. An untrained group was added to explore the COx changes not specific to the learning process. The brain regions studied showed a different pattern of metabolic activity at different time points after the spatial memory task. Specifically, a significant increase of COx was found in the septal dentate gyrus, anteromedial thalamus, medial mammillary nucleus, and entorhinal cortex at early moments after learning. The entorhinal cortex maintained an increase of COx at later stages of the posttask period. In addition, an increase of COx activity was found in the supramammillary nucleus and the retrosplenial, perirhinal, and parietal cortices a long time after learning. These findings suggest that diencephalic and cortical regions are involved in this spatial learning and contribute at different moments to process this information. PMID:23073928

  9. Active and passive spatial learning in human navigation: acquisition of survey knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Warren, William H

    2013-09-01

    It seems intuitively obvious that active exploration of a new environment would lead to better spatial learning than would passive visual exposure. It is unclear, however, which components of active learning contribute to spatial knowledge, and previous literature is decidedly mixed. This experiment tests the contributions of 4 components to metric survey knowledge: visual, vestibular, and podokinetic information and cognitive decision making. In the learning phase, 6 groups of participants learned the locations of 8 objects in a virtual hedge maze by (a) walking, (b) being pushed in a wheelchair, or (c) watching a video, crossed with (1) making decisions about their path or (2) being guided through the maze. In the test phase, survey knowledge was assessed by having participants walk a novel shortcut from a starting object to the remembered location of a test object, with the maze removed. Performance was slightly better than chance in the passive video condition. The addition of vestibular information did not improve performance in the wheelchair condition, but the addition of podokinetic information significantly improved angular accuracy in the walking condition. In contrast, there was no effect of decision making in any condition. The results indicate that visual and podokinetic information significantly contribute to survey knowledge, whereas vestibular information and decision making do not. We conclude that podokinetic information is the primary component of active learning for the acquisition of metric survey knowledge. PMID:23565781

  10. Showercap Mindmap: a spatial activity for learning physiology terminology and location.

    PubMed

    Vanags, Thea; Budimlic, Mira; Herbert, Elissa; Montgomery, Melena M; Vickers, Tracy

    2012-06-01

    Students struggle with the volume and complexity of physiology terminology. We compared first-year undergraduate psychology students' learning of physiological terms using two teaching methods: one verbal (control group; n = 16) and one spatial and multisensory (experimental group; n = 19). The experimental group used clear plastic shower caps to mark brain regions and affix labels to another participant's head. The control group learned the material verbally through a game. When tested verbally, both the control and experimental groups recalled more of the 10 terms immediately after the activity (+106% and +83%, respectively) and 2 wk later (+53% and +31%, respectively) than at the pretest (P < 0.0005). When participants' knowledge was tested spatially (labeling a brain diagram), the experimental group recalled more terms at the posttest (+76%) and followup (+73%) than at the pretest (P < 0.0005), but the control group who showed no improvement at either time point (+12% and +14%, respectively). These findings support the notion that spatial and multisensory learning produces improved spatial recall over time while also supporting the notion of transfer-appropriate processing. PMID:22665427

  11. Influence of Long-Term Zinc Administration on Spatial Learning and Exploratory Activity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2016-08-01

    Animal brain contains a significant amount of zinc, which is a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes. Moreover, it provides the basis for functioning of more than 2000 transcription factors, and it is necessary for memory formation and learning processes in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation on behavior in 3-month-old rats. For this purpose, the Morris water maze paradigm, hole-board, and T-maze were used. Wistar rats received a solution of ZnSO4 in drinking water at the doses of 16 mg/kg (Zn16 group) and 32 mg/kg (Zn32 group). In rats pretreated with the lower dose of zinc, the improvement of the mean escape latency was observed in comparison to the control group and Zn32 group. During memory task, both ZnSO4-supplemented groups showed an increase in crossings over the previous platform position. Furthermore, the exploratory activity in Zn16 group was improved in comparison to Zn32 and control group. In the brains of zinc-supplemented rats, we observed the higher content of zinc, both in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Hippocampal zinc level correlated positively with the mean annulus crossings of the Zn16 group during the probe trial. These findings show that the long-term administration of ZnS04 can improve learning, spatial memory, and exploratory activity in rats. Graphical Abstract Improvement of spatial learning, memory, and exploratory behavior. PMID:26740219

  12. Spatial tuning and brain state account for dorsal hippocampal CA1 activity in a non-spatial learning task

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Kevin Q; Lubenov, Evgueniy V; Papadopoulou, Maria; Siapas, Athanassios G

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain area crucial for episodic memory in humans. In contrast, studies in rodents have highlighted its role in spatial learning, supported by the discovery of place cells. Efforts to reconcile these views have found neurons in the rodent hippocampus that respond to non-spatial events but have not unequivocally dissociated the spatial and non-spatial influences on these cells. To disentangle these influences, we trained freely moving rats in trace eyeblink conditioning, a hippocampally dependent task in which the animal learns to blink in response to a tone. We show that dorsal CA1 pyramidal neurons are all place cells, and do not respond to the tone when the animal is moving. When the animal is inactive, the apparent tone-evoked responses reflect an arousal-mediated resumption of place-specific firing. These results suggest that one of the main output stages of the hippocampus transmits only spatial information, even in this non-spatial task. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14321.001 PMID:27487561

  13. Spatial tuning and brain state account for dorsal hippocampal CA1 activity in a non-spatial learning task.

    PubMed

    Shan, Kevin Q; Lubenov, Evgueniy V; Papadopoulou, Maria; Siapas, Athanassios G

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain area crucial for episodic memory in humans. In contrast, studies in rodents have highlighted its role in spatial learning, supported by the discovery of place cells. Efforts to reconcile these views have found neurons in the rodent hippocampus that respond to non-spatial events but have not unequivocally dissociated the spatial and non-spatial influences on these cells. To disentangle these influences, we trained freely moving rats in trace eyeblink conditioning, a hippocampally dependent task in which the animal learns to blink in response to a tone. We show that dorsal CA1 pyramidal neurons are all place cells, and do not respond to the tone when the animal is moving. When the animal is inactive, the apparent tone-evoked responses reflect an arousal-mediated resumption of place-specific firing. These results suggest that one of the main output stages of the hippocampus transmits only spatial information, even in this non-spatial task. PMID:27487561

  14. Activation and survival of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus with spatial memory is dependent on time of exposure to spatial learning and age of cells at examination.

    PubMed

    Epp, Jonathan R; Haack, Andrew K; Galea, Liisa A M

    2011-03-01

    Neurogenesis continues to occur throughout life in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and may be related to hippocampus-dependent learning. We have recently reported that there is an enhancement of neurogenesis in the hippocampus only when BrdU is administered 6 days prior to starting spatial training but not when training started either 1 day or 11 days following BrdU administration. In that study, all rats were perfused on day 16 after BrdU injection in order to compare cells of the same age (i.e. 16 day old cells) and thus the survival time after learning was different between groups. This study was designed to address whether the amount of time that passed following training could also contribute to the effects of spatial learning on hippocampal neurogenesis and whether there was differential new neuron activation in response to spatial learning that depended on the age of new cells at the time of spatial learning. Here we tested whether a survival period of 5 days following spatial learning at either 1-5, 6-10 or 11-15 days following BrdU administration would alter cell survival and/or activation of new neurons. Our results indicate that 5 days after training in the Morris water task cell survival is unaltered by training on days 1-5, increased by training at days 6-10 and decreased when training occurs on days 11-15. Furthermore spatial learners trained on days 6-10 or 11-15 show greater activation of new neurons compared to cue-trained rats during a probe trial 5 days after training. In addition, rats trained on the spatial task on days 11-15 had a greater number of activated new neurons compared to rats trained on the spatial task on days 6-10. These results suggest there is a gradual removal of older BrdU-labeled new neurons following spatial learning perhaps due to a competitive interaction with a population of younger BrdU-labeled new neurons. PMID:21216298

  15. The effect of retrosplenial cortex lesions in rats on incidental and active spatial learning

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, A. J. D.; Hindley, E. L.; Pearce, J. M.; Vann, S. D.; Aggleton, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the importance of the retrosplenial cortex for the incidental learning of the spatial arrangement of distinctive features within a scene. In a modified Morris water-maze, rats spontaneously learnt the location of an escape platform prior to swimming to that location. For this, rats were repeatedly placed on a submerged platform in one corner of either a rectangular (Experiment 1) or square (Experiments 2, 3) pool with walls of different appearance. The rats were then released in the center of the pool for their first test trial. In Experiment 1, the correct corner and its diagonally opposite partner (also correct) were specified by the geometric properties of the pool. Rats with retrosplenial lesions took longer to first reach a correct corner, subsequently showing an attenuated preference for the correct corners. A reduced preference for the correct corner was also found in Experiment 2, when platform location was determined by the juxtaposition of highly salient visual cues (black vs. white walls). In Experiment 3, less salient visual cues (striped vs. white walls) led to a robust lesion impairment, as the retrosplenial lesioned rats showed no preference for the correct corner. When subsequently trained actively to swim to the correct corner over successive trials, retrosplenial lesions spared performance on all three discriminations. The findings not only reveal the importance of the retrosplenial cortex for processing various classes of visuospatial information but also highlight a broader role in the incidental learning of the features of a spatial array, consistent with the translation of scene information. PMID:25705182

  16. Primary School Students' Spatial Orientation Strategies in an Outdoor Learning Activity Supported by Mobile Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Aihui; Sollervall, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Students' different learning performance on mathematical problem solving across contexts has attracted a number of researchers' interest. The study investigates the spatial orientation ability of primary school students in an outdoor situation, where six pairs of grade six students are asked to coordinate themselves physically in terms of given…

  17. Deficiency in Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform genes alters spatial learning, motor activity, and anxiety in mice.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Amy E; Williams, Michael T; Schaefer, Tori L; Bohanan, Cynthia S; Neumann, Jon C; Behbehani, Michael M; Vorhees, Charles V; Lingrel, Jerry B

    2007-01-17

    Several disorders have been associated with mutations in Na,K-ATPase alpha isoforms (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, familial hemiplegic migraine type-2), as well as reduction in Na,K-ATPase content (depression and Alzheimer's disease), thereby raising the issue of whether haploinsufficiency or altered enzymatic function contribute to disease etiology. Three isoforms are expressed in the brain: the alpha1 isoform is found in many cell types, the alpha2 isoform is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, and the alpha3 isoform is exclusively expressed in neurons. Here we show that mice heterozygous for the alpha2 isoform display increased anxiety-related behavior, reduced locomotor activity, and impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Mice heterozygous for the alpha3 isoform displayed spatial learning and memory deficits unrelated to differences in cued learning in the Morris maze, increased locomotor activity, an increased locomotor response to methamphetamine, and a 40% reduction in hippocampal NMDA receptor expression. In contrast, heterozygous alpha1 isoform mice showed increased locomotor response to methamphetamine and increased basal and stimulated corticosterone in plasma. The learning and memory deficits observed in the alpha2 and alpha3 heterozygous mice reveal the Na,K-ATPase to be an important factor in the functioning of pathways associated with spatial learning. The neurobehavioral changes seen in heterozygous mice suggest that these mouse models may be useful in future investigations of the associated human CNS disorders. PMID:17234593

  18. Gender differences in spatial learning, synaptic activity, and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus in rats: molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Monfort, Pilar; Gomez-Gimenez, Belen; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2015-08-19

    In tests of spatial ability, males outperform females both in rats and in humans. The mechanism underlying this gender differential learning ability and memory in spatial tasks remains unknown. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus is considered the basis for spatial learning and memory. The aims of this work were (a) to assess spatial learning and memory in male and female rats in the radial and Morris mazes; (b) to assess whether basal synaptic activity and LTP in the hippocampus are different in male and female rats; and (c) to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for the gender differences in LTP. We analyzed in young male and female rats (a) performance in spatial tasks in the radial and Morris water mazes; (b) basal synaptic activity in hippocampal slices; and (c) LTP and some mechanisms modulating its magnitude. The results reported allow us to conclude that female rats show larger AMPA receptor-mediate synaptic responses under basal conditions, likely due to enhanced phosphorylation of GluR2 in Ser880 and increased amounts of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors in postsynaptic densities. In contrast, the magnitude of tetanus-induced LTP was lower in females than in males. This is due to reduced activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and the formation of cGMP, leading to lower activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase and phosphorylation of GluR1 in Ser845, which results in lower insertion of AMPA receptors in the synaptic membrane and a lower magnitude of LTP. These mechanisms may contribute to the reduced performance of females in the radial and Morris water mazes. PMID:26098845

  19. Differential spatial activity patterns of acupuncture by a machine learning based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Youbo; Bai, Lijun; Xue, Ting; Zhong, Chongguang; Liu, Zhenyu; Tian, Jie

    2011-03-01

    Acupoint specificity, lying at the core of the Traditional Chinese Medicine, underlies the theoretical basis of acupuncture application. However, recent studies have reported that acupuncture stimulation at nonacupoint and acupoint can both evoke similar signal intensity decreases in multiple regions. And these regions were spatially overlapped. We used a machine learning based Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach to elucidate the specific neural response pattern induced by acupuncture stimulation. Group analysis demonstrated that stimulation at two different acupoints (belong to the same nerve segment but different meridians) could elicit distinct neural response patterns. Our findings may provide evidence for acupoint specificity.

  20. Spatial learning-related changes in metabolic brain activity contribute to the delimitation of the hippocampal pallium in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Uceda, S; Ocaña, F M; Martín-Monzón, I; Rodríguez-Expósito, B; Durán, E; Rodríguez, F

    2015-10-01

    Comparative neuroanatomical, developmental and functional evidence suggests that the lateral division of the area dorsalis telencephali (Dl) of the teleost fish is homologous to the hippocampus of tetrapods. Nonetheless, some important aspects of the organization of the hippocampal pallium of teleosts are still under discussion and conflicting hypotheses regarding the extension and demarcation of this region have been proposed. Thus, whereas some authors suggest that the entire Dl region, including its dorsal (Dld) and ventral (Dlv) subdivisions, is homologue to the mammalian hippocampus, others claim that only Dlv should be considered as such. To further elucidate this debate, we investigated the role of Dld and Dlv in one of the most unambiguous functions of the hippocampus, spatial learning. We trained goldfish in a spatial constancy task and mapped the activity of Dld, Dlv, and the medial division of the area dorsalis telencephali (Dm) by means of cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry. The results revealed that training goldfish in the spatial constancy task significantly increased the metabolic activity in Dlv, but not in Dld or Dm, suggesting that only Dlv is critically involved in spatial learning and in this regard comparable to the hippocampus. These data provide additional functional support to the hypotheses that consider Dl as a heterogeneous pallial region and propose that Dlv, but not Dld, might be homologous to the hippocampus. PMID:26142782

  1. Spatial Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  2. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  3. Impaired Spatial Learning Memory after Isoflurane Anesthesia or Appendectomy in Aged Mice is Associated with Microglia Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-Lin; Ma, Rui-Hua; Fang, Hao; Xue, Zhang-Gang; Liao, Qing-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has been one of the most common problems in elderly patients following surgery. But the specific mechanism of POCD is still not clear. To further understand the reason of these postoperative behavioral deficits, we evaluated the spatial learning memory of both adult (3 months) and aged (18 months) male mice, 3 or 28 days after isoflurane (Iso) exposure for two hours or appendectomy (App). Hippocampal microglia activation and IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ expression were also evaluated at day 3, day 14 and day 28 after Iso exposure or appendectomy. Results showed that spatial learning memory of aged, but not adult, mice was impaired after Iso exposure or appendectomy, accompanied with more hippocampal microglia activation and IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ overexpression. These findings suggest that the cognitive deficits of elderly patients who have undergone surgeries are quite possibly caused by hippocampal microglia overactivation and the subsequent inflammation. PMID:26380557

  4. Dissociating effects of spatial learning from locomotor activity for ouabain-induced bipolar disorder-like rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Chou; Wang, En-Nan; Wang, Chia-Chuan; Huang, Chung-Lei; Huang, Andrew Chih Wei

    2014-05-30

    Whether ouabain, a Na+ - and K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor, mimics cognitive impairments that can be dissociated from motor effects in the bipolar disorder-like animal model remains unclear. Ouabain and the vehicle aCSF were microinjected into the left lateral ventricle immediately, after 4h, and after 24h. The results showed that (a) locomotion responses of the Immediate group were significantly decreased compared to those of the aCSF group, particularly the first five minutes. (b) The ouabain-treated rats have longer latency and total distance traveled in the water maze task; however, the velocity was not affected for the ouabain group. (c) The analysis of covariance showed that the latency time (but not the total distance traveled and velocity) of the ouabain group was more impaired than that of the aCSF group, regardless of omitting total distance traveled and cross movement in the open field test. The latency might be more sensitive than the distance traveled and the velocity for assessing spatial learning. Dissociating the spatial learning from the movement may allow testing drug treatments of cognitive deficits independent of locomotor effects associated with bipolar disorder. PMID:24656518

  5. Adult-onset hyperthyroidism impairs spatial learning: possible involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Bitiktaş, Soner; Kandemir, Başak; Tan, Burak; Kavraal, Şehrazat; Liman, Narin; Dursun, Nurcan; Dönmez-Altuntaş, Hamiyet; Aksan-Kurnaz, Işil; Suer, Cem

    2016-08-01

    Given evidence that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is part of the nongenomic actions of thyroid hormones, we investigated the possible consequences of hyperthyroidism for the cognitive functioning of adult rats. Young adult rats were treated with L-thyroxine or saline. Twenty rats in each group were exposed to Morris water maze testing, measuring their performance in a hidden-platform spatial task. In a separate set of rats not exposed to Morris water maze testing (untrained rats), the expression and phosphorylated levels of p38-MAPK and of its two downstream effectors, Elk-1 and cAMP response element-binding protein, were evaluated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and western blotting. Rats with hyperthyroidism showed delayed acquisition of learning compared with their wild-type counterparts, as shown by increased escape latencies and distance moved on the last two trials of daily training in the water maze. The hyperthyroid rats, however, showed no difference during probe trials. Western blot analyses of the hippocampus showed that hyperthyroidism increased phosphorylated p38-MAPK levels in untrained rats. Although our study is correlative in nature and does not exclude the contribution of other molecular targets, our findings suggest that the observed impairments in acquisition during actual learning in rats with hyperthyroidism may result from the increased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK. PMID:27258653

  6. Intravenous Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cell Therapy Attenuates Activated Microglial/Macrophage Response and Improves Spatial Learning After Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Supinder S.; Hetz, Robert; Thomas, Chelsea; Smith, Philippa; Olsen, Alex B.; Williams, Stephen; Xue, Hasen; Aroom, Kevin; Uray, Karen; Hamilton, Jason; Mays, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the intravenous delivery of multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rodents provides neuroprotection by preserving the blood-brain barrier and systemically attenuating inflammation in the acute time frame following cell treatment; however, the long-term behavioral and anti-inflammatory effects of MAPC administration after TBI have yet to be explored. We hypothesized that the intravenous injection of MAPCs after TBI attenuates the inflammatory response (as measured by microglial morphology) and improves performance at motor tasks and spatial learning (Morris water maze [MWM]). MAPCs were administered intravenously 2 and 24 hours after a cortical contusion injury (CCI). We tested four groups at 120 days after TBI: sham (uninjured), injured but not treated (CCI), and injured and treated with one of two concentrations of MAPCs, either 2 million cells per kilogram (CCI-2) or 10 million cells per kilogram (CCI-10). CCI-10 rats showed significant improvement in left hind limb deficit on the balance beam. On the fifth day of MWM trials, CCI-10 animals showed a significant decrease in both latency to platform and distance traveled compared with CCI. Probe trials revealed a significant decrease in proximity measure in CCI-10 compared with CCI, suggesting improved memory retrieval. Neuroinflammation was quantified by enumerating activated microglia in the ipsilateral hippocampus. We observed a significant decrease in the number of activated microglia in the dentate gyrus in CCI-10 compared with CCI. Our results demonstrate that intravenous MAPC treatment after TBI in a rodent model offers long-term improvements in spatial learning as well as attenuation of neuroinflammation. PMID:24191266

  7. Physical exercise, neuroplasticity, spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Cassilhas, Ricardo C; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-03-01

    There has long been discussion regarding the positive effects of physical exercise on brain activity. However, physical exercise has only recently begun to receive the attention of the scientific community, with major interest in its effects on the cognitive functions, spatial learning and memory, as a non-drug method of maintaining brain health and treating neurodegenerative and/or psychiatric conditions. In humans, several studies have shown the beneficial effects of aerobic and resistance exercises in adult and geriatric populations. More recently, studies employing animal models have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity related to physical exercise-induced spatial learning and memory improvement, even under neurodegenerative conditions. In an attempt to clarify these issues, the present review aims to discuss the role of physical exercise in the improvement of spatial learning and memory and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neuroplasticity. PMID:26646070

  8. Primary School Students' Spatial Orientation Strategies in an Outdoor Learning Activity Supported by Mobile Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Aihui; Sollervall, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Students' different learning performance on mathematical problem solving across contexts has attracted a number of researchers' interest. The study investigates the spatial orientation ability of primary school students in an outdoor situation, where six pairs of grade six students are asked to coordinate themselves physically in terms…

  9. Longitudinal analysis of motor activity and coordination, anxiety, and spatial learning in mice with altered blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Thifault, S; Lalonde, R; Sanon, N; Hamet, P

    2001-08-10

    Mice with either high or low blood pressure (BP) were compared to normotensive controls at 2 and 12 months of age for motor activity, equilibrium, anxiety, and spatial learning. Irrespective of age, high BP mice were more active in an open field than normotensive controls, whereas low BP mice were hypoactive at 2 months of age. High BP mice had a higher number of entries and a longer duration of visits in the open arms, a higher open arm/total arm ratio, a longer duration for the first visit into an open arm, and lower latencies before entering the first open arm than controls in the elevated +-maze, indicative of reduced anxiety. Reduced levels of anxiety were also displayed by low BP mice for the duration of the first open arm visit (both age groups) and for the time spent in the open arms (older group). In the motor coordination test (coat-hanger), high BP mice had higher two-paw movement time and reached the top of the apparatus on fewer occasions than controls. Both groups with abnormal BP values were deficient during visuomotor guidance in the water maze. These results indicate strain-, age-, and test-specific abnormalities in mice with uncontrolled hypertension or hypotension. PMID:11489259

  10. Subchronic memantine administration on spatial learning, exploratory activity, and nest-building in an APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Filali, Mohammed; Lalonde, Robert; Rivest, Serge

    2011-05-01

    Glutamate neurotoxicity has been proposed to be involved in Alzheimer pathogenesis, with clinical data supporting successful treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine. In the present study, the effects of subchronic memantine administration were assessed on spatial and non-spatial learning as well as exploratory activity and nest-building in APP/PS1 mutant mice. Memantine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was better than placebo during the reversal phase of left-right discrimination, though equivalent to saline for Morris water maze and passive avoidance learning. The drug had no effect on non-learned behaviors in elevated plus-maze exploration and nest-building. These results support a specific action of the NMDA receptor antagonist on behavioral flexibility in mutant mice with amyloid pathology. PMID:21281652

  11. Effect of GIS Learning on Spatial Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A spatial-skills test is used to examine the effect of GIS learning on the spatial thinking ability of college students. Eighty students at a large state university completed pre- and post- spatial-skills tests administered during the 2003 fall semester. Analysis of changes in the students' test scores revealed that GIS learning helped students…

  12. Decreasing nicotinic receptor activity and the spatial learning impairment caused by the NMDA glutamate antagonist dizocilpine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Dennis A.; Heshmati, Pooneh; Kholdebarin, Ehsan; Levin, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic systems have been shown by a variety of studies to be involved in cognitive function. Nicotinic receptors have an inherent property to become desensitized after activation. The relative role of nicotinic receptor activation vs. net receptor inactivation by desensitization in the cognitive effects of nicotinic drugs remains to be fully understood. In these studies, we tested the effects of the α7 nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA), the α4β2 nicotinic receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE), the nonspecific nicotinic channel blocker mecamylamine and the α4β2 nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent sazetidine-A on learning in a repeated acquisition test. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a repeated acquisition learning procedure in an 8-arm radial maze. MLA (1–4 mg/kg), DHβE (1–4 mg/kg), mecamylamine (0.125–0.5 mg/kg) or sazetidine-A (1 and 3 mg/kg) were administered in four different studies either alone or together with the NMDA glutamate antagonist dizocilpine (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). MLA significantly counteracted the learning impairment caused by dizocilpine. The overall choice accuracy impairment caused by dizocilpine was significantly attenuated by co-administration of DHβE. Low doses of the non-specific nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine also reduced dizocilpine-induced repeated acquisition impairment. Sazetidine-A reversed the accuracy impairment caused by dizocilpine. These studies provide evidence that a net decrease in nicotinic receptor activity can improve learning by attenuating learning impairment induced by NMDA glutamate blockade. This adds to evidence in cognitive tests that nicotinic antagonists can improve cognitive function. Further research characterizing the efficacy and mechanisms underlying nicotinic antagonist and desensitization induced cognitive improvement is warranted. PMID:25064338

  13. Activation of neurotensin receptor 1 facilitates neuronal excitability and spatial learning and memory in the entorhinal cortex: beneficial actions in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhaoyang; Cilz, Nicholas I; Kurada, Lalitha; Hu, Binqi; Yang, Chuanxiu; Wada, Etsuko; Combs, Colin K; Porter, James E; Lesage, Florian; Lei, Saobo

    2014-05-14

    Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide distributed in the CNS, including the entorhinal cortex (EC), a structure that is crucial for learning and memory and undergoes the earliest pathological alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whereas NT has been implicated in modulating cognition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which NT modifies cognitive processes and the potential therapeutic roles of NT in AD have not been determined. Here we examined the effects of NT on neuronal excitability and spatial learning in the EC, which expresses high density of NT receptors. Brief application of NT induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency, which could last for at least 1 h. NT-induced facilitation of neuronal excitability was mediated by downregulation of TREK-2 K(+) channels and required the functions of NTS1, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C. Microinjection of NT or NTS1 agonist, PD149163, into the EC increased spatial learning as assessed by the Barnes Maze Test. Activation of NTS1 receptors also induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency and significantly improved the memory status in APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of AD. Our study identifies a cellular substrate underlying learning and memory and suggests that NTS1 agonists may exert beneficial actions in an animal model of AD. PMID:24828655

  14. Activation of Neurotensin Receptor 1 Facilitates Neuronal Excitability and Spatial Learning and Memory in the Entorhinal Cortex: Beneficial Actions in an Alzheimer's Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhaoyang; Cilz, Nicholas I.; Kurada, Lalitha; Hu, Binqi; Yang, Chuanxiu; Wada, Etsuko; Combs, Colin K.; Porter, James E.; Lesage, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide distributed in the CNS, including the entorhinal cortex (EC), a structure that is crucial for learning and memory and undergoes the earliest pathological alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whereas NT has been implicated in modulating cognition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which NT modifies cognitive processes and the potential therapeutic roles of NT in AD have not been determined. Here we examined the effects of NT on neuronal excitability and spatial learning in the EC, which expresses high density of NT receptors. Brief application of NT induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency, which could last for at least 1 h. NT-induced facilitation of neuronal excitability was mediated by downregulation of TREK-2 K+ channels and required the functions of NTS1, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C. Microinjection of NT or NTS1 agonist, PD149163, into the EC increased spatial learning as assessed by the Barnes Maze Test. Activation of NTS1 receptors also induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency and significantly improved the memory status in APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of AD. Our study identifies a cellular substrate underlying learning and memory and suggests that NTS1 agonists may exert beneficial actions in an animal model of AD. PMID:24828655

  15. Learning as Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Integrates contemporary theories of learning into a theory of learning as activity. Explains ecological psychology, changes in understanding of learning, activity systems and activity theory (including the integration of consciousness and activity), and activity structure; and discusses learning as a cognitive and social process. (LRW)

  16. Air flow cued spatial learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Bouchekioua, Youcef; Mimura, Masaru; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Spatial learning experiments in rodents typically employ visual cues that are associated with a goal place, even though it is now well established that they have poor visual acuity. We assessed here the possibility of spatial learning in mice based on an air flow cue in a dry version of the Morris water maze task. A miniature fan was placed at each of the four cardinal points of the circular maze, but only one blew air towards the centre of the maze. The three other fans were blowing towards their own box. The mice were able to learn the task only if the spatial relationship between the air flow cue and the position of the goal place was kept constant across trials. A change of this spatial relationship resulted in an increase in the time to find the goal place. We report here the first evidence of spatial learning relying on an air flow cue. PMID:25257773

  17. Spatial Learning and Computer Simulations in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Robb; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Interactive simulations are entering mainstream science education. Their effects on cognition and learning are often framed by the legacy of information processing, which emphasized amodal problem solving and conceptual organization. In contrast, this paper reviews simulations from the vantage of research on perception and spatial learning,…

  18. Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Tom, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a flow chart for naming inorganic compounds. Although it is not necessary for students to memorize rules, preliminary skills needed before using the chart are outlined. Also presents an activity in which the mass of an imaginary atom is determined using lead shot, Petri dishes, and a platform balance. (JN)

  19. Improvement of spatial learning by facilitating large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel with transcranial magnetic stimulation in Alzheimer's disease model mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Furong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Li; Sun, Peng; Luo, Xianwen; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Sugai, Tokio; Yamamoto, Ryo; Kato, Nobuo

    2015-10-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is fragmentarily reported to be beneficial to Alzheimer's patients. Its underlying mechanism was investigated. TMS was applied at 1, 10 or 15 Hz daily for 4 weeks to young Alzheimer's disease model mice (3xTg), in which intracellular soluble amyloid-β is notably accumulated. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was tested after behavior. TMS ameliorated spatial learning deficits and enhanced LTP in the same frequency-dependent manner. Activity of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium (Big-K; BK) channels was suppressed in 3xTg mice and recovered by TMS frequency-dependently. These suppression and recovery were accompanied by increase and decrease in cortical excitability, respectively. TMS frequency-dependently enhanced the expression of the activity-dependently expressed scaffold protein Homer1a, which turned out to enhance BK channel activity. Isopimaric acid, an activator of the BK channel, magnified LTP. Amyloid-β lowering was detected after TMS in 3xTg mice. In 3xTg mice with Homer1a knocked out, amyloid-β lowering was not detected, though the TMS effects on BK channel and LTP remained. We concluded that TMS facilitates BK channels both Homer1a-dependently and -independently, thereby enhancing hippocampal LTP and decreasing cortical excitability. Reduced excitability contributed to amyloid-β lowering. A cascade of these correlated processes, triggered by TMS, was likely to improve learning in 3xTg mice. PMID:26051398

  20. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells therapy attenuates activated microglial/macrophage response and improves spatial learning after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Supinder S.; Walker, Peter A.; Shah, Shinil K.; Jimenez, Fernando; Thomas, Chelsea P.; Smith, Philippa; Hetz, Robert A.; Xue, Hasen; Pati, Shibani; Dash, Pramod K.; Cox, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (AMNC) have shown therapeutic promise for central nervous system insults such as stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that intravenous injection of AMNC provides neuroprotection which leads to cognitive improvement after TBI. Methods A controlled cortical impact (CCI) rodent traumatic brain injury (TBI) model was used to examine blood-brain barrier permeability (BBB), neuronal and glial apoptosis and cognitive behavior. Two groups of rats underwent CCI with (CCI-Autologous) or without AMNC treatment (CCI-Alone), consisting of 2 million AMNC/kilogram body weight harvested from the tibia and intravenously injected 72 hr after injury. CCI-Alone animals underwent sham harvests and received vehicle injections. Results 96 hr after injury, AMNC significantly reduced the BBB permeability in injured animals, and there was an increase in apoptosis of pro-inflammatory activated microglia in the ipsilateral hippocampus. At 4 weeks after injury, we examined changes in spatial memory after TBI due to AMNC treatment. There was a significant improvement in probe testing of CCI-Autologous group in comparison to CCI-Alone in the Morris Water Maze paradigm. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the intravenous injection of AMNC after TBI leads to neuroprotection by preserving early BBB integrity and increasing activated microglial apoptosis. In addition, AMNC also improves cognitive function. PMID:23928737

  1. The effect of rosemary extract on spatial memory, learning and antioxidant enzymes activities in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Rasoolijazi, Homa; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Nikbakhte, Farnaz; Eslami Farsani, Mohsen; Ababzadeh, Shima

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Rosemary extract (RE) possesses various antioxidant, cytoprotective and cognition- improving bioactivities. In this study, we postulated which doses of RE have a more effect on the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. Methods: In this experimental study, thirty-two middle-aged male Wistar rats were fed by different doses (50,100 and 200 mg/kg/day) of RE (containing 40% carnosic acid) or distilled water for 12 weeks. The effects of different RE doses on learning and spatial memory scores, hippocampal neuronal survival, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation amount were evaluated by one and two way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: It seemed that RE (100mg/kg) could recover the spatial memory retrieval score (p< 0.05). The amount of activity of SOD, GPx and CAT enzymes in the hippocampus of animals of the RE (100mg/kg) group showed a significant increase compared to the normal group (p< 0.01), (p< 0.01) and (p< 0.05), respectively. Also, the amount of activity of GPx in the RE (50 mg/kg) group of animals showed a significant increase compared to the normal group (p< 0.05). No significant difference was found between the groups in the MDA level. Conclusion: The results revealed that rosemary extract (40% carnosic acid) may improve the memory score and oxidative stress activity in middle aged rats in a dose dependent manner, especially in 100mg/kg. PMID:26034740

  2. Extreme Learning Machines for spatial environmental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2015-12-01

    The use of machine learning algorithms has increased in a wide variety of domains (from finance to biocomputing and astronomy), and nowadays has a significant impact on the geoscience community. In most real cases geoscience data modelling problems are multivariate, high dimensional, variable at several spatial scales, and are generated by non-linear processes. For such complex data, the spatial prediction of continuous (or categorical) variables is a challenging task. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of the recently developed Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) for environmental data analysis, modelling and spatial prediction purposes. An important contribution of this study deals with an application of a generic self-consistent methodology for environmental data driven modelling based on Extreme Learning Machine. Both real and simulated data are used to demonstrate applicability of ELM at different stages of the study to understand and justify the results.

  3. Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  4. Developing a Local Instruction Theory for Learning the Concept of Angle through Visual Field Activities and Spatial Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustang, B.; Zulkardi, Z.; Darmawijoyo, H.; Dolk, Maarten; van Eerde, Dolly

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study on designing and testing an instructional sequence for the teaching and learning of the concept of angle in Indonesian primary schools. The study's context is employing the current reform movement adopting "Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia" (an Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education).…

  5. Experimental Analysis of Spatial Learning in Goldfish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kotaro; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined spatial learning in goldfish using a new apparatus that was an open-field circular pool with latticed holes. The subjects were motivated to reach the baited hole. We examined gustatory cues, intramaze cues, the possibility that the subject could see the food, etc. In Experiment 1, the position of the baited hole was…

  6. Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on a…

  7. Effects of (+)-methamphetamine on path integration and spatial learning, but not locomotor activity or acoustic startle, align with the stress hyporesponsive period in rats.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Skelton, Matthew R; Grace, Curtis E; Schaefer, Tori L; Graham, Devon L; Braun, Amanda A; Williams, Michael T

    2009-05-01

    Rats treated with (+)-methamphetamine (MA) on postnatal days (P) 11-20 exhibit long-term spatial and path integration (Morris water maze (MWM) and Cincinnati water maze (CWM)) learning deficits whereas those treated on P1-10 do not. MA treatment increases corticosterone release in an age-dependent U-shaped pattern that corresponds to the stress hyporesponsive period (SHRP; P4-15). Here we tested the hypothesis that the cognitive effects induced by MA are associated with treatment that begins within the SHRP. Three treatment regimens were compared, P1-10, P6-15, and P11-20. One male/female pair/litter received 0, 10, or 25mg/kg MA/dose (four doses/day at 2h intervals given s.c. with 19-21 litters/regimen). Locomotor activity and acoustic startle were tested as behaviors not predicted to be associated with the SHRP. Cincinnati and Morris water maze findings were consistent with the hypothesis in that MA-treated animals exposed from P6-15 or P11-20 showed impaired learning compared to those exposed from P1-10; however, on probe trials in the Morris water maze, MA-induced memory impairments were not regimen-specific and were contributed to by all treatment regimens. All MA treatment regimens induced reductions in locomotor activity and acoustic startle facilitation as expected. No differential effect on prepulse trials was seen suggesting no impairment in sensory gating. Cognitive deficits from neonatal MA treatment are associated with the SHRP and may be the product of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation during critical periods of brain development. PMID:19136054

  8. The different effects of maternal separation on spatial learning and reversal learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Li, Man; Du, Wei; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2015-03-01

    Early postnatal maternal separation (MS) can play an important role in the development of psychopathologies during ontogeny. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4h per day from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 21) on locomotor activity and anxiety behavior in open field, spatial learning and reversal learning in Morris water maze of male and female juvenile (PND 21), adolescent (PND 35) and early adult (PND 56) Wistar rats. The results indicated that MS increased locomotor activity of rats across all ages and reduced anxiety behavior of adolescent rats in open field test. MS also increased swim distance in spatial learning and decreased escape latency in reversal learning in adolescent and early adult rats. Additionally, for socially reared rats, there was increased spontaneous locomotion with age, decreased reversal learning ability with age. The present study provides novel insights into the consequences of MS and demonstrates unique age-dependent changes at the behavioral levels. PMID:25479401

  9. Dorsal Hippocampus Function in Learning and Expressing a Spatial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Norman M.; Gaskin, Stephane

    2006-01-01

    Learning to discriminate between spatial locations defined by two adjacent arms of a radial maze in the conditioned cue preference paradigm requires two kinds of information: latent spatial learning when the rats explore the maze with no food available, and learning about food availability in two spatial locations when the rats are then confined…

  10. Spatial learning and memory in birds.

    PubMed

    Healy, Susan D; Hurly, T Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral ecologists, well versed in addressing functional aspects of behavior, are acknowledging more and more the attention they need also to pay to mechanistic processes. One of these is the role of cognition. Song learning and imprinting are familiar examples of behaviors for which cognition plays an important role, but attention is now turning to other behaviors and a wider diversity of species. We focus here on work that investigates the nature of spatial learning and memory in the context of behaviors such as foraging and food storing. We also briefly explore the difficulties of studying cognition in the field. The common thread to all of this work is the value of using psychological techniques as tools for assessing learning and memory abilities in order to address questions of interest to behavioral ecologists. PMID:15084814

  11. Technology Learning Activities I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This guide contains 30 technology learning activities. Activities may contain all or some of the following: an introduction, objectives, materials and equipment, challenges, limitations, notes and investigations, resources and references used, and evaluation ideas. Activity titles are: (1) Occupations in Construction Technology; (2) Designing a…

  12. Spatial learning by mice in three dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jonathan J.; Harding, Elizabeth; Fortier, Mathilde; James, Benjamin; Donnett, Megan; Kerslake, Alasdair; O’Leary, Alice; Zhang, Ningyu; Jeffery, Kate

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether mice can represent locations distributed throughout three-dimensional space, by developing a novel three-dimensional radial arm maze. The three-dimensional radial maze, or “radiolarian” maze, consists of a central spherical core from which arms project in all directions. Mice learn to retrieve food from the ends of the arms without omitting any arms or re-visiting depleted ones. We show here that mice can learn both a standard working memory task, in which all arms are initially baited, and also a reference memory version in which only a subset are ever baited. Comparison with a two-dimensional analogue of the radiolarian maze, the hexagon maze, revealed equally good working-memory performance in both mazes if all the arms were initially baited, but reduced working and reference memory in the partially baited radiolarian maze. This suggests intact three-dimensional spatial representation in mice over short timescales but impairment of the formation and/or use of long-term spatial memory of the maze. We discuss potential mechanisms for how mice solve the three-dimensional task, and reasons for the impairment relative to its two-dimensional counterpart, concluding with some speculations about how mammals may represent three-dimensional space. PMID:25930216

  13. Assessing Spatial Learning and Memory in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Vorhees, Charles V.; Williams, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Maneuvering safely through the environment is central to survival of almost all species. The ability to do this depends on learning and remembering locations. This capacity is encoded in the brain by two systems: one using cues outside the organism (distal cues), allocentric navigation, and one using self-movement, internal cues and nearby proximal cues, egocentric navigation. Allocentric navigation involves the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and surrounding structures; in humans this system encodes allocentric, semantic, and episodic memory. This form of memory is assessed in laboratory animals in many ways, but the dominant form of assessment is the Morris water maze (MWM). Egocentric navigation involves the dorsal striatum and connected structures; in humans this system encodes routes and integrated paths and, when overlearned, becomes procedural memory. In this article, several allocentric assessment methods for rodents are reviewed and compared with the MWM. MWM advantages (little training required, no food deprivation, ease of testing, rapid and reliable learning, insensitivity to differences in body weight and appetite, absence of nonperformers, control methods for proximal cue learning, and performance effects) and disadvantages (concern about stress, perhaps not as sensitive for working memory) are discussed. Evidence-based design improvements and testing methods are reviewed for both rats and mice. Experimental factors that apply generally to spatial navigation and to MWM specifically are considered. It is concluded that, on balance, the MWM has more advantages than disadvantages and compares favorably with other allocentric navigation tasks. PMID:25225309

  14. Spatially Distributed Instructions Improve Learning Outcomes and Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Jooyoung; Schunn, Christian D.; Nokes, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Learning requires applying limited working memory and attentional resources to intrinsic, germane, and extraneous aspects of the learning task. To reduce the especially undesirable extraneous load aspects of learning environments, cognitive load theorists suggest that spatially integrated learning materials should be used instead of spatially…

  15. Cross auditory-spatial learning in early-blind individuals.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chetwyn C H; Wong, Alex W K; Ting, Kin-Hung; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; He, Jufang; Lee, Tatia M C

    2012-11-01

    Cross-modal processing enables the utilization of information received via different sensory organs to facilitate more complicated human actions. We used functional MRI on early-blind individuals to study the neural processes associated with cross auditory-spatial learning. The auditory signals, converted from echoes of ultrasonic signals emitted from a navigation device, were novel to the participants. The subjects were trained repeatedly for 4 weeks in associating the auditory signals with different distances. Subjects' blood-oxygenation-level-dependent responses were captured at baseline and after training using a sound-to-distance judgment task. Whole-brain analyses indicated that the task used in the study involved auditory discrimination as well as spatial localization. The learning process was shown to be mediated by the inferior parietal cortex and the hippocampus, suggesting the integration and binding of auditory features to distances. The right cuneus was found to possibly serve a general rather than a specific role, forming an occipital-enhanced network for cross auditory-spatial learning. This functional network is likely to be unique to those with early blindness, since the normal-vision counterparts shared activities only in the parietal cortex. PMID:21932260

  16. Learning Hierarchical Spectral-Spatial Features for Hyperspectral Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yicong; Wei, Yantao

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a spectral-spatial feature learning (SSFL) method to obtain robust features of hyperspectral images (HSIs). It combines the spectral feature learning and spatial feature learning in a hierarchical fashion. Stacking a set of SSFL units, a deep hierarchical model called the spectral-spatial networks (SSN) is further proposed for HSI classification. SSN can exploit both discriminative spectral and spatial information simultaneously. Specifically, SSN learns useful high-level features by alternating between spectral and spatial feature learning operations. Then, kernel-based extreme learning machine (KELM), a shallow neural network, is embedded in SSN to classify image pixels. Extensive experiments are performed on two benchmark HSI datasets to verify the effectiveness of SSN. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, SSN with a deep hierarchical architecture obtains higher classification accuracy in terms of the overall accuracy, average accuracy, and kappa ( κ ) coefficient of agreement, especially when the number of the training samples is small. PMID:26241988

  17. Spatial learning in men undergoing alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Hamilton, Derek; Coriale, Giovanna; Carito, Valentina; Aloe, Luigi; Chaldakov, George; Romeo, Marina; Ceccanti, Marco; Iannitelli, Angela; Fiore, Marco

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem worldwide. Brain and behavioral disruptions including changes in cognitive abilities are common features of alcohol addiction. Thus, the present study was aimed to investigate spatial learning and memory in 29 alcoholic men undergoing alcohol detoxification by using a virtual Morris maze task. As age-matched controls we recruited 29 men among occasional drinkers without history of alcohol dependence and/or alcohol related diseases and with a negative blood alcohol level at the time of testing. We found that the responses to the virtual Morris maze are impaired in men undergoing alcohol detoxification. Notably they showed increased latencies in the first movement during the trials, increased latencies in retrieving the hidden platform and increased latencies in reaching the visible platform. These findings were associated with reduced swimming time in the target quadrant of the pool where the platform had been during the 4 hidden platform trials of the learning phase compared to controls. Such increasing latency responses may suggest motor control, attentional and motivational deficits due to alcohol detoxification. PMID:26143187

  18. Robot navigation algorithms using learned spatial graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, S.S.; Jorgensen, C.C.; Rao, S.V.N.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Finding optimal paths for robot navigation in known terrain has been studied for some time but, in many important situations, a robot would be required to navigate in completely new or partially explored terrain. We propose a method of robot navigation which requires no pre-learned model, makes maximal use of available information, records and synthesizes information from multiple journeys, and contains concepts of learning that allow for continuous transition from local to global path optimality. The model of the terrain consists of a spatial graph and a Voronoi diagram. Using acquired sensor data, polygonal boundaries containing perceived obstacles shrink to approximate the actual obstacles' surfaces, free space for transit is correspondingly enlarged, and additional nodes and edges are recorded based on path intersections and stop points. Navigation planning is gradually accelerated with experience since improved global map information minimizes the need for further sensor data acquisition. Our method currently assumes obstacle locations are unchanging, navigation can be successfully conducted using two-dimensional projections, and sensor information is precise.

  19. Optimism in Active Learning

    PubMed Central

    Collet, Timothé; Pietquin, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Active learning is the problem of interactively constructing the training set used in classification in order to reduce its size. It would ideally successively add the instance-label pair that decreases the classification error most. However, the effect of the addition of a pair is not known in advance. It can still be estimated with the pairs already in the training set. The online minimization of the classification error involves a tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. This is a common problem in machine learning for which multiarmed bandit, using the approach of Optimism int the Face of Uncertainty, has proven very efficient these last years. This paper introduces three algorithms for the active learning problem in classification using Optimism in the Face of Uncertainty. Experiments lead on built-in problems and real world datasets demonstrate that they compare positively to state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26681934

  20. Stills, Not Full Motion, for Interactive Spatial Training: American, Turkish and Taiwanese Female Pre-Service Teachers Learn Spatial Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Gerretson, Helen; Olkun, Sinan; Yuan, Yuan; Dogbey, James; Erdem, Aliye

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how female elementary education pre-service teachers in the United States, Turkey and Taiwan learned spatial skills from structured activities involving discrete, as opposed to continuous, transformations in interactive computer programs, and how these activities transferred to non-related standardized tests of spatial…

  1. Creative Activity and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Flora E.

    1979-01-01

    This article compares three theories of the creative process taken from aesthetic philosophy: aesthetic enjoyment (D. W. Gotshalk), aesthetic experience (John Dewey), and aesthetic knowledge (Susanne Langer). Each shows different versions of the learning that accrues from creative activity. From this, curriculum planning and teaching suggestions…

  2. Guidance of Spatial Attention by Incidental Learning and Endogenous Cuing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.; Rosenbaum, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    Our visual system is highly sensitive to regularities in the environment. Locations that were important in one's previous experience are often prioritized during search, even though observers may not be aware of the learning. In this study we characterized the guidance of spatial attention by incidental learning of a target's spatial probability,…

  3. Notetaking Activity as a Logical Classroom Learning Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William; And Others

    The impact on learning performance of a notetaking strategy called the Directed Overt Activity Strategy (DOA) was evaluated on three types of instructional tasks: spatial learning, simple concept learning, and complex concept learning. One hundred volunteer freshman psychology students from Ohio State University used either the DOA or their own…

  4. Intrinsic frames of reference in haptic spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Philbeck, John W

    2013-11-01

    It has been proposed that spatial reference frames with which object locations are specified in memory are intrinsic to a to-be-remembered spatial layout (intrinsic reference theory). Although this theory has been supported by accumulating evidence, it has only been collected from paradigms in which the entire spatial layout was simultaneously visible to observers. The present study was designed to examine the generality of the theory by investigating whether the geometric structure of a spatial layout (bilateral symmetry) influences selection of spatial reference frames when object locations are sequentially learned through haptic exploration. In two experiments, participants learned the spatial layout solely by touch and performed judgments of relative direction among objects using their spatial memories. Results indicated that the geometric structure can provide a spatial cue for establishing reference frames as long as it is accentuated by explicit instructions (Experiment 1) or alignment with an egocentric orientation (Experiment 2). These results are entirely consistent with those from previous studies in which spatial information was encoded through simultaneous viewing of all object locations, suggesting that the intrinsic reference theory is not specific to a type of spatial memory acquired by the particular learning method but instead generalizes to spatial memories learned through a variety of encoding conditions. In particular, the present findings suggest that spatial memories that follow the intrinsic reference theory function equivalently regardless of the modality in which spatial information is encoded. PMID:24007919

  5. Development of Critical Spatial Thinking through GIS Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study developed an interview-based critical spatial thinking oral test and used the test to investigate the effects of Geographic Information System (GIS) learning on three components of critical spatial thinking: evaluating data reliability, exercising spatial reasoning, and assessing problem-solving validity. Thirty-two students at a large…

  6. Topological Schemas of Cognitive Maps and Spatial Learning.

    PubMed

    Babichev, Andrey; Cheng, Sen; Dabaghian, Yuri A

    2016-01-01

    Spatial navigation in mammals is based on building a mental representation of their environment-a cognitive map. However, both the nature of this cognitive map and its underpinning in neural structures and activity remains vague. A key difficulty is that these maps are collective, emergent phenomena that cannot be reduced to a simple combination of inputs provided by individual neurons. In this paper we suggest computational frameworks for integrating the spiking signals of individual cells into a spatial map, which we call schemas. We provide examples of four schemas defined by different types of topological relations that may be neurophysiologically encoded in the brain and demonstrate that each schema provides its own large-scale characteristics of the environment-the schema integrals. Moreover, we find that, in all cases, these integrals are learned at a rate which is faster than the rate of complete training of neural networks. Thus, the proposed schema framework differentiates between the cognitive aspect of spatial learning and the physiological aspect at the neural network level. PMID:27014045

  7. Topological Schemas of Cognitive Maps and Spatial Learning

    PubMed Central

    Babichev, Andrey; Cheng, Sen; Dabaghian, Yuri A.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial navigation in mammals is based on building a mental representation of their environment—a cognitive map. However, both the nature of this cognitive map and its underpinning in neural structures and activity remains vague. A key difficulty is that these maps are collective, emergent phenomena that cannot be reduced to a simple combination of inputs provided by individual neurons. In this paper we suggest computational frameworks for integrating the spiking signals of individual cells into a spatial map, which we call schemas. We provide examples of four schemas defined by different types of topological relations that may be neurophysiologically encoded in the brain and demonstrate that each schema provides its own large-scale characteristics of the environment—the schema integrals. Moreover, we find that, in all cases, these integrals are learned at a rate which is faster than the rate of complete training of neural networks. Thus, the proposed schema framework differentiates between the cognitive aspect of spatial learning and the physiological aspect at the neural network level. PMID:27014045

  8. Probing the Relationship between Process of Spatial Problems Solving and Science Learning: An Eye Tracking Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Yang, Fang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    There were two purposes in the study. One was to explore the cognitive activities during spatial problem solving and the other to probe the relationship between spatial ability and science concept learning. Twenty university students participated in the study. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations Test (PVRT) was used to assess the spatial…

  9. Mapping the spatial distribution and activity of (226)Ra at legacy sites through Machine Learning interpretation of gamma-ray spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Leslie; Dale, Paul; Davies, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Radium ((226)Ra) contamination derived from military, industrial, and pharmaceutical products can be found at a number of historical sites across the world posing a risk to human health. The analysis of spectral data derived using gamma-ray spectrometry can offer a powerful tool to rapidly estimate and map the activity, depth, and lateral distribution of (226)Ra contamination covering an extensive area. Subsequently, reliable risk assessments can be developed for individual sites in a fraction of the timeframe compared to traditional labour-intensive sampling techniques: for example soil coring. However, local heterogeneity of the natural background, statistical counting uncertainty, and non-linear source response are confounding problems associated with gamma-ray spectral analysis. This is particularly challenging, when attempting to deal with enhanced concentrations of a naturally occurring radionuclide such as (226)Ra. As a result, conventional surveys tend to attribute the highest activities to the largest total signal received by a detector (Gross counts): an assumption that tends to neglect higher activities at depth. To overcome these limitations, a methodology was developed making use of Monte Carlo simulations, Principal Component Analysis and Machine Learning based algorithms to derive depth and activity estimates for (226)Ra contamination. The approach was applied on spectra taken using two gamma-ray detectors (Lanthanum Bromide and Sodium Iodide), with the aim of identifying an optimised combination of detector and spectral processing routine. It was confirmed that, through a combination of Neural Networks and Lanthanum Bromide, the most accurate depth and activity estimates could be found. The advantage of the method was demonstrated by mapping depth and activity estimates at a case study site in Scotland. There the method identified significantly higher activity (<3 Bq g(-1)) occurring at depth (>0.4m), that conventional gross counting algorithms

  10. Active inference and learning.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O'Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity. PMID:27375276

  11. Rectangular Array Model Supporting Students' Spatial Structuring in Learning Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanty, Nenden Octavarulia; Wijaya, Surya

    2012-01-01

    We examine how rectangular array model can support students' spatial structuring in learning multiplication. To begin, we define what we mean by spatial structuring as the mental operation of constructing an organization or form for an object or set of objects. For that reason, the eggs problem was chosen as the starting point in which the…

  12. Contributions of Spatial Working Memory to Visuomotor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anguera, Joaquin A.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Willingham, Daniel T.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of motor learning have described the importance of cognitive processes during the early stages of learning; however, the precise nature of these processes and their neural correlates remains unclear. The present study investigated whether spatial working memory (SWM) contributes to visuomotor adaptation depending on the stage of…

  13. Competitive STDP Learning of Overlapping Spatial Patterns.

    PubMed

    Krunglevicius, Dalius

    2015-08-01

    Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a set of Hebbian learning rules firmly based on biological evidence. It has been demonstrated that one of the STDP learning rules is suited for learning spatiotemporal patterns. When multiple neurons are organized in a simple competitive spiking neural network, this network is capable of learning multiple distinct patterns. If patterns overlap significantly (i.e., patterns are mutually inclusive), however, competition would not preclude trained neuron's responding to a new pattern and adjusting synaptic weights accordingly. This letter presents a simple neural network that combines vertical inhibition and Euclidean distance-dependent synaptic strength factor. This approach helps to solve the problem of pattern size-dependent parameter optimality and significantly reduces the probability of a neuron's forgetting an already learned pattern. For demonstration purposes, the network was trained for the first ten letters of the Braille alphabet. PMID:26079753

  14. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Learning about Mineralogy: Spatial Orientation Ability and Spatial Visualization Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…

  15. Spatial learning and memory in the tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Anna; Chan, Hui-Minn; Hall, Geoffrey

    2007-11-01

    A single tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) was trained in an eight-arm radial maze, with the apparatus and general procedures modeled on those used to demonstrate spatial learning in rats. The tortoise learned to perform reliably above chance, preferentially choosing baited arms, rather than returning to arms previously visited on a trial. Test sessions that examined control by olfactory cues revealed that they did not affect performance. No systematic, stereotyped response patterns were evident. In spite of differences in brain structure, the tortoise showed spatial learning abilities comparable to those observed in mammals. PMID:18085925

  16. From synaptic plasticity to spatial maps and sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Mayank R

    2015-06-01

    The entorhinal-hippocampal circuit is crucial for several forms of learning and memory, especially sequence learning, including spatial navigation. The challenge is to understand the underlying mechanisms. Pioneering discoveries of spatial selectivity in this circuit, i.e. place cells and grid cells, provided a major step forward in tackling this challenge. Considerable research has also shown that sequence learning relies on synaptic plasticity, especially the Hebbian or the NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity. This raises several questions: Are spatial maps plastic? If so, what is the contribution of Hebbian plasticity to spatial map plasticity? How does the spatial map plasticity contribute to sequence learning? A combination of computational and experimental studies has shown that NMDAR-mediated plasticity and theta rhythm can have specific effects on the formation and experiential modification of spatial maps to facilitate predictive coding. Advances in transgenic techniques have provided further support for these mechanisms. Although many exciting challenges remain, these findings have brought us closer to solving the puzzle of how the hippocampal system contributes to spatial memory, and point to a way forward. PMID:25929239

  17. Activating the Desire to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullo, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Wouldn't your job be easier if students were just more interested in learning? Now, here's a book that will open your eyes to where the desire to learn actually comes from and what teachers can really do to activate it. Using stories from classroom teachers, counselors, administrators, and students, Bob Sullo explains why the desire to learn is…

  18. Culturally inconsistent spatial structure reduces learning.

    PubMed

    McCrink, Koleen; Shaki, Samuel

    2016-09-01

    Human adults tend to use a spatial continuum to organize any information they consider to be well-ordered, with a sense of initial and final position. The directionality of this spatial mapping is mediated by the culture of the subject, largely as a function of the prevailing reading and writing habits (for example, from left-to-right for English speakers or right-to-left for Hebrew speakers). In the current study, we tasked American and Israeli subjects with encoding and recalling a set of arbitrary pairings, consisting of frequently ordered stimuli (letters with shapes: Experiment 1) or infrequently ordered stimuli (color terms with shapes: Experiment 2), that were serially presented in a left-to-right, right-to-left, or central-only manner. The subjects were better at recalling information that contained ordinal stimuli if the spatial flow of presentation during encoding matched the dominant directionality of the subjects' culture, compared to information encoded in the non-dominant direction. This phenomenon did not extend to infrequently ordered stimuli (e.g., color terms). These findings suggest that adults implicitly harness spatial organization to support memory, and this harnessing process is culturally mediated in tandem with our spatial biases. PMID:27208418

  19. Spatial Coherence in Auditory Cortical Activity Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takamasa; Katura, Takusige; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Tanaka, Shigeru; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Naoki

    2007-07-01

    We examined activity fluctuations as ongoing and spontaneous activities that were recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging in the auditory cortex of guinea pigs. We investigated whether such activities demonstrated spatial coherence, which represents the cortical functional organization. We used independent component analysis to extract neural activities from observed signals and a scaled signal-plus-noise model to estimate ongoing activities from the neural activities including response components. We mapped the correlation between the time courses in each channel and in the others for the whole observed region. Ongoing and spontaneous activities in the auditory cortex were found to have strong spatial coherence corresponding to the tonotopy, which is one of auditory functional organization.

  20. Structural and functional neuroplasticity in human learning of spatial routes.

    PubMed

    Keller, Timothy A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-01-15

    Recent findings with both animals and humans suggest that decreases in microscopic movements of water in the hippocampus reflect short-term neuroplasticity resulting from learning. Here we examine whether such neuroplastic structural changes concurrently alter the functional connectivity between hippocampus and other regions involved in learning. We collected both diffusion-weighted images and fMRI data before and after humans performed a 45min spatial route-learning task. Relative to a control group with equal practice time, there was decreased diffusivity in the posterior-dorsal dentate gyrus of the left hippocampus in the route-learning group accompanied by increased synchronization of fMRI-measured BOLD signal between this region and cortical areas, and by changes in behavioral performance. These concurrent changes characterize the multidimensionality of neuroplasticity as it enables human spatial learning. PMID:26477660

  1. Optimal Spatial Prediction Using Ensemble Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Davies, Molly Margaret; van der Laan, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Spatial prediction is an important problem in many scientific disciplines. Super Learner is an ensemble prediction approach related to stacked generalization that uses cross-validation to search for the optimal predictor amongst all convex combinations of a heterogeneous candidate set. It has been applied to non-spatial data, where theoretical results demonstrate it will perform asymptotically at least as well as the best candidate under consideration. We review these optimality properties and discuss the assumptions required in order for them to hold for spatial prediction problems. We present results of a simulation study confirming Super Learner works well in practice under a variety of sample sizes, sampling designs, and data-generating functions. We also apply Super Learner to a real world dataset. PMID:27130244

  2. Engineering genders: A spatial analysis of engineering, gender, and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidler-Lewis, Joanna R.

    This three article dissertation is an investigation into the ontology of learning insofar as learning is a process of becoming. In each article I explore the general questions of who is learning, in what ways, and with what consequences. The context for this research is undergraduate engineering education with particular attention to the construction of gender in this context. The first article is an examination of the organization of freshman engineering design. The second article draws on Lefebvre's spatial triad as both a theory and method for studying learning. The third article is an interview study of LGBTQA students creating their futures as engineers.

  3. Active Learning with Irrelevant Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzoni, Dominic; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Burl, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Active learning algorithms attempt to accelerate the learning process by requesting labels for the most informative items first. In real-world problems, however, there may exist unlabeled items that are irrelevant to the user's classification goals. Queries about these points slow down learning because they provide no information about the problem of interest. We have observed that when irrelevant items are present, active learning can perform worse than random selection, requiring more time (queries) to achieve the same level of accuracy. Therefore, we propose a novel approach, Relevance Bias, in which the active learner combines its default selection heuristic with the output of a simultaneously trained relevance classifier to favor items that are likely to be both informative and relevant. In our experiments on a real-world problem and two benchmark datasets, the Relevance Bias approach significantly improved the learning rate of three different active learning approaches.

  4. Landscapes, Spatial Justice and Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Felicity

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of a community-based adult education initiative, "Cumbria Credits," which took place during the period of serious economic decline which hit sections of the farming and the wider community in Cumbria during 2001. It draws on the principles underpinning Edward Soja's notion of "spatial justice" to explore transformations…

  5. Visual and Spatial Modes in Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramadas, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys some major trends from research on visual and spatial thinking coming from cognitive science, developmental psychology, science literacy, and science studies. It explores the role of visualisation in creativity, in building mental models, and in the communication of scientific ideas, in order to place these findings in the…

  6. Spatial reversal learning is impaired by age in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Mongillo, Paolo; Araujo, Joseph A; Pitteri, Elisa; Carnier, Paolo; Adamelli, Serena; Regolin, Lucia; Marinelli, Lieta

    2013-12-01

    Aged dogs spontaneously develop progressive decline in both cognitive and behavioral function, in addition to neuropathological changes, that collectively parallel several aspects of human aging and Alzheimer's disease progression and likely contribute to the development of canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome. In the current study, ethologically relevant spatial learning, retention, and reversal learning tasks were conducted, with the goal of expanding canine neuropsychological testing to pet dogs. Initially, dogs (N = 44, aged 7.8 ± 2.8 years, mean ± SD) had to learn which of two alternative routes successfully led out of a T-maze. Two weeks later, long-term memory retention was assessed, immediately followed by a reversal learning task in which the previously correct route out of the maze was reversed compared with the initial learning and memory retention tasks. No effects of age were evident on the learning or retention tasks. However, older (≥ 8 years) dogs were significantly impaired on the reversal learning task compared with younger ones (< 8 years). Moreover, trial response latency was significantly increased in aged dogs across both the initial and reversal learning tasks but not on the retention task, which suggests that processing speed was impaired by increasing age during the acquisition of novel spatial information but not during performance of previously learned responses. Overall, the current study provides a framework for assessing cognitive function in pet dogs, which should improve understanding of the effects of aging on cognition in the dog population. PMID:23529504

  7. 4SPPIces: A Case Study of Factors in a Scripted Collaborative-Learning Blended Course across Spatial Locations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Sanagustin, Mar; Santos, Patricia; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia; Blat, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Computer-Supported Collaborative Blended Learning (CSCBL) scripts are complex learning situations in which formal and informal activities conducted at different spatial locations are coordinated and integrated into one unique learning setting through the use of technology. We define a conceptual model identifying four factors to be considered when…

  8. Floriculture. Selected Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning activity packages are presented in four areas: (1) preparation of soils and planting media, (2)…

  9. Student Perceptions of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela; Achen, Rebecca M.; Dodd, Regan K.

    2015-01-01

    A paradigm shift from lecture-based courses to interactive classes punctuated with engaging, student-centered learning activities has begun to characterize the work of some teachers in higher education. Convinced through the literature of the values of using active learning strategies, we assessed through an action research project in five college…

  10. In Defense of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2008-01-01

    Effective early childhood teachers use what they know about and have observed in young children to design programs to meet children's developmental needs. Play and active learning are key tools to address those needs and facilitate children's early education. In this article, the author discusses the benefits of active learning in the education of…

  11. Facilitation of learning spatial relations among locations by visual cues: generality across spatial configurations.

    PubMed

    Sturz, Bradley R; Kelly, Debbie M; Brown, Michael F

    2010-03-01

    Spatial pattern learning permits the learning of the location of objects in space relative to each other without reference to discrete visual landmarks or environmental geometry. In the present experiment, we investigated conditions that facilitate spatial pattern learning. Specifically, human participants searched in a real environment or interactive 3-D computer-generated virtual environment open-field search task for four hidden goal locations arranged in a diamond configuration located in a 5 x 5 matrix of raised bins. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Pattern Only, Landmark + Pattern, or Cues + Pattern. All participants experienced a Training phase followed by a Testing phase. Visual cues were coincident with the goal locations during Training only in the Cues + Pattern group whereas a single visual cue at a non-goal location maintained a consistent spatial relationship with the goal locations during Training only in the Landmark + Pattern group. All groups were then tested in the absence of visual cues. Results in both environments indicated that participants in all three groups learned the spatial configuration of goal locations. The presence of the visual cues during Training facilitated acquisition of the task for the Landmark + Pattern and Cues + Pattern groups compared to the Pattern Only group. During Testing the Landmark + Pattern and Cues + Pattern groups did not differ when their respective visual cues were removed. Furthermore, during Testing the performance of these two groups was superior to the Pattern Only group. Results generalize prior research to a different configuration of spatial locations, isolate spatial pattern learning as the process facilitated by visual cues, and indicate that the facilitation of learning spatial relations among locations by visual cues does not require coincident visual cues. PMID:19777275

  12. Spatial learning with a minislab in the dorsal hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, M B; Moser, E I; Forrest, E; Andersen, P; Morris, R G

    1995-01-01

    We have determined the volume and location of hippocampal tissue required for normal acquisition of a spatial memory task. Ibotenic acid was used to make bilateral symmetric lesions of 20-100% of hippocampal volume. Even a small transverse block (minislab) of the hippocampus (down to 26% of the total) could support spatial learning in a water maze, provided it was at the septal (dorsal) pole of the hippocampus. Lesions of the septal pole, leaving 60% of the hippocampi intact, caused a learning deficit, although normal electrophysiological responses, synaptic plasticity, and preserved acetylcholinesterase staining argue for adequate function of the remaining tissue. Thus, with an otherwise normal brain, hippocampal-dependent spatial learning only requires a minislab of dorsal hippocampal tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7568200

  13. Learning and Active Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Learning is an important aspect of aging productively. This paper describes results from 2645 respondents (aged from 50 to 74+ years) to a 165-variable postal survey in Australia. The focus is on learning and its relation to work; social, spiritual, and emotional status; health; vision; home; life events; and demographic details. Clustering…

  14. Administration of donepezil does not rescue galanin-induced spatial learning deficits.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, Jonathan J; Heaney, Chelcie F; Bolton, Monica M; Murtishaw, Andrew S; Ure, Jennifer A; Kinney, Jefferson W

    2012-12-01

    The neuropeptide galanin inhibits the evoked release of several neurotransmitters including acetylcholine and modulates adenylate cyclase (AC) activity. Galanin has also been established to impair various forms of learning and memory in rodents. However, whether galanin produces learning deficits by inhibiting cholinergic activity or decreasing AC function has not been clearly established. The current study investigated if donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor utilized in Alzheimer's disease, could rescue galanin-induced Morris water task deficits in rats. The results demonstrated that donepezil did not alter the previously established deficits induced by galanin. These findings suggest that galanin-mediated spatial learning deficits may be unrelated to its modulation of the cholinergic system. PMID:22897394

  15. Spatial context learning in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Brett M; Leber, Andrew B; Mehlman, Max L

    2015-10-01

    In a seminal paper in the cognitive sciences, Chun and Jiang (1998) described the contextual cueing paradigm in which they used artificial stimuli and showed that people became faster to locate a target when the background predicted the location of a target compared to when it did not. Here we examined contextual cueing in pigeons for the first time using artificial stimuli and procedures similar to those of Chun and Jiang. In the first test, we had pigeons search for a target among a display of seven distractors; during one condition, the position of the distractors predicted the location of the target, and in the second condition, there was no relationship between the two. In a second test, we presented the pigeons with the predictive displays from Test 1 and a second set of displays that also predicted the location of a target to see if learning about one set of predictive backgrounds disrupted learning about a second set. The pigeons were quick to acquire context-based knowledge and retain that information when faced with additional contexts. The results suggest that contextual cueing can occur for a variety of stimuli in nonhuman animals and that it may be a common mechanism for processing visual information across a wide variety of species. PMID:26167773

  16. Finding faults: analogical comparison supports spatial concept learning in geoscience.

    PubMed

    Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley

    2013-05-01

    A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines. PMID:23436210

  17. The Topography Tub Learning Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the basic elements of a topographic map (i.e. contour lines and intervals) is just a small part of learning how to use this abstract representational system as a resource in geologic mapping. Interpretation of a topographic map and matching its features with real-world structures requires that the system is utilized for visualizing the shapes of these structures and their spatial orientation. To enrich students' skills in visualizing topography from topographic maps a spatial training activity has been developed that uses 3D objects of various shapes and sizes, a sighting tool, a plastic basin, water, and transparencies. In the first part of the activity, the student is asked to draw a topographic map of one of the 3D objects. Next, the student places the object into a plastic tub in which water is added to specified intervals of height. The shoreline at each interval is used to reference the location of the contour line the student draws on a plastic inkjet transparency directly above the object. A key part of this activity is the use of a sighting tool by the student to assist in keeping the pencil mark directly above the shoreline. It (1) ensures the accurate positioning of the contour line and (2) gives the learner experience with using a sight before going out into the field. Finally, after the student finishes drawing the contour lines onto the transparency, the student can compare and contrast the two maps in order to discover where improvements in their visualization of the contours can be made. The teacher and/or peers can also make suggestions on ways to improve. A number of objects with various shapes and sizes are used in this exercise to produce contour lines representing the different types of topography the student may encounter while field mapping. The intended outcome from using this visualization training activity is improvement in performance of visualizing topography as the student moves between the topographic representation and

  18. Recording of brain activity across spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C M; Bosman, C A; Fries, P

    2015-06-01

    Brain activity reveals exquisite coordination across spatial scales, from local microcircuits to brain-wide networks. Understanding how the brain represents, transforms and communicates information requires simultaneous recordings from distributed nodes of whole brain networks with single-cell resolution. Realizing multi-site recordings from communicating populations is hampered by the need to isolate clusters of interacting cells, often on a day-to-day basis. Chronic implantation of multi-electrode arrays allows long-term tracking of activity. Lithography on thin films provides a means to produce arrays of variable resolution, a high degree of flexibility, and minimal tissue displacement. Sequential application of surface arrays to monitor activity across brain-wide networks and subsequent implantation of laminar arrays to target specific populations enables continual refinement of spatial scale while maintaining coverage. PMID:25544724

  19. Spatial reversal learning is robust to total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; Kramer, Michiel; Post, Ger; Eggels, Leslie; Wuite, Mark; Dematteis, Maurice; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2012-04-21

    Sleep deprivation affects cognitive functions that depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) such as cognitive flexibility, and the consolidation of newly learned information. The identification of cognitive processes that are either robustly sensitive or robustly insensitive to the same experimental sleep deprivation procedure, will allow us to better focus on the specific effects of sleep on cognition, and increase understanding of the mechanisms involved. In the present study we investigate whether sleep deprivation differentially affects the two separate cognitive processes of acquisition and consolidation of a spatial reversal task. After training on a spatial discrimination between two levers in a Skinner box, male Wistar rats were exposed to a reversal of the previously learned stimulus-response contingency. We first evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the acquisition of reversal learning. Performance on reversal learning after 12h of sleep deprivation (n=12) was compared to performance after control conditions (n=12). The second experiment evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the consolidation of reversal learning; the first session of reversal learning was followed by 3h of nap prevention (n=8) or undisturbed control conditions (n=8). The experiments had sufficient statistical power (0.90 and 0.81, respectively) to detect differences with medium effect sizes. Neither the acquisition, nor the consolidation, of reversal learning was affected by acute sleep deprivation. Together with previous findings, these results help to further delineate the role of sleep in cognitive processing. PMID:22321457

  20. Situated student learning and spatial informational analysis for environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Timothy Paul

    Ninth and tenth grade high school Biology student research teams used spatial information analysis tools to site a prairie restoration plot on a 55 acre campus during a four-week environment unit. Students made use of innovative technological practices by applying geographic information systems (GIS) approaches to solving environmental and land use problems. Student learning was facilitated by starting with the students' initial conceptions of computing, local landscape and biological environment, and then by guiding them through a problem-based science project process. The project curriculum was framed by the perspective of legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991) where students were provided with learning opportunities designed to allow them to act like GIS practitioners. Sociocultural lenses for learning were employed to create accounts of human mental processes that recognize the essential relationship between these processes and their cultural, historical, and institutional settings (Jacob, 1997; Wertsch, 1991). This research investigated how student groups' meaning-making actions were mediated by GIS tools on the periphery of a scientific community of practice. Research observations focused on supporting interpretations of learners' socially constructed actions and the iterative building of assertions from multiple sources. These included the artifacts students produced, the tools they used, the cultural contexts that constrained their activity, and how people begin to adopt ways of speaking (speech genres) of the referent community to negotiate meanings and roles. Students gathered field observations and interpreted attributes of landscape entities from the GIS data to advocate for an environmental decision. However, even while gaining proficiencies with GIS tools, most students did not begin to appropriate roles from the GIS community of practice. Students continued to negotiate their project actions simply as school exercises motivated by

  1. Emotional Multiagent Reinforcement Learning in Spatial Social Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Zhang, Minjie; Ren, Fenghui; Tan, Guozhen

    2015-12-01

    Social dilemmas have attracted extensive interest in the research of multiagent systems in order to study the emergence of cooperative behaviors among selfish agents. Understanding how agents can achieve cooperation in social dilemmas through learning from local experience is a critical problem that has motivated researchers for decades. This paper investigates the possibility of exploiting emotions in agent learning in order to facilitate the emergence of cooperation in social dilemmas. In particular, the spatial version of social dilemmas is considered to study the impact of local interactions on the emergence of cooperation in the whole system. A double-layered emotional multiagent reinforcement learning framework is proposed to endow agents with internal cognitive and emotional capabilities that can drive these agents to learn cooperative behaviors. Experimental results reveal that various network topologies and agent heterogeneities have significant impacts on agent learning behaviors in the proposed framework, and under certain circumstances, high levels of cooperation can be achieved among the agents. PMID:25769173

  2. STYRENE IMPAIRS SERIAL SPATIAL REVERSAL LEARNING IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Occupational exposure to styrene monomer has been implicated in the etiology of solvent-induced cognitive dysfunction. o evaluate the effects of styrene exposure on learning, rats were trained on a series of reversals of a spatial discrimination, permitting repeated evaluation of...

  3. Cartographical Imaginations: Spatiality, Adult Education and Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Cervero, Ron; Clarke, Julia; Morgan-Klein, Brenda; Usher, Robin; Wilson, Arthur

    Recent empirical and theoretical literature in cultural geography, feminist and postcolonial philosophy, cultural studies, and political economy, was explored in an examination of the significance of spatiality to the changes taking place in the policy, practice, and study of adult education and lifelong learning. The following were among the key…

  4. Visual Spatial Skill: A Consequence of Learning to Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Zhou, Yanling; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    Does learning to read influence one's visual skill? In Study 1, kindergartners from Hong Kong, Korea, Israel, and Spain were tested on word reading and a task of visual spatial skill. Chinese and Korean kindergartners significantly outperformed Israeli and Spanish readers on the visual task. Moreover, in all cultures except Korea, good readers…

  5. Learning Anatomy: Do New Computer Models Improve Spatial Understanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Amit; Norman, Geoff; Spero, Lawrence; Taylor, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Assesses desktop-computer models that rotate in virtual three-dimensional space. Compares spatial learning with a computer carpal-bone model horizontally rotating at 10-degree views with the same model rotating at 90-degree views. (Author/CCM)

  6. Learning in Authentic Contexts: Projects Integrating Spatial Technologies and Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Kuo-Hung

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, professional practice has been an issue of concern in higher education. The purpose of this study is to design students' projects to facilitate collaborative learning in authentic contexts. Ten students majoring in Management Information Systems conducted fieldwork with spatial technologies to collect data and provided information…

  7. Implicit transfer of spatial structure in visuomotor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kanji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2014-11-01

    Implicit learning and transfer in sequence learning are essential in daily life. Here, we investigated the implicit transfer of visuomotor sequences following a spatial transformation. In the two experiments, participants used trial and error to learn a sequence consisting of several button presses, known as the m×n task (Hikosaka et al., 1995). After this learning session, participants learned another sequence in which the button configuration was spatially transformed in one of the following ways: mirrored, rotated, and random arrangement. Our results showed that even when participants were unaware of the transformation rules, accuracy of transfer session in the mirrored and rotated groups was higher than that in the random group (i.e., implicit transfer occurred). Both those who noticed the transformation rules and those who did not (i.e., explicit and implicit transfer instances, respectively) showed faster performance in the mirrored sequences than in the rotated sequences. Taken together, the present results suggest that people can use their implicit visuomotor knowledge to spatially transform sequences and that implicit transfers are modulated by a transformation cost, similar to that in explicit transfer. PMID:25261739

  8. Object recognition based on spatial active basis template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shaowu; Xu, Jingcheng

    2011-11-01

    This article presents a method for the object classification that combines a generative template and a discriminative classifier. The method is a variant of the support vector machine (SVM), which uses Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL). The features are extracted from a generative template so called Active Basis template. Before using them for object classification, we construct a visual vocabulary by clustering a set of training features according to their orientations. To keep the spatial information, a "spatial pyramid" is used. The strength of this approach is that it combines the rich information encoded in the generative template, the Active Basis, with the discriminative power of the SVM algorithm. We show promising results of experiments for images from the LHI dataset.

  9. Spatial learning in the restrained American cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyung-Wook; Lent, David D; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

    2004-01-01

    Spatial learning abilities were tested in restrained cockroaches by observing antennal projection responses towards the positions of a learned visual cue perceived monocularly by one eye in the context of a second stimulus provided to the contralateral eye. Memory of the position of the conditioning stimulus relative to the contralateral reference stimulus was tested by altering the relative positions of the two stimuli. Memory of the conditioning stimulus is retained if the angle between the conditioning stimulus and the contralateral reference stimulus is maintained. The results suggest that during learning the insect recognizes spatial relationships between the conditioning stimulus and the contralateral reference stimulus. Possible mechanisms, such as retinotopic matching versus angular matching, are discussed. PMID:14668321

  10. Neurobiological and Endocrine Correlates of Individual Differences in Spatial Learning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandi, Carmen; Cordero, M. Isabel; Merino, Jose J.; Kruyt, Nyika D.; Regan, Ciaran M.; Murphy, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) has been implicated in activity-dependent synaptic remodeling and memory formation. Here, we questioned whether training-induced modulation of PSA-NCAM expression might be related to individual differences in spatial learning abilities. At 12 h posttraining, immunohistochemical analyses…

  11. Altered mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, tau hyperphosphorylation and mild spatial learning dysfunction in transgenic rats expressing the beta-amyloid peptide intracellularly in hippocampal and cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, V; Ducatenzeiler, A; Dowd, E; Jänne, J; Grant, S M; Szyf, M; Wandosell, F; Avila, J; Grimm, H; Dunnett, S B; Hartmann, T; Alhonen, L; Cuello, A C

    2004-01-01

    The pathological significance of intracellular Abeta accumulation in vivo is not yet fully understood. To address this, we have studied transgenic rats expressing Alzheimer's-related transgenes that accumulate Abeta intraneuronally in the cerebral and hippocampal cortices but do not develop extracellular amyloid plaques. In these rats, the presence of intraneuronal Abeta is sufficient to provoke up-regulation of the phosphorylated form of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 and its enzymatic activity in the hippocampus while no changes were observed in the activity or phosphorylation status of other putative tau kinases such as p38, glycogen synthase kinase 3, and cycline-dependent kinase 5. The increase in active phospho-ERK2 was accompanied by increased levels of tau phosphorylation at S396 and S404 ERK2 sites and a decrease in the phosphorylation of the CREB kinase p90RSK. In a water maze paradigm, male transgenic rats displayed a mild spatial learning deficit relative to control littermates. Our results suggest that in the absence of plaques, intraneuronal accumulation of Abeta peptide correlates with the initial steps in the tau-phosphorylation cascade, alterations in ERK2 signaling and impairment of higher CNS functions in male rats. PMID:15541880

  12. The Solar System Ballet: A Kinesthetic Spatial Astronomy Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.; Astronomy, Center; Education ResearchCAPER, Physics

    2011-05-01

    The Solar System Ballet was developed in order for students of all ages to learn about the planets, their motions, their distances, and their individual characteristics. To teach people about the structure of our Solar System can be revealing and rewarding, for students and teachers. Little ones (and some bigger ones, too) often cannot yet grasp theoretical and spatial ideas purely with their minds. Showing a video is better, but being able to learn with their bodies, essentially being what they learn about, will help them understand and remember difficult concepts much more easily. There are three segments to this activity, which can be done together or separately, depending on time limits and age of the students. Part one involves a short introductory discussion about what students know about the planets. Then students will act out the orbital motions of the planets (and also moons for the older ones) while holding a physical model. During the second phase we look at the structure of the Solar System as well as the relative distances of the planets from the Sun, first by sketching it on paper, then by recreating a scaled version in the class room. Again the students act out the parts of the Solar System bodies with their models. The third segment concentrates on recreating historical measurements of Earth-Moon-Sun system. The Solar System Ballet activity is suitable for grades K-12+ as well as general public informal learning activities.

  13. Hippocampal 5-HT1A Receptor and Spatial Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Glikmann-Johnston, Yifat; Saling, Michael M.; Reutens, David C.; Stout, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition is fundamental for survival in the topographically complex environments inhabited by humans and other animals. The hippocampus, which has a central role in spatial cognition, is characterized by high concentration of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptor binding sites, particularly of the 1A receptor (5-HT1A) subtype. This review highlights converging evidence for the role of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in spatial learning and memory. We consider studies showing that activation or blockade of the 5-HT1A receptors using agonists or antagonists, respectively, lead to changes in spatial learning and memory. For example, pharmacological manipulation to induce 5-HT release, or to block 5-HT uptake, have indicated that increased extracellular 5-HT concentrations maintain or improve memory performance. In contrast, reduced levels of 5-HT have been shown to impair spatial memory. Furthermore, the lack of 5-HT1A receptor subtype in single gene knockout mice is specifically associated with spatial memory impairments. These findings, along with evidence from recent cognitive imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with 5-HT1A receptor ligands, and studies of individual genetic variance in 5-HT1A receptor availability, strongly suggests that 5-HT, mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor subtype, plays a key role in spatial learning and memory. PMID:26696889

  14. Learning outdoors: male lizards show flexible spatial learning under semi-natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Noble, Daniel W A; Carazo, Pau; Whiting, Martin J

    2012-12-23

    Spatial cognition is predicted to be a fundamental component of fitness in many lizard species, and yet some studies suggest that it is relatively slow and inflexible. However, such claims are based on work conducted using experimental designs or in artificial contexts that may underestimate their cognitive abilities. We used a biologically realistic experimental procedure (using simulated predatory attacks) to study spatial learning and its flexibility in the lizard Eulamprus quoyii in semi-natural outdoor enclosures under similar conditions to those experienced by lizards in the wild. To evaluate the flexibility of spatial learning, we conducted a reversal spatial-learning task in which positive and negative reinforcements of learnt spatial stimuli were switched. Nineteen (32%) male lizards learnt both tasks within 10 days (spatial task mean: 8.16 ± 0.69 (s.e.) and reversal spatial task mean: 10.74 ± 0.98 (s.e.) trials). We demonstrate that E. quoyii are capable of flexible spatial learning and suggest that future studies focus on a range of lizard species which differ in phylogeny and/or ecology, using biologically relevant cognitive tasks, in an effort to bridge the cognitive divide between ecto- and endotherms. PMID:23075525

  15. Morris water maze: procedures for assessing spatial and related forms of learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    The Morris water maze (MWM) is a test of spatial learning for rodents that relies on distal cues to navigate from start locations around the perimeter of an open swimming arena to locate a submerged escape platform. Spatial learning is assessed across repeated trials and reference memory is determined by preference for the platform area when the platform is absent. Reversal and shift trials enhance the detection of spatial impairments. Trial-dependent, latent and discrimination learning can be assessed using modifications of the basic protocol. Search-to-platform area determines the degree of reliance on spatial versus non-spatial strategies. Cued trials determine whether performance factors that are unrelated to place learning are present. Escape from water is relatively immune from activity or body mass differences, making it ideal for many experimental models. The MWM has proven to be a robust and reliable test that is strongly correlated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function. We present protocols for performing variants of the MWM test, from which results can be obtained from individual animals in as few as 6 days. PMID:17406317

  16. Effects of testosterone on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Daviau, Emily D.; Coneeny, Meagan K.; Engelman, Shannon M.; Prince, W. Tyler; Rodriguez-Wisdom, Karlye N.

    2011-01-01

    A male advantage over females for spatial tasks has been well documented in both humans and rodents, but it remains unclear how the activational effects of testosterone influence spatial ability in males. In a series of experiments, we tested how injections of testosterone influenced the spatial working and reference memory of castrated male rats. In the eight-arm radial maze, testosterone injections (0.500 mg/rat) reduced the number of working memory errors during the early blocks of testing but had no effect on the number of reference memory errors relative to the castrated control group. In a reference memory version of the Morris water maze, injections of a wide range of testosterone doses (0.0625-1.000 mg/rat) reduced path lengths to the hidden platform, indicative of improved spatial learning. This improved learning was independent of testosterone dose, with all treatment groups showing better performance than the castrated control males. Furthermore, this effect was only observed when rats were given testosterone injections starting seven days prior to water maze testing and not when injections were given only on the testing days. We also observed that certain doses of testosterone (0.250 and 1.000 mg/rat) increased perseverative behavior in a reversal-learning task. Finally, testosterone did not have a clear effect on spatial working memory in the Morris water maze, although intermediate doses seemed to optimize performance. Overall, the results indicate that testosterone can have positive activational effects on spatial learning and memory, but the duration of testosterone replacement and the nature of the spatial task modify these effects. PMID:21295035

  17. Intra-cornu ammonis 1 administration of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 transcription factor Tat exacerbates the ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rodents and activates N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors to produce persisting spatial learning deficits

    PubMed Central

    Self, Rachel L.; Smith, Katherine J.; Butler, Tracy R.; Pauly, James R.; Prendergast, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    OH withdrawal behavioral abnormalities, an effect that was reduced by MK-801 pre-exposure. While EtOH withdrawn animals showed learning similar to control animals, EtOH withdrawn animals that received intra-CA1 Tat injection demonstrated persisting deficits in spatial learning on Days 3 and 4 of training, effects that were markedly reduced by administration of the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 30 min prior to Tat injection. No changes in [3H]MK-801 binding were observed. Binding density of [3H]PK11195, a ligand for peripheral benzodiazepine receptors expressed on activated microglia, was elevated proximal to cannulae tracts in all animals, but was not altered by EtOH or Tat exposure. These finding suggest that EtOH abuse and/or dependence in HIV-positive individuals may promote HIV-1-associated cognitive deficits by altering NMDA receptor function in the absence of microglial activation or neuroinflammation. PMID:19619615

  18. Finite Element Learning Modules as Active Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ashland O.; Jensen, Daniel; Rencis, Joseph; Wood, Kristin; Wood, John; White, Christina; Raaberg, Kristen Kaufman; Coffman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of active learning is to solicit participation by students beyond the passive mode of traditional classroom lectures. Reading, writing, participating in discussions, hands-on activities, engaging in active problem solving, and collaborative learning can all be involved. The skills acquired during active learning tend to go above and…

  19. Women match men when learning a spatial skill.

    PubMed

    Spence, Ian; Yu, Jingjie Jessica; Feng, Jing; Marshman, Jeff

    2009-07-01

    Meta-analytic studies have concluded that although training improves spatial cognition in both sexes, the male advantage generally persists. However, because some studies run counter to this pattern, a closer examination of the anomaly is warranted. The authors investigated the acquisition of a basic skill (spatial selective attention) using a matched-pair two-wave longitudinal design. Participants were screened with the use of an attentional visual field task, with the objective of selecting and matching 10 male-female pairs, over a wide range (30% to 57% correct). Subsequently, 20 participants 17-23 years of age (selected from 43 screened) were trained for 10 hr (distributed over several sessions) by playing a first-person shooter video game. This genre is known to be highly effective in enhancing spatial skills. All 20 participants improved, with matched members of the male-female pairs achieving very similar gains, independent of starting level. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the learning trajectory of women is not inferior to that of men when acquiring a basic spatial skill. Training methods that develop basic spatial skills may be essential to achieve gender parity in both basic and complex spatial tasks. PMID:19586273

  20. Phosphodiesterase 1B differentially modulates the effects of methamphetamine on locomotor activity and spatial learning through DARPP32-dependent pathways: evidence from PDE1B-DARPP32 double-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ehrman, L A; Williams, M T; Schaefer, T L; Gudelsky, G A; Reed, T M; Fienberg, A A; Greengard, P; Vorhees, C V

    2006-10-01

    Mice lacking phosphodiesterase 1B (PDE1B) exhibit an exaggerated locomotor response to D-methamphetamine and increased in vitro phosphorylation of DARPP32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, M r 32 kDa) at Thr34 in striatal brain slices treated with the D1 receptor agonist, SKF81297. These results indicated a possible regulatory role for PDE1B in pathways involving DARPP32. Here, we generated PDE1B x DARPP32 double-knockout (double-KO) mice to test the role of PDE1B in DARPP32-dependent pathways in vivo. Analysis of the response to d-methamphetamine on locomotor activity showed that the hyperactivity experienced by PDE1B mutant mice was blocked in PDE1B-/- x DARPP32-/- double-KO mice, consistent with participation of PDE1B and DARPP32 in the same pathway. Further behavioral testing in the elevated zero-maze revealed that DARPP32-/- mice showed a less anxious phenotype that was nullified in double-mutant mice. In contrast, in the Morris water maze, double-KO mice showed deficits in spatial reversal learning not observed in either single mutant compared with wild-type mice. The data suggest a role for PDE1B in locomotor responses to psychostimulants through modulation of DARPP32-dependent pathways; however, this modulation does not necessarily impact other behaviors, such as anxiety or learning. Instead, the phenotype of double-KOs observed in these latter tasks may be mediated through independent pathways. PMID:17010100

  1. Pedestrian Detection with Spatially Pooled Features and Structured Ensemble Learning.

    PubMed

    Paisitkriangkrai, Sakrapee; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den

    2016-06-01

    Many typical applications of object detection operate within a prescribed false-positive range. In this situation the performance of a detector should be assessed on the basis of the area under the ROC curve over that range, rather than over the full curve, as the performance outside the prescribed range is irrelevant. This measure is labelled as the partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC). We propose a novel ensemble learning method which achieves a maximal detection rate at a user-defined range of false positive rates by directly optimizing the partial AUC using structured learning. In addition, in order to achieve high object detection performance, we propose a new approach to extracting low-level visual features based on spatial pooling. Incorporating spatial pooling improves the translational invariance and thus the robustness of the detection process. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, and we show that it is possible to train state-of-the-art pedestrian detectors using the proposed structured ensemble learning method with spatially pooled features. The result is the current best reported performance on the Caltech-USA pedestrian detection dataset. PMID:26336118

  2. Postnatal TLR2 activation impairs learning and memory in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Mughal, Mohamed R; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Wood, W H; Becker, K G; Mattson, Mark P; Okun, Eitan

    2015-08-01

    Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth. PMID:26021559

  3. Postnatal TLR2 activation impairs learning and memory in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Ben-Asher, Hiba Waldman; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Arumugam, Thiruma V.; Wood, WH; Becker, KG; Mattson, Mark P.; Okun, Eitan

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth. PMID:26021559

  4. [Field Learning Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  5. Learning Visual Spatial Pooling by Strong PCA Dimension Reduction.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Haruo; Hyvärinen, Aapo

    2016-07-01

    In visual modeling, invariance properties of visual cells are often explained by a pooling mechanism, in which outputs of neurons with similar selectivities to some stimulus parameters are integrated so as to gain some extent of invariance to other parameters. For example, the classical energy model of phase-invariant V1 complex cells pools model simple cells preferring similar orientation but different phases. Prior studies, such as independent subspace analysis, have shown that phase-invariance properties of V1 complex cells can be learned from spatial statistics of natural inputs. However, those previous approaches assumed a squaring nonlinearity on the neural outputs to capture energy correlation; such nonlinearity is arguably unnatural from a neurobiological viewpoint but hard to change due to its tight integration into their formalisms. Moreover, they used somewhat complicated objective functions requiring expensive computations for optimization. In this study, we show that visual spatial pooling can be learned in a much simpler way using strong dimension reduction based on principal component analysis. This approach learns to ignore a large part of detailed spatial structure of the input and thereby estimates a linear pooling matrix. Using this framework, we demonstrate that pooling of model V1 simple cells learned in this way, even with nonlinearities other than squaring, can reproduce standard tuning properties of V1 complex cells. For further understanding, we analyze several variants of the pooling model and argue that a reasonable pooling can generally be obtained from any kind of linear transformation that retains several of the first principal components and suppresses the remaining ones. In particular, we show how the classic Wiener filtering theory leads to one such variant. PMID:27171856

  6. Open Space Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a science activity in which students are given an opportunity to consider the values of open space. The program includes direct involvement as communicators of feelings and facts, leading students to a position of making wise decisions for land use in the future. (EB)

  7. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  8. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  9. Active Learning in Introductory Climatology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Kenneth F.; Meyer, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a software package available for the climatology curriculum that determines possible climatic events according to a long-term climate history. Describes the integration of the software into the curriculum and presents examples of active learning. (Contains 19 references.) (YDS)

  10. Persistent and stable biases in spatial learning mechanisms predict navigational style.

    PubMed

    Furman, Andrew J; Clements-Stephens, Amy M; Marchette, Steven A; Shelton, Amy L

    2014-12-01

    A wealth of evidence in rodents and humans supports the central roles of two learning systems--hippocampal place learning and striatal response learning--in the formation of spatial representations to support navigation. Individual differences in the ways that these mechanisms are engaged during initial encoding and subsequent navigation may provide a powerful framework for explaining the wide range of variability found in the strategies and solutions that make up human navigational styles. Previous work has revealed that activation in the hippocampal and striatal networks during learning could predict navigational style. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the relative activations in these systems during both initial encoding and the act of dynamic navigation in a learned environment. Participants learned a virtual environment and were tested on subsequent navigation to targets within the environment. We observed that a given individual had a consistent balance of memory system engagement across both initial encoding and subsequent navigation, a balance that successfully predicted the participants' tendencies to use novel shortcuts versus familiar paths during dynamic navigation. This was further supported by the observation that the activation during subsequent retrieval was not dependent on the type of solution used on a given trial. Taken together, our results suggest a model in which the place- and response-learning systems are present in parallel to support a variety of navigational behaviors, but stable biases in the engagement of these systems influence what solutions might be available for any given individual. PMID:24830787

  11. The spatial structure of transnational human activity.

    PubMed

    Deutschmann, Emanuel

    2016-09-01

    Starting from conflictive predictions of hitherto disconnected debates in the natural and social sciences, this article examines the spatial structure of transnational human activity (THA) worldwide (a) across eight types of mobility and communication and (b) in its development over time. It is shown that the spatial structure of THA is similar to that of animal displacements and local-scale human motion in that it can be approximated by Lévy flights with heavy tails that obey power laws. Scaling exponent and power-law fit differ by type of THA, being highest in refuge-seeking and tourism and lowest in student exchange. Variance in the availability of resources and opportunities for satisfying associated needs appears to explain these differences. Over time (1960-2010), the Lévy-flight pattern remains intact and remarkably stable, contradicting the popular notion that socio-technological trends lead to a "death of distance." Humans have not become more "global" over time, they rather became more mobile in general, i.e. they move and communicate more at all distances. Hence, it would be more adequate to speak of "mobilization" than of "globalization." Longitudinal change occurs only in some types of THA and predominantly at short distances, indicating regional rather than global shifts. PMID:27480376

  12. Genetic mapping of variation in spatial learning in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Daniela; Reynolds, David S; Ferris, Pushpindar; Lincoln, Rachael; Datta, Susmita; Stanley, Joanna; Paterson, Andrea; Dawson, Gerard R; Flint, Jonathan

    2003-03-15

    Inbred strains of mice are known to differ in their performance in the Morris water maze task, a test of spatial discrimination and place navigation in rodents, but the genetic basis of individual variation in spatial learning is unknown. We have mapped genetic effects that contribute to the difference between two strains, DBA/2 and C57BL6/J, using an F2 intercross and methods to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL). We found two QTL, one on chromosome 4 and one on chromosome 12, that influence behavior in the probe trial of the water maze (genome-wide significance p = 0.017 and 0.015, respectively). By including tests of avoidance conditioning and behavior in a novel environment, we show that the QTL on chromosomes 4 and 12 specifically influence variation in spatial learning. QTL that influence differences in fearful behavior (on chromosomes 1, 3, 7, 15, and 19) operate while mice are trained in the water maze apparatus. PMID:12657702

  13. Spatial Generalization in Operant Learning: Lessons from Professional Basketball

    PubMed Central

    Neiman, Tal; Loewenstein, Yonatan

    2014-01-01

    In operant learning, behaviors are reinforced or inhibited in response to the consequences of similar actions taken in the past. However, because in natural environments the “same” situation never recurs, it is essential for the learner to decide what “similar” is so that he can generalize from experience in one state of the world to future actions in different states of the world. The computational principles underlying this generalization are poorly understood, in particular because natural environments are typically too complex to study quantitatively. In this paper we study the principles underlying generalization in operant learning of professional basketball players. In particular, we utilize detailed information about the spatial organization of shot locations to study how players adapt their attacking strategy in real time according to recent events in the game. To quantify this learning, we study how a make \\ miss from one location in the court affects the probabilities of shooting from different locations. We show that generalization is not a spatially-local process, nor is governed by the difficulty of the shot. Rather, to a first approximation, players use a simplified binary representation of the court into 2 pt and 3 pt zones. This result indicates that rather than using low-level features, generalization is determined by high-level cognitive processes that incorporate the abstract rules of the game. PMID:24853373

  14. Spatial generalization in operant learning: lessons from professional basketball.

    PubMed

    Neiman, Tal; Loewenstein, Yonatan

    2014-05-01

    In operant learning, behaviors are reinforced or inhibited in response to the consequences of similar actions taken in the past. However, because in natural environments the "same" situation never recurs, it is essential for the learner to decide what "similar" is so that he can generalize from experience in one state of the world to future actions in different states of the world. The computational principles underlying this generalization are poorly understood, in particular because natural environments are typically too complex to study quantitatively. In this paper we study the principles underlying generalization in operant learning of professional basketball players. In particular, we utilize detailed information about the spatial organization of shot locations to study how players adapt their attacking strategy in real time according to recent events in the game. To quantify this learning, we study how a make\\miss from one location in the court affects the probabilities of shooting from different locations. We show that generalization is not a spatially-local process, nor is governed by the difficulty of the shot. Rather, to a first approximation, players use a simplified binary representation of the court into 2 pt and 3 pt zones. This result indicates that rather than using low-level features, generalization is determined by high-level cognitive processes that incorporate the abstract rules of the game. PMID:24853373

  15. Stimulating Deep Learning Using Active Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yew, Tee Meng; Dawood, Fauziah K. P.; a/p S. Narayansany, Kannaki; a/p Palaniappa Manickam, M. Kamala; Jen, Leong Siok; Hoay, Kuan Chin

    2016-01-01

    When students and teachers behave in ways that reinforce learning as a spectator sport, the result can often be a classroom and overall learning environment that is mostly limited to transmission of information and rote learning rather than deep approaches towards meaningful construction and application of knowledge. A group of college instructors…

  16. Spatial Learning and Action Planning in a Prefrontal Cortical Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Martinet, Louis-Emmanuel; Sheynikhovich, Denis; Benchenane, Karim; Arleo, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The interplay between hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) is fundamental to spatial cognition. Complementing hippocampal place coding, prefrontal representations provide more abstract and hierarchically organized memories suitable for decision making. We model a prefrontal network mediating distributed information processing for spatial learning and action planning. Specific connectivity and synaptic adaptation principles shape the recurrent dynamics of the network arranged in cortical minicolumns. We show how the PFC columnar organization is suitable for learning sparse topological-metrical representations from redundant hippocampal inputs. The recurrent nature of the network supports multilevel spatial processing, allowing structural features of the environment to be encoded. An activation diffusion mechanism spreads the neural activity through the column population leading to trajectory planning. The model provides a functional framework for interpreting the activity of PFC neurons recorded during navigation tasks. We illustrate the link from single unit activity to behavioral responses. The results suggest plausible neural mechanisms subserving the cognitive “insight” capability originally attributed to rodents by Tolman & Honzik. Our time course analysis of neural responses shows how the interaction between hippocampus and PFC can yield the encoding of manifold information pertinent to spatial planning, including prospective coding and distance-to-goal correlates. PMID:21625569

  17. Connecting Family Learning and Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Mary

    2009-01-01

    In Ireland family learning and active citizenship has not been linked together until 2006. It was while the Clare Family Learning Project was involved in a family learning EU learning network project, that a suggestion to create a new partnership project linking both areas was made and FACE IT! was born (Families and Active Citizenship…

  18. Active Learning with Irrelevant Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    An improved active learning method has been devised for training data classifiers. One example of a data classifier is the algorithm used by the United States Postal Service since the 1960s to recognize scans of handwritten digits for processing zip codes. Active learning algorithms enable rapid training with minimal investment of time on the part of human experts to provide training examples consisting of correctly classified (labeled) input data. They function by identifying which examples would be most profitable for a human expert to label. The goal is to maximize classifier accuracy while minimizing the number of examples the expert must label. Although there are several well-established methods for active learning, they may not operate well when irrelevant examples are present in the data set. That is, they may select an item for labeling that the expert simply cannot assign to any of the valid classes. In the context of classifying handwritten digits, the irrelevant items may include stray marks, smudges, and mis-scans. Querying the expert about these items results in wasted time or erroneous labels, if the expert is forced to assign the item to one of the valid classes. In contrast, the new algorithm provides a specific mechanism for avoiding querying the irrelevant items. This algorithm has two components: an active learner (which could be a conventional active learning algorithm) and a relevance classifier. The combination of these components yields a method, denoted Relevance Bias, that enables the active learner to avoid querying irrelevant data so as to increase its learning rate and efficiency when irrelevant items are present. The algorithm collects irrelevant data in a set of rejected examples, then trains the relevance classifier to distinguish between labeled (relevant) training examples and the rejected ones. The active learner combines its ranking of the items with the probability that they are relevant to yield a final decision about which item

  19. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  20. Allocentric spatial learning and memory deficits in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Bostelmann, Mathilde; Brandner, Catherine; Costanzo, Floriana; Fragnière, Emilie; Klencklen, Giuliana; Lavenex, Pierre; Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that persons with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit relatively poor language capacities, and impaired verbal and visuoperceptual memory, whereas their visuospatial memory capacities appear comparatively spared. Individuals with DS recall better where an object was previously seen than what object was previously seen. However, most of the evidence concerning preserved visuospatial memory comes from tabletop or computerized experiments which are biased toward testing egocentric (viewpoint-dependent) spatial representations. Accordingly, allocentric (viewpoint-independent) spatial learning and memory capacities may not be necessary to perform these tasks. Thus, in order to more fully characterize the spatial capacities of individuals with DS, allocentric processes underlying real-world navigation must also be investigated. We tested 20 participants with DS and 16 mental age-matched, typically developing (TD) children in a real-world, allocentric spatial (AS) memory task. During local cue (LC) trials, participants had to locate three rewards marked by local color cues, among 12 locations distributed in a 4 m × 4 m arena. During AS trials, participants had to locate the same three rewards, in absence of LCs, based on their relations to distal environmental cues. All TD participants chose rewarded locations in LC and AS trials at above chance level. In contrast, although all but one of the participants with DS exhibited a preference for the rewarded locations in LC trials, only 50% of participants with DS chose the rewarded locations at above chance level in AS trials. As a group, participants with DS performed worse than TD children on all measures of task performance. These findings demonstrate that individuals with DS are impaired at using an AS representation to learn and remember discrete locations in a controlled environment, suggesting persistent and pervasive deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory in DS. PMID:25762946

  1. Allocentric spatial learning and memory deficits in Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Bostelmann, Mathilde; Brandner, Catherine; Costanzo, Floriana; Fragnière, Emilie; Klencklen, Giuliana; Lavenex, Pierre; Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that persons with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit relatively poor language capacities, and impaired verbal and visuoperceptual memory, whereas their visuospatial memory capacities appear comparatively spared. Individuals with DS recall better where an object was previously seen than what object was previously seen. However, most of the evidence concerning preserved visuospatial memory comes from tabletop or computerized experiments which are biased toward testing egocentric (viewpoint-dependent) spatial representations. Accordingly, allocentric (viewpoint-independent) spatial learning and memory capacities may not be necessary to perform these tasks. Thus, in order to more fully characterize the spatial capacities of individuals with DS, allocentric processes underlying real-world navigation must also be investigated. We tested 20 participants with DS and 16 mental age-matched, typically developing (TD) children in a real-world, allocentric spatial (AS) memory task. During local cue (LC) trials, participants had to locate three rewards marked by local color cues, among 12 locations distributed in a 4 m × 4 m arena. During AS trials, participants had to locate the same three rewards, in absence of LCs, based on their relations to distal environmental cues. All TD participants chose rewarded locations in LC and AS trials at above chance level. In contrast, although all but one of the participants with DS exhibited a preference for the rewarded locations in LC trials, only 50% of participants with DS chose the rewarded locations at above chance level in AS trials. As a group, participants with DS performed worse than TD children on all measures of task performance. These findings demonstrate that individuals with DS are impaired at using an AS representation to learn and remember discrete locations in a controlled environment, suggesting persistent and pervasive deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory in DS. PMID:25762946

  2. History and Evolution of Active Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines active learning spaces as they have developed over the years. Consistently well-designed classrooms can facilitate active learning even though the details of implementing pedagogies may differ.

  3. Active Learning: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marilyn

    The purposes of the first two parts of this literature review are to clarify the concept of active learning and discuss the use and value of active learning models. In Part I, the perspectives of five historical proponents of active learning, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Dewey, Kilpatrick, and Piaget, are discussed. The views of four contemporary…

  4. Student Active Learning Methods in Physical Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinde, Robert J.; Kovac, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    We describe two strategies for implementing active learning in physical chemistry. One involves supplementing a traditional lecture course with heavily computer-based active-learning exercises carried out by cooperative groups in a department computer lab. The other uses cooperative learning almost exclusively, supplemented by occasional mini-lectures. Both approaches seemed to result in better student learning and a more positive attitude toward the subject. On the basis of our respective experiences using active learning techniques, we discuss some of the strengths of these techniques and some of the challenges we encountered using the active-learning approach in teaching physical chemistry.

  5. Active Learning through Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lynette R.; Richburg, Cynthia McCormick; Wood, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a relatively new pedagogical approach to facilitate student learning at the university level. In SL, students enrolled in an academic course provide a needed service to a community partner. Through guided reflection, students link classroom-based, theoretical knowledge with clinical applications. Students' active…

  6. Learning from Heterogeneous Data Sources: An Application in Spatial Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Breckels, Lisa M.; Holden, Sean B.; Wojnar, David; Mulvey, Claire M.; Christoforou, Andy; Groen, Arnoud; Trotter, Matthew W. B.; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Gatto, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Sub-cellular localisation of proteins is an essential post-translational regulatory mechanism that can be assayed using high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS). These MS-based spatial proteomics experiments enable us to pinpoint the sub-cellular distribution of thousands of proteins in a specific system under controlled conditions. Recent advances in high-throughput MS methods have yielded a plethora of experimental spatial proteomics data for the cell biology community. Yet, there are many third-party data sources, such as immunofluorescence microscopy or protein annotations and sequences, which represent a rich and vast source of complementary information. We present a unique transfer learning classification framework that utilises a nearest-neighbour or support vector machine system, to integrate heterogeneous data sources to considerably improve on the quantity and quality of sub-cellular protein assignment. We demonstrate the utility of our algorithms through evaluation of five experimental datasets, from four different species in conjunction with four different auxiliary data sources to classify proteins to tens of sub-cellular compartments with high generalisation accuracy. We further apply the method to an experiment on pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells to classify a set of previously unknown proteins, and validate our findings against a recent high resolution map of the mouse stem cell proteome. The methodology is distributed as part of the open-source Bioconductor pRoloc suite for spatial proteomics data analysis. PMID:27175778

  7. Learning from Heterogeneous Data Sources: An Application in Spatial Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Breckels, Lisa M; Holden, Sean B; Wojnar, David; Mulvey, Claire M; Christoforou, Andy; Groen, Arnoud; Trotter, Matthew W B; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Lilley, Kathryn S; Gatto, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    Sub-cellular localisation of proteins is an essential post-translational regulatory mechanism that can be assayed using high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS). These MS-based spatial proteomics experiments enable us to pinpoint the sub-cellular distribution of thousands of proteins in a specific system under controlled conditions. Recent advances in high-throughput MS methods have yielded a plethora of experimental spatial proteomics data for the cell biology community. Yet, there are many third-party data sources, such as immunofluorescence microscopy or protein annotations and sequences, which represent a rich and vast source of complementary information. We present a unique transfer learning classification framework that utilises a nearest-neighbour or support vector machine system, to integrate heterogeneous data sources to considerably improve on the quantity and quality of sub-cellular protein assignment. We demonstrate the utility of our algorithms through evaluation of five experimental datasets, from four different species in conjunction with four different auxiliary data sources to classify proteins to tens of sub-cellular compartments with high generalisation accuracy. We further apply the method to an experiment on pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells to classify a set of previously unknown proteins, and validate our findings against a recent high resolution map of the mouse stem cell proteome. The methodology is distributed as part of the open-source Bioconductor pRoloc suite for spatial proteomics data analysis. PMID:27175778

  8. Improved spatial accuracy of functional maps in the rat olfactory bulb using supervised machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Matthew C; Poplawsky, Alexander J; Vazquez, Alberto L; Chan, Kevin C; Kim, Seong-Gi; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2016-08-15

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a popular and important tool for noninvasive mapping of neural activity. As fMRI measures the hemodynamic response, the resulting activation maps do not perfectly reflect the underlying neural activity. The purpose of this work was to design a data-driven model to improve the spatial accuracy of fMRI maps in the rat olfactory bulb. This system is an ideal choice for this investigation since the bulb circuit is well characterized, allowing for an accurate definition of activity patterns in order to train the model. We generated models for both cerebral blood volume weighted (CBVw) and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI data. The results indicate that the spatial accuracy of the activation maps is either significantly improved or at worst not significantly different when using the learned models compared to a conventional general linear model approach, particularly for BOLD images and activity patterns involving deep layers of the bulb. Furthermore, the activation maps computed by CBVw and BOLD data show increased agreement when using the learned models, lending more confidence to their accuracy. The models presented here could have an immediate impact on studies of the olfactory bulb, but perhaps more importantly, demonstrate the potential for similar flexible, data-driven models to improve the quality of activation maps calculated using fMRI data. PMID:27236085

  9. Superficial Layer-Specific Histaminergic Modulation of Medial Entorhinal Cortex Required for Spatial Learning.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Luo, Fenlan; Chen, Xingshu; Chen, Fang; Li, Chao; Ren, Shuancheng; Qiao, Qicheng; Zhang, Jun; de Lecea, Luis; Gao, Dong; Hu, Zhian

    2016-04-01

    The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) plays a crucial role in spatial learning and memory. Whereas the MEC receives a dense histaminergic innervation from the tuberomamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, the functions of histamine in this brain region remain unclear. Here, we show that histamine acts via H1Rs to directly depolarize the principal neurons in the superficial, but not deep, layers of the MEC when recording at somata. Moreover, histamine decreases the spontaneous GABA, but not glutamate, release onto principal neurons in the superficial layers by acting at presynaptic H3Rs without effect on synaptic release in the deep layers. Histamine-induced depolarization is mediated via inhibition of Kir channels and requires the activation of protein kinase C, whereas the inhibition of spontaneous GABA release by histamine depends on voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and extracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, microinjection of the H1R or H3R, but not H2R, antagonist respectively into the superficial, but not deep, layers of MEC impairs rat spatial learning as assessed by water maze tasks but does not affect the motor function and exploratory activity in an open field. Together, our study indicates that histamine plays an essential role in spatial learning by selectively regulating neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the superficial layers of the MEC. PMID:25595181

  10. Training shortest-path tractography: Automatic learning of spatial priors.

    PubMed

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew; Reislev, Nina Linde; Ørting, Silas N; Nielsen, Mads; Garde, Ellen; Feragen, Aasa

    2016-04-15

    Tractography is the standard tool for automatic delineation of white matter tracts from diffusion weighted images. However, the output of tractography often requires post-processing to remove false positives and ensure a robust delineation of the studied tract, and this demands expert prior knowledge. Here we demonstrate how such prior knowledge, or indeed any prior spatial information, can be automatically incorporated into a shortest-path tractography approach to produce more robust results. We describe how such a prior can be automatically generated (learned) from a population, and we demonstrate that our framework also retains support for conventional interactive constraints such as waypoint regions. We apply our approach to the open access, high quality Human Connectome Project data, as well as a dataset acquired on a typical clinical scanner. Our results show that the use of a learned prior substantially increases the overlap of tractography output with a reference atlas on both populations, and this is confirmed by visual inspection. Furthermore, we demonstrate how a prior learned on the high quality dataset significantly increases the overlap with the reference for the more typical yet lower quality data acquired on a clinical scanner. We hope that such automatic incorporation of prior knowledge and the obviation of expert interactive tract delineation on every subject, will improve the feasibility of large clinical tractography studies. PMID:26804779

  11. Tests enhance retention and transfer of spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Shana K; Kelly, Jonathan W

    2012-06-01

    Many studies have reported that tests are beneficial for learning (e.g., Roediger & Karpicke, 2006a). However, the majority of studies on the testing effect have been limited to a combination of relatively simple verbal tasks and final tests that assessed memory for the same material that had originally been tested. The present study explored whether testing is beneficial for complex spatial memory and whether these benefits hold for both retention and transfer. After encoding a three-dimensional layout of objects presented in a virtual environment, participants completed a judgment-of-relative-direction (JRD) task in which they imagined standing at one object, facing a second object, and pointed to a third object from the imagined perspective. Some participants completed this task by relying on memory for the previously encoded layout (i.e., the test conditions), whereas for others the location of the third object was identified ahead of time, so that retrieval was not required (i.e., the study condition). On a final test assessing their JRD performance, the participants who learned through test outperformed those who learned through study. This was true even when corrective feedback was not provided on the initial JRD task and when the final test assessed memory from vantage points that had never been practiced during the initial JRD. PMID:22318460

  12. Developing Metacognition: A Basis for Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.

    2004-01-01

    The reasons to introduce formats of active learning in engineering (ALE) such as project work, problem-based learning, use of cases, etc. are mostly based on practical experience, and sometimes from applied research on teaching and learning. Such research shows that students learn more and different abilities than in traditional formats of…

  13. Learning activism, acting with phronesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yew-Jin

    2015-12-01

    The article "Socio-political development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others" by Darren Hoeg, Natalie Lemelin, and Lawrence Bencze described a language-learning curriculum that drew on elements of Socioscientific issues and Science, Technology, Society and Environment. Results showed that with a number of enabling factors acting in concert, learning about and engagement in practical action for social justice and equity are possible. An alternative but highly compatible framework is now introduced—phronetic social research—as an action-oriented, wisdom-seeking research stance for the social sciences. By so doing, it is hoped that forms of phronetic social research can gain wider currency among those that promote activism as one of many valued outcomes of an education in science.

  14. Spatial Abilities at Different Scales: Individual Differences in Aptitude-Test Performance and Spatial-Layout Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Montello, Daniel R.; Richardson, Anthony E.; Ishikawa, Toru; Lovelace, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Most psychometric tests of spatial ability are paper-and-pencil tasks at the ''figural'' scale of space, in that they involve inspecting, imagining or mentally transforming small shapes or manipulable objects. Environmental spatial tasks, such as wayfinding or learning the layout of a building or city, are carried out in larger spaces that…

  15. Linking Mission to Learning Activities for Assurance of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Shirley Mo-ching

    2011-01-01

    Can accreditation-related requirements and mission statements measure learning outcomes? This study focuses on triangulating accreditation-related requirements with mission statements and learning activities to learning outcomes. This topic has not been comprehensively explored in the past. After looking into the requirements of AACSB, ISO, and…

  16. Dynamic microglial modulation of spatial learning and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Torres, Luisa; Danver, Joan; Ji, Kyungmin; Miyauchi, Jeremy T; Chen, Danling; Anderson, Maria E; West, Brian L; Robinson, John K; Tsirka, Stella E

    2016-07-01

    Microglia are active players in inflammation, but also have important supporting roles in CNS maintenance and function, including modulation of neuronal activity. We previously observed an increase in the frequency of excitatory postsynaptic current in organotypic brain slices after depletion of microglia using clodronate. Here, we describe that local hippocampal depletion of microglia by clodronate alters performance in tests of spatial memory and sociability. Global depletion of microglia by high-dose oral administration of a Csf1R inhibitor transiently altered spatial memory but produced no change in sociability behavior. Microglia depletion and behavior effects were both reversible, consistent with a dynamic role for microglia in the regulation of such behaviors. PMID:26348580

  17. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  18. Active Learning in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan

    2015-01-01

    What is active learning and what does it look like in the classroom? If students are participating in active learning, they are playing a more engaged role in the learning process and are not overly reliant on the teacher (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2003; Petress, 2008). The purpose of this article is to propose a framework to describe and…

  19. Learning Activities for the Young Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Don; And Others

    Presented is a collection of learning activities for the young handicapped child covering 295 individual learning objectives in six areas of development: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social skills, self help skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Provided for each learning activity are the teaching objective, teaching procedures,…

  20. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  1. Active Learning: The Way Children Construct Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Mary; Weikart, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The High/Scope approach to early childhood education promotes the belief that active learning is fundamental to the development of human potential and occurs most effectively in settings that provide developmentally appropriate learning opportunities. Describes five ingredients of active learning (materials, manipulation, choice, language from…

  2. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2009-01-01

    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain. PMID:19641614

  3. Reinforcement Learning or Active Inference?

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain. PMID:19641614

  4. Place field repetition and spatial learning in a multicompartment environment

    PubMed Central

    Grieves, Roddy M.; Jenkins, Bryan W.; Harland, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have shown that place cells in the hippocampus possess firing fields that repeat in physically similar, parallel environments. These results imply that it should be difficult for animals to distinguish parallel environments at a behavioral level. To test this, we trained rats on a novel odor‐location task in an environment with four parallel compartments which had previously been shown to yield place field repetition. A second group of animals was trained on the same task, but with the compartments arranged in different directions, an arrangement we hypothesised would yield less place field repetition. Learning of the odor‐location task in the parallel compartments was significantly impaired relative to learning in the radially arranged compartments. Fewer animals acquired the full discrimination in the parallel compartments compared to those trained in the radial compartments, and the former also required many more sessions to reach criterion compared to the latter. To confirm that the arrangement of compartments yielded differences in place cell repetition, in a separate group of animals we recorded from CA1 place cells in both environments. We found that CA1 place cells exhibited repeated fields across four parallel local compartments, but did not do so when the same compartments were arranged radially. To confirm that the differences in place field repetition across the parallel and radial compartments depended on their angular arrangement, and not incidental differences in access to an extra‐maze visual landmark, we repeated the recordings in a second set of rats in the absence of the orientation landmark. We found, once again, that place fields showed repetition in parallel compartments, and did not do so in radially arranged compartments. Thus place field repetition, or lack thereof, in these compartments was not dependent on extra‐maze cues. Together, these results imply that place field repetition constrains spatial learning

  5. Grid Cells, Place Cells, and Geodesic Generalization for Spatial Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Nicholas J.; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) provides an influential characterization of the brain's mechanisms for learning to make advantageous choices. An important problem, though, is how complex tasks can be represented in a way that enables efficient learning. We consider this problem through the lens of spatial navigation, examining how two of the brain's location representations—hippocampal place cells and entorhinal grid cells—are adapted to serve as basis functions for approximating value over space for RL. Although much previous work has focused on these systems' roles in combining upstream sensory cues to track location, revisiting these representations with a focus on how they support this downstream decision function offers complementary insights into their characteristics. Rather than localization, the key problem in learning is generalization between past and present situations, which may not match perfectly. Accordingly, although neural populations collectively offer a precise representation of position, our simulations of navigational tasks verify the suggestion that RL gains efficiency from the more diffuse tuning of individual neurons, which allows learning about rewards to generalize over longer distances given fewer training experiences. However, work on generalization in RL suggests the underlying representation should respect the environment's layout. In particular, although it is often assumed that neurons track location in Euclidean coordinates (that a place cell's activity declines “as the crow flies” away from its peak), the relevant metric for value is geodesic: the distance along a path, around any obstacles. We formalize this intuition and present simulations showing how Euclidean, but not geodesic, representations can interfere with RL by generalizing inappropriately across barriers. Our proposal that place and grid responses should be modulated by geodesic distances suggests novel predictions about how obstacles should affect spatial firing

  6. A Cognitive Component Analysis Approach for Developing Game-Based Spatial Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Pi-Hsia; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Lee, Yueh-Hsun; Su, I-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability has been recognized as one of the most important factors affecting the mathematical performance of students. Previous studies on spatial learning have mainly focused on developing strategies to shorten the problem-solving time of learners for very specific learning tasks. Such an approach usually has limited effects on improving…

  7. Learning of Temporal and Spatial Movement Aspects: A Comparison of Four Types of Haptic Control and Concurrent Visual Feedback.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Georg; Sigrist, Roland; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In literature, the effectiveness of haptics for motor learning is controversially discussed. Haptics is believed to be effective for motor learning in general; however, different types of haptic control enhance different movement aspects. Thus, in dependence on the movement aspects of interest, one type of haptic control may be effective whereas another one is not. Therefore, in the current work, it was investigated if and how different types of haptic controllers affect learning of spatial and temporal movement aspects. In particular, haptic controllers that enforce active participation of the participants were expected to improve spatial aspects. Only haptic controllers that provide feedback about the task's velocity profile were expected to improve temporal aspects. In a study on learning a complex trunk-arm rowing task, the effect of training with four different types of haptic control was investigated: position control, path control, adaptive path control, and reactive path control. A fifth group (control) trained with visual concurrent augmented feedback. As hypothesized, the position controller was most effective for learning of temporal movement aspects, while the path controller was most effective in teaching spatial movement aspects of the rowing task. Visual feedback was also effective for learning temporal and spatial movement aspects. PMID:25974949

  8. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  9. Activities for Science: Cooperative Learning Lessons (Challenging).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmine, Grace; Jasmine, Julia

    This book is designed to help advanced elementary students learn science skills while actively engaged in cooperative activities based on the earth sciences and natural disasters. The first section explains how to make cooperative learning a part of the curriculum and includes an overview, instructions and activities to bring cooperative learning…

  10. A neural network model with dopamine-like reinforcement signal that learns a spatial delayed response task.

    PubMed

    Suri, R E; Schultz, W

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated how the simulated response of dopamine neurons to reward-related stimuli could be used as reinforcement signal for learning a spatial delayed response task. Spatial delayed response tasks assess the functions of frontal cortex and basal ganglia in short-term memory, movement preparation and expectation of environmental events. In these tasks, a stimulus appears for a short period at a particular location, and after a delay the subject moves to the location indicated. Dopamine neurons are activated by unpredicted rewards and reward-predicting stimuli, are not influenced by fully predicted rewards, and are depressed by omitted rewards. Thus, they appear to report an error in the prediction of reward, which is the crucial reinforcement term in formal learning theories. Theoretical studies on reinforcement learning have shown that signals similar to dopamine responses can be used as effective teaching signals for learning. A neural network model implementing the temporal difference algorithm was trained to perform a simulated spatial delayed response task. The reinforcement signal was modeled according to the basic characteristics of dopamine responses to novel stimuli, primary rewards and reward-predicting stimuli. A Critic component analogous to dopamine neurons computed a temporal error in the prediction of reinforcement and emitted this signal to an Actor component which mediated the behavioral output. The spatial delayed response task was learned via two subtasks introducing spatial choices and temporal delays, in the same manner as monkeys in the laboratory. In all three tasks, the reinforcement signal of the Critic developed in a similar manner to the responses of natural dopamine neurons in comparable learning situations, and the learning curves of the Actor replicated the progress of learning observed in the animals. Several manipulations demonstrated further the efficacy of the particular characteristics of the dopamine

  11. A preliminary study of sex differences in brain activation during a spatial navigation task in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Sava, Simona; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2011-10-01

    The hippocampus plays a significant role in spatial memory processing, with sex differences being prominent on various spatial tasks. This study examined sex differences in healthy adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in areas implicated in spatial processing during navigation of a virtual analogue of the Morris water-maze. There were three conditions: learning, hidden, and visible control. There were no significant differences in performance measures. However, sex differences were found in regional brain activation during learning in the right hippocampus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex. During the hidden condition, the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate cortex were activated in both men and women. Additional brain areas involved in spatial processing may be recruited in women when learning information about the environment, by utilizing external cues (landmarks) more than do men, contributing to the observed sex differences in brain activation. PMID:22185061

  12. Spatial Visualization Learning in Engineering: Traditional Methods vs. a Web-Based Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Carlos Melgosa; Barbero, Basilio Ramos; Miguel, Arturo Román

    2014-01-01

    This study compares an interactive learning manager for graphic engineering to develop spatial vision (ILMAGE_SV) to traditional methods. ILMAGE_SV is an asynchronous web-based learning tool that allows the manipulation of objects with a 3D viewer, self-evaluation, and continuous assessment. In addition, student learning may be monitored, which…

  13. Effect of intranasal manganese administration on neurotransmission and spatial learning in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Piechal, Agnieszka; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2012-11-15

    The effect of intranasal manganese chloride (MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O) exposure on spatial learning, memory and motor activity was estimated in Morris water maze task in adult rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats received for 2 weeks MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O at two doses the following: 0.2 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.2) or 0.8 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.8) per day. Control (Con) and manganese-exposed groups were observed for behavioral performance and learning in water maze. ANOVA for repeated measurements did not show any significant differences in acquisition in the water maze between the groups. However, the results of the probe trial on day 5, exhibited spatial memory deficits following manganese treatment. After completion of the behavioral experiment, the regional brain concentrations of neurotransmitters and their metabolites were determined via HPLC in selected brain regions, i.e. prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. ANOVA demonstrated significant differences in the content of monoamines and metabolites between the treatment groups compared to the controls. Negative correlations between platform crossings on the previous platform position in Southeast (SE) quadrant during the probe trial and neurotransmitter turnover suggest that impairment of spatial memory and cognitive performance after manganese (Mn) treatment is associated with modulation of the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the brain. These findings show that intranasally applied Mn can impair spatial memory with significant changes in the tissue level and metabolism of monoamines in several brain regions. -- Highlights: ► Intranasal exposure to manganese in rats impairs spatial memory in the water maze. ► Regional changes in levels of neurotransmitters in the brain have been identified. ► Cognitive disorder correlates with modulation of 5-HT, NA and DA neurotransmission.

  14. Kinaesthetic Learning Activities and Learning about Solar Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, A. J.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Kinaesthetic learning activities (KLAs) can be a valuable pedagogical tool for physics instructors. They have been shown to increase engagement, encourage participation and improve learning outcomes. This paper details several KLAs developed at Rutgers University for inclusion in an instructional unit about semiconductors, p-n junctions and solar…

  15. Adult Learning Principles in Designing Learning Activities for Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravani, Maria N.

    2012-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is an investigation of the application of adult learning principles in designing learning activities for teachers' life-long development. The exploration is illustrated by qualitative data from a case study of adult educators' and adult learners' insights and experiences of a teacher development course organised…

  16. Student Activity and Learning Outcomes in a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanov, Kalle; Nevgi, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between degree of participation and learning outcomes in an e-learning course on medical informatics. Overall activity in using course materials and degree of participation in the discussion forums of an online course were studied among 39 medical students. Students were able to utilise the…

  17. Initial investigation of the effects of an experimentally learned schema on spatial associative memory in humans.

    PubMed

    van Buuren, Mariët; Kroes, Marijn C W; Wagner, Isabella C; Genzel, Lisa; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-12-10

    Networks of interconnected neocortical representations of prior knowledge, "schemas," facilitate memory for congruent information. This facilitation is thought to be mediated by augmented encoding and accelerated consolidation. However, it is less clear how schema affects retrieval. Rodent and human studies to date suggest that schema-related memories are differently retrieved. However, these studies differ substantially as most human studies implement pre-experimental world-knowledge as schemas and tested item or nonspatial associative memory, whereas animal studies have used intraexperimental schemas based on item-location associations within a complex spatial layout that, in humans, could engage more strategic retrieval processes. Here, we developed a paradigm conceptually linked to rodent studies to examine the effects of an experimentally learned spatial associative schema on learning and retrieval of new object-location associations and to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying schema-related retrieval. Extending previous findings, we show that retrieval of schema-defining associations is related to activity along anterior and posterior midline structures and angular gyrus. The existence of such spatial associative schema resulted in more accurate learning and retrieval of new, related associations, and increased time allocated to retrieve these associations. This retrieval was associated with right dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral parietal activity, as well as interactions between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial and lateral parietal regions, and between the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior midline regions, supporting the hypothesis that retrieval of new, schema-related object-location associations in humans also involves augmented monitoring and systematic search processes. PMID:25505319

  18. Mice with Deficient BK Channel Function Show Impaired Prepulse Inhibition and Spatial Learning, but Normal Working and Spatial Reference Memory

    PubMed Central

    Azzopardi, Erin; Ruettiger, Lukas; Ruth, Peter; Schmid, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variations in the large-conductance, voltage- and calcium activated potassium channels (BK channels) have been recently implicated in mental retardation, autism and schizophrenia which all come along with severe cognitive impairments. In the present study we investigate the effects of functional BK channel deletion on cognition using a genetic mouse model with a knock-out of the gene for the pore forming α-subunit of the channel. We tested the F1 generation of a hybrid SV129/C57BL6 mouse line in which the slo1 gene was deleted in both parent strains. We first evaluated hearing and motor function to establish the suitability of this model for cognitive testing. Auditory brain stem responses to click stimuli showed no threshold differences between knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Despite of muscular tremor, reduced grip force, and impaired gait, knockout mice exhibited normal locomotion. These findings allowed for testing of sensorimotor gating using the acoustic startle reflex, as well as of working memory, spatial learning and memory in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze, respectively. Prepulse inhibition on the first day of testing was normal, but the knockout mice did not improve over the days of testing as their wild-type littermates did. Spontaneous alternation in the y-maze was normal as well, suggesting that the BK channel knock-out does not impair working memory. In the Morris water maze knock-out mice showed significantly slower acquisition of the task, but normal memory once the task was learned. Thus, we propose a crucial role of the BK channels in learning, but not in memory storage or recollection. PMID:24303038

  19. Faculty Adoption of Active Learning Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek

    2016-01-01

    Although post-secondary educational institutions are incorporating more active learning classrooms (ALCs) that support collaborative learning, researchers have less often examined the cultural obstacles to adoption of those environments. In this qualitative research study, we adopted the conceptual framework of activity theory to examine the…

  20. Active Learning in American History Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Describes the activities of a high school class that discovered the joy of history through experiential learning. Students learned traditional military tactics for their unit on the French and Indian Wars, and tried to apply them to a nearby woods. Includes similar activities for other historic periods. (MJP)

  1. Cardiovascular Fitness and Cognitive Spatial Learning in Rodents and in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Boaz; Feldman, Noa

    2015-01-01

    The association between cardiovascular fitness and cognitive functions in both animals and humans is intensely studied. Research in rodents shows that a higher cardiovascular fitness has beneficial effects on hippocampus-dependent spatial abilities, and the underlying mechanisms were largely teased out. Research into the impact of cardiovascular fitness on spatial learning in humans, however, is more limited, and involves mostly behavioral and imaging studies. Herein, we point out the state of the art in the field of spatial learning and cardiovascular fitness. The differences between the methodologies utilized to study spatial learning in humans and rodents are emphasized along with the neuronal basis of these tasks. Critical gaps in the study of spatial learning in the context of cardiovascular fitness between the two species are discussed. PMID:25227128

  2. Active Ageing, Active Learning: Policy and Provision in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…

  3. The Relation between Childhood Spatial Activities and Spatial Abilities in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Randi A.; Voyer, Daniel; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between childhood spatial activities and cognitive gender differences in adults through the validation of the Childhood Activities Questionnaire developed by Cherney and Voyer (2010). A sample of 403 (133 males, 270 females) undergraduates in Introductory Psychology courses at University of New Brunswick, NB,…

  4. How spatial abilities and dynamic visualizations interplay when learning functional anatomy with 3D anatomical models.

    PubMed

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material presentation formats, spatial abilities, and anatomical tasks. First, to understand the cognitive challenges a novice learner would be faced with when first exposed to 3D anatomical content, a six-step cognitive task analysis was developed. Following this, an experimental study was conducted to explore how presentation formats (dynamic vs. static visualizations) support learning of functional anatomy, and affect subsequent anatomical tasks derived from the cognitive task analysis. A second aim was to investigate the interplay between spatial abilities (spatial visualization and spatial relation) and presentation formats when the functional anatomy of a 3D scapula and the associated shoulder flexion movement are learned. Findings showed no main effect of the presentation formats on performances, but revealed the predictive influence of spatial visualization and spatial relation abilities on performance. However, an interesting interaction between presentation formats and spatial relation ability for a specific anatomical task was found. This result highlighted the influence of presentation formats when spatial abilities are involved as well as the differentiated influence of spatial abilities on anatomical tasks. PMID:25689057

  5. Sublayer-Specific Coding Dynamics during Spatial Navigation and Learning in Hippocampal Area CA1.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Nathan B; Zaremba, Jeffrey D; Kaifosh, Patrick; Bowler, John; Ladow, Max; Losonczy, Attila

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian hippocampus is critical for spatial information processing and episodic memory. Its primary output cells, CA1 pyramidal cells (CA1 PCs), vary in genetics, morphology, connectivity, and electrophysiological properties. It is therefore possible that distinct CA1 PC subpopulations encode different features of the environment and differentially contribute to learning. To test this hypothesis, we optically monitored activity in deep and superficial CA1 PCs segregated along the radial axis of the mouse hippocampus and assessed the relationship between sublayer dynamics and learning. Superficial place maps were more stable than deep during head-fixed exploration. Deep maps, however, were preferentially stabilized during goal-oriented learning, and representation of the reward zone by deep cells predicted task performance. These findings demonstrate that superficial CA1 PCs provide a more stable map of an environment, while their counterparts in the deep sublayer provide a more flexible representation that is shaped by learning about salient features in the environment. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27397517

  6. Experiential Learning, Spatial Practice, and Critical Urban Geographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, Sarah A.

    2004-01-01

    Experiential learning pedagogies are being adopted across undergraduate education and touted as an effective strategy for enhancing student learning. This paper develops an explanation for how and why such pedagogies can foster students' critical thinking and learning. Drawing on data collected from first-year students in "field based" urban…

  7. Interaction between Locale and Taxon Strategies in Human Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redhead, Edward S.; Hamilton, Derek A.

    2007-01-01

    Three computer-based experiments which tested human participants in a non-immersive virtual watermaze task sought to determine factors which dictate whether the presence of a visual platform disrupts locale learning and taxon learning. In Experiment 1, the visible platform disrupted locale but not taxon learning based on viewpoint-independent and…

  8. Learning through EC directive based SEA in spatial planning? Evidence from the Brunswick Region in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Thomas B.; Kidd, Sue; Jha-Thakur, Urmila; Gazzola, Paola; Peel, Deborah

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents results of an international comparative research project, funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Academy for Sustainable Communities (ASC) on the 'learning potential of appraisal (strategic environmental assessment - SEA) in spatial planning'. In this context, aspects of 'single-loop' and 'double-loop' learning, as well as of individual, organisational and social learning are discussed for emerging post-EC Directive German practice in the planning region (Zweckverband) of Brunswick (Braunschweig), focusing on four spatial plan SEAs from various administrative levels in the region. It is found that whilst SEA is able to lead to plan SEA specific knowledge acquisition, comprehension, application and analysis ('single-loop learning'), it is currently resulting only occasionally in wider synthesis and evaluation ('double-loop learning'). Furthermore, whilst there is evidence that individual and occasionally organisational learning may be enhanced through SEA, most notably in small municipalities, social learning appears to be happening only sporadically.

  9. Neural Correlates of Reward-Based Spatial Learning in Persons with Cocaine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Tau, Gregory Z; Marsh, Rachel; Wang, Zhishun; Torres-Sanchez, Tania; Graniello, Barbara; Hao, Xuejun; Xu, Dongrong; Packard, Mark G; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Martinez, Diana; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional learning systems are thought to be central to the pathogenesis of and impair recovery from addictions. The functioning of the brain circuits for episodic memory or learning that support goal-directed behavior has not been studied previously in persons with cocaine dependence (CD). Thirteen abstinent CD and 13 healthy participants underwent MRI scanning while performing a task that requires the use of spatial cues to navigate a virtual-reality environment and find monetary rewards, allowing the functional assessment of the brain systems for spatial learning, a form of episodic memory. Whereas both groups performed similarly on the reward-based spatial learning task, we identified disturbances in brain regions involved in learning and reward in CD participants. In particular, CD was associated with impaired functioning of medial temporal lobe (MTL), a brain region that is crucial for spatial learning (and episodic memory) with concomitant recruitment of striatum (which normally participates in stimulus-response, or habit, learning), and prefrontal cortex. CD was also associated with enhanced sensitivity of the ventral striatum to unexpected rewards but not to expected rewards earned during spatial learning. We provide evidence that spatial learning in CD is characterized by disturbances in functioning of an MTL-based system for episodic memory and a striatum-based system for stimulus-response learning and reward. We have found additional abnormalities in distributed cortical regions. Consistent with findings from animal studies, we provide the first evidence in humans describing the disruptive effects of cocaine on the coordinated functioning of multiple neural systems for learning and memory. PMID:23917430

  10. Impairment of olfactory, auditory, and spatial serial reversal learning in rats recovered from pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mair, R G; Knoth, R L; Rabchenuk, S A; Langlais, P J

    1991-06-01

    Rats that had recovered from pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) were compared with controls for spatial, auditory, and olfactory serial reversal learning (SRL); spatial matching to sample (MTS); auditory go-no-go discrimination; and open-field exploration. PTD rats made more errors reaching criterion for SRL in all modalities but showed normal transfer effects between problems. PTD rats were also impaired in learning the go-no-go and MTS tasks and showed consistent alterations in exploratory activity. It is argued that the PTD rat, like human Korsakoff patients, have impairments of learning and memory (but spared capacity for reference memory) that extend across sensory modalities. Postmortem analyses showed normal indices of cortical cholinergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic function and consistent bilateral lesions of the thalamus, which were centered on the internal medullary lamina, and the medial mammillary nucleus. PMID:1907457

  11. Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, Meredith D.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

  12. Caloric restriction in young rats disturbs hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Armando; Marrana, Francisco; Andrade, José P

    2016-09-01

    It is widely known that caloric restriction (CR) has benefits on several organic systems, including the central nervous system. However, the majority of the CR studies was performed in adult animals and the information about the consequences on young populations is limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of young-onset CR, started at 4weeks of age, in the number of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing neurons and in neurogenesis of the hippocampal formation, using doublecortin (DCX) and Ki67 as markers. Knowing that CR treatment could interfere with exploratory activity, anxiety, learning and memory we have analyzed the performance of the rats in the open-field, elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze tests. Animals aged 4weeks were randomly assigned to control or CR groups. Controls were maintained in the ad libitum regimen during 2months. The adolescent CR rats were fed, during 2months, with 60% of the amount of food consumed by controls. We have found that young-onset CR treatment did not affect the total number of NPY-immunopositive neurons in dentate hilus, CA3 and CA1 hippocampal subfields and did not change the exploratory activity and anxiety levels. Interestingly, we have found that young-onset CR might affect spatial learning process since those animals showed worse performance during the acquisition phase of Morris water maze. Furthermore, young-onset CR induced alterations of neurogenesis in the dentate subgranular layer that seems to underlie the impairment of spatial learning. Our data suggest that adolescent animals are vulnerable to CR treatment and that this diet is not suitable to be applied in this age phase. PMID:27432519

  13. Active Learning through Toy Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zane, Linda; Sirinterlikci, Aleea L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an initiative that is based on active learning pedagogy by engaging elementary and middle school students in the toy design and development field. The case study presented in this article is about student learning experiences during their participation in the TOYchallenge National Toy Design Competition. Students followed the…

  14. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  15. Conditions for Apprentices' Learning Activities at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messmann, Gerhard; Mulder, Regina H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how apprentices' learning activities at work can be fostered. This is a crucial issue as learning at work enhances apprentices' competence development and prepares them for professional development on the job. Therefore, we conducted a study with 70 apprentices in the German dual system and examined the…

  16. Incorporating Active Learning into a Traditional Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Robert G.; Huang, Alice H.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses self-learning exercises (SLEs) incorporated into the Medical Physiology course for first-year students at the Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, GA. Twenty to thirty percent of course material is presented in these exercises instead of in lectures. The exercises develop active learning and problem-solving skills. Formal analysis…

  17. 61 Cooperative Learning Activities in ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Charles; Supple, Deborah Beres

    Cooperative learning activities, instructional strategies, and reproducible classroom materials are provided to assist teachers with English-as-a-Second-Language learners in their classes. They are designed to help students develop English language skills using conversation-based cooperative learning principles, with native speakers and ESL…

  18. Where's the Evidence that Active Learning Works?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Calls for reforms in the ways we teach science at all levels, and in all disciplines, are wide spread. The effectiveness of the changes being called for, employment of student-centered, active learning pedagogy, is now well supported by evidence. The relevant data have come from a number of different disciplines that include the learning sciences,…

  19. A comparison of egocentric and allocentric age-dependent spatial learning in the beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Christie, Lori-Ann; Studzinski, Christa M; Araujo, Joseph A; Leung, Cleo S K; Ikeda-Douglas, Candace J; Head, Elizabeth; Cotman, Carl W; Milgram, Norton W

    2005-03-01

    Spatial discriminations can be performed using either egocentric information based on body position or allocentric information based on the position of landmarks in the environment. Beagle dogs ranging from 2 to 16 years of age were tested for their ability to learn a novel egocentric spatial discrimination task that used two identical blocks paired in three possible spatial positions (i.e. left, center and right). Dogs were rewarded for responding to an object furthest to either their left or right side. Therefore, when the center location was used, it was correct on half of the trials and incorrect on the other half. Upon successful acquisition of the task, the reward contingencies were reversed, and the dogs were rewarded for responding to the opposite side. A subset of dogs was also tested on an allocentric spatial discrimination task, landmark discrimination. Egocentric spatial reversal learning and allocentric discrimination learning both showed a significant age-dependent decline, while initial egocentric learning appeared to be age-insensitive. Intra-subject correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship between egocentric reversal learning and allocentric learning. However, the correlation only accounted for a small proportion of the variance, suggesting that although there might be some common mechanism underlying acquisition of the two tasks, additional unique neural substrates were involved depending on whether allocentric or egocentric spatial information processing was required. PMID:15795044

  20. Mineralocorticoid receptors guide spatial and stimulus-response learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Arp, J Marit; ter Horst, Judith P; Kanatsou, Sofia; Fernández, Guillén; Joëls, Marian; Krugers, Harm J; Oitzl, Melly S

    2014-01-01

    Adrenal corticosteroid hormones act via mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the brain, influencing learning and memory. MRs have been implicated in the initial behavioral response in novel situations, which includes behavioral strategies in learning tasks. Different strategies can be used to solve navigational tasks, for example hippocampus-dependent spatial or striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategies. Previous studies suggested that MRs are involved in spatial learning and induce a shift between learning strategies when animals are allowed a choice between both strategies. In the present study, we further explored the role of MRs in spatial and stimulus-response learning in two separate circular holeboard tasks using female mice with forebrain-specific MR deficiency and MR overexpression and their wildtype control littermates. In addition, we studied sex-specific effects using male and female MR-deficient mice. First, we found that MR-deficient compared to control littermates and MR-overexpressing mice display altered exploratory and searching behavior indicative of impaired acquisition of novel information. Second, female (but not male) MR-deficient mice were impaired in the spatial task, while MR-overexpressing female mice showed improved performance in the spatial task. Third, MR-deficient mice were also impaired in the stimulus-response task compared to controls and (in the case of females) MR-overexpressing mice. We conclude that MRs are important for coordinating the processing of information relevant for spatial as well as stimulus-response learning. PMID:24465979

  1. "Active Learning for Active Citizenship": Democratic Citizenship and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annette, John

    2009-01-01

    This article explores to what extent citizenship education for lifelong learning should be based on a more "political" or civic republican conception of citizenship as compared to a liberal individualist conception, which emphasizes individual rights, or a communitarian conception, which emphasizes moral and social responsibilities. It also…

  2. Women Match Men when Learning a Spatial Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Ian; Yu, Jingjie Jessica; Feng, Jing; Marshman, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Meta-analytic studies have concluded that although training improves spatial cognition in both sexes, the male advantage generally persists. However, because some studies run counter to this pattern, a closer examination of the anomaly is warranted. The authors investigated the acquisition of a basic skill (spatial selective attention) using a…

  3. The Joint Role of Spatial Ability and Imagery Strategy in Sustaining the Learning of Spatial Descriptions under Spatial Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana; Gyselinck, Valerie; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the joint role of spatial ability, imagery strategy and visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in spatial text processing. A set of 180 participants, half of them trained on the use of imagery strategy (training vs no-training groups), was further divided according to participants' high or low mental rotation ability…

  4. Effective Teaching Strategies for Gifted/Learning-Disabled Students with Spatial Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Rebecca L.

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine effective teaching strategies for use with high-ability students who have spatial strengths and sequential weaknesses. Gifted students with spatial strengths and weak verbal skills often struggle in the traditional classroom. Their learning style enables them to grasp complex systems and excel at higher levels of…

  5. MICROINJECTION OF DYNORPHIN INTO THE HIPPOCAMPUS IMPAIRS SPATIAL LEARNING IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of hippocampal dynorphin administration on learning and memory was examined in spatial and nonspatial tasks. ilateral infusion of dynorphin A(1-8)(DYN; 10 or 20 ug in one ul) into the dorsal hippocampus resulted in dose-related impairment of spatial working memory in a...

  6. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Maintain Learning Set Despite Second-Order Stimulus-Response Spatial Discontiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2007-01-01

    In many discrimination-learning tests, spatial separation between stimuli and response loci disrupts performance in rhesus macaques. However, monkeys are unaffected by such stimulus-response spatial discontiguity when responses occur through joystick-based computerized movement of a cursor. To examine this discrepancy, five monkeys were tested on…

  7. Spatial Abilities in an Elective Course of Applied Anatomy after a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A.; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    A concern on the level of anatomy knowledge reached after a problem-based learning curriculum has been documented in the literature. Spatial anatomy, arguably the highest level in anatomy knowledge, has been related to spatial abilities. Our first objective was to test the hypothesis that residents are interested in a course of applied anatomy…

  8. Improving Social Interactions in Virtual Learning Environments: Guidance on Spatial Factors for Online Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Serrano, Maria Jose; Gonzales-Sanchez, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a project in which students' interactions with learning environments are investigated from the perspective of the spatial factors. Our research examines a significant dimension generated under the interrelationship between the subject and the virtual space, by establishing that spatial dimensions may determine the level of…

  9. Learning to Think Spatially: What Do Students "See" in Numeracy Test Items?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Lowrie, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Learning to think spatially in mathematics involves developing proficiency with graphics. This paper reports on 2 investigations of spatial thinking and graphics. The first investigation explored the importance of graphics as 1 of 3 communication systems (i.e. text, symbols, graphics) used to provide information in numeracy test items. The results…

  10. How Does Technology-Enabled Active Learning Affect Undergraduate Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Belcher, John

    2005-01-01

    Educational technology supports meaningful learning and enables the presentation of spatial and dynamic images, which portray relationships among complex concepts. The Technology-Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) involves media-rich software for simulation and visualization in freshman…

  11. Point-of-Purchase Advertising. Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray

    1998-01-01

    In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)

  12. An Active Learning Project for Forage Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, M. H.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a successfully implemented active learning project and results of a survey to assess the success of the project. Materials and methods are discussed, and an example of one project is provided. (Author/CW)

  13. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305

  14. Acquiring New Spatial Intuitions: Learning to Reason about Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pani, John R.; Chariker, Julia H.; Dawson, Thomas E.; Johnson, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    There are certain simple rotations of objects that most people cannot reason about accurately. Reliable gaps in the understanding of a fundamental physical domain raise the question of how learning to reason in that domain might proceed. Using virtual reality techniques, this project investigated the nature of learning to reason across the domain…

  15. How Spatial Abilities and Dynamic Visualizations Interplay When Learning Functional Anatomy with 3D Anatomical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material…

  16. FORMATION OF SPATIAL REVERSAL LEARNING SETS IN RATS: COMPARISON OF INSTRUMENTAL AND AUTOMAINTENANCE PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial discriminations were acquired by rats through repeated pairings of the retraction of a response lever with food; serial reversals of these discriminations were used to generate an automaintained reversal learning set. This learning set was compared to that obtained with a...

  17. Comparison of Visual-Spatial Performance Strategy Training in Children with Turner Syndrome and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Janet K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen females with Turner syndrome, 13 females with nonverbal learning disabilities, and 14 males with nonverbal learning disabilities, ages 7-14, were taught via a cognitive behavioral modification approach to verbally mediate a spatial matching task. All three groups showed significant task improvement after the training, with no significant…

  18. How Do Biases in Spatial Memory Change as Children and Adults Are Learning Locations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recker, Kara M.; Plumert, Jodie M.; Hund, Alycia M.; Reimer, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This investigation tracked changes in categorical bias (i.e., placing objects belonging to the same spatial group closer together than they really are) while 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds and adults were learning a set of locations. Participants learned the locations of 20 objects marked by dots on the floor of an open square box divided into…

  19. Gene delivery of Homer1c rescues spatial learning in a rodent model of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Gerstein, Hilary; Lindstrom, Mary J; Burger, Corinna

    2013-08-01

    Homer1c has been shown to play a role in learning and memory. Overexpression of Homer1c in the hippocampus can improve memory in normal rats and can also rescue spatial learning deficits in Homer1 knockout mice. In a previous study, we found that Homer1c mRNA is upregulated after a spatial learning paradigm in aged rats that successfully learn the task, when compared to aged rats that are learning-impaired (AI). This study was designed to validate the role of Homer1c in successful cognitive aging. In this article, we report that gene delivery of Homer1c into the hippocampus of aged learning-impaired rats significantly improves individual performance on an object location memory task. The learning ability of these rats on the Morris Water Maze was also superior to that of AI control rats. In summary, using 2 independent spatial memory tasks, we demonstrate that Homer1c is sufficient to improve the spatial learning deficits in a rodent model of cognitive aging. These results point to Homer1c as a potential therapeutic target for improving age-related cognitive impairment. PMID:23523268

  20. Spatial distribution of enzyme activities in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    The rhizosphere, the tiny zone of soil surrounding roots, certainly represents one of the most dynamic habitat and interfaces on Earth. Activities of enzymes produced by both plant roots and microbes are the primary biological drivers of organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. That is why there is an urgent need in spatially explicit methods for the determination of the rhizosphere extension and enzyme distribution. Recently, zymography as a new technique based on diffusion of enzymes through the 1 mm gel plate for analysis has been introduced (Spohn & Kuzyakov, 2013). We developed the zymography technique to visualize the enzyme activities with a higher spatial resolution. For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities as a function of distance from the root tip and the root surface in the soil. We visualized the two dimensional distribution of the activity of three enzymes: β-glucosidase, phosphatase and leucine amino peptidase in the rhizosphere of maize using fluorogenically labelled substrates. Spatial-resolution of fluorescent images was improved by direct application of a substrate saturated membrane to the soil-root system. The newly-developed direct zymography visualized heterogeneity of enzyme activities along the roots. The activity of all enzymes was the highest at the apical parts of individual roots. Across the roots, the enzyme activities were higher at immediate vicinity of the roots (1.5 mm) and gradually decreased towards the bulk soil. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance from the root surface were enzyme specific, with highest extension for phosphatase. We conclude that improved zymography is promising in situ technique to analyze, visualize and quantify spatial distribution of enzyme activities in the rhizosphere hotspots. References Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y., 2013. Phosphorus mineralization can be driven by microbial need for carbon. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 61: 69-75

  1. Bamboo leaf extract improves spatial learning ability in a rat model with senile dementia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-xiang; Zhu, Min-ying; Feng, Ci-yuan; Ding, Hai-bin; Zhan, Ying; Zhao, Zhan; Ding, Yue-min

    2015-07-01

    Senile dementia (SD) is a syndrome characterized by progressive neurological deterioration. Treatment for the disease is still under investigation. Bamboo leaf extract (B-extract) has been known for its biological efficacy in anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. However, study on B-extract for its protection against dementia is very limited. The effect of B-extract on a rat model with SD was examined. B-extract improved spatial learning ability of the dementia rats. The hippocampus of dementia model rats showed reduced levels of acetylcholine (ACh), epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA), and increased activities of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO). Treatment with B-extract 20 mg/(kg·d) for 7 weeks significantly inhibited the enzyme activity compared with untreated dementia rats, and raised the levels of ACh, E, and DA in the hippocampus. In addition, treatment with B-extract elevated the level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but reduced the level of glutamate (Glu) in the brain. These data suggest that B-extract might be a potential drug in treating impairment of spatial memory in dementia rats by regulating the central neurotransmitter function. PMID:26160717

  2. People with Learning Disabilities and "Active Ageing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…

  3. Active Learning: Learning a Motor Skill Without a Coach

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Vincent S.; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-01-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are “active learners”: we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079

  4. Active learning: learning a motor skill without a coach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-08-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079

  5. Going the Distance: Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Restauri, Sherri; Wilson, Janell D.; Friery, Kathleen A.

    The growth and development of distance learning (DL) programs is on the rise. This review examines the literature looking for instructional techniques and methods for the teacher desiring to use DL technology to maximize student achievement and cognitive development and to increase student interaction. The three major relationships within the…

  6. Learning Activism, Acting with Phronesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The article "Socio-political development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others" by Darren Hoeg, Natalie Lemelin, and Lawrence Bencze described a language-learning curriculum that drew on elements of Socioscientific issues and Science, Technology, Society and Environment. Results showed that with a number of…

  7. Tau Reduction Diminishes Spatial Learning and Memory Deficits after Mild Repetitive Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jason S.; Craft, Ryan; Yu, Gui-Qiu; Ho, Kaitlyn; Wang, Xin; Mohan, Geetha; Mangnitsky, Sergey; Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Mucke, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Objective Because reduction of the microtubule-associated protein Tau has beneficial effects in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, we wanted to determine whether this strategy can also improve the outcome of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods We adapted a mild frontal impact model of TBI for wildtype C57Bl/6J mice and characterized the behavioral deficits it causes in these animals. The Barnes maze, Y maze, contextual and cued fear conditioning, elevated plus maze, open field, balance beam, and forced swim test were used to assess different behavioral functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 7 Tesla) and histological analysis of brain sections were used to look for neuropathological alterations. We also compared the functional effects of this TBI model and of controlled cortical impact in mice with two, one or no Tau alleles. Results Repeated (2-hit), but not single (1-hit), mild frontal impact impaired spatial learning and memory in wildtype mice as determined by testing of mice in the Barnes maze one month after the injury. Locomotor activity, anxiety, depression and fear related behaviors did not differ between injured and sham-injured mice. MRI imaging did not reveal focal injury or mass lesions shortly after the injury. Complete ablation or partial reduction of tau prevented deficits in spatial learning and memory after repeated mild frontal impact. Complete tau ablation also showed a trend towards protection after a single controlled cortical impact. Complete or partial reduction of tau also reduced the level of axonopathy in the corpus callosum after repeated mild frontal impact. Interpretation Tau promotes or enables the development of learning and memory deficits and of axonopathy after mild TBI, and tau reduction counteracts these adverse effects. PMID:25551452

  8. Sleep deprivation impairs spatial retrieval but not spatial learning in the non-human primate grey mouse lemur.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anisur; Languille, Solène; Lamberty, Yves; Babiloni, Claudio; Perret, Martine; Bordet, Regis; Blin, Olivier J; Jacob, Tom; Auffret, Alexandra; Schenker, Esther; Richardson, Jill; Pifferi, Fabien; Aujard, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    A bulk of studies in rodents and humans suggest that sleep facilitates different phases of learning and memory process, while sleep deprivation (SD) impairs these processes. Here we tested the hypothesis that SD could alter spatial learning and memory processing in a non-human primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), which is an interesting model of aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two sets of experiments were performed. In a first set of experiments, we investigated the effects of SD on spatial learning and memory retrieval after one day of training in a circular platform task. Eleven male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in three different conditions: without SD as a baseline reference, 8 h of SD before the training and 8 h of SD before the testing. The SD was confirmed by electroencephalographic recordings. Results showed no effect of SD on learning when SD was applied before the training. When the SD was applied before the testing, it induced an increase of the amount of errors and of the latency prior to reach the target. In a second set of experiments, we tested the effect of 8 h of SD on spatial memory retrieval after 3 days of training. Twenty male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in this set of experiments. In this condition, the SD did not affect memory retrieval. This is the first study that documents the disruptive effects of the SD on spatial memory retrieval in this primate which may serve as a new validated challenge to investigate the effects of new compounds along physiological and pathological aging. PMID:23717620

  9. Hippocampal expression of c-fos is not essential for spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; McQuade, Jill M Slane; Vorhees, Charles V; Xu, Ming

    2002-11-01

    The formation of long-term memory is thought to involve underlying changes in synaptic strength. Many studies have focused on the mechanisms of spatial learning behavior in mammals that is critically dependent on the proper function of the hippocampus. Because of the enduring nature of long-term memory, it is thought that gene expression is involved in this process. The immediate early gene (IEG) c-fos encodes a transcription factor. The c-Fos proteins form heterodimeric proteins with the c-Jun family proteins and the resulting AP-1 transcription complex plays a key role in coupling short-term events elicited by stimuli received at the cell membrane to long-term neuroplastic changes by regulating gene expression. c-fos is induced in the hippocampus after spatial learning. Despite this knowledge, the precise role of c-fos in memory formation and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To start investigating the role of c-fos in learning and memory and underlying mechanisms, we evaluated spatial learning capabilities using mice carrying a hippocampal region-specific mutation of c-fos. We found that the c-fos mutant mice exhibit normal spatial learning behaviors in both the Morris water maze and the Barnes maze tests compared to control mice. Our results suggest that hippocampal c-fos expression is not essential for spatial learning. PMID:12211087

  10. Modulation of spatial attention by goals, statistical learning, and monetary reward.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Sha, Li Z; Remington, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    This study documented the relative strength of task goals, visual statistical learning, and monetary reward in guiding spatial attention. Using a difficult T-among-L search task, we cued spatial attention to one visual quadrant by (i) instructing people to prioritize it (goal-driven attention), (ii) placing the target frequently there (location probability learning), or (iii) associating that quadrant with greater monetary gain (reward-based attention). Results showed that successful goal-driven attention exerted the strongest influence on search RT. Incidental location probability learning yielded a smaller though still robust effect. Incidental reward learning produced negligible guidance for spatial attention. The 95 % confidence intervals of the three effects were largely nonoverlapping. To understand these results, we simulated the role of location repetition priming in probability cuing and reward learning. Repetition priming underestimated the strength of location probability cuing, suggesting that probability cuing involved long-term statistical learning of how to shift attention. Repetition priming provided a reasonable account for the negligible effect of reward on spatial attention. We propose a multiple-systems view of spatial attention that includes task goals, search habit, and priming as primary drivers of top-down attention. PMID:26105657

  11. Near or far: The effect of spatial distance and vocabulary knowledge on word learning.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Emma L; Perry, Lynn K; Scott, Emilly J; Horst, Jessica S

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the role of spatial distance in word learning. Two-year-old children saw three novel objects named while the objects were either in close proximity to each other or spatially separated. Children were then tested on their retention for the name-object associations. Keeping the objects spatially separated from each other during naming was associated with increased retention for children with larger vocabularies. Children with a lower vocabulary size demonstrated better retention if they saw objects in close proximity to each other during naming. This demonstrates that keeping a clear view of objects during naming improves word learning for children who have already learned many words, but keeping objects within close proximal range is better for children at earlier stages of vocabulary acquisition. The effect of distance is therefore not equal across varying vocabulary sizes. The influences of visual crowding, cognitive load, and vocabulary size on word learning are discussed. PMID:26629672

  12. Temporal and Region-Specific Requirements of αCaMKII in Spatial and Contextual Learning

    PubMed Central

    Achterberg, Katharina G.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H.S.; Kool, Martijn J.; Goorden, Susanna M.I.; Post, Laura; Slump, Denise E.; Silva, Alcino J.; van Woerden, Geeske M.

    2014-01-01

    The α isoform of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) has been implicated extensively in molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying spatial and contextual learning in a wide variety of species. Germline deletion of Camk2a leads to severe deficits in spatial and contextual learning in mice. However, the temporal and region-specific requirements for αCaMKII have remained largely unexplored. Here, we generated conditional Camk2a mutants to examine the influence of spatially restricted and temporally controlled expression of αCaMKII. Forebrain-specific deletion of the Camk2a gene resulted in severe deficits in water maze and contextual fear learning, whereas mice with deletion restricted to the cerebellum learned normally. Furthermore, we found that temporally controlled deletion of the Camk2a gene in adult mice is as detrimental as germline deletion for learning and synaptic plasticity. Together, we confirm the requirement for αCaMKII in the forebrain, but not the cerebellum, in spatial and contextual learning. Moreover, we highlight the absolute requirement for intact αCaMKII expression at the time of learning. PMID:25143599

  13. Actively learning object names across ambiguous situations.

    PubMed

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies. PMID:23335580

  14. American ginseng extract reduces scopolamine-induced amnesia in a spatial learning task.

    PubMed Central

    Sloley, B D; Pang, P K; Huang, B H; Ba, F; Li, F L; Benishin, C G; Greenshaw, A J; Shan, J J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if HT-1001, an extract of American ginseng, affects scopolamine-induced memory and performance deficits in a spatial learning task, alters brain concentrations of aminergic neurotransmitters, and alters choline uptake in synaptosome preparations. DESIGN: Animal study. ANIMALS: 48 Sprague Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS: Long-term oral administration of a test material or control solution. Intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine (2 mg/kg) 30 minutes before testing. OUTCOME MEASURES: Performance on Morris water maze task, choline uptake, aminergic neurotransmitter analysis, in vitro monoamine oxidase analysis (of compounds). RESULTS: HT-1001 protected against scopolamine-induced amnesia and increased choline uptake in synaptosomal preparations. HT-1001 did not alter brain concentrations of norepinephrine, dopamine, 5-HT (serotonin), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid or 5-hydroxyindoleactic acid. HT-1001 had a very weak ability to inhibit monoamine oxidase activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: HT-1001 demonstrates a capacity to protect against scopolamine-induced memory deficits. PMID:10586535

  15. Experienced Teachers' Informal Learning: Learning Activities and Changes in Behavior and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Annemarieke; Brekelmans, Mieke; Beijaard, Douwe; Korthagen, Fred

    2009-01-01

    In this study on 32 teachers' learning in an informal learning environment, we analyzed changes in conceptions and behavior regarding students' active and self-regulated learning (ASL), and relations with the teachers' learning activities. Few relations were found between observed changes in "behavior" and learning activities. Changes in…

  16. Effect of leaf extract of Capparis zeylanica Linn. on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Ruchi; Chaudhary, Amrendra Kumar; Singh, Ranjit

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the nootropic activity of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves in rats. The raw material of Capparis zeylanica leaves was successively extracted with petroleum ether and methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus and macerated to form an aqueous extract. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated for their effect on spatial learning and memory in rats using the Morris water maze task. Three doses (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg; p.o.) of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica were administered for 7 successive days to separate groups of animals. Results showed that both the extracts significantly enhanced memory, as shown by decrease in escape latency time. Furthermore, methanolic and aqueous extracts in all doses tested significantly increased the time spent in the target quadrant during the probe trial, indicating retention of spatial memory of the location of a previously placed platform in the target quadrant. These findings indicate that methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves have potent nootropic activity. The anti-oxidant property of Capparis zeylanica may contribute favorably to the memory enhancement effect. However, further studies are needed to identify the exact mechanism of action. PMID:22261859

  17. Quantum Speedup for Active Learning Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparo, Giuseppe Davide; Dunjko, Vedran; Makmal, Adi; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel; Briegel, Hans J.

    2014-07-01

    Can quantum mechanics help us build intelligent learning agents? A defining signature of intelligent behavior is the capacity to learn from experience. However, a major bottleneck for agents to learn in real-life situations is the size and complexity of the corresponding task environment. Even in a moderately realistic environment, it may simply take too long to rationally respond to a given situation. If the environment is impatient, allowing only a certain time for a response, an agent may then be unable to cope with the situation and to learn at all. Here, we show that quantum physics can help and provide a quadratic speedup for active learning as a genuine problem of artificial intelligence. This result will be particularly relevant for applications involving complex task environments.

  18. Resveratrol improved the spatial learning and memory in subclinical hypothyroidism rat induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Xu, Ya-Yun; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yue; Qiu, Guo-Liang; Chu, Cheng-Hao; Wang, Cai-Yun; Qin, Gan; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol (RES) on the spatial learning and memory ability in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) rat model and the potential mechanism. A SCH rat model was induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization and the activity of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis was detected. The spatial learning and memory ability was tested using Morris water maze (MWM) and Y-maze. The protein expressions of synaptotagmin-1 (syt-1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were measured via western blot. The results showed that SCH rat model was successfully duplicated. The SCH rats showed impaired learning and memory in the behavioral tests. However, these changes were reversed by the treatment of RES (15mg/kg) and levothyroxine (LT4). Moreover, RES treated rats exhibited reduced plasma TSH level and hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) mRNA expression, which suggested that the imbalance of HPT axis in the SCH rats could be reversed by RES treatment. Furthermore, RES treatment up-regulated the protein levels of syt-1 and BDNF in hippocampus. These findings indicated an amelioration effect of RES on the spatial learning and memory in the SCH rats, the mechanism of which might be involved with its ability of modifying the hyperactive HPT axis and up-regulating the hippocampal hypo-expression of syt-1 and BDNF. PMID:26228795

  19. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity: role in spatial learning or the automatic recording of attended experience?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R G; Frey, U

    1997-01-01

    Allocentric spatial learning can sometimes occur in one trial. The incorporation of information into a spatial representation may, therefore, obey a one-trial correlational learning rule rather than a multi-trial error-correcting rule. It has been suggested that physiological implementation of such a rule could be mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus, as its induction obeys a correlational type of synaptic learning rule. Support for this idea came originally from the finding that intracerebral infusion of the NMDA antagonist AP5 impairs spatial learning, but studies summarized in the first part of this paper have called it into question. First, rats previously given experience of spatial learning in a watermaze can learn a new spatial reference memory task at a normal rate despite an appreciable NMDA receptor blockade. Second, the classical phenomenon of 'blocking' occurs in spatial learning. The latter finding implies that spatial learning can also be sensitive to an animal's expectations about reward and so depend on more than the detection of simple spatial correlations. In this paper a new hypothesis is proposed about the function of hippocampal LTP. This hypothesis retains the idea that LTP subserves rapid one-trial memory, but abandons the notion that it serves any specific role in the geometric aspects of spatial learning. It is suggested that LTP participates in the automatic recording of attended experience': a subsystem of episodic memory in which events are temporarily remembered in association with the contexts in which they occur. An automatic correlational form of synaptic plasticity is ideally suited to the online registration of context event associations. In support, it is reported that the ability of rats to remember the most recent place they have visited in a familiar environment is exquisitely sensitive to AP5 in a delay-dependent manner. Moreover, new studies of the lasting

  20. Is Peer Interaction Necessary for Optimal Active Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Debra L.; Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of…

  1. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Noveera T.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  2. RoboResource Technology Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck, Tom, Comp.; Frye, Ellen, Ed.

    Preparing students to be successful in a rapidly changing world means showing them how to use the tools of technology and how to integrate those tools into all areas of learning. This booklet is divided into three sections: Design Activities, Experiments, and Resources. The design activities ask students to collaborate on design projects. In these…

  3. Learning Activities for the Growth Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Linda, Ed.

    This poster, illustrated with a graphic of a caterpillar changing to a cocoon and emerging as a butterfly, presents learning activities for 7 weeks based on the seven stages of growth in the President's "Call to Action." Each week includes 5 days of activities based on seven themes: (1) "Reading on Your Own"; (2) "Getting Ready for Algebra"; (3)…

  4. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  5. Hippocampus-dependent place learning enables spatial flexibility in C57BL6/N mice.

    PubMed

    Kleinknecht, Karl R; Bedenk, Benedikt T; Kaltwasser, Sebastian F; Grünecker, Barbara; Yen, Yi-Chun; Czisch, Michael; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2012-01-01

    Spatial navigation is a fundamental capability necessary in everyday life to locate food, social partners, and shelter. It results from two very different strategies: (1) place learning which enables for flexible way finding and (2) response learning that leads to a more rigid "route following." Despite the importance of knockout techniques that are only available in mice, little is known about mice' flexibility in spatial navigation tasks. Here we demonstrate for C57BL6/N mice in a water-cross maze (WCM) that only place learning enables spatial flexibility and relearning of a platform position, whereas response learning does not. This capability depends on an intact hippocampal formation, since hippocampus lesions by ibotenic acid (IA) disrupted relearning. In vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed a volume loss of ≥60% of the hippocampus as a critical threshold for relearning impairments. In particular the changes in the left ventral hippocampus were indicative of relearning deficits. In summary, our findings establish the importance of hippocampus-dependent place learning for spatial flexibility and provide a first systematic analysis on spatial flexibility in mice. PMID:23293591

  6. Hippocampus-dependent place learning enables spatial flexibility in C57BL6/N mice

    PubMed Central

    Kleinknecht, Karl R.; Bedenk, Benedikt T.; Kaltwasser, Sebastian F.; Grünecker, Barbara; Yen, Yi-Chun; Czisch, Michael; Wotjak, Carsten T.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial navigation is a fundamental capability necessary in everyday life to locate food, social partners, and shelter. It results from two very different strategies: (1) place learning which enables for flexible way finding and (2) response learning that leads to a more rigid “route following.” Despite the importance of knockout techniques that are only available in mice, little is known about mice' flexibility in spatial navigation tasks. Here we demonstrate for C57BL6/N mice in a water-cross maze (WCM) that only place learning enables spatial flexibility and relearning of a platform position, whereas response learning does not. This capability depends on an intact hippocampal formation, since hippocampus lesions by ibotenic acid (IA) disrupted relearning. In vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed a volume loss of ≥60% of the hippocampus as a critical threshold for relearning impairments. In particular the changes in the left ventral hippocampus were indicative of relearning deficits. In summary, our findings establish the importance of hippocampus-dependent place learning for spatial flexibility and provide a first systematic analysis on spatial flexibility in mice. PMID:23293591

  7. Spatial learning of the water maze: progression of brain circuits mapped with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Conejo, N M; González-Pardo, H; Gonzalez-Lima, F; Arias, J L

    2010-03-01

    The progression of brain circuits involved in spatial learning tasks is still a matter of debate. In addition, the participation of individual regions at different stages of spatial learning remains a controversial issue. In order to address these questions, we used quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry as a metabolic brain mapping method applied to rats (Rattus norvegicus) trained in a water maze for 1, 3 or 5 days of training. Sustained changes throughout training were found in the lateral septal nucleus and anteroventral thalamic nucleus. As compared to naïve or habituation groups, rats with 1 day of training in the spatial learning task showed involvement of the lateral mammillary nucleus, basolateral amygdala and anterodorsal thalamic nucleus. By 5 days of training, there were mean changes in the hippocampal CA3 field and the prefrontal cortex. The regions involved and their pattern of network interactions changed progressively over days of training. At 1-day there was an open serial network of pairwise correlations. At 3-days there was a more closed reciprocal network of intercorrelations. At 5-days there were three separate parallel networks. In addition, brain-behavior correlations showed that CA1 and CA3 hippocampal fields together with the parietal cortex are related to the mastery of the spatial learning task. The present study extends previous findings on the progressive contribution of neural networks to spatial learning. PMID:19969098

  8. Spatial Segmentation of Image Sequences Based on Their Time Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatsanos, N. P.

    2006-04-01

    There are many applications in medical imaging where one is interested in finding the areas of the image that exhibit the same time activity. Such applications occur in positron and single photon emission imaging as well as in perfusion studies with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this talk we will present Bayesian methodology based on clustering to solve this problem. At first the dimensionality of the pixel observations is reduced using a probabilistic principle component model along the spatial dimension of the data. Then, a multidimensional Gaussian mixture model with spatial constraints is used for clustering. Examples from MRI perfusion studies of the heart and the brain will be shown.

  9. Understanding the Correlations Among Undergraduates’ Spatial Reasoning Skills and Their Ability to Learn Astronomy Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge

    2012-01-01

    We tacitly assume that astronomy is a conceptual domain deeply entrenched in three dimensions and that learners need to utilize spatial thinking to develop understanding of the field. In particular, cognitive science generally views students’ spatial thinking abilities as something that can be enhanced through purposeful instruction, whereas aptitude and ability to learn complex ideas might be immutable. Yet, precise investigations into the underlying relationship between students’ spatial reasoning ability and their ability to learn astronomy content in college science classes are beginning to reveal insight into how students cognitively engage in learning astronomy. In support, researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research conducted a first-steps correlational study of 148 non-science majoring undergraduate students. Using a single group, multiple-measures, longitudinal study design, students’ cognition was measured for pretest and posttest gains in astronomy understanding using established assessment tools, including the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) over the duration of instruction. In the middle of the semester they were tested for spatial reasoning ability using a subset of reliable spatial thinking assessment tools from the Spatial Intelligence and Learning Center (SILC). Results suggest some instructional techniques can be predicted as successful a priori while others are as yet unresolved. This work was supported, in part, by the Wyoming Excellence in Higher Education Endowment.

  10. Hyperspectral imagery super-resolution by compressive sensing inspired dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Hongyi; Wei, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Due to the instrumental and imaging optics limitations, it is difficult to acquire high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Super-resolution (SR) imagery aims at inferring high quality images of a given scene from degraded versions of the same scene. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral imagery super-resolution (HSI-SR) method via dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization. The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, inspired by the compressive sensing (CS) framework, for learning the high resolution dictionary, we encourage stronger sparsity on image patches and promote smaller coherence between the learned dictionary and sensing matrix. Thus, a sparsity and incoherence restricted dictionary learning method is proposed to achieve higher efficiency sparse representation. Second, a variational regularization model combing a spatial sparsity regularization term and a new local spectral similarity preserving term is proposed to integrate the spectral and spatial-contextual information of the HSI. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recover spatial information and better preserve spectral information. The high spatial resolution HSI reconstructed by the proposed method outperforms reconstructed results by other well-known methods in terms of both objective measurements and visual evaluation. PMID:25608212

  11. Hyperspectral Imagery Super-Resolution by Compressive Sensing Inspired Dictionary Learning and Spatial-Spectral Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Hongyi; Wei, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Due to the instrumental and imaging optics limitations, it is difficult to acquire high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Super-resolution (SR) imagery aims at inferring high quality images of a given scene from degraded versions of the same scene. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral imagery super-resolution (HSI-SR) method via dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization. The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, inspired by the compressive sensing (CS) framework, for learning the high resolution dictionary, we encourage stronger sparsity on image patches and promote smaller coherence between the learned dictionary and sensing matrix. Thus, a sparsity and incoherence restricted dictionary learning method is proposed to achieve higher efficiency sparse representation. Second, a variational regularization model combing a spatial sparsity regularization term and a new local spectral similarity preserving term is proposed to integrate the spectral and spatial-contextual information of the HSI. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recover spatial information and better preserve spectral information. The high spatial resolution HSI reconstructed by the proposed method outperforms reconstructed results by other well-known methods in terms of both objective measurements and visual evaluation. PMID:25608212

  12. Active route learning in virtual environments: disentangling movement control from intention, instruction specificity, and navigation control.

    PubMed

    von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2013-09-01

    Active navigation research examines how physiological and psychological involvement in navigation benefits spatial learning. However, existing conceptualizations of active navigation comprise separable, distinct factors. This research disentangles the contributions of movement control (i.e., self-contained vs. observed movement) as a central factor from learning intention (Experiment 1), instruction specificity and instruction control (Experiment 2), as well as navigation control (Experiment 3) to spatial learning in virtual environments. We tested the effects of these factors on landmark recognition (landmark knowledge), tour-integration and route navigation (route knowledge). Our findings suggest that movement control leads to robust advantages in landmark knowledge as compared to observed movement. Advantages in route knowledge do not depend on learning intention, but on the need to elaborate spatial information. Whenever the necessary level of elaboration is assured for observed movement, too, the development of route knowledge is not inferior to that for self-contained movement. PMID:22922991

  13. Sex and boldness explain individual differences in spatial learning in a lizard

    PubMed Central

    Carazo, Pau; Noble, Daniel W. A.; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding individual differences in cognitive performance is a major challenge to animal behaviour and cognition studies. We used the Eastern water skink (Eulamprus quoyii) to examine associations between exploration, boldness and individual variability in spatial learning, a dimension of lizard cognition with important bearing on fitness. We show that males perform better than females in a biologically relevant spatial learning task. This is the first evidence for sex differences in learning in a reptile, and we argue that it is probably owing to sex-specific selective pressures that may be widespread in lizards. Across the sexes, we found a clear association between boldness after a simulated predatory attack and the probability of learning the spatial task. In contrast to previous studies, we found a nonlinear association between boldness and learning: both ‘bold’ and ‘shy’ behavioural types were more successful learners than intermediate males. Our results do not fit with recent predictions suggesting that individual differences in learning may be linked with behavioural types via high–low-risk/reward trade-offs. We suggest the possibility that differences in spatial cognitive performance may arise in lizards as a consequence of the distinct environmental variability and complexity experienced by individuals as a result of their sex and social tactics. PMID:24619443

  14. Women and Spatial Change: Learning Resources for Social Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengert, Arlene C., Ed.; Monk, Janice J., Ed.

    Six units focusing on the effects of spatial change on women are designed to supplement college introductory courses in geography and the social sciences. Unit 1, Woman and Agricultural Landscapes, focuses on how women contributed to landscape change in prehistory, women's impact on the environment, and the hypothesis that women developed…

  15. Sleep Enhances a Spatially Mediated Generalization of Learned Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Tolat, Anisha; Spiers, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is thought to play an important role in memory consolidation. Here we tested whether sleep alters the subjective value associated with objects located in spatial clusters that were navigated to in a large-scale virtual town. We found that sleep enhances a generalization of the value of high-value objects to the value of locally clustered…

  16. Relationship between Spatial Abilities, Mental Rotation and Functional Anatomy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillot, Aymeric; Champely, Stephane; Batier, Christophe; Thiriet, Patrice; Collet, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between visuo-spatial representation, mental rotation (MR) and functional anatomy examination results. A total of 184 students completed the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), Mental Rotation Test (MRT) and Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control. The time spent on personal assignment was also considered.…

  17. Spatial Constraints on Learning in Visual Search: Modeling Contextual Cuing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Timothy F.; Chun, Marvin M.

    2007-01-01

    Predictive visual context facilitates visual search, a benefit termed contextual cuing (M. M. Chun & Y. Jiang, 1998). In the original task, search arrays were repeated across blocks such that the spatial configuration (context) of all of the distractors in a display predicted an embedded target location. The authors modeled existing results using…

  18. Design and Implementation of an Object Oriented Learning Activity System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Huan-Yu; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Weng, Jui-Feng; Su, Jun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    With the development of e-learning technology, many specifications of instructional design have been proposed to make learning activity sharable and reusable. With the specifications and sufficient learning resources, the researches further focus on how to provide learners more appropriate learning activities to improve their learning performance.…

  19. Spatial Learning Deficits in Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schandler, Steven L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated whether visuospatial deficits displayed by chronic alcoholics are present in persons at risk for alcoholism. Compared 17 social drinkers who were children of alcoholics and 17 who had no family alcoholism history. Visuospatial learning of children of alcoholics was significantly poorer than that of subjects with no family alcoholism…

  20. Spatial Context Learning Survives Interference from Working Memory Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Timothy J.; Sussman, Rachel S.; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2010-01-01

    The human visual system is constantly confronted with an overwhelming amount of information, only a subset of which can be processed in complete detail. Attention and implicit learning are two important mechanisms that optimize vision. This study addressed the relationship between these two mechanisms. Specifically we asked, Is implicit learning…

  1. Location-Aware Mobile Learning of Spatial Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karavirta, Ville

    2013-01-01

    Learning an algorithm--a systematic sequence of operations for solving a problem with given input--is often difficult for students due to the abstract nature of the algorithms and the data they process. To help students understand the behavior of algorithms, a subfield in computing education research has focused on algorithm…

  2. Can Active Navigation Be as Good as Driving? A Comparison of Spatial Memory in Drivers and Backseat Drivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stulpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C.

    2012-01-01

    When driving a vehicle, either the driver or a passenger (henceforth: backseat driver) may be responsible for navigation. Research on active navigation, primarily addressed in virtual environments, suggests that controlling navigation is more central for spatial learning than controlling movement. To test this assumption in a real-world scenario,…

  3. Testing the spatial distribution of economic activity in Jiangsu province by means of spatial association methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ying; Wang, Weina; Zhang, Shuhui; Yan, Weibiao

    2007-06-01

    The new economic geography theory suggests that regional development is strongly dependent on market access. Due to a snowball effect, spatial clusters of employment and firms might induce regional income increases. In order to identify explicit patterns of regional development, this study makes the empirical attempts by applying spatial association methods for estimating and distinguishing various spatial patterns of economic activities for three county-level factors, namely income, employment and firms of Jiangsu in 2004. The conclusions in this study reveal that on the whole, there is significant, positive correlation of income, employment and firms between regions over the whole space in that year. Moreover, regional income can be to a large extent explained by the market potentials of its neighbors. Apart from market access, regional incomes might be affected by other factors such as local amenities or technology spillover. Also, highly agglomerated clusters of employment and firms give rise to high regional incomes. Strong spatial heterogeneity of employment and firms indicates that firms locate first, anticipating the subsequent consumers' locations and demand functions. Thus, the mobility of firms and employment can induce the highly agglomeration of income.

  4. Active Learning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To provide a brief introduction to the definition and disposition to think critically along with active learning strategies to promote critical thinking. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE and Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) from 1933 to 2002 for literature related to critical thinking, the disposition to think critically, questioning, and various critical-thinking pedagogic techniques. Data Synthesis: The development of critical thinking has been the topic of many educational articles recently. Numerous instructional methods exist to promote thought and active learning in the classroom, including case studies, discussion methods, written exercises, questioning techniques, and debates. Three methods—questioning, written exercises, and discussion and debates—are highlighted. Conclusions/Recommendations: The definition of critical thinking, the disposition to think critically, and different teaching strategies are featured. Although not appropriate for all subject matter and classes, these learning strategies can be used and adapted to facilitate critical thinking and active participation. PMID:16558680

  5. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-03-22

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.

  6. Saffron ethanolic extract attenuates oxidative stress, spatial learning, and memory impairments induced by local injection of ethidium bromide

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Sh.; Hatami, H.; Dehghan, Gh.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been observed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) because of hippocampal insults. Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, on learning and memory loss and the induction of oxidative stress in the hippocampus of toxic models of MS. One week after MS induction by intrahippocampal injection of ethidium bromide (EB), animals were treated with two doses of saffron extract (5 and 10 μg/rat) for a week. Learning and spatial memory status was assessed using Morris Water Maze. After termination of behavioral testing days, animals were decapitated and the bilateral hippocampi dissected to measure some of the oxidative stress markers including the level of hippocampi thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Treatment with saffron extract ameliorated spatial learning and memory impairment (P<0.05). Total antioxidant reactivity capacity, lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant enzymes activity in the hippocampus homogenates of EB treated group were significantly higher than those of all other groups (P<0.01). Indeed, treatment with a saffron extract for 7 consecutive days significantly restored the antioxidant status to the normal levels (P<0.01). These observations reveal that saffron extract can ameliorate the impairment of learning and memory as well as the disturbances in oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus of experimental models of MS. PMID:26600849

  7. [An improved N-FINDR endmember extraction algorithm based on manifold learning and spatial information].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-yan; Gao, Kun; Ni, Guo-qiang; Zhu, Zhen-yu; Cheng, Hao-bo

    2013-09-01

    An improved N-FINDR endmember extraction algorithm by combining manifold learning and spatial information is presented under nonlinear mixing assumptions. Firstly, adaptive local tangent space alignment is adapted to seek potential intrinsic low-dimensional structures of hyperspectral high-diemensional data and reduce original data into a low-dimensional space. Secondly, spatial preprocessing is used by enhancing each pixel vector in spatially homogeneous areas, according to the continuity of spatial distribution of the materials. Finally, endmembers are extracted by looking for the largest simplex volume. The proposed method can increase the precision of endmember extraction by solving the nonlinearity of hyperspectral data and taking advantage of spatial information. Experimental results on simulated and real hyperspectral data demonstrate that the proposed approach outperformed the geodesic simplex volume maximization (GSVM), vertex component analysis (VCA) and spatial preprocessing N-FINDR method (SPPNFINDR). PMID:24369664

  8. Brain Oscillatory Activity during Spatial Navigation: Theta and Gamma Activity Link Medial Temporal and Parietal Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David J.; Congedo, Marco; Ciorciari, Joseph; Silberstein, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Brain oscillatory correlates of spatial navigation were investigated using blind source separation (BSS) and standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses of 62-channel EEG recordings. Twenty-five participants were instructed to navigate to distinct landmark buildings in a previously learned virtual reality town…

  9. Sleep enhances a spatially mediated generalization of learned values

    PubMed Central

    Tolat, Anisha; Spiers, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is thought to play an important role in memory consolidation. Here we tested whether sleep alters the subjective value associated with objects located in spatial clusters that were navigated to in a large-scale virtual town. We found that sleep enhances a generalization of the value of high-value objects to the value of locally clustered objects, resulting in an impaired memory for the value of high-valued objects. Our results are consistent with (a) spatial context helping to bind items together in long-term memory and serve as a basis for generalizing across memories and (b) sleep mediating memory effects on salient/reward-related items. PMID:26373834

  10. Sleep enhances a spatially mediated generalization of learned values.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Tolat, Anisha; Spiers, Hugo J

    2015-10-01

    Sleep is thought to play an important role in memory consolidation. Here we tested whether sleep alters the subjective value associated with objects located in spatial clusters that were navigated to in a large-scale virtual town. We found that sleep enhances a generalization of the value of high-value objects to the value of locally clustered objects, resulting in an impaired memory for the value of high-valued objects. Our results are consistent with (a) spatial context helping to bind items together in long-term memory and serve as a basis for generalizing across memories and (b) sleep mediating memory effects on salient/reward-related items. PMID:26373834

  11. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial learning are impaired in a rat model of sleep fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Tartar, Jaime L; Ward, Christopher P; McKenna, James T; Thakkar, Mahesh; Arrigoni, Elda; McCarley, Robert W; Brown, Ritchie E; Strecker, Robert E

    2006-05-01

    Sleep fragmentation, a symptom in many clinical disorders, leads to cognitive impairments. To investigate the mechanisms by which sleep fragmentation results in memory impairments, rats were awakened once every 2 min via 30 s of slow movement on an automated treadmill. Within 1 h of this sleep interruption (SI) schedule, rats began to sleep in the 90-s periods without treadmill movement. Total non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) sleep time did not change over the 24 h of SI, although there was a significant decline in rapid eye movement sleep (REM) sleep and a corresponding increase in time spent awake. In the SI group, the mean duration of sleep episodes decreased and delta activity during periods of wake increased. Control rats either lived in the treadmill without movement (cage controls, CC), or had 10-min periods of movement followed by 30 min of non-movement allowing deep/continuous sleep (exercise controls, EC). EC did not differ from baseline in the total time spent in each vigilance state. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting change in synaptic efficacy thought to underlie declarative memory formation, was absent in rats exposed to 24 and 72 h SI. In contrast, LTP was normal in EC rats. However, long-term depression and paired-pulse facilitation were unaltered by 24 h SI. Twenty-four hour SI also impaired acquisition of spatial learning in the hippocampus-dependent water maze test. Twenty-four hour SI elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT) to levels previously shown to enhance LTP (125 ng/mL). The results suggest that sleep fragmentation negatively impacts spatial learning. Loss of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent LTP in the hippocampal CA1 region may be one mechanism involved in this deficit. PMID:16817877

  12. Spatial learning and memory as a function of age in the dog.

    PubMed

    Head, E; Mehta, R; Hartley, J; Kameka, M; Cummings, B J; Cotman, C W; Ruehl, W W; Milgram, N W

    1995-10-01

    Spatial learning and memory were studied in dogs of varying ages and sources. Compared to young dogs, a significantly higher proportion of aged dogs could not acquire a spatial delayed nonmatching-to-sample task. A regression analysis revealed a significant age effect during acquisition. Spatial memory was studied by comparing performance at delay interval of 20, 70, and 110 s. At short delays aged and young dogs were similar; at longer delays, errors increased to a greater extent in old than in young dogs; however this was not statistically significant. It was possible to identify 2 groups of aged animals, age-impaired and age-unimpaired. Several of the dogs were also tested on an object recognition memory task, which was more difficult to learn than the spatial task. The possibility that these findings are confounded by breed differences is considered. Overall, the present results provide further evidence of the value of a canine model of aging. PMID:8554710

  13. Learning the spatial features of a locomotor task is slowed after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tyrell, Christine M.; Helm, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The capacity for humans to learn a new walking pattern has been explored with a split-belt treadmill during single sessions of adaptation, but the split-belt treadmill can also be used to study longer-term motor learning. Although the literature provides some information about motor learning after stroke, existing studies have primarily involved the upper extremity and the results are mixed. The purpose of this study was to characterize learning of a novel locomotor task in stroke survivors. We hypothesized that the presence of neurological dysfunction from stroke would result in slower learning of a locomotor task and decreased retention of what was learned and that these deficits would be related to level of sensorimotor impairment. Sixteen participants with stroke and sixteen neurologically intact participants walked on a split-belt treadmill for 15 min on 5 consecutive days and during a retention test. Step length and limb phase were measured to capture learning of the spatial and temporal aspects of walking. Learning the spatial pattern of split-belt treadmill walking was slowed after stroke compared with neurologically intact subjects, whereas there were no differences between these two groups in learning the temporal pattern. During the retention test, poststroke participants demonstrated equal retention of the split-belt treadmill walking pattern compared with those who were neurologically intact. The results suggest that although stroke survivors are slower to learn a new spatial pattern of gait, if given sufficient time they are able to do so to the same extent as those who are neurologically intact. PMID:24790172

  14. Techniques for Promoting Active Learning. The Cross Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia

    This guide offers suggestions for implementing active learning techniques in the community college classroom. The author argues that, although much of the literature on active learning emphasizes collaboration and small-group learning, active learning does not always involve interaction. It must also involve reflection and self-monitoring of both…

  15. Deletion of PEA-15 in mice is associated with specific impairments of spatial learning abilities

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background PEA-15 is a phosphoprotein that binds and regulates ERK MAP kinase and RSK2 and is highly expressed throughout the brain. PEA-15 alters c-Fos and CREB-mediated transcription as a result of these interactions. To determine if PEA-15 contributes to the function of the nervous system we tested mice lacking PEA-15 in a series of experiments designed to measure learning, sensory/motor function, and stress reactivity. Results We report that PEA-15 null mice exhibited impaired learning in three distinct spatial tasks, while they exhibited normal fear conditioning, passive avoidance, egocentric navigation, and odor discrimination. PEA-15 null mice also had deficient forepaw strength and in limited instances, heightened stress reactivity and/or anxiety. However, these non-cognitive variables did not appear to account for the observed spatial learning impairments. The null mice maintained normal weight, pain sensitivity, and coordination when compared to wild type controls. Conclusion We found that PEA-15 null mice have spatial learning disabilities that are similar to those of mice where ERK or RSK2 function is impaired. We suggest PEA-15 may be an essential regulator of ERK-dependent spatial learning. PMID:19917132

  16. Spatial learning while navigating with severely degraded viewing: The role of attention and mobility monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Kristina M.; Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Thompson, William B.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to navigate without getting lost is an important aspect of quality of life. In five studies, we evaluated how spatial learning is affected by the increased demands of keeping oneself safe while walking with degraded vision (mobility monitoring). We proposed that safe low-vision mobility requires attentional resources, providing competition for those needed to learn a new environment. In Experiments 1 and 2 participants navigated along paths in a real-world indoor environment with simulated degraded vision or normal vision. Memory for object locations seen along the paths was better with normal compared to degraded vision. With degraded vision, memory was better when participants were guided by an experimenter (low monitoring demands) versus unguided (high monitoring demands). In Experiments 3 and 4, participants walked while performing an auditory task. Auditory task performance was superior with normal compared to degraded vision. With degraded vision, auditory task performance was better when guided compared to unguided. In Experiment 5, participants performed both the spatial learning and auditory tasks under degraded vision. Results showed that attention mediates the relationship between mobility-monitoring demands and spatial learning. These studies suggest that more attention is required and spatial learning is impaired when navigating with degraded viewing. PMID:25706766

  17. Spatial learning while navigating with severely degraded viewing: The role of attention and mobility monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rand, Kristina M; Creem-Regehr, Sarah H; Thompson, William B

    2015-06-01

    The ability to navigate without getting lost is an important aspect of quality of life. In 5 studies, we evaluated how spatial learning is affected by the increased demands of keeping oneself safe while walking with degraded vision (mobility monitoring). We proposed that safe low vision mobility requires attentional resources, providing competition for those needed to learn a new environment. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants navigated along paths in a real-world indoor environment with simulated degraded vision or normal vision. Memory for object locations seen along the paths was better with normal compared with degraded vision. With degraded vision, memory was better when participants were guided by an experimenter (low monitoring demands) versus unguided (high monitoring demands). In Experiments 3 and 4, participants walked while performing an auditory task. Auditory task performance was superior with normal compared with degraded vision. With degraded vision, auditory task performance was better when guided compared with unguided. In Experiment 5, participants performed both the spatial learning and auditory tasks under degraded vision. Results showed that attention mediates the relationship between mobility-monitoring demands and spatial learning. These studies suggest that more attention is required and spatial learning is impaired when navigating with degraded viewing. PMID:25706766

  18. Astronomy Learning Activities for Tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Four web-based tools allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn concepts in astronomy. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. The first tool “Three Color” allows students to combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. The second tool “Star Clusters” allows students to compare images of stars in clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes in order to produce color-magnitude diagrams to determine cluster ages. The third tool adapts Travis Rector’s “NovaSearch” to allow students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae. After students find a nova, they are able to measure the time over which the nova fades away. A fourth tool, Proper Pair, allows students to interact with Hipparcos data to evaluate close double stars are physical binaries or chance superpositions. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  19. Using Oceanography to Support Active Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, V.

    2012-04-01

    Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from

  20. Can zebrafish learn spatial tasks? An empirical analysis of place and single CS-US associative learning

    PubMed Central

    Karnik, Indraneel; Gerlai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish may be an ideal tool with which genes underlying learning and memory can be identified and functionally investigated. From a translational viewpoint, relational learning and episodic memory are particularly important as their impairment is the hallmark of prevalent human neurodegenerative diseases. Recent reports suggest that zebrafish are capable of solving complex relational-type associative learning tasks, namely spatial learning tasks. However, it is not known whether good performance in these tasks was truly based upon relational learning or upon a single CS-US association. Here we study whether zebrafish can find a rewarding stimulus (sight of conspecifics) based upon a single associative cue or/and upon the location of the reward using a method conceptually similar to ‘context and cue dependent fear conditioning’ employed with rodents. Our results confirm that zebrafish can form an association between a salient visual cue and the rewarding stimulus and at the same time they can also learn where the reward is presented. Although our results do not prove that zebrafish form a dynamic spatial map of their surroundings and use this map to locate their reward, they do show that these fish perform similarly to rodents whose hippocampal function is unimpaired. These results further strengthen the notion that complex cognitive abilities exist in the zebrafish and thus they may be analyzed using the excellent genetic tool set developed for this simple vertebrate. PMID:22633962

  1. Pre-pubertal castration improves spatial learning during mid-adolescence in rats.

    PubMed

    Moradpour, Farshad; Naghdi, Nasser; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Javan, Mohamad; Choopani, Samira; Gharaylou, Zeinab

    2013-10-01

    Hippocampus functions, including spatial cognition and stress responses, mature during adolescence. In addition, hippocampus neuronal structures are modified by circulating sex steroids, which dramatically increase during adolescence. Therefore, the effects of castration and the circulating levels of the main sex steroid testosterone on spatial learning and memory were examined across postnatal ages to test whether pre-pubertal castration affected rats' spatial ability in the Morris Water maze (MWM). Male rats were either castrated or sham-castrated at 22d (days of age), or left gonadally intact. They were then trained and tested in the MWM beginning at 28d, 35d, 45d or 60d. We found that all of the intact rats learned the spatial task; however, the males at 22d and 28d required more trials to acquire the task than the males at older ages. The males castrated at 22d and tested at 35d had significantly lower escape latency and traveled distance during training than the sham-castrated males trained at the same age. No differences were observed in mean values of escape latency and traveled distance at 45d even though they had comparable levels of testosterone. We conclude that adult-typical performance for male spatial memory emerges during mid-adolescence and that pre-pubertal castration appears to improve spatial learning during this time. PMID:23871792

  2. An Evaluation of a Constructivist Online Collaborative Learning Activity: A Case Study on Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Koo Ah; Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Mohamed; Samsudin, Khairul Anuar; Guru, Balachandher Krishnan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a case study which involved 32 secondary school students participating in an online collaborative learning (OCL) activity known as Diary of Discovering Geometry. This activity aimed to explore the real contents in the learners' surrounding for discovering the spatial concepts and the applications of geometry. The purpose of the…

  3. Identifying Clusters of Active Transportation Using Spatial Scan Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lan; Stinchcomb, David G.; Pickle, Linda W.; Dill, Jennifer; Berrigan, David

    2009-01-01

    Background There is an intense interest in the possibility that neighborhood characteristics influence active transportation such as walking or biking. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how a spatial cluster identification method can evaluate the geographic variation of active transportation and identify neighborhoods with unusually high/low levels of active transportation. Methods Self-reported walking/biking prevalence, demographic characteristics, street connectivity variables, and neighborhood socioeconomic data were collected from respondents to the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS; N=10,688) in Los Angeles County (LAC) and San Diego County (SDC). Spatial scan statistics were used to identify clusters of high or low prevalence (with and without age-adjustment) and the quantity of time spent walking and biking. The data, a subset from the 2001 CHIS, were analyzed in 2007–2008. Results Geographic clusters of significantly high or low prevalence of walking and biking were detected in LAC and SDC. Structural variables such as street connectivity and shorter block lengths are consistently associated with higher levels of active transportation, but associations between active transportation and socioeconomic variables at the individual and neighborhood levels are mixed. Only one cluster with less time spent walking and biking among walkers/bikers was detected in LAC, and this was of borderline significance. Age-adjustment affects the clustering pattern of walking/biking prevalence in LAC, but not in SDC. Conclusions The use of spatial scan statistics to identify significant clustering of health behaviors such as active transportation adds to the more traditional regression analysis that examines associations between behavior and environmental factors by identifying specific geographic areas with unusual levels of the behavior independent of predefined administrative units. PMID:19589451

  4. Concept Learning for Achieving Personalized Ontologies: An Active Learning Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şensoy, Murat; Yolum, Pinar

    In many multiagent approaches, it is usual to assume the existence of a common ontology among agents. However, in dynamic systems, the existence of such an ontology is unrealistic and its maintenance is cumbersome. Burden of maintaining a common ontology can be alleviated by enabling agents to evolve their ontologies personally. However, with different ontologies, agents are likely to run into communication problems since their vocabularies are different from each other. Therefore, to achieve personalized ontologies, agents must have a means to understand the concepts used by others. Consequently, this paper proposes an approach that enables agents to teach each other concepts from their ontologies using examples. Unlike other concept learning approaches, our approach enables the learner to elicit most informative examples interactively from the teacher. Hence, the learner participates to the learning process actively. We empirically compare the proposed approach with the previous concept learning approaches. Our experiments show that using the proposed approach, agents can learn new concepts successfully and with fewer examples.

  5. Learning Outcomes of Project-Based and Inquiry-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panasan, Mookdaporn; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Organization of science learning activities is necessary to rely on various methods of organization of learning and to be appropriate to learners. Organization of project-based learning activities and inquiry-based learning activities are teaching methods which can help students understand scientific knowledge. It would be more…

  6. Learning Outcomes between Socioscientific Issues-Based Learning and Conventional Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongsri, Piyaluk; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Socioscientific issues-based learning activity is essential for scientific reasoning skills and it could be used for analyzing problems be applied to each situation for more successful and suitable. The purposes of this research aimed to compare learning achievement, analytical thinking and moral reasoning of seventh grade…

  7. Syncope. What Is It? Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Pam

    This learning activity packaage on syncope (fainting) is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a glossary, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  8. Perspectives on Learning, Thinking, and Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; Greeno, James G.; Reder, Lynne M.; Simon, Herbert A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the cognitive and situative research approaches, identifying several points on which they agree (e.g., individual and social perspectives on activity are fundamental in education; learning can be general, and abstractions can be efficacious, but sometimes they are not; and situative and cognitive approaches can cast light on different…

  9. Learning about Outdoor Education through Authentic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The potential, for the learner, of a maths trail was documented in MT219. Here, the focus is on the planning element of such an event from the perspective of a group of student teachers. Personal reactions, and insights are used to demonstrate that "real, and authentic, learning" takes place for all those involved in the activity.

  10. Active/Cooperative Learning in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandiera, Milena; Bruno, Costanza

    2006-01-01

    The study describes a teaching action undertaken in the belief that the use of methodologies based on active and cooperative learning could obviate some of the most worrying deficiencies in current scientific teaching, while at the same time supporting the validity of the constructivistic theory that prompted them. A teaching action on genetically…

  11. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  12. Active Citizenship, Education and Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdwell, Jonathan; Scott, Ralph; Horley, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how active citizenship can be encouraged through education and community action. It proposes that service learning and a renewed focus on voluntarism can both promote social cohesion between different ethnic and cultural groups while also fostering among the population a greater understanding of and commitment to civic…

  13. Cultural Historical Activity Theory and Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Harry

    2004-01-01

    In this article I will discuss the route by which I came to work with Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). The brief tracing of my own biography will highlight theoretical and methodological milestones. I will then discuss my current work, with colleagues, on approaches to investigating and improving the learning of professionals who are…

  14. Cashier/Checker Learning Activity Packets (LAPs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    Twenty-four learning activity packets (LAPs) are provided for six areas of instruction in a cashier/checker program. Section A, Orientation, contains an LAP on exploring the job of cashier-checker. Section B, Operations, has nine LAPs, including those on operating the cash register, issuing trading stamps, and completing the cash register balance…

  15. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  16. Active Learning in the Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naron, Carol

    Many students enter physics classes filled with misconceptions about physics concepts. Students tend to retain these misconceptions into their adult lives, even after physics instruction. Constructivist researchers have found that students gain understanding through their experiences. Researchers have also found that active learning practices increase conceptual understanding of introductory physics students. This project study sought to examine whether incorporating active learning practices in an advanced placement physics classroom increased conceptual understanding as measured by the force concept inventory (FCI). Physics students at the study site were given the FCI as both a pre- and posttest. Test data were analyzed using two different methods---a repeated-measures t test and the Hake gain method. The results of this research project showed that test score gains were statistically significant, as measured by the t test. The Hake gain results indicated a low (22.5%) gain for the class. The resulting project was a curriculum plan for teaching the mechanics portion of Advanced Placement (AP) physics B as well as several active learning classroom practices supported by the research. This project will allow AP physics teachers an opportunity to improve their curricular practices. Locally, the results of this project study showed that research participants gained understanding of physics concepts. Social change may occur as teachers implement active learning strategies, thus creating improved student understanding of physics concepts.

  17. The Surgical Scrub. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…

  18. Learning Activity Package, Algebra-Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  19. Measuring Active Learning to Predict Course Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John E.; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether active learning within computer-based training courses can be measured and whether it serves as a predictor of learner-perceived course quality. A major corporation participated in this research, providing access to internal employee training courses, training representatives, and historical course evaluation data.…

  20. Learning Activity Package, Pre-Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in topics in pre-algebra, the units cover the decimal numeration system; number theory; fractions and decimals; ratio, proportion, and percent; sets; properties of operations; rational numbers; real numbers; open expressions; and open rational…

  1. The Enlightenment Revisited: Sources & Interpretations. Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donato, Clorinda; And Others

    This resource book provides 26 learning activities with background materials for teaching about the Enlightenment. Topics include: (1) "What Was the Enlightenment?"; (2) "An Introduction to the Philosophes"; (3) "Was the Enlightenment a Revolt Against Rationalism?"; (4) "Were the Philosophes Democrats? A Comparison of the 'Enlightened' Ideas of…

  2. Temperature, Pulse, and Respiration. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on temperature, pulse, and respiration is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  3. An Active Learning Approach to Teaching Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolinsky, Beverly

    2001-01-01

    Provides suggestions for using active learning as the primary means to teaching statistics in order to create a collaborative environment. Addresses such strategies as using SPSS Base 7.5 for Windows and course periods centered on answering student-generated questions. Discusses various writing intensive assignments. (CMK)

  4. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  5. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  6. Spatial olfactory learning facilitates long-term depression in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    André, Marion Agnès Emma; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it has emerged that visual spatial exploration facilitates synaptic plasticity at different synapses within the trisynaptic network. Particularly striking is the finding that visuospatial contexts facilitate hippocampal long-term depression (LTD), raising the possibility that this form of plasticity may be important for memory formation. It is not known whether other sensory modalities elicit similar permissive effects on LTD. Here, we explored if spatial olfactory learning facilitates LTD in the hippocampus region of freely behaving rats. Patterned afferent stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals elicited short-term depression (STD) (<1 h) of evoked responses in the Stratum radiatum of the CA1 region. Coupling of this protocol with novel exploration of a spatial constellation of olfactory cues facilitated short-term depression into LTD that lasted for over 24 h. Facilitation of LTD did not occur when animals were re-exposed 1 week later to the same odors in the same spatial constellation. Evaluation of learning behavior revealed that 1 week after the 1st odor exposure, the animals remembered the odors and their relative positions. These data support that the hippocampus can use nonvisuospatial resources, and specifically can use spatial olfactory information, to facilitate LTD and to generate spatial representations. The data also support that a tight relationship exists between the processing of spatial contextual information and the expression of LTD in the hippocampus. PMID:23804412

  7. Interpreting collective neural activity underlying spatial navigation in virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshulam, Leenoy; Gauthier, Jeff; Tank, David; Bialek, William

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, cognitive- demanding processes like spatial navigation were studied by recording the activity of single neurons. However, recent technological progress allows imaging the simultaneous activity of large neuronal populations in awake behaving animals. This progress in experimental work calls for a similar adjustments of the modeling frameworks. To achieve a description of the ``real thermodynamics'' of the neural system, we construct maximum entropy models for optical imaging data taken in vivo, from the hippocampus of mice navigating in a virtual reality environment. This provides a natural extension of statistical mechanics applicable to brain activity, by focusing on the interactions between cells rather than on single cell's activity. We aim to determine how the topology of the energy landscape predicted by the model corresponds to the location of the animal in the environment. Since large subpopulations of the neurons in this area are spatially modulated, we expect the landscape to exhibit a large ``valley'' structure of local minima, corresponding to the animal's position along the environment. Such a finding is especially of interest because the location information emerges solely from the activity patterns that are accessible to the brain.

  8. Spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity in forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błońska, Ewa; Lasota, Jarosław

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity (DH) in forest soils using geostatistics. We have studied variability soil dehydrogenase and their relationship with variability of some physic-chemical properties. Two study areas (A and B) were set up in southern Poland in the Zlotoryja Forest District. Study areas were covered by different types of vegetation (A- broadleaf forest with beech, ash and sycamore), B- coniferous forest with Norway spruce). The soils were classified as Dystric Cambisols (WRB 2006). The samples for laboratory testing were collected from 49 places on each areas. 15 cm of surface horizon of soil were taken (with previously removed litter). Dehydrogenase activity was marked with Lenhard's method according to the Casida procedure. Soil pH, nitrogen (N) and soil organic carbon (C) content (by LECO CNS 2000 carbon analyzer) was marked. C/N ratio was calculated. Particle size composition was determined using laser diffraction. Statistical analysis were performed using STATISTICA 10 software. Geostatistical analysis and mapping were done by application of GS 9+ (Gamma Design) and Surfer 11 (Golden Software). The activity of DH ranged between 5,02 and 71,20 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1 on the A area and between 0,94 and 16,47 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1. Differences in spatial variability of the analised features were noted. The variability of dehydrogenase activity on the A study area was described by an exponential model, whereas on the B study area the spatial correlation has not been noted. The relationship of dehydrogenase activity with the remaining parameters of soil was noted only in the case of A study area. The variability of organic carbon content on the A and B study areas were described by an exponential model. The variability of nitrogen content on both areas were described by an spherical model.

  9. SEIZURES IN EARLY-LIFE SUPPRESS HIPPOCAMPAL DENDRITE GROWTH WHILE IMPAIRING SPATIAL LEARNING

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Masataka; Gu, Xue; Swann, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired learning and memory are common in epilepsy syndromes of childhood. Clinical investigations suggest that the developing brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of intractable seizure disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated reduced volumes in brain regions involved in learning and memory. The earlier the onset of an epilepsy the larger the effects seem to be on both brain anatomy and cognition. Thus, childhood epilepsy has been proposed to interfere in some unknown way with brain development. Experiments reported here explore these ideas by examining the effects of seizures in infant mice on learning and memory and on the growth of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cell dendrites. Fifteen brief seizures were induced by flurothyl between postnatal days 7 and 11 in mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in hippocampal pyramidal cells. One to 44 days later, dendritic arbors were reconstructed to measure growth. Spatial learning and memory were also assessed in a water maze. Our results show that recurrent seizures produced marked deficits in learning and memory. Seizures also dramatically slowed the growth of basilar dendrites while neurons in litter-mate control mice continued to add new dendritic branches and lengthen existing branches. When experiments were performed in older mice, seizures had no measureable effects on either dendrite arbor complexity or spatial learning and memory. Our results suggest that the recurring seizures of intractable childhood epilepsy contribute to associated learning and memory deficits by suppressing dendrite growth. PMID:21777677

  10. Failure to learn a new spatial format in children with developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Pontillo, Maria; De Luca, Maria; Ellis, Andrew W.; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Spinelli, Donatella; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    A general problem in studying children with developmental dyslexia is how to separate inefficiency in learning on the one hand from exposure to written texts on the other. To evaluate dyslexic children's learning abilities with graphemic materials, we tested their improvement in a condition that minimized previous experience with words (i.e., “novel words”) and with the standard, horizontal spatial letter array (i.e., a non-canonical “zigzag” format). We selected five pairs of children with dyslexia and (younger) typically developing readers matched for reading speed and accuracy in these specific conditions. Reading performance on novel words in the zigzag format was measured in 23 sessions; learning curves were fitted by power functions. Similar to typically developing readers, children with dyslexia improved their reading of novel words presented in the new format; however, their rate of learning was slower than that of typically developing readers. Furthermore, their learning to read in the new format did not generalize to novel untrained items, whereas significant generalization was present in typically developing readers. As the failure to generalize learning of the spatial format could not be attributed to reduced experience, it indicates a genuine disability and points to impaired perceptual learning as a factor in developmental dyslexia. PMID:24785494

  11. Changes in spatial cognition and brain activity after a single dose of testosterone in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Pintzka, Carl W S; Evensmoen, Hallvard R; Lehn, Hanne; Håberg, Asta K

    2016-02-01

    Studies have consistently shown that males perform better than females on several spatial tasks. Animal and human literature suggests that sex hormones have an important role in both establishing and maintaining this difference. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of exogenous testosterone on spatial cognition and brain activity in healthy women. A cross-sectional, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed in 42 healthy young women who either received one dose of 0.5mg sublingual testosterone or placebo. They then learned a virtual environment and performed navigation tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subsequently, their knowledge of the virtual environment, self-reported navigation strategy, and mental rotation abilities were measured. The testosterone group had improved representations of the directions within the environment and performed significantly better on the mental rotation task compared to the placebo group, but navigation success and navigation strategy were similar in the two groups. Nevertheless, the testosterone group had significantly increased activity within the medial temporal lobe during successful navigation compared to the placebo group, and a positive correlation between testosterone load and medial temporal lobe activity was found. Fetal testosterone levels, measured as second-to-fourth digit length ratio, interacted significantly with parahippocampal activity and tended towards giving higher mental rotation task scores. These results demonstrated that testosterone had a limited effect pertaining specifically to spatial cognition involving 3D-visualization in healthy women, while complex behaviors such as navigation, relying more on learned strategies, were not altered despite increased neuronal activity in relevant brain regions. PMID:26542812

  12. Chronic enhancement of CREB activity in the hippocampus interferes with the retrieval of spatial information

    PubMed Central

    Viosca, Jose; Malleret, Gaël; Bourtchouladze, Rusiko; Benito, Eva; Vronskava, Svetlana; Kandel, Eric R.; Barco, Angel

    2009-01-01

    The activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene expression is thought to be critical for the formation of different types of long-term memory. To explore the consequences of chronic enhancement of CREB function on spatial memory in mammals, we examined spatial navigation in bitransgenic mice that express in a regulated and restricted manner a constitutively active form of CREB, VP16-CREB, in forebrain neurons. We found that chronic enhancement of CREB activity delayed the acquisition of an allocentric strategy to solve the hidden platform task. The ability to turn on and off transgene expression allowed us to dissect the role of CREB in dissociable memory processes. In mice in which transgene expression was turned on during memory acquisition, turning off the transgene re-established the access to the memory trace, whereas in mice in which transgene expression was turned off during acquisition, turning on the transgene impaired memory expression in a reversible manner, indicating that CREB enhancement specifically interfered with the retrieval of spatial information. The defects on spatial navigation in mice with chronic enhancement of CREB function were not corrected by conditions that increased further CREB-dependent activation of hippocampal memory systems, such as housing in an enriched environment. These results along with previous findings in CREB-deficient mutants indicate that the relationship of CREB-mediated plasticity to spatial memory is an inverted-U function, and that optimal learning in the water maze requires accurate regulation of this pathway. PMID:19237642

  13. The Spatially Competent Child with Learning Disabilities (SCLD): The Evidence from Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannatyne, Alexander

    Research is reviewed in support of the author's hypothesis that the majority (60 to 80 percent) of learning disabled children are not brain damaged but have above average spatial ability and major deficits in auditory-vocal memory processing which are genetic in nature. Research is reported to support other aspects of his hypothesis such as the…

  14. THE EFFECT OF SELECTED SPATIAL DESIGN FACTORS IN EDUCATIONAL DISPLAYS ON LEARNING AND RETENTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROCKETT, AGNES M.; SAUL, EZRA V.

    CRITERIA WERE DEVELOPED FOR THE DESIGN OF LABELS IN VERBAL-PICTORIAL EDUCATIONAL DISPLAYS. THE INFLUENCE OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LABELS ON EASE OF LEARNING AND DEGREE OF RETENTION WAS INVESTIGATED. THIRTY ANATOMICAL PARTS OF THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE TRACT WERE LABELED ON 10 CHARTS SHOWING THE SAME DIAGRAM OF THE HUMAN BODY, BUT WITH DIFFERENT…

  15. Variable impact of chronic stress on spatial learning and memory in BXD mice.

    PubMed

    Shea, Chloe J A; Carhuatanta, Kimberly A K; Wagner, Jessica; Bechmann, Naomi; Moore, Raquel; Herman, James P; Jankord, Ryan

    2015-10-15

    The effects of chronic stress on learning are highly variable across individuals. This variability stems from gene-environment interactions. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects genetic predictors of learning are unclear. Thus, we aim to determine whether the genetic pathways that predict spatial memory performance are altered by previous exposure to chronic stress. Sixty-two BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice, as well as parent strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, were randomly assigned as behavioral control or to a chronic variable stress paradigm and then underwent behavioral testing to assess spatial memory and learning performance using the Morris water maze. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was completed for average escape latency times for both control and stress animals. Loci on chromosomes 5 and 10 were found in both control and stress environmental populations; eight additional loci were found to be unique to either the control or stress environment. In sum, results indicate that certain genetic loci predict spatial memory performance regardless of prior stress exposure, while exposure to stress also reveals unique genetic predictors of training during the memory task. Thus, we find that genetic predictors contributing to spatial learning and memory are susceptible to the presence of chronic stress. PMID:26079812

  16. The Effects of Spatial Configuration on Preschoolers' Attention Strategies, Selective Attention, and Incidental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Fran C.; Torenberg, Meira

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of spatial arrangement on preschool children's selective attention and incidental learning. Three- and four-year old children were shown a multi-coloured box designated as a "special place" containing miniature chairs and models of animals. One category of objects were designated as relevant and one as…

  17. Fluoxetine Restores Spatial Learning but Not Accelerated Forgetting in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkas, Lisa; Redhead, Edward; Taylor, Matthew; Shtaya, Anan; Hamilton, Derek A.; Gray, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Learning and memory dysfunction is the most common neuropsychological effect of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, and because the underlying neurobiology is poorly understood, there are no pharmacological strategies to help restore memory function in these patients. We have demonstrated impairments in the acquisition of an allocentric spatial task,…

  18. Increasing Content-Area Learning: A Comparison of Mnemonic and Visual-Spatial Direct Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; And Others

    In two experiments, learning disabled (LD) students were taught attributes of North American minerals via mnemonic instruction, free study, or a visual-spatial display condition similar to that proposed by Engelmann and Carnine (1982). In the first experiement, 36 junior high school-age LD students were taught specific attribute values (hardness =…

  19. Learning to Think Spatially: GIS as a Support System in the K-12 Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Spatial thinking is a cognitive skill that can be used in everyday life, the workplace, and science to structure problems, find answers, and express solutions using the properties of space. It can be learned and taught formally to students using appropriately designed tools, technologies, and curricula. This report explains the nature and…

  20. Spatial Visualization as Mediating between Mathematics Learning Strategy and Mathematics Achievement among 8th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabab'h, Belal; Veloo, Arsaythamby

    2015-01-01

    Jordanian 8th grade students revealed low achievement in mathematics through four periods (1999, 2003, 2007 & 2011) of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). This study aimed to determine whether spatial visualization mediates the affect of Mathematics Learning Strategies (MLS) factors namely mathematics attitude,…

  1. A Computer-Based Spatial Learning Strategy Approach That Improves Reading Comprehension and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Hector R.; Mayer, Richard E.; Lopez, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the effectiveness of a computer-based spatial learning strategy approach for improving reading comprehension and writing. In reading comprehension, students received scaffolded practice in translating passages into graphic organizers. In writing, students received scaffolded practice in planning to write by filling in graphic…

  2. Real-Time Data Display, Spatial Visualization Ability, and Learning Force and Motion Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Thornton, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined how students' levels of spatial visualization ability interact with learning physics in a microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) environment. Undergraduate students who had taken an introductory physics course based on MBL tools were pre- and posttested at the beginning and at the end of the semester on spatial…

  3. Incidental Learning of Links during Navigation: The Role of Visuo-Spatial Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouet, Jean-Francois; Voros, Zsofia; Pleh, Csaba

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the impact of readers' visuo-spatial (VS) capacity on their incidental learning of page links during the exploration of simple hierarchical hypertextual documents. Forty-three university students were asked to explore a series of hypertexts for a limited period of time. Then the participants were asked to recall the layout and the…

  4. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  5. Knockdown of Nurr1 in the Rat Hippocampus: Implications to Spatial Discrimination Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon-Cesario, Wanda I.; Martinez-Montemayor, Michelle M.; Morales, Sohaira; Felix, Jahaira; Cruz, Juan; Adorno, Monique; Pereira, Lixmar; Colon, Nydia; Maldonado-Vlaar, Carmen S.; Pena de Ortiz, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Nurr1 expression is up-regulated in the brain following associative learning experiences, but its relevance to cognitive processes remains unclear. In these studies, rats initially received bilateral hippocampal infusions of control or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) 1 hour prior to training in a holeboard spatial discrimination task. Such…

  6. Blocking of Spatial Learning between Enclosure Geometry and a Local Landmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Paul N.; Alexander, Tim

    2008-01-01

    In a virtual environment, blocking of spatial learning to locate an invisible target was found reciprocally between a distinctively shaped enclosure and a local landmark within its walls. The blocking effect was significantly stronger when the shape of the enclosure rather than the landmark served as the blocking cue. However, the extent to which…

  7. Who Benefits from Learning with 3D Models?: The Case of Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huk, T.

    2006-01-01

    Empirical studies that focus on the impact of three-dimensional (3D) visualizations on learning are to date rare and inconsistent. According to the ability-as-enhancer hypothesis, high spatial ability learners should benefit particularly as they have enough cognitive capacity left for mental model construction. In contrast, the…

  8. Estradiol enhances learning and memory in a spatial memory task and effects levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Luine, V N; Richards, S T; Wu, V Y; Beck, K D

    1998-10-01

    The effects of chronic estrogen treatment on radial arm maze performance and on levels of central monoaminergic and amino acid neurotransmitters were examined in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. In an eight arms baited paradigm, choice accuracy was enhanced following 12 days but not 3 days of treatment. In addition, performance during acquisition of the eight arms baited maze task was better in estrogen-treated Ovx rats than in Ovx rats. Performance of treated rats was also enhanced in win-shift trials conducted 12 days postestrogen treatment. Working, reference, and working-reference memory was examined when four of the eight arms were baited, and only working memory was improved by estrogen and only after long-term treatment. Activity of Ovx rats on an open field, crossings and rearings, was increased at 5 but not at 35 days following estrogen treatment. In medial prefrontal cortex, levels of NE, DA, and 5-HT were decreased but glutamate and GABA levels were not affected following chronic estrogen treatment. Basal forebrain nuclei also showed changes in monoamines following estrogen. Hippocampal subfields showed no effects of estrogen treatment on monoaminergic or amino acid transmitters. Levels of GABA were increased in the vertical diagonal bands following chronic estrogen. Results show that estrogen enhances learning/memory on a task utilizing spatial memory. Effects in Ovx rats appear to require the chronic (several days) presence of estrogen. Changes in activity of both monoaminergic and amino acid transmitters in the frontal cortex and basal forebrain may contribute to enhancing effects of estrogen on learning/memory. PMID:9799625

  9. Graduate Faculty Perceptions of Experiential Learning Activities in Multicultural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yu-Han

    2012-01-01

    Current graduate programs employ many effective teaching methods. One of these methods, using experiential learning activities (Lee & Caffarella, 1994) in class, includes the subcomponents of cooperative learning, self-directed learning, and active learning. While these methods are commonly used, not much scholarly literature has examined the…

  10. Active Learning Environment with Lenses in Geometric Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tural, Güner

    2015-01-01

    Geometric optics is one of the difficult topics for students within physics discipline. Students learn better via student-centered active learning environments than the teacher-centered learning environments. So this study aimed to present a guide for middle school teachers to teach lenses in geometric optics via active learning environment…

  11. The Validation of the Active Learning in Health Professions Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammer, Rebecca; Schreiner, Laurie; Kim, Young K.; Denial, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the effectiveness of active learning strategies such as problem-based learning in promoting deep learning and clinical reasoning skills within the dual environments of didactic and clinical settings in health professions education. The Active Learning in Health Professions Scale (ALPHS)…

  12. Transfer Learning for Activity Recognition: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Diane; Feuz, Kyle D.; Krishnan, Narayanan C.

    2013-01-01

    Many intelligent systems that focus on the needs of a human require information about the activities being performed by the human. At the core of this capability is activity recognition, which is a challenging and well-researched problem. Activity recognition algorithms require substantial amounts of labeled training data yet need to perform well under very diverse circumstances. As a result, researchers have been designing methods to identify and utilize subtle connections between activity recognition datasets, or to perform transfer-based activity recognition. In this paper we survey the literature to highlight recent advances in transfer learning for activity recognition. We characterize existing approaches to transfer-based activity recognition by sensor modality, by differences between source and target environments, by data availability, and by type of information that is transferred. Finally, we present some grand challenges for the community to consider as this field is further developed. PMID:24039326

  13. Individual differences in spatial configuration learning predict the occurrence of intrusive memories.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Girardelli, Marta M; Mackay, Georgina R N; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-03-01

    The dual-representation model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Brewin, Gregory, Lipton, & Burgess, Psychological Review, 117, 210-232 2010) argues that intrusions occur when people fail to construct context-based representations during adverse experiences. The present study tested a specific prediction flowing from this model. In particular, we investigated whether the efficiency of temporal-lobe-based spatial configuration learning would account for individual differences in intrusive experiences and physiological reactivity in the laboratory. Participants (N = 82) completed the contextual cuing paradigm, which assesses spatial configuration learning that is believed to depend on associative encoding in the parahippocampus. They were then shown a trauma film. Afterward, startle responses were quantified during presentation of trauma reminder pictures versus unrelated neutral and emotional pictures. PTSD symptoms were recorded in the week following participation. Better configuration learning performance was associated with fewer perceptual intrusions, r = -.33, p < .01, but was unrelated to physiological responses to trauma reminder images (ps > .46) and had no direct effect on intrusion-related distress and overall PTSD symptoms, rs > -.12, ps > .29. However, configuration learning performance tended to be associated with reduced physiological responses to unrelated negative images, r = -.20, p = .07. Thus, while spatial configuration learning appears to be unrelated to affective responding to trauma reminders, our overall findings support the idea that the context-based memory system helps to reduce intrusions. PMID:23001992

  14. Perinatal Exposure to Low-dose Nonylphenol Specifically Improves Spatial Learning and Memory in Male Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Kohara, Yumi; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) has weak estrogen-like activity, and can therefore act as an endocrine disruptor. This study examined the effects of perinatal exposure to low-dose NP on learning and memory, general activity, and emotionality in male rat offspring. Dams were orally administered 1 or 10 mg/kg/day of NP or vehicle from gestational day 10 to postnatal day 14. The male offspring were evaluated using a battery of behavioral tests, including an appetite-motivated maze test (MAZE test) used to assess spatial learning and memory. In the MAZE test, times to reach goal (food) for both groups treated with NP were significantly shorter than those for the control group. In other behavioral tests (the open-field, elevated plus-maze, and step-through passive avoidance tests), NP did not affect any of each behavioral parameter. Thus, this study indicates perinatal exposure to low-dose NP specifically improves spatial learning and memory in male rat offspring. PMID:26685511

  15. A Study of the Effects of Visual Occlusion on Motor and Spatial Learning in Visually Impaired Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James L.; Elliott, Jeffrey; Kuyk, T. K.

    1998-01-01

    This study compared effects of visual occlusion on the motor and spatial learning of 28 legally blind adult males, half due to acuity loss and half due to peripheral field restriction. For both groups, occlusion appeared neither to facilitate nor impede motor learning but did significantly impair acquisition of spatial relations. Results have…

  16. Spatial water maze learning using celestial cues by the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus.

    PubMed

    Kavaliers, M; Galea, L A

    1994-03-31

    The Morris water maze is widely used to evaluate to evaluate the spatial learning ability of rodents under laboratory settings. The present study demonstrates that reproductive male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, are able to acquire and retain a spatial water maze task using celestial cues. Voles were able to acquire a modified outdoor Morris water maze task over 4 trials per day, whereby they had to learn and remember the location of a submerged hidden platform, using the position of the sun and associated celestial cues. Their proficiency on this task was related to the availability of the celestial cues, with voles displaying significantly poorer spatial navigation on overcast than clear days and when the testing time (and position of the sun and associated celestial cues) was shifted from morning to afternoon. These findings with meadow voles support the ecological relevance of the water maze task. PMID:8031502

  17. Treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning ability through suppressing hippocampal apoptosis in Huntington’s disease rats

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, You-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Kijeong; Ha, Jonglin; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, and characterized as involuntary movement. Quinolinic acid has been used to produce an animal model of Huntington’s disease. In the present study, the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial-learning ability and motor coordination focusing on the apoptosis in the hippocampus was investigated using quinolinic acid-induced Huntington’s disease rats. Huntington’s disease was induced by unilateral intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (2 μL of 100 nmol) using stereotaxic instrument. The rats in the treadmill exercise groups were subjected to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day during 14 days. Spatial learning ability and motor coordination were determined by radial 8-arm maze test and rota-rod test. Immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and western blot for Bax and Bcl-2 were also conducted for the detection of apoptosis. In the present results, spatial learning ability and motor coordination were deteriorated by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid. In contrast, treadmill exercise exerted ameliorating effect on quinolinic acid-induced deterioration of spatial learning ability and motor coordination. Bcl-2 expression in the hippocampus was de-creased and expressions of casepase-3 and Bax in the hippocampus were increased in the quinolinic acid-induced Huntington’s disease rats. Treadmill exercise increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased expressions of casepase-3 and Bax in the Huntington’s disease rats. The present results showed that treadmill exercise might ameliorate quinolinic acid-induced loss of spatial learning ability and motor coordination by suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus. PMID:26171378

  18. Treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning ability through suppressing hippocampal apoptosis in Huntington's disease rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, You-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Kijeong; Ha, Jonglin; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2015-06-01

    Huntington's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, and characterized as involuntary movement. Quinolinic acid has been used to produce an animal model of Huntington's disease. In the present study, the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial-learning ability and motor coordination focusing on the apoptosis in the hippocampus was investigated using quinolinic acid-induced Huntington's disease rats. Huntington's disease was induced by unilateral intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (2 μL of 100 nmol) using stereotaxic instrument. The rats in the treadmill exercise groups were subjected to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day during 14 days. Spatial learning ability and motor coordination were determined by radial 8-arm maze test and rota-rod test. Immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and western blot for Bax and Bcl-2 were also conducted for the detection of apoptosis. In the present results, spatial learning ability and motor coordination were deteriorated by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid. In contrast, treadmill exercise exerted ameliorating effect on quinolinic acid-induced deterioration of spatial learning ability and motor coordination. Bcl-2 expression in the hippocampus was de-creased and expressions of casepase-3 and Bax in the hippocampus were increased in the quinolinic acid-induced Huntington's disease rats. Treadmill exercise increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased expressions of casepase-3 and Bax in the Huntington's disease rats. The present results showed that treadmill exercise might ameliorate quinolinic acid-induced loss of spatial learning ability and motor coordination by suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus. PMID:26171378

  19. Uncertain spatial reasoning of environmental risks in GIS using genetic learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Shad, Rouzbeh; Shad, Arefeh

    2012-10-01

    Modeling the impact of air pollution is one of the most important approaches for managing damages to the ecosystem. This problem can be solved by sensing and modeling uncertain spatial behaviors, defining topological rules, and using inference and learning capabilities in a spatial reasoning system. Reasoning, which is the main component of such complex systems, requires that proper rules be defined through expert judgments in the knowledge-based part. Use of genetic fuzzy capabilities enables the algorithm to learn and be tuned to proper rules in a flexible manner and increases the preciseness and robustness of operations. The main objective of this paper was to design and evaluate a spatial genetic fuzzy system, with the goal of assessing environmental risks of air pollution due to oil well fires during the Persian Gulf War. Dynamic areas were extracted and monitored through images from NOAA, and the data were stored in an efficient spatial database. Initial spatial knowledge was determined by expert consideration of the application characteristics, and the inference engine was performed with genetic learning (GL) algorithms. Finally, GL (0.7 and 0.03), GL (0.7 and 0.08), GL (0.98 and 0.03), GL (0.98 and 0.08), and Cordon learning methods were evaluated with test and training data related to samples extracted from Landsat thematic mapper satellite images. Results of the implementation showed that GL (0.98, 0.03) was more precise than the other methods for learning and tuning rules in the concerned application. PMID:22068317

  20. Severity of spatial learning impairment in aging: Development of a learning index for performance in the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Michela; Burwell, Rebecca; Burchinal, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    The Morris water maze task was originally designed to assess the rat's ability to learn to navigate to a specific location in a relatively large spatial environment. This article describes new measures that provide information about the spatial distribution of the rat's search during both training and probe trial performance. The basic new measure optimizes the use of computer tracking to identify the rat's position with respect to the target location. This proximity measure was found to be highly sensitive to age-related impairment in an assessment of young and aged male Long-Evans rats. Also described is the development of a learning index that provides a continuous, graded measure of the severity of age-related impairment in the task. An index of this type should be useful in correlational analyses with other neurobiological or behavioral measures for the study of individual differences in functional/biological decline in aging. PMID:26214219

  1. Exposure to radiation accelerates normal brain aging and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    Previous studies have shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism; oxidative stress damage to the central nervous system caused by an increased release of reactive oxygen species is likely responsible for the deficits seen in aging and following irradiation. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a "map" provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529

  2. Incorporation of Socio-scientific Content into Active Learning Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Moog, R.

    2014-12-01

    Active learning has gained increasing support as an effective pedagogical technique to improve student learning. One way to promote active learning in the classroom is the use of in-class activities in place of lecturing. As part of an NSF-funded project, a set of in-class activities have been created that use climate change topics to teach chemistry content. These activities use the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) methodology. In this pedagogical approach a set of models and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities in their groups, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. Each of these climate change activities contains a socio-scientific component, e.g., social, ethical and economic data. In one activity, greenhouse gases are used to explain the concept of dipole moment. Data about natural and anthropogenic production rates, global warming potential and atmospheric lifetimes for a list of greenhouse gases are presented. The students are asked to identify which greenhouse gas they would regulate, with a corresponding explanation for their choice. They are also asked to identify the disadvantages of regulating the gas they chose in the previous question. In another activity, where carbon sequestration is used to demonstrate the utility of a phase diagram, students use economic and environmental data to choose the best location for sequestration. Too often discussions about climate change (both in and outside the classroom) consist of purely emotional responses. These activities force students to use data to support their arguments and hypothesize about what other data could be used in the corresponding discussion to

  3. Stochasticity and spatial heterogeneity in T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, Nigel J; van der Merwe, P Anton

    2007-04-01

    Stochastic and spatial aspects are becoming increasingly recognized as an important factor in T-cell activation. Activation occurs in an intrinsically noisy environment, requiring only a handful of agonist peptide-major histocompatibility complex molecules, thus making consideration of signal to noise of prime importance in understanding sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, it is widely established that surface-bound ligands are more effective at activation than soluble forms, while surface patternation has highlighted the role of spatial relocation in activation. Here we consider the results of a number of models of T-cell activation, from a realistic model of kinetic segregation-induced T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering through to simple queuing theory models. These studies highlight the constraints on cell activation by a surface receptor that recruits kinases. Our analysis shows that TCR triggering based on trapping of bound TCRs in regions of close proximity that exclude large ectodomain-containing molecules, such as the phosphatases CD45 and CD148, can effectively reproduce known signaling characteristics and is a viable 'signal transduction' mechanism distinct from oligomerization and conformation-based mechanisms. A queuing theory analysis shows the interrelation between sensitivity and specificity, emphasizing that these are properties of individual cell functions and need not be, nor are likely to be, uniform across different functions. In fact, threshold-based mechanisms of detection are shown to be poor at ligand discrimination because, although they can be highly specific, that specificity is limited to a small range of peptide densities. Time integration mechanisms however are able to control noise effectively, while kinetic proofreading mechanisms endow them with good specificity properties. Thus, threshold mechanisms are likely to be important for rapidly detecting minimal signaling requirements, thus achieving efficient scanning of antigen

  4. Workshop on active learning: two examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Lakhdar, Zohra; Lahmar, Souad; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2014-07-01

    Optics is an enabling science that has far ranging importance in many diverse fields. However, many students do not find it to be of great interest. A solution to this problem is to train teachers in active learning methodologies so that the subject matter can be presented to generate student interest. We describe a workshop to present an example of an active learning process in Optics developed for training of teachers in developing countries (a UNESCO project) and will focus on 2 two different activities: 1. Interference and diffraction is considered by students as being very hard to understand and is taught in most developing countries as purely theoretical with almost no experiments. Simple experiments to enhance the conceptual understanding of these wave phenomena will be presented and 2. Image formation by the eye. Here we will discuss myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism as well as accommodation. In this module we will discuss image. The objective of the workshop will be to provide an experience of the use of the active learning method in optics including the use of experiments, mind's on and hands-on exercises, group and class discussions

  5. A revised spatial serial learning and memory procedure using Corsi's Block-tapping apparatus.

    PubMed

    Crawford, S M; Dickson, A L; Baños, J H

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Corsi's Block Tapping Test as a spatial analog of Benton's Serial Digit Learning Test, using the cognitive neuroscience approach utilized in the California Verbal Learning Test. 60 normal participants, ages 19-52 years, were included and administered an 8-block sequence for 9 trials or until they recalled the entire sequence for 3 consecutive errorless trials. The score was the number of blocks tapped in the correct serial order. An interference trial was administered. Following a 10-min. delay, free recall of the original sequence, cued recall, and recognition measures were obtained. Retroactive interference was significant, but no proactive interference emerged. Scores showed a strong primacy effect. Most participants who learned the sequence to the criterion of three successive errorless trials recalled the sequence after the 10-min. delay. Scores on the cued recall and recognition trials tended to support their validity as less demanding retrieval tasks. The use of this spatial learning and memory procedure allows finer discriminations among nonverbal memory deficits and may facilitate direct comparisons with scores on verbal memory tasks such as Serial Digit Learning and the California Verbal Learning Test. PMID:11065330

  6. Selective importance of the rat anterior thalamic nuclei for configural learning involving distal spatial cues.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Julie R; Amin, Eman; Aggleton, John P

    2014-01-01

    To test potential parallels between hippocampal and anterior thalamic function, rats with anterior thalamic lesions were trained on a series of biconditional learning tasks. The anterior thalamic lesions did not disrupt learning two biconditional associations in operant chambers where a specific auditory stimulus (tone or click) had a differential outcome depending on whether it was paired with a particular visual context (spot or checkered wall-paper) or a particular thermal context (warm or cool). Likewise, rats with anterior thalamic lesions successfully learnt a biconditional task when they were reinforced for digging in one of two distinct cups (containing either beads or shredded paper), depending on the particular appearance of the local context on which the cup was placed (one of two textured floors). In contrast, the same rats were severely impaired at learning the biconditional rule to select a specific cup when in a particular location within the test room. Place learning was then tested with a series of go/no-go discriminations. Rats with anterior thalamic nuclei lesions could learn to discriminate between two locations when they were approached from a constant direction. They could not, however, use this acquired location information to solve a subsequent spatial biconditional task where those same places dictated the correct choice of digging cup. Anterior thalamic lesions produced a selective, but severe, biconditional learning deficit when the task incorporated distal spatial cues. This deficit mirrors that seen in rats with hippocampal lesions, so extending potential interdependencies between the two sites. PMID:24215178

  7. Selective importance of the rat anterior thalamic nuclei for configural learning involving distal spatial cues

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Julie R; Amin, Eman; Aggleton, John P

    2013-01-01

    To test potential parallels between hippocampal and anterior thalamic function, rats with anterior thalamic lesions were trained on a series of biconditional learning tasks. The anterior thalamic lesions did not disrupt learning two biconditional associations in operant chambers where a specific auditory stimulus (tone or click) had a differential outcome depending on whether it was paired with a particular visual context (spot or checkered wall-paper) or a particular thermal context (warm or cool). Likewise, rats with anterior thalamic lesions successfully learnt a biconditional task when they were reinforced for digging in one of two distinct cups (containing either beads or shredded paper), depending on the particular appearance of the local context on which the cup was placed (one of two textured floors). In contrast, the same rats were severely impaired at learning the biconditional rule to select a specific cup when in a particular location within the test room. Place learning was then tested with a series of go/no-go discriminations. Rats with anterior thalamic nuclei lesions could learn to discriminate between two locations when they were approached from a constant direction. They could not, however, use this acquired location information to solve a subsequent spatial biconditional task where those same places dictated the correct choice of digging cup. Anterior thalamic lesions produced a selective, but severe, biconditional learning deficit when the task incorporated distal spatial cues. This deficit mirrors that seen in rats with hippocampal lesions, so extending potential interdependencies between the two sites. PMID:24215178

  8. Spatial frequency multiplier with active linearly tapered slot antenna array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1994-01-01

    A frequency multiplier with active linearly tapered slot antennas (LTSA's) has been demonstrated at the second harmonic frequency. In each antenna element, a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) distributed amplifier is integrated with two LTSA's. The multiplier has a very wide bandwidth and large dynamic range. The fundamental-to-second harmonic conversion efficiency is 8.1 percent. The spatially combined second harmonic signal is 50 dB above the noise level. The design is suitable for constructing a large array using monolithic integration techniques.

  9. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  10. [Gly14]-Humanin Protects Against Amyloid β Peptide-Induced Impairment of Spatial Learning and Memory in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Liu, Xiao-Jie; Han, Wei-Na; Li, Qing-Shan; Wang, Zhao-Jun; Wu, Mei-Na; Yang, Wei; Qi, Jin-Shun

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by cognitive decline and the accumulation of senile plaques in the brain. Amyloid β protein (Aβ) in the plaques is thought to be responsible for the memory loss in AD patients. [Gly14]-humanin (HNG), a derivative of humanin (HN), has much stronger neuroprotective effects than natural HN in vitro. However, clarification of the Aβ active center and the neuroprotective mechanism of HN still need in vivo evidence. The present study first compared the in vivo biological effects of three Aβ fragments (1-42, 31-35, and 35-31) on spatial memory in rats, and investigated the neuroprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of HNG. The results showed that intrahippocampal injection of Aβ1-42 and Aβ31-35 almost equally impaired spatial learning and memory, but the reversed sequence Aβ35-31 did not have any effect; a high dose of Aβ31-35 (20 nmol) produced a more detrimental response than a low dose (2 nmol); Aβ31-35 injection also disrupted gene and protein expression in the hippocampus, with up-regulation of caspase3 and down-regulation of STAT3; pretreatment with HNG not only protected spatial memory but also rescued STAT3 from Aβ-induced disruption; and the neuroprotective effects of HNG were effectively counteracted by genistein, a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor. These results clearly show that sequence 31-35 in Aβ is the shortest active center responsible for the neurotoxicity of Aβ from molecule to behavior; and HNG protects spatial learning and memory in rats against Aβ-induced insults; and probably involves the activation of tyrosine kinases and subsequent beneficial modulation of STAT3 and caspase3. PMID:27306655

  11. Concerted Gene Expression of Hippocampal Steroid Receptors during Spatial Learning in Male Wistar Rats: A Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lubec, Gert; Korz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal and gonadal steroid receptor activities are significantly involved and interact in the regulation of learning, memory and stress. Thus, a coordinated expression of steroid receptor genes during a learning task can be expected. Although coexpression of steroid receptors in response to behavioral tasks has been reported the correlative connection is unclear. According to the inverted U-shape model of the impact of stress upon learning and memory we hypothesized that glucocorticoid (GR) receptor expression should be correlated to corticosterone levels in a linear or higher order manner. Other cognition modulating steroid receptors like estrogen receptors (ER) should be correlated to GR receptors in a quadratic manner, which describes a parabola and thus a U-shaped connection. Therefore, we performed a correlational meta-analyis of data of a previous study (Meyer and Korz, 2013a) of steroid receptor gene expressions during spatial learning, which provides a sufficient data basis in order to perform such correlational connections. In that study male rats of different ages were trained in a spatial holeboard or remained untrained and the hippocampal gene expression of different steroid receptors as well as serum corticosterone levels were measured. Expressions of mineralocorticoid (MR) and GR receptors were positively and linearly correlated with blood serum corticosterone levels in spatially trained but not in untrained animals. Training induced a cubic (best fit) relationship between mRNA levels of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) with MR mRNA. GR gene expression was linearly correlated with MR expression under both conditions. ERα m RNA levels were negatively and linearily and MR and GR gene expressions were cubicely correlated with reference memory errors (RME). Due to only three age classes correlations with age could not be performed. The findings support the U-shape theory of steroid receptor interaction, however the cubic fit

  12. SVR learning-based spatiotemporal fuzzy logic controller for nonlinear spatially distributed dynamic systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Xia; Jiang, Ye; Li, Han-Xiong; Li, Shao-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    A data-driven 3-D fuzzy-logic controller (3-D FLC) design methodology based on support vector regression (SVR) learning is developed for nonlinear spatially distributed dynamic systems. Initially, the spatial information expression and processing as well as the fuzzy linguistic expression and rule inference of a 3-D FLC are integrated into spatial fuzzy basis functions (SFBFs), and then the 3-D FLC can be depicted by a three-layer network structure. By relating SFBFs of the 3-D FLC directly to spatial kernel functions of an SVR, an equivalence relationship of the 3-D FLC and the SVR is established, which means that the 3-D FLC can be designed with the help of the SVR learning. Subsequently, for an easy implementation, a systematic SVR learning-based 3-D FLC design scheme is formulated. In addition, the universal approximation capability of the proposed 3-D FLC is presented. Finally, the control of a nonlinear catalytic packed-bed reactor is considered as an application to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed 3-D FLC. PMID:24808600

  13. Perinatal exposure to genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, improves spatial learning and memory but impairs passive avoidance learning and memory in offspring.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Yumi; Kuwahara, Rika; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Jojima, Takeshi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2014-05-10

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal genistein (GEN) exposure on the central nervous system of rat offspring. Pregnant dams orally received GEN (1 or 10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (1 ml/kg/day) from gestation day 10 to postnatal day 14. In order to assess the effects of GEN on rat offspring, we used a battery of behavioral tests, including the open-field, elevated plus-maze, MAZE and step-through passive avoidance tests. MAZE test is an appetite-motivation test, and we used this mainly for assessing spatial learning and memory. In the MAZE test, GEN groups exhibited shorter latency from start to goal than the vehicle-treated group in both sexes. On the other hand, performances in the step-through passive avoidance test were non-monotonically inhibited by GEN in both sexes, and a significant difference was observed in low dose of the GEN-treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group in female rats. Furthermore, we found that perinatal exposure to GEN did not significantly alter locomotor activity or emotionality as assessed by the open-field and elevated-plus maze tests. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to GEN improved spatial learning and memory of rat offspring, but impaired their passive avoidance learning and memory. PMID:24637062

  14. Active Kids Active Minds: A Physical Activity Intervention to Promote Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…

  15. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured spatial learning and memory, the time of normal rats was shortened by GEN treatment compared to the vehicle group, but only in the early stages of testing. In the glucose-loaded group, GEN treatment improved performance as mazes were advanced. In the open-field test, GEN treatment delayed habituation to the new environment in normal rats, and increased the exploratory behaviors of glucose-loaded rats. There were no significant differences observed for emotionality or fear-motivated learning and memory. Together, these results indicate that GEN treatment improved spatial learning and memory only in the early stages of testing in the normal state, but improved spatial learning and memory when glucose levels increased during memory consolidation. PMID:25481356

  16. Cortical dynamics of contextually cued attentive visual learning and search: spatial and object evidence accumulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsung-Ren; Grossberg, Stephen

    2010-10-01

    How do humans use target-predictive contextual information to facilitate visual search? How are consistently paired scenic objects and positions learned and used to more efficiently guide search in familiar scenes? For example, humans can learn that a certain combination of objects may define a context for a kitchen and trigger a more efficient search for a typical object, such as a sink, in that context. The ARTSCENE Search model is developed to illustrate the neural mechanisms of such memory-based context learning and guidance and to explain challenging behavioral data on positive-negative, spatial-object, and local-distant cueing effects during visual search, as well as related neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging data. The model proposes how global scene layout at a first glance rapidly forms a hypothesis about the target location. This hypothesis is then incrementally refined as a scene is scanned with saccadic eye movements. The model simulates the interactive dynamics of object and spatial contextual cueing and attention in the cortical What and Where streams starting from early visual areas through medial temporal lobe to prefrontal cortex. After learning, model dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (area 46) primes possible target locations in posterior parietal cortex based on goal-modulated percepts of spatial scene gist that are represented in parahippocampal cortex. Model ventral prefrontal cortex (area 47/12) primes possible target identities in inferior temporal cortex based on the history of viewed objects represented in perirhinal cortex. PMID:21038974

  17. Active Learning: The Importance of Developing a Comprehensive Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…

  18. Reference Framework for Active Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naithani, Pranav

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this paper traces the history of active learning and further utilizes the available literature to define the meaning and importance of active learning in higher education. The study highlights common practical problems faced by students and instructors in implementing active learning in higher education and further identifies…

  19. Learning-induced plasticity in auditory spatial representations revealed by electrical neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Spierer, Lucas; Tardif, Eric; Sperdin, Holger; Murray, Micah M; Clarke, Stephanie

    2007-05-16

    Auditory spatial representations are likely encoded at a population level within human auditory cortices. We investigated learning-induced plasticity of spatial discrimination in healthy subjects using auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) and electrical neuroimaging analyses. Stimuli were 100 ms white-noise bursts lateralized with varying interaural time differences. In three experiments, plasticity was induced with 40 min of discrimination training. During training, accuracy significantly improved from near-chance levels to approximately 75%. Before and after training, AEPs were recorded to stimuli presented passively with a more medial sound lateralization outnumbering a more lateral one (7:1). In experiment 1, the same lateralizations were used for training and AEP sessions. Significant AEP modulations to the different lateralizations were evident only after training, indicative of a learning-induced mismatch negativity (MMN). More precisely, this MMN at 195-250 ms after stimulus onset followed from differences in the AEP topography to each stimulus position, indicative of changes in the underlying brain network. In experiment 2, mirror-symmetric locations were used for training and AEP sessions; no training-related AEP modulations or MMN were observed. In experiment 3, the discrimination of trained plus equidistant untrained separations was tested psychophysically before and 0, 6, 24, and 48 h after training. Learning-induced plasticity lasted <6 h, did not generalize to untrained lateralizations, and was not the simple result of strengthening the representation of the trained lateralizations. Thus, learning-induced plasticity of auditory spatial discrimination relies on spatial comparisons, rather than a spatial anchor or a general comparator. Furthermore, cortical auditory representations of space are dynamic and subject to rapid reorganization. PMID:17507569

  20. Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths.

    PubMed

    Huppert, M; Jordan, I; Wörner, H J

    2015-12-01

    We describe a versatile and compact beamline for attosecond spectroscopy. The setup consists of a high-order harmonic source followed by a delay line that spatially separates and then recombines the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and residual infrared (IR) pulses. The beamline introduces a controlled and actively stabilized delay between the XUV and IR pulses on the attosecond time scale. A new active-stabilization scheme combining a helium-neon-laser and a white-light interferometer minimizes fluctuations and allows to control delays accurately (26 as rms during 1.5 h) over long time scales. The high-order-harmonic-generation region is imaged via optical systems, independently for XUV and IR, into an interaction volume to perform pump-probe experiments. As a consequence of the spatial separation, the pulses can be independently manipulated in intensity, polarization, and frequency content. The beamline can be combined with a variety of detectors for measuring attosecond dynamics in gases, liquids, and solids. PMID:26724005

  1. Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, M.; Jordan, I.; Wörner, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a versatile and compact beamline for attosecond spectroscopy. The setup consists of a high-order harmonic source followed by a delay line that spatially separates and then recombines the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and residual infrared (IR) pulses. The beamline introduces a controlled and actively stabilized delay between the XUV and IR pulses on the attosecond time scale. A new active-stabilization scheme combining a helium-neon-laser and a white-light interferometer minimizes fluctuations and allows to control delays accurately (26 as rms during 1.5 h) over long time scales. The high-order-harmonic-generation region is imaged via optical systems, independently for XUV and IR, into an interaction volume to perform pump-probe experiments. As a consequence of the spatial separation, the pulses can be independently manipulated in intensity, polarization, and frequency content. The beamline can be combined with a variety of detectors for measuring attosecond dynamics in gases, liquids, and solids.

  2. GR3027 antagonizes GABAA receptor-potentiating neurosteroids and restores spatial learning and motor coordination in rats with chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maja; Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Strömberg, Jessica; Malinina, Evgenya; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Felipo, Vicente

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the primary complications of liver cirrhosis. Current treatments for HE, mainly directed to reduction of ammonia levels, are not effective enough because they cannot completely eliminate hyperammonemia and inflammation, which induce the neurological alterations. Studies in animal models show that overactivation of GABAA receptors is involved in cognitive and motor impairment in HE and that reducing this activation restores these functions. We have developed a new compound, GR3027, that selectively antagonizes the enhanced activation of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC). This work aimed to assess whether GR3027 improves motor incoordination, spatial learning, and circadian rhythms of activity in rats with HE. GR3027 was administered subcutaneously to two main models of HE: rats with chronic hyperammonemia due to ammonia feeding and rats with portacaval shunts (PCS). Motor coordination was assessed in beam walking and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and the radial maze. Circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity were also assessed. In both hyperammonemic and PCS rats, GR3027 restores motor coordination, spatial memory in the Morris water maze, and spatial learning in the radial maze. GR3027 also partially restores circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity in PCS rats. GR3027 is a novel approach to treatment of HE that would normalize neurological functions altered because of enhanced GABAergic tone, affording more complete normalization of cognitive and motor function than current treatments for HE. PMID:26138462

  3. GR3027 antagonizes GABAA receptor-potentiating neurosteroids and restores spatial learning and motor coordination in rats with chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Maja; Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Strömberg, Jessica; Malinina, Evgenya; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the primary complications of liver cirrhosis. Current treatments for HE, mainly directed to reduction of ammonia levels, are not effective enough because they cannot completely eliminate hyperammonemia and inflammation, which induce the neurological alterations. Studies in animal models show that overactivation of GABAA receptors is involved in cognitive and motor impairment in HE and that reducing this activation restores these functions. We have developed a new compound, GR3027, that selectively antagonizes the enhanced activation of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC). This work aimed to assess whether GR3027 improves motor incoordination, spatial learning, and circadian rhythms of activity in rats with HE. GR3027 was administered subcutaneously to two main models of HE: rats with chronic hyperammonemia due to ammonia feeding and rats with portacaval shunts (PCS). Motor coordination was assessed in beam walking and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and the radial maze. Circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity were also assessed. In both hyperammonemic and PCS rats, GR3027 restores motor coordination, spatial memory in the Morris water maze, and spatial learning in the radial maze. GR3027 also partially restores circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity in PCS rats. GR3027 is a novel approach to treatment of HE that would normalize neurological functions altered because of enhanced GABAergic tone, affording more complete normalization of cognitive and motor function than current treatments for HE. PMID:26138462

  4. Spatial and temporal variations of thunderstorm activities over Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnadara, Upul

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of frequencies of thunderstorms over Sri Lanka using thunder day data is presented. A thunder day is simply a calendar day in which thunder is heard at least once at a given location. Two sets of data were collected and analyzed: annual totals for 10 climatological stations for a period of 50 years and monthly totals for 20 climatological stations for a period of 20 years. The average annual thunder days over Sri Lanka was found to be 76. Among the climatological stations considered, a high number of annual thunder days was recorded in Ratnapura (150 days/year), followed by Colombo (108 days/year) and Bandarawela (106 days/year). It appears that there are no widespread long-term increasing or decreasing trends in thunderstorm frequencies. However, Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka which has over two million people shows an increasing trend of 0.8 thunder days per year. Although there is a high variability between stations reporting the number of thunder days, the overall pattern within a year is clear. Thunderstorm frequencies are high during two periods: March-May and September-November, which coincide with the first inter-monsoon and second inter-monsoon periods. Compared to the dry zone, the wet zone, especially the southwestern region, has high thunderstorm activity. There is a clear spatial difference in thunderstorm activities during the southwest and northeast monsoon seasons. During both these seasons, enhanced thunderstorm activities are reported on the leeward side of the mountain range. A slight reduction in the thunderstorm activities was found in the high elevation areas of the hill country compared to the surrounding areas. A lightning ground flash density map derived using annual thunder days is also presented.

  5. Paternal alcohol consumption in the rat impairs spatial learning performance in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, D F; Cicero, T J; Kettinger, L; Meyer, E R

    1991-01-01

    Pubescent (30 day old) male rats were maintained on an alcohol liquid diet containing 35% ethanol-derived calories (ALC) for 39 days or were pairfed an isocaloric control diet (PF). The concentration of alcohol in the diet was gradually increased to permit adaptation, then stabilized and then gradually tapered to prevent an alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Following a drug-free period (2 weeks), the males were mated with nontreated females. Offspring were evaluated on several developmental indices and on various learning/memory tasks to assess functional deficits in adulthood. Offspring sired by ALC-treated males did not differ from the offspring of PF males on several developmental parameters including body weights, when developmental landmarks appeared, or on tests of sensorimotor development. As adults, male offspring groups did not differ on tests of activity or on an object exploration/recognition task. However, male offspring of ALC-treated males demonstrated impaired acquisition performance (days and errors to criterion) on a win-shift spatial discrimination in an eight-arm radial maze and on a win-stay discrimination (days to criterion) conducted in a T-maze at a later age. The radial maze results were replicated in a subsequent experiment using different groups of rats. PMID:1796134

  6. Context-Specific Effects of Estradiol on Spatial Learning and Memory in the Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    Rensel, M.A.; Salwiczek, L.; Roth, J.; Schlinger, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Estradiol is known to impact cognitive function including spatial learning and memory, with studies focused largely on rodent models. Estrogens can be produced peripherally or centrally as neuroestrogens, and the specific role for neuroestrogens in memory processes remains unresolved. Many songbirds possess remarkable spatial memory capabilities and also express the estrogen synthetic enzyme aromatase abundantly in the hippocampus, suggesting that locally-produced estrogens may promote the acquisition or retrieval of spatial memories in these birds. We examined the effect of estradiol on spatial memory in three contexts in the zebra finch: retrieval after discrimination training, retrieval after familiarization but without discrimination training, and memory acquisition, using a combination of estradiol implants and oral dosing with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (FAD). Retrieval of spatial memory in both contexts was impaired when estradiol production was blocked. However, spatial memory acquisition was enhanced when estradiol production was inhibited whereas estradiol replacement impaired acquisition. These results provide evidence for a context-specific role of estradiol in songbird spatial memory, results that finds accord with some mammalian studies but have not yet been observed in birds. PMID:23257279

  7. Active Learning in the Era of Big Data

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, Kevin; Davis, IV, Warren L.

    2015-10-01

    Active learning methods automatically adapt data collection by selecting the most informative samples in order to accelerate machine learning. Because of this, real-world testing and comparing active learning algorithms requires collecting new datasets (adaptively), rather than simply applying algorithms to benchmark datasets, as is the norm in (passive) machine learning research. To facilitate the development, testing and deployment of active learning for real applications, we have built an open-source software system for large-scale active learning research and experimentation. The system, called NEXT, provides a unique platform for realworld, reproducible active learning research. This paper details the challenges of building the system and demonstrates its capabilities with several experiments. The results show how experimentation can help expose strengths and weaknesses of active learning algorithms, in sometimes unexpected and enlightening ways.

  8. Age-Related Wayfinding Differences in Real Large-Scale Environments: Detrimental Motor Control Effects during Spatial Learning Are Mediated by Executive Decline?

    PubMed Central

    Taillade, Mathieu; Sauzéon, Hélène; Arvind Pala, Prashant; Déjos, Marie; Larrue, Florian; Gross, Christian; N’Kaoua, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate motor control activity (active vs. passive condition) with regards to wayfinding and spatial learning difficulties in large-scale spaces for older adults. We compared virtual reality (VR)-based wayfinding and spatial memory (survey and route knowledge) performances between 30 younger and 30 older adults. A significant effect of age was obtained on the wayfinding performances but not on the spatial memory performances. Specifically, the active condition deteriorated the survey measure in all of the participants and increased the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances. Importantly, the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances, after an active condition, were further mediated by the executive measures. All of the results relative to a detrimental effect of motor activity are discussed in terms of a dual task effect as well as executive decline associated with aging. PMID:23843992

  9. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  10. Multi-Perspective Indexing of Diverse Spatial Characteristics of an Outdoor Field toward Redesigning of Real-World Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Masaya; Tada, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Real-world learning is important because it encourages learners to obtain knowledge through various experiences. To design effective real-world learning, it is necessary to analyze the diverse learning activities that occur in real-world learning and to develop effective strategies for learning support. By inventing the technologies of multimodal…

  11. Navigating the Active Learning Swamp: Creating an Inviting Environment for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marie C.; Malinowski, Jon C.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a survey of faculty members (n=29) asking them to define active learning, to rate how effectively different teaching techniques contribute to active learning, and to list the three teaching techniques they use most frequently. Concludes that active learning requires establishing an environment rather than employing a specific teaching…

  12. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state. PMID:27275375

  13. The importance of spatial ability and mental models in learning anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Allison K.

    As a foundational course in medical education, gross anatomy serves to orient medical and veterinary students to the complex three-dimensional nature of the structures within the body. Understanding such spatial relationships is both fundamental and crucial for achievement in gross anatomy courses, and is essential for success as a practicing professional. Many things contribute to learning spatial relationships; this project focuses on a few key elements: (1) the type of multimedia resources, particularly computer-aided instructional (CAI) resources, medical students used to study and learn; (2) the influence of spatial ability on medical and veterinary students' gross anatomy grades and their mental models; and (3) how medical and veterinary students think about anatomy and describe the features of their mental models to represent what they know about anatomical structures. The use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) by gross anatomy students at Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) was assessed through a questionnaire distributed to the regional centers of the IUSM. Students reported using internet browsing, PowerPoint presentation software, and email on a daily bases to study gross anatomy. This study reveals that first-year medical students at the IUSM make limited use of CAI to study gross anatomy. Such studies emphasize the importance of examining students' use of CAI to study gross anatomy prior to development and integration of electronic media into the curriculum and they may be important in future decisions regarding the development of alternative learning resources. In order to determine how students think about anatomical relationships and describe the features of their mental models, personal interviews were conducted with select students based on students' ROT scores. Five typologies of the characteristics of students' mental models were identified and described: spatial thinking, kinesthetic approach, identification of anatomical structures

  14. The New Science of Learning: Active Learning, Metacognition, and Transfer of Knowledge in E-Learning Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffaker, David A.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the key concepts of active learning, metacognition, and transfer of knowledge, as put forth by the National Research Council's approach to the new science of learning, in relation to ways that E-Learning applications might improve learning both inside and outside the classroom. Several initiatives are highlighted to…

  15. Nicotine attenuates spatial learning deficits induced in the rat by perinatal lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingfu; Suszkiw, Janusz B

    2004-02-27

    Maternally lead (Pb)-exposed, juvenile rats exhibit significant deficits in spatial reference memory acquisition and working memory performance in the Morris water maze (MWM). Acute systemic application of nicotine reverses these deficits without affecting behavioral performance of the age-matched, lead-unexposed control animals. These results suggest that nicotinic agonist treatments can ameliorate learning and memory impairments, presumably by compensating for deficient nicotinic function in developmentally lead-exposed animals. PMID:14746932

  16. CA1 cell activity sequences emerge after reorganization of network correlation structure during associative learning

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Mehrab N; Dhawale, Ashesh K; Bhalla, Upinder S

    2014-01-01

    Animals can learn causal relationships between pairs of stimuli separated in time and this ability depends on the hippocampus. Such learning is believed to emerge from alterations in network connectivity, but large-scale connectivity is difficult to measure directly, especially during learning. Here, we show that area CA1 cells converge to time-locked firing sequences that bridge the two stimuli paired during training, and this phenomenon is coupled to a reorganization of network correlations. Using two-photon calcium imaging of mouse hippocampal neurons we find that co-time-tuned neurons exhibit enhanced spontaneous activity correlations that increase just prior to learning. While time-tuned cells are not spatially organized, spontaneously correlated cells do fall into distinct spatial clusters that change as a result of learning. We propose that the spatial re-organization of correlation clusters reflects global network connectivity changes that are responsible for the emergence of the sequentially-timed activity of cell-groups underlying the learned behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01982.001 PMID:24668171

  17. Between-task transfer of learning from spatial compatibility to a color stroop task.

    PubMed

    Marini, Maddalena; Iani, Cristina; Nicoletti, Roberto; Rubichi, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Responses to a relevant stimulus dimension are faster and more accurate when the stimulus and response spatially correspond compared to when they do not, even though stimulus position is irrelevant (Simon effect). It has been demonstrated that practicing with an incompatible spatial stimulus-response (S-R) mapping before performing a Simon task can eliminate this effect. In the present study we assessed whether a learned spatially incompatible S-R mapping can be transferred to a nonspatial conflict task, hence supporting the view that transfer effects are due to acquisition of a general "respond to the opposite stimulus value" rule. To this aim, we ran two experiments in which participants performed a spatial compatibility task with either a compatible or an incompatible mapping and then transferred, after a 5 min delay, to a color Stroop task. In Experiment 1, responses were executed by pressing one of two keys on the keyboard in both practice and transfer tasks. In Experiment 2, responses were manual in the practice task and vocal in the transfer task. The spatially incompatible practice significantly reduced the color Stroop effect only when responses were manual in both tasks. These results suggest that during practice participants develop a response-selection strategy of emitting the alternative spatial response. PMID:21592943

  18. The spatial coherence of Schumann activity in the polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtham, P. M.; McAskill, B. J.

    1988-02-01

    The spatial coherence of the first two Schumann resonant modes has been studied at two locations in the polar cap separated by 1100 km. Measurements were made at Assistance Bay and Mould Bay, which have geomagnetic latitudes of 83 and 79 deg, respectively, and satellite time-keeping was employed to accurately synchronize the field stations. The coherence was found to be high, typically 95 percent for the first Schumann mode, and was unaffected by changes in Kp, a storm sudden commencement, or a solar flare event. Polarization rotations were observed between the two stations, which could most likely be attributed to the coastline effect. The results are consistent with a stable propagation of Schumann activity from midlatitudes to high latitudes that is relatively unaffected by changes in the polar cap ionosphere.

  19. Learning Spatially-Smooth Mappings in Non-Rigid Structure from Motion.

    PubMed

    Hamsici, Onur C; Gotardo, Paulo F U; Martinez, Aleix M

    2012-01-01

    Non-rigid structure from motion (NRSFM) is a classical underconstrained problem in computer vision. A common approach to make NRSFM more tractable is to constrain 3D shape deformation to be smooth over time. This constraint has been used to compress the deformation model and reduce the number of unknowns that are estimated. However, temporal smoothness cannot be enforced when the data lacks temporal ordering and its benefits are less evident when objects undergo abrupt deformations. This paper proposes a new NRSFM method that addresses these problems by considering deformations as spatial variations in shape space and then enforcing spatial, rather than temporal, smoothness. This is done by modeling each 3D shape coefficient as a function of its input 2D shape. This mapping is learned in the feature space of a rotation invariant kernel, where spatial smoothness is intrinsically defined by the mapping function. As a result, our model represents shape variations compactly using custom-built coefficient bases learned from the input data, rather than a pre-specified set such as the Discrete Cosine Transform. The resulting kernel-based mapping is a by-product of the NRSFM solution and leads to another fundamental advantage of our approach: for a newly observed 2D shape, its 3D shape is recovered by simply evaluating the learned function. PMID:23946937

  20. STEM learning activity among home-educating families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning was studied among families in a group of home-educators in the Pacific Northwest. Ethnographic methods recorded learning activity (video, audio, fieldnotes, and artifacts) which was analyzed using a unique combination of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and Mediated Action (MA), enabling analysis of activity at multiple levels. Findings indicate that STEM learning activity is family-led, guided by parents' values and goals for learning, and negotiated with children to account for learner interests and differences, and available resources. Families' STEM education practice is dynamic, evolves, and influenced by larger societal STEM learning activity. Parents actively seek support and resources for STEM learning within their home-school community, working individually and collectively to share their funds of knowledge. Home-schoolers also access a wide variety of free-choice learning resources: web-based materials, museums, libraries, and community education opportunities (e.g. afterschool, weekend and summer programs, science clubs and classes, etc.). A lesson-heuristic, grounded in Mediated Action, represents and analyzes home STEM learning activity in terms of tensions between parental goals, roles, and lesson structure. One tension observed was between 'academic' goals or school-like activity and 'lifelong' goals or everyday learning activity. Theoretical and experiential learning was found in both activity, though parents with academic goals tended to focus more on theoretical learning and those with lifelong learning goals tended to be more experiential. Examples of the National Research Council's science learning strands (NRC, 2009) were observed in the STEM practices of all these families. Findings contribute to the small but growing body of empirical CHAT research in science education, specifically to the empirical base of family STEM learning practices at home. It also fills a

  1. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (∼0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ∼ 3 km s‑1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ∼24 km s‑1 and the peak of the distribution at ∼15 km s‑1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  2. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (˜0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ˜ 3 km s‑1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ˜24 km s‑1 and the peak of the distribution at ˜15 km s‑1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  3. Incorporating Active Learning Techniques into a Genetics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, W. Theodore; Jabot, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    We revised a sophomore-level genetics class to more actively engage the students in their learning. The students worked in groups on quizzes using the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) and active-learning projects. The IF-AT quizzes allowed students to discuss key concepts in small groups and learn the correct answers in class. The…

  4. Navigated Active Learning in an International Academic Virtual Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Imre; Wiersma, Meindert; Duhovnik, Joze; Stroud, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Active learning is an educational paradigm that has been reinvented and methodologically underpinned many times in order to intensify learning in various forms. This paper presents a complex approach to active learning in a design-centred academic course with international participation. Research and design were considered as vehicles of active…

  5. Enhancing Learning Outcomes through Application Driven Activities in Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegemann, Nicole; Sutton-Brady, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an activity used in class to allow students to apply previously acquired information to a hands-on task. As the authors have previously shown active learning is a way to effectively facilitate and improve students' learning outcomes. As a result to improve learning outcomes we have overtime developed a series of learning…

  6. Effects of Sharing Clickers in an Active Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Todd; Tivener, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Scientific research into learning enhancement gained by the use of clickers in active classrooms has largely focused on the use of individual clickers. In this study, we compared the learning experiences of participants in active learning groups in which an entire small group shared a single clicker to groups in which each member of the group had…

  7. Silent Students' Participation in a Large Active Learning Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obenland, Carrie A.; Munson, Ashlyn H.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning in large science classrooms furthers opportunities for students to engage in the content and in meaningful learning, yet students can still remain anonymously silent. This study aims to understand the impact of active learning on these silent students in a large General Chemistry course taught via Socratic questioning and…

  8. Active Learning in the Library Instruction Environment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Alanna; Furno, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study investigating the impact of problem-based learning and clicker technology as active learning strategies at the American University of Sharjah Library, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Studies compared traditional and active learning classes. The present article maps the successes and challenges of these unique…

  9. How the Learning Path and the Very Structure of a Multifloored Environment Influence Human Spatial Memory.

    PubMed

    Dollé, Laurent; Droulez, Jacques; Bennequin, Daniel; Berthoz, Alain; Thibault, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have explored how humans memorize landmarks in complex multifloored buildings. They have observed that participants memorize an environment either by floors or by vertical columns, influenced by the learning path. However, the influence of the building's actual structure is not yet known. In order to investigate this influence, we conducted an experiment using an object-in-place protocol in a cylindrical building to contrast with previous experiments which used rectilinear environments. Two groups of 15 participants were taken on a tour with a first person perspective through a virtual cylindrical three-floored building. They followed either a route discovering floors one at a time, or a route discovering columns (by simulated lifts across floors). They then underwent a series of trials, in which they viewed a camera movement reproducing either a segment of the learning path (familiar trials), or performing a shortcut relative to the learning trajectory (novel trials). We observed that regardless of the learning path, participants better memorized the building by floors, and only participants who had discovered the building by columns also memorized it by columns. This expands on previous results obtained in a rectilinear building, where the learning path favoured the memory of its horizontal and vertical layout. Taken together, these results suggest that both learning mode and an environment's structure influence the spatial memory of complex multifloored buildings. PMID:26770288

  10. How the Learning Path and the Very Structure of a Multifloored Environment Influence Human Spatial Memory

    PubMed Central

    Dollé, Laurent; Droulez, Jacques; Bennequin, Daniel; Berthoz, Alain; Thibault, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have explored how humans memorize landmarks in complex multifloored buildings. They have observed that participants memorize an environment either by floors or by vertical columns, influenced by the learning path. However, the influence of the building’s actual structure is not yet known. In order to investigate this influence, we conducted an experiment using an object-in-place protocol in a cylindrical building to contrast with previous experiments which used rectilinear environments. Two groups of 15 participants were taken on a tour with a first person perspective through a virtual cylindrical three-floored building. They followed either a route discovering floors one at a time, or a route discovering columns (by simulated lifts across floors). They then underwent a series of trials, in which they viewed a camera movement reproducing either a segment of the learning path (familiar trials), or performing a shortcut relative to the learning trajectory (novel trials). We observed that regardless of the learning path, participants better memorized the building by floors, and only participants who had discovered the building by columns also memorized it by columns. This expands on previous results obtained in a rectilinear building, where the learning path favoured the memory of its horizontal and vertical layout. Taken together, these results suggest that both learning mode and an environment’s structure influence the spatial memory of complex multifloored buildings. PMID:26770288

  11. Environmental Monitoring Networks Optimization Using Advanced Active Learning Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevski, Mikhail; Volpi, Michele; Copa, Loris

    2010-05-01

    The problem of environmental monitoring networks optimization (MNO) belongs to one of the basic and fundamental tasks in spatio-temporal data collection, analysis, and modeling. There are several approaches to this problem, which can be considered as a design or redesign of monitoring network by applying some optimization criteria. The most developed and widespread methods are based on geostatistics (family of kriging models, conditional stochastic simulations). In geostatistics the variance is mainly used as an optimization criterion which has some advantages and drawbacks. In the present research we study an application of advanced techniques following from the statistical learning theory (SLT) - support vector machines (SVM) and the optimization of monitoring networks when dealing with a classification problem (data are discrete values/classes: hydrogeological units, soil types, pollution decision levels, etc.) is considered. SVM is a universal nonlinear modeling tool for classification problems in high dimensional spaces. The SVM solution is maximizing the decision boundary between classes and has a good generalization property for noisy data. The sparse solution of SVM is based on support vectors - data which contribute to the solution with nonzero weights. Fundamentally the MNO for classification problems can be considered as a task of selecting new measurement points which increase the quality of spatial classification and reduce the testing error (error on new independent measurements). In SLT this is a typical problem of active learning - a selection of the new unlabelled points which efficiently reduce the testing error. A classical approach (margin sampling) to active learning is to sample the points closest to the classification boundary. This solution is suboptimal when points (or generally the dataset) are redundant for the same class. In the present research we propose and study two new advanced methods of active learning adapted to the solution of

  12. Effects of Danggui-Shaoyao-San on the Influence of Spatial Learning and Memory Induced by Experimental Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Shi; Ke, Jie; Zhao, Gui-Zhi; Wu, Li-An; Kou, Jun-Ping; Liu, Hong-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The pain caused by orthodontic treatment has been considered as tough problems in orthodontic practice. There is substantial literature on pain which has exactly effected on learning and memory; orthodontic tooth movement affected the emotional status has been showed positive outcomes. Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription that has been used for pain treatment and analgesic effect for orthodontic pain via inhibiting the activations of neuron and glia. We raised the hypothesis that DSS could restore the impaired abilities of spatial learning and memory via regulating neuron or glia expression in the hippocampus. Methods: A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) Sham group (n = 12), rats underwent all the operation procedure except for the placement of orthodontic forces and received saline treatment; (2) experimental tooth movement (ETM) group (n = 12), rats received saline treatment and ETM; (3) DSS + ETM (DETM) group (n = 12), rats received DSS treatment and ETM. All DETM group animals were administered with DSS at a dose of 150 mg/kg. Morris water maze test was evaluated; immunofluorescent histochemistry was used to identify astrocytes activation, and immunofluorescent dendritic spine analysis was used to identify the dendritic spines morphological characteristics expression levels in hippocampus. Results: Maze training sessions during the 5 successive days revealed that ETM significantly deficits in progressive learning in rats, DSS that was given from day 5 prior to ETM enhanced progressive learning. The ETM group rats took longer to cross target quadrant during the probe trial and got less times to cross-platform than DETM group. The spine density in hippocampus in ETM group was significantly decreased compared to the sham group. In addition, thin and mature spine density were decreased too. However, the DSS administration could reverse the dendritic shrinkage and increase the spine density

  13. Distinct discrimination learning strategies and their relation with spatial memory and attentional control in 4- to 14-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Schmittmann, Verena D; van der Maas, Han L J; Raijmakers, Maartje E J

    2012-04-01

    Behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuropsychological studies have revealed large developmental differences in various learning paradigms where learning from positive and negative feedback is essential. The differences are possibly due to the use of distinct strategies that may be related to spatial working memory and attentional control. In this study, strategies in performing a discrimination learning task were distinguished in a cross-sectional sample of 302 children from 4 to 14 years of age. The trial-by-trial accuracy data were analyzed with mathematical learning models. The best-fitting model revealed three learning strategies: hypothesis testing, slow abrupt learning, and nonlearning. The proportion of hypothesis-testing children increased with age. Nonlearners were present only in the youngest age group. Feature preferences for the irrelevant dimension had a detrimental effect on performance in the youngest age group. The executive functions spatial working memory and attentional control significantly predicted posterior learning strategy probabilities after controlling for age. PMID:22176926

  14. Bipart: Learning Block Structure for Activity Detection

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yang; Lo, Henry Z.; Ding, Wei; Amaral, Kevin; Crouter, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity consists complex behavior, typically structured in bouts which can consist of one continuous movement (e.g. exercise) or many sporadic movements (e.g. household chores). Each bout can be represented as a block of feature vectors corresponding to the same activity type. This paper introduces a general distance metric technique to use this block representation to first predict activity type, and then uses the predicted activity to estimate energy expenditure within a novel framework. This distance metric, dubbed Bipart, learns block-level information from both training and test sets, combining both to form a projection space which materializes block-level constraints. Thus, Bipart provides a space which can improve the bout classification performance of all classifiers. We also propose an energy expenditure estimation framework which leverages activity classification in order to improve estimates. Comprehensive experiments on waist-mounted accelerometer data, comparing Bipart against many similar methods as well as other classifiers, demonstrate the superior activity recognition of Bipart, especially in low-information experimental settings. PMID:25328361

  15. Cholinergic parameters and the retrieval of learned and re-learned spatial information: a study using a model of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pires, Rita G W; Pereira, Silvia R C; Oliveira-Silva, Ieda F; Franco, Glaura C; Ribeiro, Angela M

    2005-07-01

    This is a factorial (2 x 2 x 2) spatial memory and cholinergic parameters study in which the factors are chronic ethanol, thiamine deficiency and naivety in Morris water maze task. Both learning and retention of the spatial version of the water maze were assessed. To assess retrograde retention of spatial information, half of the rats were pre-trained on the maze before the treatment manipulations of pyrithiamine (PT)-induced thiamine deficiency and post-tested after treatment (pre-trained group). The other half of the animals was only trained after treatment to assess anterograde amnesia (post-trained group). Thiamine deficiency, associated to chronic ethanol treatment, had a significant deleterious effect on spatial memory performance of post-trained animals. The biochemical data revealed that chronic ethanol treatment reduced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the hippocampus while leaving the neocortex unchanged, whereas thiamine deficiency reduced both cortical and hippocampal AChE activity. Regarding basal and stimulated cortical acetylcholine (ACh) release, both chronic ethanol and thiamine deficiency treatments had significant main effects. Significant correlations were found between both cortical and hippocampal AChE activity and behaviour parameters for pre-trained but not for post-trained animals. Also for ACh release, the correlation found was significant only for pre-trained animals. These biochemical parameters were decreased by thiamine deficiency and chronic ethanol treatment, both in pre-trained and post-trained animals. But the correlation with the behavioural parameters was observed only for pre-trained animals, that is, those that were retrained and assessed for retrograde retention. PMID:15922063

  16. Using Assistive Technology Adaptations To Include Students with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process for integrating technology adaptations for students with learning disabilities into cooperative-learning activities in terms of three components: (1) selecting adaptations; (2) monitoring use of adaptations during cooperative-learning activities; and (3) evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. Barriers to and support systems…

  17. Patterns of Field Learning Activities and Their Relation to Learning Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mingun; Fortune, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Field practicum is an active learning process. This study explores the different learning stages or processes students experience during their field practicum. First-year master's of social work students in field practica were asked how much they had engaged in educational learning activities such as observation, working independently,…

  18. Active-Learning versus Teacher-Centered Instruction for Learning Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of "acids and bases". Sample: The sample of this study was…

  19. Active biofeedback changes the spatial distribution of upper trapezius muscle activity during computer work.

    PubMed

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen; Madeleine, Pascal

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal effects of advanced biofeedback by inducing active and passive pauses on the trapezius activity pattern using high-density surface electromyography (HD-EMG). Thirteen healthy male subjects performed computer work with superimposed feedback either eliciting passive (rest) or active (approximately 30% MVC) pauses based on fuzzy logic design and a control session with no feedback. HD-EMG signals of upper trapezius were recorded using a 5 x 13 multichannel electrode grid. From the HD-EMG recordings, two-dimensional maps of root mean square (RMS), relative rest time (RRT) and permuted sample entropy (PeSaEn) were obtained. The centre of gravity (CoG) and entropy of maps were used to quantify changes in the spatial distribution of muscle activity. PeSaEn as a measure of temporal heterogeneity for each channel, decreased over the whole map in response to active pause (P < 0.05) underlining a more homogenous activation pattern. Concomitantly, the CoG of RRT maps moved in caudal direction and the entropy of RMS maps as a measure of spatial heterogeneity over the whole recording grid, increased in response to active pause session compared with control session (no feedback) (P < 0.05). Active pause compared with control resulted in more heterogeneous coordination of trapezius compared with no feedback implying a more uneven spatial distribution of the biomechanical load. The study introduced new aspects in relation to the potential benefit of superimposed muscle contraction in relation to the spatial organization of muscle activity during computer work. PMID:20512502

  20. How Entorhinal Grid Cells May Learn Multiple Spatial Scales from a Dorsoventral Gradient of Cell Response Rates in a Self-organizing Map

    PubMed Central

    Grossberg, Stephen; Pilly, Praveen K.

    2012-01-01

    Place cells in the hippocampus of higher mammals are critical for spatial navigation. Recent modeling clarifies how this may be achieved by how grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) input to place cells. Grid cells exhibit hexagonal grid firing patterns across space in multiple spatial scales along the MEC dorsoventral axis. Signals from grid cells of multiple scales combine adaptively to activate place cells that represent much larger spaces than grid cells. But how do grid cells learn to fire at multiple positions that form a hexagonal grid, and with spatial scales that increase along the dorsoventral axis? In vitro recordings of medial entorhinal layer II stellate cells have revealed subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (MPOs) whose temporal periods, and time constants of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), both increase along this axis. Slower (faster) subthreshold MPOs and slower (faster) EPSPs correlate with larger (smaller) grid spacings and field widths. A self-organizing map neural model explains how the anatomical gradient of grid spatial scales can be learned by cells that respond more slowly along the gradient to their inputs from stripe cells of multiple scales, which perform linear velocity path integration. The model cells also exhibit MPO frequencies that covary with their response rates. The gradient in intrinsic rhythmicity is thus not compelling evidence for oscillatory interference as a mechanism of grid cell firing. A response rate gradient combined with input stripe cells that have normalized receptive fields can reproduce all known spatial and temporal properties of grid cells along the MEC dorsoventral axis. This spatial gradient mechanism is homologous to a gradient mechanism for temporal learning in the lateral entorhinal cortex and its hippocampal projections. Spatial and temporal representations may hereby arise from homologous mechanisms, thereby embodying a mechanistic “neural relativity” that may clarify

  1. Learning Bayesian networks from big meteorological spatial datasets. An alternative to complex network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Jose Manuel; San Martín, Daniel; Herrera, Sixto; Santiago Cofiño, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The growing availability of spatial datasets (observations, reanalysis, and regional and global climate models) demands efficient multivariate spatial modeling techniques for many problems of interest (e.g. teleconnection analysis, multi-site downscaling, etc.). Complex networks have been recently applied in this context using graphs built from pairwise correlations between the different stations (or grid boxes) forming the dataset. However, this analysis does not take into account the full dependence structure underlying the data, gien by all possible marginal and conditional dependencies among the stations, and does not allow a probabilistic analysis of the dataset. In this talk we introduce Bayesian networks as an alternative multivariate analysis and modeling data-driven technique which allows building a joint probability distribution of the stations including all relevant dependencies in the dataset. Bayesian networks is a sound machine learning technique using a graph to 1) encode the main dependencies among the variables and 2) to obtain a factorization of the joint probability distribution of the stations given by a reduced number of parameters. For a particular problem, the resulting graph provides a qualitative analysis of the spatial relationships in the dataset (alternative to complex network analysis), and the resulting model allows for a probabilistic analysis of the dataset. Bayesian networks have been widely applied in many fields, but their use in climate problems is hampered by the large number of variables (stations) involved in this field, since the complexity of the existing algorithms to learn from data the graphical structure grows nonlinearly with the number of variables. In this contribution we present a modified local learning algorithm for Bayesian networks adapted to this problem, which allows inferring the graphical structure for thousands of stations (from observations) and/or gridboxes (from model simulations) thus providing new

  2. Is Active Learning Like Broccoli? Student Perceptions of Active Learning in Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Veronica; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn

    2011-01-01

    Although research suggests that active learning is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., memory, test performance), use of such techniques can be difficult to implement in large lecture-based classes. In the current study, 1,091 students completed out-of-class group exercises to complement course material in an Introductory Psychology class.…

  3. "Heart Shots": a classroom activity to instigate active learning.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Vashe, Asha; Torke, Sharmila

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to provide undergraduate medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal University, in Karnataka, India, an opportunity to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations. A group activity named "Heart Shots" was implemented for a batch of first-year undergraduate students (n = 105) at the end of a block (teaching unit). Students were divided into 10 groups each having 10-11 students. They were requested to make a video/PowerPoint presentation about the application of cardiovascular principles to real-life situations. The presentation was required to be of only pictures/photos and no text material, with a maximum duration of 7 min. More than 95% of students considered that the activity helped them to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations and understand the relevance of physiology in medicine and to revise the topic. More than 90% of students agreed that the activity helped them to apply their creativity in improving their knowledge and to establish a link between concepts rather than learning them as isolated facts. Based on the feedback, we conclude that the activity was student centered and that it facilitated learning. PMID:26330036

  4. Route learning in Korsakoff's syndrome: Residual acquisition of spatial memory despite profound amnesia.

    PubMed

    Oudman, Erik; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Wijnia, Jan W; Seekles, Maaike L; Postma, Albert

    2016-03-01

    Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is characterized by explicit amnesia, but relatively spared implicit memory. The aim of this study was to assess to what extent KS patients can acquire spatial information while performing a spatial navigation task. Furthermore, we examined whether residual spatial acquisition in KS was based on automatic or effortful coding processes. Therefore, 20 KS patients and 20 matched healthy controls performed six tasks on spatial navigation after they navigated through a residential area. Ten participants per group were instructed to pay close attention (intentional condition), while 10 received mock instructions (incidental condition). KS patients showed hampered performance on a majority of tasks, yet their performance was superior to chance level on a route time and distance estimation tasks, a map drawing task and a route walking task. Performance was relatively spared on the route distance estimation task, but there were large variations between participants. Acquisition in KS was automatic rather than effortful, since no significant differences were obtained between the intentional and incidental condition on any task, whereas for the healthy controls, the intention to learn was beneficial for the map drawing task and the route walking task. The results of this study suggest that KS patients are still able to acquire spatial information during navigation on multiple domains despite the presence of the explicit amnesia. Residual acquisition is most likely based on automatic coding processes. PMID:25345967

  5. On-line and Mobil Learning Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Whittaker, T. M.; Jasmin, T.; Mooney, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Introductory college-level science courses for non-majors are critical gateways to imparting not only discipline-specific information, but also the basics of the scientific method and how science influences society. They are also indispensable for student success to degree. On-line, web-based homework (whether on computers or mobile devices) is a rapidly growing use of the Internet and is becoming a major component of instruction in science, replacing delayed feedback from a few major exams. Web delivery and grading of traditional textbook-type questions is equally effective as having students write them out for hand grading, as measured by student performance on conceptual and problem solving exams. During this presentation we will demonstrate some of the interactive on-line activities used to teach concepts and how scientists approach problem solving, and how these activities have impacted student learning. Evaluation of the activities, including formative and summative, will be discussed and provide evidence that these interactive activities significantly enhance understanding of introductory meteorological concepts in a college-level science course. More advanced interactive activities are also used in our courses for department majors, some of these will be discussed and demonstrated. Bring your mobile devices to play along! Here is an example on teaching contouring: http://profhorn.aos.wisc.edu/wxwise/contour/index.html

  6. Developmental effects of +/-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on spatial versus path integration learning: effects of dose distribution.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Schaefer, Tori L; Williams, Michael T

    2007-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that postnatal day 11-20 +/-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exposure reduces locomotor activity and impairs path integration and spatial learning independent of the effects on activity. The effects were seen when the drug was administered twice per day, but the optimal dosing regimen is unknown. We tested whether the same total daily dose of MDMA administered in different patterns would equally affect later behavior. A split-litter design (15 litters) was used with one male/female pair per litter receiving one of four treatment regimens. All offspring received four injections per day on P11-20 as follows: 40 x 1 (40 mg/kg MDMA x 1 + saline x 3), 20 x 2 (20 mg/kg MDMA x 2 + saline x 2), 10 x 4 (10 mg/kg MDMA x 4), or Saline (saline x 4). Doses were spaced 2 h apart. Group 40 x 1 received MDMA as the first daily dose followed by three saline doses; group 20 x 2 received MDMA as the first and last dose and saline for the middle two doses; group 10 x 4 received MDMA for all four doses; and the saline group received saline for all four doses. Regardless of dose schedule, all groups treated with MDMA exhibited reduced locomotor activity. No MDMA effects were found on swimming ability in a straight channel. Modest MDMA effects were found on Barnes maze performance. The major findings were that the 40 x 1 and 20 x 2 MDMA groups showed impaired Cincinnati multiple T-water-maze learning and the 10 x 4 and 20 x 2 MDMA groups showed impaired Morris water maze learning. The results suggest that MDMA dose distribution has a long-term differential effect on different types of learning. Dose distribution warrants greater attention in the design of developmental drug studies along with the standard considerations of dose and age. PMID:17415794

  7. Selecting statistical or machine learning techniques for regional landslide susceptibility modelling by evaluating spatial prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Jason; Brenning, Alexander; Petschko, Helene; Leopold, Philip

    2015-04-01

    With so many techniques now available for landslide susceptibility modelling, it can be challenging to decide on which technique to apply. Generally speaking, the criteria for model selection should be tied closely to end users' purpose, which could be spatial prediction, spatial analysis or both. In our research, we focus on comparing the spatial predictive abilities of landslide susceptibility models. We illustrate how spatial cross-validation, a statistical approach for assessing spatial prediction performance, can be applied with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) as a prediction measure for model comparison. Several machine learning and statistical techniques are evaluated for prediction in Lower Austria: support vector machine, random forest, bundling with penalized linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, weights of evidence, and the generalized additive model. In addition to predictive performance, the importance of predictor variables in each model was estimated using spatial cross-validation by calculating the change in AUROC performance when variables are randomly permuted. The susceptibility modelling techniques were tested in three areas of interest in Lower Austria, which have unique geologic conditions associated with landslide occurrence. Overall, we found for the majority of comparisons that there were little practical or even statistically significant differences in AUROCs. That is the models' prediction performances were very similar. Therefore, in addition to prediction, the ability to interpret models for spatial analysis and the qualitative qualities of the prediction surface (map) are considered and discussed. The measure of variable importance provided some insight into the model behaviour for prediction, in particular for "black-box" models. However, there were no clear patterns in all areas of interest to why certain variables were given more importance over others.

  8. How to learn effectively in medical school: test yourself, learn actively, and repeat in intervals.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Students in medical school often feel overwhelmed by the excessive amount of factual knowledge they are obliged to learn. Although a large body of research on effective learning methods is published, scientifically based learning strategies are not a standard part of the curriculum in medical school. Students are largely unaware of how to learn successfully and improve memory. This review outlines three fundamental methods that benefit learning: the testing effect, active recall, and spaced repetition. The review summarizes practical learning strategies to learn effectively and optimize long-term retention of factual knowledge. PMID:24910566

  9. Prenatal oxycodone exposure impairs spatial learning and/or memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Davis, Chris P; Franklin, La'tonya M; Johnson, Gabriel S; Schrott, Lisa M

    2010-09-01

    Recent changes in demographic patterns of drug use have resulted in the increased non-medical use of prescription opiates. These users are younger and more likely to be female, which has the potential for increasing rates of in utero exposure. Therefore, we developed a rat model that simulates a prescription opiate-dependent woman who becomes pregnant. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 30 days via oral gavage with ascending doses of oxycodone HCl up to a final dose of 15mg/kg/day, which was maintained during breeding and gestation. Controls were treated with water. The adult male offspring of these treated dams were tested on the radial arm maze, the Morris water maze (with a short and a long intertrial interval), and a spatial T-maze. Prenatal oxycodone exposure led to a deficit in the radial arm maze characterized by a greater number of reference memory errors, especially in the beginning of testing. In contrast, in the T-maze, prenatal oxycodone-exposed rats learned the task as well as well as the prenatal water controls. However, they had a modest deficit in retention of the task when assessed 5 days after acquisition training ended. For the Morris water maze, the intertrial interval affected the pattern of learning. While there was no deficit when the training had a short intertrial interval, when there was a long intertrial interval, prenatal oxycodone-exposed rats had poorer acquisition. The spatial learning deficit was characterized by and increased latency to find and a greater distance traveled to the platform in the prenatal oxycodone-exposed rats. These data were corroborated by analysis of the behavioral search strategy, which showed a decreased use of spatial strategies and an increase in non-spatial strategies, especially wall-hugging, in prenatal oxycodone-exposed rats as compared to prenatal water control rats on day 2 of acquisition. These results indicate that prenatal oxycodone exposure consistently impairs learning and memory in

  10. Sharpening coarse-to-fine stereo vision by perceptual learning: asymmetric transfer across the spatial frequency spectrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Roger W; Tran, Truyet T; Craven, Ashley P; Leung, Tsz-Wing; Chat, Sandy W; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    Neurons in the early visual cortex are finely tuned to different low-level visual features, forming a multi-channel system analysing the visual image formed on the retina in a parallel manner. However, little is known about the potential 'cross-talk' among these channels. Here, we systematically investigated whether stereoacuity, over a large range of target spatial frequencies, can be enhanced by perceptual learning. Using narrow-band visual stimuli, we found that practice with coarse (low spatial frequency) targets substantially improves performance, and that the improvement spreads from coarse to fine (high spatial frequency) three-dimensional perception, generalizing broadly across untrained spatial frequencies and orientations. Notably, we observed an asymmetric transfer of learning across the spatial frequency spectrum. The bandwidth of transfer was broader when training was at a high spatial frequency than at a low spatial frequency. Stereoacuity training is most beneficial when trained with fine targets. This broad transfer of stereoacuity learning contrasts with the highly specific learning reported for other basic visual functions. We also revealed strategies to boost learning outcomes 'beyond-the-plateau'. Our investigations contribute to understanding the functional properties of the network subserving stereovision. The ability to generalize may provide a key principle for restoring impaired binocular vision in clinical situations. PMID:26909178

  11. Sharpening coarse-to-fine stereo vision by perceptual learning: asymmetric transfer across the spatial frequency spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Truyet T.; Craven, Ashley P.; Leung, Tsz-Wing; Chat, Sandy W.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Neurons in the early visual cortex are finely tuned to different low-level visual features, forming a multi-channel system analysing the visual image formed on the retina in a parallel manner. However, little is known about the potential ‘cross-talk’ among these channels. Here, we systematically investigated whether stereoacuity, over a large range of target spatial frequencies, can be enhanced by perceptual learning. Using narrow-band visual stimuli, we found that practice with coarse (low spatial frequency) targets substantially improves performance, and that the improvement spreads from coarse to fine (high spatial frequency) three-dimensional perception, generalizing broadly across untrained spatial frequencies and orientations. Notably, we observed an asymmetric transfer of learning across the spatial frequency spectrum. The bandwidth of transfer was broader when training was at a high spatial frequency than at a low spatial frequency. Stereoacuity training is most beneficial when trained with fine targets. This broad transfer of stereoacuity learning contrasts with the highly specific learning reported for other basic visual functions. We also revealed strategies to boost learning outcomes ‘beyond-the-plateau’. Our investigations contribute to understanding the functional properties of the network subserving stereovision. The ability to generalize may provide a key principle for restoring impaired binocular vision in clinical situations. PMID:26909178

  12. Adult learning deficits after neonatal exposure to D-methamphetamine: selective effects on spatial navigation and memory.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, C V; Inman-Wood, S L; Morford, L L; Broening, H W; Fukumura, M; Moran, M S

    2000-06-15

    The effects of neonatal d-methamphetamine (MA) treatment on cued and spatial learning and memory were investigated. MA was administered to neonatal rats on postnatal days 11-20. All groups received four subcutaneous injections per day. Group MA40-4 received 40 mg. kg(-1). d(-1) of MA in four divided doses (10 mg/kg per injection). Group MA40-2 received 40 mg. kg(-1). d(-1) of MA in two divided (20 mg/kg/injection) and saline for the other two injections per day. Controls received saline for four injections per day. As adults, both MA groups showed no differences in swimming ability in a straight swimming channel. The MA40-4 group showed no differences in cued learning, but was impaired in hidden platform learning in the Morris water maze on acquisition. They also showed reduced memory performance on probe trials. Similar trends were seen on reversal learning and reversal probe trials. Reduced platform-size learning trials caused spatial learning impairments to re-emerge in the MA40-4 group. The MA40-2 group showed no differences in straight channel swimming, but was slower at finding the visible platform during cued learning. They were also impaired during acquisition and memory trials in the Morris hidden platform maze. They showed a similar trend on reversal learning and memory trials, but were not different during reduced platform-size learning trials. When the MA40-2 group's performance on hidden platform learning and memory trials was adjusted for cued trial performance, the spatial learning deficits remained. Deficits of spatial learning and memory are a selective effect of neonatal methamphetamine treatment irrespective of other learning and performance variables. PMID:10844042

  13. PPARγ activation prevents impairments in spatial memory and neurogenesis following transient illness

    PubMed Central

    Ormerod, Brandi K.; Hanft, Simon J.; Asokan, Aditya; Haditsch, Ursula; Lee, Star W.; Palmer, Theo D.

    2012-01-01

    The detrimental effects of illness on cognition are familiar to virtually everyone. Some effects resolve quickly while others may linger after the illness resolves. We found that a transient immune response stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compromised hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. The immune event caused a 50% reduction in the number of neurons generated during the illness and the onset of the memory impairment was delayed and coincided with the time when neurons generated during the illness would have become functional within the hippocampus. Broad spectrum non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs attenuated these effects but selective Cox-2 inhibition was ineffective while PPARγ activation was surprisingly effective at protecting both neurogenesis and memory from the effects of LPS-produced transient illness. These data may highlight novel mechanisms behind chronic inflammatory and neuroinflammatory episodes that are known to compromise hippocampus-dependent forms of learning and memory. PMID:23108061

  14. Ensemble Learning for Spatial Interpolation of Soil Potassium Content Based on Environmental Information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Du, Peijun; Wang, Dongchen

    2015-01-01

    One important method to obtain the continuous surfaces of soil properties from point samples is spatial interpolation. In this paper, we propose a method that combines ensemble learning with ancillary environmental information for improved interpolation of soil properties (hereafter, EL-SP). First, we calculated the trend value for soil potassium contents at the Qinghai Lake region in China based on measured values. Then, based on soil types, geology types, land use types, and slope data, the remaining residual was simulated with the ensemble learning model. Next, the EL-SP method was applied to interpolate soil potassium contents at the study site. To evaluate the utility of the EL-SP method, we compared its performance with other interpolation methods including universal kriging, inverse distance weighting, ordinary kriging, and ordinary kriging combined geographic information. Results show that EL-SP had a lower mean absolute error and root mean square error than the data produced by the other models tested in this paper. Notably, the EL-SP maps can describe more locally detailed information and more accurate spatial patterns for soil potassium content than the other methods because of the combined use of different types of environmental information; these maps are capable of showing abrupt boundary information for soil potassium content. Furthermore, the EL-SP method not only reduces prediction errors, but it also compliments other environmental information, which makes the spatial interpolation of soil potassium content more reasonable and useful. PMID:25928138

  15. Ensemble learning for spatial interpolation of soil potassium content based on environmental information.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Du, Peijun; Wang, Dongchen

    2015-01-01

    One important method to obtain the continuous surfaces of soil properties from point samples is spatial interpolation. In this paper, we propose a method that combines ensemble learning with ancillary environmental information for improved interpolation of soil properties (hereafter, EL-SP). First, we calculated the trend value for soil potassium contents at the Qinghai Lake region in China based on measured values. Then, based on soil types, geology types, land use types, and slope data, the remaining residual was simulated with the ensemble learning model. Next, the EL-SP method was applied to interpolate soil potassium contents at the study site. To evaluate the utility of the EL-SP method, we compared its performance with other interpolation methods including universal kriging, inverse distance weighting, ordinary kriging, and ordinary kriging combined geographic information. Results show that EL-SP had a lower mean absolute error and root mean square error than the data produced by the other models tested in this paper. Notably, the EL-SP maps can describe more locally detailed information and more accurate spatial patterns for soil potassium content than the other methods because of the combined use of different types of environmental information; these maps are capable of showing abrupt boundary information for soil potassium content. Furthermore, the EL-SP method not only reduces prediction errors, but it also compliments other environmental information, which makes the spatial interpolation of soil potassium content more reasonable and useful. PMID:25928138

  16. Memantine attenuates the impairment of spatial learning and memory of pentylenetetrazol-kindled rats.

    PubMed

    Jia, Li-Jing; Wang, Wei-Ping; Li, Zhou-Ping; Zhen, Jun-Li; An, Li-Wei; Duan, Rui-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Cognitive disorders after epilepsy can have a great impact on the quality of life of epileptic patients, though it has not drawn much attention. Even after identified, it is often undertreated or has gone untreated. Memantine has been approved to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer disease (AD), which is characterized by cognitive impairment. In present study, we determined the effects of memantine on PTZ-kindled rats, which can mimic the postseizure dysfunction that resembles symptoms observed in human epilepsy. We found that memantine can ameliorate the spatial learning and memory of epileptic rats. But contrary to previous claims that memantine can improve cognition in AD patients, without serious side effects on normal learning and memory abilities, we found that rats treated only with memantine exhibited the impaired spatial learning and memory ability. We conclude that memantine can improve cognition related to an excitotoxicity-induced pathologic state, but the potential side effects of memantine on the physiological processes should be considered. PMID:21479611

  17. Age-dependent effects of neonatal methamphetamine exposure on spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Skelton, Matthew R; Williams, Michael T

    2007-09-01

    Neonatal rats exposed to (+)-methamphetamine (MA) display spatial learning and reference memory deficits in the Morris water maze. In separate experiments the emergence and permanence of these effects were determined. Twenty litters were used in each experiment, and two male/female pairs/litter received saline or MA (5 mg/kg four times a day) on postnatal days (P) 11-20. In experiment 1, one MA and one saline pair from each litter began testing on either P30 or P40, whereas in experiment 2, testing began on P180 or P360. Animals received trials in a straight swimming channel and then in the Morris maze (acquisition, reversal, and reduced platform phases). In both experiments, MA-treated groups showed impaired learning in the platform trials and impaired reference memory in the probe trials, which were largely independent of age. The P30 and P40 MA impairments were seen on acquisition and reduced platform trials but not on reversal. In the probe trials, MA effects were seen during all phases. The P180 and P360 MA-induced deficits were seen in all phases of the platform trials. In probe trials, deficits were only seen during the reversal and reduced platform phases. The results demonstrate that neonatal MA treatment induces spatial learning and reference memory deficits that emerge early and persist until at least 1 year of age, suggesting permanence. PMID:17762523

  18. Age-dependent effects of neonatal methamphetamine exposure on spatial learning

    PubMed Central

    Vorhees, Charles V.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Neonatal rats exposed to (+)-methamphetamine (MA) display spatial learning and reference memory deficits in the Morris water maze. In separate experiments the emergence and permanence of these effects were determined. Twenty litters were used in each experiment, and two male/female pairs/litter received saline or MA (5 mg/kg four times a day) on postnatal days (P) 11–20. In experiment 1, one MA and one saline pair from each litter began testing on either P30 or P40, whereas in experiment 2, testing began on P180 or P360. Animals received trials in a straight swimming channel and then in the Morris maze (acquisition, reversal, and reduced platform phases). In both experiments, MA-treated groups showed impaired learning in the platform trials and impaired reference memory in the probe trials, which were largely independent of age. The P30 and P40 MA impairments were seen on acquisition and reduced platform trials but not on reversal. In the probe trials, MA effects were seen during all phases. The P180 and P360 MA-induced deficits were seen in all phases of the platform trials. In probe trials, deficits were only seen during the reversal and reduced platform phases. The results demonstrate that neonatal MA treatment induces spatial learning and reference memory deficits that emerge early and persist until at least 1 year of age, suggesting permanence. PMID:17762523

  19. Horses fail to use social learning when solving spatial detour tasks.

    PubMed

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-07-01

    Social animals should have plenty of opportunities to learn from conspecifics, but most studies have failed to document social learning in horses. This study investigates whether young Icelandic horses can learn a spatial detour task through observation of a trained demonstrator horse of either the same age (Experiments 1 and 2, n = 22) or older (Experiment 3, n = 24). Observer horses were allowed to observe the demonstrator being led three times through the detour route immediately before being given the opportunity to solve the task themselves. Controls were allowed only to observe the demonstrator horse eating at the final position, but not the demonstration of the route. Although we found a tendency towards better performance by observer horses in the second experiment, we were unable to repeat this result in a similar set-up with a new group of horses and older, dominant demonstrator horses. We conclude that horses exposed to prior demonstration did not perform better than control horses in solving spatial detour tasks. PMID:25716720

  20. 3-D Visualisation: Using Internet-based Activities to Enhance Student Understanding of 3-dimensional Spatial Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, A. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, P.

    2011-12-01

    Spatial ability forms its own category separate from verbal ability. Various spatial abilities have been identified over the last three decades and classified into three types: mental rotation, spatial rotation and spatial visualization, which have been linked to high performance in STEM subjects. Geoscience demands spatial thinking from learners and practitioners, and spatial literacy has been seen as a fundamental skill in Geography, Earth & Environmental Sciences (GEES disciplines) essential for progression. First year GEES students not only have to cope with new learning and teaching environments (Maguire et al., 2008), but, arriving with different science backgrounds, are faced with the challenge of developing essential skills that may be novel for them. These essential skills are subject-specific, as well as transferable, and require an understanding of 3-dimensional spatial relationships. However, spatial skills can be troublesome for some students to master. Not only do many students find difficulty in acquiring spatial skills, facing a succession of hurdles that need to be overcome in developing their understanding, but also educators, often strong spatial thinkers themselves and unaware of the degree to which some students are spatially-challenged, may find it difficult to help. Recent studies have suggested that performance on abstract and applied spatial tasks may be enhanced through instruction and practice and spatially-intensive geoscience courses may strengthen performance on spatial tasks. At Liverpool, many first year geoscience modules require understanding of 3-D spatial relationships, often from initial 2-D observations (e.g. mineralogy, petrography, vulcanology, sedimentology, palaeontology, geological map work, structural geology and fieldwork). In this paper we outline work, supported by the UK Subject Centre for Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (GEES), involving first year geosciences students at Liverpool, in which we explored

  1. Spaces in between Us: A Qualitative Study into the Impact of Spatial Practice when Learning in "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2013-01-01

    This paper will present a study that explored the perceived impact of spatial practice in "Second Life" (SL) on teaching and learning from the point of view of participants in higher education (lecturers, developers and researchers). Narrative inquiry was used to access stories and experiences of space and spatial practice from staff perspectives.…

  2. The Synergetic Effect of Learning Styles on the Interaction between Virtual Environments and the Enhancement of Spatial Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Hanoch; Cohen, Arie

    2011-01-01

    Students have difficulty learning 3D geometry; spatial thinking is an important aspect of the learning processes in this academic area. In light of the unique features of virtual environments and the influence of metacognitive processes (e.g., self-regulating questions) on the teaching of mathematics, we assumed that a combination of…

  3. Distinct Discrimination Learning Strategies and Their Relation with Spatial Memory and Attentional Control in 4- to 14-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmittmann, Verena D.; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuropsychological studies have revealed large developmental differences in various learning paradigms where learning from positive and negative feedback is essential. The differences are possibly due to the use of distinct strategies that may be related to spatial working memory and attentional control. In…

  4. Is Peer Interaction Necessary for Optimal Active Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of inexperience, we should try to provide more explicit implementation recommendations based on research into the key components of effective active learning. We investigated the optimal implementation of active-learning exercises within a “lecture” course. Two sections of nonmajors biology were taught by the same instructor, in the same semester, using the same instructional materials and assessments. Students in one section completed in-class active-learning exercises in cooperative groups, while students in the other section completed the same activities individually. Performance on low-level, multiple-choice assessments was not significantly different between sections. However, students who worked in cooperative groups on the in-class activities significantly outperformed students who completed the activities individually on the higher-level, extended-response questions. Our results provide additional evidence that group processing of activities should be the recommended mode of implementation for in-class active-learning exercises. PMID:26086656

  5. Active dielectric antenna on chip for spatial light modulation

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ciyuan; Chen, Jianbo; Xia, Yang; Xu, Qianfan

    2012-01-01

    Integrated photonic resonators are widely used to manipulate light propagation in an evanescently-coupled waveguide. While the evanescent coupling scheme works well for planar optical systems that are naturally waveguide based, many optical applications are free-space based, such as imaging, display, holographics, metrology and remote sensing. Here we demonstrate an active dielectric antenna as the interface device that allows the large-scale integration capability of silicon photonics to serve the free-space applications. We show a novel perturbation-base diffractive coupling scheme that allows a high-Q planer resonator to directly interact with and manipulate free-space waves. Using a silicon-based photonic crystal cavity whose resonance can be rapidly tuned with a p-i-n junction, a compact spatial light modulator with an extinction ratio of 9.5 dB and a modulation speed of 150 MHz is demonstrated. Method to improve the modulation speed is discussed. PMID:23152946

  6. Spatially distinct and metabolically active membrane domain in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Jennifer M; Luo, Chu-Yuan; Mayfield, Jacob A; Hsu, Tsungda; Fukuda, Takeshi; Walfield, Andrew L; Giffen, Samantha R; Leszyk, John D; Baer, Christina E; Bennion, Owen T; Madduri, Ashoka; Shaffer, Scott A; Aldridge, Bree B; Sassetti, Christopher M; Sandler, Steven J; Kinoshita, Taroh; Moody, D Branch; Morita, Yasu S

    2016-05-10

    Protected from host immune attack and antibiotic penetration by their unique cell envelope, mycobacterial pathogens cause devastating human diseases such as tuberculosis. Seamless coordination of cell growth with cell envelope elongation at the pole maintains this barrier. Unraveling this spatiotemporal regulation is a potential strategy for controlling mycobacterial infections. Our biochemical analysis previously revealed two functionally distinct membrane fractions in Mycobacterium smegmatis cell lysates: plasma membrane tightly associated with the cell wall (PM-CW) and a distinct fraction of pure membrane free of cell wall components (PMf). To provide further insight into the functions of these membrane fractions, we took the approach of comparative proteomics and identified more than 300 proteins specifically associated with the PMf, including essential enzymes involved in cell envelope synthesis such as a mannosyltransferase, Ppm1, and a galactosyltransferase, GlfT2. Furthermore, comparative lipidomics revealed the distinct lipid composition of the PMf, with specific association of key cell envelope biosynthetic precursors. Live-imaging fluorescence microscopy visualized the PMf as patches of membrane spatially distinct from the PM-CW and notably enriched in the pole of the growing cells. Taken together, our study provides the basis for assigning the PMf as a spatiotemporally distinct and metabolically active membrane domain involved in cell envelope biogenesis. PMID:27114527

  7. Distinct Mechanisms Regulate Lck Spatial Organization in Activated T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor-Kaushik, Natasha; Hinde, Elizabeth; Compeer, Ewoud B.; Yamamoto, Yui; Kraus, Felix; Yang, Zhengmin; Lou, Jieqiong; Pageon, Sophie V.; Tabarin, Thibault; Gaus, Katharina; Rossy, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the T cell receptor (TCR) by the kinase Lck is the first detectable signaling event upon antigen engagement. The distribution of Lck within the plasma membrane, its conformational state, kinase activity, and protein–protein interactions all contribute to determine how efficiently Lck phosphorylates the engaged TCR. Here, we used cross-correlation raster image correlation spectroscopy and photoactivated localization microscopy to identify two mechanisms of Lck clustering: an intrinsic mechanism of Lck clustering induced by locking Lck in its open conformation and an extrinsic mechanism of clustering controlled by the phosphorylation of tyrosine 192, which regulates the affinity of Lck SH2 domain. Both mechanisms of clustering were differently affected by the absence of the kinase Zap70 or the adaptor Lat. We further observed that the adaptor TSAd bound to and promoted the diffusion of Lck when it is phosphorylated on tyrosine 192. Our data suggest that while Lck open conformation drives aggregation and clustering, the spatial organization of Lck is further controlled by signaling events downstream of TCR phosphorylation. PMID:27014263

  8. An Innovative Teaching Method To Promote Active Learning: Team-Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    2007-12-01

    Traditional teaching practice based on the textbook-whiteboard- lecture-homework-test paradigm is not very effective in helping students with diverse academic backgrounds achieve higher-order critical thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Consequently, there is a critical need for developing a new pedagogical approach to create a collaborative and interactive learning environment in which students with complementary academic backgrounds and learning skills can work together to enhance their learning outcomes. In this presentation, I will discuss an innovative teaching method ('Team-Based Learning (TBL)") which I recently developed at National University of Singapore to promote active learning among students in the environmental engineering program with learning abilities. I implemented this new educational activity in a graduate course. Student feedback indicates that this pedagogical approach is appealing to most students, and promotes active & interactive learning in class. Data will be presented to show that the innovative teaching method has contributed to improved student learning and achievement.

  9. Descriptor for spatial distribution of motion activity for compressed video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divakaran, Ajay; Sun, Huifang

    1999-12-01

    In this paper we present a new descriptor for spatial distribution of motion activity in video sequences. We use the magnitude of the motion vectors as a measure of the intensity of motion cavity in a macro-block. We construct a matrix Cmv consisting of the magnitudes of the motion vector for each macro-block of a given P frame. We compute the average magnitude of the motion vector per macro-block Cavg, and then use Cavg as a threshold on the matrix C by setting the elements of C that are less than Cavg to zero. We classify the runs of zeros into three categories based on length, and count the number of runs of each category in the matrix C. Our activity descriptor for a frame thus consists of four parameters viz. the average magnitude of the motion vectors and the numbers of runs of short, medium and long length. Since the feature extraction is in the compressed domain and simple, it is extremely fast. We have tested it on the MPEG-7 test content set, which consists of approximately 14 hours of MPEG-1 encoded video content of different kinds. We find that our descriptor enables fast and accurate indexing of video. It is robust to noise and changes in encoding parameters such as frame size, frame rate, encoding bit rate, encoding format etc. It is a low-level non-semantic descriptor that gives semantic matches within the same program, and is thus very suitable for applications such as video program browsing. We also find that indirect and computationally simpler measures of the magnitude of the motion vectors such as bits taken to encode the motion vectors, though less effective, also can be used in our run-length framework.

  10. Where Is the Square? Activities to Stimulate Spatial Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obara, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM, 1989, 2000) and the new "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" for senior secondary (ACARA, 2010) highlight the importance of teaching spatial reasoning as early as preschool when mathematics is introduced. Studies have shown that there is a relationship between spatial abilities and…

  11. Insulin receptor A and Sirtuin 1 synergistically improve learning and spatial memory following chronic salidroside treatment during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Barhwal, Kalpana; Das, Saroj K; Kumar, Ashish; Hota, Sunil K; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2015-10-01

    Hypoxia has been reported to cause hippocampal neurodegeneration resulting in learning and memory deficits. In the present study, we investigated the potential of salidroside, a glucoside derivative of tyrosol, in ameliorating hypoxia-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Morris water maze test showed improvement in learning and spatial memory of salidroside-treated hypoxic rats correlating with increased dendritic intersections and arborization. Salidroside administration increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor subunit A (IRA) at Y972, Y1162/63, and Y1146 sites and subsequent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α subunit isoforms pAMPKα1 and pAMPKα2 resulting in mitochondrial biogenesis. Contrarily, silencing of IRA in salidroside-supplemented hypoxic hippocampal cells could not improve cell viability or alter pAMPKα1 and pAMPKα2 expression. Rats administered with salidroside showed elevated expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampus. Salidroside administration also resulted in increased sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity through a cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1)-regulated mechanism that was independent of pIRA. Taken together, these findings suggest a synergistic role of pIRA and SIRT1 in salidroside-mediated neuroprotection, mitochondrial biogenesis, and cognitive improvement during hypoxia. We propose a novel mechanism for salidroside-mediated neuroprotection in hypoxia. PMID:26173704

  12. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth Space Project, Learning Activities Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to the earth and space are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Eighteen topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning, (2) observation versus interpretation, (3) chemistry in the space age, (4) the space age interdisciplines, and (5)…

  13. Informal Forum: Fostering Active Learning in a Teacher Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Grace Hui-Chen

    2006-01-01

    "Informal Forum," grounded in constructivism has been developed to foster active learning and deep understanding. Learning is an interdependent process, and is most effective when students construct their own meaning of knowledge. If one believes in the value of constructivist learning, it is important to teach how we preach in higher education.…

  14. Teacher Feedback during Active Learning: Current Practices in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears dif?cult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning.…

  15. Active Learning by Play Dough Modeling in the Medical Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herur, Anita; Kolagi, Sanjeev; Chinagudi, Surekharani; Manjula, R.; Patil, Shailaja

    2011-01-01

    Active learning produces meaningful learning, improves attitudes toward learning, and increases knowledge and retention, but is still not fully institutionalized in the undergraduate sciences. A few studies have compared the effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations, student seminars, quizzes, and use of CD-ROMs with blackboard teaching and…

  16. CurioCity, Developing an "Active Learning" Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Lynne

    1999-01-01

    Describes a case study that takes readers through a human-centered design process used in developing an "Active Learning" tool, CurioCity, a game for students in grades 7-10. Attempts to better understand multiculturalism and to bridge formal in-school learning with informal field trip learning. (SC)

  17. An Experimental Method for the Active Learning of Greedy Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez-Iturbide, J. Angel

    2013-01-01

    Greedy algorithms constitute an apparently simple algorithm design technique, but its learning goals are not simple to achieve.We present a didacticmethod aimed at promoting active learning of greedy algorithms. The method is focused on the concept of selection function, and is based on explicit learning goals. It mainly consists of an…

  18. Correlates of reward-predictive value in learning-related hippocampal neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Okatan, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Temporal difference learning (TD) is a popular algorithm in machine learning. Two learning signals that are derived from this algorithm, the predictive value and the prediction error, have been shown to explain changes in neural activity and behavior during learning across species. Here, the predictive value signal is used to explain the time course of learning-related changes in the activity of hippocampal neurons in monkeys performing an associative learning task. The TD algorithm serves as the centerpiece of a joint probability model for the learning-related neural activity and the behavioral responses recorded during the task. The neural component of the model consists of spiking neurons that compete and learn the reward-predictive value of task-relevant input signals. The predictive-value signaled by these neurons influences the behavioral response generated by a stochastic decision stage, which constitutes the behavioral component of the model. It is shown that the time course of the changes in neural activity and behavioral performance generated by the model exhibits key features of the experimental data. The results suggest that information about correct associations may be expressed in the hippocampus before it is detected in the behavior of a subject. In this way, the hippocampus may be among the earliest brain areas to express learning and drive the behavioral changes associated with learning. Correlates of reward-predictive value may be expressed in the hippocampus through rate remapping within spatial memory representations, they may represent reward-related aspects of a declarative or explicit relational memory representation of task contingencies, or they may correspond to reward-related components of episodic memory representations. These potential functions are discussed in connection with hippocampal cell assembly sequences and their reverse reactivation during the awake state. The results provide further support for the proposal that neural

  19. The impact of fornix lesions in rats on spatial learning tasks sensitive to anterior thalamic and hippocampal damage

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Julie R.; Amin, Eman; Wright, Nicholas F.; Dillingham, Christopher M.; Aggleton, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to understand how the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nuclei are conjointly required for spatial learning by examining the impact of cutting a major tract (the fornix) that interconnects these two sites. The initial experiments examined the consequences of fornix lesions in rats on spatial biconditional discrimination learning. The rationale arose from previous findings showing that fornix lesions spare the learning of spatial biconditional tasks, despite the same task being highly sensitive to both hippocampal and anterior thalamic nuclei lesions. In the present study, fornix lesions only delayed acquisition of the spatial biconditional task, pointing to additional contributions from non-fornical routes linking the hippocampus with the anterior thalamic nuclei. The same fornix lesions spared the learning of an analogous nonspatial biconditional task that used local contextual cues. Subsequent tests, including T-maze place alternation, place learning in a cross-maze, and a go/no-go place discrimination, highlighted the impact of fornix lesions when distal spatial information is used flexibly to guide behaviour. The final experiment examined the ability to learn incidentally the spatial features of a square water-maze that had differently patterned walls. Fornix lesions disrupted performance but did not stop the rats from distinguishing the various corners of the maze. Overall, the results indicate that interconnections between the hippocampus and anterior thalamus, via the fornix, help to resolve problems with flexible spatial and temporal cues, but the results also signal the importance of additional, non-fornical contributions to hippocampal-anterior thalamic spatial processing, particularly for problems with more stable spatial solutions. PMID:25453745

  20. Oxalate Blockage of Calcium and Iron: A Student Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Noojin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a student learning activity used to teach the meaning of percentage composition, mole concept, selective precipitation, and limiting factors. Presents two word problems and their solutions. (CW)

  1. From brain synapses to systems for learning and memory: Object recognition, spatial navigation, timed conditioning, and movement control.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2015-09-24

    This article provides an overview of neural models of synaptic learning and memory whose expression in adaptive behavior depends critically on the circuits and systems in which the synapses are embedded. It reviews Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, models that use excitatory matching and match-based learning to achieve fast category learning and whose learned memories are dynamically stabilized by top-down expectations, attentional focusing, and memory search. ART clarifies mechanistic relationships between consciousness, learning, expectation, attention, resonance, and synchrony. ART models are embedded in ARTSCAN architectures that unify processes of invariant object category learning, recognition, spatial and object attention, predictive remapping, and eye movement search, and that clarify how conscious object vision and recognition may fail during perceptual crowding and parietal neglect. The generality of learned categories depends upon a vigilance process that is regulated by acetylcholine via the nucleus basalis. Vigilance can get stuck at too high or too low values, thereby causing learning problems in autism and medial temporal amnesia. Similar synaptic learning laws support qualitatively different behaviors: Invariant object category learning in the inferotemporal cortex; learning of grid cells and place cells in the entorhinal and hippocampal cortices during spatial navigation; and learning of time cells in the entorhinal-hippocampal system during adaptively timed conditioning, including trace conditioning. Spatial and temporal processes through the medial and lateral entorhinal-hippocampal system seem to be carried out with homologous circuit designs. Variations of a shared laminar neocortical circuit design have modeled 3D vision, speech perception, and cognitive working memory and learning. A complementary kind of inhibitory matching and mismatch learning controls movement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory. PMID

  2. Enhanced learning of proportional math through music training and spatial-temporal training.

    PubMed

    Graziano, A B; Peterson, M; Shaw, G L

    1999-03-01

    It was predicted, based on a mathematical model of the cortex, that early music training would enhance spatial-temporal reasoning. We have demonstrated that preschool children given six months of piano keyboard lessons improved dramatically on spatial-temporal reasoning while children in appropriate control groups did not improve. It was then predicted that the enhanced spatial-temporal reasoning from piano keyboard training could lead to enhanced learning of specific math concepts, in particular proportional math, which is notoriously difficult to teach using the usual language-analytic methods. We report here the development of Spatial-Temporal Math Video Game software designed to teach fractions and proportional math, and its strikingly successful use in a study involving 237 second-grade children (age range six years eight months-eight years five months). Furthermore, as predicted, children given piano keyboard training along with the Math Video Game training scored significantly higher on proportional math and fractions than children given a control training along with the Math Video Game. These results were readily measured using the companion Math Video Game Evaluation Program. The training time necessary for children on the Math Video Game is very short, and they rapidly reach a high level of performance. This suggests that, as predicted, we are tapping into fundamental cortical processes of spatial-temporal reasoning. This spatial-temporal approach is easily generalized to teach other math and science concepts in a complementary manner to traditional language-analytic methods, and at a younger age. The neural mechanisms involved in thinking through fractions and proportional math during training with the Math Video Game might be investigated in EEG coherence studies along with priming by specific music. PMID:10100200

  3. Aspiration-based learning promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongkui; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long; Li, Bin; Zhang, Wenge; Wang, Huifeng

    2011-06-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma by proposing an aspiration-based preference learning, under which individuals switch the learning agents only if the achieved payoffs are lower than their aspirations. Both synchronous and asynchronous updates are considered. We find that the aspiration level can substantially influence the evolution of cooperation, with the moderate aspiration level leading to a plateau of the high cooperation level. There exist phase transitions for proper combinations of parameters and we give an analysis for the phase transition points. We also investigate the stationary configuration patterns and the stationary distributions of cooperators and defectors on the square lattice for a comprehensive understanding. The behavior of the well-mixed system of our model has also been discussed. Our results may provide further insights into understanding the role played by individual aspiration in the emergence of cooperation.

  4. Combining Distance and Face-To Teaching and Learning in Spatial Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulland, E.-K.; Schut, A. G. T.; Veenendaal, B.

    2011-09-01

    Retention and passing rates as well as student engagement in computer programming and problem solving units are a major concern in tertiary spatial science courses. A number of initiatives were implemented to improve this. A pilot study reviews the changes made to the teaching and learning environment, including the addition of new resources and modifications to assessments, and investigates their effectiveness. In particular, the study focuses on the differences between students studying in traditional, oncampus mode and distance, e-learning mode. Student results and retention rates from 2009-2011, data from in-lecture clicker response units and two anonymous surveys collected in 2011 were analysed. Early results indicate that grades improved for engaged students but pass rates or grades of the struggling cohort of students did not improve significantly.

  5. Pedagogical Distance: Explaining Misalignment in Student-Driven Online Learning Activities Using Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberry, Nicola; Franken, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an Activity Theory analysis of two online student-driven interactive learning activities to interrogate assumptions that such groups can effectively learn in the absence of the teacher. Such an analysis conceptualises learning tasks as constructed objects that drive pedagogical activity. The analysis shows a disconnect between…

  6. Perceptrons with Hebbian Learning Based on Wave Ensembles in Spatially Patterned Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Ortega, T.; Liew, T. C. H.

    2015-03-01

    A general scheme to realize a perceptron for hardware neural networks is presented, where multiple interconnections are achieved by a superposition of Schrödinger waves. Spatially patterned potentials process information by coupling different points of reciprocal space. The necessary potential shape is obtained from the Hebbian learning rule, either through exact calculation or construction from a superposition of known optical inputs. This allows implementation in a wide range of compact optical systems, including (1) any nonlinear optical system, (2) optical systems patterned by optical lithography, and (3) exciton-polariton systems with phonon or nuclear spin interactions.

  7. Perceptrons with Hebbian learning based on wave ensembles in spatially patterned potentials.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Ortega, T; Liew, T C H

    2015-03-20

    A general scheme to realize a perceptron for hardware neural networks is presented, where multiple interconnections are achieved by a superposition of Schrödinger waves. Spatially patterned potentials process information by coupling different points of reciprocal space. The necessary potential shape is obtained from the Hebbian learning rule, either through exact calculation or construction from a superposition of known optical inputs. This allows implementation in a wide range of compact optical systems, including (1) any nonlinear optical system, (2) optical systems patterned by optical lithography, and (3) exciton-polariton systems with phonon or nuclear spin interactions. PMID:25839313

  8. Hippocampal adult neurogenesis: Its regulation and potential role in spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Pan, Yongliang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-08-01

    Adult neurogenesis, defined here as progenitor cell division generating functionally integrated neurons in the adult brain, occurs within the hippocampus of numerous mammalian species including humans. The present review details various endogenous (e.g., neurotransmitters) and environmental (e.g., physical exercise) factors that have been shown to influence hippocampal adult neurogenesis. In addition, the potential involvement of adult-generated neurons in naturally-occurring spatial learning behavior is discussed by summarizing the literature focusing on traditional animal models (e.g., rats and mice), non-traditional animal models (e.g., tree shrews), as well as natural populations (e.g., chickadees and Siberian chipmunk). PMID:27174001

  9. Effects of one- and three-day binge alcohol exposure in neonatal C57BL/6 mice on spatial learning and memory in adolescence and adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Jennifer L.; Zhou, Feng C.; Goodlett, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Binge-like alcohol exposure during the early postnatal period in rats and mice causes deficits in spatial learning and memory that persist into adulthood. Wozniak et al. (2004) reported that heavy binge alcohol exposure on postnatal day 7 (PD 7) in C57BL/6 (B6) mice produced profound spatial learning deficits in the Morris water maze when tested in adolescence (P30–39); when tested in adulthood, however, the deficits were greatly attenuated. Using a similar PD 7 binge alcohol exposure paradigm in B6 mice, we tested whether a single-day (PD 7 only) alcohol treatment produced place learning deficits in both adolescence and in adulthood, and further tested whether a more extended (3-day, PD 7–9) alcohol exposure would induce more severe and enduring deficits. B6 mice were given either 2 subcutaneous injections of alcohol (2.5 g/kg each) 2 h apart on PD 7 or on PD 7–9, and compared with controls that received saline vehicle injections and controls that received no injections. The alcohol injections on PD 7 produced average peak blood alcohol concentrations of 472 mg/dL and evoked typical patterns of activated caspase-3-positive neurons in the cortex, hippocampal formation, and striatum 6 h after the last injection. Mice were given standard place training or random location training in the Morris water maze either as adolescents (PD 30–39) or adults (PD 70–79). The adolescents acquired the place learning more slowly than adults, and the alcohol treatments produced only modest place acquisition deficits. In contrast, both the PD7 and the PD 7–9 alcohol treatments resulted in large and significant spatial learning impairments in adults. In contrast to the previous findings of Wozniak et al. (2004), these results indicate that binge alcohol exposure in the 3rd trimester equivalent produces significant and enduring deficits in spatial learning in B6 mice. PMID:24507877

  10. Role of Synaptic Structural Plasticity in Impairments of Spatial Learning and Memory Induced by Developmental Lead Exposure in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaojie; Hu, Xiaoxia; Gu, Huaiyu; Chen, Yilin; Wei, Qing; Hu, Qiansheng

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is found to impair cognitive function. Synaptic structural plasticity is considered to be the physiological basis of synaptic functional plasticity and has been recently found to play important roles in learning and memory. To study the effect of Pb on spatial learning and memory at different developmental stages, and its relationship with alterations of synaptic structural plasticity, postnatal rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control; Pre-weaning Pb (Parents were exposed to 2 mM PbCl2 3 weeks before mating until weaning of pups); Post-weaning Pb (Weaned pups were exposed to 2 mM PbCl2 for 9 weeks). The spatial learning and memory of rats was measured by Morris water maze (MWM) on PND 85–90. Rat pups in Pre-weaning Pb and Post-weaning Pb groups performed significantly worse than those in Control group (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the performance of MWM between the two Pb-exposure groups. Before MWM (PND 84), the number of neurons and synapses significantly decreased in Pre-weaning Pb group, but not in Post-weaning Pb group. After MWM (PND 91), the number of synapses in Pre-weaning Pb group increased significantly, but it was still less than that of Control group (p<0.05); the number of synapses in Post-weaning Pb group was also less than that of Control group (p<0.05), although the number of synapses has no differences between Post-weaning Pb and Control groups before MWM. In both Pre-weaning Pb and Post-weaning Pb groups, synaptic structural parameters such as thickness of postsynaptic density (PSD), length of synaptic active zone and synaptic curvature increased significantly while width of synaptic cleft decreased significantly compared to Control group (p<0.05). Our data demonstrated that both early and late developmental Pb exposure impaired spatial learning and memory as well as synaptic structural plasticity in Wistar rats. PMID:25536363

  11. Geo-spatial modelling with unbalanced data: modelling the spatial pattern of human activity during the Stone Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiewicz, Jarosław; Sobkowiak-Tabaka, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing availability of data, geoscience provides many methods to model the spatial extent of various phenomena.Acquiring representative, high quality data is the most important criterion to assess the value of any spatial analysis, however, there are many situations in which these criteria cannot be fulfilled. Archived data, collected in the past, for which analysis cannot be repeated or supplemented is a very common information source. Archaeological data collected at a regional extent during years of field work and superficial observations are an additional example. Such data rarely provide representative samples and are usually imbalanced; only very few examples contain useful data, while many examples remain without any archaeological traces. In spite of these limitations archaeological information presented in the form of maps can be a useful and helpful tool to analyse the spatial patterns of some phenomena and, from a more practical point of view, a tool to predict the location of undiscovered occurrences. The primary goal of this paper is to present a methodology for modelling spatial patterns based on imbalanced categorical data which do not fulfil the criteria of spatial representation and incorporates uncertainty in its decision process. This concept will be discussed using a collection of Stone Age sites and set of environmental variables from the postglacial lowlands in Western Poland. We will propose a machine-learning system which adopts CART through bootstrap simulation to incorporate uncertainty into the spatial model and utilise that uncertainty in the decision-making process. Finally, we will describe the relationships between the model and environmental variables and present our results in cartographic form using the principles of decision-tree cartography.

  12. Students´ Perspectives on eLearning Activities in Person-Centered, Blended Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselberger, David; Motsching, Renate

    2016-01-01

    Blended or hybrid learning has become a frequent practice in higher education. In this article our primary research interest was to find out how students perceived eLearning activities in blended learning courses based on the person-centered paradigm. Through analyzing the content of a series of semi-structured interviews we found out that…

  13. Experiential Learning and Learning Environments: The Case of Active Listening Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Wong, Juan Enrique; Schoech, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Social work education research frequently has suggested an interaction between teaching techniques and learning environments. However, this interaction has never been tested. This study compared virtual and face-to-face learning environments and included active listening concepts to test whether the effectiveness of learning environments depends…

  14. How Do Teachers Learn in the Workplace? An Examination of Teacher Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meirink, Jacobiene A.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Verloop, Nico; Bergen, Theo C. M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two data collection instruments were used to examine how Dutch secondary school teachers learn in the workplace. Firstly, they completed a questionnaire on their preferences for learning activities on two occasions. Secondly, during the intermediate period, they reported learning experiences in digital logs. Results of both…

  15. Advancing the M-Learning Research Agenda for Active, Experiential Learning: Four Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Laurel Evelyn; Litchfield, Andrew; Lawrence, Elaine; Raban, Ryszard; Leijdekkers, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an m-learning research agenda instituted at our university in order to explore how mobile technology can enhance active, experiential learning. Details of the implementation and results of four areas of m-learning are presented: mobile supported fieldwork, fostering interactivity in large lectures with mobile technology,…

  16. Multiliteracies and Active Learning in CLIL--The Development of Learn Web2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marenzi, I.; Zerr, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of LearnWeb2.0, a search and collaboration environment for supporting searching, organizing, and sharing distributed resources, and our pedagogical setup based on the multiliteracies approach. In LearnWeb2.0, collaborative and active learning is supported through project-focused search and aggregation, with…

  17. Designing for Inquiry-Based Learning with the Learning Activity Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, P.; Aiyegbayo, O.; Little, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between practitioners' pedagogical purposes, values and practices in designing for inquiry-based learning in higher education, and the affordances of the Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) as a tool for creating learning designs in this context. Using a qualitative research methodology, variation was…

  18. Patterns of regional brain activation associated with different forms of motor learning.

    PubMed

    Ghilardi, M; Ghez, C; Dhawan, V; Moeller, J; Mentis, M; Nakamura, T; Antonini, A; Eidelberg, D

    2000-07-14

    To examine the variations in regional cerebral blood flow during execution and learning of reaching movements, we employed a family of kinematically and dynamically controlled motor tasks in which cognitive, mnemonic and executive features of performance were differentiated and characterized quantitatively. During 15O-labeled water positron emission tomography (PET) scans, twelve right-handed subjects moved their dominant hand on a digitizing tablet from a central location to equidistant targets displayed with a cursor on a computer screen in synchrony with a tone. In the preceding week, all subjects practiced three motor tasks: 1) movements to a predictable sequence of targets; 2) learning of new visuomotor transformations in which screen cursor motion was rotated by 30 degrees -60 degrees; 3) learning new target sequences by trial and error, by using previously acquired routines in a task placing heavy load on spatial working memory. The control condition was observing screen and audio displays. Subtraction images were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping to identify significant brain activation foci. Execution of predictable sequences was characterized by a modest decrease in movement time and spatial error. The underlying pattern of activation involved primary motor and sensory areas, cerebellum, basal ganglia. Adaptation to a rotated reference frame, a form of procedural learning, was associated with decrease in the imposed directional bias. This task was associated with activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. New sequences were learned explicitly. Significant activation was found in dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In this study, we have introduced a series of flexible motor tasks with similar kinematic characteristics and different spatial attributes. These tasks can be used to assess specific aspects of motor learning with imaging in health and disease. PMID:10882792

  19. Differential neural activity patterns for spatial relations in humans: a MEG study.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nicole M; Leuthold, Arthur; Sera, Maria D; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2016-02-01

    Children learn the words for above-below relations earlier than for left-right relations, despite treating these equally well in a simple visual categorization task. Even as adults--conflicts in congruency, such as when a stimulus is depicted in a spatially incongruent manner with respect to salient global cues--can be challenging. Here we investigated the neural correlates of encoding and maintaining in working memory above-below and left-right relational planes in 12 adults using magnetoencephalography in order to discover whether above-below relations are represented by the brain differently than left-right relations. Adults performed perfectly on the task behaviorally, so any differences in neural activity were attributed to the stimuli's cognitive attributes. In comparing above-below to left-right relations during stimulus encoding, we found the greatest differences in neural activity in areas associated with space and movement. In comparing congruent to incongruent trials, we found the greatest differential activity in premotor areas. For both contrasts, brain areas involved in the encoding phase were also involved in the maintenance phase, which provides evidence that those brain areas are particularly important in representing the relational planes or congruency types throughout the trial. When comparing neural activity associated with the relational planes during working memory, additional right posterior areas were implicated, whereas the congruent-incongruent contrast implicated additional bilateral frontal and temporal areas. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis left-right relations are represented differently than above-below relations. PMID:26514809

  20. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-08-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal data and eye-tracking data were collected as indications of students' learning activities. For the verbal data, we applied a fine-grained coding scheme to optimally describe students' learning activities. For the eye-tracking data, we used fixation time and transitions between areas of interest in the process diagrams as indices of learning activities. Various learning activities while studying process diagrams were found that distinguished between more and less successful students. Results showed that between-student variance in comprehension score was highly predicted by meaning making of the process arrows (80%) and fixation time in the main area (65%). Students employed successful learning activities consistently across learning tasks. Furthermore, compared to unsuccessful students, successful students used a more coherent approach of interrelated learning activities for comprehending process diagrams.

  1. Neural activations during visual sequence learning leave a trace in post-training spontaneous EEG.

    PubMed

    Moisello, Clara; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Kelly, Simon; Perfetti, Bernardo; Kvint, Svetlana; Voutsinas, Nicholas; Blanco, Daniella; Quartarone, Angelo; Tononi, Giulio; Ghilardi, Maria Felice

    2013-01-01

    Recent EEG studies have shown that implicit learning involving specific cortical circuits results in an enduring local trace manifested as local changes in spectral power. Here we used a well characterized visual sequence learning task and high density-(hd-)EEG recording to determine whether also declarative learning leaves a post-task, local change in the resting state oscillatory activity in the areas involved in the learning process. Thus, we recorded hd-EEG in normal subjects before, during and after the acquisition of the order of a fixed spatial target sequence (VSEQ) and during the presentation of targets in random order (VRAN). We first determined the temporal evolution of spectral changes during VSEQ and compared it to VRAN. We found significant differences in the alpha and theta bands in three main scalp regions, a right occipito-parietal (ROP), an anterior-frontal (AFr), and a right frontal (RFr) area. The changes in frontal theta power during VSEQ were positively correlated with the learning rate. Further, post-learning EEG recordings during resting state revealed a significant increase in alpha power in ROP relative to a pre-learning baseline. We conclude that declarative learning is associated with alpha and theta changes in frontal and posterior regions that occur during the task, and with an increase of alpha power in the occipito-parietal region after the task. These post-task changes may represent a trace of learning and a hallmark of use-dependent plasticity. PMID:23799058

  2. Neural Activations during Visual Sequence Learning Leave a Trace in Post-Training Spontaneous EEG

    PubMed Central

    Moisello, Clara; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Kelly, Simon; Perfetti, Bernardo; Kvint, Svetlana; Voutsinas, Nicholas; Blanco, Daniella; Quartarone, Angelo; Tononi, Giulio; Ghilardi, Maria Felice

    2013-01-01

    Recent EEG studies have shown that implicit learning involving specific cortical circuits results in an enduring local trace manifested as local changes in spectral power. Here we used a well characterized visual sequence learning task and high density-(hd-)EEG recording to determine whether also declarative learning leaves a post-task, local change in the resting state oscillatory activity in the areas involved in the learning process. Thus, we recorded hd-EEG in normal subjects before, during and after the acquisition of the order of a fixed spatial target sequence (VSEQ) and during the presentation of targets in random order (VRAN). We first determined the temporal evolution of spectral changes during VSEQ and compared it to VRAN. We found significant differences in the alpha and theta bands in three main scalp regions, a right occipito-parietal (ROP), an anterior-frontal (AFr), and a right frontal (RFr) area. The changes in frontal theta power during VSEQ were positively correlated with the learning rate. Further, post-learning EEG recordings during resting state revealed a significant increase in alpha power in ROP relative to a pre-learning baseline. We conclude that declarative learning is associated with alpha and theta changes in frontal and posterior regions that occur during the task, and with an increase of alpha power in the occipito-parietal region after the task. These post-task changes may represent a trace of learning and a hallmark of use-dependent plasticity. PMID:23799058

  3. Active-Learning Processes Used in US Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stacy D.; Clavier, Cheri W.; Wyatt, Jarrett

    2011-01-01

    Objective To document the type and extent of active-learning techniques used in US colleges and schools of pharmacy as well as factors associated with use of these techniques. Methods A survey instrument was developed to assess whether and to what extent active learning was used by faculty members of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. This survey instrument was distributed via the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) mailing list. Results Ninety-five percent (114) of all US colleges and schools of pharmacy were represented with at least 1 survey among the 1179 responses received. Eighty-seven percent of respondents used active-learning techniques in their classroom activities. The heavier the teaching workload the more active-learning strategies were used. Other factors correlated with higher use of active-learning strategies included younger faculty member age (inverse relationship), lower faculty member rank (inverse relationship), and departments that focused on practice, clinical and social, behavioral, and/or administrative sciences. Conclusions Active learning has been embraced by pharmacy educators and is used to some extent by the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Future research should focus on how active-learning methods can be used most effectively within pharmacy education, how it can gain even broader acceptance throughout the academy, and how the effect of active learning on programmatic outcomes can be better documented. PMID:21769144

  4. Attenuated stress-evoked anxiety, increased sucrose preference and delayed spatial learning in glucocorticoid-induced receptor (GIR) deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Lauren E.; Ghosal, Sriparna; Rush, Jennifer A.; Sallee, Floyd R.; Herman, James P.; Weinert, Mychal; Sah, Renu

    2012-01-01

    The glucocorticoid induced receptor (GIR) is a stress-responsive gene that is abundantly expressed in forebrain limbic regions. GIR has been classified as a NPY-like receptor, however, physiological attributes have not been investigated. In the current study mice lacking GIR (−/−) were screened in various paradigms related to stress, anxiety, activity, memory, fear and reward. GIR −/− mice elicited behavioral insensitivity to the anxiogenic effects of restraint stress. However, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress was not impacted by GIR deficiency. Increased preference for sucrose was observed in GIR −/− mice suggestive of modulation of reward-associated behaviors by the receptor. A delayed acquisition of spatial learning was also observed in GIR −/− mice. There were no effects of genotype on the modulation of anxiety-like behavior, activity, and fear conditioning-extinction. Our data extend previous studies on GIR regulation by glucocorticoids and provides novel evidence for a role of GIR in reward, learning and the behavioral outcomes of stress. PMID:23088626

  5. The contribution of the androgen receptor (AR) in human spatial learning and memory: A study in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS).

    PubMed

    Mueller, S C; Verwilst, T; Van Branteghem, A; T'Sjoen, G; Cools, M

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of androgen insensitivity on human spatial learning and memory. In the present study, we tested 11 women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), a rare genetic disorder characterized by complete absence of AR activity, and compared their performance against 20 comparison males and 19 comparison females on a virtual analog of the Morris Water Maze task. The results replicated a main sex effect showing that men relative to women were faster in finding the hidden platform and had reduced heading error. Furthermore, findings indicated that mean performance of women with CAIS was between control women and control men, though the differences were not statistically significant. Effect size estimates (and corresponding confidence intervals) of spatial learning trials showed little difference between women with CAIS and control women but CAIS women differed from men, but not women, on two variables, latency to find the platform and first-move latency. No differences between groups were present during visible platform trials or the probe trial, a measure of spatial memory. Moreover, groups also did not differ on estimates of IQ and variability of performance. The findings are discussed in relation to androgen insensitivity in human spatial learning and memory. PMID:26522496

  6. E-Learning in Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Anjana; König, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    Science and technology are evolving leaps and bounds. The advancements in GI-Science for natural and built environment helps in improving the quality of life. Learning through education and training needs to be at par with those advancements, which plays a vital role in utilization of technology. New technologies that creates new opportunities have enabled Geomatics to broaden the horizon (skills and competencies). Government policies and decisions support the use of geospatial science in various sectors of governance. Mapping, Land management, Urban planning, Environmental planning, Industrialization are some of the areas where the geomatics has become a baseline for decision making at national level. There is a need to bridge the gap between developments in geospatial science and its utilization and implementation. To prepare a framework for standardisation it is important to understand the theories of education and prevailing practices, with articulate goals exploring variety of teaching techniques. E-Learning is an erudition practice shaped for facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources through digital and network-enabled technology. It is a shift from traditional education or training to ICT-based flexible and collaborative learning based on the community of learners, academia, professionals, experts and facilitators. Developments in e-learning is focussed on computer assisted learning which has become popular because of its potential for providing more flexible access to content and instruction at any time, from any place (Means et al, 2009). With the advent of the geo-spatial technology, fast development in the software and hardware, the demand for skilled manpower is increasing and the need is for training, education, research and dissemination. It suggests inter-organisational cooperation between academia, industry, government and international collaboration. There is a

  7. Spatial Memory in the Morris Water Maze and Activation of Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding (CREB) Protein within the Mouse Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porte, Yves; Buhot, Marie Christine; Mons, Nicole E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of learning-induced cAMP response element-binding protein activation/phosphorylation (pCREB) in mice trained in a spatial reference memory task in the water maze. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined pCREB immunoreactivity (pCREB-ir) in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and related brain structures. During the…

  8. GeoSpatial Workforce Development: enhancing the traditional learning environment in geospatial information technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawhead, Pamela B.; Aten, Michelle L.

    2003-04-01

    The Center for GeoSpatial Workforce Development is embarking on a new era in education by developing a repository of dynamic online courseware authored by the foremost industry experts within the remote sensing and GIS industries. Virtual classrooms equipped with the most advanced instructions, computations, communications, course evaluation, and management facilities amplify these courses to enhance the learning environment and provide rapid feedback between instructors and students. The launch of this program included the objective development of the Model Curriculum by an independent consortium of remote sensing industry leaders. The Center's research and development focus on recruiting additional industry experts to develop the technical content of the courseware and then utilize state-of-the-art technology to enhance their material with visually stimulating animations, compelling audio clips and entertaining, interactive exercises intended to reach the broadest audience possible by targeting various learning styles. The courseware will be delivered via various media: Internet, CD-ROM, DVD, and compressed video, that translates into anywhere, anytime delivery of GeoSpatial Information Technology education.

  9. Photography. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide provides technology learning activities designed to prepare students in grades 6-10 to work in the world of the future. The 8-day course provides exploratory, hands-on learning activities and information that can enhance the education of students of all types in an integrated curriculum that provides practical applications of…

  10. E-Collaboration Technologies in Teaching/Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Ahrens, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    A proper use of e-collaboration technologies in the teaching/learning process is provided by varied cooperative networks, which penetrate teachers' and students' activity more thoroughly with the availability of broadband services. However, the successful use of e-collaboration technologies in teaching/learning activity within a multicultural…

  11. Students as Doers: Examples of Successful E-Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tammelin, Maija; Peltonen, Berit; Puranen, Pasi; Auvinen, Lis

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses learning language and communication activities that focus on students' concrete involvement in their learning process. The activities first deal with student-produced blogs and digital videos in business Spanish. They then present student-produced podcasts for Swedish business communication learners that are meant for…

  12. Incorporating Active Learning with Videos: A Case Study from Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kester J.; Sharma, Manjula D.

    2008-01-01

    Watching a video often results in passive learning and does not actively engage students. In this study, a class of 20 HSC Physics students were introduced to a teaching model that incorporated active learning principles with the watching of a video that explored the Meissner Effect and superconductors. Students would watch short sections of the…

  13. Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

    This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

  14. Tractor Mechanics: Learning Activity Packages 1-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for teaching tractor mechanics. The first of two sections deals with miscellaneous tasks and contains learning activity packages on cleaning the tractor and receiving new tractor parts. Section 2 is concerned with maintaining and servicing the electrical system, and it includes the following learning…

  15. Structural Engineering. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide provides technology learning activities designed to prepare students in grades 6-10 to work in the world of the future. The 8-day course provides exploratory, hands-on learning activities and information that can enhance the education of students of all types in an integrated curriculum that provides practical applications of…

  16. Active Learning's Effect upon Preservice Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sharon; Clementson, John J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of active learning techniques and the use of supplemental literature dealing with disabilities in a required introduction to education and special education course on preservice teachers (N=67) attitudes toward inclusion. The active learning techniques included participation in simulation…

  17. Service Learning and Active Citizenship Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the English tradition of active citizenship education with the US tradition of service learning. It starts by outlining service learning and noting some of the defining characteristics as well as some of the tensions. It then discusses the model of active citizenship that has been promoted in England's secondary school…

  18. Supporting "Learning by Design" Activities Using Group Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessakis, Georgios; Tatsis, Konstantinos; Dimitracopoulou, Angelique

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study of the educational exploitation of group blogging for the implementation of a "learning by design" activity. More specifically, a group of students used a blog as a communication and information management tool in the University course of ICT-enhanced Geometry learning activities. The analysis of the designed…

  19. The Learning Activities Questionnaire: A Tool to Enhance Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the Learning Activities Questionnaire (LAQ) and how it can be employed to evaluate learning tasks not typically examined in course evaluation instruments such as readings and assignments. Drawing from behavioral theory in its focus on specific activities, this instrument is simple to interpret and provides clear direction…

  20. Teaching Sociological Theory through Active Learning: The Irrigation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Mellisa

    2005-01-01

    For students, theory is often one of the most daunting aspects of sociology--it seems abstract, removed from the concrete events of their everyday lives, and therefore intimidating. In an attempt to break down student resistance to theory, instructors are increasingly turning to active learning approaches. Active learning exercises, then, appear…

  1. Teaching for Engagement: Part 3: Designing for Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William J.

    2015-01-01

    In the first two parts of this series, ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 1: Constructivist Principles, Case-Based Teaching, and Active Learning") and ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 2: Technology in the Service of Active Learning"), William J. Hunter sought to outline the theoretical rationale and research basis for such active…

  2. The Green Revolution in Transportation. Resource Recovery. Technology Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These two learning activities provide context, objectives, list of materials, student activity, and evaluation criteria. The first involves an automotive class in developing a model alternative fueled vehicle, and the second involves the design of a useful recyclable product. (JOW)

  3. Metabolic brain activity underlying behavioral performance and spatial strategy choice in sedentary and exercised Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sampedro-Piquero, P; Zancada-Menendez, C; Cuesta, M; Arias, J L; Begega, A

    2014-12-01

    We have studied the performance of a spatial reference memory task, the navigation strategy and the changes in the cytochrome c oxidase activity (COx) in different brain regions in exercised (forced exercise, 10 consecutive days, 15min/day) and non-exercised adult Wistar rats. The spatial learning task was carried out in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM) for four days with six daily trials, and on the fifth day, a probe session was run, in which we rotated the position of the distal cues 90° in a clockwise direction. During the four days of training, the exercised group showed shorter latency and distance traveled to find the platform, as well as fewer memory errors and reduced use of non-appropriate navigation strategies according to the protocol of the task (egocentric). Interestingly, the rotation of the cues did not affect the performance of the exercised group, in contrast to the non-exercised group, which spent more time in the center of the maze and traveled longer distance to find the platform. Finally, higher COx activity in the cingulate and the retrosplenial cortices, as well as in the dorsal CA1 and CA3 was found in the exercised group. All in all, it seems that the exercise favored the configuration of an efficient and accurate cognitive map of the environment, which was supported by our finding that the rotation of the cues, without altering their overall configuration, did not affect performance. The brain regions with higher COx activity in the exercised group seem to be involved in this function. PMID:25281878

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid intake ameliorates ketamine-induced impairment of spatial cognition and learning ability in ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shucai; Dai, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhiwen; Hao, Wei; Chen, Hongxian

    2014-09-19

    Several studies have reported the ketamine-induced cognitive impairment. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation improves cognitive function in human infants and protects against learning impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the effect of DHA on ketamine-induced impairment of spatial cognition and learning ability in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (30mg/kg, twice per day) for 4 weeks led to the decline of spatial cognitive ability in mice, and 420mg/(kgd) DHA supplementation for 6 weeks improved ketamine-induced spatial cognitive impairment to a certain extent. The up-regulation of GABA levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was related to the improvement in spatial learning. Our results suggested that DHA supplementation would be a promising intervention to improve ketamine-induced spatial memory and cognitive dysfunction, and this effect of DHA might be correlated with the up-regulation of GABA levels. PMID:25123439

  5. History of Reading Struggles Linked to Enhanced Learning in Low Spatial Frequency Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Schneps, Matthew H.; Brockmole, James R.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Pomplun, Marc

    2012-01-01

    People with dyslexia, who face lifelong struggles with reading, exhibit numerous associated low-level sensory deficits including deficits in focal attention. Countering this, studies have shown that struggling readers outperform typical readers in some visual tasks that integrate distributed information across an expanse. Though such abilities would be expected to facilitate scene memory, prior investigations using the contextual cueing paradigm failed to find corresponding advantages in dyslexia. We suggest that these studies were confounded by task-dependent effects exaggerating known focal attention deficits in dyslexia, and that, if natural scenes were used as the context, advantages would emerge. Here, we investigate this hypothesis by comparing college students with histories of severe lifelong reading difficulties (SR) and typical readers (TR) in contexts that vary attention load. We find no differences in contextual-cueing when spatial contexts are letter-like objects, or when contexts are natural scenes. However, the SR group significantly outperforms the TR group when contexts are low-pass filtered natural scenes [F(3, 39) = 3.15, p<.05]. These findings suggest that perception or memory for low spatial frequency components in scenes is enhanced in dyslexia. These findings are important because they suggest strengths for spatial learning in a population otherwise impaired, carrying implications for the education and support of students who face challenges in school. PMID:22558210

  6. Global hypoxia induced impairment in learning and spatial memory is associated with precocious hippocampal aging.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Suryanarayan; Sharma, Deepti; Kumar, Kushal; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Barhwal, Kalpana; Hota, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Bhuvnesh

    2016-09-01

    Both chronological aging and chronic hypoxia stress have been reported to cause degeneration of hippocampal CA3 neurons and spatial memory impairment through independent pathways. However, the possible occurrence of precocious biological aging on exposure to single episode of global hypoxia resulting in impairment of learning and memory remains to be established. The present study thus aimed at bridging this gap in existing literature on hypoxia induced biological aging. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to simulated hypobaric hypoxia (25,000ft) for different durations and were compared with aged rats. Behavioral studies in Morris Water Maze showed decline in learning abilities of both chronologically aged as well as hypoxic rats as evident from increased latency and pathlength to reach target platform. These behavioral changes in rats exposed to global hypoxia were associated with deposition of lipofuscin and ultrastructural changes in the mitochondria of hippocampal neurons that serve as hallmarks of aging. A single episode of chronic hypobaric hypoxia exposure also resulted in the up-regulation of pro-aging protein, S100A9 and down regulation of Tau, SNAP25, APOE and Sod2 in the hippocampus similar to that in aged rats indicating hypoxia induced accelerated aging. The present study therefore provides evidence for role of biological aging of hippocampal neurons in hypoxia induced impairment of learning and memory. PMID:27246251

  7. Universal effect of dynamical reinforcement learning mechanism in spatial evolutionary games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-06-01

    One of the prototypical mechanisms in understanding the ubiquitous cooperation in social dilemma situations is the win-stay, lose-shift rule. In this work, a generalized win-stay, lose-shift learning model—a reinforcement learning model with dynamic aspiration level—is proposed to describe how humans adapt their social behaviors based on their social experiences. In the model, the players incorporate the information of the outcomes in previous rounds with time-dependent aspiration payoffs to regulate the probability of choosing cooperation. By investigating such a reinforcement learning rule in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game and public goods game, a most noteworthy viewpoint is that moderate greediness (i.e. moderate aspiration level) favors best the development and organization of collective cooperation. The generality of this observation is tested against different regulation strengths and different types of network of interaction as well. We also make comparisons with two recently proposed models to highlight the importance of the mechanism of adaptive aspiration level in supporting cooperation in structured populations.

  8. Orchestrating Learning Activities Using the CADMOS Learning Design Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsamani, Maria; Retalis, Symeon

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of CADMOS (CoursewAre Development Methodology for Open instructional Systems), a graphical IMS-LD Level A & B compliant learning design (LD) tool, which promotes the concept of "separation of concerns" during the design process, via the creation of two models: the conceptual model, which describes the…

  9. Learning Comes to Life: An Active Learning Program for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilfeld, Ellen Meredith

    The High/Scope Institute for IDEAS began in the early 1960s as a summer camp program and is now a dynamic learning program for teens that emphasizes working with them in an environment which supports emotional, social, and intellectual development. The High/Scope model for adolescent programs is based on the following principles: (1) adolescents…

  10. Learning To Learn: 15 Vocabulary Acquisition Activities. Tips and Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, William R.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a variety of ways learners can help themselves remember new words, choosing the ones that best suit their learning styles. It is asserted that repeated exposure to new lexical items using a variety of means is the most consistent predictor of retention. The use of verbal, visual, tactile, textual, kinesthetic, and sonic…

  11. Creating Stimulating Learning and Thinking Using New Models of Activity-Based Learning and Metacognitive-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a novel way to stimulate learning, creativity, and thinking based on a new understanding of activity-based learning (ABL) and two methods for developing metacognitive-based activities for the classroom. ABL, in this model, is based on the premise that teachers are distillers and facilitators of information…

  12. Gardening and Groundskeeping. A Series of Learning Activity Packages. Volume II: Learning Activity Packages 43-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning Activity packages are presented in three areas: (1) preparing or improving soil, (2) operating…

  13. Towards Active Learning: A Case Study on Active Learning in a Small Rural School in Finland. Research [Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimonen, Eija; Nevalainen, Raimo

    As part of an international comparative study of active learning in seven countries, a case study examined active learning practices of students and teachers in a small rural school in Finland. Small schools have traditionally existed in the sparsely populated Finnish countryside, and 60 percent of Finnish elementary schools have 1-3 teachers.…

  14. Distributed Collaboration Activities in a Blended Learning Scenario and the Effects on Learning Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, M.; Grund, S.; Grote, G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of tutor and student online communication and collaboration activities in a blended learning course. The hypothesis that these activities are related to student learning performance (exam results) was tested based on the number of messages posted, as well as the nature of these messages (type of…

  15. Attitudes of Face-to-Face and E-Learning Instructors toward "Active Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pundak, David; Herscovitz, Orit; Shacham, Miri

    2010-01-01

    Instruction in higher education has developed significantly over the past two decades, influenced by two trends: promotion of active learning methods and integration of web technology in e-Learning. Many studies found that active teaching improves students' success, involvement and thinking skills. Nevertheless, internationally, most instructors…

  16. Learning Microbiology through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities That Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trempy, Janine E.; Skinner, Monica M.; Siebold, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course "The World According to Microbes" which puts science, mathematics, engineering, and technology majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. Describes the development of learning activities that utilize key components of cooperative learning including positive…

  17. Active Inference and Learning in the Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; Herreros, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    This letter offers a computational account of Pavlovian conditioning in the cerebellum based on active inference and predictive coding. Using eyeblink conditioning as a canonical paradigm, we formulate a minimal generative model that can account for spontaneous blinking, startle responses, and (delay or trace) conditioning. We then establish the face validity of the model using simulated responses to unconditioned and conditioned stimuli to reproduce the sorts of behavior that are observed empirically. The scheme's anatomical validity is then addressed by associating variables in the predictive coding scheme with nuclei and neuronal populations to match the (extrinsic and intrinsic) connectivity of the cerebellar (eyeblink conditioning) system. Finally, we try to establish predictive validity by reproducing selective failures of delay conditioning, trace conditioning, and extinction using (simulated and reversible) focal lesions. Although rather metaphorical, the ensuing scheme can account for a remarkable range of anatomical and neurophysiological aspects of cerebellar circuitry-and the specificity of lesion-deficit mappings that have been established experimentally. From a computational perspective, this work shows how conditioning or learning can be formulated in terms of minimizing variational free energy (or maximizing Bayesian model evidence) using exactly the same principles that underlie predictive coding in perception. PMID:27391681

  18. Reconstructing Causal Biological Networks through Active Learning.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunghoon; Berger, Bonnie; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Reverse-engineering of biological networks is a central problem in systems biology. The use of intervention data, such as gene knockouts or knockdowns, is typically used for teasing apart causal relationships among genes. Under time or resource constraints, one needs to carefully choose which intervention experiments to carry out. Previous approaches for selecting most informative interventions have largely been focused on discrete Bayesian networks. However, continuous Bayesian networks are of great practical interest, especially in the study of complex biological systems and their quantitative properties. In this work, we present an efficient, information-theoretic active learning algorithm for Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs), which serve as important models for gene regulatory networks. In addition to providing linear-algebraic insights unique to GBNs, leading to significant runtime improvements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data simulated with GBNs and the DREAM4 network inference challenge data sets. Our method generally leads to faster recovery of underlying network structure and faster convergence to final distribution of confidence scores over candidate graph structures using the full data, in comparison to random selection of intervention experiments. PMID:26930205

  19. Reconstructing Causal Biological Networks through Active Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyunghoon; Berger, Bonnie; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Reverse-engineering of biological networks is a central problem in systems biology. The use of intervention data, such as gene knockouts or knockdowns, is typically used for teasing apart causal relationships among genes. Under time or resource constraints, one needs to carefully choose which intervention experiments to carry out. Previous approaches for selecting most informative interventions have largely been focused on discrete Bayesian networks. However, continuous Bayesian networks are of great practical interest, especially in the study of complex biological systems and their quantitative properties. In this work, we present an efficient, information-theoretic active learning algorithm for Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs), which serve as important models for gene regulatory networks. In addition to providing linear-algebraic insights unique to GBNs, leading to significant runtime improvements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data simulated with GBNs and the DREAM4 network inference challenge data sets. Our method generally leads to faster recovery of underlying network structure and faster convergence to final distribution of confidence scores over candidate graph structures using the full data, in comparison to random selection of intervention experiments. PMID:26930205

  20. The active liquid Earth - importance of temporal and spatial variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arheimer, Berit

    2016-04-01

    The Planet Earth is indeed liquid and active - 71 percent of its surface is water-covered and this water never rests. Thanks to the water cycle, our planet's water supply is constantly moving from one place to another and from one form to another. Only 2.5% of the water is freshwater and it exists in the air as water vapor; it hits the ground as rain and snow; it flows on the surface from higher to lower altitudes in rivers, lakes, and glaciers; and it flows in the ground in soil, aquifers, and in all living organisms until it reaches the sea. On its way over the Earth's crust, some returns quickly to vapor again, while some is trapped and exposed to many "fill and spill" situations for a long journey. The variability in the water balance is crucial for hydrological understanding and modelling. The water cycle may appear simple, but magnitudes and rates in fluxes are very different from one place to another, resulting from variable drivers such as solar energy, precipitation and gravity in co-evolution with geology, soil, vegetation and fauna. The historical evolution, the temporal fluxes and diversity in space continue to fascinate hydrological scientists. Specific physical processes may be well known, but their boundary conditions, interactions and rate often remain unknown at a specific site and are difficult to monitor in nature. This results in mysterious features where trends in drivers do not match runoff, like the Sahelian Paradox or discharge to the Arctic Ocean. Humans have always interfered with the water cycle and engineering is fundamental for water regulation and re-allocation. Some 80% of the river flow from the northern part of the Earth is affected by fragmentation of the river channels by dams. In water management, there is always a tradeoff between upstream and downstream activities, not only regarding total water quantities but also for temporal patterns and water quality aspects. Sharing a water resource can generate conflicts but geopolitical