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Sample records for activity superoxide dismutase

  1. Biologically active metal-independent superoxide dismutase mimics

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.B.; Samuni, A.; Krishna, M.C.; DeGraff, W.G.; Ahn, M.S.; Samuni, U.; Russo, A. )

    1990-03-20

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that detoxifies superoxide (O2.-), a potentially toxic oxygen-derived species. Attempts to increase intracellular concentrations of SOD by direct application are complicated because SOD, being a relatively large molecule, does not readily cross cell membranes. We have identified a set of stable nitroxides that possess SOD-like activity, have the advantage of being low molecular weight, membrane permeable, and metal independent, and at pH 7.0 have reaction rate constants with O2.- ranging from 1.1 x 10(3) to 1.3 x 10(6) M-1 s-1. These SOD mimics protect mammalian cells from damage induced by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, although they exhibit no catalase-like activity. In addition, the nitroxide SOD mimics rapidly oxidize DNA-FeII and thus may interrupt the Fenton reaction and prevent formation of deleterious OH radicals and/or higher oxidation states of metal ions. Whether by SOD-like activity and/or interception of an electron from redox-active metal ions they protect cells from oxidative stress and may have use in basic and applied biological studies.

  2. Superoxide dismutase activity in needles of Norwegian spruce trees (Picea abies L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Polle, A.; Krings, B.; Rennenberg, H. Universitaet zu Koeln )

    1989-08-01

    The activity of superoxide dismutase was investigated in needles of spruce trees. To obtain maximum activity, needles were homogenized in the presence of Triton X-100 and polyvinylpyrrolidone. Superoxide dismutase activity was measured in dialyzed extracts with a modified epinephrine assay at pH 10.2. The extracts contained 70 to 120 units of superoxide dismutase per milligram protein. One unit of superoxide dismutase was completely inhibited in the presence of 20 micromolar NaCN. On native polyacrylamide gels three electromorphs were visualized after staining for activity. All three species were sensitive to CN{sup {minus}} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and were therefore assumed to be Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutases. Superoxide dismutase activity was dependent on the age of the needles and declined by approximately 25% within 3 to 4 years.

  3. Superoxide dismutase activity of Cu-bound prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2009-03-01

    Misfolding of the prion protein, PrP, has been linked to a group of neurodegenerative diseases, including the mad cow disease in cattle and the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The normal function of PrP is still unknown, but it was found that the PrP can efficiently bind Cu(II) ions. Early experiments suggested that Cu-PrP complex possesses significant superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but later experiments failed to confirm it and at present this issue remains unresolved. Using a recently developed hybrid DFT/DFT method, which combines Kohn-Sham DFT for the solute and its first solvation shells with orbital-free DFT for the remainder of the solvent, we have investigated SOD activity of PrP. The PrP is capable of incorporating Cu(II) ions in several binding modes and our calculations find that each mode has a different SOD activity. The highest activity found is comparable to those of well-known SOD proteins, suggesting that the conflicting experimental results may be due to different bindings of Cu(II) in those experiments.

  4. Models of Superoxide Dismutases

    SciTech Connect

    Cabelli, Diane E.; Riley, Dennis; Rodriguez, Jorge A.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone; Zhu, Haining

    1998-05-20

    In this review we have focused much of our discussion on the mechanistic details of how the native enzymes function and how mechanistic developments/insights with synthetic small molecule complexes possessing SOD activity have influenced our understanding of the electron transfer processes involved with the natural enzymes. A few overriding themes have emerged. Clearly, the SOD enzymes operate at near diffusion controlled rates and to achieve such catalytic turnover activity, several important physical principles must be operative. Such fast electron transfer processes requires a role for protons; i.e., proton-coupled electron transfer (''H-atom transfer'') solves the dilemma of charge separation developing in the transition state for the electron transfer step. Additionally, outer-sphere electron transfer is likely a most important pathway for manganese and iron dismutases. This situation arises because the ligand exchange rates on these two ions in water never exceed {approx}10{sup +7} s{sup -1}; consequently, 10{sup +9} catalytic rates require more subtle mechanistic insights. In contrast, copper complexes can achieve diffusion controlled (>10{sup +9}) exchange rates in water; thus inner-sphere electron transfer processes are more likely to be operative in the Cu/Zn enzymes. Recent studies have continued to expand our understanding of the mechanism of action of this most important class of redox active enzymes, the superoxide dismutases, which have been critical in the successful adaptation of life on this planet to an oxygen-based metabolism. The design of SOD mimic drugs, synthetic models compounds that incorporate this superoxide dismutase catalytic activity and are capable of functioning in vivo, offers clear potential benefits in the control of diseases, ranging from the control of neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease, to cancer.

  5. Manganese superoxide dismutase activity in the rat adrenal.

    PubMed

    Raza, F S; Okamoto, M; Takemori, H; Vinson, G P

    2005-01-01

    In the light of studies suggesting that transcription of the gene coding for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is induced by ACTH in the rat adrenal gland, northern blot analysis was used to determine its mRNA distribution. It was found that mRNA coding for MnSOD is primarily present in the inner zones of the rat adrenal cortex, and not the glomerulosa. To investigate the functional relationships between MnSOD activity and expression and adrenocortical function, adrenals and blood were taken from animals pretreated with corticotrophin or betamethasone (Betnesol), or subjected to a low-sodium diet. MnSOD activity in inner zone mitochondrial fractions was enhanced by corticotrophin and by a low-sodium diet, but suppressed by betamethasone. Apparent cytosolic MnSOD activity, total cytosolic MnSOD and CuZnMn-SOD, and glomerulosa mitochondrial MnSOD all were unaffected. Steroid assays showed a clear correlation between circulating corticosterone and inner zone mitochondrial MnSOD, but none between aldosterone and glomerulosa MnSOD. Immunoblot analysis of MnSOD showed two apparent isoforms, at approximately 25 kDa and 75 kDa. There was a partial relationship between expression of the 75 kDa isoform and MnSOD activity, in that it was induced by corticotrophin. However, there was also a slight induction with betamethasone, and a low-sodium diet had no effect. The 25 kDa MnSOD isoform was unaffected by the treatments. The results suggest that MnSOD may have a specific role in the steroidogenic function of the fasciculata/reticularis of the rat adrenal, but not in that of the glomerulosa.

  6. Structures of two superoxide dismutases from Bacillus anthracis reveal a novel active centre

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Ian W.; Kalliomaa, Anne K.; Levdikov, Vladimir M.; Blagova, Elena V.; Fogg, Mark J.; Brannigan, James A. Wilson, Keith S.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.

    2005-07-01

    The crystal structures of two manganese superoxide dismutases from B. anthracis were solved by X-ray crystallography using molecular replacement. The BA4499 and BA5696 genes of Bacillus anthracis encode proteins homologous to manganese superoxide dismutase, suggesting that this organism has an expanded repertoire of antioxidant proteins. Differences in metal specificity and quaternary structure between the dismutases of prokaryotes and higher eukaryotes may be exploited in the development of therapeutic antibacterial compounds. Here, the crystal structure of two Mn superoxide dismutases from B. anthracis solved to high resolution are reported. Comparison of their structures reveals that a highly conserved residue near the active centre is substituted in one of the proteins and that this is a characteristic feature of superoxide dismutases from the B. cereus/B. anthracis/B. thuringiensis group of organisms.

  7. The effect of tilmicosin on cardiac superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities.

    PubMed

    Yazar, E; Altunok, V; Elmas, M; Traş, B; Baş, A L; Ozdemir, V

    2002-05-01

    In this study, the effect of tilmicosin on cardiac superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities was investigated. Forty male BALB/c mice were used as material. Ten mice served as a control group, and 30 mice were injected with tilmicosin (25 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously, with a single injection). After drug administration, they were monitored for 3 days. Tilmicosin caused decreases in cardiac superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities.

  8. Unexpected superoxide dismutase antioxidant activity of ferric chloride in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Foti, Mario C; Ingold, K U

    2003-11-14

    The azobis(isobutyronitrile)-initiated autoxidation of gamma-terpinene in acetonitrile at 50 degrees C yields only p-cymene and hydrogen peroxide (1:1) in a chain reaction carried by the hydroperoxyl radical, HOO. (Foti, M. C.; Ingold, K. U. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003, 51, 2758-2765). This reaction is retarded by very low (microM) concentrations of FeCl(3) and CuCl(2). The kinetics of the FeCl(3)-inhibited autoxidation are consistent with chain-termination via the following: Fe(3+) + HOO. <==>[Fe(IV)-OOH](3+) and [Fe(IV)-OOH](3+) + HOO. --> Fe(3+) + H2O2 + O2. Thus, FeCl(3) in acetonitrile can be regarded as a very effective (and very simple) superoxide dismutase. The kinetics of the CuCl(2)-inhibited autoxidation indicate that chain transfer occurs and becomes more and more important as the reaction proceeds, i.e., the inhibition is replaced by autocatalysis. These kinetics are consistent withreduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ by HOO. and then the reoxidation of Cu+ to Cu2+ by both HOO.and the H2O2 product. The latter reaction yields HO. radicals which continue the chain. PMID:14604404

  9. Superoxide dismutase and catalase conjugated to polyethylene glycol increases endothelial enzyme activity and oxidant resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, J.S.; Minor, R.L. Jr.; White, C.W.; Repine, J.E.; Rosen, G.M.; Freeman, B.A.

    1988-05-15

    Covalent conjugation of superoxide dismutase and catalase with polyethylene glycol (PEG) increases the circulatory half-lives of these enzymes from <10 min to 40 h, reduced immunogenicity, and decreases sensitivity to proteolysis. Because PEG has surface active properties and can induce cell fusion, the authors hypothesized that PEG conjugation could enhance cell binding and association of normally membrane-impermeable enzymes. Incubation of cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells with /sup 125/I-PEG-catalase or /sup 125/I-PEG-superoxide dismutase produced a linear, concentration-dependent increase in cellular enzyme activity and radioactivity. Fluorescently labeled PEG-superoxide dismutase incubated with endothelial cells showed a vesicular localization. Mechanical injury to cell monolayers, which is known to stimulate endocytosis, further increased the uptake of fluorescent PEG-superoxide dismutase. Addition of PEG and PEG-conjugated enzymes perturbed the spin-label binding environment, indicative of producing an increase in plasma membrane fluidity. Thus, PEG conjugation to superoxide dismutase and catalase enhances cell association of these enzymes in a manner which increases cellular enzyme activities and provides prolonged protection from partially reduced oxygen species.

  10. Construction of a Fusion Enzyme Exhibiting Superoxide Dismutase and Peroxidase Activity.

    PubMed

    Sharapov, M G; Novoselov, V I; Ravin, V K

    2016-04-01

    A chimeric gene construct encoding human peroxiredoxin 6 and Mn-superoxide dismutase from Escherichia coli was developed. Conditions for expression of the fusion protein in E. coli cell were optimized. Fusing of the enzymes into a single polypeptide chain with peroxiredoxin 6 at the N-terminus (PSH) did not affect their activities. On the contrary, the chimeric protein with reverse order of enzymes (SPH) was not obtained in a water-soluble active form. The active chimeric protein (PSH) exhibiting both peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities was prepared and its physicochemical properties were characterized. PMID:27293100

  11. Absence of superoxide dismutase activity causes nuclear DNA fragmentation during the aging process

    SciTech Connect

    Muid, Khandaker Ashfaqul; Karakaya, Hüseyin Çaglar; Koc, Ahmet

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Aging process increases ROS accumulation. • Aging process increases DNA damage levels. • Absence of SOD activity does not cause DNA damage in young cells. • Absence of SOD activity accelerate aging and increase oxidative DNA damages during the aging process. - Abstract: Superoxide dismutases (SOD) serve as an important antioxidant defense mechanism in aerobic organisms, and deletion of these genes shortens the replicative life span in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even though involvement of superoxide dismutase enzymes in ROS scavenging and the aging process has been studied extensively in different organisms, analyses of DNA damages has not been performed for replicatively old superoxide dismutase deficient cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of SOD1, SOD2 and CCS1 genes in preserving genomic integrity in replicatively old yeast cells using the single cell comet assay. We observed that extend of DNA damage was not significantly different among the young cells of wild type, sod1Δ and sod2Δ strains. However, ccs1Δ mutants showed a 60% higher amount of DNA damage in the young stage compared to that of the wild type cells. The aging process increased the DNA damage rates 3-fold in the wild type and more than 5-fold in sod1Δ, sod2Δ, and ccs1Δ mutant cells. Furthermore, ROS levels of these strains showed a similar pattern to their DNA damage contents. Thus, our results confirm that cells accumulate DNA damages during the aging process and reveal that superoxide dismutase enzymes play a substantial role in preserving the genomic integrity in this process.

  12. Sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of superoxide dismutase activity in tissue extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Paoletti, F.; Aldinucci, D.; Mocali, A.; Caparrini, A.

    1986-05-01

    Superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) has been assayed by a spectrophotometric method based on the inhibition of a superoxide-driven NADH oxidation. The assay consists of a purely chemical reaction sequence which involves EDTA. Mn(II), mercaptoethanol, and molecular oxygen, requiring neither auxiliary enzymes nor sophisticated equipment. The method is very flexible and rapid and is applicable with high sensitivity to the determination of both pure and crude superoxide dismutase preparations. The decrease of the rate of NADH oxidation is a function of enzyme concentration, and saturation levels are attainable. Fifty percent inhibition, corresponding to one unit of the enzyme, is produced by approximately 15 ng of pure superoxide dismutase. Experiments on rat liver cytosol have shown the specificity of the method for superoxide dismutase. Moreover, common cellular components do not interfere with the measurement, except for hemoglobin when present at relatively high concentrations. The assay is performed at physiological pH and is unaffected by catalase.

  13. Limitation of dietary copper and zinc decreases superoxide dismutase activity in the onion fly, Delia antiqua.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T; Ooe, S; Ishikawa, Y

    1997-06-01

    Larvae of the onion fly, Delia antiqua, have lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity when they are fed a defined synthetic diet that contains no copper or zinc. SOD activity was rapidly recovered when these larvae were fed onion bulbs. Addition of copper and zinc to the synthetic diet also led to the recovery of SOD activity. Results of an immunoblotting analysis using anti-D. antiqua CuZnSOD mouse monoclonal antibody suggest that this alteration of SOD activity is dependent on the amount of CuZnSOD. PMID:9172377

  14. Do Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) protect Cells from DNA Damage Induced by Active Arsenicals?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, which can be converted to water and oxygen through the action of catalase. Heterozygous mice of strain B6: 129S7-SodltmlLeb/J were obtained from Jackson Laboratories and bred to produce offspr...

  15. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities after heat injury of listeria monocytogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Dallmier, A.W.; Martin, S.E.

    1988-02-01

    Four strains of Listeria monocytogenes were examined for catalase (CA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. The two strains having the highest CA activities (LCDC and Scott A) also possessed the highest SOD activities. The CA activity of heated cell extracts of all four strains examined decreased sharply between 55 and 60/sup 0/C. SOD was more heat labile than CA. Two L. monocytogenes strains demonstrated a decline in SOD activity after heat treatment at 45/sup 0/C, whereas the other two strains demonstrated a decline at 50/sup 0/C. Sublethal heating of the cells at 55/sup 0/C resulted in increased sensitivity to 5.5% NaCl. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide was added to suspensions of L. monocytogenes; strains producing the highest CA levels showed the greatest H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ resistance.

  16. Molecular mechanism on cadmium-induced activity changes of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Rutao; Chen, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium contributes to adverse effects of organisms probably because of its ability to induce oxidative stress via alterations in activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the molecular mechanism of CAT and SOD response under Cd-induced oxidative stress in the liver of zebrafish. The enzyme activity changes observed in vitro were consistent with those seen in vivo, indicating the direct interaction of CAT and SOD with Cd contributes to their activity change in vivo. Further experiments utilizing multiple spectroscopic methods, isothermal titration calorimetry and a molecular docking study were performed to explore the mechanism of molecular interaction of CAT and SOD with Cd. Different interaction patterns were found that resulted in misfolding and changed the enzyme activities. Taken together, we suggest the misfolding of CAT and SOD contributes to their activity change under Cd-induced oxidative stress in vivo.

  17. Activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus) selected for postponed senescence.

    PubMed

    Seslija, D; Blagojević, D; Spasić, M; Tucić, N

    1999-04-01

    Relationship of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and aging were tested using bean weevil lines selected for postponed senescence. The beetles of different age (young and old) and mating status (virgin and mated) from the extended longevity lines were compared with their counterparts derived from the short-lived lines for activities of SOD and catalase. The old beetles from the long-lived lines had statistically significant higher activity of SOD than their controls. Although we did not find a significant effect of catalase on longevity, beetles originating from both types of lines exhibited an increased catalase activity during mating processes. In addition, we did observe an increased activity of catalase in one-day-old beetles of the short-lived lines relative to the same-aged individuals of the long-lived lines.

  18. Superoxide dismutases in chronic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Švagelj, Dražen; Terzić, Velimir; Dovhanj, Jasna; Švagelj, Marija; Cvrković, Mirta; Švagelj, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Human gastric diseases have shown significant changes in the activity and expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms. The aim of this study was to detect Mn-SOD activity and expression in the tissue of gastric mucosa, primarily in chronic gastritis (immunohistochemical Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis, without other pathohistological changes) and to evaluate their possible connection with pathohistological diagnosis. We examined 51 consecutive outpatients undergoing endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients were classified based on their histopathological examinations and divided into three groups: 51 patients (archive samples between 2004-2009) with chronic immunohistochemical Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis (mononuclear cells infiltration were graded as absent, moderate, severe) divided into three groups. Severity of gastritis was graded according to the updated Sydney system. Gastric tissue samples were used to determine the expression of Mn-SOD with anti-Mn-SOD Ab immunohistochemically. The Mn-SOD expression was more frequently present in specimens with severe and moderate inflammation of gastric mucosa than in those with normal mucosa. In patients with normal histological finding, positive immunoreactivity of Mn-SOD was not found. Our results determine the changes in Mn-SOD expression occurring in the normal gastric mucosa that had undergone changes in the intensity of chronic inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. PMID:26765960

  19. PEA chloroplasts under clino-rotation: lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranenko, V. V.

    The lipid peroxidation (LP) intensity and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in chloroplasts of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants grown for 7 and 14 days under clino-rotation. An increase in LP levels in chloroplasts during both terms of clinorotation in comparison with stationary controls was documented. SOD activity increased in chloroplasts of plants that were clino-rotated for seven days. SOD has a significant protective effect by diminishing the availability of O2-. However, under more prolonged clino-rotation (14 days), SOD activity decreased but was still higher than in the control samples. In accordance with Selye's oxidative stress theory (Selye, 1956; modified by Leshem et al., 1998), plants that were clino-rotated for seven days are presumed to be in a stage of resistance while 14-day plants reached a stage of exhaustion.

  20. Screening for Intestinal Microflora Influencing Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Mouse Cecal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    DOBASHI, Yuu; ITOH, Kikuji; TOHEI, Atsushi; AMAO, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have suggested that intestinal microflora reduces the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the mouse cecal mucosa. In this study, gnotobiotic mice were used to examine the species of intestinal microflora influencing SOD activity in the cecal mucosa. The total SOD activity in the cecal mucosa of each germ-free (GF), gnotobiotic mouse with Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was significantly higher than that in the cecal mucosa of gnotobiotic mice with chloroform-treated feces (CHF), conventionalized (CVz) mice and conventional (CV) mice (P<0.05). In addition, CuZnSOD mRNA expression showed similar tendencies. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense status in the cecal mucosa is influenced by CHF inoculation. PMID:24225363

  1. Chlorovirus PBCV-1 Encodes an Active Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ming; Duncan, Garry A.; Kuszynski, Charles; Oyler, George; Zheng, Jiayin; Becker, Donald F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are metalloproteins that protect organisms from toxic reactive oxygen species by catalyzing the conversion of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. Chlorovirus PBCV-1 encodes a 187-amino-acid protein that resembles a Cu-Zn SOD with all of the conserved amino acid residues for binding copper and zinc (named cvSOD). cvSOD has an internal Met that results in a 165-amino-acid protein (named tcvSOD). Both cvSOD and tcvSOD recombinant proteins inhibited nitroblue tetrazolium reduction of superoxide anion generated in a xanthine-xanthine oxidase system in solution. tcvSOD was chosen for further characterization because it was easier to produce. Recombinant tcvSOD also inhibited a riboflavin photochemical reduction system in a polyacrylamide gel assay, which was blocked by the Cu-Zn SOD inhibitor cyanide but not by azide, which inhibits Fe and Mn SODs. A kcat/Km value for cvSOD was determined by stop-flow spectrophotometry as 1.28 × 108 M−1 s−1, suggesting that cvSOD-catalyzed O2− dismutation was not a diffusion controlled encounter. The cvsod gene was expressed as a late gene, and cvSOD activity was detected in purified virions. Superoxide accumulated rapidly during virus infection, and circumstantial evidence indicates that cvSOD aids its decomposition to benefit virus replication. Cu-Zn SOD homologs have been described to occur in 3 other families of large DNA viruses, poxviruses, baculoviruses, and mimiviruses, which group as a clade. Interestingly, cvSOD does not group in the same clade as the other virus SODs but instead groups in an expanded clade that includes Cu-Zn SODs from many cellular organisms. IMPORTANCE Virus infection often leads to an increase in toxic reactive oxygen species in the host, which can be detrimental to virus replication. Viruses have developed various ways to overcome this barrier. As reported in this article, the chloroviruses often encode and package a functional Cu

  2. WISP-3 functions as a ligand and promotes superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Leila; Chen, Yi; Sen, Malini

    2006-03-31

    WISP-3 (Wnt1 inducible secreted protein-3) mutations have been linked to the connective tissue diseases progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia and polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, both of which are accompanied by disorders in cartilage maintenance/homeostasis. The molecular mechanism of WISP-3 mediated effects in the sustenance of cartilage has not been described in detail. Our previous study illustrates the potential role of WISP-3 in regulating the expression of cartilage-specific molecules that sustain chondrocyte growth and cartilage integrity. The present study was conducted to investigate the mode of action of WISP-3 in greater detail. Experimental results depicted here suggest that WISP-3 can function as a ligand and signal via autocrine and/or paracrine modes upon being secreted by chondrocytes. Furthermore, apart from regulating collagen II and aggrecan expression, WISP-3 may also promote superoxide dismutase expression and activity in chondrocytes.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE AND CATALASE ACTIVITY AND EXPRESSION IN HONEY BEE.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Tatjana V; Purać, Jelena; Orčić, Snežana; Kojić, Danijela; Vujanović, Dragana; Stanimirović, Zoran; Gržetić, Ivan; Ilijević, Konstantin; Šikoparija, Branko; Blagojević, Duško P

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the cellular stress response in honey bees will significantly contribute to their conservation. The aim of this study was to analyze the response of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in honey bees related to the presence of toxic metals in different habitats. Three locations were selected: (i) Tunovo on the mountain Golija, as control area, without industry and large human impact, (ii) Belgrade as urban area, and (iii) Zajača, as mining and industrial zone. Our results showed that the concentrations of lead (Pb) in whole body of bees vary according to habitat, but there was very significant increase of Pb in bees from investigated industrial area. Bees from urban and industrial area had increased expression of both Sod1 and Cat genes, suggesting adaptation to increased oxidative stress. However, in spite increased gene expression, the enzyme activity of catalase was lower in bees from industrial area suggesting inhibitory effect of Pb on catalase.

  4. Superoxide dismutase activity and gene expression levels in Saudi women with recurrent miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    GHNEIM, HAZEM K.; AL-SHEIKH, YAZEED A.; ALSHEBLY, MASHAEL M.; ABOUL-SOUD, MOURAD A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and SOD2, as well as the levels of the oxidant superoxide anion (SOA) and the micronutrients zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), were assayed in plasma, whole blood and placental tissue of non-pregnant (NP), healthy pregnant (HP) women and recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients. The results showed that SOD1 and SOD2 activities and the levels of Zn, Cu and Mn in plasma and whole blood of HP women were slightly, but significantly lower, and even more significantly decreased in RM patients compared to those observed in NP women (P<0.05 and P<0.0001, respectively). Additionally, whereas plasma SOD1 and SOD2 activities and Zn, Cu and Mn levels were significantly lower in RM patients, those of whole blood and placental tissue were significantly lower when compared to HP women (P<0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). Concurrently, there were consistent increases of equal magnitude and statistical significance in SOA levels in all the assayed samples as identified by a comparison between the subjects. The findings thus supported oxidative metabolism and excessive reactive oxygen species generation. The resultant oxidative stress, identified in whole blood and placental tissues of RM patients, may have been a primary cause of RM. Dietary supplementation of Zn, Cu and Mn may be beneficial to these patients pre- and post-conception. PMID:26821085

  5. Copper (II) - HisAibGly complex and its superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raj K; Prasad, Sudhanand; Singh, Udai P

    2010-02-01

    The superoxide anion radical is a highly reactive toxic species produced during metabolic processes. Several copper (II) complexes with peptides are known to show superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity but those having a peptide with a non-natural amino acid are limited. The synthesis of HisAibGly peptide and its complexation with copper (II) ions has been reported. The interaction of the synthetic peptide with Cu(II) was studied by electron spray ionization-mass (ESI-MS), circular dichroism (CD), absorption (UV-Vis) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic methods. The solution studies and species distribution were performed by both spectrophotometric and potentiometric methods. The studies were performed at 25 + 0.1 degrees C with constant ionic strength (micro = 0.1 M NaNO(3)) in aqueous solution using Bjerrum-Calvin's pH-titration technique as adopted by Irving and Rossotti for binary systems. The species distribution stidies indicated that the complexation occurred from 3-11 pH and a three nitrogen coordinated species predominates at 8-9 whereas a four nitrogen coordinated species was formed between pH 9-11. The copper-peptide complex was tested for SOD activity using xanthine-xanthine oxidase - nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) methods. PMID:20214649

  6. Cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and resistance to radiation lethality in murine tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Davy, C.A.; Tesfay, Z.; Jones, J.; Rosenberg, R.C.; McCarthy, C.; Rosenberg, S.O.

    1986-05-01

    Reduced species of molecular oxygen are produced by the interaction of ionizing radiation with aqueous solutions containing molecular oxygen. The enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are thought to function in vivo as scavengers of metabolically produced peroxide and superoxide respectively. SOD has been shown to protect against the lethal effects of ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. The authors have investigated the relationship between the cytosolic SOD catalase content and the sensitivity to radiation lethality of a number of murine cell lines (402AX, EL-4, MB-2T3, MB-4, MEL, P-815, SAI, SP-2, and SV-3T3). K/sub i/(CN/sup -/) for murine Cu-Zn-SOD was determined to be 6.8 x 10/sup -6/ M. No cytosolic Mn-SOD activity was found in any of the cell lines studied. No correlation was found between the cytosolic Cu-Zn-SOD or cytosolic catalase activity and the resistance to radiation lethality or the murine cell lines studied.

  7. Investigation of the Highly Active Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Cabelli, D.E.; Barnese, K.; Sheng, Y.; Stich, T.A.; Gralla, E.B.; Britt, R.D.; Valentine, J.S.

    2010-09-15

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) from different species differs in its efficiency in removing high concentrations of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}), due to different levels of product inhibition. Human MnSOD exhibits a substantially higher level of product inhibition than the MnSODs from bacteria. In order to investigate the mechanism of product inhibition and whether it is a feature common to eukaryotic MnSODs, we purified MnSOD from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScMnSOD). It was a tetramer with 0.6 equiv of Mn per monomer. The catalytic activity of ScMnSOD was investigated by pulse radiolysis and compared with human and two bacterial (Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans) MnSODs. To our surprise, ScMnSOD most efficiently facilitates removal of high concentrations of O{sub 2}{sup -} among these MnSODs. The gating value k{sub 2}/k{sub 3} that characterizes the level of product inhibition scales as ScMnSOD > D. radiodurans MnSOD > E. coli MnSOD > human MnSOD. While most MnSODs rest as the oxidized form, ScMnSOD was isolated in the Mn{sup 2+} oxidation state as revealed by its optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. This finding poses the possibility of elucidating the origin of product inhibition by comparing human MnSOD with ScMnSOD.

  8. Hypoxia, reoxygenation and cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cMnSOD) silencing in Litopenaeus vannamei: effects on cMnSOD transcripts, superoxide dismutase activity and superoxide anion production capacity.

    PubMed

    García-Triana, Antonio; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma Beatriz; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2010-11-01

    The effects of silencing the mRNA of cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cMnSOD), an enzyme involved in the antioxidant defense, were analyzed in Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei adults. Shrimp were intramuscularly injected with long dsRNAs corresponding to the N-terminal portion of the cMnSOD and held under normoxic conditions for 24h. Another group of shrimp was exposed to hypoxia for 6h followed by reoxygenation for 1h. Shrimp injected with long dsRNAs had lower cMnSOD transcripts in gills and hepatopancreas. In the cMnSOD silenced shrimp, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased in gills but not in hepatopancreas. Shrimp subjected to hypoxia had lower cMnSOD transcripts and SOD activity in gills and hepatopancreas; the production of superoxide anion (O2*-) by hemocytes was also lower in this group. Reoxygenation reverted the effect of hypoxia increasing the levels of cMnSOD transcripts, SOD activity and the production of O2*-. These results suggest that cMnSOD contributes significantly to the SOD activity in gills and hepatopancreas and indicate its importance in the redox system regulation for L. vannamei.

  9. Trace element and magnesium levels and superoxide dismutase activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, S; Kamanli, A; Akçil, E; Kavas, G O; Seçkin, B; Atay, M B

    1999-05-01

    It has been suggested that reactive oxygen metabolites and trace elements play some role in the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is believed to exert an important protective role against oxygen toxicity. The aim of the study was to investigate the probable changes in the levels of trace elements and SOD activity in RA. Plasma and erythrocyte copper, zinc, and magnesium levels and erythrocyte SOD activity were measured in groups of controls and RA cases. Significantly increased erythrocyte SOD activity was found in RA patients in comparison with controls (p < 0.0001). A rise in erythrocyte Zn level (p < 0.0001) and plasma Cu level (p < 0.0001) and a decrease in erythrocyte Cu level (p < 0.05) and plasma Zn level (p < 0.05) were obtained in RA patients when compared to controls. Plasma and erythrocyte Mg levels of the RA patients showed slight and statistically insignificant reductions when compared to controls (p > 0.05). In RA patients, there were positive correlations between erythrocyte SOD activity and Mg level (r = 0.4345, p < 0.01) and between erythrocyte Zn level and plasma Cu level (r = 0.4132, p < 0.01). There were negative correlations between erythrocyte SOD activity and plasma Zn level (r = -0.3605, p < 0.05) and between plasma Zn level and erythrocyte Cu level (r = -0.4578, p < 0.01) in RA patients.

  10. Roles of exogenous divalent metals in the nucleolytic activity of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Han, Yingchun; Pan, Qunhui; Shen, Tao; Liu, Changlin

    2007-04-01

    It is well known that the wild type Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (holo SOD) catalyzes the conversion of superoxide anion to peroxide hydrogen and dioxygen. However, a new function of holo SOD, i.e., nucleolytic activity has been found [W. Jiang, T. Shen, Y. Han, Q. Pan, C. Liu, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 11 (2006) 835-848], which is linked to the incorporation of exogenous divalent metals into the enzyme-DNA complex. In this study, the roles of exogenous divalent metals in the nucleolytic activity were explored in detail by a series of biochemical experiments. Based on a non-equivalent multi-site binding model, affinity of a divalent metal for the enzyme-DNA complex was determined by absorption titration, indicating that the complex can provide at least a high and a low affinity site for the metal ion. These mean that the holo SOD may use a "two exogenous metal ion pathway" as a mechanism in which both metal ions are directly involved in the catalytic process of DNA cleavage. In addition, the pH versus DNA cleavage rate profiles can be fitted to two ionizing-group models, indicating the presence of a general acid and a general base in catalysis. A model that requires histidine residues, metal-bound water molecules and two hydrated metal ions to operate in concert could be used to interpret the catalysis of DNA hydrolysis, supported by the dependences of loss of the nucleolytic activity on time and on the concentration of the specific chemical modifier to the histidine residues on the enzyme. PMID:17292965

  11. The effect of UV-B radiation on Bufo arenarum embryos survival and superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, J; D'Eramo, J L; Fridman, O

    2006-03-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m(2) resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m(2) was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m(2) at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 +/- 14.29, 74.5 +/- 13.19, 39.5 +/- 6.99 and 10.7 +/- 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 +/- 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  12. Superoxide dismutase activity as a measure of hepatic oxidative stress in cattle following ethionine administration.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Okada, Keiji; Goryo, Masanobu; Oishi, Akihiro; Yasuda, Jun

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess if oxidative stress, as measured by alterations in the concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and erythrocytes of cattle, could be induced following dl-ethionine administration. Whole blood, serum and liver biopsy samples were collected 0, 4, 7 and 10 days after intra-peritoneal ethionine administration to five cows. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn SOD) and catalase were assessed in the liver biopsies which were also examined histopathologically. Significant increases in hepatic Cu, Zn SOD concentrations (P<0.01) were noted on days 7 and 10 post-treatment. Hepatic catalase activity decreased significantly (P<0.01) on days 4, 7 and 10 post-treatment and erythrocyte Cu, Zn SOD activity was significantly increased on day 10. Serum biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase (P<0.01) in non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on day 4 and significant decreases in total cholesterol and phospholipid levels on days 4 (P<0.05), 7 (P<0.01) and 10 (P<0.01). In this model system, dl-ethionine administration was effective in inducing oxidative stress particularly reflected in the liver. PMID:18585936

  13. Effects of copper supplementation on erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.T.; DiSilvestro, R.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are reported to possess lower than normal levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The contribution of copper status to these low values has not been examined. To address this issue, blood samples were obtained from 10 RA patients before and after 28 days of daily oral copper supplementation (2 mg/day). All patients were receiving gold therapy. Each RA subject, before supplementation, displayed lower erythrocyte SOD values than any of 25 age matched controls. The mean value for the RA subjects was about 40% lower than the control mean, whether expressed as units per ml packed cells or per mg hemoglobin. Erythrocyte SOD activity levels were increased in all subjects by the 4 week copper supplementation, with 7 of the patients showing at least a 22% increase. Presupplement SOD activities showed no correlation with serum C-reactive protein contents, an indicator of acute phase response. Serum levels of the copper containing acute phase protein ceruloplasmin, showed variable responses to copper supplementation. The studies described here are currently being extended to include RA subjects not being treated with gold and to include supplemented controls.

  14. Superoxide dismutase activity as a measure of hepatic oxidative stress in cattle following ethionine administration.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Okada, Keiji; Goryo, Masanobu; Oishi, Akihiro; Yasuda, Jun

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess if oxidative stress, as measured by alterations in the concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and erythrocytes of cattle, could be induced following dl-ethionine administration. Whole blood, serum and liver biopsy samples were collected 0, 4, 7 and 10 days after intra-peritoneal ethionine administration to five cows. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn SOD) and catalase were assessed in the liver biopsies which were also examined histopathologically. Significant increases in hepatic Cu, Zn SOD concentrations (P<0.01) were noted on days 7 and 10 post-treatment. Hepatic catalase activity decreased significantly (P<0.01) on days 4, 7 and 10 post-treatment and erythrocyte Cu, Zn SOD activity was significantly increased on day 10. Serum biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase (P<0.01) in non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on day 4 and significant decreases in total cholesterol and phospholipid levels on days 4 (P<0.05), 7 (P<0.01) and 10 (P<0.01). In this model system, dl-ethionine administration was effective in inducing oxidative stress particularly reflected in the liver.

  15. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J.; D’Eramo, J. L.; Fridman, O.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300–310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  16. Superoxide dismutase activity of Mycobacterium avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, B K; Falkinham, J O

    1986-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) (SOD) activity has been detected in crude cell extracts of representative strains of the Mycobacterium avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum (MAIS) group. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated a single SOD activity band for each of the MAIS strains, though there were differences in mobility. All M. avium and M. intracellulare and two of five M. scrofulaceum strains demonstrated a single activity band of identical mobility (Rf = 0.83), while the SOD activity band for the three remaining M. scrofulaceum strains migrated farther (Rf = 0.85). The differences in mobility correlated with differences in sensitivity to NaN3 and H2O2. The SOD activities of the majority of the MAIS strains which displayed the slower-migrating activity band were inhibited 22 to 81% after 15 min of exposure to 5 mM H2O2, suggesting that both iron and manganese may be present in a single enzyme. The SOD activities of the three M. scrofulaceum strains which had the faster-migrating activity band were inhibited 100% after only 5 min of exposure to 5 mM H2O2 and exhibited greater sensitivity to 5 and 10 mM NaN3, characteristics of an iron-containing SOD. A concentration of 1 mM KCN did not cause inhibition of enzyme activity in any of the MAIS strains tested. Extracellular SOD activity was detected in four of six MAIS strains and was shown to be identical in mobility to the SOD activity of the crude extracts. Images PMID:3744555

  17. Profile of non-volatiles in whisky with regard to superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    Koga, Kunimasa; Tachihara, Satoshi; Shirasaka, Norifumi; Yamada, Yuri; Koshimizu, Sei-Ichi

    2011-08-01

    SOD (Superoxide dismutase)-like activities of 23 kinds of single malt whisky (Scotch and Japanese) were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between SOD-like activity and the maturation age of whisky that exceeded the difference resulting from the manufacturing region. The SOD-like activity of Yamazaki 18, a typical single malt whisky in Japan, was approximately 1333 U/ml and that of non-volatile components in the whisky was 388U/mg, indicating that single malt whisky generally has a very strong SOD-like activity. To elucidate their contribution to SOD-like activity, the non-volatile components of whisky (Yamazaki 18) were ultrafiltered and separated with a Diaion HP20/water-EtOH system. Elution of the fraction less than 5000 molecular weight (<5000 MW fraction) with 60% (v/v) EtOH contributed most to SOD-like activity of the whisky. As this elution contained a considerable amount of polyphenolics, the content and SOD-like specific activity of ellagic acid, gallic acid, and lyoniresinol--the main whisky polyphenolics--were evaluated. The contribution of these compounds to the SOD-like activity of whisky was approximately 15%. Polyphenolics in whisky were relatively distributed to a higher MW fraction compared to carbohydrates in whisky, and specific activity (SOD-like activity per weight) of the >10,000 MW fraction was greater than that of the <5000 MW fraction, although the content of this fraction was low. These results indicate that various polyphenolics with higher molecular weights also contribute to the SOD-like activity of whisky together with main whisky polyphenolics.

  18. Superoxide dismutase activity in the intestine of the streptozotocin-diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Loven, D P; Schedl, H P; Oberley, L W; Wilson, H D; Bruch, L; Niehaus, C L

    1982-09-01

    Insulin stimulates the production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in various tissues. Hydrogen peroxide has been proposed to be an intracellular second messenger for insulin and a moderator of cellular proliferation and differentiation. We previously found that cell proliferation is increased in small intestinal mucosa of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The current study was undertaken to determine if superoxide dismutase (SOD), the enzyme that converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, is altered in the mucosa of the alimentary tract and renal cortex of the diabetic rat, and if so, whether SOD responds to insulin treatment. Total SOD and cyanide-insensitive [manganese-containing SOD (Mn SOD)] SOD were measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium inhibition assay. We studied ad libitum fed animals, where diabetics are hyperphagic and pair-fed animals, where hyperphagia is not present. Since cyclic nucleotides appear to control cell proliferation in some tissues, we also measured cAMP and cGMP in mucosa of the small intestine. In ad libitum fed animals, total SOD was depressed in the mucosa of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, but not in the cecum or colon of the streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The level of Mn-SOD was not affected by diabetes or insulin treatment, but the cyanide-sensitive [copper- and zinc containing SOD (Cu-Zn SOD] SOD was depressed in the small intestine and colon of diabetic rats. Insulin treatment restored total and Cu-Zn SOD activity in the small intestine to normal and increased Cu-Zn SOD activity in the colon to normal. Pair-fed animals showed the same changes in the SOD activity of jejunal mucosa that were found in ad libitum fed animals. In renal cortex, diabetes did not alter total SOD, but increased Mn SOD and decreased Cu-Zn SOD. Both responses were reversed by insulin treatment. Cyclic nucleotide concentrations were not affected by diabetes. We conclude that SOD enzymes re altered in diabetes, at least in proliferating tissues. Responses are

  19. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities as biomarkers of oxidative stress in workers exposed to mercury vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin-Nadif, R.; Dusch, M.; Mur, J.M.; Koch, C.; Schmitt, P.

    1996-06-07

    We investigated the role of three blood antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant status (TAS) as biological markers of oxidative stress in workers exposed to mercury (Hg{degrees}) vapors. Twenty-two female workers took part in the study. Blood and urine sampling for biological analyses was performed. The workers were classified into three subgroups according to their creatinine-corrected Hg concentration in urine. Blood antioxidant enzyme activities and TAS were compared between groups with nonparametric distribution-free methods. A significant difference existed in catalase activity and a slight, but not significant, difference existed in Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} superoxide dismutase (Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD) activity between the three groups. No differences were observed in either the glutathione peroxidase activity or the TAS between these groups. Catalase and Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activities were increased in the groups of workers with higher creatinine-corrected urinary Hg concentrations when compared with the group of lower creatinine-corrected urinary Hg concentrations. Catalase activity was positively correlated with the creatinine-corrected concentration of Hg in urine, and Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activity was slightly correlated with the creatinine-corrected concentration of Hg in urine. The role of erythrocyte catalase and Cu{sup 2}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activities we have measured is in agreement with the hypothesis of the involvement of reactive oxygen species production as an important event in chronic exposure to Hg{degrees} vapors in humans. In spite of the small sample size, results indicate that erythrocyte catalase and Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activities could be considered as markers of biological effect in workers exposed to Hg{degrees} vapors. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Diminution of mouse epidermal superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by tumor promotors

    SciTech Connect

    Solanki, V.; Rana, R.S.; Slaga, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of phorbol ester tumor promoters and related compounds on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were examined. The treatment of adult mouse skin with 2 ..mu..g 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) resulted in a sustained decrease in the basal levels of both SOD and catalase activities in the epidermis. A decline in SOD activity occurred within 2 h after application and the maximum effect was seen at 16-17 h. The decrease in SOD activity was always accompanied by a similar decline in the epidermal catalase activity. The alterations in both enzymes occurred against a high background of enhanced protein synthesis which indicates that the effect of TPA is selective for SOD and catalase. Other tumor promoters such as phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate and the non-phorbol tumor promoter anthraline also lowered the activities of both the enzymes. Mezerein, a resiniferonol derivative with weak promoting activity but a potent stage-II promoter, appeared to be more potent than TPA in lowering the basal levels. These results indicate that damage which favors neoplastic progression would occur in TPA-treated mouse skin due to the accumulation of free radicals resulting from low levels of SOD and catalase activity. In addition, the TPA-caused decrease in the levels of SOD and catalase was not prevented by either retinoic acid, fluocinolone acetonide, tosyl amino-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone, or butylated hydroxytoluene, suggesting that inhibition of tumor promotion by these agents is not mediated through alterations in the levels of enzymatic activities which decrease free radical concentrations.

  1. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells

  2. Oversynthesis of riboflavin in the yeast Pichia guilliermondii is accompanied by reduced catalase and superoxide dismutases activities.

    PubMed

    Prokopiv, Tetyana M; Fedorovych, Dariya V; Boretsky, Yuriy R; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency causes oversynthesis of riboflavin in several yeast species, known as flavinogenic yeasts. Under iron deprivation conditions, Pichia guilliermondii cells increase production of riboflavin and malondialdehyde and the formation of protein carbonyl groups, which reflect increased intracellular content of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we found that P. guilliermondii iron deprived cells showed dramatically decreased catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Previously reported mutations rib80, rib81, and hit1, which affect repression of riboflavin synthesis and iron accumulation by iron ions, caused similar drops in activities of the mentioned enzymes. These findings could explain the previously described development of oxidative stress in iron deprived or mutated P. guilliermondii cells that overproduce riboflavin. Similar decrease in superoxide dismutase activities was observed in iron deprived cells in the non-flavinogenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23053489

  3. Interdisciplinary therapy changes superoxide dismutase activity and adiponectin in obese adolescents: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nunes, João Elias Dias; Cunha, Heitor Santos; Freitas, Zulmária Rezende; Nogueira, Ana Maria Caixeta; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Espindola, Foued Salmen; Cheik, Nadia Carla

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of interdisciplinary therapy in the parameters of the oxidative stress and the anti-inflammatory responses of obese adolescents. We selected 57 participants, who were randomly divided into 2 groups: interdisciplinary therapy group and a control group. After 6 months of intervention, 17 participants of the interdisciplinary therapy group and 8 of the control group returned for re-evaluation. The interdisciplinary therapy group participated in a treatment with 4 weekly sessions of exercise, a weekly group therapy session and a weekly nutritional education session. Blood parameters of oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory response were evaluated. The results demonstrated that there were significant increases in the interdisciplinary therapy group for superoxide dismutase activity (6.56 ± 3.22 to 11.40 ± 7.49) and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential concentration (532.91 ± 106.48 to 573.25 ± 112.57), although adiponectin levels did not reduce (40.9 ± 29.34 to 49.05 ± 41.22). A significant decrease in nitrite levels was also found (14.23 ± 8.48 to 11.45 ± 6.05). In the control group, significant reduction was found in adiponectin (31.56 ± 18.88 to 18.01 ± 11.66). This study suggests that interdisciplinary therapy for 6 months was effective in improving the anti-inflammatory responses and the antioxidant defences in obese adolescents. PMID:26367325

  4. Cardiovascular Effects of Copper Deficiency on Activity of Superoxide Dismutase in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayati, Mohammed A.; Jamil, Dina A.; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Copper (Cu) is essential both for its role in antioxidant enzymes, like Cu/zinc (Zn) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ceruloplasmin, as well as its role in lysyl oxidase, essential for the strength and integrity of the heart and blood vessels. With such a central role in cardiovascular health, Cu has been generally overlooked in the debate over improving our cardiovascular health. Cu deficiency has produced many of the same abnormalities present in cardiovascular disease. It seems almost certain that Cu plays a large role in the development of this killer disease, not because of its excess in the diet, but rather its deficiency. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the cardiovascular effects of Cu deficiency on the activity of SOD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without diabetic nephropathy. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients with T2DM were recruited in this study which were divided into two subgroups based on the presence of microalbuminuria, the first group (microal buminuric group, n = 31) had a microalbuminuria between 30 and 299 μg/mg. The second group (normoal buminuric group, n = 29) had an albumin level less than 30 μg/mg. The two diabetic groups were compared to the control group (n = 37). Results: The results of our study showed a significant reduction in the levels of SOD enzyme associated with an increased urinary Cu excretion in microalbuminuric group compared to the control group at P < 0.05. Conclusions: The current study illustrates that the regulation of the blood concentrations of Cu may be a potential therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25789247

  5. Superoxide dismutase and catalase: tissue activities and relation with age in the long-lived species Margaritifera margaritifera.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Carlos; San Miguel, Eduardo; Fernández-Briera, Almudena

    2009-01-01

    Free radicals are extremely reactive and produce damage and modify cell functions. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase and catalase are believed to play a key role in the enzymatic defence of the cells. Indeed, some authors have argued that reduced free-radical damage could explain increased longevity. Margaritifera margaritifera is one of the longest-lived animals in the world (up to 100-200 years). Furthermore, this organism may serve as a useful model for gerontologists interested in exploring the mechanisms that promote long life and the slowing of senescence. The present study estimated for the first time individual enzymatic activity for superoxide dismutase isozymes (Cu,Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD) and catalase in tissue preparations of gills, digestive glands and mantles of two natural populations of M. margaritifera. Superoxide dismutase activities showed significant differences in the tissues analysed of specimens from the same river and in specimens from different rivers for the same tissue. Catalase activity levels also showed significant variation, but differences among tissues, within tissues or between rivers were of relatively little interest. We failed to find any relationship between individual enzymatic activities and the age estimated for each mussel. Indeed, the wide variation found in activity levels can be principally interpreted as an adaptation to the unpredictable and changing nature of freshwater natural habitats.

  6. Role of Biological Characteristics of Staphylococcus epidermidis in Intraerythrocytic Invasion and in Modulation of Erythrocyte Catalase and Superoxide Dismutase Activities in Experimental Generalized Infection.

    PubMed

    Shchuplova, E A; Stadnikov, A A; Fadeev, S B

    2015-05-01

    Studies on mouse model of generalized Staphylococcus epidermidis infection have demonstrated that erythrocytes more often contained microorganisms with pronounced antihemoglobin activity and less frequently with hemolytic activity. Infection with S. epidermidis strains characterized by pronounced hemolytic or antihemoglobin activities was associated with inhibition of erythrocyte catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in all cases, except infection with strains with high antihemoglobin activity, when superoxide dismutase activity increased.

  7. Role of Biological Characteristics of Staphylococcus epidermidis in Intraerythrocytic Invasion and in Modulation of Erythrocyte Catalase and Superoxide Dismutase Activities in Experimental Generalized Infection.

    PubMed

    Shchuplova, E A; Stadnikov, A A; Fadeev, S B

    2015-05-01

    Studies on mouse model of generalized Staphylococcus epidermidis infection have demonstrated that erythrocytes more often contained microorganisms with pronounced antihemoglobin activity and less frequently with hemolytic activity. Infection with S. epidermidis strains characterized by pronounced hemolytic or antihemoglobin activities was associated with inhibition of erythrocyte catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in all cases, except infection with strains with high antihemoglobin activity, when superoxide dismutase activity increased. PMID:26033594

  8. Transgenic mice with increased Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity: animal model of dosage effects in Down syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, C.J.; Avraham, K.B.; Lovett, M.; Smith, S.; Elroy-Stein, O.; Rotman, G.; Bry, C.; Groner, Y.

    1987-11-01

    Down syndrome, the phenotypic expression of human trisomy 21, is presumed to result from a 1.5-fold increase in the expression of the genes on human chromosome 21. As an approach to the development of an animal model for Down syndrome, several strains of transgenic mice that carry the human Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene have been prepared. The animals express the transgene in a manner similar to that of humans, with 0.9- and 0.7-kilobase transcripts in a 1:4 ratio, and synthesize the human enzyme in an active form capable of forming human-mouse enzyme heterodimers. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity is increased from 1.6- to 6.0-fold in the brains of four transgenic strains and to an equal or lesser extent in several other tissues. These animals provide a unique system for studying the consequences of increased dosage of the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene in Down syndrome and the role of this enzyme in a variety of other pathological processes.

  9. Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

    Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain

  10. Metal Uptake by Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase is an important antioxidant defense metalloenzyme that protects cells from damage by the toxic oxygen metabolite, superoxide free radical, formed as an unavoidable by-product of aerobic metabolism. Many years of research have gone into understanding how the metal cofactor interacts with small molecules in its catalytic role. In contrast, very little is presently known about how the protein acquires its metal cofactor, an important step in the maturation of the protein and one that is absolutely required for its biological function. Recent work is beginning to provide insight into the mechanisms of metal delivery to manganese superoxide dismutase in vivo and in vitro. PMID:19699328

  11. Catalytic spectrofluorimetric determination of superoxide anion radical and superoxide dismutase activity using N, N-dimethylaniline as the substrate for horseradish peroxidase (HRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bo; Wang, Yan; Chen, Zhen-zhen

    2002-10-01

    The coupled reaction of N, N-dimethylaniline (DMA) with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) using superoxide anion radical (O 2-) as oxidizing agent under the catalysis of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was studied. Based on the reaction, O 2- produced by irradiating Vitamin B 2, (V B2) was spectrophotometricly determined at 554 nm. The linear range of this method was 1.8×10 -6-1.2×10 -4 mol l -1 with a detection limit of 5.3×10 -7 mol l -1. The effect of interferences on the determination of O 2- was investigated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in human blood and mouse blood.

  12. The structural biochemistry of the superoxide dismutases

    PubMed Central

    Perry, J.J.P.; Shin, D.S.; Getzoff, E.D.; Tainer, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of superoxide dismutases (SODs), which convert superoxide radicals to molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, has been termed the most important discovery of modern biology never to win a Nobel Prize. Here, we review the reasons this discovery has been underappreciated, as well as discuss the robust results supporting its premier biological importance and utility for current research. We highlight our understanding of SOD function gained through structural biology analyses, which reveal important hydrogen-bonding schemes and metal-binding motifs. These structural features create remarkable enzymes that promote catalysis at faster than diffusion-limited rates by using electrostatic guidance. These architectures additionally alter the redox potential of the active site metal center to a range suitable for the superoxide disproportionation reaction and protect against inhibition of catalysis by molecules such as phosphate. SOD structures may also control their enzymatic activity through product inhibition; manipulation of these product inhibition levels has the potential to generate therapeutic forms of SOD. Markedly, structural destabilization of the SOD architecture can lead to disease, as mutations in Cu,ZnSOD may result in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a relatively common, rapidly progressing and fatal neurodegenerative disorder. We describe our current understanding of how these Cu,ZnSOD mutations may lead to aggregation/fibril formation, as a detailed understanding of these mechanisms provides new avenues for the development of therapeutics against this so far untreatable neurodegenerative pathology. PMID:19914407

  13. Effect of N+ Beam Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Activities and Induction of Mn-SOD in Deinococcus Radiodurans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dao-jun; Chen, Ruo-lei; Shao, Chun-lin; Wu, Li-jun; Yu, Zeng-liang

    2000-10-01

    Though bacteria of the radiation-resistant Deinococcus radiodurans have a high resistance to the lethal and mutagenic effects of many DNA-damaging agents, the mechanisms involved in the response of these bacteria to oxidative stress are poorly understood. In this report, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities produced by these bacteria were measured, and the change of SOD and CAT activities by 20 keV N+ beam exposure was examined. Their activities were increased by N+ beam exposure from 8×1014 ions/cm2 to 6×1015 ions/cm2. The treatment of H2O2 and [CHCl3 +CH3CH2OH] and the measurement of absorption spectrum showed that the increase in SOD activity was resulted from inducible activities of Mn-SOD in D. radiodurans AS1.633 by N+ beam exposure. These results suggested that this bacteria possess inducible defense mechanisms against the deleterious effects of oxidization.

  14. Chemical and physical differentiation of superoxide dismutases in anaerobes.

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, E M; Dapper, C H

    1980-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase activity in crude or partially purified cell extracts from several species and strains of obligate anaerobe Bacteroides was inhibited instantaneously by NaN3 and was inactivated rapidly upon incubation with H2O2. The extent of NaN3 inhibition varied from 41 to 93%, and the half-life of the enzymatic activity in 5 mM H2O2 ranged from 1.2 to 6.1 min, depending upon the organism tests. When grown in a defined medium containing 59Fe, Bacteroides fragilis (VPI 2393) incorporated radiolabel into a 40,000-molecular-weight NaN3- and H2O2-sensitive superoxide dismutase but did not incorporate 54Mn into that protein under similar growth conditions. The anaerobe Actinomyces naeslundii (VPI 9985) incorporated 54Mn but not 59Fe into a NaN3-insensitive and H2O2-resistant superoxide dismutase. The apparent molecular weight of the superoxide dismutase from this and several other Actinomyces spp. was estimated to be 110,000 to 140,000. Comparison of these data with studies of homogeneous metallosuperoxide dismutases suggests that the Bacteroides spp. studied contain a ferrisuperoxide dismutase, whereas Actinomyces spp. contain a managanisuperoxide dismutase. PMID:7440509

  15. Amino acids flanking the central core of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase are important in retaining enzyme activity after autoclaving.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Randhawa, Vinay; Acharya, Vishal; Singh, Kashmir; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes are known to be denatured upon boiling, although Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase of Potentilla atrosanguinea (Pot-SOD) retains significant catalytic activity even after autoclaving (heating at 121 °C at a pressure of 1.1 kg per square cm for 20 min). The polypeptide backbone of Pot-SOD consists of 152 amino acids with a central core spanning His45 to Cys145 that is involved in coordination of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions. While the central core is essential for imparting catalytic activity and structural stability to the enzyme, the role of sequences flanking the central core was not understood. Experiments with deletion mutants showed that the amino acid sequences flanking the central core were important in retaining activity of Pot-SOD after autoclaving. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated the unfavorable structure of mutants due to increased size of binding pocket and enhanced negative charge on the electrostatic surface, resulting in unavailability of the substrate superoxide radical ([Formula: see text]) to the catalytic pocket. Deletion caused destabilization of structural elements and reduced solvent accessibility that further produced unfavorable structural geometry of the protein. PMID:25990646

  16. Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Carillon, Julie; Del Rio, Daniele; Teissèdre, Pierre-Louis; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase (SOD-MC) were investigated in vitro. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The ability of the extract to scavenge three specific reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical anion (O(2)(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))) was also investigated in order to better evaluate its antioxidant properties. Even if the measures of TAC were relatively low, results clearly established an antioxidant potential of SOD-MC that exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity towards O(2)(-), with a IC(50) 12-fold lower than that of H(2)O(2) or HO(). This lets hypothesis that the antioxidant potential of SOD-MC could be mainly due to its high level of SOD. Moreover, for the first time, an ACE inhibitory activity of SOD-MC (IC(50)=2.4±0.1mg/mL) was demonstrated, showing that its use as a functional food ingredient with potential preventive benefits in the context of hypertension may have important public health implications and should be carefully considered.

  17. Melatonin and Steroid Hormones Activate Intermembrane CU,ZN-Superoxide Dismutase by Means of Mitochondrial Cytochrome P450

    PubMed Central

    IÑARREA, Pedro; CASANOVA, Alvaro; ALAVA, Maria Angeles; ITURRALDE, María; CADENAS, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin and steroid hormones are cytochrome P450 (CYP or P450; EC 1.14.14.1) substrates that have antioxidant properties and mitochondrial protective activities. IMS (Mitochondrial intermembrane space) SOD1 (Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase) is activated following oxidative modification of its critical thiol moieties by superoxide anion (O2.− ). This study was aimed at investigating the potential association between the hormonal protective antioxidant actions in mitochondria and regulation of IMS SOD1 activity. Melatonin, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, and vitamin D induced a sustained activation over time of SOD1 in intact mitochondria showing a bell-shaped enzyme activation dose-response with a threshold at 50 nM and a maximum effect at 1 μM concentration. Enzyme activation was not affected by furafylline, but it was inhibited by omeprazole, ketoconazole, and tiron, thereby supporting the occurrence of a mitochondrial P450 activity and O2.− requirements. Mitochondrial P450–dependent activation of IMS SOD1 prevented O2.− -induced loss of aconitase activity in intact mitochondria respiring at state 3 respiration. Optimal protection of aconitase activity was observed at 0.1 μM P450 substrate concentration evidencing a likely oxidative effect on the mitochondrial matrix by higher substrate concentrations. Likewise, enzyme activation mediated by mitochondrial P450 activity delayed CaCl2-induced loss of trans-membrane potential, and decreased cytochrome c release. Omeprazole and ketoconazole abrogated both protecting mitochondrial functions promoted by melatonin and steroid hormones. PMID:21397009

  18. Investigations of riboflavin photolysis via coloured light in the nitro blue tetrazolium assay for superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chien-wei; Chen, Liang-yü; Chou, Chan-wei; Liang, Ji-yuan

    2015-07-01

    Determination of the superoxide dismutase activity is an important issue in the fields of biochemistry and the medical sciences. In the riboflavin/nitro blue tetrazolium (B2/NBT) method, the light sources used for generating superoxide anion radicals from light-excited riboflavin are normally fluorescent lamps. However, the conditions of B2/NBT experiments vary. This study investigated the effect of the light source on the light-excitation of riboflavin. The effectiveness of the photolysis was controlled by the wavelength of the light source. The spectra of fluorescent lamps are composed of multiple colour lights, and the emission spectra of fluorescent lamps made by different manufacturers may vary. Blue light was determined to be the most efficient for the photochemical reaction of riboflavin in visible region. The quality of the blue light in fluorescent lamps is critical to the photo-decomposition of riboflavin. A blue light is better than a fluorescent lamp for the photo-decomposition of riboflavin. The performance of the B2/NBT method is thereby optimized.

  19. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase: Guardian of the Powerhouse

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Aaron K.; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Velez-Roman, Joyce M.; St. Clair, Daret K.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrion is vital for many metabolic pathways in the cell, contributing all or important constituent enzymes for diverse functions such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, the urea cycle, the citric acid cycle, and ATP synthesis. The mitochondrion is also a major site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the cell. Aberrant production of mitochondrial ROS can have dramatic effects on cellular function, in part, due to oxidative modification of key metabolic proteins localized in the mitochondrion. The cell is equipped with myriad antioxidant enzyme systems to combat deleterious ROS production in mitochondria, with the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) acting as the chief ROS scavenging enzyme in the cell. Factors that affect the expression and/or the activity of MnSOD, resulting in diminished antioxidant capacity of the cell, can have extraordinary consequences on the overall health of the cell by altering mitochondrial metabolic function, leading to the development and progression of numerous diseases. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which MnSOD protects cells from the harmful effects of overproduction of ROS, in particular, the effects of ROS on mitochondrial metabolic enzymes, may contribute to the development of novel treatments for various diseases in which ROS are an important component. PMID:22072939

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of tobramycin and a copper–tobramycin complex with superoxide dismutase-like activity

    PubMed Central

    Gziut, M; MacGregor, HJ; Nevell, TG; Mason, T; Laight, D; Shute, JK

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is characterized by accumulations of neutrophils in the airway and T cells in bronchial tissue, with activation of platelets in the circulation. CF patients are routinely treated with systemic or inhaled tobramycin for airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clinical trials have indicated an anti-inflammatory effect of tobramycin beyond its bactericidal activity. Here, we investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of tobramycin in vitro and consider if these relate to the ability of tobramycin to bind copper, which is elevated in blood and sputum in CF. Experimental Approach A copper–tobramycin complex was synthesized. The effect of tobramycin and copper–tobramycin on neutrophil activation and migration of T cells and neutrophils across human lung microvascular endothelial cells in response to thrombin-activated platelets were investigated in vitro. Tobramycin uptake was detected by immunocytochemistry. Intracellular reactive oxygen species were detected using the fluorescent indicator, 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA). Neutrophil superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and neutrophil elastase activity were measured using specific substrates. Copper was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Key Results Tobramycin and copper–tobramycin were taken up by endothelial cells via a heparan sulphate-dependent mechanism and significantly inhibited T-cell and neutrophil transendothelial migration respectively. Copper–tobramycin has intracellular and extracellular superoxide dismutase-like activity. Neutrophil elastase inhibition by α1-antitrypsin is enhanced in the presence of copper–tobramycin. Tobramycin and copper–tobramycin are equally effective anti-pseudomonal antibiotics. Conclusions and Implications Anti-inflammatory effects of tobramycin in vivo may relate to the spontaneous formation of a copper–tobramycin complex, implying that copper–tobramycin may

  1. Manganese superoxide dismutase: beyond life and death

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Aaron K.; Dhar, Sanjit Kumar; Xu, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a nuclear-encoded antioxidant enzyme that localizes to the mitochondria. Expression of MnSOD is essential for the survival of aerobic life. Transgenic mice expressing a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the human MnSOD promoter demonstrate that the level of MnSOD is reduced prior to the formation of cancer. Overexpression of MnSOD in transgenic mice reduces the incidences and multiplicity of papillomas in a DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis model. However, MnSOD deficiency does not lead to enhanced tumorigenicity of skin tissue similarly treated because MnSOD can modulate both the p53-mediated apoptosis and AP-1-mediated cell proliferation pathways. Apoptosis is associated with an increase in mitochondrial levels of p53 suggesting a link between MnSOD deficiency and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Activation of p53 is preventable by application of a SOD mimetic (MnTE-2-PyP5+). Thus, p53 translocation to mitochondria and subsequent inactivation of MnSOD explain the observed mitochondrial dysfunction that leads to transcription-dependent mechanisms of p53-induced apoptosis. Administration of MnTE-2-PyP5+ following apoptosis but prior to proliferation leads to suppression of protein carbonyls and reduces the activity of AP-1 and the level of the proliferating cellular nuclear antigen, without reducing the activity of p53 or DNA fragmentation following TPA treatment. Remarkably, the incidence and multiplicity of skin tumors are drastically reduced in mice that receive MnTE-2-PyP5+ prior to cell proliferation. The results demonstrate the role of MnSOD beyond its essential role for survival and suggest a novel strategy for an antioxidant approach to cancer intervention. PMID:20454814

  2. Superoxide Dismutases and Reactive Oxygen Species

    SciTech Connect

    Cabelli, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The 'free radical theory' of aging was introduced over a half-century ago. In this theory, much of the deleterious effects of aging were attributed to the cumulative buildup of damage from reactive oxygen species. When discussing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aerobic systems, both superoxide radicals (O{sub 2}{sup -}) and superoxide dismutases (SODs) are considered to play prominent roles. O{sub 2}{sup -} is formed by attachment of the electron to oxygen (O{sub 2}) that is present in tens to hundreds of micromolar concentration in vivo. SODs are enzymes that serve to eliminate O{sub 2}{sup -} by rapidly converting it to O{sub 2} and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Both the radical and the enzyme will be discussed with the focus on the systems that are present in humans.

  3. Human mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase polymorphic variant Ile58Thr reduces activity by destabilizing the tetrameric interface

    SciTech Connect

    Borgstahl, G.E.O.; Hickey, M.J.; Johnson, M.J.

    1996-04-09

    Human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a homotetrameric enzyme which protects mitochondria against oxygen-mediated free radical damage. Within each subunit, both the N-terminal helical hairpin and C-terminal {alpha}/{beta} domains contribute ligands to the catalytic manganese site. Two identical four-helix bundles,symmetrically assembled form the N-terminal helical hairpins, form a novel tetrameric interface that stabilizes the active sites. The 2.5 {angstrom} crystallographic structure of the naturally occurring polymorphic variant Ile58Thr MnSOD reveals that the helical hairpin mutation Thr58 causes two packing defects in each of the two four-helix bundles of the tetrameric interface. Similar mutations, expected to cause packing defects in the Cu,ZnSOD dimer interface, are associated with the degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ile58Thr MnSOD is primarily dimeric in solution and is significantly less thermostable than the normal enzyme, with decreases of 15{degrees}C in the main melting temperature and 20{degrees}C in the heat-inactivation temperature. Consequently, this mutant MnSOD is compromised at normal body temperatures: thermal inactivation, predicted from the decrease in thermal stability, occurs with a theoretical half-life of only 3.2h at 37{degrees}C (1.4 h at 41 {degrees}C), compared with 3.1 years for native MnSOD. This prediction is supported by direct measurements: incubation at 41.7{degrees}C for 3 h has no effect on the activity of native MnSOD but completely inactivates mutant MnSOD. Rapid inactivation of Ile58Thr MnSOD at the elevated temperatures associated with fever and inflammation could provide an early advantage by killing infected cells, but also would increase superoxide-mediated oxidative damage and perhaps contribute to late-onset diseases. 63 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Enzymosomes with surface-exposed superoxide dismutase: in vivo behaviour and therapeutic activity in a model of adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Maria Manuela; Boerman, Otto C; Laverman, Peter; Corvo, Maria Luísa; Storm, Gert; Cruz, Maria Eugénia Meirinhos

    2007-02-12

    Acylated Superoxide Dismutase (Ac-SOD) enzymosomes, liposomal enzymatic systems expressing catalytic activity in the intact form, were previously characterized. The main scope of the present work was to investigate the biological behaviour of Ac-SOD inserted in the lipid bilayer of liposomes, in comparison with SOD located in the aqueous compartment of liposomes. Two types of liposomes were used: conventional liposomes presenting an unmodified external surface and long circulating liposomes coated with poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG). Liposomal formulations of Ac-SOD and SOD were prepared and labelled with indium-111 and their in vivo fate compared. Data obtained led us to the conclusion that, for liposomes coated with PEG the in vivo fate was not influenced by the insertion of Ac-SOD in the lipid bilayers. The potential therapeutic effect of Ac-SOD enzymosomes was compared with SOD liposomes in a rat model of adjuvant arthritis. A faster anti-inflammatory effect was observed for Ac-SOD enzymosomes by monitoring the volume of the inflamed paws. The present results allowed us to conclude that Ac-SOD enzymosomes are nano-carriers combining the advantages of expressing enzymatic activity in intact form and thus being able to exert therapeutic effect even before liposomes disruption, as well as acting as a sustained release of the enzyme. PMID:17169460

  5. Increased activities of both superoxide dismutase and catalase were indicators of acute depressive episodes in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2016-01-30

    Oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and S100B in patients with MDD in an acute phase, and evaluate the changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD), protein carbonyl content (PCC), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine after treatment (8-OHdG), catalase (CAT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and S100B. We consecutively enrolled 21 MDD inpatients in an acute phase and 40 healthy subjects. Serum oxidative stress markers were measured with assay kits. Serum SOD and CAT activities in MDD patients in an acute phase were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects, and serum PCC levels were significantly lower. The HAM-D scores had a significantly positive association with S100B levels. Eighteen depressed patients were followed up, and there was no significant difference among all of the markers after treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that increased activities of both SOD and CAT might be indicators of acute depressive episodes in MDD patients.

  6. Oxidative status, in vitro iron-induced lipid oxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in rhea meat.

    PubMed

    Terevinto, A; Ramos, A; Castroman, G; Cabrera, M C; Saadoun, A

    2010-04-01

    Rhea (Rhea americana) muscles Obturatorius medialis (OM) Iliotibialis lateralis (IL) and Iliofibularis (I), obtained from farmed animals, were evaluated regarding their oxidative/antioxidant status. The mean level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) expressed as malonaldehyde (MDA) content was of 0.84 mg MDA/kg wet tissue for the three muscles. TBARS level was significantly higher in IL than OM and I, with the two latter showing similar levels. The mean level of carbonyl proteins expressed as dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) was 1.59 nmol DNPH mg(-1). Carbonyl protein levels were significantly different (P<0.05) between the three muscles (IL>OM>I). Iron-induced TBARS generation was not significantly different between the three muscles at any time, nor for each muscle during the 5 h of the experiment. Superoxide dismutase activity in IL muscle was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in I muscle. However, the difference between IL and OM muscles was not significant. The differences between the three muscles became not significant when the results were expressed by mg of protein contained in the extract, instead by g of wet tissue. No differences were found for catalase (micromol of discomposed H(2)O(2) min(-1) g(-1) wet tissue or by mg of protein contained in the extract) and glutathione peroxidase (micromol ol of oxidized NADPH min(-1) g(-1) of wet tissue or by mg of protein contained in the extract) activities between the three muscles.

  7. Dual role of superoxide dismutase 2 induced in activated microglia: oxidative stress tolerance and convergence of inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Takemoto, Takuya; Itoh, Kouichi; Ishida, Atsuhiko; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2015-09-11

    Microglia are activated quickly in response to external pathogens or cell debris and clear these substances via the inflammatory response. However, excessive activation of microglia can be harmful to host cells due to the increased production of reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory cytokines. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is reportedly induced under various inflammatory conditions in the central nervous system. We herein demonstrated that activated microglia strongly express SOD2 and examined the role of SOD2, focusing on regulation of the microglial activity and the susceptibility of microglia to oxidative stress. When rat primary microglia were treated with LPS, poly(I:C), peptidoglycan, or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, respectively, the mRNA and protein levels of SOD2 largely increased. However, an increased expression of SOD2 was not detected in the primary neurons or astrocytes, indicating that SOD2 is specifically induced in microglia under inflammatory conditions. The activated microglia showed high tolerance to oxidative stress, whereas SOD2 knockdown conferred vulnerability to oxidative stress. Interestingly, the production of proinflammatory cytokines was increased in the activated microglia treated with SOD2 siRNA compared with that observed in the control siRNA-treated cells. Pretreatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitors, diphenylene iodonium and apocynin, decreased in not only reactive oxygen species generation but also the proinflammatory cytokine expression. Notably, SOD2 knockdown largely potentiated the nuclear factor κB activity in the activated microglia. Taken together, increased SOD2 conferred tolerance to oxidative stress in the microglia and decreased proinflammatory cytokine production by attenuating the nuclear factor κB activity. Therefore, SOD2 might regulate neuroinflammation by controlling the microglial activities.

  8. Manganese(II) induces cell division and increases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in an aging deinococcal culture

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, F.I.; Tan, S.T. )

    1990-04-01

    Addition of Mn(II) at 2.5 microM or higher to stationary-phase cultures of Deinococcus radiodurans IR was found to trigger at least three rounds of cell division. This Mn(II)-induced cell division (Mn-CD) did not occur when the culture was in the exponential or death phase. The Mn-CD effect produced daughter cells proportionally reduced in size, pigmentation, and radioresistance but proportionally increased in activity and amount of the oxygen toxicity defense enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, the concentration of an Mn-CD-induced protein was found to remain high throughout the entire Mn-CD phase. It was also found that an untreated culture exhibited a growth curve characterized by a very rapid exponential-stationary transition and that cells which had just reached the early stationary phase were synchronous. Our results suggest the presence of an Mn(II)-sensitive mechanism for controlling cell division. The Mn-CD effect appears to be specific to the cation Mn(II) and the radioresistant bacteria, deinococci.

  9. Alterations in superoxide dismutase activities, lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels in thinner inhaled rat lungs: relationship between histopathological properties.

    PubMed

    Ulakoğlu, E Z; Saygi, A; Gümüştaş, M K; Zor, E; Oztek, I; Kökoğlu, E

    1998-09-01

    Paint thinner has widespread use in industry. The use of thinner among children as a narcotic agent has become a social and health problem. There is some evidence that organic solvents may express their toxicity by the way of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cell damage. ROS has been shown to induce lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. This study examined peroxidative and histopathological changes in the rat lung, during 5 weeks of thinner inhalation. Significant increases were found in lipid peroxidation (MDA+4-DHA) levels related to the duration of inhalation. As opposed to increases in the lipid peroxidation levels, significant decreases in superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione levels were observed from the third inhalation week to the end of the fifth week. At the beginning of the inhalation slight inflammatory changes, intraalveolar and interstitial extravasation and oedema in lung parenchyma were noted. As the inhalation period extended, chronic inflammatory changes, alveolar epithelial proliferation, collapse, emphysematous changes and interstitial fibrosis in lung were detected. PMID:9782071

  10. A novel porphyrin derivative and its metal complexes: Electrochemical, photoluminescence, thermal, DNA-binding and superoxide dismutase activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purtaş, Savaş; Köse, Muhammet; Tümer, Ferhan; Tümer, Mehmet; Gölcü, Ayşegül; Ceyhan, Gökhan

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a new porphyrin-Schiff base ligand (L) and its metal complexes (Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(III), Pt(II) and Zn(II)) were synthesized. The starting material 4-ethyl-2,6-bis(hydroxymethyl)phenol (A) was synthesized from 4-ethylphenol and formaldehyde in the alkaline media. The compound (A) was then oxidized to the 4-ethyl-2,6-diformylphenol (B). The starting compounds (A) and (B) were obtained as single crystals. Structures of the compounds (A) and (B) were determined by the X-ray crytallography technique. The porphyrin ligand (L) and its metal complexes were characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic methods. Electronic, electrochemical and thermal properties of the synthesised compounds were investigated. Superoxide dismutase activities (SOD) of the porphyrin Schiff base complexes were investigated and results were discussed. Additionally, the DNA (fish sperm FSdsDNA) binding studies of the complexes were performed using UV-vis spectroscopy. Competitive studies with ethidium bromide (EB) show that the compounds interact efficiently with DNA through an intercalating way.

  11. Activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in people protractedly exposed to lead compounds.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Slawomir; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    Lead can modify pro/antioxidant status by influencing antioxidant enzymes. As the results of experimental researches are divergent, the purpose of this research was to evaluate the activity of enzymes that play a vital role in the defence against ROS in blood of people protractedly exposed to lead compounds. The study population included 172 healthy employees of zinc and lead steelworks. Workers exposed to lead (L) were divided into 2 groups: the first included workers with mean lead concentration (PbB) from 25-35 microl/dl (LL group), and the second group of high exposure (HL group)--with PbB over 35 microl/dl. The administration workers were the control group. There were no significant changes in activity of catalase and mitochondrial SOD in the study population. The activity of ZnCu-SOD significantly increased, both in plasma and erythrocytes, but first in plasma in the LL subgroup by about 42% (p=0.044), and then in erythrocytes in the HL subgroup by about 23% (p=0.012) when compared to the control group. Concentration of TBARS-MDA increased both in serum and erythrocytes. In people protractedly exposed to lead (mean 15 +/- 10 years), there is observed an increased activity of SOD in blood, which seems to be an adoptive mechanism against the raised amount of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by lead.

  12. Expression, subcellular localization, and enzyme activity of a recombinant human extra-cellular superoxide dismutase in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana L.).

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Youl; Kim, Eun Yu; Lee, Weontae; Kim, Tae-Yoon; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Human extracellular superoxide dismutase (hEC-SOD) is an enzyme that scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because of its antioxidant activity, hEC-SOD has been used as a therapeutic protein to treat skin disease and arthritis in mammalian systems. In this study, codon-optimized hEC-SOD was expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana L.) via a plant-based transient protein expression system. Plant expression binary vectors containing full-length hEC-SOD (f-hEC-SOD) and modified hEC-SOD (m-hEC-SOD), in which the signal peptide and heparin-binding domain were deleted, were constructed for the cytosolic-, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-, and chloroplast-localizations in tobacco leaf mesophyll cells. The results demonstrated that f-hEC-SOD was more efficiently expressed in the cytosolic fractions than in the ER or chloroplasts of tobacco cells. Our data further indicated that differently localized f-hEC-SOD and m-hEC-SOD displayed SOD enzyme activities, suggesting that the hEC-SODs expressed by plants may be functionally active. The f-hEC-SOD was expressed up to 3.8% of the total leaf soluble protein and the expression yield was calculated to be 313.7 μg f-hEC-SOD per g fresh weight of leaf. Overall, our results reveal that it was possible to express catalytically active hEC-SODs by means of a transient plant expression system in tobacco leaf cells. PMID:26611610

  13. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a Cucumis melo LC. extract rich in superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Lacan, Dominique; Kamate, Caroline; Coste, Philippe; Calenda, Alphonse; Mazier, Dominique; Conti, Marc; Dugas, Bernard

    2004-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo LC., Cucurbitaceae) extract (CME) selected for its high superoxide dismutase activity. Peritoneal macrophages were pre-activated in vitro with 300 IU of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and were then challenged in culture with IgGl/anti-IgG1 immune complexes (IgG1IC) in presence of various CME extracts. The subsequent production of free radicals (superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite) and of pro-(TNF-alpha) and anti-(IL-10) inflammatory cytokines was evaluated. The CME inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the production of superoxide anion with a maximal effect at 100 microg/ml. This inhibitory effect of CME appeared to be closely linked to the SOD activity because it was dramatically decreased after heat inactivation of the SOD activity (HI-CME). In addition, the CME inhibited the production of peroxynitrite strengthening the antioxidant properties of this CME rich in SOD activity. The production of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, namely TNF-alpha and IL-10, being conditioned by the redox status of macrophages we also evaluated the effect of CME and HI-CME on the IgG1IC-induced cytokine production. When the SOD activity was present in the CME it promoted the IgG1IC-induced production of IL-10 instead of TNF-alpha. These data demonstrated that, in addition to its antioxidant properties, the anti-inflammatory properties of the CME extract were principally related to its capacity to induce the production of IL-10 by peritoneal macrophages. The particular properties of wheat gliadin (Triticum vulgare, Poaceae) for the oral delivery of functional proteins led us to test it in a new nutraceutical formula based on its combination with the CME thus monitoring the SOD activity release during the gastro-intestinal digestive process. In these experiments C57BL/6 mice were supplemented orally everyday during 28

  14. Production, purification, and characterization of a novel cold-active superoxide dismutase from the Antarctic strain Aspergillus glaucus 363.

    PubMed

    Abrashev, Radoslav; Feller, Georges; Kostadinova, Nedelina; Krumova, Ekaterina; Alexieva, Zlatka; Gerginova, Maria; Spasova, Boryana; Miteva-Staleva, Jeni; Vassilev, Spassen; Angelova, Maria

    2016-05-01

    The Antarctic fungal strain Aspergillus glaucus 363 produces cold-active (CA) Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD). The strain contains at least one gene encoding Cu/Zn-SOD that exhibited high homology with the corresponding gene of other Aspergillus species. To our knowledge, this is the first nucleotide sequence of a CA Cu/Zn-SOD gene in fungi. An effective laboratory technology for A. glaucus SOD production in 3 L bioreactors was developed on the basis of transient cold-shock treatment. The temperature downshift to 10 °C caused 1.4-fold increase of specific SOD activity compared to unstressed culture. Maximum enzyme productivity was 64 × 10(3) U kg(-1) h(-1). Two SOD isoenzymes (Cu/Zn-SODI and Cu/Zn-SODII) were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The specific activity of the major isoenzyme, Cu/Zn-SODII, after Q-Sepharose chromatography was 4000 U mg(-1). The molecular mass of SODI (38 159 Da) and of SODII (15 835 Da) was determined by electrospray quadropole time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) mass spectrometry and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The presence of Cu and Zn were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Cu/Zn-SODII revealed a high degree of structural homology with Cu/Zn-SOD from other fungi, including Aspergillus species.

  15. Conjugation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase with succinylated gelatin: pharmacological activity and cell-lubricating function.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Y; Haruta, A; Imai, T; Otagiri, M; Maeda, H

    1993-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and succinylated gelatin (succinyl gelatin) were conjugated to improve in vivo pharmacological activity of SOD. Lysyl residues of human recombinant Cu,Zn-SOD were cross-linked with carboxyl residues of succinyl gelatin using 1-ethyl-3-[3- (dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. Various chemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of the conjugate were determined. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry and amino acid composition revealed that the conjugate was composed of about 2.9 mol of succinyl gelatin (with a mean molecular weight of 23,000) to 1 mol of SOD and exhibited an apparent mean molecular weight of 98,000. The conjugate retained almost 100% of its original activity on a molar basis. When the succinyl gelatin-conjugated Cu,Zn-SOD (Suc-gel-SOD) was administered intravenously to mice, its plasma half-life was prolonged to 29.7 min compared with 4.5 min for native SOD. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that intravenously administered Suc-gel-SOD showed a much greater accumulation than native SOD in the liver followed by in decreasing order the kidney, the lung, and the spleen; native SOD was excreted more rapidly into urine before it accumulated in tissues. Furthermore, Suc-gel-SOD exhibited lower antigenicity and immunogenicity than native SOD, and it had a better therapeutic effect against ischemic edema of the foot pad in mice. The conjugate was found to accumulate more than native SOD in the ischemic foot pad. A newly added property of the conjugate is cell-lubricating activity, which facilitated cell passage through micropores and reduced hemolysis during cell passage in vitro.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Boron influences immune and antioxidant responses by modulating hepatic superoxide dismutase activity under calcium deficit abiotic stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bhasker, T Vijay; Gowda, N K S; Mondal, S; Krishnamoorthy, P; Pal, D T; Mor, A; Bhat, S Karthik; Pattanaik, A K

    2016-07-01

    The influence of Boron (B) supplementation on immune and antioxidant status of rats with or without abiotic stress induced by dietary calcium (Ca) restriction was studied in a feeding trial of 90 days. Wistar strain rats (3-4 wk age, n=84) were divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) viz., normal-calcium (100%) basal diet alone (NC, control) or supplemented with B at 5 (NCB-5), 10 (NCB-10), 20 (NCB-20) and 40ppm (NCB-40) levels; low-calcium (50%) basal diet alone (LC) or supplemented with 40ppm B (LCB-40). After 75 days of experimental feeding, rats were challenged with intraperitoneal injection of sheep RBCs to assess their humoral immunity. At the end of the trial, cell-mediated immunity was assessed as foot pad reaction to sheep RBCs injected into the hind leg paws. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect blood for estimation of minerals and total antioxidant activity, and liver for superoxide dismutase gene expression analysis. Supplementation of graded levels of B (5, 10, 20 and 40ppm) as borax in NC diets significantly increased (P<0.01) the footpad thickness and serum total antioxidant activity, hepatic expression levels of both Cu-Zn SOD (SOD1) and Mn-SOD (SOD2) mRNAs. The erythrocytic SOD activity and humoral response did not differ significantly among the dietary groups. In Ca restricted groups, humoral immune response was significantly decreased (P<0.01) compared to control but increased (P<0.05) with 40ppm B supplementation. Serum levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) remained similar among the dietary groups, while the manganese (Mn) content was significantly decreased (P<0.01) with increased levels of dietary B. In conclusion, B supplementation increased the hepatic mRNA expression levels of both SOD isoenzymes, thereby improving the immune and antioxidant status. PMID:27259355

  17. Effect of high dietary zinc on plasma ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities in copper-depleted and repleted rats.

    PubMed

    Panemangalore, M; Bebe, F N

    1996-01-01

    The effect of moderately high dietary zinc (Zn) on the activities of plasma (PL) ceruloplasmin (CP), and PL and erythrocyte (RBC) copper (Cu), Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in weanling rats fed Cu-deficient (DEF; < 1 mg Cu/kg), marginal (MAR; 2 mg Cu/kg), or control (CON; 5 mg Cu/kg) copper diets containing normal or high Zn (HZn; 60 mg/kg) for 4 wk and supplemented with oral Cu (CuS; 5 mg/L) in drinking water for 0, 1, 3, or 7 d. PL Cu decreased (67% compared to CON; p < or = 0.05) in the DEF and increased to control level after 3 d of CuS; increased in the MAR group after 1 d of CuS. HZn reduced overall PL Cu by 27% in all groups, but did not alter the linear increase in PL Cu between 0 and 3 d of Cu S. PL CP activity altered concomitantly with PL Cu levels: The time course of increase in CP activity after 0-3 d of CuS was not influenced by HZn in the diet and CP declined in the DEF group by 92%. There was no correlation between dietary Cu level and PL CP. PL SOD activity decreased by 46% (p < or = .05) in the DEF group, increased to control activity after 1 d of CuS and declined slightly after 7 d; MAR diet did not alter PL SOD. HZn diet increased PL SOD activity in all groups by 150%, reduced activity in the DEF and MAR groups by 65 and 37% and delayed the recovery of PL SOD after CuS. RBC SOD declined in the DEF and MAR groups by 56 and 33% (p < or = 0.05) and did not respond to CuS; HZn diet did not influence RBC SOD activity. These data indicate that moderately high Zn in the diet reduces PL Cu, but not PL CP activity or the recovery of PL Cu or CP activity after oral CuS of Cu-deficient rats, modifies the response of PL SOD to dietary Cu, but does not influence RBC SOD activity.

  18. Superoxide dismutase 2 knockdown leads to defects in locomotor activity, sensitivity to paraquat, and increased cuticle pigmentation in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Tabunoki, Hiroko; Gorman, Maureen J; Dittmer, Neal T; Kanost, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Insects can rapidly adapt to environmental changes through physiological responses. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is widely used as a model insect species. However, the stress-response system of this species remains unclear. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is a crucial antioxidative enzyme that is found in mitochondria. T. castaneum SOD2 (TcSOD2) is composed of 215 amino acids, and has an iron/manganese superoxide dismutase domain. qRT-PCR experiments revealed that TcSOD2 was present through all developmental stages. To evaluate TcSOD2 function in T. castaneum, we performed RNAi and also assessed the phenotype and antioxidative tolerance of the knockdown of TcSOD2 by exposing larvae to paraquat. The administration of paraquat resulted in significantly higher 24-h mortality in TcSOD2 knockdown larval groups than in the control groups. The TcSOD2 knockdown adults moved significantly more slowly, had lower ATP content, and exhibited a different body color from the control groups. We found that TcSOD2 dsRNA treatment in larvae resulted in increased expression of tyrosinase and laccase2 mRNA after 10 days. This is the first report showing that TcSOD2 has an antioxidative function and demonstrates that T. castaneum may use an alternative antioxidative system when the SOD2-based system fails. PMID:27387523

  19. Superoxide dismutase 2 knockdown leads to defects in locomotor activity, sensitivity to paraquat, and increased cuticle pigmentation in Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Tabunoki, Hiroko; Gorman, Maureen J.; Dittmer, Neal T.; Kanost, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Insects can rapidly adapt to environmental changes through physiological responses. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is widely used as a model insect species. However, the stress–response system of this species remains unclear. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is a crucial antioxidative enzyme that is found in mitochondria. T. castaneum SOD2 (TcSOD2) is composed of 215 amino acids, and has an iron/manganese superoxide dismutase domain. qRT-PCR experiments revealed that TcSOD2 was present through all developmental stages. To evaluate TcSOD2 function in T. castaneum, we performed RNAi and also assessed the phenotype and antioxidative tolerance of the knockdown of TcSOD2 by exposing larvae to paraquat. The administration of paraquat resulted in significantly higher 24-h mortality in TcSOD2 knockdown larval groups than in the control groups. The TcSOD2 knockdown adults moved significantly more slowly, had lower ATP content, and exhibited a different body color from the control groups. We found that TcSOD2 dsRNA treatment in larvae resulted in increased expression of tyrosinase and laccase2 mRNA after 10 days. This is the first report showing that TcSOD2 has an antioxidative function and demonstrates that T. castaneum may use an alternative antioxidative system when the SOD2-based system fails. PMID:27387523

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5)-mediated signalling cascade regulates expression of iron superoxide dismutase gene in Arabidopsis under salinity stress

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yu; Chen, Wei-hua; Jia, Wensuo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are involved in plant adaptive responses to biotic and abiotic stresses but the upstream signalling process that modulates their expression is not clear. Expression of two iron SODs, FSD2 and FSD3, was significantly increased in Arabidopsis in response to NaCl treatment but blocked in transgenic MKK5-RNAi plant, mkk5. Using an assay system for transient expression in protoplasts, it was found that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5) was also activated in response to salt stress. Overexpression of MKK5 in wild-type plants enhanced their tolerance to salt treatments, while mkk5 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress in germination on salt-containing media. Moreover, another kinase, MPK6, was also involved in the MKK5-mediated iron superoxide dismutase (FSD) signalling pathway in salt stress. The kinase activity of MPK6 was totally turned off in mkk5, whereas the activity of MPK3 was only partially blocked. MKK5 interacted with the MEKK1 protein that was also involved in the salt-induced FSD signalling pathway. These data suggest that salt-induced FSD2 and FSD3 expressions are influenced by MEKK1 via MKK5–MPK6-coupled signalling. This MAP kinase cascade (MEKK1, MKK5, and MPK6) mediates the salt-induced expression of iron superoxide dismutases. PMID:26136265

  1. Cupric yersiniabactin is a virulence-associated superoxide dismutase mimic.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Kaveri S; Hung, Chia S; Giblin, Daryl E; Urushidani, Saki; Austin, Anthony M; Dinauer, Mary C; Henderson, Jeffrey P

    2014-02-21

    Many Gram-negative bacteria interact with extracellular metal ions by expressing one or more siderophore types. Among these, the virulence-associated siderophore yersiniabactin (Ybt) is an avid copper chelator, forming stable cupric (Cu(II)-Ybt) complexes that are detectable in infected patients. Here we show that Ybt-expressing E. coli are protected from intracellular killing within copper-replete phagocytic cells. This survival advantage is highly dependent upon the phagocyte respiratory burst, during which superoxide is generated by the NADPH oxidase complex. Chemical fractionation links this phenotype to a previously unappreciated superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of Cu(II)-Ybt. Unlike previously described synthetic copper-salicylate (Cu(II)-SA) SOD mimics, the salicylate-based natural product Cu(II)-Ybt retains catalytic activity at physiologically plausible protein concentrations. These results reveal a new virulence-associated adaptation based upon spontaneous assembly of a non-protein catalyst. PMID:24283977

  2. Cupric Yersiniabactin Is a Virulence-Associated Superoxide Dismutase Mimic

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria interact with extracellular metal ions by expressing one or more siderophore types. Among these, the virulence-associated siderophore yersiniabactin (Ybt) is an avid copper chelator, forming stable cupric (Cu(II)-Ybt) complexes that are detectable in infected patients. Here we show that Ybt-expressing E. coli are protected from intracellular killing within copper-replete phagocytic cells. This survival advantage is highly dependent upon the phagocyte respiratory burst, during which superoxide is generated by the NADPH oxidase complex. Chemical fractionation links this phenotype to a previously unappreciated superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of Cu(II)-Ybt. Unlike previously described synthetic copper-salicylate (Cu(II)-SA) SOD mimics, the salicylate-based natural product Cu(II)-Ybt retains catalytic activity at physiologically plausible protein concentrations. These results reveal a new virulence-associated adaptation based upon spontaneous assembly of a non-protein catalyst. PMID:24283977

  3. Regulation of superoxide dismutase synthesis in Escherichia coli: glucose effect.

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa Hassan, H; Fridovich, I

    1977-01-01

    Growth of Escherichia coli, based upon the fermentation of glucose, is associated with a low intracellular level of superoxide dismutase. Exhaustion of glucose, or depression of the pH due to accumulation of organic acids, causes these organisms to then obtain energy from the oxidative degradation of other substances present in a rich medium. This shift in metabolism is associated with a marked increase in the rate of synthesis of superoxide dismutase. Depression of the synthesis of superoxide dismutase by glucose is not due to catabolite repression since it is not eliminated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and since alpha-methyl glucoside does not mimic the effect of glucose. Moreover, glucose itself no longer depresses superoxide dismutase synthesis when the pH has fallen low enough to cause a shift to a non-fermentative metabolism. It appears likely that superoxide dismutase is controlled directly or indirectly by the intracellular level of O2- and that glucose depressed the level of this enzyme because glucose metabolism is not associated with as rapid a production of O2- as is the metabolsim of many other substances. In accord with this view is the observation that paraquat, which can increase the rate of production of O2- by redox cycling, caused a rapid and marked increase in superoxide dismutase. PMID:21164

  4. Iron, copper, and manganese complexes with in vitro superoxide dismutase and/or catalase activities that keep Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells alive under severe oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thales P; Fernandes, Christiane; Melo, Karen V; Ferreira, Sarah S; Lessa, Josane A; Franco, Roberto W A; Schenk, Gerhard; Pereira, Marcos D; Horn, Adolfo

    2015-03-01

    Due to their aerobic lifestyle, eukaryotic organisms have evolved different strategies to overcome oxidative stress. The recruitment of some specific metalloenzymes such as superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases (CATs) is of great importance for eliminating harmful reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion). Using the ligand HPClNOL {1-[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]-3-chloropropan-2-ol}, we have synthesized three coordination compounds containing iron(III), copper(II), and manganese(II) ions, which are also present in the active site of the above-noted metalloenzymes. These compounds were evaluated as SOD and CAT mimetics. The manganese and iron compounds showed both SOD and CAT activities, while copper showed only SOD activity. The copper and manganese in vitro SOD activities are very similar (IC50~0.4 μmol dm(-3)) and about 70-fold higher than those of iron. The manganese compound showed CAT activity higher than that of the iron species. Analyzing their capacity to protect Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress (H2O2 and the O2(•-) radical), we observed that all compounds act as antioxidants, increasing the resistance of yeast cells mainly due to a reduction of lipid oxidation. Especially for the iron compound, the data indicate complete protection when wild-type cells were exposed to H2O2 or O2(•-) species. Interestingly, these compounds also compensate for both superoxide dismutase and catalase deficiencies; their antioxidant activity is metal ion dependent, in the order iron(III)>copper(II)>manganese(II). The protection mechanism employed by the complexes proved to be independent of the activation of transcription factors (such as Yap1, Hsf1, Msn2/Msn4) and protein synthesis. There is no direct relation between the in vitro and the in vivo antioxidant activities. PMID:25511255

  5. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase: Growth Promoter or Tumor Suppressor?

    PubMed Central

    Laukkanen, Mikko O.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) gene transfer to tissue damage results in increased healing, increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration. At molecular level, in vivo SOD3 overexpression reduces superoxide anion (O2−) concentration and increases mitogen kinase activation suggesting that SOD3 could have life-supporting characteristics. The hypothesis is further strengthened by the observations showing significantly increased mortality in conditional knockout mice. However, in cancer SOD3 has been shown to either increase or decrease cell proliferation and survival depending on the model system used, indicating that SOD3-derived growth mechanisms are not completely understood. In this paper, the author reviews the main discoveries in SOD3-dependent growth regulation and signal transduction. PMID:27293512

  6. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase: Growth Promoter or Tumor Suppressor?

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Mikko O

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) gene transfer to tissue damage results in increased healing, increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration. At molecular level, in vivo SOD3 overexpression reduces superoxide anion (O2 (-)) concentration and increases mitogen kinase activation suggesting that SOD3 could have life-supporting characteristics. The hypothesis is further strengthened by the observations showing significantly increased mortality in conditional knockout mice. However, in cancer SOD3 has been shown to either increase or decrease cell proliferation and survival depending on the model system used, indicating that SOD3-derived growth mechanisms are not completely understood. In this paper, the author reviews the main discoveries in SOD3-dependent growth regulation and signal transduction. PMID:27293512

  7. Superoxide Dismutase and Oxygen Toxicity in a Eukaryote

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Eugene M.; Goscin, Stephen A.; Fridovich, Irwin

    1974-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus contained 6.5 times more superoxide dismutase and 2.3 times more catalase when grown under 100% O2 than when grown anaerobically. Growth under oxygen caused equal increases in both the cyanide-sensitive and the cyanide-insensitive superoxide dismutases of this organism. Experience with other eukaryotes has shown that cyanide sensitivity is a property of the cupro-zinc superoxide dismutase of the cytosol, whereas cyanide insensitivity is a property of the corresponding mangani-enzyme found in mitochondria. Cu2+, which has been shown to increase the radioresistance of yeast, also caused an increase of both of the superoxide dismutases of S. cerevisiae. Yeast which had been grown under 1 atm of O2 were more resistant toward the lethal effects of 20 atm of O2 than were yeast which had been grown in the absence of O2. Escherichia coli K-12 his− responded to growth under 1 atm of O2 by increasing its content of catalase and of peroxidase, but not of superoxide dismutase. This contrasts with E. coli B, which was previously shown to respond to O2 by a striking increase in superoxide dismutase. E. coli K-12 his− did not gain resistance toward 20 atm of O2 because of having been grown under 1 atm of O2. Once again, this contrasts with the behavior of E. coli B. These data indicate that, in both prokaryotes and in eukaryotes, superoxide dismutase is an important component of the defenses against oxygen toxicity. PMID:4590469

  8. Scavenging of superoxide anions by lecithinized superoxide dismutase in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Tsutomu; Shibui, Misaki; Hoshi, Takaya; Mizushima, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase covalently bound to four lecithin molecules (PC-SOD) has been found to have beneficial therapeutic effects in animal models of various diseases. However, the mechanism underlying these improved therapeutic effects has not yet been elucidated. It has previously been shown that PC-SOD localizes on the plasma membrane and in the lysosomes of cells. In this study, we evaluated the superoxide anion-scavenging activity of PC-SOD in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Compared to SOD, PC-SOD had only 17% scavenging activity in cell-free systems. Nevertheless, by analyzing enzyme activities in cell suspensions containing PC-SOD or SOD, PC-SOD and SOD showed almost equal activity for scavenging extracellular superoxide anions produced by HL-60 cells. Furthermore, the activity for scavenging extracellular superoxide anions increased with increased amount of PC-SOD on the plasma membrane. Moreover, PC-SOD exhibited no obvious inhibitory effect on the scavenging of intracellular superoxide anions. These results suggested that the association of PC-SOD with the plasma membrane plays a key role in its beneficial therapeutic effects. Thus, this finding may provide a rationale for selecting target diseases for PC-SOD treatment.

  9. Superoxide Dismutase Mimics: Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Rebouças, Júlio S.; Spasojević, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Oxidative stress has become widely viewed as an underlying condition in a number of diseases, such as ischemia–reperfusion disorders, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, and diabetes. Thus, natural and synthetic antioxidants have been actively sought. Superoxide dismutase is a first line of defense against oxidative stress under physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, the development of therapeutics aimed at mimicking superoxide dismutase was a natural maneuver. Metalloporphyrins, as well as Mn cyclic polyamines, Mn salen derivatives and nitroxides were all originally developed as SOD mimics. The same thermodynamic and electrostatic properties that make them potent SOD mimics may allow them to reduce other reactive species such as peroxynitrite, peroxynitrite-derived CO3·−, peroxyl radical, and less efficiently H2O2. By doing so SOD mimics can decrease both primary and secondary oxidative events, the latter arising from the inhibition of cellular transcriptional activity. To better judge the therapeutic potential and the advantage of one over the other type of compound, comparative studies of different classes of drugs in the same cellular and/or animal models are needed. We here provide a comprehensive overview of the chemical properties and some in vivo effects observed with various classes of compounds with a special emphasis on porphyrin-based compounds. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 877–918. PMID:20095865

  10. Catalase and Superoxide Dismutase of Root-Colonizing Saprophytic Fluorescent Pseudomonads †

    PubMed Central

    Katsuwon, Jirasak; Anderson, Anne J.

    1990-01-01

    Root-colonizing, saprophytic fluorescent pseudomonads of the Pseudomonas putida-P. fluorescens group express similar levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase activities during growth on a sucrose- and amino acid-rich medium. Increased specific activities of catalase but not superoxide dismutase were observed during growth of these bacteria on components washed from root surfaces. The specific activities of both enzymes were also regulated during contact of these bacteria with intact bean roots. Increased superoxide dismutase and decreased catalase activities were observed rapidly, by 10 min upon inoculation of cells onto intact bean roots. Catalase specific activity increased with time to peak at 12 h before declining. By 48 h, the cells displayed this low catalase but maintained high superoxide dismutase specific activities. Catalase with a low specific activity and a high superoxide dismutase activity also were present in extracts of cells obtained from 7-day-old roots colonized from inoculum applied to seed. This specific activity of superoxide dismutase of root-contacted cells was about fourfold-higher in comparison to cells grown on rich medium, whereas the specific activity for catalase was reduced about fivefold. A single catalase isozyme, isozyme A, and one isozyme of superoxide dismutase, isozyme 1, were detected during growth of the bacteria on root surface components and during exposure of cells to intact bean roots for 1 h. An additional catalase, isozyme B, was detected from bacteria after exposure to the intact bean roots for 12 h. Catalase isozyme A and superoxide dismutase isozyme 1 were located in the cytoplasm and catalase band B was located in the membrane of P. putida. Images PMID:16348360

  11. Superoxide dismutase amplifies organismal sensitivity to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.D.; Meshnick, S.R.; Eaton, J.W.

    1989-02-15

    Although increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity is often associated with enhanced resistance of cells and organisms to oxidant challenges, few direct tests of the antioxidant importance of this enzyme have been carried out. To assess the importance of SOD in defending against gamma-radiation, we employed Escherichia coli with deficient, normal, and super-normal enzyme activities. Surprisingly, the radiation sensitivity of E. coli actually increases as bacterial SOD activity increases. Elevated intracellular SOD activity sensitizes E. coli to radiation-induced mortality, whereas SOD-deficient bacteria show normal or decreased radiosensitivity. Toxic effects of activated oxygen species are involved in this phenomenon; bacterial SOD activity has no effect on radiation sensitivity under anaerobic conditions or on the lethality of other, non-oxygen-dependent, toxins such as ultraviolet radiation.

  12. Purification of human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase by copper chelate affinity chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Weslake, R.J.; Chesney, S.L.; Petkau, A.; Friesen, A.D.

    1986-05-15

    Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase was isolated from human red blood cell hemolysate by DEAE-Sepharose and copper chelate affinity chromatography. Enzyme preparations had specific activities ranging from 3400 to 3800 U/mg and recoveries were approximately 60% of the enzyme activity in the lysate. Copper chelate affinity chromatography resulted in a purification factor of about 60-fold. The homogeneity of the superoxide dismutase preparation was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis, analytical gel filtration chromatography, and isoelectric focusing.

  13. Differences in the activity of superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase and Cu-Zn content in the fruits of Gordal and Manzanilla olive varieties.

    PubMed

    Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Jarén-Galán, Manuel; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel

    2002-01-01

    Activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) as well as Cu-Zn content have been monitored during the thirteen weeks growth of both Gordal and Manzanilla olive variety fruits. These metalloenzymes, with Cu and Zn in the prostetic group, are involved in controlling the redox balance in the chloroplast environment. The results indicated that, under similar phenological and environmental conditions, there are periodic peaks of SOD activity in both varieties, followed by fluctuations in the copper content of the fruit. This was interpreted as a common and simultaneous response to situations of oxidative stress, and this response was more intense in the variety Gordal. The enzyme PPO showed an activity peak at start of growth and then practically disappeared. Thus, its activity cannot be correlated with situations of stress or with changes of Cu and Zn in the fruit. PMID:11926522

  14. Therapeutic effect of lecithinized superoxide dismutase on pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Tanaka, Yuta; Miyazaki, Yuri; Namba, Takushi; Sato, Keizo; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu; Azuma, Arata; Mizushima, Tohru

    2011-09-01

    No medication exists that clearly improves the mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Oxidative molecules, in particular superoxide anions, play important roles in the COPD-associated abnormal inflammatory response and pulmonary emphysema, which arises because of an imbalance in proteases and antiproteases and increased apoptosis. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide anions. Lecithinized human Cu/Zn- SOD (PC-SOD) has overcome a number of the clinical limitations of SOD, including low tissue affinity and low stability in plasma. In this study, we examine the effect of PC-SOD on elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema, an animal model of COPD. The severity of the pulmonary inflammatory response and emphysema in mice was assessed by various criteria, such as the number of leukocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the enlargement of airspace. Not only intravenous administration but also inhalation of PC-SOD suppressed elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation, emphysema, and dysfunction. Inhalation of PC-SOD suppressed the elastase-induced increase in the pulmonary level of superoxide anions and apoptosis. Inhalation of PC-SOD also suppressed elastase-induced activation of proteases and decreased in the level of antiproteases and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We also found that inhalation of PC-SOD suppressed cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation. The results suggest that PC-SOD protects against pulmonary emphysema by decreasing the pulmonary level of superoxide anions, resulting in the inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis and amelioration of the protease/antiprotease imbalance. We propose that inhalation of PC-SOD would be therapeutically beneficial for COPD.

  15. Effect of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid on activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione level in selected organs of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Szaroma, Waldemar; Dziubek, K; Kapusta, E

    2014-09-01

    One of the major classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors is the class of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Receptor activation recruits, via calcium signal transduction mechanisms which play important roles in oxidative metabolism, mitochondrial free radical production and occurrence of other mitochondrial factors which potentially contribute to excitotoxicity and neuronal death. In the present study, the effects of stimulation of NMDARs by applying N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) in the brain, liver, kidneys and pancreas on change of the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and in the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH) in blood, brain, liver and kidneys has been investigated. Statistically significant decrease of the activity of SOD, CAT and GSHPx and in the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH) was found in the examined organs after administration of NMDA, an agonist of NMDA receptors, demonstrating that NMDA administration compromises the antioxidant status in the investigated organs of the mouse.

  16. Metalloantibiotic Mn(II)-bacitracin complex mimicking manganese superoxide dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Piacham, Theeraphon; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Yainoy, Sakda; Ye Lei; Buelow, Leif; Prachayasittikul, Virapong . E-mail: mtvpr@mucc.mahidol.ac.th

    2006-03-24

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of various metallobacitracin complexes were evaluated using the riboflavin-methionine-nitro blue tetrazolium assay. The radical scavenging activity of various metallobacitracin complexes was shown to be higher than those of the negative controls, e.g., free transition metal ions and metal-free bacitracin. The SOD activity of the complex was found to be in the order of Mn(II) > Cu(II) > Co(II) > Ni(II). Furthermore, the effect of bacitracin and their complexation to metals on various microorganisms was assessed by antibiotic susceptibility testing. Moreover, molecular modeling and quantum chemical calculation of the metallobacitracin complex was performed to evaluate the correlation of electrostatic charge of transition metal ions on the SOD activity.

  17. Improvement of the CuZn-superoxide dismutase enzyme activity and stability as a therapeutic agent by modification with polysialic acids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian Rong; Lin, Yi; Zheng, Zhi Yong; Lin, Chi Chung; Zhan, Xiao Bei; Shen, Ying Qiang

    2010-12-01

    The optimal process for the polysialylation reaction was as follows: polysialicacid (PSA) was activated by periodate oxidation, then coupled to CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD) with a PSA:SOD molar ratio of 40:1 for 24 h. The resulting polysialylated protein contained 3.9 ± 0.3 mol PSA per mol SOD. SDS-PAGE and atomic force microscopy revealed that the molecular weight of polysialylated SOD was about 90-100 kDa. The average size was 10-15 nm, about four-fold of the native enzyme. Compared to the native enzyme, the activity and stability of the polysialylated SOD, as well as resistance to heat, acid, alkali and proteases present in human digestive system such as pepsin and trypsin, were improved significantly as therapeutic agent.

  18. A wheat superoxide dismutase gene TaSOD2 enhances salt resistance through modulating redox homeostasis by promoting NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengcheng; Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Zhen; Yin, Xunhao; Xing, Tian; Xia, Guangmin

    2016-05-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is believed to enhance abiotic stress resistance by converting superoxide radical (O2 (-)) to H2O2 to lower ROS level and maintain redox homeostasis. ROS level is controlled via biphasic machinery of ROS production and scavenging. However, whether the role of SOD in abiotic stress resistance is achieved through influencing the biophasic machinery is not well documented. Here, we identified a wheat copper-zinc (Cu/Zn) SOD gene, TaSOD2, who was responsive to NaCl and H2O2. TaSOD2 overexpression in wheat and Arabidopsis elevated SOD activities, and enhanced the resistance to salt and oxidative stress. TaSOD2 overexpression reduced H2O2 level but accelerated O2 (-) accumulation. Further, it improved the activities of H2O2 metabolic enzymes, elevated the activity of O2 (-) producer NADPH oxidase (NOX), and promoted the transcription of NOX encoding genes. The inhibition of NOX activity and the mutation of NOX encoding genes both abolished the salt resistance of TaSOD2 overexpression lines. These data indicate that Cu/Zn SOD enhances salt resistance, which is accomplished through modulating redox homeostasis via promoting NOX activity. PMID:26869262

  19. A wheat superoxide dismutase gene TaSOD2 enhances salt resistance through modulating redox homeostasis by promoting NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengcheng; Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Zhen; Yin, Xunhao; Xing, Tian; Xia, Guangmin

    2016-05-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is believed to enhance abiotic stress resistance by converting superoxide radical (O2 (-)) to H2O2 to lower ROS level and maintain redox homeostasis. ROS level is controlled via biphasic machinery of ROS production and scavenging. However, whether the role of SOD in abiotic stress resistance is achieved through influencing the biophasic machinery is not well documented. Here, we identified a wheat copper-zinc (Cu/Zn) SOD gene, TaSOD2, who was responsive to NaCl and H2O2. TaSOD2 overexpression in wheat and Arabidopsis elevated SOD activities, and enhanced the resistance to salt and oxidative stress. TaSOD2 overexpression reduced H2O2 level but accelerated O2 (-) accumulation. Further, it improved the activities of H2O2 metabolic enzymes, elevated the activity of O2 (-) producer NADPH oxidase (NOX), and promoted the transcription of NOX encoding genes. The inhibition of NOX activity and the mutation of NOX encoding genes both abolished the salt resistance of TaSOD2 overexpression lines. These data indicate that Cu/Zn SOD enhances salt resistance, which is accomplished through modulating redox homeostasis via promoting NOX activity.

  20. A novel superoxide dismutase from Cicer arietinum L. seedlings: isolation, purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sushant; Singh, Abhay Narayan; Verma, Anil; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Superoxide dismutase is an important enzyme with various therapeutic applications. Search of a new source of superoxide dismutase with novel properties has significant importance. The current work reports purification of a novel superoxide dismutase enzyme with unique characteristics. A copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) was purified and characterized from Cicer arietinum L. seedlings germinated under aluminium (Al+3) stress. The specific activity of purified protein was 158 units/mg with 28 fold purification. The superoxide dismutase is a homodimeric protein with approx subunit molecular weight of 33.27 kDa. The enzyme is identified as Cu-Zn category of superoxide dismutase, reflected by H2O2 induced inhibition of in-gel activity and presence of quantifiable copper and zinc ions. The optimum pH range for purified Cu-Zn SOD activity was observed within 6.5-8.5 (highest at pH 8.0) and the pH stability was in the range of 6.0-8.5. The enzyme was more stable at low temperature (below 30°C) and the Km of purified Cu-Zn SOD for riboflavin as substrate was 10.16 ± 2.5 µM. The N-terminal amino acid sequence showed homology at conserved residues with other plant Cu-Zn SODs.

  1. Biomimetic superoxide dismutase stabilized by photopolymerization for superoxide anions biosensing and cell monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling; Liu, Suli; Tu, Wenwen; Zhang, Zengsong; Bao, Jianchun; Dai, Zhihui

    2014-05-20

    Photopolymerization strategy, as one of the immobilization methods, has attracted considerable interest because of some advantages, such as easy operation, harmlessness to the biomolecules, and long storage stability. (E)-4-(4-Formylstyryl) pyridine (formylstyrylpyridine) was prepared through Heck reaction and used as a photopolymer material to immobilize biomimetic superoxide dismutase under ultraviolet irradiation (UV) irradiation in a short time. The styrylpyridinium moiety of Formylstyrylpyridine was photoreactive and formed a dimer under UV irradiation. Mn2P2O7 multilayer sheet, a novel superoxide dismutase mimic, was synthesized. The formed photopolymer can immobilize Mn2P2O7 firmly under UV irradiation. On the basis of high catalytic activity of Mn2P2O7 biomimetic enzyme and long-term stability of Mn2P2O7-formylstyrylpyridine film, after introducing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), a novel electrochemical biosensing platform called MWCNTs/Mn2P2O7-formylstyrylpyridine for superoxide anion (O2(•-)) detection was constructed. The biosensor displayed good performance for O2(•-) detection and provided a reliable platform to adhere living cells directly on the modified electrode surface. Therefore, the biosensor was successfully applied to vitro determination of O2(•-) released from living cells, which had a promising prospect for living cells monitoring and diagnosis of reactive oxygen species-related diseases.

  2. Superoxide Dismutase and Oxygen Metabolism in Streptococcus faecalis and Comparisons with Other Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Larry; Malinowski, Douglas P.; Fridovich, Irwin

    1978-01-01

    Streptococcus faecalis contains a single superoxide dismutase that has been purified to homogeneity with a 55% yield. This enzyme has a molecular weight of 45,000 and is composed of two subunits of equal size. It contains 1.3 atoms of manganese per molecule. Its amino acid composition was determined and is compared with that for the superoxide dismutases from Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, and Mycobacterium lepraemurium. When used as an antigen in rabbits, the S. faecalis enzyme elicited the formation of a precipitating and inhibiting antibody. This antibody cross-reacted with the superoxide dismutase present in another strain of S. faecalis, but neither inhibited nor precipitated the superoxide dismutases in a wide range of other bacteria, including several other streptococci, such as S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, and S. lactis. The inhibiting antibody was used to suppress the superoxide dismutase activity present in cell extracts of S. faecalis and thus allow the demonstration that 17% of the total oxygen consumption by such extracts, in the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, was associated with the production of O2−. A variety of bacterial species were surveyed for their content of superoxide dismutases. The iron-containing enzyme was distinguished from the manganese-containing enzyme through the use of H2O2, which inactivates the former more readily than the latter. Some of the bacteria appeared to contain only the iron enzyme, others only the manganese enzyme, and still others both. Indeed, some had multiple, electrophoretically distinct superoxide dismutases in both categories. There was no discernible absolute relationship between the types of superoxide dismutases in a particular organism and their Gram-stain reaction. Images PMID:206536

  3. Metabolic alterations in yeast lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Sehati, Sadaf; Clement, Matthew H S; Martins, Jake; Xu, Lei; Longo, Valter D; Valentine, Joan S; Gralla, Edith B

    2011-06-01

    Yeast lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (sod1∆) have a number of oxygen-dependent defects, including auxotrophies for lysine and methionine and sensitivity to oxygen. Here we report additional defects in metabolic regulation. Under standard growth conditions with glucose as the carbon source, yeast undergo glucose repression in which mitochondrial respiration is deemphasized, energy is mainly derived from glycolysis, and ethanol is produced. When glucose is depleted, the diauxic shift is activated, in which mitochondrial respiration is reemphasized and stress resistance increases. We find that both of these programs are adversely affected by the lack of Sod1p. Key events in the diauxic shift do not occur and sod1∆ cells do not utilize ethanol and stop growing. The ability to shift to growth on ethanol is gradually lost as time in culture increases. In early stages of culture, sod1∆ cells consume more oxygen and have more mitochondrial mass than wild-type cells, indicating that glucose repression is not fully activated. These changes are at least partially dependent on the activity of the Hap2,3,4,5 complex, as indicated by CYC1-lacZ reporter assays. These changes may indicate a role for superoxide in metabolic signaling and regulation and/or a role for glucose derepression in defense against oxidative stress.

  4. Active Fe-Containing Superoxide Dismutase and Abundant sodF mRNA in Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria) after Years of Desiccation

    PubMed Central

    Shirkey, Breanne; Kovarcik, Don Paul; Wright, Deborah J.; Wilmoth, Gabriel; Prickett, Todd F.; Helm, Richard F.; Gregory, Eugene M.; Potts, Malcolm

    2000-01-01

    Active Fe-superoxide dismutase (SodF) was the third most abundant soluble protein in cells of Nostoc commune CHEN/1986 after prolonged (13 years) storage in the desiccated state. Upon rehydration, Fe-containing superoxide disumutase (Fe-SOD) was released and the activity was distributed between rehydrating cells and the extracellular fluid. The 21-kDa Fe-SOD polypeptide was purified, the N terminus was sequenced, and the data were used to isolate sodF from the clonal isolate N. commune DRH1. sodF encodes an open reading frame of 200 codons and is expressed as a monocistronic transcript (of approximately 750 bases) from a region of the genome which includes genes involved in nucleic acid synthesis and repair, including dipyrimidine photolyase (phr) and cytidylate monophosphate kinase (panC). sodF mRNA was abundant and stable in cells after long-term desiccation. Upon rehydration of desiccated cells, there was a turnover of sodF mRNA within 15 min and then a rise in the mRNA pool to control levels (quantity of sodF mRNA in cells in late logarithmic phase of growth) over approximately 24 h. The extensive extracellular polysaccharide (glycan) of N. commune DRH1 generated superoxide radicals upon exposure to UV-A or -B irradiation, and these were scavenged by SOD. Despite demonstrated roles for the glycan in the desiccation tolerance of N. commune, it may in fact be a significant source of damaging free radicals in vivo. It is proposed that the high levels of SodF in N. commune, and release of the enzyme from dried cells upon rehydration, counter the effects of oxidative stress imposed by multiple cycles of desiccation and rehydration during UV-A or -B irradiation in situ. PMID:10613879

  5. Thioredoxin Activates MKK4-NFκB Pathway in a Redox-dependent Manner to Control Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kundumani-Sridharan, Venkatesh; Subramani, Jaganathan; Das, Kumuda C

    2015-07-10

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) is activated via phosphorylation of Ser-257 and Thr-261 by upstream MAP3Ks and activates JNK and p38 MAPKs in response to cellular stress. We show that thioredoxin (Trx), a cellular redox protein, activates MKK4 via Cys-246 and Cys-266 residues as mutation of these residues renders MKK4 insensitive to phosphorylation by MAP3Ks, TNFα, or Trx. MKK4 is activated in vitro by reduced Trx but not oxidized Trx in the absence of an upstream kinase, suggesting that autophosphorylation of this protein occurs due to reduction of Cys-246 and Cys-266 by Trx. Additionally, mutation of Cys-246 and Cys-266 resulted in loss of kinase activity suggesting that the redox state of Cys-246 and Cys-266 is a critical determinant of MKK4 activation. Trx induces manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene transcription by activating MKK4 via redox control of Cys-246 and Cys-266, as mutation of these residues abrogates MKK4 activation and MnSOD expression. We further show that MKK4 activates NFκB for its binding to the MnSOD promoter, which leads to AP-1 dissociation followed by MnSOD transcription. Taken together, our studies show that the redox status of Cys-246 and Cys-266 in MKK4 controls its activities independent of MAP3K, demonstrating integration of the endothelial redox environment to MAPK signaling.

  6. Comparative analysis of cyanobacterial superoxide dismutases to discriminate canonical forms

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Balakrishnan; Premanandh, Jagadeesan; Dhanalakshmi, Raman T; Seethalakshmi, Thangaraj; Uma, Lakshmanan; Prabaharan, Dharmar; Subramanian, Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Background Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes that catalyze the disproportion of superoxide to peroxide and molecular oxygen through alternate oxidation and reduction of their metal ions. In general, SODs are classified into four forms by their catalytic metals namely; FeSOD, MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD and NiSOD. In addition, a cambialistic form that uses Fe/Mn in its active site also exists. Cyanobacteria, the oxygen evolving photosynthetic prokaryotes, produce reactive oxygen species that can damage cellular components leading to cell death. Thus, the co-evolution of an antioxidant system was necessary for the survival of photosynthetic organisms with SOD as the initial enzyme evolved to alleviate the toxic effect. Cyanobacteria represent the first oxygenic photoautotrophs and their SOD sequences available in the databases lack clear annotation. Hence, the present study focuses on structure and sequence pattern of subsets of cyanobacterial superoxide dismutases. Result The sequence conservation and structural analysis of Fe (Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP1) and MnSOD (Anabaena sp. PCC7120) reveal the sharing of N and C terminal domains. At the C terminal domain, the metal binding motif in cyanoprokaryotes is DVWEHAYY while it is D-X-[WF]-E-H-[STA]-[FY]-[FY] in other pro- and eukaryotes. The cyanobacterial FeSOD differs from MnSOD at least in three ways viz. (i) FeSOD has a metal specific signature F184X3A188Q189.......T280......F/Y303 while, in Mn it is R184X3G188G189......G280......W303, (ii) aspartate ligand forms a hydrogen bond from the active site with the outer sphere residue of W243 in Fe where as it is Q262 in MnSOD; and (iii) two unique lysine residues at positions 201 and 255 with a photosynthetic role, found only in FeSOD. Further, most of the cyanobacterial Mn metalloforms have a specific transmembrane hydrophobic pocket that distinguishes FeSOD from Mn isoform. Cyanobacterial Cu/ZnSOD has a copper domain and two different signatures G

  7. Inconsistency between manganese superoxide dismutase expression and its activity involved in the degeneration of recognition function induced by chronic aluminum overloading in mice.

    PubMed

    Qiu, H-M; Yang, J-X; Jiang, Q-S; He, D; Zhou, Q-X

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) superoxide dismutase (SOD) is mainly located in mitochondrial matrix and is responsible for scavenging about 80% free radicals from oxidative and phospharylative process in mitochondria. It was reported that the insufficiency of Mn SOD expression or activity was connected to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we investigated the time course related to the changes of Mn SOD expression and its activity from mouse brain as well as the recognition dysfunction in chronic aluminum (Al) overloading mice. Aluminum gluconate solution (equal to Al 400 mg/kg) was given to mice once a day, 6 days per week for 12 weeks via intragastric gavage. The learning and memory function, malondialdehyde (MDA) level as well as expression and activity of Mn SOD in cortex were determined. It was found that function of passive learning and memory and spatial recognition decreased, MDA level and Mn SOD expression increased during the period of chronic Al loading, but the Mn SOD activity rose from the 4th week and then decreased from the 8th week in cortex in Al overloading mice compared with the control. The results indicated that the inconsistency between Mn SOD expression and its activity might contribute to the development of recognition dysfunction induced by chronic Al overload.

  8. Modulation of the Activities of Catalase, Cu-Zn, Mn Superoxide Dismutase, and Glutathione Peroxidase in Adipocyte from Ovariectomised Female Rats with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Rebeca Cambray; Zuñiga-Muñoz, Alejandra; Guarner Lans, Verónica; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Tena Betancourt, Carlos Alberto; Pérez-Torres, Israel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between estrogen removal, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress generated by obesity in a MS female rat model. Thirty two female Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control (C), MS, MS ovariectomized (Ovx), and MS Ovx plus estradiol (E2). MS was induced by administering 30% sucrose to drinking water for 24 weeks. After sacrifice, intra-abdominal fat was dissected; adipocytes were isolated and lipid peroxidation, non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity, and the activities of Cu-Zn and Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined. There were no significant differences in the activities of Cu-Zn, Mn SOD, CAT, and GPx between the C and MS groups, but in the MS Ovx group there was a statistically significant decrease in the activities of these enzymes when compared to MS and MS Ovx+E2. The increased lipid peroxidation and nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity found in MS Ovx was significantly decreased when compared to MS and MS Ovx+E2. In conclusion, the removal of E2 by ovariectomy decreases the activity of the antioxidant enzymes in the intra-abdominal tissue of MS female rats; this is reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity. PMID:24987414

  9. Effects of oxidative stress on expression of extracellular superoxide dismutase, CuZn-superoxide dismutase and Mn-superoxide dismutase in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Strålin, P; Marklund, S L

    1994-03-01

    To determine the effect of oxidative stress on expression of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), CuZn-SOD and Mn-SOD, two fibroblast lines were exposed for periods of up to 4 days to a wide concentration range of oxidizing agents: xanthine oxidase plus hypoxanthine, paraquat, pyrogallol, alpha-naphthoflavone, hydroquinone, catechol, Fe2+ ions, Cu2+ ions, buthionine sulphoximine, diethylmaleate, t-butyl hydroperoxide, cumene hydroperoxide, selenite, citiolone and high oxygen partial pressure. The cell lines were cultured both under serum starvation and at a serum concentration that permitted growth. Under no condition was there any evidence of EC-SOD induction. Instead, the agents uniformly, dose-dependently and continuously reduced EC-SOD expression. We interpret the effect to be due to toxicity. Enhancement of the protection against oxidative stress by addition of CuZn-SOD, catalase and low concentrations of selenite did not influence the expression of any of the SOD isoenzymes. Removal of EC-SOD from cell surfaces by heparin also did not influence SOD expression. Mn-SOD was moderately induced by high doses of the first 11 oxidants. Apart from reduction at high toxic doses, there were no significant effects on the CuZn-SOD activity by any of the treatments. Thus EC-SOD, previously shown to be profoundly influenced by inflammatory cytokines, was not induced by its substrate or other oxidants. In a similar fashion, Mn-SOD, previously shown to be greatly induced and depressed by cytokines, was only moderately influenced by oxidants. We suggest that the regulation of these SOD isoenzymes in mammalian tissues primarily occurs in a manner co-ordinated by cytokines, rather than as a response of individual cells to oxidants. PMID:8135741

  10. Models for the mechanism for activating copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in the absence of the CCS Cu chaperone in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Kuo, Wen-Yu; Jinn, Tsung-Luo

    2012-03-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD; CSD) is an important antioxidant enzyme for oxidative stress protection. To date, two activation pathways have been identified in many species. One requiring the CCS, Cu chaperone for SOD, to insert Cu and activate CSD (referred to as CCS-dependent pathway), and the other works independently of CCS (referred to as CCS-independent pathway). In our previous study, we suggest an unidentified factor will work with glutathione (GSH) for CSD activation in the absence of the CCS. Here, two models of the CCS-independent mechanism are proposed. The role of the unidentified factor may work as a scaffold protein, which provides a platform for the CSD protein and Cu-GSH to interact, or as a Cu carrier, which itself can bind Cu and interact with CSD proteins. We also suggest that the CSD protein conformation at C-terminal is important in providing a docking site for unidentified factor to access.

  11. Gene cloning, expression and activity analysis of manganese superoxide dismutase from two strains of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ning; Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Chen, Hao; Feng, Xiaoting; Zhang, Lu

    2012-04-16

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays a crucial role in antioxidant responses to environmental stress. To determine whether Mn-SOD affects heat resistance of Gracilaria lemaneiformis, we cloned Mn-SOD cDNA sequences of two strains of this red alga, wild type and cultivar 981. Both cDNA sequences contained an ORF of 675 bp encoding 224 amino acid residues. The cDNA sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences of the two strains shared relatively high identity (more than 99%). No intron existed in genomic DNA of Mn-SOD in G. lemaneiformis. Southern blotting indicated that there were multiple copies, possibly four, of Mn-SOD in both strains. Both in the wild type and cultivar 981, SOD mRNA transcription and SOD activity increased under high temperature stress, while cultivar 981 was more heat resistant based on its SOD activity. This research suggests that there may be a direct relationship between SOD activity and the heat resistance of G. lemaneiformis.

  12. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase mRNA and enzyme activity, and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation, increases with aging in murine brains.

    PubMed

    de Haan, J B; Newman, J D; Kola, I

    1992-04-01

    To protect against reactive oxygen species, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have developed an antioxidant defence mechanism where O2- is converted to H2O2 by superoxide dismutase (Sod), and in a second step, H2O2 is converted to H2O by catalase (Cat) and/or glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). If Sod levels are increased without a concomitant Gpx increase, then the intermediate H2O2 accumulates. This intermediate could undergo the Fenton's reaction, generating hydroxyl radicals which may lead to lipid peroxidation in cells. In this study, we investigate the expression of Sod1, Gpx1 and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation during the aging process in mouse brains. We demonstrate that the mRNA levels and enzyme activity of Sod1 are higher in brains from adult mice compared to neonatal mice. Furthermore, we show that a linear increase in Sod1 mRNA and enzyme activity occurs with aging (1-100 weeks). On the contrary, we find that the mRNA and enzyme activity for Gpx1 does not increase with aging in mouse brains. In addition, our results demonstrate that the susceptibility of murine brains to lipid peroxidation increases with aging. The data in this study are consistent with the notion that reactive oxygen species may contribute to the aging process in mammalian brains. These results are discussed in relation to the normal aging process in mammals, and to the premature aging and mental retardation in Down syndrome.

  13. Cryo-Trapping the Distorted Octahedral Reaction Intermediate of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgstahl, Gloria; Snell, Edward H.

    2000-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase protects organisms from potentially damaging oxygen radicals by catalyzing the disproportion of superoxide to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. We report the use of cryogenic temperatures to kinetically trap the 6th ligand bound to the active site of manganese superoxide dismutase. Using cryocrystallography and synchrotron radiation, we describe at 1.55A resolution the six-coordinate, distorted octahedral geometry assumed by the active site during catalysis and compare it to the room temperature, five-coordinate trigonal-bipyramidal active site. Gateway residues Tyr34, His30 and a tightly bound water molecule are implicated in closing off the active site and blocking the escape route of superoxide during dismutation.

  14. Activities of Antioxidant Scavenger Enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase) in Erythrocytes in Adult Women With and Without Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Raymond; Berner, Yitshal N.

    2004-01-01

    It is widely believed that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes. The present study was undertaken to examine the functioning of two antioxidant scavenger enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), in erythrocytes in a population of healthy aging adult women compared with a similar population with type II diabetes. Blood samples were examined from 42 female adult healthy subjects at different ages and from 59 female patients with type II diabetes. A significant increase in SOD activities was correlated with aging in erythrocytes of the healthy control subjects (r = .550, P = .001); however, this correlation was not found in subjects with type II diabetes (r = .250, P < .07). A trend showing a reduction in glutathione peroxidase activities was demonstrated with aging (r = −.331, P = .228); however, this trend was not found in diabetic subjects (r = .031, P < .820). The results indicate a possible imbalance in the antioxidant system in erythrocytes of aging adult women, which is even more pronounced in cases of type II diabetes. This study may indicate possible therapeutic treatment or preventive measures to limit oxidative damage and reduce complications of diabetes. PMID:15203888

  15. Zymogram profiling of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities allows Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces species differentiation and correlates to their fermentation performance.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2013-05-01

    Aerobic organisms have devised several enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses to deal with reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cellular metabolism. To combat such stress, cells induce ROS scavenging enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase. In the present research, we have used a double staining technique of SOD and catalase enzymes in the same polyacrylamide gel to analyze the different antioxidant enzymatic activities and protein isoforms present in Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast species. Moreover, we used a technique to differentially detect Sod1p and Sod2p on gel by immersion in NaCN, which specifically inhibits the Sod1p isoform. We observed unique SOD and catalase zymogram profiles for all the analyzed yeasts and we propose this technique as a new approach for Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast strains differentiation. In addition, we observed functional correlations between SOD and catalase enzyme activities, accumulation of essential metabolites, such as glutathione and trehalose, and the fermentative performance of different yeasts strains with industrial relevance. PMID:23354444

  16. Modulated expression and enzymatic activity of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) in response to environmental biocides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Lee, Jin Wuk; Seo, Jung Soo; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-02-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are important antioxidant enzymes whose expression levels are often used as biomarkers for oxidative stress. To investigate the biomarker potential of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus SOD genes, the full-length Cu/Zn-SOD (Bk-Cu/Zn-SOD) and Mn-SOD (Bk-Mn-SOD) genes were cloned from genomic DNA and characterized. All amino acid residues involved in the formation of tertiary structure and metal binding in Bk-Cu/Zn-SOD and Bk-Mn-SOD were highly conserved across species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Bk-Mn-SOD, in particular, was closely clustered with mitochondrial Mn-SOD. Transcript analysis after exposure to six different biocides (alachlor, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, endosulfan, lindane, and molinate) revealed that the transcriptional level of Bk-Cu/Zn-SOD was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the level of Bk-Mn-SOD transcript was significantly increased compared with control cells in response to chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and molinate at their no observed effect concentrations (NOECs). However, exposure to alachlor, chlorpyrifos, and molinate significantly reduced the enzymatic activity of total SOD protein, while a decreased pattern was observed in all biocide treatments. Taken together, these results indicate that exposure to waterborne environmental biocides induces the transcription of Bk-Cu/Zn-SOD and Bk-Mn-SOD, but inhibits the enzymatic activity of Bk-SODs. These results contribute to our understanding of the modes of action of oxidative stress-mediating biocides on rotifer.

  17. Superoxide radical induces sclerotial differentiation in filamentous phytopathogenic fungi: a superoxide dismutase mimetics study.

    PubMed

    Papapostolou, Ioannis; Georgiou, Christos D

    2010-03-01

    This study shows that the superoxide radical (O(2) *( -)), a direct indicator of oxidative stress, is involved in the differentiation of the phytopathogenic filamentous fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii and Sclerotinia minor, shown by using superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics to decrease their sclerotial differentiation. The production rate of O(2) *(-) and SOD levels in these fungi, as expected, were significantly lowered by the SOD mimetics, with concomitant decrease of the indirect indicator of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation. PMID:20007647

  18. Determination of metal content in superoxide dismutase enzymes by capillary electrophoresis†.

    PubMed

    Kazarjan, Jana; Vaher, Merike; Hunter, Thérèse; Kulp, Maria; Hunter, Gary James; Bonetta, Rosalin; Farrugia, Diane; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2015-03-01

    Superoxide dismutases are antioxidant scavenger enzymes that contain a metal cofactor (copper, zinc, iron, and manganese) in their active site. Metal content measurement is one of the essential steps to characterize enzyme biological activity. We have developed a capillary electrophoretic protocol for the determination of the metal content in superoxide dismutase enzymes. The background electrolyte containing 10 mM pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and 1 mM 1-methyl-3-tetradecylimidazolium chloride at pH 3.8 was optimized for on-column complexation of the above-mentioned metals. The minimum detectable levels of metals ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 μg/mL. The reliability of the method was checked by parallel quantitative determination of the metal content in superoxide dismutase enzymes by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry methods.

  19. Subunit interaction enhances enzyme activity and stability of sweet potato cytosolic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase purified by a His-tagged recombinant protein method.

    PubMed

    Lin, C T; Lin, M T; Chen, Y T; Shaw, J F

    1995-05-01

    The coding region of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) cDNA from sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. cv. Tainong 57, was introduced into an expression vector, pET-20b(+). The Cu/Zn-SOD purified by His-tagged technique showed two active forms (dimer and monomer). The amount of proteins of dimer and monomer appeared to be equal, but the activity of dimeric form was seven times higher than that of monomeric form. The enzyme was dissociated into monomer by imidazole buffer above 1.0 M, acidic pH (below 3.0), or SDS (above 1%). The enzyme is quite stable. The enzyme activity is not affected at 85 degrees C for 20 min, in alkali pH 11.2, or in 0.1 M EDTA and also quite resistant to proteolytic attack. Dimer is more stable than monomer. The thermal inactivation rate constant kd calculated for the monomer at 85 degrees C was 0.029 min-1 and the half-life for inactivation was about 28 min. In contrast, there is no significant change of dimer activity after 40 min at 85 degrees C. The enzyme dimer and monomer retained 83% and 58% of original activity, respectively, after 3 h incubation with trypsin at 37 degrees C, while those retained 100% and 31% of original activity with chymotrypsin under the same condition. These results suggest subunit interaction might change the enzyme conformation and greatly improve the catalytic activity and stability of the enzyme. It is also possible that the intersubunit contacts stabilize a particular optimal conformation of the protein or the dimeric structure enhances catalytic activity by increasing the electrostatic steering of substrate into the active site.

  20. The Role of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in Inflammation Defense

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes maintain cellular redox homeostasis. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an enzyme located in mitochondria, is the key enzyme that protects the energy-generating mitochondria from oxidative damage. Levels of MnSOD are reduced in many diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and psoriasis. Overexpression of MnSOD in tumor cells can significantly attenuate the malignant phenotype. Past studies have reported that this enzyme has the potential to be used as an anti-inflammatory agent because of its superoxide anion scavenging ability. Superoxide anions have a proinflammatory role in many diseases. Treatment of a rat model of lung pleurisy with the MnSOD mimetic MnTBAP suppressed the inflammatory response in a dose-dependent manner. In this paper, the mechanisms underlying the suppressive effects of MnSOD in inflammatory diseases are studied, and the potential applications of this enzyme and its mimetics as anti-inflammatory agents are discussed. PMID:21977313

  1. Effects of microcystins on the growth and the activity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase of rape (Brassica napus L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong; Song, Lirong; Dai, Jian; Gan, Nanqin; Liu, Zhili

    2004-03-15

    Microcystins are naturally occurring hepatotoxic cyclic heptapeptides produced by some toxic freshwater cyanobacterial species. In this study, crude extract of toxic cyanobacterial blooms from Dianchi Lake in southwestern China was used to determine the effects of microcystins on rape (Brassica napus L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.). Experiments were carried out on a range of doses of the extract (equivalent to 0, 0.024, 0.12, 0.6 and 3 microg MC-LR/ml). Investigations showed that exposure to microcystins inhibited the growth and development of both rice and rape seedlings, however, microcystins had more powerful inhibition effect on rape than rice in germination percentage of seeds and seedling height. Microcystins significantly inhibited the elongation of primary roots of rape and rice seedlings. Determination of the activities of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase demonstrated that microcystin stress was manifested as an oxidative stress. Using ELISA, microcystins were examined from the extract of exposed rape and rice seedlings, indicating that consumption of edible plants exposed to microcystins via irrigation route may have health risks. Significantly different levels of recovered microcystins between exposed rice and rape seedlings suggested that there might be different tolerant mechanisms toward microcystins. PMID:15051402

  2. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and the total protein content of protocorm-like bodies of Dendrobium sonia-28 subjected to vitrification.

    PubMed

    Poobathy, Ranjetta; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Xavier, Rathinam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2013-07-01

    Dendrobium sonia-28 is an important ornamental orchid in the Malaysian flower industry. However, the genus faces both low germination rates and the risk of producing heterozygous progenies. Cryopreservation is currently the favoured long-term storage method for orchids with propagation problems. Vitrification, a frequently used cryopreservation technique, involves the application of pretreatments and cryoprotectants to protect and recover explants during and after storage in liquid nitrogen. However, cryopreservation may cause osmotic injuries and toxicity to cryopreserved explants from the use of highly concentrated additives, and cellular injuries from thawing, devitrification and ice formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), occurring during dehydration and cryopreservation, may also cause membrane damage. Plants possess efficient antioxidant systems such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes to scavenge ROS during low temperature stress. In this study, protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Dendrobium sonia-28 were assayed for the total protein content, and both SOD and CAT activities, at each stage of a vitrification exercise to observe for deleterious stages in the protocol. The results indicated that cryopreserved PLBs of Dendrobium sonia-28 underwent excessive post-thawing oxidative stress due to decreased levels of the CAT enzyme at the post-thawing recovery stage, which contributed to the poor survival rates of the cryopreserved PLBs.

  3. Superoxide Dismutase 1 Nanozyme for Treatment of Eye Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Olga A.; Beznos, Olga V.; Davydova, Nina G.; Manickam, Devika S.; Nikolskaya, Irina I.; Guller, Anna E.; Binevski, Petr V.; Chesnokova, Natalia B.; Shekhter, Anatoly B.; Klyachko, Natalia L.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Use of antioxidants to mitigate oxidative stress during ocular inflammatory diseases has shown therapeutic potential. This work examines a nanoscale therapeutic modality for the eye on the base of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), termed “nanozyme.” The nanozyme is produced by electrostatic coupling of the SOD1 with a cationic block copolymer, poly(L-lysine)-poly(ethyleneglycol), followed by covalent cross-linking of the complexes with 3,3′-dithiobis(sulfosuccinimidylpropionate) sodium salt. The ability of SOD1 nanozyme as well as the native SOD1 to reduce inflammatory processes in the eye was examined in vivo in rabbits with immunogenic uveitis. Results suggested that topical instillations of both enzyme forms demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity; however, the nanozyme was much more effective compared to the free enzyme in decreasing uveitis manifestations. In particular, we noted statistically significant differences in such inflammatory signs in the eye as the intensities of corneal and iris edema, hyperemia of conjunctiva, lens opacity, fibrin clots, and the protein content in aqueous humor. Clinical findings were confirmed by histological data. Thus, SOD1-containing nanozyme is potentially useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of ocular inflammatory disorders. PMID:26697135

  4. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sushant; Singh, Abhay Narayan; Verma, Anil; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were successfully synthesized using double emulsion (w/o/w) solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of the nanosphere using dynamic light scattering, field emission scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed a spherical-shaped nanosphere in a size range of 812 ± 64 nm with moderate protein encapsulation efficiency of 55.42 ± 3.7 % and high in vitro protein release. Human skin HaCat cells were used for analyzing antioxidative properties of SOD- and CAT-encapsulated PCL nanospheres. Oxidative stress condition in HaCat cells was optimized with exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 1 mM) as external stress factor and verified through reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis using H2DCFDA dye. PCL nanosphere encapsulating SOD and CAT together indicated better antioxidative defense against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human skin HaCat cells in comparison to PCL encapsulating either SOD or CAT alone as well as against direct supplement of SOD and CAT protein solution. Increase in HaCat cells SOD and CAT activities after treatment hints toward uptake of PCL nanosphere into the human skin HaCat cells. The result signifies the role of PCL-encapsulating SOD and CAT nanosphere in alleviating oxidative stress.

  5. A Second Superoxide Dismutase Gene in the Medfly, Ceratitis Capitata

    PubMed Central

    Banks, G. K.; Robinson, A. S.; Kwiatowski, J.; Ayala, F. J.; Scott, M. J.; Kriticou, D.

    1995-01-01

    We report the first case of two Cu/Zn Sod genes (ccSod1 and ccSod2) that have been cloned and sequenced from an insect, the medfly, Ceratitis capitata. Biochemical evidence suggested the presence of two Sod genes in the medfly. The two genes are isolated using different molecular strategies: ccSod1 via cross-hybridization to a genomic library using a heterologous probe and ccSod2 from cDNA using a homologous probe generated by PCR. Sequence analysis shows that ccSod1 and ccSod2 are different genes. The inferred amino sequences show that all essential residues of the active site are strictly conserved, which suggests both genes encode functional Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). Phylogenetic analysis by the maximum parsimony method with bootstrap resampling of previously known Cu/Zn SOD reveals two monophyletic groups, vertebrates and insects. The position of ccSOD2 in this phylogeny is undefined with respect to dipteran ccSOD1, vertebrate, plant, fungal, and extracellular Cu/Zn SOD, which suggests that the duplication detected in Ceratitis is ancient, perhaps as old as the origins of the arthropod phylum in the Cambrian more than 500 million years ago. In situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes places the genes on different chromosomes, which is consistent with an ancient gene duplication. PMID:7498747

  6. Nitration and Inactivation of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in Chronic Rejection of Human Renal Allografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan-Crow, L. A.; Crow, John P.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Beckman, Joseph S.; Thompson, John A.

    1996-10-01

    Inflammatory processes in chronic rejection remain a serious clinical problem in organ transplantation. Activated cellular infiltrate produces high levels of both superoxide and nitric oxide. These reactive oxygen species interact to form peroxynitrite, a potent oxidant that can modify proteins to form 3-nitrotyrosine. We identified enhanced immunostaining for nitrotyrosine localized to tubular epithelium of chronically rejected human renal allografts. Western blot analysis of rejected tissue demonstrated that tyrosine nitration was restricted to a few specific polypeptides. Immunoprecipitation and amino acid sequencing techniques identified manganese superoxide dismutase, the major antioxidant enzyme in mitochondria, as one of the targets of tyrosine nitration. Total manganese superoxide dismutase protein was increased in rejected kidney, particularly in the tubular epithelium; however, enzymatic activity was significantly decreased. Exposure of recombinant human manganese superoxide dismutase to peroxynitrite resulted in a dose-dependent (IC50 = 10 μ M) decrease in enzymatic activity and concomitant increase in tyrosine nitration. Collectively, these observations suggest a role for peroxynitrite during development and progression of chronic rejection in human renal allografts. In addition, inactivation of manganese superoxide dismutase by peroxynitrite may represent a general mechanism that progressively increases the production of peroxynitrite, leading to irreversible oxidative injury to mitochondria.

  7. The activity of superoxide dismutase in animal liver and erythrocyte at Sea Area nearby Dayawan Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ge; Cai, Yana; Chen, Huizhen

    1995-11-01

    Many tests, the effect of ionizing radiation on SOD in vivo and vitro, had proved that the irradiation can cause the SOD activity to decrease with the increase of irradiation dose, change some physicochemical properties and structure. This artical was to study the activity of SOD in Fish (Thearpon jorbua) and Toad(Bufo melanostictus) liver erythrocyte at sea area nearby Dayawan Nuclear Power Station (Nps). We found that the SOD activity in fish liver, after NPS revolved one year, was higher than that of before revoling (7.30 {plus_minus} 1.35U/mg protein, 5.49 {plus_minus}1.56 U/mg protein respectively). The SOD activity in the toad liver at NPS revolving one year after was decreased (4.54 {plus_minus} 0.75 U/mg protein 5.68{plus_minus} 1.49U/mg protein P < 0.001) but in erythrocyte increased (2.32 {plus_minus} 0.75 U/mg Hb, 0.70 {plus_minus} 0.33 U/mg Hb P < 0.001). These results indicated that the SOD activity was changed in different with the animal variety. The effect of irradiation on fish at present was absent, on toad need to research in the future.

  8. Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic, MnTE-2-PyP, Attenuates Chronic Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension, Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling, and Activation of the NALP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Leah R.; Kluck, Dylan; Field, Carlie; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Woods, Crystal; Yeager, Michael E.; El Kasmi, Karim C.; Savani, Rashmin C.; Bowler, Russell P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance that promotes abnormal vascular responses. Reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide (O2•−), contribute to the pathogenesis of PH and vascular responses, including vascular remodeling and inflammation. This study sought to investigate the protective role of a pharmacological catalytic antioxidant, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic (MnTE-2-PyP), in hypoxia-induced PH, vascular remodeling, and NALP3 (NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3)–mediated inflammation. Results: Mice (C57/BL6) were exposed to hypobaric hypoxic conditions, while subcutaneous injections of MnTE-2-PyP (5 mg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were given 3× weekly for up to 35 days. SOD mimetic-treated groups demonstrated protection against increased right ventricular systolic pressure, indirect measurements of pulmonary artery pressure, and RV hypertrophy. Vascular remodeling was assessed by Ki67 staining to detect vascular cell proliferation, α-smooth muscle actin staining to analyze small vessel muscularization, and hyaluronan (HA) measurements to assess extracellular matrix modulation. Activation of the NALP3 inflammasome pathway was measured by NALP3 expression, caspase-1 activation, and interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) and IL-18 production. Hypoxic exposure increased PH, vascular remodeling, and NALP3 inflammasome activation in PBS-treated mice, while mice treated with MnTE-2-PyP showed an attenuation in each of these endpoints. Innovation: This study is the first to demonstrate activation of the NALP3 inflammasome with cleavage of caspase-1 and release of active IL-1 β and IL-18 in chronic hypoxic PH, as well as its attenuation by the SOD mimetic, MnTE-2-PyP. Conclusion: The ability of the SOD mimetic to scavenge extracellular O2•− supports our previous observations in EC-SOD-overexpressing mice that implicate extracellular oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in hypoxic PH

  9. Effects of low copper and high zinc intakes and related changes in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase activity on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Fischer, P W; Campbell, J S; Giroux, A

    1991-07-01

    The effect of low copper and high zinc intakes on Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) activity and mammary tumorigenesis induced by 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) was investigated. Groups of 40 weanling female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a modified AIN-76 diet containing the following (/kg diet): 1 mg Cu (0.016 mmol) and 30 mg Zn (0.459 mmol); 6 mg Cu (0.094 mmol) and 30 mg Zn (0.459 mmol) (control); or 6 mg Cu (0.094 mmol) and 150 mg Zn (2.295 mmol) for 21 wk. At 5 wk, 30 rats/group were given 4 mg (15.6 mumol) DMBA in corn oil intragastrically, and controls (10/group) received corn oil alone. Erythrocyte Cu,Zn-SOD activity was measured at 3, 5 (just before DMBA), 9, 13, 17, and 21 wk. The group fed the high-Zn diet had a slightly lower weight gain and food consumption. DMBA treatment had no effect on these parameters. Plasma and liver Cu concentration decreased in the low-Cu group. Femur zinc was significantly elevated in the high-Zn group. Erythrocyte Cu,Zn-SOD activity was decreased in the low-Cu group from 3 to 21 wk and was significantly elevated in the high-Zn group at 3 and 5 wk. In the low-Cu group, there were 5 nonmalignant adenomas and 3 malignant adenocarcinomas; in the control group, there were 4 adenomas and 3 adenocarcinomas; in the high-Zn group, there were 5 adenomas and 3 adenocarcinomas. No relationship between Cu,Zn-SOD activity and the presence of tumors could be found.

  10. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) induction is implicated in the antioxidative and antiviral activity of acetylsalicylic acid in HCV-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Estilla, Ana María; Bryan-Marrugo, Owen Lloyd; Trujillo-Murillo, Karina; Pérez-Ibave, Diana; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Pedroza-Roldan, Cesar; Ríos-Ibarra, Clara; Ramírez-Valles, Eda; Ortiz-López, Rocío; Islas-Carbajal, María Cristina; Nieto, Natalia; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the participation of oxidative stress in the negative regulation of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA induced by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). We used the HCV subgenomic replicon cell system that stably expresses HCV-nonstructural proteins (Huh7 HCV replicon cells) and the parental cell line. Cells were exposed to 4 mM ASA at different times (12-72 h), and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) was used as an antioxidant control. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidized protein levels, cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were measured to evaluate oxidative stress. In addition, viral RNA and prostaglandin (PGE(2)) levels were determined. We observed that ASA treatment decreased ROS production and oxidized protein levels in a time-dependent fashion in both parental and HCV replicon cells with a greater extent in the latter. Similar results were found with PDTC exposure. Average GPx activity was decreased, whereas a striking increase was observed in average cytosolic SOD activity at 48 and 72 h in both cells exposed to ASA, compared with untreated cells. HCV replicon cells showed higher levels of Cu/Zn-SOD expression (mRNA and protein) with ASA treatment (48 and 72 h), whereas NS5A protein levels showed decreased expression. In addition, we found that inhibition of SOD1 expression reversed the effect of ASA. Interestingly, PDTC downregulated HCV-RNA expression (55%) and PGE(2) (60%) levels, imitating ASA exposure. These results suggest that ASA treatment could reduce cellular oxidative stress markers and modify Cu/Zn-SOD expression, a phenomenon that may contribute to the mechanisms involved in HCV downregulation.

  11. Superoxide dismutase promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of pancreatic cancer cells via activation of the H2O2/ERK/NF-κB axis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Cao, Lei; Han, Liang; Xu, Qinhong; Ma, Qingyong

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that superoxide dismutase (SOD)-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was able to increase the invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms by which SOD enhances metastasis are still not fully elucidated. As epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key player in tumor metastasis, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether SOD affects EMT in pancreatic cancer cells and the related mechanism. Human pancreatic cancer cells BxPC-3 and Panc-1 were utilized to examine the level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O) in the absence or presence of SOD and catalase (CAT). The activation of phospho-ERK and phospho-NF-κB were measured by western blot analysis. Wound healing assay and transwell invasion assay were used to detect the migratory and invasive potential of cancer cells. The EMT-related factors, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin were detected by QT-PCR and western blot analysis. The results of present study showed that SOD not only increased cell migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer, but also mediated the expression of EMT-related factors and cell morphology. In addition, the levels of phospho-ERK and phospho-NF-κB were induced by SOD which could be counter-balanced by both CAT treatment and PD 98059 (an ERK inhibitor). Taken together, these data indicate that SOD promotes the invasive and migratory activity of pancreatic cancer. Blocking the H2O2/ERK/NF-κB axis might be a novel strategy for the treatment of this severe malignancy. PMID:25825208

  12. A germin-like protein gene (CchGLP) of Capsicum chinense Jacq. is induced during incompatible interactions and displays Mn-superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    León-Galván, Fabiola; de Jesús Joaquín-Ramos, Ahuizolt; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; González-Chavira, Mario M; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalía V; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-González, Ramón Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    A germin-like gene (CchGLP) cloned from geminivirus-resistant pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. Line BG-3821) was characterized and the enzymatic activity of the expressed protein analyzed. The predicted protein consists of 203 amino acids, similar to other germin-like proteins. A highly conserved cupin domain and typical germin boxes, one of them containing three histidines and one glutamate, are also present in CchGLP. A signal peptide was predicted in the first 18 N-terminal amino acids, as well as one putative N-glycosylation site from residues 44-47. CchGLP was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein displayed manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Molecular analysis showed that CchGLP is present in one copy in the C. chinense Jacq. genome and was induced in plants by ethylene (Et) and salicylic acid (SA) but not jasmonic acid (JA) applications in the absence of pathogens. Meanwhile, incompatible interactions with either Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) or Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) caused local and systemic CchGLP induction in these geminivirus-resistant plants, but not in a susceptible accession. Compatible interactions with PHYVV, PepGMV and oomycete Phytophthora capsici did not induce CchGLP expression. Thus, these results indicate that CchGLP encodes a Mn-SOD, which is induced in the C. chinense geminivirus-resistant line BG-3821, likely using SA and Et signaling pathways during incompatible interactions with geminiviruses PepGMV and PHYVV.

  13. A Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) of Capsicum chinense Jacq. Is Induced during Incompatible Interactions and Displays Mn-Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    PubMed Central

    León-Galván, Fabiola; de Jesús Joaquín-Ramos, Ahuizolt; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; González-Chavira, Mario M.; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalía V.; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-González, Ramón Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    A germin-like gene (CchGLP) cloned from geminivirus-resistant pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. Line BG-3821) was characterized and the enzymatic activity of the expressed protein analyzed. The predicted protein consists of 203 amino acids, similar to other germin-like proteins. A highly conserved cupin domain and typical germin boxes, one of them containing three histidines and one glutamate, are also present in CchGLP. A signal peptide was predicted in the first 18 N-terminal amino acids, as well as one putative N-glycosylation site from residues 44–47. CchGLP was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein displayed manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Molecular analysis showed that CchGLP is present in one copy in the C. chinense Jacq. genome and was induced in plants by ethylene (Et) and salicylic acid (SA) but not jasmonic acid (JA) applications in the absence of pathogens. Meanwhile, incompatible interactions with either Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) or Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) caused local and systemic CchGLP induction in these geminivirus-resistant plants, but not in a susceptible accession. Compatible interactions with PHYVV, PepGMV and oomycete Phytophthora capsici did not induce CchGLP expression. Thus, these results indicate that CchGLP encodes a Mn-SOD, which is induced in the C. chinense geminivirus-resistant line BG-3821, likely using SA and Et signaling pathways during incompatible interactions with geminiviruses PepGMV and PHYVV. PMID:22174599

  14. Induction of peroxidases and superoxide dismutases in transformed embryogenic calli of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were analyzed in non-regenerative transformed embryogenic lines of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) carrying wound-inducible oryzacystatin I (OC-I), wound-inducible oryzacystatin I antisense (OC-Ias) or hygromycin phosphotransferase (...

  15. Dipeptide-based models of nickel superoxide dismutase: solvent effects highlight a critical role to Ni-S bonding and active site stabilization.

    PubMed

    Gale, Eric M; Cowart, Darin M; Scott, Robert A; Harrop, Todd C

    2011-10-17

    Nickel superoxide dismutase (Ni-SOD) catalyzes the disproportionation of the superoxide radical to O(2) and H(2)O(2) utilizing the Ni(III/II) redox couple. The Ni center in Ni-SOD resides in an unusual coordination environment that is distinct from other SODs. In the reduced state (Ni-SOD(red)), Ni(II) is ligated to a primary amine-N from His1, anionic carboxamido-N/thiolato-S from Cys2, and a second thiolato-S from Cys6 to complete a NiN(2)S(2) square-planar coordination motif. Utilizing the dipeptide N(2)S(2-) ligand, H(2)N-Gly-l-Cys-OMe (GC-OMeH(2)), an accurate model of the structural and electronic contributions provided by His1 and Cys2 in Ni-SOD(red), we constructed the dinuclear sulfur-bridged metallosynthon, [Ni(2)(GC-OMe)(2)] (1). From 1 we prepared the following monomeric Ni(II)-N(2)S(2) complexes: K[Ni(GC-OMe)(SC(6)H(4)-p-Cl)] (2), K[Ni(GC-OMe)(S(t)Bu)] (3), K[Ni(GC-OMe)(SC(6)H(4)-p-OMe)] (4), and K[Ni(GC-OMe)(SNAc)] (5). The design strategy in utilizing GC-OMe(2-) is analogous to one which we reported before (see Inorg. Chem. 2009, 48, 5620 and Inorg. Chem. 2010, 49, 7080) where Ni-SOD(red) active site mimics can be assembled at will with electronically variant RS(-) ligands. Discussed herein is our initial account pertaining to the aqueous behavior of isolable, small-molecule Ni-SOD model complexes (non-maquette based). Spectroscopic (FTIR, UV-vis, ESI-MS, XAS) and electrochemical (CV) measurements suggest that 2-5 successfully simulate many of the electronic features of Ni-SOD(red). Furthermore, the aqueous studies reveal a dynamic behavior with regard to RS(-) lability and bridging interactions, suggesting a stabilizing role brought about by the protein architecture.

  16. Effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with reference to heme biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Arun J; Bhagwat, Vinod R; Patil, Jyotsna A; Dongre, Nilima N; Ambekar, Jeevan G; Jailkhani, Rama; Das, Kusal K

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in erythrocytes and malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma of battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) who were occupationally exposed to lead (Pb) over a long period of time (about 15 years). This study was also aimed to determine the Pb intoxication resulted in a disturbance of heme biosynthesis in BMW group. The blood Pb level of BMW group (n = 28) was found to be in the range of 25.8 - 78.0 microg/dL (mean + SD, 53.63 + 16.98) whereas in Pb unexposed control group (n = 35) the range was 2.8 - 22.0 microg/dL (mean + SD, 12.52 + 4.08). The blood level (Pb-B) and urinary lead level (Pb-U) were significantly increased in BMW group as compared to unexposed control. Though activated d- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities in BMW group did not show any significant change when compared to control group but activated / non activated erythrocyte - ALAD activities in BMW group showed a significant increase. Erythrocyte- zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), urinary daminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and porphobilinogen (PBG-U) of BMW groups elevated significantly as compared to control. A positive correlation (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) between Pb-B and ALA-U were found in BMW group but no such significant correlation (r = 0.02, p> 1.0) were observed in control group. Hematological study revealed a significant decrease of hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (%) and other blood indices and a significant increase of total leucocytes count in BMW group in comparison to control group. The serum MDA content was significantly increased (p < 0.001) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as erythrocyte- SOD (p < 0.001) and erythrocytecatalase (p < 0.001) were significantly reduced in BMW group as compared to control group. A positive correlation (r = 0.45, p < 0.02) between Pb-B and serum MDA level was observed in BMW group (Pb-B range 25.8 - 78.0 microg / d

  17. Effects of a single exposure to UVB radiation on the activities and protein levels of copper-zinc and manganese superoxide dismutase in cultured human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, H; Akamatsu, H; Horio, T

    1997-04-01

    Ultraviolet B irradiation has been believed to decrease or impair the activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the skin. It has been recently reported that two isozymes of SOD, namely copper-zinc SOD (Cu-Zn SOD) and manganese SOD (Mn SOD), exist in mammalian cells and that the two enzymes play different roles in living systems. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in SOD activities and protein levels in cultured human keratinocytes after acute UVB irradiation. In addition, the protein levels of Cu-Zn SOD and Mn SOD were quantified separately. A single exposure to UVB irradiation produced an increase in SOD activity and protein level that peaked immediately after UVB irradiation, after which a decline was observed, with subsequent recovery to baseline levels 24 h after irradiation. In individual assays of Mn SOD and Cu-Zn SOD, the amount of Mn SOD protein decreased and then gradually recovered 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the amount of Cu-Zn SOD protein increased immediately after UVB irradiation, and then gradually declined. To evaluate the mechanisms of these changes, we examined the effects of the cytokines, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which can be secreted from keratinocytes after UVB irradiation, on the SOD activity and protein levels in keratinocytes. Interleukin-1 alpha and TNF-alpha enhanced both the SOD activity and protein level of Mn SOD, while these cytokines had no effect on Cu-Zn SOD protein levels in cultured human keratinocytes after incubation for 24 h. Furthermore, when neutralizing antibodies against IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha were added separately or together to the culture medium before UVB irradiation, the recovery of total SOD activity and Mn SOD protein level were markedly inhibited 24 h after irradiation. Our results suggest that significant increases in SOD activity and protein level occur as a cutaneous antioxidant

  18. Molecular characterization of two superoxide dismutases from Hydra vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Bhagirathi; Metz, Richard; Huebner, Henry J.; Porter, Weston; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Apparent full-length cDNA sequences coding for manganese superoxide dismutase (HvMnSOD) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (HvEC-SOD) were isolated from Hydra vulgaris in order to understand their expression and 3D structures; and explore their possibility of being used as for biomarkers for environmental stress and toxicity. The deduced HvMnSOD protein consists of 219 amino acids of which first 21 amino acids constitute a presumed mitochondria-targeting signal peptide whereas HvEC-SOD protein consists of 189 amino acids of which first 19 amino acids constitute a presumed signal peptide. Molecular model generated for HvMnSOD displayed the N-terminal long alpha antiparallel hairpin and the C-terminal mixed alpha/beta fold characteristic of MnSODs and that for HvEC-SOD displayed the characteristic CuZnSOD beta-barrel fold. Hydrae subjected to thermal, starvation, metal and oxidative stress responded by regulating MnSOD and EC-SOD mRNA transcription. These results indicated that these genes are involved in the cellular stress response and (anti)oxidative processes triggered by stressor and contaminant exposure. Hence the expression of these SODs in hydra may have potential as molecular biomarkers for assessing stress, toxicity and pro-oxidant quality of chemicals and aquatic environmental quality. PMID:17150313

  19. Molecular cloning and expression patterns of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase and manganese superoxide dismutase in Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ting; Huang, Da-Wei; Zhou, Chuan-Qi; Li, Xiang; Xie, Qi-Jing; Liu, Feng-Song

    2012-09-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are metalloenzymes that represent one important line of defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this paper, two novel SOD genes, MdSOD1 and MdSOD2, which putatively encode 261 and 214 amino acid residues respectively were identified and characterized from the housefly Musca domestica. The high similarity of MdSOD1 and MdSOD2 with SODs from other organisms indicated that they should be two new members of the SOD family. qPCR exhibited a universal expression of MdSOD1 and MdSOD2 detected in various tissues of housefly larva, including the fat body, gut, hemocyte and epidermis. Expression profiling reveals that MdSOD1 and MdSOD2 can be induced significantly via not only heat shock and cadmium (Cd) stress but also Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus challenge. The two genes were cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a to obtain the fusion proteins rMdSOD1 and rMdSOD2. Between them, the activity of rMdSOD2 was found by visual assay methods. ESI-LC-MS/MS analysis showed that three peptide fragments of the protein rMdSOD2 were identical to the corresponding sequence of M. domestica MdSOD2. MdSOD1 and MdSOD2 in housefly larvae were abrogated by feeding bacteria expressing dsRNA. High mortalities were observed in the larvae treated with dsRNA of SODs at heat shock, Cd stress and bacterial invasion. This phenomenon indicated that MdSOD1 and MdSOD2 are related to the survival of M. domestica under stress. This may provide new insights into the role of the two SOD genes in protecting M. domestica against both stress and bacterial invasion. PMID:22750315

  20. Yeast and Mammalian Metallothioneins Functionally Substitute for Yeast Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, Katherine T.; Gralla, Edith B.; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Valentine, Joan S.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    1993-09-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen and is thought to play an important role in protecting cells from oxygen toxicity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, which is encoded by the SOD1 gene, are sensitive to oxidative stress and exhibit a variety of growth defects including hypersensitivity to dioxygen and to superoxide-generating drugs such as paraquat. We have found that in addition to these known phenotypes, SOD1-deletion strains fail to grow on agar containing the respiratory carbon source lactate. We demonstrate here that expression of the yeast or monkey metallothionein proteins in the presence of copper suppresses the lactate growth defect and some other phenotypes associated with SOD1-deletion strains, indicating that copper metallothioneins substitute for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in vivo to protect cells from oxygen toxicity. Consistent with these results, we show that yeast metallothionein mRNA levels are dramatically elevated under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrate that yeast metallothionein, purified or from whole-cell extracts, exhibits copper-dependent antioxidant activity. Taken together, these data suggest that both yeast and mammalian metallothioneins may play a direct role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress by functioning as antioxidants.

  1. Effect of macro- and micro-nutrient limitation on superoxide dismutase activities and carotenoid levels in microalga Dunaliella salina CCAP 19/18.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sushanta Kumar; Moane, Siobhan; Murray, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of sixteen stress conditions on total carotenoid production and the response of antioxidative enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in microalga Dunaliella salina. Of the stress conditions tested, high-light illumination (240 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) in combination with nitrogen depletion were the conditions associated with maximum carotenoid production and which induced Fe-SOD and retained the specific Mn-SOD isoform. Removal of the micronutrients manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) as well as nitrogen from the medium enhanced carotenoid production on day 5, while the removal of nitrogen and Mn from the growth medium drastically affected carotenoid production at all time-points. The differential response of SODs influences the levels of carotenoid biosynthesis as chronic molecular defence strategies of D. salina.

  2. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of iron superoxide dismutase from the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium vinckei.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Kirtika; Goyal, Manish; Soni, Awakash; Siddiqui, Arif Jamal; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Puri, Sunil K

    2014-12-01

    Plasmodium parasite utilizes superoxide dismutase family proteins to limit the toxicity of reactive oxygen species, such as produced through hemoglobin degradation. These proteins play an important role in parasite survival during intra-erythrocytic phase. We have identified, and biochemically characterized a putative iron dependent superoxide dismutase from rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium vinckei (PvSOD1). The recombinant PvSOD1 protein was purified to homogeneity through a combination of affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Crosslinking, Native-PAGE and FPLC gel filtration analyses documented that PvSOD1 exists as a dimer in solution, a common feature shared by other Fe-SODs. PvSOD1 is cytosolic in localization and its expression is comparatively higher during trophozoite as compared to that of ring and schizont stages. Enzymatic activity of recombinant PvSOD1 was validated using conventional zymogram analyses and xanthine-xanthine oxidase system. Under optimal conditions, PvSOD1 was highly active and catalyzed the dismutation of superoxide radicals. Furthermore, PvSOD1 showed activity over a broad range of pH and temperature. Inhibition studies suggested that PvSOD1 was inactivated by hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite, but not by cyanide and azide. Since, PvSOD1 plays a central role in oxidative defense mechanism, therefore, characterization of PvSOD1 will be exploited in the screening of new superoxide dismutase inhibitors for their antimalarial activity.

  3. Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase is a Peroxisomal Enzyme in Human Fibroblast and Hepatoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Gilbert-Andre; Warner, Thomas G.; Steimer, Kathelyn S.; Hallewell, Robert A.

    1991-08-01

    The intracellular localization of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) has been examined by immunofluorescence using four monoclonal anti-Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase antibodies raised against a recombinant human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase derivative produced and purified from Escherichia coli. Colocalization with catalase, a peroxisomal matrix enzyme, was used to demonstrate the peroxisomal localization of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase in human fibroblasts and hepatoma cells. In the fibroblasts of Zellweger syndrome patients, the enzyme is not transported to the peroxisomal ghosts but, like catalase, remains in the cytoplasm. In addition, immunocryoelectron microscopy of yeast cells expressing human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase showed that the enzyme is translocated to the peroxisomes.

  4. Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Genotypes in Pediatric Migraine Patients.

    PubMed

    Saygi, Semra; Erol, İlknur; Alehan, Füsun; Yalçın, Yaprak Yılmaz; Kubat, Gözde; Ataç, Fatma Belgin

    2015-10-01

    This study compared superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) alleles in 97 consecutive children and adolescents with migraine to 96 healthy children and adolescents. Isolated genomic DNA was used as a template for SOD1 (35 A/C), SOD2 16 C/T, and CAT2 [(-262 C/T) and (-21 A/T)] allele genotyping. The SOD2 16 C/T genotype and C allele frequency differed significantly between controls and migraine (P = .047; P = .038). CAT -21 AA genotype and A allele frequency were significantly higher in both migraine with aura patients (P = .013; P = .004) and migraine without aura patients (P = .003; P = .001) compared to controls. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of differences in SOD and CAT genotypes between pediatric migraine patients and age-matched controls. Further studies on the functional implications of these genetic variants on neural antioxidant capacity and the use of antioxidant modulators for migraine treatment are warranted.

  5. Stability of ALS-related Superoxide Dismutase Protein variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusebrink, Daniel; Plotkin, Steven

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a metal binding, homodimeric protein, whose misfolding is implicated in the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Monomerization is believed to be a key step in the propagation of the disease. The dimer stability is often difficult to measure experimentally however, because it is entangled with protein unfolding and metal loss. We thus computationally investigate the dimer stability of mutants of SOD1 known to be associated with ALS. We report on systematic trends in dimer stability, as well as intriguing allosteric communication between mutations and the dimer interface. We study the dimer stabilities in molecular dynamics simulations and obtain the binding free energies of the dimers from pulling essays. Mutations are applied in silicoand we compare the differences of binding free energies compared to the wild type.

  6. [Antifibrosis effect of modified forms of catalase and superoxide dismutase in experimental silicosis].

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, A V; Bezrukavnikova, L M; Grigor'eva, E L; Tishchenko, E G; Arkhipova, O G; Iaglov, V V; Torchilin, V P

    1992-01-01

    The forms of catalase modified by treatment with dextran aldehyde were obtained and studied. Efficacy of the preparations containing native and modified forms of catalase and superoxide dismutase as well as their covalent bienzyme conjugate containing catalase-dextran aldehyde-superoxide dismutase was studied in rats with simulated silicosis. The preparations were administered into rats by means of inhalation and intraperitoneal injection. Positive protective effect exhibited a mixture of native enzymes and their covalent conjugate. The most pronounced additional effect was caused by the mixture of native catalase and superoxide dismutase as compared with modified preparation of superoxide dismutase. The preparation of bienzyme containing conjugate was less effective. PMID:1384235

  7. Corynebacterium glutamicum superoxide dismutase is a manganese-strict non-cambialistic enzyme in vitro.

    PubMed

    El Shafey, H M; Ghanem, S; Merkamm, M; Guyonvarch, A

    2008-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) of Corynebacterium glutamicum was purified and characterized. The enzyme had a native molecular weight of about 80kDa, whereas a monomer with molecular weight of 24kDa was found on SDS-PAGE suggesting it to be homotetramer. The native SOD activity stained gel revealed a unique cytosolic enzyme. Supplementing growth media with manganese increased the specific activity significantly, while adding iron did not result in significant difference. No growth perturbation was observed with the supplemented media. In vitro metal removal and replacement studies revealed conservation of about 85% of the specific activity by substitution with manganese, while substitution with copper, iron, nickel or zinc did not restore any significant specific activity. Manganese was identified by atomic absorption spectrometer, while no signals corresponding to fixing other metallic elements were detected. Thus, C. glutamicum SOD could be considered a strict (non-cambialistic) manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). PMID:16809027

  8. Autoxidation of ubiquinol-6 is independent of superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Schultz, J R; Ellerby, L M; Gralla, E B; Valentine, J S; Clarke, C F

    1996-05-28

    Ubiquinone (Q) is an essential, lipid soluble, redox component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Much evidence suggests that ubiquinol (QH2) functions as an effective antioxidant in a number of membrane and biological systems by preventing peroxidative damage to lipids. It has been proposed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) may protect QH2 form autoxidation by acting either directly as a superoxide-semiquinone oxidoreductase or indirectly by scavenging superoxide. In this study, such an interaction between QH2 and SOD was tested by monitoring the fluorescence of cis-parinaric acid (cPN) incorporated phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes. Q6H2 was found to prevent both fluorescence decay and generation of lipid peroxides (LOOH) when peroxidation was initiated by the lipid-soluble azo initiator DAMP, dimethyl 2,2'-azobis (2-methylpropionate), while Q6 or SOD alone had no inhibitory effect. Addition of either SOD or catalase to Q6H2-containing liposomes had little effect on the rate of peroxidation even when incubated in 100% O2. Hence, the autoxidation of QH2 is a competing reaction that reduces the effectiveness of QH2 as an antioxidant and was not slowed by either SOD or catalase. The in vivo interaction of SOD and QH2 was also tested by employing yeast mutant strains harboring deletions in either CuZnSOD and/or MnSOD. The sod mutant yeast strains contained the same percent Q6H2 per cell as wild-type cells. These results indicate that the autoxidation of QH2 is independent of SOD. PMID:8639607

  9. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and. alpha. -tocopherol content of stored potato tubers. [Solanum tuberosum L

    SciTech Connect

    Spychalla, J.P.; Desborough, S.L. )

    1990-11-01

    Activated oxygen or oxygen free radical mediated damage to plants has been established or implicated in many plant stress situations. The extent of activated oxygen damage to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers during low temperature storage and long-term storage is not known. Quantitation of oxygen free radical mediated damage in plant tissues is difficult. However, it is comparatively easy to quantitate endogenous antioxidants, which detoxify potentially damaging forms of activated oxygen. Three tuber antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and {alpha}-tocopherol were assayed from four potato cultivars stored at 3{degree}C and 9{degree}C for 40 weeks. Tubers stored at 3{degree}C demonstrated increased superoxide dismutase activities (up to 72%) compared to tubers stored at 9{degree}C. Time dependent increases in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and {alpha}-tocopherol occurred during the course of the 40 week storage. The possible relationship between these increases in antioxidants and the rate of activated oxygen production in the tubers is discussed.

  10. Purification and characterization of iron-cofactored superoxide dismutase from Enteromorpha linza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Mingsheng; Cai, Ruanhong; Wang, Shujun; Liu, Zhaopu; Jiao, Yuliang; Fang, Yaowei; Zhang, Xiaoxin

    2013-11-01

    A superoxide dismutase was purified from Enteromorpha linza using a simple and safe procedure, which comprised phosphate buffer extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on Q-sepharose column, and gel filtration chromatography on Superdex 200 10/300GL. The E. linza superoxide dismutase ( ElSOD) was purified 103.6-fold, and a yield of 19.1% and a specific activity of 1 750 U/mg protein were obtained. The SDS-PAGE exhibited ElSOD a single band near 23 kDa and the gel filtration study showed ElSOD's molecular weight is near 46 kDa in nondenatured condition, indicating it's a homodimeric protein. El SOD is an iron-cofactored superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) because it was inhibited by hydrogen peroxide, insensitive to potassium cyanide. The optimal temperature for its maximal enzyme activity was 35°C, and it still had 29.8% relative activity at 0°C, then ElSOD can be classified as a cold-adapted enzyme. ElSOD was stable when temperature was below 40°C or the pH was within the range of 5-10. The first 11 N-terminal amino acids of ElSOD were ALELKAPPYEL, comparison of its N-terminal sequence with other Fe-SOD N-terminal sequences at the same position suggests it is possibly a chloroplastic Fe-SOD.

  11. Interplay between Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase, and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma Polymorphisms on the Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease among Han Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Chen, Yen-Ching; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Chang, Chen-Chih; Yen, Chung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), play an important role in the risk for cancer and metabolic disorders. However, little is known regarding the effect of antioxidant SNPs on renal events. Methods. We prospectively enrolled multicenter patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and those without chronic kidney disease (CKD) of Han Chinese origin, with SOD2 (Val16Ala), GPX1 (Pro197Leu), and PPAR-γ (Pro12Ala, C161T) genotyped. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the significant risk determinants for ESRD. Results. Compared to ESRD patients, non-CKD subjects were more likely to have T allele at SOD2 Val16Ala (p = 0.036) and CC genotype at PPAR-γ Pro12Ala (p = 0.028). Regression analysis showed that TT genotype of SOD2 Val16Ala conferred significantly lower ESRD risk among patients without diabetes (odds ratio 0.699; p = 0.018). GPX1 SNP alone did not alter the risk. We detected significant interactions between SNPs including PPAR-γ Pro12Ala, C161T, and GPX1 regarding the risk of ESRD. Conclusion. This is the first and largest study on the association between adverse renal outcomes and antioxidant SNPs among Han Chinese population. Determination of SOD2 and PPAR-γ SNPs status might assist in ESRD risk estimation. PMID:26881045

  12. Induction and inactivation of catalase and superoxide dismutase of Escherichia coli by ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteside, C.; Hassan, H.M.

    1987-09-01

    Oxyradicals have been implicated in ozone (O/sub 3/) toxicity and in other oxidant stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of O/sub 3/ on the biosynthesis of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase in Escherichia coli to determine their role in the defense against ozone toxicity. Inhibition of growth and loss of viability were observed in cultures exposed to ozone. Results also showed an increase in the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in cultures exposed to ozone, which was shown to be due to true induction rather than activation of preexisting apoproteins. Cessation of O/sub 3/ exposure resulted in 30 min of continual high rate of catalase biosynthesis followed by a gradual decrease in the level of the enzyme approaching that of control cultures. This decrease was attributed to a concomitant cessation of de novo enzyme synthesis and dilution of preexisting enzyme by cellular growth. Ozonation of cell-free extracts showed that superoxide dismutase and catalase are subject to oxidative inactivation by ozone. In vivo induction of these enzymes may represent an adaptive response evolved to protect cells against ozone toxicity.

  13. Status of Superoxide Dismutase in Transfusion Dependent Thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Rujito, Lantip; Mulatsih, Sri; Sofro, Abdul Salam M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thalassemia is a collection of genetic impairments in beta and alpha genes causing various states of anemia. Severe types of the disease need lifelong transfusions, leading to oxidant-antioxidant disturbance due to massive iron deposits. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and ferritin levels of thalassemia major patients in a peripheral health facility. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and nine probands were recruited and performed laboratory experiments for SOD and Ferritin levels. Chelation administration and clinical score were taken from interviewing the family and from medical report data. Results: The study showed that SOD intensity was lower (162.41 u/ml) compared to the normal cutoff point (P = 0.001), while the mean of Ferritin levels was ten times over the normal value (4226,67 ng/dl). Observations also reported that chelation medicine was not administrated properly. Conclusions: The data indicates that thalassemic patients have oxidant-antioxidant uproar due to oxidative stress. Monitored chelating administration, selective antioxidant, and a well-balanced diet may prevent oxidative injury. PMID:26110130

  14. NFAT is required for spontaneous pulmonary hypertension in superoxide dismutase 1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ramiro-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Nitta, Carlos H; Maston, Levi D; Codianni, Simon; Giermakowska, Wieslawa; Resta, Thomas C; Gonzalez Bosc, Laura V

    2013-05-01

    Elevated reactive oxygen species are implicated in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) limits superoxide bioavailability, and decreased SOD activity is associated with PH. A decrease in SOD activity is expected to increase superoxide and reduce hydrogen peroxide levels. Such an imbalance of superoxide/hydrogen peroxide has been implicated as a mediator of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activation in epidermal cells. We have shown that NFATc3 is required for chronic hypoxia-induced PH. However, it is unknown whether NFATc3 is activated in the pulmonary circulation in a mouse model of decreased SOD1 activity and whether this leads to PH. Therefore, we hypothesized that an elevated pulmonary arterial superoxide/hydrogen peroxide ratio activates NFATc3, leading to PH. We found that SOD1 knockout (KO) mice have elevated pulmonary arterial wall superoxide and decreased hydrogen peroxide levels compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was elevated in SOD1 KO and was associated with pulmonary arterial remodeling. Vasoreactivity to endothelin-1 was also greater in SOD1 KO vs. WT mice. NFAT activity and NFATc3 nuclear localization were increased in pulmonary arteries from SOD1 KO vs. WT mice. Administration of A-285222 (selective NFAT inhibitor) decreased RVSP, arterial wall thickness, vasoreactivity, and NFAT activity in SOD1 KO mice to WT levels. The SOD mimetic, tempol, also reduced NFAT activity, NFATc3 nuclear localization, and RVSP to WT levels. These findings suggest that an elevated superoxide/hydrogen peroxide ratio activates NFAT in pulmonary arteries, which induces vascular remodeling and increases vascular reactivity leading to PH.

  15. Cytosolic superoxide dismutase can provide protection against Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Jaikua, Wipaphorn; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Chaithirayanon, Kulathida; Tanomrat, Rataya; Wongwairot, Sirima; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert; Changklungmoa, Narin

    2016-10-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SOD), antioxidant metallo-enzymes, are a part of the first line of defense in the trematode parasites which act as the chief scavengers for reactive oxygen species (ROS). A recombinant Fasciola gigantica cytosolic SOD (FgSOD) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and used for immunizing rabbits to obtain polyclonal antibodies (anti-rFgSOD). This rabbit anti-rFgSOD reacted with the native FgSOD at a molecular weight of 17.5kDa. The FgSOD protein was expressed at high level in parenchyma, caecal epithelium and egg of the parasite. The rFgSOD reacted with antisera from rabbits infected with F. gigantica metacercariae collected at 2, 5, and 7 weeks after infection, and reacted with sera of infected mice. Anti-rFgSOD exhibited cross reactivity with the other parasites' antigens, including Eurytrema pancreaticum, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Fischoederius cobboldi, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Paramphistomum cervi, and Setaria labiato papillosa. A vaccination was performed in imprinting control region (ICR) mice by subcutaneous injection with 50μg of rFgSOD combined with Freund's adjuvant. At 2 weeks after the second boost, mice were infected with 15 metacercariae by oral route. IgG1 and IgG2a in the immune sera were determined to indicate Th2 and Th1 immune responses. It was found that the parasite burden was reduced by 45%, and both IgG1 and IgG2a levels showed correlation with the numbers of worm recoveries. PMID:27338185

  16. Effect of UV radiation on a thermostable superoxide dismutase purified from a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a sterilization drying oven.

    PubMed

    Monsalves, María T; Amenábar, Maximiliano J; Ollivet-Besson, Gabriela P; Blamey, Jenny M

    2013-07-01

    A thermostable superoxide dismutase from a thermophilic bacterium, called Geobacillus wiegeli (GWE1), isolated from the interior of a sterilization drying oven, was purified by anion-exchange and molecular size-exclusion liquid chromatography. On the basis of SDS-PAGE, the purified enzyme was found to be homogeneous and showed an estimated subunit molecular mass of 23.9 kDa. The holoenzyme is a homotetramer of 97.3 kDa. Superoxide dismutase exhibited maximal activity at pH 8.5 and at temperature around 60 ºC. The enzyme was thermostable maintaining 50% of its activity even after 4.5 hours incubation at 60 ºC and more than 70% of its activity after 30 min at 80 ºC. When the microorganism was irradiated with UVA, an increase in the specific activity of superoxide dismutase was observed which was correlated with decreasing levels of anion superoxide, indicating the direct involvement of this enzyme in the capture of reactive oxygen species. This study reports the effects of UV radiation on a superoxide dismutase from a thermophilic bacterium isolated from an anthropogenic environment. PMID:23245343

  17. A Zostera marina manganese superoxide dismutase gene involved in the responses to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You; Zang, Yu; Zhou, Bin

    2016-01-10

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an essential enzyme playing a pivotal role in the protection mechanism against oxidative stress by reducing superoxide radicals. In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequence of manganese superoxide dismutase was identified from Zostera marina (ZmMnSOD) via raid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis. The open reading frame (ORF) encoded a polypeptide of 254 amino acid residues, which shared 69%-77% similarity with previous identified SODs. Analysis of the deduced amino acid revealed conserved features, including functional domains, signature motifs and metal binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ZmMnSOD was closer to the SODs from angiosperm than those from other organisms. The mRNA expression level of ZmMnSOD at different temperatures was investigated using real-time PCR and it was significantly up-regulated from 5°C to 15°C, and then dramatically down-regulated. The recombinant ZmMnSOD protein was purified and exhibited Mn(2+) ions dependency specific enzymatic activity and strong antioxidant activity over a wide temperature range. All these results indicate that ZmMnSOD is an authentic member of the plant SOD family and may play important roles in minimizing the effect of oxidative damage in Z. marina against temperature stress and affect the adaptability of Z. marina to global warming.

  18. A Zostera marina manganese superoxide dismutase gene involved in the responses to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You; Zang, Yu; Zhou, Bin

    2016-01-10

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an essential enzyme playing a pivotal role in the protection mechanism against oxidative stress by reducing superoxide radicals. In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequence of manganese superoxide dismutase was identified from Zostera marina (ZmMnSOD) via raid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis. The open reading frame (ORF) encoded a polypeptide of 254 amino acid residues, which shared 69%-77% similarity with previous identified SODs. Analysis of the deduced amino acid revealed conserved features, including functional domains, signature motifs and metal binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ZmMnSOD was closer to the SODs from angiosperm than those from other organisms. The mRNA expression level of ZmMnSOD at different temperatures was investigated using real-time PCR and it was significantly up-regulated from 5°C to 15°C, and then dramatically down-regulated. The recombinant ZmMnSOD protein was purified and exhibited Mn(2+) ions dependency specific enzymatic activity and strong antioxidant activity over a wide temperature range. All these results indicate that ZmMnSOD is an authentic member of the plant SOD family and may play important roles in minimizing the effect of oxidative damage in Z. marina against temperature stress and affect the adaptability of Z. marina to global warming. PMID:26410038

  19. Structure and gene expression of the E. coli Mn-superoxide dismutase gene.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y; Avila, H

    1986-06-11

    Superoxide dismutase is an enzyme which converts superoxide O2- to hydrogen peroxide. Using a single synthetic oligonucleotide 33mer, we screened the E. coli DNA library and isolated a clone containing the E. coli manganese-superoxide dismutase gene. We determined the DNA sequence. The analysis of the DNA sequence and in vivo as well as in vitro transcription has shown the following. The DNA sequence suggests two possible promoters. However, only one of them seems active during normal aerobic growth. Purified RNA polymerase initiates in vitro transcription from the same promoter. It is not clear whether the second promoter is functional. It is possible that this promoter could be activated under different growth conditions. There is an inverted repeat sequence which could form a stem-loop structure downstream of the translation stop codon TAA of the Mn-SOD gene. The results of the analysis of in vivo and in vitro RNA have shown that this is the transcription termination signal. Thus, the Mn-SOD gene constitutes a single gene operon. There is an almost perfect 19 base palindrome at the -35 region. The position and the size of the palindrome suggest that this could be a regulatory site.

  20. Cloning, Purification, and Characterization of Recombinant Human Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase in SF9 Insect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Pravesh; Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Woo Taek; Kim, Tae-Yoon; Lee, Weontae

    2016-01-01

    A balance between production and degradation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Increased levels of ROS during oxidative stress are associated with disease conditions. Antioxidant enzymes, such as extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), in the extracellular matrix (ECM) neutralize the toxicity of superoxide. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of EC-SOD in protecting the brain, lungs, and other tissues from oxidative stress. Therefore, EC-SOD would be an excellent therapeutic drug for treatment of diseases caused by oxidative stress. We cloned both the full length (residues 1–240) and truncated (residues 19–240) forms of human EC-SOD (hEC-SOD) into the donor plasmid pFastBacHTb. After transposition, the bacmid was transfected into the Sf9-baculovirus expression system and the expressed hEC-SOD purified using FLAG-tag. Western blot analysis revealed that hEC-SOD is present both as a monomer (33 kDa) and a dimer (66 kDa), as detected by the FLAG antibody. A water-soluble tetrazolium (WST-1) assay showed that both full length and truncated hEC-SOD proteins were enzymatically active. We showed that a potent superoxide dismutase inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), inhibits hEC-SOD activity. PMID:26912083

  1. Protection against hyperoxia by serum from endotoxin treated rats: absence of superoxide dismutase induction

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.T.; Smith, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Endotoxin greatly reduces lung injury and pleural effusions in adult rats exposed to normobaric hyperoxia (> 98% oxygen for 60 hours). This study reports that serum from endotoxin treated donor rats protects serum recipients against hyperoxic lung injury without altering lung superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Rats pretreated with endotoxin alone were protected and exhibited an increase in lung SOD activity as previously reported by others. Protection by serum was not due to the transfer of residual endotoxin or SOD. These results show, that protection from oxygen toxicity can occur in rats without an increase in lung SOD and suggest that a serum factor may be involved.

  2. ROLE OF COPPER,ZINC-SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN CATALYZING NITROTYROSINE FORMATION IN MURINE LIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solely known function of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is to catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anion into hydrogen peroxide. Our objective was to determine if SOD1 catalyzed murine liver protein nitration induced by acetaminophen (APAP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Liver and plasma ...

  3. Superoxide Dismutase Protects Cells from DNA Damage Induced by Trivalent Methylated Arsenicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. Heterozygous mice of strain B6; 129S7-Sod1(tm1Leb)/J were obtained from Jackson Laboratories and bred to produce offspring that were heterozygous (+/Sod1(tm1Leb)), homozygous wild-type (+/+), ...

  4. Ras Oncogene-Mediated Progressive Silencing of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase in Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cammarota, Francesca; de Vita, Gabriella; Salvatore, Marco; Laukkanen, Mikko O.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is a secreted enzyme that uses superoxide anion as a substrate in a dismutase reaction that results in the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Both of these reactive oxygen species affect growth signaling in cells. Although SOD3 has growth-supporting characteristics, the expression of SOD3 is downregulated in epithelial cancer cells. In the current work, we studied the mechanisms regulating SOD3 expression in vitro using thyroid cell models representing different stages of thyroid cancer. We demonstrate that a low level of RAS activation increases SOD3 mRNA synthesis that then gradually decreases with increasing levels of RAS activation and the decreasing degree of differentiation of the cancer cells. Our data indicate that SOD3 regulation can be divided into two classes. The first class involves RAS–driven reversible regulation of SOD3 expression that can be mediated by the following mechanisms: RAS GTPase regulatory genes that are responsible for SOD3 self-regulation; RAS-stimulated p38 MAPK activation; and RAS-activated increased expression of the mir21 microRNA, which inversely correlates with sod3 mRNA expression. The second class involves permanent silencing of SOD3 mediated by epigenetic DNA methylation in cells that represent more advanced cancers. Therefore, the work suggests that SOD3 belongs to the group of ras oncogene-silenced genes. PMID:26550576

  5. Exogenous Melatonin Suppresses Dark-Induced Leaf Senescence by Activating the Superoxide Dismutase-Catalase Antioxidant Pathway and Down-Regulating Chlorophyll Degradation in Excised Leaves of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Huibin; Xu, Bin; Li, Jing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a typical symptom in plants exposed to dark and may be regulated by plant growth regulators. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous application of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence and the effects of melatonin on reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system and chlorophyll degradation pathway in perennial grass species. Mature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. ‘Pinnacle’) leaves were excised and incubated in 3 mM 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic buffer (pH 5.8) supplemented with melatonin or water (control) and exposed to dark treatment for 8 days. Leaves treated with melatonin maintained significantly higher endogenous melatonin level, chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency, and cell membrane stability expressed by lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content compared to the control. Exogenous melatonin treatment also reduced the transcript level of chlorophyll degradation-associated genes and senescence marker genes (LpSAG12.1, Lph36, and Lpl69) during the dark treatment. The endogenous O2- production rate and H2O2 content were significantly lower in these excised leaves treated with melatonin compared to the water control. Exogenous melatonin treatment caused increases in enzymatic activity and transcript levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase but had no significant effects on ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, were decreased by melatonin treatment, while the content of glutathione and oxidized glutathione was not affected by melatonin. These results suggest that the suppression of dark-induced leaf senescence by exogenous melatonin may be associated with its roles in regulating ROS scavenging through activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase enzymatic antioxidant pathway and

  6. Liposome-encapsulated superoxide dismutase mimetic: theranostic potential of an MR detectable and neuroprotective agent

    PubMed Central

    Shazeeb, Mohammed Salman; Feula, Giancarlo; Bogdanov, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous manganese based superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) provides the primary defense against excess production of potentially toxic superoxide anion (O2−). M40401 is a synthetic enzyme mimetic that has a catalytic activity rate exceeding that of the native SOD enzymes. The presence of a paramagnetic Mn(II) cation in M40401 suggests that the delivery and spatial distribution of this enzyme mimetic in vivo may be directly detectible using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); however, the cardiotoxicity of Mn(II) severely limits the use of free M40401 in living systems. To deliver M40401 in vivo in amounts sufficient for MRI detection and to limit potential cardiotoxicity, we encapsulated M40401 into 170 nm liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine and PEGylated phosphatidylethanolamine to achieve extended circulation in the bloodstream. The obtained liposomes efficiently catalyzed superoxide dismutation in vitro. Using 3 T MRI we investigated the biokinetics of liposome-encapsulated M40401 in mice and found that in addition to catalyzing superoxide dismutation in vitro, M40401 caused differential and region-specific enhancement of mouse brain after the systemic administration. Thus, liposome encapsulated M40401 is an ideal candidate for development as a theranostic compound useful for simultaneous MRI-mediated tracking of delivery as well as for neuroprotective treatment of ischemic brain. PMID:24700749

  7. Induction of superoxide dismutases in Escherichia coli by manganese and iron

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, S.Y.R.; DiGuiseppi, J.L.; Fridovich, I.

    1984-10-01

    Growth of Escherichia coli B in simple media enriched with Mn(II) resulted in the elevation of the manganese-containing superoxide dismutase, whereas growth in such medium enriched with iron caused increased content of the iron-containing superoxide dismutase. Enrichment of the medium with Co(II), Cu(II), Mo(VI), Zn(II), or Ni(II) had no effect. The inductions of superoxide dismutase by Mn(II) or by Fe(II) were dioxygen dependent, but these metals did not affect the CN/sup -/-resistant respiration of E. coli B and did not influence the increase in the CN/sup -/-resistant respiration caused by paraquat. Mn(II) and paraquat acted synergistically in elevating the superoxide dismutase content, and Mn(II) reduced the growth inhibition imposed by paraquat. E. coli grown in the complex 3% Trypticase soy broth (BBL Microbiology Systems)-0.5% yeast extract-0.2% glucose medium contained more superoxide dismutase than did cells grown in the simple media and were less responsive to enrichment of the medium with Mn(II) or Fe(II). Nevertheless, in the presence of paraquat, induction of superoxide dismutase by these metals could be seen even in the Trypticase-yeast extract-glucose medium. On the basis of these observations, the authors propose that the apo-superoxide dismutases may act as autogenous repressors and that Mn(II) and Fe(II) increase the cell content of the corresponding enzymes by speeding the conversion of the apo- to the holoenzymes.

  8. Six-coordinate manganese(3+) in catalysis by yeast manganese superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yuewei; Butler Gralla, Edith; Schumacher, Mikhail; Cascio, Duilio; Cabelli, Diane E.; Selverstone Valentine, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of superoxide () by manganese-containing superoxide dismutase occurs through either a “prompt protonation” pathway, or an “inner-sphere” pathway, with the latter leading to formation of an observable Mn-peroxo complex. We recently reported that wild-type (WT) manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans are more gated toward the “prompt protonation” pathway than human and bacterial MnSODs and suggested that this could result from small structural changes in the second coordination sphere of manganese. We report here that substitution of a second-sphere residue, Tyr34, by phenylalanine (Y34F) causes the MnSOD from S. cerevisiae to react exclusively through the “inner-sphere” pathway. At neutral pH, we have a surprising observation that protonation of the Mn-peroxo complex in the mutant yeast enzyme occurs through a fast pathway, leading to a putative six-coordinate Mn3+ species, which actively oxidizes in the catalytic cycle. Upon increasing pH, the fast pathway is gradually replaced by a slow proton-transfer pathway, leading to the well-characterized five-coordinate Mn3+. We here propose and compare two hypothetical mechanisms for the mutant yeast enzyme, differing in the structure of the Mn-peroxo complex yet both involving formation of the active six-coordinate Mn3+ and proton transfer from a second-sphere water molecule, which has substituted for the ─OH of Tyr34, to the Mn-peroxo complex. Because WT and the mutant yeast MnSOD both rest in the 2+ state and become six-coordinate when oxidized up from Mn2+, six-coordinate Mn3+ species could also actively function in the mechanism of WT yeast MnSODs. PMID:22908245

  9. Six-coordinate manganese(3+) in catalysis by yeast manganese superoxide dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Yuewei; Gralla, Edith Butler; Schumacher, Mikhail; Cascio, Duilio; Cabelli, Diane E.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    2012-10-10

    Reduction of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}) by manganese-containing superoxide dismutase occurs through either a 'prompt protonation' pathway, or an 'inner-sphere' pathway, with the latter leading to formation of an observable Mn-peroxo complex. We recently reported that wild-type (WT) manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans are more gated toward the 'prompt protonation' pathway than human and bacterial MnSODs and suggested that this could result from small structural changes in the second coordination sphere of manganese. We report here that substitution of a second-sphere residue, Tyr34, by phenylalanine (Y34F) causes the MnSOD from S. cerevisiae to react exclusively through the 'inner-sphere' pathway. At neutral pH, we have a surprising observation that protonation of the Mn-peroxo complex in the mutant yeast enzyme occurs through a fast pathway, leading to a putative six-coordinate Mn3+ species, which actively oxidizes O{sub 2}{sup -} in the catalytic cycle. Upon increasing pH, the fast pathway is gradually replaced by a slow proton-transfer pathway, leading to the well-characterized five-coordinate Mn{sup 3+}. We here propose and compare two hypothetical mechanisms for the mutant yeast enzyme, diffeeing in the structure of the Mn-peroxo complex yet both involving formation of the active six-coordinate Mn{sup 3+} and proton transfer from a second-sphere water molecule, which has substituted for the -OH of Tyr34, to the Mn-peroxo complex. Because WT and the mutant yeast MnSOD both rest in the 2+ state and become six-coordinate when oxidized up from Mn{sup 2+}, six-coordinate Mn{sup 3+} species could also actively function in the mechanism of WT yeast MnSODs.

  10. Diversity, Function and Evolution of Genes Coding for Putative Ni-Containing Superoxide Dismutases

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont,C.; Neupane, K.; Shearer, J.; Palenik, B.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the phylogenetic distribution, functionality and evolution of the sodN gene family, which has been shown to code for a unique Ni-containing isoform of superoxide dismutase (Ni-SOD) in Streptomyces. Many of the putative sodN sequences retrieved from public domain genomic and metagenomic databases are quite divergent from structurally and functionally characterized Ni-SOD. Structural bioinformatics studies verified that the divergent members of the sodN protein family code for similar three-dimensional structures and identified evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues. Structural and biochemical studies of the N-terminus 'Ni-hook' motif coded for by the putative sodN sequences confirmed both Ni (II) ligating and superoxide dismutase activity. Both environmental and organismal genomes expanded the previously noted phylogenetic distribution of sodN, and the sequences form four well-separated clusters, with multiple subclusters. The phylogenetic distribution of sodN suggests that the gene has been acquired via horizontal gene transfer by numerous organisms of diverse phylogenetic background, including both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes. The presence of sodN correlates with the genomic absence of the gene coding for Fe-SOD, a structurally and evolutionarily distinct isoform of SOD. Given the low levels of Fe found in the marine environment from where many sequences were attained, we suggest that the replacement of Fe-SOD with Ni-SOD may be an evolutionary adaptation to reduce iron requirements.

  11. Evolutive and structural characterization of Nostoc commune iron-superoxide dismutase that is fit for modification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Lu, M; Li, J-Y; Qin, Y; Gong, X-G

    2012-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has extensive clinical applications for protecting organisms from toxic oxidation. In this study, the integrated iron-superoxide dismutase gene (fe-sod) coding sequence of Nostoc commune stain CHEN was cloned from genomic DNA and compared to sods from other reported algae. These analyses of immunology and phylogenetics indicated that this Fe-SOD is considerably homologous with SODs from lower prokaryotes (Fe-SOD or Mn-SOD) but not those from higher animals (Cu/Zn-SOD). In addition, the N. commune Fe-SOD shows 67 to 93% protein sequence identity to 10 other algal Fe-SODs (or Mn-SODs) and 69 to 93% gene sequence identity. Rare nonsynonymous substitutions imply that algal SODs are being subjected to strong natural selection. Interestingly, the N. commune Fe-SOD enzyme molecule has a compact active center that is highly conserved (38.1% of residues are absolutely conserved), and 2 loose ends localized outside the molecule and inclined to mutate (only 11.5% of residues are absolutely conserved). Based on associative analyses of evolution, structure, and function, this special phenomenon is attributed to function-dependent evolution through negative natural selection. Under strong natural selection, although the mutation is random on the gene level, the exterior region is inclined to mutate on the protein level owing to more nonsynonymous substitutions in the exterior region, which demonstrates the theoretical feasibility of modifying Fe-SOD on its ends to overcome its disadvantages in clinical applications. PMID:23096686

  12. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  13. Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an antioxidant gene from seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis); molecular cloning, sequence characterization, antioxidant activity and potential peroxidation function of its recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-10-01

    Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) from Hippocampus abdominalis (HaCuZnSOD) is a metalloenzyme which belongs to the ubiquitous family of SODs. Here, we determined the characteristic structural features of HaCuZnSOD, analyzed its evolutionary relationships, and identified its potential immune responses and biological functions in relation to antioxidant defense mechanisms in the seahorse. The gene had a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 67 bp, a coding sequence of 465 bp and a 3' UTR of 313 bp. The putative peptide consists of 154 amino acids. HaCuZnSOD had a predicted molecular mass of 15.94 kDa and a theoretical pI value of 5.73, which is favorable for copper binding activity. In silico analysis revealed that HaCuZnSOD had a prominent Cu-Zn_superoxide_dismutase domain, two Cu/Zn signature sequences, a putative N-glycosylation site, and several active sites including Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) binding sites. The three dimensional structure indicated a β-sheet barrel with 8 β-sheets and two short α-helical regions. Multiple alignment analyses revealed many conserved regions and active sites among its orthologs. The highest amino acid identity to HaCuZnSOD was found in Siniperca chuatsi (87.4%), while Maylandia zebra shared a close relationship in the phylogenetic analysis. Functional assays were performed to assess the antioxidant, biophysical and biochemical properties of overexpressed recombinant (r) HaCuZnSOD. A xanthine/XOD assay gave optimum results at pH 9 and 25 °C indicating these may be the best conditions for its antioxidant action in the seahorse. An MTT assay and flow cytometry confirmed that rHaCuZnSOD showed peroxidase activity in the presence of HCO3(-). In all the functional assays, the level of antioxidant activity of rHaCuZnSOD was concentration dependent; metal ion supplementation also increased its activity. The highest mRNA expressional level of HaCuZnSOD was found in blood. Temporal assessment under pathological stress showed a delay

  14. Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an antioxidant gene from seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis); molecular cloning, sequence characterization, antioxidant activity and potential peroxidation function of its recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-10-01

    Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) from Hippocampus abdominalis (HaCuZnSOD) is a metalloenzyme which belongs to the ubiquitous family of SODs. Here, we determined the characteristic structural features of HaCuZnSOD, analyzed its evolutionary relationships, and identified its potential immune responses and biological functions in relation to antioxidant defense mechanisms in the seahorse. The gene had a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 67 bp, a coding sequence of 465 bp and a 3' UTR of 313 bp. The putative peptide consists of 154 amino acids. HaCuZnSOD had a predicted molecular mass of 15.94 kDa and a theoretical pI value of 5.73, which is favorable for copper binding activity. In silico analysis revealed that HaCuZnSOD had a prominent Cu-Zn_superoxide_dismutase domain, two Cu/Zn signature sequences, a putative N-glycosylation site, and several active sites including Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) binding sites. The three dimensional structure indicated a β-sheet barrel with 8 β-sheets and two short α-helical regions. Multiple alignment analyses revealed many conserved regions and active sites among its orthologs. The highest amino acid identity to HaCuZnSOD was found in Siniperca chuatsi (87.4%), while Maylandia zebra shared a close relationship in the phylogenetic analysis. Functional assays were performed to assess the antioxidant, biophysical and biochemical properties of overexpressed recombinant (r) HaCuZnSOD. A xanthine/XOD assay gave optimum results at pH 9 and 25 °C indicating these may be the best conditions for its antioxidant action in the seahorse. An MTT assay and flow cytometry confirmed that rHaCuZnSOD showed peroxidase activity in the presence of HCO3(-). In all the functional assays, the level of antioxidant activity of rHaCuZnSOD was concentration dependent; metal ion supplementation also increased its activity. The highest mRNA expressional level of HaCuZnSOD was found in blood. Temporal assessment under pathological stress showed a delay

  15. The SODyssey: superoxide dismutases from biochemistry, through proteomics, to oxidative stress, aging and nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2011-06-01

    A total of 40 years have already passed since the pioneering work of McCord and Fridovich on erythrocuprein superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. This modern scientific 'Odyssey' has been accompanied by a series of successes in the fields of biochemistry, biomedicine and proteomics. In this article, we resume the main strides in these fields, mainly aiming at delivering an exhaustive portrait of SOD's involvement in several oxidative stress-triggered threats to human health, including neurodegenerative disorders (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases), cardiovascular diseases, cancer and aging. In parallel, food-derived chemical compounds appear to be intertwined with cellular redox poise modulation, as this increasingly emerges from clinical biochemical and proteomic investigations. Thus, we will also consider the involvement of these nutraceuticals in oxidative stress-triggered diseases and SOD activity modulation. Like a modern Ulysses, researchers know that the journey is not yet over. Nevertheless, much information has been gathered over the last four decades. PMID:21679120

  16. Potential mechanisms for the inhibition of tumor cell growth by manganese superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Kim, K H; Rodriguez, A M; Carrico, P M; Melendez, J A

    2001-06-01

    Studies from many laboratories have shown that overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits the growth of numerous tumor cell types. The inhibition of tumor cell growth can be attributed to the increase in the steady-state levels of H2O2 as a result of the increased dismuting activity of MnSOD. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of MnSOD enhances the activity of the superoxide (O2*-)-sensitive enzyme aconitase, decreases the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio, and dose-dependently inhibits pyruvate carboxylase activity. Thus, alterations in the steady-state concentrations of mitochondrial O2*- and H2O2 as a result of MnSOD overexpression can alter the metabolic capacity of the cell leading to inhibition of cell growth. Furthermore, we propose that MnSOD overexpression can modulate the activity of nitric oxide (*NO) by preventing its reaction with O2*-. This hypothesis suggests that the redox environment of the mitochondria can be altered to favor the activity of *NO rather than peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and may explain the enhanced toxicity of *NO-generating compounds toward MnSOD-overexpressing cell lines. These findings indicate that therapeutic strategies targeted at overexpressing MnSOD in tumor tissue may be more effective when used in combination with agents that deplete the oxidant-buffering and enhance the *NO-generating capacity of the tumor and host, respectively. PMID:11491650

  17. Molecular cloning of an Onchocerca volvulus extracellular Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed Central

    James, E R; McLean, D C; Perler, F

    1994-01-01

    Onchocerca volvulus, a human parasitic nematode, is the third leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. This study describes the molecular cloning of a novel superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the parasite. This putative O. volvulus extracellular SOD (OvEcSOD) is 628 nucleotides (nt) long, including a 22-nt 5' spliced leader (SL1) and a portion encoding an N-terminal hydrophobic 42-amino-acid signal peptide. The remainder of the cDNA shares 71% identity with an O. volvulus cytosolic SOD sequence and is 3 nt longer. All residues involved in metal ion binding, active site formation, folding, and dimer formation in SODs are conserved. Data indicate the OvEcSOD and O. volvulus cytosolic SOD are separate gene products and that the OvEcSOD appears to possess the characteristics of a membrane-bound or secreted enzyme which may be involved in the parasite defense against phagocyte-generated reactive oxygen species. Images PMID:8300230

  18. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Sequence Variants of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Genes from Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are very harmful to living organisms due to the potential oxidation of membrane lipids, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. Transformed E.coli strain QC 871, superoxide dismutase (SOD) double-mutant, with three sequence variant MnSOD1, MnSOD2, and MnSOD3 manganese supero...

  19. Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase: A Unique Biological "Ligand" for Bioinorganic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Joan Selverstone; de Freitas, Duarte Mota

    1985-01-01

    Discusses superoxide dismutase (SOD) research and the properties of copper, zinc (Cu, Zn)-SOD. Emphasizes the controversy concerning the role of Cu,Zn-SOD and other SOD enzymes as protective agents in reactions involving dioxygen metabolism, and the properties of Cu, Zn-SOD that make it an interesting biological ligand for physical studies of…

  20. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences expression of superoxide dismutase genes in Tenebrio molitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species. In this study, we identified genes encoding the extracellular and intracellular copper-zinc SODs (ecCuZnSOD and icCuZnSOD) and a manganese SOD (MnSOD) in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor....

  1. Exogenous superoxide dismutase may lose its antidotal ability on rice leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf diffusates of the resistant rice cultivars suppressed spore germination of blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea). Bovine Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) added to the diffusate abolished its toxicity. However, the enzyme added to the inoculum did not affect the toxicity of the diffusate. Even the s...

  2. Effects of salinity change on two superoxide dismutases (SODs) in juvenile marbled eel Anguilla marmorata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, Xiaolu; Yin, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most important factors that affect the fish growth and survival. Superoxide dismutases (SODs), as the primary antioxidant enzymes, play a first role in the process of preventing oxidative stress caused by excessive superoxide anion (O[Formula: see text]) in living organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of salinity on the gene expressions as well as enzymatic activities of MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD in gill, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle tissues of the marbled eel Anguilla marmorata. We found that the liver might possess stronger redox capacity compared with other tissues. Furthermore, the gene expressions and enzymatic activities of SODs in juvenile marbled eels could be effectively enhanced by low salinity but inhibited when the salinity was higher than the body tolerance. Our findings indicated that MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD played vital roles in the adaptation of marbled eels to salinity variation, which contributed to the elucidation of physiological adaptation and regulatory mechanism of SODs in eels. PMID:27547518

  3. Effects of salinity change on two superoxide dismutases (SODs) in juvenile marbled eel Anguilla marmorata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, Xiaolu; Yin, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most important factors that affect the fish growth and survival. Superoxide dismutases (SODs), as the primary antioxidant enzymes, play a first role in the process of preventing oxidative stress caused by excessive superoxide anion (O[Formula: see text]) in living organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of salinity on the gene expressions as well as enzymatic activities of MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD in gill, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle tissues of the marbled eel Anguilla marmorata. We found that the liver might possess stronger redox capacity compared with other tissues. Furthermore, the gene expressions and enzymatic activities of SODs in juvenile marbled eels could be effectively enhanced by low salinity but inhibited when the salinity was higher than the body tolerance. Our findings indicated that MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD played vital roles in the adaptation of marbled eels to salinity variation, which contributed to the elucidation of physiological adaptation and regulatory mechanism of SODs in eels.

  4. Brain-Specific Superoxide Dismutase 2 Deficiency Causes Perinatal Death with Spongiform Encephalopathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Izuo, Naotaka; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Noda, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Satoru; Kojima, Shuji; Sasaki, Toru; Shirasawa, Takuji; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to greatly contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including neurodegeneration. Impairment of mitochondrial energy production and increased mitochondrial oxidative damage are considered early pathological events that lead to neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, SOD2) is a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that converts toxic superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. To investigate the pathological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the central nervous system, we generated brain-specific SOD2-deficient mice (B-Sod2(-/-)) using nestin-Cre-loxp system. B-Sod2(-/-) showed perinatal death, along with severe growth retardation. Interestingly, these mice exhibited spongiform neurodegeneration in motor cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem, accompanied by gliosis. In addition, the mutant mice had markedly decreased mitochondrial complex II activity, but not complex I or IV, in the brain based on enzyme histochemistry. Furthermore, brain lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in the B-Sod2(-/-), without any compensatory alterations of the activities of other antioxidative enzymes, such as catalase or glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that SOD2 protects the neural system from oxidative stress in the perinatal stage and is essential for infant survival and central neural function in mice. PMID:26301039

  5. Brain-Specific Superoxide Dismutase 2 Deficiency Causes Perinatal Death with Spongiform Encephalopathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Izuo, Naotaka; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Noda, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Satoru; Kojima, Shuji; Sasaki, Toru; Shirasawa, Takuji; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to greatly contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including neurodegeneration. Impairment of mitochondrial energy production and increased mitochondrial oxidative damage are considered early pathological events that lead to neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, SOD2) is a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that converts toxic superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. To investigate the pathological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the central nervous system, we generated brain-specific SOD2-deficient mice (B-Sod2−/−) using nestin-Cre-loxp system. B-Sod2−/− showed perinatal death, along with severe growth retardation. Interestingly, these mice exhibited spongiform neurodegeneration in motor cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem, accompanied by gliosis. In addition, the mutant mice had markedly decreased mitochondrial complex II activity, but not complex I or IV, in the brain based on enzyme histochemistry. Furthermore, brain lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in the B-Sod2−/−, without any compensatory alterations of the activities of other antioxidative enzymes, such as catalase or glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that SOD2 protects the neural system from oxidative stress in the perinatal stage and is essential for infant survival and central neural function in mice. PMID:26301039

  6. Effects of salinity change on two superoxide dismutases (SODs) in juvenile marbled eel Anguilla marmorata

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most important factors that affect the fish growth and survival. Superoxide dismutases (SODs), as the primary antioxidant enzymes, play a first role in the process of preventing oxidative stress caused by excessive superoxide anion (O\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${}_{2}^{-}$\\end{document}2−) in living organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of salinity on the gene expressions as well as enzymatic activities of MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD in gill, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle tissues of the marbled eel Anguilla marmorata. We found that the liver might possess stronger redox capacity compared with other tissues. Furthermore, the gene expressions and enzymatic activities of SODs in juvenile marbled eels could be effectively enhanced by low salinity but inhibited when the salinity was higher than the body tolerance. Our findings indicated that MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD played vital roles in the adaptation of marbled eels to salinity variation, which contributed to the elucidation of physiological adaptation and regulatory mechanism of SODs in eels. PMID:27547518

  7. Brain-Specific Superoxide Dismutase 2 Deficiency Causes Perinatal Death with Spongiform Encephalopathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Izuo, Naotaka; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Noda, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Satoru; Kojima, Shuji; Sasaki, Toru; Shirasawa, Takuji; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to greatly contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including neurodegeneration. Impairment of mitochondrial energy production and increased mitochondrial oxidative damage are considered early pathological events that lead to neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, SOD2) is a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that converts toxic superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. To investigate the pathological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the central nervous system, we generated brain-specific SOD2-deficient mice (B-Sod2(-/-)) using nestin-Cre-loxp system. B-Sod2(-/-) showed perinatal death, along with severe growth retardation. Interestingly, these mice exhibited spongiform neurodegeneration in motor cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem, accompanied by gliosis. In addition, the mutant mice had markedly decreased mitochondrial complex II activity, but not complex I or IV, in the brain based on enzyme histochemistry. Furthermore, brain lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in the B-Sod2(-/-), without any compensatory alterations of the activities of other antioxidative enzymes, such as catalase or glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that SOD2 protects the neural system from oxidative stress in the perinatal stage and is essential for infant survival and central neural function in mice.

  8. Molecular characterization of a cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase from the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D X; Chen, L Q; Qin, J G; Qin, C J; Zhang, H; Wu, P; Li, E C

    2014-11-11

    A cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Es-cMnSOD) was cloned from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The open reading frame of Es-cMnSOD is 867 bp in length and encodes a 288-amino acid protein without a signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the translated protein of Es-cMnSOD is 31.43 kDa, with an estimated isoelectric point of 6.30. The deduced amino acid sequence of Es-cMnSOD has similarities of 90, 89, 84, 87, and 81% to those of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei MnSOD, black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon MnSOD, giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii MnSOD, blue crab Callinectes sapidus MnSOD, and red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii MnSOD, respectively. Es-cMnSOD contains a manganese superoxide dismutase domain (DVWEHAYY) and 4 conserved amino acids responsible for binding manganese. Es-cMnSOD was expressed in the hemocytes, eyestalk, muscle, intestine, gill, and hepatopancreas. Es-cMnSOD transcripts in hemocytes of E. sinensis increased at 1.5 and 48 h after injection of Aeromonas hydrophila, indicating that the induction of the SOD system response occurred within a short period of time. This study suggests that MnSOD may play a critical role in crab immunity, allowing efficient activation of an early innate immune response in the crab.

  9. Novel Nanodimension artificial red blood cells that act as O2 and CO2 carrier with enhanced antioxidant activity: PLA-PEG nanoencapsulated PolySFHb-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Bian, Yuzhu; Chang, Thomas M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(lactic acid) block-copolymer (PEG-PLA) was prepared and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). Glutaraldehyde was used to crosslink stroma-free hemoglobin (SFHb), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and carbonic anhydrase (CA) into a soluble complex of PolySFHb-SOD-CAT-CA. PEG-PLA was then used to nanoencapsulated PolySFHb-SOD-CAT-CA by oil in water emulsification. This resulted in the formation of PLA-PEG-PolySFHb-SOD-CAT-CA nanocapsules that have enhanced antioxidant activity and that can transport both O2 and CO2. These are homogeneous particles with an average diameter of 100 nm with good dispersion and core shell structure, high entrapment efficiency (EE%), and nanocapsule percent recovery. A lethal hemorrhagic shock model in rats was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the PLA-PEG-PolySFHb-SOD-CAT-CA nanocapsules. Infusion of this preparation resulted in the lowering of the elevated tissue PCO2 and also recovery of the mean arterial pressure (MAP). PMID:23336597

  10. Superoxide Dismutase 1 Loss Disturbs Intracellular Redox Signaling, Resulting in Global Age-Related Pathological Changes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and organ dysfunction, which occur in a progressive and irreversible manner. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) serves as a major antioxidant and neutralizes superoxide radicals throughout the body. In vivo studies have demonstrated that copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1−/−) mice show various aging-like pathologies, accompanied by augmentation of oxidative damage in organs. We found that antioxidant treatment significantly attenuated the age-related tissue changes and oxidative damage-associated p53 upregulation in Sod1−/− mice. This review will focus on various age-related pathologies caused by the loss of Sod1 and will discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in Sod1−/− mice. PMID:25276767

  11. Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase deficiency accelerates chronological aging in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Toshiya; Senoo, Takanori; Kawano, Shinji; Ikeda, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    A mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is the first line of antioxidant defense against mitochondrial superoxide. Even though the involvement of SOD2 in lifespan has been studied extensively in several organisms, characterization of the aging process has not been performed for the sod2 mutant (sod2Δ) of a prominent model Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this study, we measured the chronological lifespan of sod2Δ cells by their ability to survive in long-term culture. SOD2 deficiency drastically decreased cell viability in the stationary phase. The mutation frequency of nuclear DNA in sod2Δ was elevated in the stationary phase, and cellular proteins and nuclear DNA were extensively degraded, concurrent with cell death. The sod2 gene in wild-type cells could be induced by an increase in endogenous oxidative stresses, after which, SOD2 activity was substantially elevated during the stationary phase. Culture in a lower glucose concentration (calorie restriction) prominently extended the sod2Δ lifespan. Therefore, S. pombe SOD2 plays a critical role in longevity through its upregulation in the non-dividing phase.

  12. Enhancement of oxidative stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants overproducing Fe-superoxide dismutase in chloroplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Van Camp, W; Capiau, K; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D; Slooten, L

    1996-01-01

    A chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence for chloroplastic Fe superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) from Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled to the chloroplast targeting sequence from the pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit, was expressed in Nicotiana tabacum cv Petit Havana SR1. Expression of the transgenic FeSOD protected both the plasmalemma and photosystem II against superoxide generated during illumination of leaf discs impregnated with methyl viologen. By contrast, overproduction of a mitochondrial MnSOD from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia in the chloroplasts of cv SR1 protected only the plasmalemma, but not photosystem II, against methyl viologen (L. Slooten, K. Capiau, W. Van Camp, M. Van Montagu, C. Sybesma, D. Inzé [1995] Plant Physiol 107: 737-750). The difference in effectiveness correlates with different membrane affinities of the transgenic FeSOD and MnSOD. Overproduction of FeSOD does not confer tolerance to H2O2, singlet oxygen, chilling-induced photoinhibition in leaf disc assays, or to salt stress at the whole plant level. In nontransgenic plants, salt stress led to a 2- to 3-fold increase in activity, on a protein basis, of FeSOD, cytosolic and chloroplastic Cu/ZnSOD, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase. In FeSOD-overproducing plants under salt stress, the induction of cytosolic and chloroplastic Cu/ZnSOD was suppressed, whereas induction of a water-soluble chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase isozyme was promoted. PMID:8972606

  13. Concerted action of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase in preventing redox cycling of dihydroxypyrimidines, and their role in antioxidant defence.

    PubMed

    Winterbourn, C C; Munday, R

    1990-01-01

    Dialuric Acid, the reduced form of the beta-cell toxin alloxan, and the related fava bean derivatives divicine and isouramil, autoxidize rapidly in neutral solution by a radical mechanism. GSH promotes redox cycling of each compound, with concomitant GSH oxidation and H2O2 production. With superoxide dismutase present, there is a lag period in which little oxidation occurs, followed by rapid oxidation. GSH extends this lag and decreases the subsequent rate of oxidation, so that with superoxide dismutase and a sufficient excess of GSH, coupled oxidation of GSH and each pyrimidine is almost completely suppressed. This mechanism may be a means whereby GSH in combination with superoxide dismutase protects against the cytotoxic effects of these reactive pyrimidines. Superoxide dismutase may also protect cells against oxidative stress in other situations where GSH acts as a radical scavenger, and we propose that the concerted action of GSH and superoxide dismutase constitutes an important antioxidant defence. PMID:2354807

  14. Significant In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pytren4Q-Mn a Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2) Mimetic Scorpiand-Like Mn (II) Complex

    PubMed Central

    Serena, Carolina; Calvo, Enrique; Clares, Mari Paz; Diaz, María Luisa; Chicote, Javier U.; Beltrán-Debon, Raúl; Fontova, Ramón; Rodriguez, Alejandro; García-España, Enrique; García-España, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical use of purified SOD enzymes has strong limitations due to their large molecular size, high production cost and immunogenicity. These limitations could be compensated by using instead synthetic SOD mimetic compounds of low molecular weight. Background/Methodology We have recently reported that two SOD mimetic compounds, the MnII complexes of the polyamines Pytren2Q and Pytren4Q, displayed high antioxidant activity in bacteria and yeast. Since frequently molecules with antioxidant properties or free-radical scavengers also have anti-inflammatory properties we have assessed the anti-inflammatory potential of Pytren2Q and Pytren4Q MnII complexes, in cultured macrophages and in a murine model of inflammation, by measuring the degree of protection they could provide against the cellular injury produced by lipopolisacharide, a bacterial endotoxin. Principal Findings In this report we show that the MnII complex of Pytren4Q but not that of Pytren2Q effectively protected human cultured THP-1 macrophages and whole mice from the inflammatory effects produced by LPS. These results obtained with two molecules that are isomers highlight the importance of gathering experimental data from animal models of disease in assessing the potential of candidate molecules. Conclusion/Significance The effective anti-inflammatory activity of the MnII complex of Pytren4Q in addition to its low toxicity, water solubility and ease of production would suggest it is worth taking into consideration for future pharmacological studies. PMID:25742129

  15. Effects of supplementation with two sources and two levels of copper on meat lipid oxidation, meat colour and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities in Nellore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Correa, Lísia Bertonha; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio; Del Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro; de Paiva, Fernanda Alves; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; Netto, Arlindo Saran

    2014-10-28

    In the present study, thirty-five Nellore bulls were used to determine the effects of two levels and two sources (organic and inorganic) of Cu supplementation on the oxidative stability of lipids, measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) test, meat colour and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities. The following treatments were used: (1) control (C) - basal diet without supplementation of Cu (7 mg Cu/kg DM); (2) I10 - basal diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper sulphate (inorganic form); (3) I40 - basal diet supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper sulphate; (4) O10 - basal diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper proteinate (organic form); (5) O40 - basal diet supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper proteinate. Lipid oxidation was determined in meat samples exposed to display, modified atmosphere (MA) and vacuum packaging (VC) conditions and in liver samples using the TBARS test. These samples were also evaluated for meat discolouration after exposure to air. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes were determined in liver samples. In display, MA and VC conditions, the TBARS values of samples from animals supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM were lower than those of samples from control animals. There was no effect of treatment on the colour variables (L*, a*, b*). There was also no significant effect of treatment on hepatic TBARS concentrations and GSH-Px activity. Supplementation with Cu at 40 mg/kg, regardless of the source, induced higher hepatic SOD activity compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, Cu supplementation improved the oxidative stability of lipids in samples exposed to display, MA and VC conditions, demonstrating the antioxidant effect of this mineral.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide is produced by E. coli challenged haemocytes and regulates phagocytosis, in the medfly Ceratitis capitata. The active role of superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Arbi, Marina; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Lampropoulou, Maria; Marmaras, Vassilis J; Tsakas, Sotiris

    2011-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) participates as a second messenger in cell signaling. In this paper, the role of H(2)O(2) was investigated, in Escherichia coli phagocytosis by the haemocytes of the medfly Ceratitis capitata. Block of H(2)O(2) synthesis by specific enzymic inhibitors, namely N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) for NADPH oxidase and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) for SOD, resulted in the increase of E. coli phagocytosis. Immunoblot analysis, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, revealed the constitutive expression of SOD, in the medfly haemocytes. Phagocytosis increased by small interfering RNA (siRNA) for SOD, revealing the active involvement of SOD and H(2)O(2). Immunoblot analysis showed an increase of the ERK1/2 phosphorylation, in the presence of the above H(2)O(2) synthesis enzymic inhibitors. In addition, confocal microscopy showed no co-localization of SOD with β integrin subunit. It appears that SOD participates in the regulation of bacterial phagocytosis, due to involvement of the produced H(2)O(2) in the differential phosphorylation of MAP kinases.

  17. Synthesis, superoxide dismutase, nuclease, and anticancer activities of copper(II) complexes incorporating bis(2-picolyl)amine with different counter anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; Ramadan, Abdel-Motaleb M.; Mersal, Gaber A. M.; El-Shazly, Samir A.

    2011-07-01

    Interaction of the tridentate ligand bis(2-picolyl)amine L with copper(II) salts gave a series of copper(II) complexes with the formula types: [ LCu(X) 2] (X = Cl -1, = Br -2), [( LCu (H 2O)(μ-SO 4)( LCu(H 2O)]SO 43, [ LCu(OAc)](OAc )H 2O 4, [ LCu(H 2O) 2](Y) 2 (Y = NO3-5, = ClO4-6). Their structures and properties were characterized by elemental analysis, thermal analysis (TGA), IR, UV-vis and ESR spectroscopy, electrochemical measurements including cyclic voltammetry and electrical molar conductivity, and magnetic moment measurements. A square pyramidal geometry is proposed for the halogeno complexes 1 and 2 in monomeric structures. For sulfate complex, the sulfate group bridged two copper(II) ions of the two [N 3O] donor units to give the dimeric complex molecule 3 in square pyramidal environment around the copper(II) ions. In the case of complexes 4- 6, square planar stereochemistries in monomeric structures are suggested. The SOD biomimetic catalytic activity of the obtained complexes was assessed for their ability to inhibit the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT). The catalytic efficiency of O2- scavenging by complexes depends on the nature of the particular acidic anion radical incorporated in the complex molecule and follows the order: NO3- > ClO4- > Br - ⩾ Cl - > SO4- > AcO -. A probable mechanistic implications for the catalytic dismutation of O2- by copper(II) complexes are proposed. Furthermore, complex 1 exhibits significant hydrolytic cleavage of the genomic DNA in the absence of any external additives. In addition, the in vitro study of cytotoxicity of complex 1 on colon cancer cell line (Caco-2) indicates that the complex has the potential to act as an effective anticancer drug with IC 50 value of 156 ± 0.35 μM.

  18. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Regulates a Redox Cycle Within the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sarsour, Ehab H.; Kalen, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a nuclear-encoded and mitochondria-matrix-localized oxidation-reduction (redox) enzyme that regulates cellular redox homeostasis. Cellular redox processes are known to regulate proliferative and quiescent growth states. Therefore, MnSOD and mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be critical regulators of quiescent cells' entry into the cell cycle and exit from the proliferative cycle back to the quiescent state. Recent Advances/Critical Issues: Recent evidence suggests that the intracellular redox environment fluctuates during the cell cycle, shifting toward a more oxidized status during mitosis. MnSOD activity is higher in G0/G1 cells compared with S, G2 and M phases. After cell division, MnSOD activity increases in the G1 phase of the daughter generation. The periodic fluctuation in MnSOD activity during the cell cycle inversely correlates with cellular superoxide levels as well as glucose and oxygen consumption. Based on an inverse correlation between MnSOD activity and glucose consumption during the cell cycle, it is proposed that MnSOD is a central molecular player for the “Warburg effect.” Future Directions: In general, loss of MnSOD activity results in aberrant proliferation. A better understanding of the MnSOD and mitochondrial ROS-dependent cell cycle processes may lead to novel approaches to overcome aberrant proliferation. Since ROS have both deleterious (pathological) and beneficial (physiological) effects, it is proposed that “eustress” should be used when discussing ROS processes that regulate normal physiological functions, while “oxidative stress” should be used to discuss the deleterious effects of ROS. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1618–1627. PMID:23590434

  19. Manganese superoxide dismutase, MnSOD and its mimics

    PubMed Central

    Miriyala, Sumitra; Spasojevic, Ivan; Tovmasyan, Artak; Salvemini, Daniela; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; St. Clair, Daret; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Increased understanding of the role of mitochondria under physiological and pathological conditions parallels increased exploration of synthetic and natural compounds able to mimic MnSOD – endogenous mitochondrial antioxidant defense essential for the existence of virtually all aerobic organisms from bacteria to humans. This review describes most successful mitochondrially-targeted redox-active compounds, Mn porphyrins and MitoQ10 in detail, and briefly addresses several other compounds that are either catalysts of O2·− dismutation, or its non-catalytic scavengers, and that reportedly attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction. While not a true catalyst (SOD mimic) of O2·− dismutation, MitoQ10 oxidizes O2·− to O2 with a high rate constant. In vivo it is readily reduced to quinol, MitoQH2, which in turn reduces ONOO− to ·NO2, producing semiquinone radical that subsequently dismutes to MitoQ10 and MitoQH2, completing the “catalytic” cycle. In MitoQ10, the redox-active unit was coupled to alkyl chain and monocationic triphenylphosphonium ion in order to reach mitochondria. Mn porphyrin-based SOD mimics, however, were designed so that their multiple cationic charge and alkyl chains determine both their remarkable SOD potency and carry them into mitochondria. Several animal efficacy studies such as skin carcinogenesis and UVB-mediated mtDNA damage, and subcellular distribution studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mouse heart provided unambiguous evidence that Mn porphyrins mimic the site and action of MnSOD, which in turn contributes to their efficacy in numerous in vitro and in vivo models of oxidative stress. Within a class of Mn porphyrins, lipophilic analogues are particularly effective for treating central nervous system injuries where mitochondria play key role. PMID:22198225

  20. Endotoxin treatment protects rats against ozone-induced lung edema: with evidence for the role of manganese superoxide dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, I.; Massaro, D. )

    1992-03-01

    Ozone is a strong oxidizing agent that can cause lung damage and edema. There is evidence that it does so by causing peroxidation of membrane lipids. However, the elevation in lung activity of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, ZnSOD), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) during exposure to ozone suggests that increased production of superoxide could contribute to lung edema caused by ozone. This latter observation, and preliminary evidence that treatment of rats with endotoxin elevates lung activity of MnSOD without elevation of the activity of Cu, ZnSOD, catalase (CAT), or glutathione peroxidase (GP), led to the present study. We treated rats with endotoxin, exposed them to different concentrations of ozone, measured lung wet weight to dry weight ratio, thiobarbituric acid-reactive material (TBAR), and assayed lung tissue for Cu, ZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, and GP activity. Our major findings are, (1) a strongly edemogenic concentration of ozone-lowered MnSOD activity; (2) endotoxin treatment of air-breathing rats did not decrease lipid peroxidation as indicated by the lung concentration of TBAR; (3) induction of increased MnSOD activity in lung by treatment with endotoxin was associated with virtually complete protection against an otherwise edemogenic concentration of ozone, with less lipid peroxidation, and with less loss of weight; and (4) this protection occurred without elevated Cu, ZnSOD, CAT, or GP activity.

  1. Fructose protects baker's yeast against peroxide stress: potential role of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Semchyshyn, Halyna M; Lozinska, Liudmyla M

    2012-11-01

    The negative effects of fructose due to its chronic consumption are well documented, while short-term application of fructose is found to protect different types of cells against oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are suggested to mediate both the cytotoxic and defensive effects. Here, we compare the influence of glucose and fructose on yeast under H(2)O(2)-induced stress. Under control conditions, fructose-grown comparing with glucose-grown yeast demonstrated higher metabolic activity and ROS level. Therefore, fructose was suggested to provoke a mild stress that resulted in the acquisition of cellular resistance to lethal challenges, which explained the higher survival of fructose-grown yeast under H(2)O(2)-induced shock. Exposure to H(2)O(2) increased ROS level in glucose-grown cells, whereas it decreased the ROS level in fructose-grown cells. Hydrogen peroxide activated superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in both the cell types studied, but glucose-grown cells demonstrated a sharp rise of the activities, while cells grown on fructose showed a broad peak of activation. Thus, fructose is likely to protect the antioxidant enzymes against their inactivation by H(2)O(2). Despite a different type of the enzyme activation in both the studied cell types (glucose- and fructose-grown), a strong positive correlation between SOD and catalase was found. The physiological meaning of this relationship and possible mechanisms of the fructose protective effect are discussed.

  2. Fructose protects baker's yeast against peroxide stress: potential role of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Semchyshyn, Halyna M; Lozinska, Liudmyla M

    2012-11-01

    The negative effects of fructose due to its chronic consumption are well documented, while short-term application of fructose is found to protect different types of cells against oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are suggested to mediate both the cytotoxic and defensive effects. Here, we compare the influence of glucose and fructose on yeast under H(2)O(2)-induced stress. Under control conditions, fructose-grown comparing with glucose-grown yeast demonstrated higher metabolic activity and ROS level. Therefore, fructose was suggested to provoke a mild stress that resulted in the acquisition of cellular resistance to lethal challenges, which explained the higher survival of fructose-grown yeast under H(2)O(2)-induced shock. Exposure to H(2)O(2) increased ROS level in glucose-grown cells, whereas it decreased the ROS level in fructose-grown cells. Hydrogen peroxide activated superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in both the cell types studied, but glucose-grown cells demonstrated a sharp rise of the activities, while cells grown on fructose showed a broad peak of activation. Thus, fructose is likely to protect the antioxidant enzymes against their inactivation by H(2)O(2). Despite a different type of the enzyme activation in both the studied cell types (glucose- and fructose-grown), a strong positive correlation between SOD and catalase was found. The physiological meaning of this relationship and possible mechanisms of the fructose protective effect are discussed. PMID:22741594

  3. A cytoplasmic Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase SOD1 contributes to hyphal growth and virulence of Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Yao, Sheng-Hua; Guo, Yan; Wang, Yan-Zhang; Zhang, Dong; Xu, Ling; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2016-06-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are scavengers of superoxide radicals, one of the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell. SOD-based ROS scavenging system constitutes the frontline defense against intra- and extracellular ROS, but the roles of SODs in the important cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum are not very clear. There are five SOD genes in F. graminearum genome, encoding cytoplasmic Cu-Zn SOD1 and MnSOD3, mitochondrial MnSOD2 and FeSOD4, and extracellular CuSOD5. Previous studies reported that the expression of SOD1 increased during infection of wheat coleoptiles and florets. In this work we showed that the recombinant SOD1 protein had the superoxide dismutase activity in vitro, and that the SOD1-mRFP fusion protein localized in the cytoplasm of F. graminearum. The Δsod1 mutants had slightly reduced hyphal growth and markedly increased sensitivity to the intracellular ROS generator menadione. The conidial germination under extracellular oxidative stress was significantly delayed in the mutants. Wheat floret infection assay showed that the Δsod1 mutants had a reduced pathogenicity. Furthermore, the Δsod1 mutants had a significant reduction in production of deoxynivalenol mycotoxin. Our results indicate that the cytoplasmic Cu-Zn SOD1 affects fungal growth probably depending on detoxification of intracellular superoxide radicals, and that SOD1-mediated deoxynivalenol production contributes to the virulence of F. graminearum in wheat head infection. PMID:27037138

  4. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Regulates the Expression of Small GTPase Regulatory Proteins GEFs, GAPs, and GDI

    PubMed Central

    Laukkanen, Mikko O.; Cammarota, Francesca; Esposito, Tiziana; Salvatore, Marco; Castellone, Maria D.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3), which catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide at the cell membranes, regulates the cellular growth in a dose-dependent manner. This enzyme induces primary cell proliferation and immortalization at low expression levels whereas it activates cancer barrier signaling through the p53-p21 pathway at high expression levels, causing growth arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. Because previous reports suggested that the SOD3–induced reduction in the rates of cellular growth and migration also occurred in the absence of functional p53 signaling, in the current study we investigated the SOD3-induced growth-suppressive mechanisms in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. Based on our data, the robust over-expression of SOD3 increased the level of phosphorylation of the EGFR, ERBB2, RYK, ALK, FLT3, and EPHA10 receptor tyrosine kinases with the consequent downstream activation of the SRC, FYN, YES, HCK, and LYN kinases. However, pull-down experiments focusing on the small GTPase RAS, RAC, CDC42, and RHO revealed a reduced level of growth and migration signal transduction, such as the lack of stimulation of the mitogen pathway, in the SOD3 over-expressing cells, which was confirmed by MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 Western blotting analysis. Interestingly, the mRNA expression analyses indicated that SOD3 regulated the expression of guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (RHO GEF16, RAL GEF RGL1), GTPase-activating proteins (ARFGAP ADAP2, RAS GAP RASAL1, RGS4), and a Rho guanine nucleotide-disassociation inhibitor (RHO GDI 2) in a dose dependent manner, thus controlling signaling through the small G protein GTPases. Therefore, our current data may suggest the occurrence of dose-dependent SOD3–driven control of the GTP loading of small G proteins indicating a novel growth regulatory mechanism of this enzyme. PMID:25751262

  5. N-terminal processing of membrane-targeted MnSOD and formation of multiple active superoxide dismutase dimers in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Prashanth S; Rajaram, Hema; Apte, Shree K

    2013-10-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 expresses a 30 kDa manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) comprising a hydrophobic region (signal peptide + linker peptide) attached to a catalytic unit. Bioinformatics predicted cleavage of the signal peptide at (25)CQPQ by signal peptidase and of the linker peptide by an Arg-C-like protease at the Arg52/Arg59 residue. The three predicted forms of MnSOD were immunodetected in Anabaena, with the 30 kDa MnSOD found exclusively in the membrane and the shorter 27 and 24 kDa forms found both in the membrane and soluble fractions. The corresponding sodA gene was truncated for (a) the first eight residues, or, (b) the signal peptide, or (c) the entire hydrophobic region, or (d) the Arg52/Arg59 residues were modified to serine. Overexpression of these MnSOD variants in recombinant Anabaena strains revealed that (a) the 30 kDa membrane-targeted MnSOD was cleaved by membrane-localized signal peptidase either during or after its transport through the membrane to release the 27 kDa form, either in the cytosol or in the periplasmic/thylakoid lumen, (b) the 27 kDa form was further cleaved to the 24 kDa form by Arg-C-like protease, both in the cytosol and in the periplasmic/thylakoid lumen, (c) deletion of signal peptide localized the MnSOD forms in the cytosol, and (d) alteration of the signal/linker peptide cleavage sites interfered with MnSOD localization and processing. Homo/heterodimerization of the 24 and 27 kDa forms of MnSOD and the cytosolic iron-dependent SOD results in multiple SOD activities, from a single MnSOD gene (sodA), in different cellular compartments of Anabaena.

  6. Replacement of a cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase by a novel cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase in crustaceans that use copper (haemocyanin) for oxygen transport.

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Marius; Hoexum Brouwer, Thea; Grater, Walter; Brown-Peterson, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, which uses the copper-dependent protein haemocyanin for oxygen transport, lacks the ubiquitous cytosolic copper-dependent enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,ZnSOD) as evidenced by undetectable levels of Cu,ZnSOD activity, protein and mRNA in the hepatopancreas (the site of haemocyanin synthesis) and gills. Instead, the crab has an unusual cytosolic manganese SOD (cytMnSOD), which is retained in the cytosol, because it lacks a mitochondrial transit peptide. A second familiar MnSOD is present in the mitochondria (mtMnSOD). This unique phenomenon occurs in all Crustacea that use haemocyanin for oxygen transport. Molecular phylogeny analysis suggests the MnSOD gene duplication is as old as the origin of the arthropod phylum. cytMnSOD activity in the hepatopancreas changes during the moulting cycle of the crab. Activity is high in intermoult crabs and non-detectable in postmoult papershell crabs. mtMnSOD is present in all stages of the moulting cycle. Despite the lack of cytCu,ZnSOD, crabs have an extracellular Cu,ZnSOD (ecCu,ZnSOD) that is produced by haemocytes, and is part of a large, approx. 160 kDa, covalently-linked protein complex. ecCu,ZnSOD is absent from the hepatopancreas of intermoult crabs, but appears in this tissue at premoult. However, no ecCu,ZnSOD mRNA can be detected, suggesting that the protein is recruited from the haemolymph. Screening of different taxa of the arthropod phylum for Cu,ZnSOD activity shows that those crustaceans that use haemoglobin for oxygen transport have retained cytCu,ZnSOD. It appears, therefore, that the replacement of cytCu,ZnSOD with cytMnSOD is part of an adaptive response to the dynamic, haemocyanin-linked, fluctuations in copper metabolism that occur during the moulting cycle of the crab. PMID:12769817

  7. Identification and Analysis of the Role of Superoxide Dismutases Isoforms in the Pathogenesis of Paracoccidioides spp.

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Diana; Muñoz, José F.; Lopez, Ángela; Urán, Martha; Herrera, Juan; Borges, Clayton L.; Restrepo, Ángela; Soares, Celia M.; Taborda, Carlos P.; Almeida, Agostinho J.; McEwen, Juan G.; Hernández, Orville

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Paracoccidioides to defend itself against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by host effector cells is a prerequisite to survive. To counteract these radicals, Paracoccidioides expresses, among different antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutases (SODs). In this study, we identified six SODs isoforms encoded by the Paracoccidioides genome. We determined gene expression levels of representative isolates of the phylogenetic lineages of Paracoccidioides spp. (S1, PS2, PS3 and Pb01-like) using quantitative RT-PCR. Assays were carried out to analyze SOD gene expression of yeast cells, mycelia cells, the mycelia-to-yeast transition and the yeast-to-mycelia germination, as well as under treatment with oxidative agents and during interaction with phagocytic cells. We observed an increased expression of PbSOD1 and PbSOD3 during the transition process, exposure to oxidative agents and interaction with phagocytic cells, suggesting that these proteins could assist in combating the superoxide radicals generated during the host-pathogen interaction. Using PbSOD1 and PbSOD3 knockdown strains we showed these genes are involved in the response of the fungus against host effector cells, particularly the oxidative stress response, and in a mouse model of infection. Protein sequence analysis together with functional analysis of knockdown strains seem to suggest that PbSOD3 expression is linked with a pronounced extracellular activity while PbSOD1 seems more related to intracellular requirements of the fungus. Altogether, our data suggests that P. brasiliensis actively responds to the radicals generated endogenously during metabolism and counteracts the oxidative burst of immune cells by inducing the expression of SOD isoforms. PMID:26963091

  8. Identification and Analysis of the Role of Superoxide Dismutases Isoforms in the Pathogenesis of Paracoccidioides spp.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Diana; Muñoz, José F; Lopez, Ángela; Urán, Martha; Herrera, Juan; Borges, Clayton L; Restrepo, Ángela; Soares, Celia M; Taborda, Carlos P; Almeida, Agostinho J; McEwen, Juan G; Hernández, Orville

    2016-03-01

    The ability of Paracoccidioides to defend itself against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by host effector cells is a prerequisite to survive. To counteract these radicals, Paracoccidioides expresses, among different antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutases (SODs). In this study, we identified six SODs isoforms encoded by the Paracoccidioides genome. We determined gene expression levels of representative isolates of the phylogenetic lineages of Paracoccidioides spp. (S1, PS2, PS3 and Pb01-like) using quantitative RT-PCR. Assays were carried out to analyze SOD gene expression of yeast cells, mycelia cells, the mycelia-to-yeast transition and the yeast-to-mycelia germination, as well as under treatment with oxidative agents and during interaction with phagocytic cells. We observed an increased expression of PbSOD1 and PbSOD3 during the transition process, exposure to oxidative agents and interaction with phagocytic cells, suggesting that these proteins could assist in combating the superoxide radicals generated during the host-pathogen interaction. Using PbSOD1 and PbSOD3 knockdown strains we showed these genes are involved in the response of the fungus against host effector cells, particularly the oxidative stress response, and in a mouse model of infection. Protein sequence analysis together with functional analysis of knockdown strains seem to suggest that PbSOD3 expression is linked with a pronounced extracellular activity while PbSOD1 seems more related to intracellular requirements of the fungus. Altogether, our data suggests that P. brasiliensis actively responds to the radicals generated endogenously during metabolism and counteracts the oxidative burst of immune cells by inducing the expression of SOD isoforms. PMID:26963091

  9. Adaptive antioxidant response of manganese-superoxide dismutase following repetitive UVA irradiation.

    PubMed

    Poswig, A; Wenk, J; Brenneisen, P; Wlaschek, M; Hommel, C; Quel, G; Faisst, K; Dissemond, J; Briviba, K; Krieg, T; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K

    1999-01-01

    In response to the attack of reactive oxygen species, the skin has developed a complex antioxidant defense system including among others the manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). MnSOD dismutates the superoxide anion (O2*-) derived from the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is detoxified by glutathione peroxidase to water and molecular oxygen. We have addressed the question whether MnSOD is inducible upon UVA irradiation and whether repetitive UV exposure, as practiced for the light-hardening during phototherapy of various photodermatoses, can even enhance the adaptive antioxidant response. Single exposure of four different strains of fibroblasts to UVA irradiation resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in specific MnSOD mRNA levels. Interestingly, repetitive UVA exposure at days 1, 2, and 3 at a dose rate of 200 kJ per m2 resulted in a 5-fold induction of specific MnSOD mRNA levels following the third UVA exposure. Similar results were obtained for MnSOD activity. This adaptive response in terms of upregulation of the antioxidant enzyme MnSOD correlates with the protection against high UV doses, if cells were preexposed to sublethal UV doses. Importantly, MnSOD substantially differed between the tested individuals in both mRNA and activity levels. Taken together, we here provide evidence for the increasing induction of MnSOD upon repetitive UVA irradiation that may contribute to the effective adaptive UVA response of the skin during light hardening in phototherapy. Interindividual differences in the inducibility of MnSOD might account for differences in the susceptibility to develop photodermatologic disorders related to photosensitivity, photoaging, and skin cancer. The molecular basis for interindividual differences in the inducibility of antioxidant enzymes remains to be elucidated. PMID:9886257

  10. Corroborative models of the cobalt(II) inhibited Fe/Mn superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, Marciela; Wu, Amy J; Kampf, Jeff W; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2005-07-11

    Attempting to model superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, we designed two new N3O-donor ligands to provide the same set of donor atoms observed in the active site of these enzymes: K(i)Pr2TCMA (potassium 1,4-diisopropyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N-acetate) and KBPZG (potassium N,N-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolylmethyl) glycinate). Five new Co(II) complexes (1-5) were obtained and characterized by X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry, electrochemistry, magnetochemistry, UV-vis, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. The crystal structures of 1 and 3-5 revealed five-coordinate complexes, whereas complex 2 is six-coordinate. The EPR data of complexes 3 and 4 agree with those of the Co(II)-substituted SOD, which strongly support the proposition that the active site of the enzyme structurally resembles these models. The redox behavior of complexes 1-5 clearly demonstrates the stabilization of the Co(II) state in the ligand field provided by these ligands. The irreversibility displayed by all of the complexes is probably related to an electron-transfer process followed by a rearrangement of the geometry around the metal center for complexes 1 and 3-5 that probably changes from a trigonal bipyramidal (high spin, d7) to octahedral (low spin, d6) as Co(II) is oxidized to Co(III), which is also expected to be accompanied by a spin-state conversion. As the redox potentials to convert the Co(II) to Co(III) are high, it can be inferred that the redox potential of the Co(II)-substituted SOD may be outside the range required to convert the superoxide radical (O2*-) to hydrogen peroxide, and this is sufficient to explain the inactivity of the enzyme. Finally, the complexes reported here are the first corroborative structural models of the Co(II)-substituted SOD.

  11. Inhibition of autoxidation of divicine and isouramil by the combination of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione.

    PubMed

    Winterbourn, C C

    1989-06-01

    The effects of GSH on the autoxidation of the fava bean pyrimidine aglycones, divicine and isouramil, and on acid-hydrolyzed vicine (provisional identification 2-amino-4,5,6-trihydroxypyrimidine) have been studied. GSH alone promoted redox cycling of each compound, with concomitant GSH oxidation and H2O2 production. In the presence of superoxide dismutase, there is a lag period during which little pyrimidine oxidation occurs, followed by a period of accelerated oxidation. With the three pyrimidines, increasing concentrations of GSH extended this lag period and progressively decreased subsequent rates of both pyrimidine oxidation and O2 uptake. No GSH oxidation or O2 uptake occurred during the lag. These results show that the combination of GSH and superoxide dismutase is able to inhibit redox cycling of the pyrimidines. With a 10-fold excess of GSH over isouramil or acid-hydrolyzed vicine (20-fold with divicine) this coupled oxidation of GSH and the pyrimidine is almost completely suppressed. This mechanism may be a means whereby GSH in combination with superoxide dismutase protects against the cytotoxic effects of these reactive pyrimidines. PMID:2730000

  12. Superoxide dismutase restores endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilatation during acute infusion of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Mayhan, W G; Sharpe, G M

    1998-10-01

    We previously showed [Am. J. Physiol. 272 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 41): H2337-H2342, 1997] that nicotine impairs endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilatation. However, mechanisms that accounted for the effect of nicotine on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation were not examined. Thus the goal of this study was to examine the role of oxygen radicals in nicotine-induced impairment of arteriolar reactivity. We measured diameter of cheek pouch resistance arterioles (approximately 50 micrometer diameter) in response to endothelium-dependent (ACh and ADP) and -independent (nitroglycerin) agonists before and after infusion of vehicle or nicotine in the absence or presence of superoxide dismutase. ACh, ADP, and nitroglycerin produced dose-related dilatation of cheek pouch arterioles before infusion of vehicle or nicotine. Infusion of vehicle, in the absence or presence of superoxide dismutase (150 U/ml), did not alter endothelium-dependent or -independent arteriolar dilatation. In contrast, infusion of nicotine (2 microgram . kg-1 . min-1) impaired endothelium-dependent, but not -independent, arteriolar dilatation. In addition, the effect of nicotine on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was reversed by topical application of superoxide dismutase. We suggest that nicotine impairs endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilatation via an increase in the synthesis/release of oxygen-derived free radicals.

  13. Impact of Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic AEOL 10150 on the Endothelin System of Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Devi; Kumarathasan, Prem; Thomson, Errol M.; St-Germain, Carly; Blais, Erica; Crapo, James; Vincent, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Endothelin-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor and mitogenic peptide involved in the regulation of vasomotor tone and maintenance of blood pressure. Oxidative stress activates the endothelin system, and is implicated in pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and atherosclerosis. Superoxide dismutase mimetics designed with the aim of treating diseases that involve reactive oxygen species in their pathophysiology may exert a hypotensive effect, but effects on the endothelin system are unknown. Our objective was to determine the effect of the superoxide dismutase mimetic AEOL 10150 on the basal endothelin system in vivo. Male Fischer-344 rats were injected subcutaneously with 0, 2 or 5 mg/kg body weight of AEOL 10150 in saline. Plasma oxidative stress markers and endothelins (bigET-1, ET-1, ET-2, ET-3) as well as lung and heart endothelin/nitric oxide system gene expressions were measured using HPLC-Coularray, HPLC-Fluorescence and RT-PCR respectively. AEOL 10150 reduced (p<0.05) the circulating levels of isoprostane (-25%) and 3-nitrotyrosine (-50%) measured in plasma 2h and 24h after treatment, confirming delivery of a physiologically-relevant dose and the potent antioxidant activity of the drug. The reduction in markers of oxidative stress coincided with sustained 24h decrease (p<0.05) of plasma levels of ET-1 (-50%) and ET-3 (-10%). Expression of preproET-1 and endothelin converting enzyme-1 mRNA were not altered significantly in the lungs. However preproET-1 (not significant) and ECE-1 mRNA (p<0.05) were increased (10–25%) in the heart. Changes in the lungs included decrease (p<0.05) of mRNA for the ET-1 clearance receptor ETB and the vasoconstriction-signaling ETA receptor (-30%), and an early surge of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression followed by sustained decrease (-40% after 24 hours). The results indicate that interception of the endogenous physiological flux of reactive nitrogen species and reactive

  14. Periplasmic superoxide dismutase SodCI of Salmonella binds peptidoglycan to remain tethered within the periplasm

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoungkwan; Slauch, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Salmonellae survive and propagate in macrophages to cause serious systemic disease. Periplasmic superoxide dismutase plays a critical role in this survival by combating phagocytic superoxide. Salmonella Typhimurium strain 14028 produces two periplasmic superoxide dismutases, SodCI and SodCII. Although both proteins are produced during infection, only SodCI is functional in the macrophage phagosome. We have previously shown that SodCI, relative to SodCII, is both protease resistant and tethered within the periplasm, and that either of these properties is sufficient to allow a SodC to protect against phagocytic superoxide. Tethering is defined as remaining cell-associated after osmotic shock or treatment with cationic antimicrobial peptides. Here we show that SodCI non-covalently binds peptidoglycan. SodCI binds to Salmonella and Bacillus peptidoglycan, but not peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus. Moreover, binding can be inhibited by a diaminopimelic acid containing tripeptide, but not a lysine containing tripeptide, showing that the protein recognizes the peptide portion of the peptidoglycan. Replacing nine amino acids in SodCII with the corresponding residues from SodCI confers tethering, partially delineating an apparently novel peptidoglycan binding domain. These changes in sequence increase the affinity of SodCII for peptidoglycan fragments to match that of SodCI, and allow the now tethered SodCII to function during infection. PMID:25998832

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cytoplasmic manganese superoxide dismutase and a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Yi, Qilin; Gai, Yunchao; Song, Linsheng

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) functions as the first and essential enzyme in the antioxidant system and is ubiquitously existed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the present study, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial manganese SOD were identified from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (designed as EscytMnSOD and EsmtMnSOD). The complete nucleotide sequence of EscytMnSOD comprised 1349 bp and consisted of a 5' untranslated regions (UTR) of 43 bp, a 3' UTR of 445 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 861 bp encoding a polypeptide of 286 amino acid residues. The full-length cDNA sequence of EsmtMnSOD comprised 990 bp, containing a 5' UTR of 55 bp, a 3' UTR of 278 bp and an ORF of 657 bp encoding a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences of EscytMnSOD and EsmtMnSOD contained highly conserved MnSOD signature and typical functional domain, and exhibited high similarity with their reported homologues. In the phylogenetic tree, EscytMnSOD and EsmtMnSOD were clustered with their homologues from the land crab Cardisoma armatum. The EscytMnSOD and EsmtMnSOD transcripts were constitutively expressed in haemocytes, muscle, heart, gill, haepatopancreas and gonad, with the highest expression level in gills and haepatopancreas, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of them were all up-regulated in haemocytes with similar profiles after the stimulation of Vibrio anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Pichia pastoris. The EsmtMnSOD with low basal expression level responded to invading microbes intensely, while the EscytMnSOD with high basal expression level exhibited mild responses against stimulating microbes. The purified rEscytMnSOD and rEsmtMnSOD proteins exhibited specific Mn(2+)-dependent enzymatic activities, while rEscytMnSOD with lower basic activity displayed higher stability than rEsmtMnSOD. All these results indicated that EscytMnSOD and EsmtMnSOD were efficiently antioxidant enzymes and potentially involved in the innate immune

  16. Superoxide dismutase 1 acts as a nuclear transcription factor to regulate oxidative stress resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Chi Kwan; Liu, Yuan; Thomas, Janice; Zhang, Yanjie; Zheng, X. F. Steven

    2015-01-01

    Summary Superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1) has been known for nearly half a century for catalysis of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. Here we report a new Sod1 function in oxidative signaling: in response to elevated endogenous and exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), Sod1 rapidly relocates into the nucleus, which is important for maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, H2O2 is sufficient to promote Sod1 nuclear localization, indicating that it is responding to general ROS rather than Sod1 substrate superoxide. ROS signaling is mediated by Mec1/ATM and its effector Dun1/Cds1 kinase, through Dun1 interaction with Sod1 and regulation of Sod1 by phosphorylation at S60, 99. In the nucleus, Sod1 binds to the promoters and regulates the expression of oxidative resistance and repair genes. Altogether, our study unravels an unorthodox function of Sod1 as a transcription factor and elucidates the regulatory mechanism for its localization. PMID:24647101

  17. Endogenous antioxidant defense induction by melon superoxide dismutase reduces cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Carillon, Julie; Rugale, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Jover, Bernard

    2014-08-01

    We assessed the influence of SODB, a melon superoxide dismutase (SOD), on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in SHR. SODB (4 or 40U SOD) was given orally for 4 or 28 days to SHR. For each treatment period, LV weight index (LVWI) and cardiomyocytes size were measured. SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase expressions, and LV production and presence of superoxide anion were determined. Pro-inflammatory markers were also measured. SODB reduced LVWI and cardiomyocytes size after 4 or 28 days. Cardiac SOD and GPx increased by 30-40% with SODB. The presence but not production of superoxide anion was significantly reduced by SODB. No effect of SODB was detected on inflammatory status in any group. The beneficial effect of SODB on cardiac hypertrophy seems to be related to the stimulation of endogenous antioxidant defense, suggesting that SODB may be of interest as a dietary supplementation during conventional antihypertensive therapy.

  18. Blockade of monocyte-endothelial trafficking by transduced Tat-superoxide dismutase protein.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Hye; Shin, Min Jae; Kim, Dae Won; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young; Kang, Young-Hee

    2016-02-01

    It has previously been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, which entails the initial activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines to facilitate leukocyte transmigration. The present study investigated whether intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) suppressed monocyte endothelial trafficking and transmigration. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and THP-1 monocytes were activated by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the absence and presence of cell-permeable transactivator of transcription (Tat)-SOD protein. External stimulation with SOD was conducted using endothelial cells and monocytes. Purified cell-permeable Tat-SOD, but not non-targeted SOD, at 1-3 µM was transduced into endothelial cells in a time‑ and dose-dependent manner. Non-toxic Tat-SOD at ≤0.5 µM, but not 1 µM SOD, blocked the monocyte-endothelium interactions by inhibiting the TNF-α-induced stimulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in HUVECs and integrin β1 in THP-1 cells. Endothelial VCAM-1 induction by TNF-α was responsible for superoxide anion production being quenched by N-acetyl-cysteine and Tat-SOD. SOD treatment markedly inhibited superoxide anion production induced by TNF-α, but no inhibition of endothelial transmigration was noted. Tat-SOD prevented transendothelial monocyte migration by firmly localizing occludin-1, platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule‑1 (PECAM-1) and vascular endothelial‑cadherin present in paracellular junctions and inhibiting endothelial induction and activation of matrix-degrading membrane type-1 (MT-1) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9. By contrast, treatment with 1 µM SOD did not have such effects. Furthermore, transduced Tat-SOD hindered nuclear transactivation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), modulating the induction of paracellular junction proteins and matrix‑degrading MMP in TNF-α‑stimulated HUVECs

  19. Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutase without Zn is Folded but Catalytically Inactive

    PubMed Central

    Nedd, Sean; Redler, Rachel L.; Proctor, Elizabeth A.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Alexandrova, Anastassia N.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis has been linked to the gain of aberrant function of superoxide dismutase, Cu,Zn-SOD1 upon protein misfolding. The mechanism of SOD1 misfolding is thought to involve mutations leading to the loss of Zn, followed by protein unfolding, and aggregation. We show that the removal of Zn from SOD1 may not lead to an immediate unfolding, but immediately deactivates the enzyme through a combination of subtle structural and electronic effects. Using Quantum Mechanics/Discrete Molecular Dynamics, we showed that Zn-less wild type SOD1 and its D124N mutant that does not bind Zn both have at least metastable folded states. In those states, the reduction potential of Cu increases, leading to the presence of detectable amounts of Cu(I) instead of Cu(II) in the active site, as confirmed experimentally. The Cu(I) protein cannot participate in the catalytic Cu(I) – Cu(II) cycle. However, even without the full reduction to Cu(I), the Cu site in the Zn-less variants of SOD1 is shown to be catalytically incompetent: unable to bind superoxide in a way comparable to the wild type SOD1. The changes are more radical and different in the D124N Zn-less mutant than in the Zn-less wild type SOD1, suggesting D124N being perhaps not the most adequate model for Zn-less SOD1. Overall, Zn in SOD1 appears to be influencing the Cu site directly by adjusting its reduction potential and geometry. Thus, the role of Zn in SOD1 is not just structural, as was previously thought; it is a vital part of the catalytic machinery. PMID:25083917

  20. Differential inhibition of Arabidopsis superoxide dismutases by peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration

    PubMed Central

    Holzmeister, Christian; Gaupels, Frank; Geerlof, Arie; Sarioglu, Hakan; Sattler, Michael; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of superoxide dismutases (SODs) in the plant antioxidant defence system little is known about their regulation by post-translational modifications. Here, we investigated the in vitro effects of nitric oxide derivatives on the seven SOD isoforms of Arabidopsis thaliana. S-nitrosoglutathione, which causes S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues, did not influence SOD activities. By contrast, peroxynitrite inhibited the mitochondrial manganese SOD1 (MSD1), peroxisomal copper/zinc SOD3 (CSD3), and chloroplastic iron SOD3 (FSD3), but no other SODs. MSD1 was inhibited by up to 90% but CSD3 and FSD3 only by a maximum of 30%. Down-regulation of these SOD isoforms correlated with tyrosine (Tyr) nitration and both could be prevented by the peroxynitrite scavenger urate. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that—amongst the 10 Tyr residues present in MSD1—Tyr63 was the main target responsible for nitration and inactivation of the enzyme. Tyr63 is located nearby the active centre at a distance of only 5.26 Å indicating that nitration could affect accessibility of the substrate binding pocket. The corresponding Tyr34 of human manganese SOD is also nitrated, suggesting that this might be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for regulation of manganese SODs. PMID:25428993

  1. Effects of temperature stress on expression of fimbriae and superoxide dismutase by Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Amano, A; Sharma, A; Sojar, H T; Kuramitsu, H K; Genco, R J

    1994-01-01

    We examined the biosynthesis of fimbriae and superoxide dismutase (SOD) produced by the periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis in response to elevated temperature. P. gingivalis 2561, grown at 37 degrees C to mid-logarithmic phase, was subsequently incubated at 39, 41, and 43 degrees C, respectively, to stationary phase. There was no difference in the growth of cells at 37 and 39 degrees C. However, at 39 degrees C there was a 54% reduction in the amount of fimbrillin (fimbriae) as well as decreased expression of mRNA for fimA. On the other hand, under the same conditions, a more than twofold increase in the amount of SOD activity, as well as in the levels of SOD mRNA, was observed. Moreover, cells cultured for 20 h at 39 degrees C showed an 86% decrease of fimbrillin protein and a threefold increase in SOD activity. These observations suggest that P. gingivalis may undergo alterations in its virulence and susceptibility to host immune responses as a result of the elevated temperatures found in inflamed periodontal pockets. Images PMID:7927742

  2. Manganese superoxide dismutase is required to maintain osteoclast differentiation and function under static force

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tao; Zhang, Liqiang; Konermann, Anna; Zhou, Hong; Jin, Fang; Liu, Wenjia

    2015-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the balance of osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). Increased activity of OCs not only contributes to pathological bone resorption, such as osteoporosis and periodontitis, but also is responsible for physiological conditions like orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). However, the detailed mechanism by which orthodontic force promotes the formation of OCs is still poorly understood. In this study, we confirmed that static force promoted the differentiation of human cord monocytes (HMNCs) into OCs depending on loading time and magnitude. Protein expression profiles among HMNCs, HMNCs subjected to static force and mature OCs were established via 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. Total respective protein spot numbers of 549 ± 13, 612 ± 19 and 634 ± 16 were detected in each of the gels by image analysis. The five proteins identified were plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2, Spot 1), peroxiredoxin-6 (PRD-6, Spot 3), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2, Spot 6), Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (Rho-GDI2, Spot 11) and L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain (L-LDH, Spot 15). More importantly, we revealed that SOD2 was required to maintain monocyte differentiation into functional OCs and may become a potential target for regulating the efficiency of OTM in the future. PMID:25619900

  3. Cellular distribution of copper to superoxide dismutase involves scaffolding by membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Christopher R.; De Feo, Christopher J.; Unger, Vinzenz M.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient delivery of copper ions to specific intracellular targets requires copper chaperones that acquire metal cargo through unknown mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that the human and yeast copper chaperones (CCS) for superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), long thought to exclusively reside in the cytosol and mitochondrial intermembrane space, can engage negatively charged bilayers through a positively charged lipid-binding interface. The significance of this membrane-binding interface is established through SOD1 activity and genetic complementation studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, showing that recruitment of CCS to the membrane is required for activation of SOD1. Moreover, we show that a CCS:SOD1 complex binds to bilayers in vitro and that CCS can interact with human high affinity copper transporter 1. Shifting current paradigms, we propose that CCS-dependent copper acquisition and distribution largely occur at membrane interfaces and that this emerging role of the bilayer may reflect a general mechanistic aspect of cellular transition metal ion acquisition. PMID:24297923

  4. Kinetics of the oxidation of reduced Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by peroxymonocarbonate.

    PubMed

    Ranguelova, Kalina; Ganini, Douglas; Bonini, Marcelo G; London, Robert E; Mason, Ronald P

    2012-08-01

    Kinetic evidence is reported for the role of the peroxymonocarbonate, HOOCO(2)(-), as an oxidant for reduced Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase-Cu(I) (SOD1) during the peroxidase activity of the enzyme. The formation of this reactive oxygen species results from the equilibrium between hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate. Recently, peroxymonocarbonate has been proposed to be a key substrate for reduced SOD1 and has been shown to oxidize SOD1-Cu(I) to SOD1-Cu(II) much faster than H(2)O(2). We have reinvestigated the kinetics of the reaction between SOD1-Cu(I) and HOOCO(2)(-) by using conventional stopped-flow spectrophotometry and obtained a second-order rate constant of k=1600±100M(-1)s(-1) for SOD1-Cu(I) oxidation by HOOCO(2)(-). Our results demonstrate that peroxymonocarbonate oxidizes SOD1-Cu(I) to SOD1-Cu(II) and is in turn reduced to the carbonate anion radical. It is proposed that the dissociation of His61 from the active site Cu(I) in SOD-Cu(I) contributes to this chemistry by facilitating the binding of larger anions, such as peroxymonocarbonate. PMID:22569304

  5. Cu, Zn Superoxide Dismutase and NADP(H) Homeostasis Are Required for Tolerance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shi-Xiong; Teo, Mariati; Lam, Yuen T.; Perrone, Gabriel G.

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide screening for sensitivity to chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by dithiothreitol and tunicamycin (TM) identified mutants deleted for Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) function (SOD1, CCS1) or affected in NADPH generation via the pentose phosphate pathway (TKL1, RPE1). TM-induced ER stress led to an increase in cellular superoxide accumulation and an increase in SOD1 expression and Sod1p activity. Prior adaptation of the hac1 mutant deficient in the unfolded protein response (UPR) to the superoxide-generating agent paraquat reduced cell death under ER stress. Overexpression of the ER oxidoreductase Ero1p known to generate hydrogen peroxide in vitro, did not lead to increased superoxide levels in cells subjected to ER stress. The mutants lacking SOD1, TKL1, or RPE1 exhibited decreased UPR induction under ER stress. Sensitivity of the sod1 mutant to ER stress and decreased UPR induction was partially rescued by overexpression of TKL1 encoding transketolase. These data indicate an important role for SOD and cellular NADP(H) in cell survival during ER stress, and it is proposed that accumulation of superoxide affects NADP(H) homeostasis, leading to reduced UPR induction during ER stress. PMID:19129474

  6. Voltage-Induced Misfolding of Zinc-Replete ALS Mutant Superoxide Dismutase-1.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunhua; Acerson, Mark J; Shuford, Kevin L; Shaw, Bryan F

    2015-10-21

    The monomerization of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an early step along pathways of misfolding linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Monomerization requires the reversal of two post-translational modifications that are thermodynamically favorable: (i) dissociation of active-site metal ions and (ii) reduction of intramolecular disulfide bonds. This study found, using amide hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange, capillary electrophoresis, and lysine-acetyl protein charge ladders, that ALS-linked A4V SOD1 rapidly monomerizes and partially unfolds in an external electric field (of physiological strength), without loss of metal ions, exposure to disulfide-reducing agents, or Joule heating. Voltage-induced monomerization was not observed for metal-free A4V SOD1, metal-free WT SOD1, or metal-loaded WT SOD1. Computational modeling suggested a mechanism for this counterintuitive effect: subunit macrodipoles of dimeric SOD1 are antiparallel and amplified 2-fold by metal coordination, which increases torque at the dimer interface as subunits rotate to align with the electric field. PMID:26207449

  7. Inhalation of Talc Induces Infiltration of Macrophages and Upregulation of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shim, Ilseob; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Yang, Sangyoung; Choi, Min; Seo, Gyun-Baek; Lee, Byung-Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2015-01-01

    Talc is a mineral that is widely used in cosmetic products, antiseptics, paints, and rubber manufacturing. Although the toxicological effects of talc have been studied extensively, until now no detailed inhalation study of talc focusing on oxidative stress has been done. This repeated 4 weeks whole-body inhalation toxicity study of talc involved Sprague-Dawley rats. Male and female groups of rats were exposed to inhaled talc at 0, 5, 50, and 100 mg/m(3) for 6 hours daily, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The objective was to identify the 4-week inhalation toxicity of talc and investigate antioxidant activity after exposure to talc. There were no treatment-related symptoms or mortality in rats treated with talc. Glucose (GLU) was decreased significantly in male rats exposed to 50 and 100 mg/m(3) of talc. Histopathological examination revealed infiltration of macrophages on the alveolar walls and spaces near the terminal and respiratory bronchioles. In male and female rats exposed to 100 mg/m(3) talc, expression of superoxide dismutase 2, a typical biological indicator of oxidative damage, was significantly increased. Thus, inhalation of talc induces macrophage aggregations and oxidative damage in the lung.

  8. A Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Jatropha curcas enhances salt tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z B; Zhang, W J; Gong, X D; Zhang, Q; Zhou, L R

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are involved in protecting plants against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, a novel Cu/Zn-SOD gene (JcCu/Zn-SOD) was cloned from Jatropha curcas L. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that JcCu/Zn-SOD is constitutively expressed in different tissues of J. curcas and induced under NaCl treatment. To characterize the function of this gene with respect to salt tolerance, the construct p35S:JcCu/Zn-SOD was developed and transformed into Arabidopsis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Compared with wild-type, transgenic plants over-expressing JcCu/Zn-SOD showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress during germination, seedling establishment, and growth in terms of longer root, larger rosette area, and a larger number of leaves in addition to higher SOD activity levels under NaCl stress. In addition, over-expression of JcCu/Zn-SOD resulted in lower monodialdehyde content in transgenic Arabidopsis compared to wild-type plants under the same NaCl stress. Therefore, JcCu/Zn-SOD can increase a plant salt stress tolerance potentially by reducing oxidant injury. PMID:25867355

  9. Brain beta-amyloid accumulation in transgenic mice expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bradley J; Li, Qiao-Xin; Laughton, Katrina M; Masters, Colin L; Lopes, Elizabeth C; Atkin, Julie D; Cheema, Surindar S

    2004-12-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in both the deposition and pathogenesis of beta-amyloid (Abeta) protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, overexpression of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in neuronal cells and transgenic AD mice reduces Abeta toxicity and accumulation. In contrast, mutations in SOD1 associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) confer enhanced pro-oxidative enzyme activities. We therefore examined whether ALS-linked mutant SOD1 overexpression in motor neuronal cells or transgenic ALS mice modulates Abeta toxicity or its accumulation in the brain. Aggregated, but not freshly solubilised, substrate-bound Abeta peptides induced degenerative morphology and cytotoxicity in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells. Transfection of NSC-34 cells with human wild-type SOD1 attenuated Abeta-induced toxicity, however this neuroprotective effect was also observed for ALS-linked mutant SOD1. Analysis of the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cerebellum and olfactory bulb from transgenic SOD1G93A mice using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of acid-guanidine extracts revealed age-dependent elevations in Abeta levels, although not significantly different from wild-type mouse brain. In addition, brain amyloid protein precursor (APP) levels remained unaltered as a consequence of mutant SOD1 expression. We therefore conclude that mutant SOD1 overexpression promotes neither Abeta toxicity nor brain accumulation in these ALS models.

  10. Exendin-4 promotes extracellular-superoxide dismutase expression in A549 cells through DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hiroyuki; Mizukami, Koji; Hayashi, Mutsuna; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Exendin-4 is an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) and is used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since human GLP-1R has been identified in various cells besides pancreatic cells, exendin-4 is expected to exert extrapancreatic actions. It has also been suggested to affect gene expression through epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation and/or histone modifications. Furthermore, the expression of extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), a major SOD isozyme that is crucially involved in redox homeostasis, is regulated by epigenetic factors. In the present study, we demonstrated that exendin-4 induced the demethylation of DNA in A549 cells, which, in turn, affected the expression of EC-SOD. Our results showed that the treatment with exendin-4 up-regulated the expression of EC-SOD through GLP-1R and demethylated some methyl-CpG sites (methylated cytosine at 5'-CG-3') in the EC-SOD gene. Moreover, the treatment with exendin-4 inactivated DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), but did not change their expression levels. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated for the first time that exendin-4 regulated the expression of EC-SOD by reducing the activity of DNMTs and demethylation of DNA within the EC-SOD promoter region in A549 cells. PMID:26798195

  11. Role of cortisol and superoxide dismutase in psychological stress induced anovulation.

    PubMed

    Kala, Manika; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Stress has been identified as a potential trigger for reproductive dysfunctions, but the psycho-physiological pathway behind the effect of stress on ovulation remains unexplored. The present research work highlights the plausible mechanism of psychological stress on ovulation in mice by targeting superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme involved in ovulation. For this, three consecutive studies were carried out. The first study aimed to determine the effect of psychological stress induced change in cortisol level, behavioral parameters and normal estrous cyclicity. The effect on mRNA expression of SOD subtypes, follicular growth in histological sections of ovaries and the difference in oocyte quality and number, upon superovulation were assessed in the subsequent studies. The results indicate that psychological stress model causes an increase in cortisol level (p⩽0.05) with development of anhedonia, depression and anxiety. An irregular estrous cycle was observed in stressed mice with an upregulation in mRNA expression of SOD subtypes. Histological sections revealed an increase in atretic antral follicle with an impaired follicular development. Moreover, immature oocytes were obtained from superovulated stressed mice. The study concludes that psychological stress results in anovulation which may be due to increase in cortisol level and SOD activity in stressed mice.

  12. Modification and inactivation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by the lipid peroxidation product, acrolein

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Acrolein is the most reactive aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation and is found to be elevated in the brain when oxidative stress is high. The effects of acrolein on the structure and function of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) were examined. When Cu,Zn-SOD was incubated with acrolein, the covalent crosslinking of the protein was increased, and the loss of enzymatic activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and copper chelators inhibited the acrolein-mediated Cu,Zn-SOD modification and the formation of carbonyl compound. The present study shows that ROS may play a critical role in acrolein-induced Cu,Zn-SOD modification and inactivation. When Cu,Zn-SOD that has been exposed to acrolein was subsequently analyzed by amino acid analysis, serine, histidine, arginine, threonine and lysine residues were particularly sensitive. It is suggested that the modification and inactivation of Cu,Zn-SOD by acrolein could be produced by more oxidative cell environments. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(11): 555-560] PMID:24152914

  13. Molecular Interaction Mechanism between 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole and Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yue; Zou, Luyi; Huang, Ming; Chen, Yadong

    2014-01-01

    2-Mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI) is widely utilized as a corrosion inhibitor, copper-plating brightener and rubber accelerator. The residue of MBI in the environment is potentially harmful. In the present work, the toxic interaction of MBI with the important antioxidant enzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) was investigated using spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. MBI can interact with Cu/ZnSOD to form an MBI-Cu/ZnSOD complex. The binding constant, number of binding sites and thermodynamic parameters were measured, which indicated that MBI could spontaneously bind with Cu/ZnSOD with one binding site through hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. MBI bound into the Cu/ZnSOD interface of two subdomains, which caused some microenvironmental and secondary structure changes of Cu/ZnSOD and further resulted in the inhibition of Cu/ZnSOD activity. This work provides direct evidence at a molecular level to show that exposure to MBI could induce changes in the structure and function of the enzyme Cu/ZnSOD. The estimated methods in this work may be applied to probe molecular interactions of biomacromolecules and other pollutants and drugs. PMID:25157630

  14. Modification and inactivation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by the lipid peroxidation product, acrolein.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Acrolein is the most reactive aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation and is found to be elevated in the brain when oxidative stress is high. The effects of acrolein on the structure and function of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) were examined. When Cu,Zn-SOD was incubated with acrolein, the covalent crosslinking of the protein was increased, and the loss of enzymatic activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and copper chelators inhibited the acrolein-mediated Cu,Zn-SOD modification and the formation of carbonyl compound. The present study shows that ROS may play a critical role in acrolein-induced Cu,Zn-SOD modification and inactivation. When Cu,Zn-SOD that has been exposed to acrolein was subsequently analyzed by amino acid analysis, serine, histidine, arginine, threonine and lysine residues were particularly sensitive. It is suggested that the modification and inactivation of Cu,Zn-SOD by acrolein could be produced by more oxidative cell environments.

  15. Multiple phytoestrogens inhibit cell growth and confer cytoprotection by inducing manganese superoxide dismutase expression.

    PubMed

    Robb, Ellen L; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are of interest because of their reported beneficial effects on many human maladies including cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. As data on phytoestrogens continues to accumulate, it is clear that there is significant overlap in the cellular effects elicited by these various compounds. Here, we show that one mechanism by which a number of phytoestrogens achieve their growth inhibitory and cytoprotective effects is via induction of the mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Eight phytoestrogens, including resveratrol, coumestrol, kaempferol, genistein, daidzein, apigenin, isoliquirtigenin and glycitin, were tested for their ability to induce MnSOD expression in mouse C2C12 and primary myoblasts. Five of these, resveratrol, coumestrol, kaempferol, genistein and daidzein, significantly increased MnSOD expression, slowed proliferative growth and enhanced stress resistance (hydrogen peroxide LD50) . When siRNA was used to prevent the MnSOD induction by genistein, coumestrol or daidzein, none of these compounds exerted any effect on proliferative growth, and only the effect of coumestrol on stress resistance persisted. The estrogen antagonist ICI182780 prevented the increased MnSOD expression and also the changes in cell growth and stress resistance, indicating that these effects are mediated by estrogen receptors (ER). The absence of effects of resveratrol or coumestrol, but not genistein, in ERβ-null cells further indicated that this ER in particular is important in mediating these effects. Thus, an ER-mediated induction of MnSOD expression appears to underlie the growth inhibitory and cytoprotective activities of multiple phytoestrogens.

  16. Fluorescence assay for monitoring Zn-deficient superoxide dismutase in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyshkin, D. V.; Mirov, S. B.; Zhuang, Y.-X.; Crow, J. P.; Ermilov, V.; Beckman, J. S.

    2003-11-01

    A method has been developed for selective detection of the zinc-deficient form of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in vitro. Zinc-deficient SOD1 mutants have been implicated in the death of motor neurons leading in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gerhig's disease). Thus, this method may have applicability for detecting zinc-deficient SOD1 mutants in human ALS patients samples as well as in a transgenic mouse model of ALS and in cultured motor neurons. We determined previously that structural analogs of 1,10 phenanthroline, which react specifically with Cu(I), react with the active Cu(I) of SOD1 when zinc is absent, but not when zinc is also bound, as evidenced by the fact that the reaction is inhibited by pretreatment of the enzyme with zinc. We report herein that bathocuproine, or its water-soluble derivative bathocuproine disulfonate, react with zinc-deficient SOD1 to form a complex which fluoresces at 734 nm when excited at 482 nm. Fluorescent intensity is concentration dependent, thus we propose to use fluorescent confocal microscopy to measure intracellular levels of zinc-deficient SOD1 in situ.

  17. Biochemical properties of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase from fungal strain Aspergillus niger 26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolashki, Aleksandar; Abrashev, Radoslav; Stevanovic, Stefan; Stefanova, Lilyana; Ali, Syed Abid; Velkova, Ludmila; Hristova, Rumyana; Angelova, Maria; Voelter, Wolfgang; Devreese, Bart; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Dolashka-Angelova, Pavlina

    2008-12-01

    The fungal strain Aspergillus niger produces two superoxide dismutases, Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD. The primary structure of the Cu/Zn-SOD has been determined by Edman degradation of peptide fragments derived from proteolytic digests. A single chain of the protein, consisting of 153 amino acid residues, reveals a very high degree of structural homology with the amino acid sequences of other Aspergillus Cu/Zn-SODs. The molecular mass of ANSOD, measured by MALDI-MS and ESI-MS, and calculated by its amino acid sequence, was determined to be 15 821 Da. Only one Trp residue, at position 32, and one disulfide bridge were identified. However, neither a Tyr residue nor a carbohydrate chain occupying an N-linkage site (-Asn-Ile-Thr-) were found. Studies on the temperature and pH dependence of fluorescence, and on the temperature dependence of CD spectroscopic properties, confirmed that the enzyme is very stable, which can be explained by the stabilising effect of the disulfide bridge. The enzyme retains about 53% of its activity after incubation for a period of 30 min at 60 °C, and 15% at 85 °C.

  18. Inhalation of Talc Induces Infiltration of Macrophages and Upregulation of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shim, Ilseob; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Yang, Sangyoung; Choi, Min; Seo, Gyun-Baek; Lee, Byung-Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2015-01-01

    Talc is a mineral that is widely used in cosmetic products, antiseptics, paints, and rubber manufacturing. Although the toxicological effects of talc have been studied extensively, until now no detailed inhalation study of talc focusing on oxidative stress has been done. This repeated 4 weeks whole-body inhalation toxicity study of talc involved Sprague-Dawley rats. Male and female groups of rats were exposed to inhaled talc at 0, 5, 50, and 100 mg/m(3) for 6 hours daily, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The objective was to identify the 4-week inhalation toxicity of talc and investigate antioxidant activity after exposure to talc. There were no treatment-related symptoms or mortality in rats treated with talc. Glucose (GLU) was decreased significantly in male rats exposed to 50 and 100 mg/m(3) of talc. Histopathological examination revealed infiltration of macrophages on the alveolar walls and spaces near the terminal and respiratory bronchioles. In male and female rats exposed to 100 mg/m(3) talc, expression of superoxide dismutase 2, a typical biological indicator of oxidative damage, was significantly increased. Thus, inhalation of talc induces macrophage aggregations and oxidative damage in the lung. PMID:26482432

  19. Irradiation-resistance conferred by superoxide dismutase: possible adaptive role of a natural polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, T.X.; Moya, A.; Ayala, F.J.

    1986-02-01

    The toxic effects of ionizing radiation to DNA are thought to be due to the generation of the superoxide radical, 02-. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), which scavenges 02-., has been invoked as a protecting enzyme against ionizing radiation in viruses, bacteria, mammalian cells in culture, and live mice. We now demonstrate that SOD is involved in the resistance of Drosophila melanogaster against irradiation. The protection is greatest when flies carry the S form of the enzyme (which exhibits highest in vitro specific activity), intermediate when they carry the F form of the enzyme, and lowest when they are homozygous for N, an allele that reduces the amount of the enzyme to 3.5% of the normal level. Natural selection experiments show that the fitness of the high-activity S allele is increased in an irradiated population relative to the nonirradiated control. These results point towards a possible adaptive function of the S/F polymorphism found in natural populations of D. melanogaster.

  20. Catalase and superoxide dismutase in alfalfa root nodules. [Medicago sativa L

    SciTech Connect

    Becana, M.; Aparicio-Tejo, P.M.; Sanchez-Diaz, M.

    1986-04-01

    Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), in scavenging H/sub 2/ O/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/, respectively, have been recently proposed to play a role in leghemoglobin protection. The occurrence of catalase and SOD activities in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) nodule cytosol is reported here. Enzymes were extracted at 0-4/sup 0/C from 0.5 g fresh nodules with 12 ml of a medium containing K-phosphate buffer 50 mM, pH 7.8 and Na/sub 2/EDTA 0.1 mM. The homogenate was filtered and centrifuged at 18,000 xg for 10 min, and the resulting supernatant was used for catalase assay. A further precipitation of leghemoglobin was required to avoid interferences with SOD determination. Catalase was determined by back-titration with KMnO/sub 4/. SOD was assayed by measuring the inhibition of nitro blue tetrazolium reduction. The sensitivity of SOD activity to CN/sup -/ was tested by including 1 mM KCN in the reaction mixture. Catalase activity of alfalfa nodule cytosol was 237 +/- 1 units/mg protein, decreasing very significantly (P < 0.01, Duncan's multiple range test) at 20 mM NO/sub 3//sup -/. Typical specific SOD activities were 94 +/- 5 and 65 +/- 4 units/mg protein, without CN/sup -/ and with CN/sup -/, respectively. Both activities increased very significantly at 20 mM NO/sub 3//sup -/. SOD activities with CN/sup -/ were 70-80% those without CN/sup -/ within the range of NO/sub 3//sup -/ investigated (0-20 mM).

  1. Tuning the redox properties of manganese(II) and its implications to the electrochemistry of manganese and iron superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Martin; Gätjens, Jessica; Tabares, Leandro C; Thuéry, Pierre; Pecoraro, Vincent L; Un, Sun

    2008-04-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) catalyze the disproportionation of superoxide to dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The active metal sites of iron and manganese superoxide dismutases are structurally indistinguishable from each other. Despite the structural homology, these enzymes exhibit a high degree of metal selective activity suggesting subtle redox tuning of the active site. The redox tuning model, however, up to now has been challenged by the existence of so-called cambialistic SODs that function with either metal ion. We have prepared and investigated two sets of manganese complexes in which groups of varying electron-withdrawing character, as measured by their Hammett constants sigma Para, have been introduced into the ligands. We observed that the Mn(III)/Mn(II) reduction potential for the series based on 4'-X-terpyridine ligands together with the corresponding values for the iron-substituted 4'-X-terpyridine complexes changed linearly with sigma Para. The redox potential of the iron and manganese complexes could be varied by as much as 600 mV by the 4'-substitution with the manganese complexes being slightly more sensitive to the substitution than iron. The difference was such that in the case where the 4'-substituent was a pyrrolidine group both the manganese and the iron complex were thermodynamically competent to catalytically disproportionate superoxide, making this particular ligand "cambialistic". Taking our data and those available from the literature together, it was found that in addition to the electron-withdrawing capacity of the 4'-substituents the overall charge of the Mn(II) complexes plays a major role in tuning the redox potential, about 600 mV per charge unit. The ion selectivity in Mn and FeSODs and the occurrence of cambialistic SODs are discussed in view of these results. We conclude that the more distant electrostatic contributions may be the source of metal specific enzymatic activity. PMID:18271528

  2. Azide protection of bacteroides superoxide dismutases from inactivation by hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, K.B.; Gregory, E.M.

    1986-05-01

    The anaerobes Bacteroides fragilis, B. distasonis and B. thetaiotaomicron produce an iron-containing superoxide dismutase (FeSOD). These FeSODs are reversibly inhibited by 1 mM azide (NaN/sub 3/) and are irreversibly inactivated upon incubation with hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/). H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ inactivation of the enzyme likely depends on a Fenton type reaction with the production of hydroxyl radical (OH). Addition of NaN/sub 3/ to the enzyme solution decreased the rate of inactivation by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. After 20 minutes incubation of purified B. distasonis FeSOD with 2.5 mM H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, 61% of the initial enzymatic activity remained when 1 mM NaN/sub 3/ was also present compared with 29% activity without NaN/sub 3/. Similar results were seen with FeSOD from B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron. Metal analyses of the native, peroxidized, and NaN/sub 3/ protected samples are consistent with loss of Fe from the enzyme upon peroxidation, but retention of Fe and enzymatic activity in the NaN/sub 3/ protected sample. Protection of FeSOD activity from H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ inactivation was dependent on NaN/sub 3/ concentration. Anionic hydroxyl radical scavengers, such as urate and xanthine did not significantly protect the enzyme. The results are consistent with binding of azide to the active site either preventing entry of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or altering Fe redox potential, preventing OH production.

  3. Probing Variable Amine/Amide Ligation in NiIIN2S2 Complexes Using Sulfur K-Edge and Nickel L-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopies: Implications for the Active Site of Nickel Superoxide Dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer,J.; Dehestani, A.; Abanda, F.

    2008-01-01

    Nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) is a recently discovered metalloenzyme that catalyzes the disproportionation of O2* into O2 and H2O2. In its reduced state, the mononuclear NiII ion is ligated by two cis-cysteinate sulfurs, an amine nitrogen (from the protein N-terminus), and an amide nitrogen (from the peptide backbone). Unlike many small molecule and metallopeptide-based NiN2S2 complexes, S-based oxygenation is not observed in NiSOD. Herein we explore the spectroscopic properties of a series of three NiIIN2S2 complexes (bisamine-ligated (bmmp-dmed)NiII, amine/amide-ligated (NiII(BEAAM)), and bisamide-ligated (NiII(emi))2) with varying amine/amide ligation to determine the origin of the dioxygen stability of NiSOD. Ni L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) demonstrates that there is a progression in ligand-field strength with (bmmp-dmed)NiII having the weakest ligand field and (NiII(emi)2) having the strongest ligand field. Furthermore, these Ni L-edge XAS studies also show that all three complexes are highly covalent with (NiII(BEEAM)) having the highest degree of metal-ligand covalency of the three compounds studied. S K-edge XAS also shows a high degree of NiS covalency in all three complexes. The electronic structures of the three complexes were probed using both hybrid-DFT and multiconfigurational SORCI calculations. These calculations demonstrate that the nucleophilic Ni(3d)/S()* HOMO of these NiN2S2 complexes progressively decreases in energy as the amide-nitrogens are replaced with amine nitrogens. This decrease in energy of the HOMO deactivates the Ni-center toward O2 reactivity. Thus, the NiS bond is protected from S-based oxygenation explaining the enhanced stability of the NiSOD active-site toward oxygenation by dioxygen.

  4. Nickel superoxide dismutase: structural and functional roles of His1 and its H-bonding network

    DOE PAGES

    Maroney, Michael J.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Ryan, Kelly C.; Guce, Abigail I.; Johnson, Olivia E.; Brunold, Thomas C.; Garman, Scott C.

    2015-01-21

    Crystal structures of nickel-dependent superoxide dismutases (NiSODs) reveal the presence of a H-bonding network formed between the NH group of the apical imidazole ligand from His1 and the Glu17 carboxylate from a neighboring subunit in the hexameric enzyme. This interaction is supported by another intrasubunit H-bond between Glu17 and Arg47. In this study, four mutant NiSOD proteins were produced to experimentally evaluate the roles of this H-bonding network and compare the results with prior predictions from density functional theory calculations. The X-ray crystal structure of H1A-NiSOD, which lacks the apical ligand entirely, reveals that in the absence of the Glu17-His1more » H-bond, the active site is disordered. Characterization of this variant using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that Ni(II) is bound in the expected N₂S₂ planar coordination site. Despite these structural perturbations, the H1A-NiSOD variant retains 4% of wild-type (WT) NiSOD activity. Three other mutations were designed to preserve the apical imidazole ligand but perturb the H-bonding network: R47A-NiSOD, which lacks the intramolecular H-bonding interaction; E17R/R47A-NiSOD, which retains the intramolecular H-bond but lacks the intermolecular Glu17-His1 H-bond; and E17A/R47ANiSOD, which lacks both H-bonding interactions. These variants were characterized by a combination of techniques, including XAS to probe the nickel site structure, kinetic studies employing pulse-radiolytic production of superoxide, and electron paramagnetic resonance to assess the Ni redox activity. The results indicate that in addition to the roles in redox tuning suggested on the basis of previous computational studies, the Glu17-His1 H-bond plays an important structural role in the proper folding of the “Ni-hook” motif that is a critical feature of the active site.« less

  5. Nickel superoxide dismutase: structural and functional roles of His1 and its H-bonding network

    SciTech Connect

    Maroney, Michael J.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Ryan, Kelly C.; Guce, Abigail I.; Johnson, Olivia E.; Brunold, Thomas C.; Garman, Scott C.

    2015-01-21

    Crystal structures of nickel-dependent superoxide dismutases (NiSODs) reveal the presence of a H-bonding network formed between the NH group of the apical imidazole ligand from His1 and the Glu17 carboxylate from a neighboring subunit in the hexameric enzyme. This interaction is supported by another intrasubunit H-bond between Glu17 and Arg47. In this study, four mutant NiSOD proteins were produced to experimentally evaluate the roles of this H-bonding network and compare the results with prior predictions from density functional theory calculations. The X-ray crystal structure of H1A-NiSOD, which lacks the apical ligand entirely, reveals that in the absence of the Glu17-His1 H-bond, the active site is disordered. Characterization of this variant using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that Ni(II) is bound in the expected N₂S₂ planar coordination site. Despite these structural perturbations, the H1A-NiSOD variant retains 4% of wild-type (WT) NiSOD activity. Three other mutations were designed to preserve the apical imidazole ligand but perturb the H-bonding network: R47A-NiSOD, which lacks the intramolecular H-bonding interaction; E17R/R47A-NiSOD, which retains the intramolecular H-bond but lacks the intermolecular Glu17-His1 H-bond; and E17A/R47ANiSOD, which lacks both H-bonding interactions. These variants were characterized by a combination of techniques, including XAS to probe the nickel site structure, kinetic studies employing pulse-radiolytic production of superoxide, and electron paramagnetic resonance to assess the Ni redox activity. The results indicate that in addition to the roles in redox tuning suggested on the basis of previous computational studies, the Glu17-His1 H-bond plays an important structural role in the proper folding of the “Ni-hook” motif that is a critical feature of the active site.

  6. Nickel superoxide dismutase: structural and functional roles of His1 and its H-bonding network.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kelly C; Guce, Abigail I; Johnson, Olivia E; Brunold, Thomas C; Cabelli, Diane E; Garman, Scott C; Maroney, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Crystal structures of nickel-dependent superoxide dismutases (NiSODs) reveal the presence of a H-bonding network formed between the NH group of the apical imidazole ligand from His1 and the Glu17 carboxylate from a neighboring subunit in the hexameric enzyme. This interaction is supported by another intrasubunit H-bond between Glu17 and Arg47. In this study, four mutant NiSOD proteins were produced to experimentally evaluate the roles of this H-bonding network and compare the results with prior predictions from density functional theory calculations. The X-ray crystal structure of H1A-NiSOD, which lacks the apical ligand entirely, reveals that in the absence of the Glu17-His1 H-bond, the active site is disordered. Characterization of this variant using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that Ni(II) is bound in the expected N2S2 planar coordination site. Despite these structural perturbations, the H1A-NiSOD variant retains 4% of wild-type (WT) NiSOD activity. Three other mutations were designed to preserve the apical imidazole ligand but perturb the H-bonding network: R47A-NiSOD, which lacks the intramolecular H-bonding interaction; E17R/R47A-NiSOD, which retains the intramolecular H-bond but lacks the intermolecular Glu17-His1 H-bond; and E17A/R47A-NiSOD, which lacks both H-bonding interactions. These variants were characterized by a combination of techniques, including XAS to probe the nickel site structure, kinetic studies employing pulse-radiolytic production of superoxide, and electron paramagnetic resonance to assess the Ni redox activity. The results indicate that in addition to the roles in redox tuning suggested on the basis of previous computational studies, the Glu17-His1 H-bond plays an important structural role in the proper folding of the "Ni-hook" motif that is a critical feature of the active site. PMID:25580509

  7. Nickel superoxide dismutase: structural and functional roles of His1 and its H-bonding network.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kelly C; Guce, Abigail I; Johnson, Olivia E; Brunold, Thomas C; Cabelli, Diane E; Garman, Scott C; Maroney, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Crystal structures of nickel-dependent superoxide dismutases (NiSODs) reveal the presence of a H-bonding network formed between the NH group of the apical imidazole ligand from His1 and the Glu17 carboxylate from a neighboring subunit in the hexameric enzyme. This interaction is supported by another intrasubunit H-bond between Glu17 and Arg47. In this study, four mutant NiSOD proteins were produced to experimentally evaluate the roles of this H-bonding network and compare the results with prior predictions from density functional theory calculations. The X-ray crystal structure of H1A-NiSOD, which lacks the apical ligand entirely, reveals that in the absence of the Glu17-His1 H-bond, the active site is disordered. Characterization of this variant using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that Ni(II) is bound in the expected N2S2 planar coordination site. Despite these structural perturbations, the H1A-NiSOD variant retains 4% of wild-type (WT) NiSOD activity. Three other mutations were designed to preserve the apical imidazole ligand but perturb the H-bonding network: R47A-NiSOD, which lacks the intramolecular H-bonding interaction; E17R/R47A-NiSOD, which retains the intramolecular H-bond but lacks the intermolecular Glu17-His1 H-bond; and E17A/R47A-NiSOD, which lacks both H-bonding interactions. These variants were characterized by a combination of techniques, including XAS to probe the nickel site structure, kinetic studies employing pulse-radiolytic production of superoxide, and electron paramagnetic resonance to assess the Ni redox activity. The results indicate that in addition to the roles in redox tuning suggested on the basis of previous computational studies, the Glu17-His1 H-bond plays an important structural role in the proper folding of the "Ni-hook" motif that is a critical feature of the active site.

  8. Decreased expression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase 1 in ants with extreme lifespan.

    PubMed

    Parker, Joel D; Parker, Karen M; Sohal, Barbara H; Sohal, Rajindar S; Keller, Laurent

    2004-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species, the by-products of oxidative energy metabolism, are considered a main proximate cause of aging. Accordingly, overexpression of the enzyme Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) can lengthen lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster in the laboratory. However, the role of SOD1 as a main determinant of lifespan has been challenged on the grounds that overexpression might be effective only in compromised genetic backgrounds. Moreover, interspecific comparisons show lower levels of antioxidant activities in longer-lived species, suggesting that life-span extension may evolve through less reactive oxygen species generation from the mitochondria rather than higher expression of SOD1. The tremendous variation in lifespan between ant castes, ranging over 2 orders of magnitude, coupled with the fact that all individuals share the same genome, provides a system to investigate the role of SOD1 in the wild. We used the ant Lasius niger as a model system, because queens can reach the extreme age of 28 years, whereas workers and males live only 1-2 years and a few weeks, respectively. We cloned SOD1 and found that long-lived queens have a lower level of expression than workers and males. Specific enzyme-activity assays also showed higher SOD1 activity levels in males and workers compared with queens, which had SOD1 activity levels similar to that of D. melanogaster. Altogether, these data show that increased expression of SOD1 is not required for the evolution of extreme lifespan, even in a system in which differential gene expression is the only way to express phenotypes with great lifespan differences.

  9. Formation of High-Order Oligomers by a Hyperthemostable Fe-Superoxide Dismutase (tcSOD)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sha; Dong, Zhi-Yang; Yan, Yong-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermostable proteins are highly resistant to various extreme conditions. Many factors have been proposed to contribute to their ultrahigh structural stability. Some thermostable proteins have larger oligomeric size when compared to their mesophilic homologues. The formation of compact oligomers can minimize the solvent accessible surface area and increase the changes of Gibbs free energy for unfolding. Similar to mesophilic proteins, hyperthermostable proteins also face the problem of unproductive aggregation. In this research, we investigated the role of high-order oligomerization in the fight against aggregation by a hyperthermostable superoxide dismutase identified from Tengchong, China (tcSOD). Besides the predominant tetramers, tcSOD could also form active high-order oligomers containing at least eight subunits. The dynamic equilibrium between tetramers and high-order oligomers was not significantly affected by pH, salt concentration or moderate temperature. The secondary and tertiary structures of tcSOD remained unchanged during heating, while cross-linking experiments showed that there were conformational changes or structural fluctuations at high temperatures. Mutational analysis indicated that the last helix at the C-terminus was involved in the formation of high-order oligomers, probably via domain swapping. Based on these results, we proposed that the reversible conversion between the active tetramers and high-order oligomers might provide a buffering system for tcSOD to fight against the irreversible protein aggregation pathway. The formation of active high-order oligomers not only increases the energy barrier between the native state and unfolded/aggregated state, but also provides the enzyme the ability to reproduce the predominant oligomers from the active high-order oligomers. PMID:25313557

  10. Extracellular superoxide dismutase in insects: characterization, function, and interspecific variation in parasitoid wasp venom.

    PubMed

    Colinet, Dominique; Cazes, Dominique; Belghazi, Maya; Gatti, Jean-Luc; Poirié, Marylène

    2011-11-18

    Endoparasitoid wasps inject venom proteins with their eggs to protect them from the host immune response and ensure successful parasitism. Here we report identification of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) transcripts for both intracellular SOD1 and extracellular SOD3 in the venom apparatus of two Leptopilina species, parasitoids of Drosophila. Leptopilina SODs show sequence and structure similarity to human SODs, but phylogenetic analyses indicate that the extracellular SODs are more related to cytoplasmic vertebrate SODs than to extracellular SODs, a feature shared by predicted insect extracellular SODs. We demonstrate that L. boulardi SOD3 is indeed secreted and active as monomeric glycosylated forms in venom. Our results also evidence quantitative variation in SOD3 venom contents between closely related parasitoid species, as sod3 is 100-fold less expressed in Leptopilina heterotoma venom apparatus and no protein and SOD activity are detected in its venom. Leptopilina recombinant SOD3s as well as a mammalian SOD in vitro inhibit the Drosophila phenoloxidase activity in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating that SODs may interfere with the Drosophila melanization process and, therefore, with production of cytotoxic compounds. Although the recombinant L. boulardi SOD3 quantity needed to observe this effect precludes a systemic effect of the wasp venom SOD3, it is still consistent with a local action at oviposition. This work provides the first demonstration that insect extracellular SODs are indeed secreted and active in an insect fluid and can be used as virulence factors to counteract the host immune response, a strategy largely used by bacterial and fungal pathogens but also protozoan parasites during infection. PMID:21937434

  11. A new mononuclear manganese(III) complex of an unsymmetrical hexadentate N3O3 ligand exhibiting superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activity: synthesis, characterization, properties and kinetics studies.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Gabriela N; Eury, Hélène; Anxolabéhère-Mallart, Elodie; Hureau, Christelle; Signorella, Sandra R

    2015-05-01

    A mononuclear Mn(III) complex MnL·4H2O (H3L=1-[N-(2-pyridylmethyl),N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)amino]-3-[N'-(2-hydroxybenzyl),N'-(4-methylbenzyl)amino]propan-2-ol) has been prepared and characterized. This complex catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide efficiently, with catalytic rate constant kcat=1.7×10(6)M(-1)s(-1) and IC50 1.26μM, obtained through the nitro blue tetrazolium photoreduction inhibition superoxide dismutase assay, in aqueous solution of pH7.8. MnL is also able to disproportionate more than 300 equivalents of H2O2 in CH3CN, with initial rate of H2O2 decomposition given by ri=kcat [MnL](2) [H2O2] and kcat=1.32(2)mM(-2)min(-1). The accessibility of the Mn(IV) state (E(p)=0.53V vs. saturated calomel electrode), suggests MnL employs a high-valent catalytic cycle to decompose O2(-) and H2O2.

  12. Involvement of Extracellular Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in Cotton Fiber Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSDs) that catalyze the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be involved in lignification of secondary walls in spinach, pine and aspen. In cotton fibers, hydrogen peroxide was proposed to be involved in the induction of seco...

  13. FUsed in Sarcoma Is a Novel Regulator of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Sanjit Kumar; Zhang, Jiayu; Gal, Jozsef; Xu, Yong; Miao, Lu; Lynn, Bert C.; Zhu, Haining; Kasarskis, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: FUsed in sarcoma (FUS) is a multifunctional DNA/RNA-binding protein that possesses diverse roles, such as RNA splicing, RNA transport, DNA repair, translation, and transcription. The network of enzymes and processes regulated by FUS is far from being fully described. In this study, we have focused on the mechanisms of FUS-regulated manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene transcription. Results: Here we demonstrate that FUS is a component of the transcription complex that regulates the expression of MnSOD. Overexpression of FUS increased MnSOD expression in a dose-dependent manner and knockdown of FUS by siRNA led to the inhibition of MnSOD gene transcription. Reporter analyses, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, affinity chromatography, and surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed the far upstream region of MnSOD promoter as an important target of FUS-mediated MnSOD transcription and confirmed that FUS binds to the MnSOD promoter and interacts with specificity protein 1 (Sp1). Importantly, overexpression of familial amyotropic lateral sclerosis (fALS)-linked R521G mutant FUS resulted in a significantly reduced level of MnSOD expression and activity, which is consistent with the decline in MnSOD activity observed in fibroblasts from fALS patients with the R521G mutation. R521G-mutant FUS abrogates MnSOD promoter-binding activity and interaction with Sp1. Innovation and Conclusion: This study identifies FUS as playing a critical role in MnSOD gene transcription and reveals a previously unrecognized relationship between MnSOD and mutant FUS in fALS. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1550–1566. PMID:23834335

  14. Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase catalyzes hydroxyl radical production from hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Yim, M B; Chock, P B; Stadtman, E R

    1990-07-01

    Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) is known to be inhibited slowly by H2O2. Using EPR and the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline 1-oxide (DMPO) and N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN), we have shown that Cu,Zn-SOD catalyzes the formation of "free" .OH radicals from H2O2 in pH 7.6 bicarbonate buffer. Supporting evidence includes the following: (i) H2O2 and active Cu,Zn-SOD are required to yield significant signals from spin-trap-OH adducts. (ii) With O2-., Cu,Zn-SOD causes the appearance of intense resonance signals due to DMPO-OH adducts. These signals were inhibited strongly by catalase. (iii) With H2O2, Cu,Zn-SOD, and DMPO, radical scavengers formate and azide, but not ethanol, decrease DMPO-OH signals while causing new intense signals due to their corresponding DMPO-radical adducts. Failure of ethanol to quench DMPO-OH signals is discussed in light of the positively charged active channel of the enzyme. (iv) With PBN as a spin trap, ethanol quenches .OH radical signals and yields PBN-trapped hydroxyethyl radical signals. (v) Mn-SOD does not catalyze "free" .OH radical formation and it also exerts no effect on the signals of DMPO-OH adducts when added together with the Cu,Zn-SOD. The capacity of Cu,Zn-SOD to generate "free" .OH radicals from H2O2 may in part explain the biological damage associated with elevated intracellular SOD activity. PMID:2164216

  15. Cloning and constitutive expression of Deschampsia antarctica Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Venegas, Jaime R; Navarrete, Alejandro; Dinamarca, Jorge; Bravo Ramírez, León A; Moraga, Ana Gutiérrez; Gidekel, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Deschampsia antarctica shows tolerance to extreme environmental factors such as low temperature, high light intensity and an increasing UV radiation as result of the Antarctic ozone layer thinning. It is very likely that the survival of this species is due to the expression of genes that enable it to tolerate high levels of oxidative stress. On that account, we planned to clone the D. antarctica Cu/ZnSOD gene into Pichia pastoris and to characterize the heterologous protein. Findings The Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) gene, SOD gene, was isolated from a D. antarctica by cDNA library screening. This SOD gene was cloned in the expression vector pGAPZαA and successfully integrated into the genome of the yeast P. pastoris SMD1168H. A constitutive expression system for the expression of the recombinant SOD protein was used. The recombinant protein was secreted into the YPD culture medium as a glycosylated protein with a 32 mg/l expression yield. The purified recombinant protein possesses a specific activity of 440 U/mg. Conclusion D. antarctica Cu/ZnSOD recombinant protein was expressed in a constitutive system, and purified in a single step by means of an affinity column. The recombinant SOD was secreted to the culture medium as a glycoprotein, corresponding to approximately 13% of the total secreted protein. The recombinant protein Cu/ZnSOD maintains 60% of its activity after incubation at 40°C for 30 minutes and it is stable (80% of activity) between -20°C and 20°C. The recombinant SOD described in this study can be used in various biotechnological applications. PMID:19821975

  16. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Is a Promising Target for Enhancing Chemosensitivity of Basal-Like Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Alan Prem; Loo, Ser Yue; Shin, Sung Won; Tan, Tuan Zea; Eng, Chon Boon; Singh, Rajeev; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Ong, Chee Wee; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Goh, Boon Cher; Park, Joo In; Thiery, Jean Paul; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Although earlier reports highlighted a tumor suppressor role for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), recent evidence indicates increased expression in a variety of human cancers including aggressive breast carcinoma. In the present article, we hypothesized that MnSOD expression is significantly amplified in the aggressive breast carcinoma basal subtype, and targeting MnSOD could be an attractive strategy for enhancing chemosensitivity of this highly aggressive breast cancer subtype. Results: Using MDA-MB-231 and BT549 as a model of basal breast cancer cell lines, we show that knockdown of MnSOD decreased the colony-forming ability and sensitized the cells to drug-induced cell death, while drug resistance was associated with increased MnSOD expression. In an attempt to develop a clinically relevant approach to down-regulate MnSOD expression in patients with basal breast carcinoma, we employed activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to repress MnSOD expression; PPARγ activation significantly reduced MnSOD expression, increased chemosensitivity, and inhibited tumor growth. Moreover, as a proof of concept for the clinical use of PPARγ agonists to decrease MnSOD expression, biopsies derived from breast cancer patients who had received synthetic PPARγ ligands as anti-diabetic therapy had significantly reduced MnSOD expression. Finally, we provide evidence to implicate peroxynitrite as the mechanism involved in the increased sensitivity to chemotherapy induced by MnSOD repression. Innovation and Conclusion: These data provide evidence to link increased MnSOD expression with the aggressive basal breast cancer, and underscore the judicious use of PPARγ ligands for specifically down-regulating MnSOD to increase the chemosensitivity of this subtype of breast carcinoma. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2326–2346. PMID:23964924

  17. Characterization and sequence analysis of manganese superoxide dismutases from Brachyura (Crustacea: Decapoda): hydrothermal Bythograeidae versus littoral crabs.

    PubMed

    Marchand, J; Leignel, V; Moreau, B; Chénais, B

    2009-06-01

    Hydrothermal vent conditions are particular and organisms living in these environments may have developed detoxification mechanisms and/or genetic adaptations. In particular, physico-chemical conditions are thought to generate reactive oxygen species, highly toxic for organisms. The enzyme superoxide dismutase constitutes the first line of defense against oxidative damage. To improve our understanding of the environmental impacts exerted on the vent organisms, we have characterized the two manganese superoxide dismutase cDNAs (mitochondrial: mMnSOD and cytoplasmic: cMnSOD) of three members of the Bythograeidae (Bythograea thermydron, Cyanagraea praedator and Segonzacia mesatlantica), the only endemic crab family living in hydrothermal vents. In comparison, the isolation of manganese superoxide dismutase cDNAs was also carried out in several littoral crab families. MnSOD signatures were found in both sequences from each species studied, as well as different residues involved in metal coordination and protein activity. The phylogenetic analysis performed confirms the probable ancient duplication that gave rise to the two MnSODs (cMnSOD and mMnSOD). This study describes two potential distinct mMnSOD isoforms presenting particular peptide signals. Nevertheless, no sequence particularity that could support the hypothesis of a genetic adaptation was found in Bythograeidae's MnSODs compared to the other sequences. The mRNA expression analysis performed by real-time PCR on B. thermydron and S. mesatlantica compared to Cancer pagurus and Necora puber revealed a higher cMnSOD and mMnSOD mRNA expression in hydrothermal crabs compared to littoral crabs.

  18. Mechanism of the Reaction of Human Manganese Superoxide Dismutase with Peroxynitrite: Nitration of Critical Tyrosine 34.

    PubMed

    Demicheli, Verónica; Moreno, Diego M; Jara, Gabriel E; Lima, Analía; Carballal, Sebastián; Ríos, Natalia; Batthyany, Carlos; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Quijano, Celia; Estrı́n, Darío A; Martí, Marcelo A; Radi, Rafael

    2016-06-21

    Human Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (hMnSOD) is a mitochondrial enzyme that metabolizes superoxide radical (O2(•-)). O2(•-) reacts at diffusional rates with nitric oxide to yield a potent nitrating species, peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)). MnSOD is nitrated and inactivated in vivo, with active site Tyr34 as the key oxidatively modified residue. We previously reported a k of ∼1.0 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for the reaction of hMnSOD with ONOO(-) by direct stopped-flow spectroscopy and the critical role of Mn in the nitration process. In this study, we further established the mechanism of the reaction of hMnSOD with ONOO(-), including the necessary re-examination of the second-order rate constant by an independent method and the delineation of the microscopic steps that lead to the regio-specific nitration of Tyr34. The redetermination of k was performed by competition kinetics utilizing coumarin boronic acid, which reacts with ONOO(-) at a rate of ∼1 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) to yield the fluorescence product, 7-hydroxycoumarin. Time-resolved fluorescence studies in the presence of increasing concentrations of hMnSOD provided a k of ∼1.0 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), fully consistent with the direct method. Proteomic analysis indicated that ONOO(-), but not other nitrating agents, mediates the selective modification of active site Tyr34. Hybrid quantum-classical (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) simulations supported a series of steps that involve the initial reaction of ONOO(-) with Mn(III) to yield Mn(IV) and intermediates that ultimately culminate in 3-nitroTyr34. The data reported herein provide a kinetic and mechanistic basis for rationalizing how MnSOD constitutes an intramitochondrial target for ONOO(-) and the microscopic events, with atomic level resolution, that lead to selective and efficient nitration of critical Tyr34. PMID:27227512

  19. Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase promotes the survival of prostate cancer cells exposed to hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Sujatha; Wagner, Brett A; Jiang, Xiaohong; Wang, Hong P; Schafer, Freya Q; Ritchie, Justine M; Patrick, Burns C; Oberley, Larry W; Buettner, Garry R

    2004-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that exposure of cells to hyperthermia results in an increased flux of reactive oxygen species (ROS), primarily superoxide anion radicals, and that increasing antioxidant enzyme levels will result in protection of cells from the toxicity of these ROS. In this study, the prostate cancer cell line, PC-3, and its manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)-overexpressing clones were subjected to hyperthermia (43 degrees C, 1 h). Increased expression of MnSOD increased the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Hyperthermic exposure of PC-3 cells resulted in increased ROS production, as determined by aconitase inactivation, lipid peroxidation, and H2O2 formation with a reduction in cell survival. In contrast, PC-3 cells overexpressing MnSOD had less ROS production, less lipid peroxidation, and greater cell survival compared to PC-3 Wt cells. Since MnSOD removes superoxide, these results suggest that superoxide free radical or its reaction products are responsible for part of the cytotoxicity associated with hyperthermia and that MnSOD can reduce cellular injury and thereby enhance heat tolerance. PMID:15512801

  20. Effects of Cellular Pathway Disturbances on Misfolded Superoxide Dismutase-1 in Fibroblasts Derived from ALS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Isil; Forsgren, Elin; Lange, Dale J.; Weber, Markus; Birve, Anna; Synofzik, Matthis; Gilthorpe, Jonathan D.; Andersen, Peter M.; Marklund, Stefan L.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) are a common known cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The neurotoxicity of mutant SOD1s is most likely caused by misfolded molecular species, but disease pathogenesis is still not understood. Proposed mechanisms include impaired mitochondrial function, induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, reduction in the activities of the proteasome and autophagy, and the formation of neurotoxic aggregates. Here we examined whether perturbations in these cellular pathways in turn influence levels of misfolded SOD1 species, potentially amplifying neurotoxicity. For the study we used fibroblasts, which express SOD1 at physiological levels under regulation of the native promoter. The cells were derived from ALS patients expressing 9 different SOD1 mutants of widely variable molecular characteristics, as well as from patients carrying the GGGGCC-repeat-expansion in C9orf72 and from non-disease controls. A specific ELISA was used to quantify soluble, misfolded SOD1, and aggregated SOD1 was analysed by western blotting. Misfolded SOD1 was detected in all lines. Levels were found to be much lower in non-disease control and the non-SOD1 C9orf72 ALS lines. This enabled us to validate patient fibroblasts for use in subsequent perturbation studies. Mitochondrial inhibition, endoplasmic reticulum stress or autophagy inhibition did not affect soluble misfolded SOD1 and in most cases, detergent-resistant SOD1 aggregates were not detected. However, proteasome inhibition led to uniformly large increases in misfolded SOD1 levels in all cell lines and an increase in SOD1 aggregation in some. Thus the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a principal determinant of misfolded SOD1 levels in cells derived both from patients and controls and a decline in activity with aging could be one of the factors behind the mid-to late-life onset of inherited ALS. PMID:26919046

  1. Isolation and sequence of complementary DNA encoding human extracellular superoxide dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Hjalmarsson, K.; Marklund, S.L.; Engstroem, A.; Edlund, T.

    1987-09-01

    A complementary DNA (cDNA) clone from a human placenta cDNA library encoding extracellular superoxide dismutase has been isolated and the nucleotide sequence determined. The cDNA has a very high G + C content. EC-SOD is synthesized with a putative 18-amino acid signal peptide, preceding the 222 amino acids in the mature enzyme, indicating that the enzyme is a secretory protein. The first 95 amino acids of the mature enzyme show no sequence homology with other sequenced proteins and there is one possible N-glycosylation site (Asn-89). The amino acid sequence from residues 96-193 shows strong homology (approx. 50%) with the final two-thirds of the sequences of all know eukaryotic CuZn SODs, whereas the homology with the P. leiognathi CuZn SOD is clearly lower. The ligands to Cu and Zn, the cysteines forming the intrasubunit disulfide bridge in the CuZn SODs, and the arginine found in all CuZn SODs in the entrance to the active site can all be identified in EC-SOD. A comparison with bovine CuZn SOD, the three-dimensional structure of which is known, reveals that the homologies occur in the active site and the divergencies are in the part constituting the subunit contact area in CuZn SOD. Amino acid sequence 194-222 in the carboxyl-terminal end of EC-SOD is strongly hydrophilic and contains nine amino acids with a positive charge. This sequence probably confers the affinity of EC-SOD for heparin and heparan sulfate. An analysis of the amino acid sequence homologies with CuZn SODs from various species indicates that the EC-SODs may have evolved form the CuZn SODs before the evolution of fungi and plants.

  2. Intracellular implantation of enzymes in hollow silica nanospheres for protein therapy: cascade system of superoxide dismutase and catalase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Peng; Chen, Yi-Ping; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    An approach for enzyme therapeutics is elaborated with cell-implanted nanoreactors that are based on multiple enzymes encapsulated in hollow silica nanospheres (HSNs). The synthesis of HSNs is carried out by silica sol-gel templating of water-in-oil microemulsions so that polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified enzymes in aqueous phase are encapsulated inside the HSNs. PEI-grafted superoxide dismutase (PEI-SOD) and catalase (PEI-CAT) encapsulated in HSNs are prepared with quantitative control of the enzyme loadings. Excellent activities of superoxide dismutation by PEI-SOD@HSN are found and transformation of H2 O2 to water by PEI-CAT@HSN. When PEI-SOD and PEI-CAT are co-encapsulated, cascade transformation of superoxide through hydrogen peroxide to water was facile. Substantial fractions of HSNs exhibit endosome escape to cytosol after their delivery to cells. The production of downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS) and COX-2/p-p38 expression show that co-encapsulated SOD/CAT inside the HSNs renders the highest cell protection against the toxicant N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride (paraquat). The rapid cell uptake and strong detoxification effect on superoxide radicals by the SOD/CAT-encapsulated hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles demonstrate the general concept of implanting catalytic nanoreactors in biological cells with designed functions.

  3. Subcutaneous Administration of Bovine Superoxide Dismutase Protects Lungs from Radiation-Induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Isabel L.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to determine whether single administration of the antioxidant enzyme bovine superoxide dismutase (bSOD) after radiation (RT) exposure mitigates development of pulmonary toxicity in rats. Methods Female F344 rats (n=60) were divided among six experimental groups: (1) RT, single dose of 21 Gy to the right hemithorax; (2) RT+5 mg/kg bSOD; (3) RT+15 mg/kg bSOD; (4) No RT; (5) sham RT+5mg/kg bSOD; and (6) sham RT+15mg/kg bSOD. A single subcutaneous injection of bSOD (5 or 15 mg/kg) was administered 24 hours postradiation. The effects of bSOD on radiation-induced lung injury were assessed by measurement of body weight, breathing frequency and histopathological changes. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate oxidative stress (8-OHdG+, NOX4+, nitrotyrosine+, 4HNE+ cells), macrophage activation (ED1+), and expression of profibrotic TGF-β in irradiated tissue. Results Radiation led to an increase in all evaluated parameters. Treatment with 15mg/kg bSOD significantly decreased levels of all evaluated parameters including tissue damage and breathing frequency starting 6 weeks post-radiation. Animals treated with 5 mg/kg bSOD trended toward a suppression of radiation-induced lung damage but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions The single application of bSOD (15mg/kg) ameliorates radiation induced lung injury through suppression of ROS/RNS dependent tissue damage. PMID:26110460

  4. Peroxisomal membrane manganese superoxide dismutase: characterization of the isozyme from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Schrad.) cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Romero-Puertas, María C; Pastori, Gabriela M; Corpas, Francisco J; Sandalio, Luisa M; del Río, Luis A; Palma, José M

    2007-01-01

    In this work the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) bound to peroxisomal membranes of watermelon cotyledons (Citrullus lanatus Schrad.) was purified to homogeneity and some of its molecular properties were determined. The stepwise purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulphate fractionation, batch anion-exchange chromatography, and anion-exchange and gel-filtration column chromatography using a fast protein liquid chromatography system. Peroxisomal membrane Mn-SOD (perMn-SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) was purified 5600-fold with a yield of 2.6 mug of enzyme g(-1) of cotyledons, and had a specific activity of 480 U mg(-1) of protein. The native molecular mass determined for perMn-SOD was 108 000 Da, and it was composed of four equal subunits of 27 kDa, which indicates that perMn-SOD is a homotetramer. Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of the enzyme showed a shoulder at 275 nm and two absorption maxima at 448 nm and 555 nm, respectively. By isoelectric focusing, a pI of 5.75 was determined for perMn-SOD. In immunoblot assays, purified perMn-SOD was recognized by a polyclonal antibody against Mn-SOD from pea leaves, and the peroxisomal enzyme rapidly dissociated in the presence of dithiothreitol and SDS. The potential binding of the Mn-SOD isozyme to the peroxisomal membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy analysis. The properties of perMn-SOD and the mitMn-SOD are compared and the possible function in peroxisomal membranes of the peripheral protein Mn-SOD is discussed.

  5. Redox-Modulated Phenomena and Radiation Therapy: The Central Role of Superoxide Dismutases

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Aaron K.; Miao, Lu; St. Clair, Daret K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Ionizing radiation is a vital component in the oncologist's arsenal for the treatment of cancer. Approximately 50% of all cancer patients will receive some form of radiation therapy as part of their treatment regimen. DNA is considered the major cellular target of ionizing radiation and can be damaged directly by radiation or indirectly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed from the radiolysis of water, enzyme-mediated ROS production, and ROS resulting from altered aerobic metabolism. Recent Advances: ROS are produced as a byproduct of oxygen metabolism, and superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the chief scavengers. ROS contribute to the radioresponsiveness of normal and tumor tissues, and SODs modulate the radioresponsiveness of tissues, thus affecting the efficacy of radiotherapy. Critical Issues: Despite its prevalent use, radiation therapy suffers from certain limitations that diminish its effectiveness, including tumor hypoxia and normal tissue damage. Oxygen is important for the stabilization of radiation-induced DNA damage, and tumor hypoxia dramatically decreases radiation efficacy. Therefore, auxiliary therapies are needed to increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy against tumor tissues while minimizing normal tissue injury. Future Directions: Because of the importance of ROS in the response of normal and cancer tissues to ionizing radiation, methods that differentially modulate the ROS scavenging ability of cells may prove to be an important method to increase the radiation response in cancer tissues and simultaneously mitigate the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on normal tissues. Altering the expression or activity of SODs may prove valuable in maximizing the overall effectiveness of ionizing radiation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1567–1589. PMID:24094070

  6. Unique Characteristics of Recombinant Hybrid Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from Staphylococcus equorum and S. saprophyticus.

    PubMed

    Retnoningrum, Debbie S; Rahayu, Anis Puji; Mulyanti, Dina; Dita, Astrid; Valerius, Oliver; Ismaya, Wangsa T

    2016-04-01

    A recombinant hybrid of manganese dependent-superoxide dismutase of Staphylococcus equorum and S. saprophyticus has successfully been overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), purified, and characterized. The recombinant enzyme suffered from degradation and aggregation upon storage at -20 °C, but not at room temperature nor in cold. Chromatographic analysis in a size exclusion column suggested the occurrence of dimeric form, which has been reported to contribute in maintaining the stability of the enzyme. Effect of monovalent (Na(+), K(+)), divalent (Ca(2+), Mg(2+)), multivalent (Mn(2+/4+), Zn(2+/4+)) cations and anions (Cl(-), SO4 (2-)) to the enzyme stability or dimeric state depended on type of cation or anion, its concentration, and pH. However, tremendous effect was observed with 50 mM ZnSO4, in which thermostability of both the dimer and monomer was increased. Similar situation was not observed with MnSO4, and its presence was detrimental at 200 mM. Finally, chelating agent appeared to destabilize the dimer around neutral pH and dissociate it at basic pH. The monomer remained stable upon addition of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Here we reported unique characteristics and stability of manganese dependent-superoxide dismutase from S. equorum/saprophyticus.

  7. Featured Article: Effect of copper on nuclear translocation of copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Ge, Yan; Kang, Y James

    2016-08-01

    Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase-1 (CCS-1), facilitating copper insertion into superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1), is present in the nucleus. However, it is unknown how CCS-1 is translocated to the nucleus. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of copper on nuclear translocation of CCS-1. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were subjected to hypoxia, causing an increase in both copper and CCS-1 in the nucleus. Treatment with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) not only decreased the total cellular concentration and the nuclear translocation of copper, but also completely suppressed the entry of CCS-1 to the nucleus. On the other hand, siRNA targeting CCS-1 neither inhibited the increase in total concentrations nor blocked the nuclear translocation of copper. This study thus demonstrates that under hypoxia condition, both copper and CCS-1 are transported to the nucleus. The nuclear translocation of CCS-1 is copper dependent, but the nuclear translocation of copper could take place alternatively in a CCS-1-independent pathway.

  8. Unique Characteristics of Recombinant Hybrid Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from Staphylococcus equorum and S. saprophyticus.

    PubMed

    Retnoningrum, Debbie S; Rahayu, Anis Puji; Mulyanti, Dina; Dita, Astrid; Valerius, Oliver; Ismaya, Wangsa T

    2016-04-01

    A recombinant hybrid of manganese dependent-superoxide dismutase of Staphylococcus equorum and S. saprophyticus has successfully been overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), purified, and characterized. The recombinant enzyme suffered from degradation and aggregation upon storage at -20 °C, but not at room temperature nor in cold. Chromatographic analysis in a size exclusion column suggested the occurrence of dimeric form, which has been reported to contribute in maintaining the stability of the enzyme. Effect of monovalent (Na(+), K(+)), divalent (Ca(2+), Mg(2+)), multivalent (Mn(2+/4+), Zn(2+/4+)) cations and anions (Cl(-), SO4 (2-)) to the enzyme stability or dimeric state depended on type of cation or anion, its concentration, and pH. However, tremendous effect was observed with 50 mM ZnSO4, in which thermostability of both the dimer and monomer was increased. Similar situation was not observed with MnSO4, and its presence was detrimental at 200 mM. Finally, chelating agent appeared to destabilize the dimer around neutral pH and dissociate it at basic pH. The monomer remained stable upon addition of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Here we reported unique characteristics and stability of manganese dependent-superoxide dismutase from S. equorum/saprophyticus. PMID:26960678

  9. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a unique mutation in CCS, the human copper chaperone to superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Huppke, Peter; Brendel, Cornelia; Korenke, Georg Christoph; Marquardt, Iris; Donsante, Anthony; Yi, Ling; Hicks, Julia D; Steinbach, Peter J; Wilson, Callum; Elpeleg, Orly; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Christodoulou, John; Kaler, Stephen G; Gärtner, Jutta

    2012-08-01

    Copper (Cu) is a trace metal that readily gains and donates electrons, a property that renders it desirable as an enzyme cofactor but dangerous as a source of free radicals. To regulate cellular Cu metabolism, an elaborate system of chaperones and transporters has evolved, although no human Cu chaperone mutations have been described to date. We describe a child from a consanguineous family who inherited homozygous mutations in the SLC33A1, encoding an acetyl CoA transporter, and in CCS, encoding the Cu chaperone for superoxide dismutase. The CCS mutation, p.Arg163Trp, predicts substitution of a highly conserved arginine residue at position 163, with tryptophan in domain II of CCS, which interacts directly with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Biochemical analyses of the patient's fibroblasts, mammalian cell transfections, immunoprecipitation assays, and Lys7Δ (CCS homolog) yeast complementation support the pathogenicity of the mutation. Expression of CCS was reduced and binding of CCS to SOD1 impaired. As a result, this mutation causes reduced SOD1 activity and may impair other mechanisms important for normal Cu homeostasis. CCS-Arg163Trp represents the primary example of a human mutation in a gene coding for a Cu chaperone.

  10. Developmental and environmental regulation of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cytosolic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase promoter in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Hérouart, D; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D

    1994-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) play a key role in the cellular defense against reactive oxygen species. To study the transcriptional regulation at the cellular level, the promoter of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cytosolic gene encoding Cu/ZnSOD (SODCc) was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (gusA) and analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants. The promoter was highly active in vascular bundles of leaves and stems, where it is confined to phloem cells. In flowers, GUS activity was detected in ovules and pollen grains, in pigmented tissues of petals, and in vascular tissue of ovaries and anthers. In response to treatment with the superoxide-generating herbicide paraquat, very strong GUS staining was observed in photosynthetically active cells of leaves and in some epidermal root cells of seedlings. The expression of the SODCc-gusA was also induced in seedlings after heat shock and chilling and after treatment with sulfhydryl antioxidants such as reduced glutathione and cysteine. It is postulated that SODCc expression is directly linked to a cell-specific production of excess superoxide radicals in the cytosol. PMID:8165260

  11. Immunohistochemical identification and quantitative analysis of cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in mouse organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yon, Jung-Min; Baek, In-Jeoung; Lee, Se-Ra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Lee, Beom Jun; Yun, Young Won

    2008-01-01

    Cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide in cells. Its spatial distribution matches that of superoxide production, allowing it to protect cells from oxidative stress. SOD1 deficiencies result in embryonic lethality and a wide range of pathologies in mice, but little is known about normal SOD1 protein expression in developing embryos. In this study, the expression pattern of SOD1 was investigated in post-implantation mouse embryos and extraembryonic tissues, including placenta, using Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses. SOD1 was detected in embryos and extraembryonic tissues from embryonic day (ED) 8.5 to 18.5. The signal in embryos was observed at the lowest level on ED 9.5-11.5, and the highest level on ED 17.5-18.5, while levels remained constant in the surrounding extraembryonic tissues during all developmental stages examined. Immunohistochemical analysis of SOD1 expression on ED 13.5-18.5 revealed its ubiquitous distribution throughout developing organs. In particular, high levels of SOD1 expression were observed in the ependymal epithelium of the choroid plexus, ganglia, sensory cells of the olfactory and vestibulocochlear epithelia, blood cells and vessels, hepatocytes and hematopoietic cells of the liver, lymph nodes, osteogenic tissues, and skin. Thus, SOD1 is highly expressed at late stages of embryonic development in a cell- and tissue-specific manner, and can function as an important antioxidant enzyme during organogenesis in mouse embryos. PMID:18716442

  12. Modification of inflammatory response to implanted biomedical materials in vivo by surface bound superoxide dismutase mimics.

    PubMed

    Udipi, K; Ornberg, R L; Thurmond, K B; Settle, S L; Forster, D; Riley, D

    2000-09-15

    The healing response to implanted biomedical materials involves varying degrees and stages of inflammation and healing which in some cases leads to device failure. In this article, we describe synthetic methods and in vivo results of a novel surface treatment for biomedical materials involving covalent conjugation of a low molecular weight superoxide dismutase mimic (SODm), which imparts anti-inflammatory character to the material. SODm investigated in this study are a new class of anti-inflammatory drugs consisting of a Mn(II) complex of a macrocyclic polyamine ring that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide at rates equivalent to that of native enzyme. The SODms were covalently linked to small disks of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, poly(etherurethane urea), and tantalum metal at two concentrations and implanted in a subcutaneous rat implant model for 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. Histological examination of the implant tissue performed at 3 and 28 days revealed striking anti-inflammatory effects on both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. At 3 days, the formation of a neutrophil-rich acute inflammatory infiltrate seen in control implants was inhibited for all three materials treated with SODm. At 28 days, foreign body giant cell formation (number of FBGCs per field) and fibrous capsule formation (mean thickness of implant capsule) were also significantly inhibited over untreated control implants. A mechanism based on our current understanding of superoxide as an inflammatory mediator at implanted biomedical materials is proposed.

  13. Attenuation of renal excretory responses to ANG II during inhibition of superoxide dismutase in anesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Abdul Hye; Islam, Mohammed Toriqul; Castillo, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    To examine the functional interaction between superoxide dismutase (SOD) and NADPH oxidase activity, we assessed renal responses to acute intra-arterial infusion of ANG II (0.5 ng·kg−1·min−1) before and during administration of a SOD inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC, 0.5 mg·kg−1·min−1), in enalaprilat-pretreated (33 μg·kg−1·min−1) rats (n = 11). Total (RBF) and regional (cortical, CBF; medullary; MBF) renal blood flows were determined by Transonic and laser-Doppler flowmetry, respectively. Renal cortical and medullary tissue NADPH oxidase activity in vitro was determined using the lucigenin-chemiluminescence method. DETC treatment alone resulted in decreases in RBF, CBF, MBF, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urine flow (V), and sodium excretion (UNaV) as reported previously. Before DETC, ANG II infusion decreased RBF (−18 ± 3%), CBF (−16 ± 3%), MBF [−5 ± 6%; P = not significant (NS)], GFR (−31 ± 4%), V (−34 ± 2%), and UNaV (−53 ± 3%). During DETC infusion, ANG II also caused similar reductions in RBF (−20 ± 4%), CBF (−19 ± 3%), MBF (−2 ± 2; P = NS), and in GFR (−22 ± 7%), whereas renal excretory responses (V; −12 ± 2%; UNaV; −24 ± 4%) were significantly attenuated compared with those before DETC. In in vitro experiments, ANG II (100 μM) enhanced NADPH oxidase activity both in cortical [13,194 ± 1,651 vs. 20,914 ± 2,769 relative light units (RLU)/mg protein] and in medullary (21,296 ± 2,244 vs. 30,597 ± 4,250 RLU/mg protein) tissue. Application of DETC (1 mM) reduced the basal levels and prevented ANG II-induced increases in NADPH oxidase activity in both tissues. These results demonstrate that renal excretory responses to acute ANG II administration are attenuated during SOD inhibition, which seems related to a downregulation of NADPH oxidase in the deficient condition of SOD activity. PMID:19923406

  14. Activations of c-fos/c-jun signaling are involved in the modulation of hypothalamic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in amphetamine-mediated appetite suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Y.-S.; Yang, S.-F.; Chiou, H.-L.; Kuo, D.-Y. . E-mail: dykuo@csmu.edu.tw

    2006-04-15

    Amphetamine (AMPH) is known as an anorectic agent. The mechanism underlying the anorectic action of AMPH has been attributed to its inhibitory action on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), an appetite stimulant in the brain. This study was aimed to examine the molecular mechanisms behind the anorectic effect of AMPH. Results showed that AMPH treatment decreased food intake, which was correlated with changes of NPY mRNA level, but increased c-fos, c-jun and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA levels in hypothalamus. To determine if c-fos or c-jun was involved in the anorectic response of AMPH, infusions of antisense oligonucleotide into the brain were performed at 1 h before daily AMPH treatment in freely moving rats, and the results showed that c-fos or c-jun knockdown could block this anorectic response and restore NPY mRNA level. Moreover, c-fos or c-jun knockdown could partially block SOD mRNA level that might involve in the modulation of NPY gene expression. It was suggested that c-fos/c-jun signaling might involve in the central regulation of AMPH-mediated feeding suppression via the modulation of NPY gene expression.

  15. Comparison of the crystal structures of genetically engineered human manganese superoxide dismutase and manganese superoxide dismutase from Thermus thermophilus: differences in dimer-dimer interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, U. G.; Pattridge, K. A.; Ludwig, M. L.; Stallings, W. C.; Werber, M. M.; Oefner, C.; Frolow, F.; Sussman, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional X-ray structure of a recombinant human mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) (chain length 198 residues) was determined by the method of molecular replacement using the related structure of MnSOD from Thermus thermophilus as a search model. This tetrameric human MnSOD crystallizes in space group P2(1)2(1)2 with a dimer in the asymmetric unit (Wagner, U.G., Werber, M.M., Beck, Y., Hartman, J.R., Frolow, F., & Sussman, J.L., 1989, J. Mol. Biol. 206, 787-788). Refinement of the protein structure (3,148 atoms with Mn and no solvents), with restraints maintaining noncrystallographic symmetry, converged at an R-factor of 0.207 using all data from 8.0 to 3.2 A resolution and group thermal parameters. The monomer-monomer interactions typical of bacterial Fe- and Mn-containing SODs are retained in the human enzyme, but the dimer-dimer interactions that form the tetramer are very different from those found in the structure of MnSOD from T. thermophilus. In human MnSOD one of the dimers is rotated by 84 degrees relative to its equivalent in the thermophile enzyme. As a result the monomers are arranged in an approximately tetrahedral array, the dimer-dimer packing is more intimate than observed in the bacterial MnSOD from T. thermophilus, and the dimers interdigitate. The metal-ligand interactions, determined by refinement and verified by computation of omit maps, are identical to those observed in T. thermophilus MnSOD. PMID:8495200

  16. Modulation of renal superoxide dismutase by telmisartan therapy in C57BL/6-Ins2Akita diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Hiroki; Fujishima, Hiromi; Morii, Tsukasa; Sakamoto, Takuya; Komatsu, Koga; Hosoba, Mihoko; Narita, Takuma; Takahashi, Keiko; Takahashi, Takamune; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2012-01-01

    Renal superoxide excess, which is induced by an imbalance of the superoxide-producing enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase and the superoxide-scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) under hyperglycemia, increases oxidative stress and contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we treated non-obese and hypoinsulinemic C57BL/6-Ins2Akita (C57BL/6-Akita) diabetic mice with telmisartan (5 mg kg−1 per day), an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, or amlodipine (5 mg kg−1 per day), a calcium channel blocker, for 4 weeks and compared the effects of these two anti-hypertensive drugs on renal NAD(P)H oxidase, SOD and transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2), which is known to upregulate several antioxidant enzymes including SOD. Vehicle-treated C57BL/6-Akita mice exhibited higher renal NAD(P)H oxidase and lower renal SOD activity with increased levels of renal superoxide than the C57BL/6-wild-type non-diabetic mice. Interestingly, telmisartan treatment not only reduced NAD(P)H oxidase activity but also enhanced SOD activity in C57BL/6-Akita mouse kidneys, leading to a reduction of renal superoxide levels. Furthermore, telmisartan-treated C57BL/6-Akita mice increased the renal protein expression of SOD and Nrf2. In parallel with the reduction of renal superoxide levels, a reduction of urinary albumin levels and a normalization of elevated glomerular filtration rate were observed in telmisartan-treated C57BL/6-Akita mice. In contrast, treatment with amlodipine failed to modulate renal NAD(P)H oxidase, SOD and Nrf2. Finally, treatment of C57BL/6-Akita mice with apocynin, an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, also increased the renal protein expression of SOD and Nrf2. Collectively, our data suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase negatively regulates renal SOD, possibly by downregulation of Nrf2, and that telmisartan could upregulate renal SOD by the suppression of NAD(P)H oxidase and subsequent upregulation of Nrf2, leading to the amelioration of

  17. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism in Mice: Allele- Specific Effects on Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sujung; Pierce, Anson; Dory, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) protects the extracellular matrix (ECM) from oxidative stress. We previously reported a new allele for ecSOD, expressed in 129P3/J mice (129), which differs from the wild-type (wt), expressed in C57BL/6J and other strains, by two amino acid substitutions and a 10 bp deletion in the 3' UTR of the mRNA [1]. The newly discovered allele is associated with a phenotype of significantly increased circulating and heparin-releasable enzyme activities and levels. In order to examine the properties of the two forms of ecSOD in an identical environment we generated, by extensive backcrossing of ecSOD heterozygous progeny to C57BL/6J females, a congenic C57 strain with the 129 (or wt) allele of ecSOD. These mice are homozygous for nearly 5,000 SNPs across all chromosomes, as determined by Affymetrix Parallele Mouse 5K SNP panel. The present study describes the generation of the congenic mice (genetically >99.8 % identical) and their ecSOD phenotype. The congenic mice plasma ecSOD activities before and after heparin administration recapitulate the differences reported in the founder mice. Tissue enzyme distribution is similar in both congenic groups, although the 129 allele is associated with higher levels of enzyme expression despite lower levels of enzyme mRNA. In these characteristics the phenotype is also allele driven, with little impact by the rest of the genome. The congenic mice carrying the 129 allele have mRNA levels that are in between those found in the founder 129P3/J and C57BL/6J strains. We conclude that the ecSOD phenotype in most aspects of enzyme expression is allele- driven, with the exception of tissue mRNA levels, where a significant contribution by the surrounding (host) genome is observed. These results also suggest potential allele-specific differences in the regulation of ecSOD synthesis and intracellular processing/secretion of ecSOD, independent of the genotype context. Most importantly, the congenic mice

  18. Genetics of superoxide dismutase in the forest tent caterpillar and other organisms.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, N

    1979-01-01

    The electrophoretic assay of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Malacosoma disstria revealed a total of 13 bands arranged in 9 patterns. One locus, composed of bands 28, 32, 36 was polymorphic in some locations. Band frequencies varied by location, but not by generation or by time in the laboratory. Significant interactions between sibling groups and SOD types for development time suggest that selective advantage is a function of genetic background. SOD, an important enzyme protecting diverse organisms against the toxic radicals of oxygen, has been extensively analyzed by biochemists. Geneticists have assayed individuals and populations for the smae enzyme, calling it tetrazolium oxidase (TO). The biochemistry and genetics literatures were reviewed and results from the two disciplines were discussed.

  19. Therapeutic value of oral supplementation with melon superoxide dismutase and wheat gliadin combination.

    PubMed

    Romao, Susana

    2015-03-01

    Dietary antioxidant supplementation has been popular in Western countries. Various supplements have been developed in recent years, and research has been gathered from both animal and clinical research trials. In this review, the therapeutic value of oral administration of a combination of melon superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a vegetable polymer (gliadin) is evaluated. Critical examination of the effects of SOD-gliadin supplementation is carried out, with an emphasis on its impact on oxidative stress levels and on endogenous antioxidant pathways. Overall analysis of peer-reviewed published data suggests that intake of SOD-gliadin might have advantageous health effects. These conclusions are dependent on the condition or pathology under consideration. In general, the authors, who analyzed SOD-gliadin supplementation, support the use of SOD-gliadin supplementation as a complementary treatment rather than a therapeutic treatment. To further clarify the importance of dietary SOD-gliadin administration, additional large-scale clinical trials are recommended.

  20. Cloning and expression of an iron-containing superoxide dismutase in the parasitic protist, Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Viscogliosi, E; Delgado-Viscogliosi, P; Gerbod, D; Dauchez, M; Gratepanche, S; Alix, A J; Dive, D

    1998-04-01

    A superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene of the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis was cloned, sequenced, expressed in Escherichia coli, and its gene product characterized. It is an iron-containing dimeric protein with a monomeric mass of 22,067 Da. Southern blots analyses suggested the presence of seven iron-containing (FeSOD) gene copies. Hydrophobic cluster analysis revealed some peculiarities in the 2D structure of the FeSOD from T. vaginalis and a strong structural conservation between prokaryotic and eukaryotic FeSODs. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the SOD sequences confirmed the dichotomy between FeSODs and manganese-containing SODs. FeSODs of protists appeared to group together with homologous proteobacterial enzymes suggesting a possible origin of eukaryotic FeSODs through an endosymbiotic event.

  1. Aggregation propensities of superoxide dismutase G93 hotspot mutants mirror ALS clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Ashley J; Shin, David S; Merz, Gregory E; Rambo, Robert P; Lancaster, W Andrew; Dyer, Kevin N; Borbat, Peter P; Poole, Farris L; Adams, Michael W W; Freed, Jack H; Crane, Brian R; Tainer, John A; Getzoff, Elizabeth D

    2014-10-28

    Protein framework alterations in heritable Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) mutants cause misassembly and aggregation in cells affected by the motor neuron disease ALS. However, the mechanistic relationship between superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations and human disease is controversial, with many hypotheses postulated for the propensity of specific SOD mutants to cause ALS. Here, we experimentally identify distinguishing attributes of ALS mutant SOD proteins that correlate with clinical severity by applying solution biophysical techniques to six ALS mutants at human SOD hotspot glycine 93. A small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) assay and other structural methods assessed aggregation propensity by defining the size and shape of fibrillar SOD aggregates after mild biochemical perturbations. Inductively coupled plasma MS quantified metal ion binding stoichiometry, and pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy evaluated the Cu(2+) binding site and defined cross-dimer copper-copper distance distributions. Importantly, we find that copper deficiency in these mutants promotes aggregation in a manner strikingly consistent with their clinical severities. G93 mutants seem to properly incorporate metal ions under physiological conditions when assisted by the copper chaperone but release copper under destabilizing conditions more readily than the WT enzyme. Altered intradimer flexibility in ALS mutants may cause differential metal retention and promote distinct aggregation trends observed for mutant proteins in vitro and in ALS patients. Combined biophysical and structural results test and link copper retention to the framework destabilization hypothesis as a unifying general mechanism for both SOD aggregation and ALS disease progression, with implications for disease severity and therapeutic intervention strategies.

  2. Aggregation propensities of superoxide dismutase G93 hotspot mutants mirror ALS clinical phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Ashley J.; Shin, David S.; Merz, Gregory E.; Rambo, Robert P.; Lancaster, W. Andrew; Dyer, Kevin N.; Borbat, Peter P.; Poole, Farris L.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Freed, Jack H.; Crane, Brian R.; Tainer, John A.; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.

    2014-01-01

    Protein framework alterations in heritable Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) mutants cause misassembly and aggregation in cells affected by the motor neuron disease ALS. However, the mechanistic relationship between superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations and human disease is controversial, with many hypotheses postulated for the propensity of specific SOD mutants to cause ALS. Here, we experimentally identify distinguishing attributes of ALS mutant SOD proteins that correlate with clinical severity by applying solution biophysical techniques to six ALS mutants at human SOD hotspot glycine 93. A small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) assay and other structural methods assessed aggregation propensity by defining the size and shape of fibrillar SOD aggregates after mild biochemical perturbations. Inductively coupled plasma MS quantified metal ion binding stoichiometry, and pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy evaluated the Cu2+ binding site and defined cross-dimer copper–copper distance distributions. Importantly, we find that copper deficiency in these mutants promotes aggregation in a manner strikingly consistent with their clinical severities. G93 mutants seem to properly incorporate metal ions under physiological conditions when assisted by the copper chaperone but release copper under destabilizing conditions more readily than the WT enzyme. Altered intradimer flexibility in ALS mutants may cause differential metal retention and promote distinct aggregation trends observed for mutant proteins in vitro and in ALS patients. Combined biophysical and structural results test and link copper retention to the framework destabilization hypothesis as a unifying general mechanism for both SOD aggregation and ALS disease progression, with implications for disease severity and therapeutic intervention strategies. PMID:25316790

  3. Inhibition of cell growth in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts by overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase: mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Li, N; Oberley, T D; Oberley, L W; Zhong, W

    1998-06-01

    NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts were transfected with the cDNA for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and two clones overexpressing MnSOD activity were subsequently characterized by comparison with parental and control plasmid-transfected cells. One clone with a 1.8-fold increase in MnSOD activity had a 1.5-fold increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity (increased GPX-adapted clone), while a second clone with a 3-fold increase in MnSOD activity had a 2-fold decrease in copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity (decreased CuZnSOD-adapted clone). Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels compared with parental or control plasmid-transfected cells were observed in nonsynchronous cells in the increased GPX-adapted clone, but not in the decreased CuZnSOD-adapted clone. The two MnSOD-overexpressing clones showed different sensitivities to agents that generate oxidative stress. Flow cytometry analysis of the cell cycle showed altered cell cycle progression in both MnSOD-overexpressing clones. During logarithmic growth, both MnSOD-overexpressing clones showed increased mitochondrial membrane potential compared with parental and control plasmid-transfected cells. Both MnSOD-overexpressing clones showed a decrease in mitochondrial mass at the postconfluent phase of growth, suggesting that mitochondrial mass may be regulated by MnSOD and/or ROS levels. Our results indicate that adaptation of fibroblasts to overexpression of MnSOD can involve more than one mechanism, with the resultant cell phenotype dependent on the adaptation mechanism utilized by the cell.

  4. Aerosolized human extracellular superoxide dismutase prevents hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chih-Ching; Lai, Yi-Wen; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Lai, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chen, Wei; Kuan, Yu-Ping; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2011-01-01

    An important issue in critical care medicine is the identification of ways to protect the lungs from oxygen toxicity and reduce systemic oxidative stress in conditions requiring mechanical ventilation and high levels of oxygen. One way to prevent oxygen toxicity is to augment antioxidant enzyme activity in the respiratory system. The current study investigated the ability of aerosolized extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) to protect the lungs from hyperoxic injury. Recombinant human EC-SOD (rhEC-SOD) was produced from a synthetic cassette constructed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Female CD-1 mice were exposed in hyperoxia (FiO2>95%) to induce lung injury. The therapeutic effects of EC-SOD and copper-zinc SOD (CuZn-SOD) via an aerosol delivery system for lung injury and systemic oxidative stress at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of hyperoxia were measured by bronchoalveolar lavage, wet/dry ratio, lung histology, and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in lung and liver tissues. After exposure to hyperoxia, the wet/dry weight ratio remained stable before day 2 but increased significantly after day 3. The levels of oxidative biomarker 8-oxo-dG in the lung and liver were significantly decreased on day 2 (P<0.01) but the marker in the liver increased abruptly after day 3 of hyperoxia when the mortality increased. Treatment with aerosolized rhEC-SOD increased the survival rate at day 3 under hyperoxia to 95.8%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (57.1%), albumin treated group (33.3%), and CuZn-SOD treated group (75%). The protective effects of EC-SOD against hyperoxia were further confirmed by reduced lung edema and systemic oxidative stress. Aerosolized EC-SOD protected mice against oxygen toxicity and reduced mortality in a hyperoxic model. The results encourage the use of an aerosol therapy with EC-SOD in intensive care units to reduce oxidative injury in patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, including acute

  5. Identification of new mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Pramatarova, A.; Han, F.Y.; Rouleau, G.A.; Figlewicz, D.A.; Ceballos-Picot, I.; Nicole, A.; Meininger, V.; Grown, R.H.

    1995-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons. Although most cases of ALS are sporadic, {approximately}10% are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Mutations in the CU/An superoxide dismutase gene (SOD 1) are responsible for a fraction of familial ALS (FALS). Screening our FALS kindreds by SSCP, we have identified mutations in 15 families, of which 9 have not been previously reported. Two of the new mutations alter amino acids that have never been implicated in FALS. One of them affects a highly conserved amino acid involved in dimer contact, and the other one affects the active-site loop of the enzyme. These two mutations reduce significantly SOD 1 enzyme activity in lymphoblasts. Our results suggest that SOD 1 mutations are responsible for {>=}13% of FALS cases. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Induction of hypertension and peripheral inflammation by reduction of extracellular superoxide dismutase in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lob, Heinrich E; Marvar, Paul J; Guzik, Tomasz J; Sharma, Shraya; McCann, Louise A; Weyand, Cornelia; Gordon, Frank J; Harrison, David G

    2010-02-01

    The circumventricular organs (CVOs) lack a well-formed blood-brain barrier and produce superoxide in response to angiotensin II and other hypertensive stimuli. This increase in central superoxide has been implicated in the regulation of blood pressure. The extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is highly expressed in cells associated with CVOs and particularly with tanycytes lining this region. To understand the role of SOD3 in the CVOs in blood pressure regulation, we performed intracerebroventricular injection an adenovirus encoding Cre-recombinase (5x10(8) particles per milliliter) in mice with loxP sites flanking the SOD3 coding region (SOD3(loxp/loxp) mice). An adenovirus encoding red-fluorescent protein was injected as a control. Deletion of CVO SOD3 increased baseline blood pressure modestly and markedly augmented the hypertensive response to low-dose angiotensin II (140 ng/kg per day), whereas intracerebroventricular injection of adenovirus encoding red-fluorescent protein had minimal effects on these parameters. Adenovirus encoding Cre-recombinase-treated mice exhibited increased sympathetic modulation of heart rate and blood pressure variability, increased vascular superoxide production, and T-cell activation as characterized by increased circulating CD69(+)/CD3(+) cells. Deletion of CVO SOD3 also markedly increased vascular T-cell and leukocyte infiltration caused by angiotensin II. We conclude that SOD3 in the CVO plays a critical role in the regulation of blood pressure, and its loss promotes T-cell activation and vascular inflammation, in part by modulating sympathetic outflow. These findings provide insight into how central signals produce vascular inflammation in response to hypertensive stimuli, such as angiotensin II.

  7. Inactivation of renal mitochondrial respiratory complexes and manganese superoxide dismutase during sepsis: mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitigates injury.

    PubMed

    Patil, Naeem K; Parajuli, Nirmala; MacMillan-Crow, Lee Ann; Mayeux, Philip R

    2014-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication of sepsis and leads to a high mortality rate. Human and animal studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure; however, the specific mitochondrial targets damaged during sepsis remain elusive. We used a clinically relevant cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) murine model of sepsis and assessed renal mitochondrial function using high-resolution respirometry, renal microcirculation using intravital microscopy, and renal function. CLP caused a time-dependent decrease in mitochondrial complex I and II/III respiration and reduced ATP. By 4 h after CLP, activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was decreased by 50% and inhibition was sustained through 36 h. These events were associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide generation. We then evaluated whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mito-TEMPO could reverse renal mitochondrial dysfunction and attenuate sepsis-induced AKI. Mito-TEMPO (10 mg/kg) given at 6 h post-CLP decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels, protected complex I and II/III respiration, and restored MnSOD activity by 18 h. Mito-TEMPO also improved renal microcirculation and glomerular filtration rate. Importantly, even delayed therapy with a single dose of Mito-TEMPO significantly increased 96-h survival rate from 40% in untreated septic mice to 80%. Thus, sepsis causes sustained inactivation of three mitochondrial targets that can lead to increased mitochondrial superoxide. Importantly, even delayed therapy with Mito-TEMPO alleviated kidney injury, suggesting that it may be a promising approach to treat septic AKI.

  8. Inactivation of renal mitochondrial respiratory complexes and manganese superoxide dismutase during sepsis: mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitigates injury.

    PubMed

    Patil, Naeem K; Parajuli, Nirmala; MacMillan-Crow, Lee Ann; Mayeux, Philip R

    2014-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication of sepsis and leads to a high mortality rate. Human and animal studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure; however, the specific mitochondrial targets damaged during sepsis remain elusive. We used a clinically relevant cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) murine model of sepsis and assessed renal mitochondrial function using high-resolution respirometry, renal microcirculation using intravital microscopy, and renal function. CLP caused a time-dependent decrease in mitochondrial complex I and II/III respiration and reduced ATP. By 4 h after CLP, activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was decreased by 50% and inhibition was sustained through 36 h. These events were associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide generation. We then evaluated whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mito-TEMPO could reverse renal mitochondrial dysfunction and attenuate sepsis-induced AKI. Mito-TEMPO (10 mg/kg) given at 6 h post-CLP decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels, protected complex I and II/III respiration, and restored MnSOD activity by 18 h. Mito-TEMPO also improved renal microcirculation and glomerular filtration rate. Importantly, even delayed therapy with a single dose of Mito-TEMPO significantly increased 96-h survival rate from 40% in untreated septic mice to 80%. Thus, sepsis causes sustained inactivation of three mitochondrial targets that can lead to increased mitochondrial superoxide. Importantly, even delayed therapy with Mito-TEMPO alleviated kidney injury, suggesting that it may be a promising approach to treat septic AKI. PMID:24500690

  9. Extraction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and carbonic anhydrase from stroma-free red blood cell hemolysate for the preparation of the nanobiotechnological complex of polyhemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Guo, C; Gynn, M; Chang, T M S

    2015-06-01

    We report a novel method to simultaneously extract superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and carbonic anhydrase (CA) from the same sample of red blood cells (RBCs). This avoids the need to use expensive commercial enzymes, thus enabling a cost-effective process for large-scale production of a nanobiotechnological polyHb-SOD-CAT-CA complex, with enhancement of all three red blood cell functions. An optimal concentration of phosphate buffer for ethanol-chloroform treatment results in good recovery of CAT, SOD, and CA after extraction. Different concentrations of the enzymes can be used to enhance the activity of polyHb-SOD-CAT-CA to 2, 4, or 6 times that of RBC.

  10. The first structure of a cold-adapted superoxide dismutase (SOD): biochemical and structural characterization of iron SOD from Aliivibrio salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Hege Lynum; Willassen, Nils Peder; Leiros, Ingar

    2009-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are metalloenzymes that catalyse the dismutation of the superoxide radical anion into O2 and H2O2 in a two-step reaction. The crystal structure of the iron superoxide dismutase from the cold-adapted and fish-pathogenic bacterium Aliivibrio salmonicida (asFeSOD) has been determined and refined to 1.7 Å resolution. The protein has been characterized and compared with the closely related homologous iron superoxide dismutase from the mesophilic Escherichia coli (ecFeSOD) in an attempt to rationalize its environmental adaptation. ecFeSOD shares 75% identity with asFeSOD. Compared with the mesophilic FeSOD, the psychrophilic FeSOD has distinct temperature differences in residual activity and thermostability that do not seem to be related to structural differences such as intramolecular or intermolecular ion bonds, hydrogen bonds or cavity sizes. However, an increased net negative charge on the surface of asFeSOD may explain its lower thermostability com­­pared with ecFeSOD. Activity measurements and differential scanning calori­metry measurements revealed that the psychrophilic asFeSOD had a thermostability that was significantly higher than the optimal growth temperature of the host organism. PMID:19193992

  11. Exogenous Superoxide Dismutase: Action on Liver Oxidative Stress in Animals with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Simões Dias, Alexandre; Porawski, Marilene; Marroni, Norma Anair Possa

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of exogenous antioxidant copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) on oxidative stress in the experimental model of diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods. Twenty eight male Wistar rats divided in four groups were used: control (CO), controls treated with SOD (CO + SOD), diabetics (DM), and diabetics treated with SOD (DM + SOD). SOD (orgotein, 13 mg/Kg body weight was administered. DM was induced by a single streptozotocin injection (i.p., 70 mg/kg), and 60 days later, we evaluated liver oxidative stress. Results. Liver lipoperoxidation was increased in the DM group and significantly decreased in the DM + SOD group. Nitrite and nitrate measures were reduced in the DM and increased in the DM + SOD group, while iNOS expression in the DM group was 32% greater than in the CO and 53% greater in the DM + SOD group than in the DM group (P < .01). P65 expression was 37% higher in the DM (P < .05), and there was no significant difference between the DM and DM + SOD groups. Conclusion. SOD treatment reduced liver oxidative stress in diabetic animals, even though it did not change NFκB. SOD also increased NO, probably by the increased dismutation of the superoxide radical. The iNOS expression increase, which became even more evident after SOD administration. PMID:21437212

  12. Impaired fertilizing ability of superoxide dismutase 1-deficient mouse sperm during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Kawano, Natsuko; Miyado, Kenji; Kimura, Naoko; Fujii, Junichi

    2012-11-01

    The oxidative modification of gametes by a reactive oxygen species is a major deleterious factor that decreases the successful rate of in vitro fertilization. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) plays a pivotal role in antioxidation by scavenging the superoxide anion, and its deficiency causes infertility in female mice, but the significance of the enzyme in male mice remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized Sod1(-/-) (Sod1-KO) male reproductive organs and compiled the first report of the impaired fertilizing ability of Sod1-KO sperm in in vitro fertilization. Insemination of wild-type oocytes with Sod1-KO sperm exhibited lower rates of fertility compared with insemination by wild-type sperm. The low fertilizing ability found for Sod1-KO sperm was partially rescued by reductant 2-mercaptoethanol, which suggested the oxidative modification of sperm components. The numbers of motile and progressive sperm decreased during the in vitro fertilization process, and a decline in ATP content and elevation in lipid peroxidation occurred in the Sod1-KO sperm in an incubation time-dependent manner. Tyrosine phosphorylation, which is a hallmark for sperm capacitation, was also impaired in the Sod1-KO sperm. These results collectively suggest that machinery involved in sperm capacitation and motility are vulnerable to oxidative damage during the in vitro fertilization process, which could increase the rate of inefficient fertilization.

  13. Accelerated aging phenotype in mice with conditional deficiency for mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in the connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Treiber, Nicolai; Maity, Pallab; Singh, Karmveer; Kohn, Matthias; Keist, Alexander F; Ferchiu, Florentina; Sante, Lea; Frese, Sebastian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Kreppel, Florian; Kochanek, Stefan; Sindrilaru, Anca; Iben, Sebastian; Högel, Josef; Ohnmacht, Michael; Claes, Lutz E; Ignatius, Anita; Chung, Jin H; Lee, Min J; Kamenisch, York; Berneburg, Mark; Nikolaus, Thorsten; Braunstein, Kerstin; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Ludolph, Albert C; Briviba, Karlis; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Florin, Lore; Angel, Peter; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2011-04-01

    The free radical theory of aging postulates that the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is the major determinant of aging and lifespan. Its role in aging of the connective tissue has not yet been established, even though the incidence of aging-related disorders in connective tissue-rich organs is high, causing major disability in the elderly. We have now addressed this question experimentally by creating mice with conditional deficiency of the mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase in fibroblasts and other mesenchyme-derived cells of connective tissues in all organs. Here, we have shown for the first time that the connective tissue-specific lack of superoxide anion detoxification in the mitochondria results in reduced lifespan and premature onset of aging-related phenotypes such as weight loss, skin atrophy, kyphosis (curvature of the spine), osteoporosis and muscle degeneration in mutant mice. Increase in p16(INK4a) , a robust in vivo marker for fibroblast aging, may contribute to the observed phenotype. This novel model is particularly suited to decipher the underlying mechanisms and to develop hopefully novel connective tissue-specific anti-aging strategies.

  14. Synthetic analogues of nickel superoxide dismutase: a new role for nickel in biology.

    PubMed

    Broering, Ellen P; Truong, Phan T; Gale, Eric M; Harrop, Todd C

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-containing superoxide dismutases (NiSODs) represent a novel approach to the detoxification of superoxide in biology and thus contribute to the biodiversity of mechanisms for the removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While Ni ions play critical roles in anaerobic microbial redox (hydrogenases and CO dehydrogenase/acetyl coenzyme A synthase), they have never been associated with oxygen metabolism. Several SODs have been characterized from numerous sources and are classified by their catalytic metal as Cu/ZnSOD, MnSOD, or FeSOD. Whereas aqueous solutions of Cu(II), Mn(II), and Fe(II) ions are capable of catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide, solutions of Ni(II) are not. Nonetheless, NiSOD catalyzes the reaction at the diffusion-controlled limit (~10(9) M(-1) s(-1)). To do this, nature has created a Ni coordination unit with the appropriate Ni(III/II) redox potential (~0.090 V vs Ag/AgCl). This potential is achieved by a unique ligand set comprised of residues from the N-terminus of the protein: Cys2 and Cys6 thiolates, the amino terminus and imidazole side chain of His1, and a peptide N-donor from Cys2. Over the past several years, synthetic modeling efforts by several groups have provided insight into understanding the intrinsic properties of this unusual Ni coordination site. Such analogues have revealed information regarding the (i) electrochemical properties that support Ni-based redox, (ii) oxidative protection and/or stability of the coordinated CysS ligands, (iii) probable H(+) sources for H(2)O(2) formation, and (iv) nature of the Ni coordination geometry throughout catalysis. This review includes the results and implications of such biomimetic work as it pertains to the structure and function of NiSOD.

  15. The effect of superoxide dismutase mimetic and catalase on the quality of postthawed goat semen.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Mojtaba; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr

    2015-05-01

    Manganese(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin chloride (MnTE) is a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent which can convert superoxide to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Supplementation of MnTE to a commercial semen extender can protect sperm from superoxide but not H2O2. Therefore, we proposed that addition of catalase (0.0, 200, or 400 IU/mL) in combination with MnTE (0.1 μM) may further improve the cryopreservation efficiency of goat semen in commercially optimized freezing media such as Andromed. Therefore, ejaculates were obtained from three adult bucks twice a week during the breeding season and diluted with Andromed supplemented with or without MnTE and catalase and were frozen in liquid nitrogen. Sperm parameters and reactive oxygen species contents were evaluated 2 hours after dilution (before freezing) and after freezing/thawing. The results revealed that all the treatments significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved sperm motility, viability, and membrane integrity after freezing and reduced reactive oxygen species content compared with the control group, but maximum improvement was obtained in MnTE + 400 IU/mL catalase. In addition, supplementation with these antioxidants significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increases the cleavage rate after IVF. In conclusion, the results of present study suggest that addition of antioxidant MnTE or catalase to commercial optimized media, such as Andromed, improves total motility, membrane integrity, and viability of goat semen samples after thawing. But the degree of improvement for these parameters significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher when MnTE and catalase were simultaneously added to the cryopreservation media.

  16. The effect of superoxide dismutase mimetic and catalase on the quality of postthawed goat semen.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Mojtaba; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr

    2015-05-01

    Manganese(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin chloride (MnTE) is a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent which can convert superoxide to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Supplementation of MnTE to a commercial semen extender can protect sperm from superoxide but not H2O2. Therefore, we proposed that addition of catalase (0.0, 200, or 400 IU/mL) in combination with MnTE (0.1 μM) may further improve the cryopreservation efficiency of goat semen in commercially optimized freezing media such as Andromed. Therefore, ejaculates were obtained from three adult bucks twice a week during the breeding season and diluted with Andromed supplemented with or without MnTE and catalase and were frozen in liquid nitrogen. Sperm parameters and reactive oxygen species contents were evaluated 2 hours after dilution (before freezing) and after freezing/thawing. The results revealed that all the treatments significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved sperm motility, viability, and membrane integrity after freezing and reduced reactive oxygen species content compared with the control group, but maximum improvement was obtained in MnTE + 400 IU/mL catalase. In addition, supplementation with these antioxidants significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increases the cleavage rate after IVF. In conclusion, the results of present study suggest that addition of antioxidant MnTE or catalase to commercial optimized media, such as Andromed, improves total motility, membrane integrity, and viability of goat semen samples after thawing. But the degree of improvement for these parameters significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher when MnTE and catalase were simultaneously added to the cryopreservation media. PMID:25698161

  17. Effects of mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Dong, Jiao; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Zhai, Jing; Ge, Bin

    2016-09-01

    The mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSODm) has been synthesized and reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether MnSODm has anti-inflammatory effects on colitis and any underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study was to investigate therapeutic effects and mechanism of MnSODm on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis model in rats. Rats were intragastrically administered MnSODm (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) per day for 7 days after colitis was induced by TNBS. After treated with MnSODm, the colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage scores and colonic weight/length ratios were significantly decreased compared with colitis model group. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malonyldialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in colon tissues were also significantly decreased in MnSODm treatment groups. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly increased and phosphorylated inhibitory kappa B-alpha (IκBα), inhibitor kappa B kinase (IKKα/β), and nuclear factor-kappa Bp65 (NF-κBp65) as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation actor 88 (MyD88) in the colonic mucosa were significantly inhibited by MnSODm treatment. Thus, MnSODm was protective against colitis via antioxidant activity and by inhibiting inflammatory mediators by down-regulating TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathways. These data suggest a potential therapeutic effect of MnSODm in colitis.

  18. Effects of mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Dong, Jiao; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Zhai, Jing; Ge, Bin

    2016-09-01

    The mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSODm) has been synthesized and reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether MnSODm has anti-inflammatory effects on colitis and any underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study was to investigate therapeutic effects and mechanism of MnSODm on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis model in rats. Rats were intragastrically administered MnSODm (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) per day for 7 days after colitis was induced by TNBS. After treated with MnSODm, the colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage scores and colonic weight/length ratios were significantly decreased compared with colitis model group. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malonyldialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in colon tissues were also significantly decreased in MnSODm treatment groups. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly increased and phosphorylated inhibitory kappa B-alpha (IκBα), inhibitor kappa B kinase (IKKα/β), and nuclear factor-kappa Bp65 (NF-κBp65) as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation actor 88 (MyD88) in the colonic mucosa were significantly inhibited by MnSODm treatment. Thus, MnSODm was protective against colitis via antioxidant activity and by inhibiting inflammatory mediators by down-regulating TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathways. These data suggest a potential therapeutic effect of MnSODm in colitis. PMID:27506642

  19. Modulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isozymes by organ development and high long-term salinity in the halophyte Cakile maritima.

    PubMed

    Houmani, Hayet; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Marta; Palma, José M; Abdelly, Chedly; Corpas, Francisco J

    2016-05-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. This enzyme is considered to be a first line of defense for controlling the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the number and type of SOD isozymes were identified in the principal organs (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds) of Cakile maritima. We also analyzed the way in which the activity of these SOD isozymes is modulated during development and under high long-term salinity (400 mM NaCl) stress conditions. The data indicate that this plant contains a total of ten SOD isozymes: two Mn-SODs, one Fe-SOD, and seven CuZn-SODs, with the Fe-SOD being the most prominent isozyme in the different organs analyzed. Moreover, the modulation of SOD isozymes, particularly CuZn-SODs, was only detected during development and under severe salinity stress conditions. These data suggest that, in C. maritima, the occurrence of these CuZn-SODs in roots and leaves plays an adaptive role since this CuZn-SOD isozyme might replace the diminished Fe-SOD activity under salinity stress to overcome this adverse environmental condition. PMID:26159565

  20. Purification and some properties of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase from Radix lethospermi seed, kind of Chinese traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Namir I A; Yuan, Qinsheng

    2005-04-25

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn SOD) has been extracted, purified and characterized from Radix lethospermi seed (RLS), a kind of Chinese traditional medicine. Before extraction, the lipid was removed by super critical fluid extraction (SCF). Partial protein fractionation in the crude extract was affected by using 50-75% (NH(4))(2)SO(2). Subsequently, superoxide dismutase was fractionated by column chromatographies on DEAE-52, Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-52 again. Pure Cu,Zn SOD had a specific activity of 4843 U/mg protein and was purified 267.2-fold, with a yield of 23.55%. The purified enzyme has a molecular weight of about 30,500+/-100 and is composed of two non-covalently joined equal subunits. Purity was confirmed by Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), HPLC and mass spectroscopy. Amino acid content has been investigated. The enzyme was found to remain stable in the pH range 6.0-9.0 at 25 degrees C and up to 45 degrees C at pH 7.8 for a 30 min incubation period. RLS Cu,Zn SOD appeared to have significant thermal stability lower than other Cu,Zn SODs, as revealed by irreversible heat inactivation at 60 degrees C. The enzyme was not inhibited by DTT, NaN(3) and beta-mercaptoethanol, but was inhibited by cyanide and hydrogen peroxide. Finally, in the presence of 2 mM ethylendiamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), the enzyme showed approximately 18 and 34% activity loss. PMID:15734151

  1. Effect of EPA and Vitamin C on Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudabadi, Mohammad Mehdi Shakouri; Rahbar, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid combined with vitamin C in comparison with the pure form of eicosapentaenoic acid on the serum concentration of malondialdehyde, erythrocyte activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and the serum level of total antioxidant capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Eighty one male diabetic patients, aged 33-63 years, were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups. The subjects consumed 500 mg/d pure eicosapentaenoic acid, 200 mg/d vitamin C, 500 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 200 mg/d vitamin C or placebo depending on their groups. In fasting blood samples, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were determined via the enzymatic method (Randox kit) and the serum total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde and vitamin C concentrations were estimated by colorimetric methods. Results Administration of pure eicosapentaenoic acid in diabetic patients increased superoxide dismutase by 4%, glutathione peroxidase 53%, total antioxidant capacity 36% and decreased malondialdehyde significantly by 25%. Prescription of eicosapentaenoic acid combined with vitamin C demonstrated a significant increment for superoxide dismutase activity by 3% and for glutathione peroxidase activity by 52% during the study, but no significant change was seen for total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde, respectively. There was a significant decrease in FBS and HbA1c following prescription of eicosapentaenoic acid with/without vitamin C along the study, although these changes were not significant between the study groups. Conclusion It is concluded that prescription of eicosapentaenoic acid in the pure form reduces oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients; albeit, it does not alleviate hyperglycemia. Combination of vitamin C and eicosapentaenoic acid does not improve antioxidant property of eicosapentaenoic acid. PMID:24498481

  2. Mechanism of Action of Sulforaphane as a Superoxide Radical Anion and Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenger by Double Hydrogen Transfer: A Model for Iron Superoxide Dismutase.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, P C

    2015-06-25

    The mechanism of action of sulforaphane as a scavenger of superoxide radical anion (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) in both gas phase and aqueous media. Iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) involved in scavenging superoxide radical anion from biological media was modeled by a complex consisting of the ferric ion (Fe(3+)) attached to three histidine rings. Reactions related to scavenging of superoxide radical anion by sulforaphane were studied using DFT in the presence and absence of Fe-SOD represented by this model in both gas phase and aqueous media. The scavenging action of sulforaphane toward both superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide was found to involve the unusual mechanism of double hydrogen transfer. It was found that sulforaphane alone, without Fe-SOD, cannot scavenge superoxide radical anion in gas phase or aqueous media efficiently as the corresponding reaction barriers are very high. However, in the presence of Fe-SOD represented by the above-mentioned model, the scavenging reactions become barrierless, and so sulforaphane scavenges superoxide radical anion by converting it to hydrogen peroxide efficiently. Further, sulforaphane was found to scavenge hydrogen peroxide also very efficiently by converting it into water. Thus, the mechanism of action of sulforaphane as an excellent antioxidant has been unravelled. PMID:26020652

  3. Mechanism of Action of Sulforaphane as a Superoxide Radical Anion and Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenger by Double Hydrogen Transfer: A Model for Iron Superoxide Dismutase.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, P C

    2015-06-25

    The mechanism of action of sulforaphane as a scavenger of superoxide radical anion (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) in both gas phase and aqueous media. Iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) involved in scavenging superoxide radical anion from biological media was modeled by a complex consisting of the ferric ion (Fe(3+)) attached to three histidine rings. Reactions related to scavenging of superoxide radical anion by sulforaphane were studied using DFT in the presence and absence of Fe-SOD represented by this model in both gas phase and aqueous media. The scavenging action of sulforaphane toward both superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide was found to involve the unusual mechanism of double hydrogen transfer. It was found that sulforaphane alone, without Fe-SOD, cannot scavenge superoxide radical anion in gas phase or aqueous media efficiently as the corresponding reaction barriers are very high. However, in the presence of Fe-SOD represented by the above-mentioned model, the scavenging reactions become barrierless, and so sulforaphane scavenges superoxide radical anion by converting it to hydrogen peroxide efficiently. Further, sulforaphane was found to scavenge hydrogen peroxide also very efficiently by converting it into water. Thus, the mechanism of action of sulforaphane as an excellent antioxidant has been unravelled.

  4. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Due to Lack of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Promotes Hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Konzack, Anja; Jakupovic, Mirza; Kubaichuk, Kateryna; Görlach, Agnes; Dombrowski, Frank; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Sormunen, Raija

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: One of the cancer hallmarks is mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress. Among the first line of defense against oxidative stress is the dismutation of superoxide radicals, which in the mitochondria is carried out by manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Accordingly, carcinogenesis would be associated with a dysregulation in MnSOD expression. However, the association studies available so far are conflicting, and no direct proof concerning the role of MnSOD as a tumor promoter or suppressor has been provided. Therefore, we investigated the role of MnSOD in carcinogenesis by studying the effect of MnSOD deficiency in cells and in the livers of mice. Results: We found that loss of MnSOD in hepatoma cells contributed to their conversion toward a more malignant phenotype, affecting all cellular properties generally associated with metabolic transformation and tumorigenesis. In vivo, hepatocyte-specific MnSOD-deficient mice showed changed organ architecture, increased expression of tumor markers, and a faster response to carcinogenesis. Moreover, deficiency of MnSOD in both the in vitro and in vivo model reduced β-catenin and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α levels. Innovation: The present study shows for the first time the important correlation between MnSOD presence and the regulation of two major pathways involved in carcinogenesis, the Wnt/β-catenin and hypoxia signaling pathway. Conclusion: Our study points toward a tumor suppressive role of MnSOD in liver, where the Wnt/β-catenin and hypoxia pathway may be crucial elements. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1059–1075. PMID:26422659

  5. Local prevention of oxidative stress in the intestinal epithelium of the rat by adhesive liposomes of superoxide dismutase and tempamine.

    PubMed

    Jubeh, Tareq Taha; Antler, Sivan; Haupt, Susan; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Rubinstein, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the local prevention of luminal superoxide-mediated biological damage in the rat jejunal mucosa could be achieved by liposomal superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the SOD mimic tempamine (TMN). Cationic liposomes loaded with either SOD or TMN were perfused in the rat jejunum prior to the induction of oxidative insult. Reactive hydroxyl radicals were generated in situ in a closed circulating intestinal loop of the rat from the reaction between hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase in the presence of chelated ferrous sulfate. Mucosal activity of lactate dehydrogenase and levels of potassium ions were used to quantify the tissue damage. Intracellular uptake and locality of SOD were examined in HT-29 cells. The intestinal uptake of SOD and TMN was further measured by using rat colon sacs. Entrapment in cationic liposomes was found to significantly enhance the antioxidant effect of SOD and TMN against the induced oxidative damage in the jejunal mucosa, compared with their free forms. The effect was found to be local and was caused by the increased mucosal adhesion of the liposomes. The cationic liposomes also triggered SOD uptake into the HT-29 cell line. It is concluded that the increased residence time of the cationic liposomes of SOD and TMN in the jejunal mucosa resulted in a local effect against oxidative injury. This local protection may be exploited for drug delivery purposes. PMID:15804172

  6. Royal Jelly Constituents Increase the Expression of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase through Histone Acetylation in Monocytic THP-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Makino, Junya; Ogasawara, Rie; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu; Mitsugi, Yukari; Yamaguchi, Eiji; Itoh, Akichika; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2016-04-22

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is one of the main SOD isozymes and plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by accelerating the dismutation reaction of superoxide. Royal jelly includes 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA, 2), which regulates the expression of various types of genes in epigenetics through the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) antagonism. The expression of EC-SOD was previously reported to be regulated epigenetically through histone acetylation in THP-1 cells. Therefore, we herein evaluated the effects of the royal jelly constituents 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10HDA, 1), sebacic acid (SA, 3), and 4-hydroperoxy-2-decenoic acid ethyl ester (4-HPO-DAEE, 4), which is a derivative of 2, on the expression of EC-SOD in THP-1 cells. The treatment with 1 mM 1, 2, or 3 or 100 μM 4 increased EC-SOD expression and histone H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Moreover, the enrichment of acetylated histone H4 was observed in the proximal promoter region of EC-SOD and was caused by the partial promotion of ERK phosphorylation (only 4) and inhibition of HDAC activities, but not by the expression of HDACs. Overall, 4 exerted stronger effects than 1, 2, or 3 and has potential as a candidate or lead compound against atherosclerosis.

  7. Senescence marker protein-30/superoxide dismutase 1 double knockout mice exhibit increased oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Masutomi, Hirofumi; Noda, Yoshihiro; Ozawa, Yusuke; Takahashi, Keita; Handa, Setsuko; Maruyama, Naoki; Shimizu, Takahiko; Ishigami, Akihito

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide anion radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) is a gluconolactonase that functions as an antioxidant protein in mammals due to its involvement in ascorbic acid (AA) biosynthesis. SMP30 also participates in Ca(2+) efflux by activating the calmodulin-dependent Ca(2+)-pump. To reveal the role of oxidative stress in lipid metabolism defects occurring in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis, we generated SMP30/SOD1-double knockout (SMP30/SOD1-DKO) mice and investigated their survival curves, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, amounts of hepatic oxidative stress, and hepatic protein levels expressed by genes related to lipid metabolism. While SMP30/SOD1-DKO pups had no growth retardation by 14 days of age, they did have low plasma and hepatic AA levels. Thereafter, 39% and 53% of male and female pups died by 15-24 and 89 days of age, respectively. Compared to wild type, SMP30-KO and SOD1-KO mice, by 14 days SMP30/SOD1-DKO mice exhibited: (1) higher plasma levels of triglyceride and aspartate aminotransferase; (2) severe accumulation of hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol; (3) higher levels of superoxide anion radicals and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in livers; and (4) decreased mRNA and protein levels of Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in livers - ApoB is an essential component of VLDL secretion. These results suggest that high levels of oxidative stress due to concomitant deficiency of SMP30 and/or AA, and SOD1 cause abnormal plasma lipid metabolism, hepatic lipid accumulation and premature death resulting from impaired VLDL secretion. PMID:25003023

  8. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiles of the Superoxide Dismutase Gene Family in Gossypium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingbo; Li, Bo; Yang, Yang; Hu, Wenran; Chen, Fangyuan; Xie, Lixia; Fan, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) as a group of significant and ubiquitous enzymes plays a critical function in plant growth and development. Previously this gene family has been investigated in Arabidopsis and rice; it has not yet been characterized in cotton. In our study, it was the first time for us to perform a genome-wide analysis of SOD gene family in cotton. Our results showed that 10 genes of SOD gene family were identified in Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium raimondii, including 6 Cu-Zn-SODs, 2 Fe-SODs, and 2 Mn-SODs. The chromosomal distribution analysis revealed that SOD genes are distributed across 7 chromosomes in Gossypium arboreum and 8 chromosomes in Gossypium raimondii. Segmental duplication is predominant duplication event and major contributor for expansion of SOD gene family. Gene structure and protein structure analysis showed that SOD genes have conserved exon/intron arrangement and motif composition. Microarray-based expression analysis revealed that SOD genes have important function in abiotic stress. Moreover, the tissue-specific expression profile reveals the functional divergence of SOD genes in different organs development of cotton. Taken together, this study has imparted new insights into the putative functions of SOD gene family in cotton. Findings of the present investigation could help in understanding the role of SOD gene family in various aspects of the life cycle of cotton. PMID:27660755

  9. Molecular characterization of two CuZn-superoxide dismutases in a sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Plantivaux, Amandine; Furla, Paola; Zoccola, Didier; Garello, Ginette; Forcioli, Didier; Richier, Sophie; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Tambutté, Eric; Tambutté, Sylvie; Allemand, Denis

    2004-10-15

    Cnidarians living in symbiosis with photosynthetic cells--called zooxanthellae--are submitted to high oxygen levels generated by photosynthesis. To cope with this hyperoxic state, symbiotic cnidarians present a high diversity of superoxide dismutases (SOD) isoforms. To understand better the mechanism of resistance of cnidarian hosts to hyperoxia, we studied copper- and zinc-containing SOD (CuZnSOD) from Anemonia viridis, a temperate symbiotic sea anemone. We cloned two CuZnSOD genes that we call AvCuZnSODa and AvCuZnSODb. Their molecular analysis suggests that the AvCuZnSODa transcript encodes an extracellular form of CuZnSOD, whereas the AvCuZnSODb transcript encodes an intracellular form. Using in situ hybridization, we showed that both AvCuZnSODa and AvCuZnSODb transcripts are expressed in the endodermal and ectodermal cells of the sea anemone, but not in the zooxanthellae. The genomic flanking sequences of AvCuZnSODa and AvCuZnSODb revealed different putative binding sites for transcription factors, suggesting different modes of regulation for the two genes. This study represents a first step in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of host animal resistance to permanent hyperoxia status resulting from the photosynthetic symbiosis. Moreover, AvCuZnSODa and AvCuZnSODb are the first SODs cloned from a diploblastic animal, contributing to the evolutionary understanding of SODs. PMID:15451057

  10. A superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic nanomedicine for targeted therapy of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qixiong; Tao, Hui; Lin, Yongyao; Hu, Ying; An, Huijie; Zhang, Dinglin; Feng, Shibin; Hu, Houyuan; Wang, Ruibing; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianxiang

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress, resulting from excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an efficacious and safe nanotherapy against IBD, we designed and developed a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic nanomedicine comprising a hydrogen peroxide-eliminating nanomatrix and a free radical scavenger Tempol (Tpl). To this end, an oxidation-responsive β-cyclodextrin material (OxbCD) was synthesized, and a Tpl-loaded OxbCD nanoparticle (Tpl/OxbCD NP) was produced. Hydrolysis of OxbCD NP could be triggered by hydrogen peroxide, leading to on-demand release of loaded Tpl molecules from Tpl/OxbCD NP. OxbCD NP was able to efficiently accumulate in the inflamed colon in mice, thereby dramatically reducing nonspecific distribution after oral delivery. In three mouse colitis models, oral administration of Tpl/OxbCD NP notably mitigated manifestations relevant to colitis, and significantly suppressed expression of proinflammatory mediators, with the efficacy superior over free Tpl or a control nanomedicine based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Accordingly, by scavenging multiple components of ROS, Tpl/OxbCD NP may effectively reduce ulcerative colitis in mice, and it can be intensively developed as a translational nanomedicine for the management of IBD and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:27525680

  11. Lipid-associated aggregate formation of superoxide dismutase-1 is initiated by membrane-targeting loops.

    PubMed

    Chng, Choon-Peng; Strange, Richard W

    2014-11-01

    Copper-Zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is a homodimeric enzyme that protects cells from oxidative damage. Hereditary and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may be linked to SOD1 when the enzyme is destabilized through mutation or environmental stress. The cytotoxicity of demetallated or apo-SOD1 aggregates may be due to their ability to cause defects within cell membranes by co-aggregating with phospholipids. SOD1 monomers may associate with the inner cell membrane to receive copper ions from membrane-bound copper chaperones. But how apo-SOD1 interacts with lipids is unclear. We have used atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reveal that flexible electrostatic and zinc-binding loops in apo-SOD1 dimers play a critical role in the binding of 1-octanol clusters and phospholipid bilayer, without any significant unfolding of the protein. The apo-SOD1 monomer also associates with phospholipid bilayer via its zinc-binding loop rather than its exposed hydrophobic dimerization interface. Our observed orientation of the monomer on the bilayer would facilitate its association with a membrane-bound copper chaperone. The orientation also suggests how membrane-bound monomers could act as seeds for membrane-associated SOD1 aggregation. PMID:25212695

  12. Immature copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman, Sai V; Prudencio, Mercedes; Karch, Celeste; Holloway, Stephen P; Borchelt, David R; Hart, P John

    2009-10-01

    Mutations in human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause an inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease, motor neuron disease). Insoluble forms of mutant SOD1 accumulate in neural tissues of human ALS patients and in spinal cords of transgenic mice expressing these polypeptides, suggesting that SOD1-linked ALS is a protein misfolding disorder. Understanding the molecular basis for how the pathogenic mutations give rise to SOD1 folding intermediates, which may themselves be toxic, is therefore of keen interest. A critical step on the SOD1 folding pathway occurs when the copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) modifies the nascent SOD1 polypeptide by inserting the catalytic copper cofactor and oxidizing its intrasubunit disulfide bond. Recent studies reveal that pathogenic SOD1 proteins coming from cultured cells and from the spinal cords of transgenic mice tend to be metal-deficient and/or lacking the disulfide bond, raising the possibility that the disease-causing mutations may enhance levels of SOD1-folding intermediates by preventing or hindering CCS-mediated SOD1 maturation. This mini-review explores this hypothesis by highlighting the structural and biophysical properties of the pathogenic SOD1 mutants in the context of what is currently known about CCS structure and action. Other hypotheses as to the nature of toxicity inherent in pathogenic SOD1 proteins are not covered. PMID:19596823

  13. Homology modeling and comparative profiling of superoxide dismutase among extremophiles: exiguobacterium as a model organism.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Rajiv; Narang, Pankaj; Chandra, Muktesh; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, P K; Gautam, Hemant K

    2014-12-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), a well known antioxidant enzyme, is known to exert its presence across bacteria to humans. Apart from their well-known antioxidant defense mechanisms, their association with various extremophiles in response to various stress conditions is poorly understood. Here, we have discussed the conservation and the prevalence of SODs among 21 representative extremophiles. A systematic investigation of aligned amino acid sequences of SOD from all the selected extremophiles revealed a consensus motif D-[VLE]-[FW]-E-H-[AS]-Y-[YM]. To computationally predict the correlation of SOD with the various stress conditions encountered by these extremophiles, Exiguobacterium was selected as a model organism which is known to survive under various adverse extremophilic conditions. Interestingly, our phylogenetic study based on SOD homology revealed that Exiguobacterium sibiricum was one of the closest neighbors of Deinococcus radiodurans and Thermus thermophilus. Next, we sought to predict 3-D model structure of SOD for E. sibiricum (PMDB ID: 0078260), which showed >95 % similarity with D. radiodurans R1 SOD. The reliability of the predicted SOD model was checked by using various validation metrics, including Ramachandran plot, Z-score and normalized qualitative model energy analysis score. Further, various physicochemical properties of E. sibiricum SOD were calculated using different prominent resources.

  14. Purification of Helicobacter pylori superoxide dismutase and cloning and sequencing of the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelhalder, C; Gerstenecker, B; Kersten, A; Schiltz, E; Kist, M

    1993-01-01

    The superoxide dismutase (SOD) of Helicobacter pylori, a pathogenic bacterium which colonizes the gastric mucosa, evoking a marked inflammatory response, was purified and characterized, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. The enzyme consists of two identical subunits each with an apparent molecular weight of 24,000. Analysis of the primary structure and inhibition studies revealed that H. pylori possesses a typical procaryotic iron-containing enzyme. No other isoenzymes could be detected. Indirect gold immunostaining of H. pylori SOD with a polyclonal antibody directed against the iron-containing SOD of Escherichia coli showed a surface-associated localization of the enzyme. The H. pylori SOD gene was cloned by functional complementation of a SOD-deficient E. coli mutant. Sequencing and alignment revealed striking homology to the following facultative intracellular human pathogens: Listeria ivanovii, Listeria monocytogenes, Coxiella burnetti, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Legionella pneumophila, and Entamoeba histolytica. An open reading frame of 642 bp encoding 214 amino acids was determined. There was no leader sequence detectable. Cloning of the H. pylori SOD gene is one of the prerequisites to investigation of its pathophysiological role in the defense against antimicrobial mechanisms of polymorphonuclear granulocytes. Images PMID:8225605

  15. Hindlimb Motor Neurons Require Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase for Maintenance of Neuromuscular Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Dorothy G.; Reaume, Andrew G.; Gruner, John A.; Hoffman, Eric K.; Hirsch, James D.; Lin, Yin-Guo; Dorfman, Karen S.; Scott, Richard W.

    1999-01-01

    The role of oxidative damage in neurodegenerative disease was investigated in mice lacking cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), created by deletion of the SOD1 gene (SOD1−/−). SOD1−/− mice developed a chronic peripheral hindlimb axonopathy. Mild denervation of muscle was detected at 2 months, and behavioral and physiological motor deficits were present at 5–7 months of age. Ventral root axons were shrunken but were normal in number. The somatosensory system in SOD1−/− mice was mildly affected. SOD1−/− mice expressing Cu/Zn SOD only in brain and spinal cord were generated using transgenic mice expressing mouse SOD1 driven by the neuron-specific synapsin promoter. Neuron-specific expression of Cu/Zn SOD in SOD1−/− mice rescued motor neurons from the neuropathy. Therefore, Cu/Zn SOD is not required for normal motor neuron survival, but is necessary for the maintenance of normal neuromuscular junctions by hindlimb motor neurons. PMID:10433959

  16. Superoxide Dismutase: A Predicting Factor for Boar Semen Characteristics for Short-Term Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Nemec Svete, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in seminal plasma were evaluated on the basis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis as predictors for distinguishing satisfactory from unsatisfactory boar semen samples after storage. SOD on day 0 correlated significantly with progressive motility (r = −0.686; P < 0.05) and viability (r = −0.513; P < 0.05) after storage; TBARS correlated only with motility (r = −0.480; P < 0.05). Semen samples that, after 3 days of storage, fulfilled all criteria for semen characteristics (viability > 85%, motility > 70%, progressive motility > 25%, and normal morphology > 50%) had significantly lower SOD levels on the day 0 than those with at least one criterion not fulfilled (P < 0.05) following storage. SOD levels of less than 1.05 U/mL predicted with 87.5% accuracy that fresh semen will suit the requirements for satisfactory semen characteristics after storage, while semen with SOD levels higher than 1.05 U/mL will not fulfill with 100% accuracy at least one semen characteristic after storage. These results support the proposal that SOD in fresh boar semen can be used as a predictor of semen quality after storage. PMID:24729963

  17. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences expression of superoxide dismutase genes in Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Ze, Sang-Zi; Stanley, David W; Yang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species. In this study, we identified genes encoding the extracellular and intracellular copper-zinc SODs (ecCuZnSOD and icCuZnSOD) and a manganese SOD (MnSOD) in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNAs for ecCuZnSOD, icCuZnSOD, and MnSOD, respectively, encode 24.55, 15.81, and 23.14 kDa polypeptides, which possess structural features typical of other insect SODs. They showed 20-94% identity to other known SOD sequences from Bombyx mori, Musca domestica, Nasonia vitripennis, Pediculus humanus corporis, and Tribolium castaneum. Expression of these genes was analyzed in selected tissues and developmental stages, and following exposure to Escherichia coli and parasitization by Scleroderma guani. We recorded expression of all three SODs in cuticle, fat body, and hemocytes and in the major developmental stages. Relatively higher expressions were detected in late-instar larvae and pupae, compared to other developmental stages. Transcriptional levels were upregulated following bacterial infection. Analysis of pupae parasitized by S. guani revealed that expression of T. molitor SOD genes was significantly induced following parasitization. We infer that these genes act in immune response and in host-parasitoid interactions. PMID:25042129

  18. [Role of free radicals on canine bile-induced pancreatitis and effect of superoxide dismutase].

    PubMed

    Sato, T

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on canine experimental pancreatitis. Pancreatitis was induced by retrograde biliary juice injection (0.5 ml/kg) to accessory pancreatic duct. Twenty-one mongrel dogs were divided into two groups, i.e. control (untreated) group (n = 13) and SOD-treated group (n = 8). In SOD-treated group, SOD 5000 units/kg was administered from celiac artery immediately after onset of pancreatitis. Xanthine oxidase (XOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), phospholipase (PL), and SOD were assayed from pancreatic tissue 1 and 3 hours after onset of pancreatitis. Serum amylase, elastase I, calcium, and WBC were assayed for 7 days after onset of pancreatitis. XOD and MDA levels were increased in untreated group, and not significantly changed in treated group with statistical difference. PL levels were increased after onset of pancreatitis in both groups and SOD levels were not changed even in treated group. No statistical difference was seen in PL and SOD levels between two groups. Increase of XOD levels suggests continuous generating of free radical species from pancreatic tissue, and SOD inhibits this increase. Increase of PL level was not improved by SOD. Serum laboratory findings and survival rates were not improved by SOD treatment.

  19. The role of two superoxide dismutase mRNAs in rye aluminium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Parra, B; Figueiras, A M; Abd El-Moneim, D; Contreras, R; Rouco, R; Gallego, F J; Benito, C

    2015-05-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the main factor that limits crop production in acidic soils. There is evidence that antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) play a key role against Al-induced oxidative stress in several plant species. Rye is one of the most Al-tolerant cereals and exudes both citrate and malate from the roots in response to Al. The role of SOD against Al-induced oxidative stress has not been studied in rye. Al accumulation, lipid peroxidation, H₂O₂ production and cell death were significantly higher in sensitive than in tolerant rye cultivars. Also, we characterised two genes for rye SOD: ScCu/ZnSOD and ScMnSOD. These genes were located on the chromosome arms of 2RS and 3RL, respectively, and their corresponding hypothetical proteins were putatively classified as cytosolic and mitochondrial, respectively. The phylogenetic relationships indicate that the two rye genes are orthologous to the corresponding genes of other Poaceae species. In addition, we studied Al-induced changes in the expression profiles of mRNAs from ScCu/ZnSOD and ScMnSOD in the roots and leaves of tolerant Petkus and sensitive Riodeva rye. These genes are mainly expressed in roots in both ryes, their repression being induced by Al. The tolerant cultivar has more of both mRNAs than the sensitive line, indicating that they are probably involved in Al tolerance.

  20. Superoxide dismutase--mentor of abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Anjum, Naser A; Gill, Ritu; Yadav, Sandeep; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki; Mishra, Panchanand; Sabat, Surendra C; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-07-01

    Abiotic stresses impact growth, development, and productivity, and significantly limit the global agricultural productivity mainly by impairing cellular physiology/biochemistry via elevating reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. If not metabolized, ROS (such as O2 (•-), OH(•), H2O2, or (1)O2) exceeds the status of antioxidants and cause damage to DNA, proteins, lipids, and other macromolecules, and finally cellular metabolism arrest. Plants are endowed with a family of enzymes called superoxide dismutases (SODs) that protects cells against potential consequences caused by cytotoxic O2 (•-) by catalyzing its conversion to O2 and H2O2. Hence, SODs constitute the first line of defense against abiotic stress-accrued enhanced ROS and its reaction products. In the light of recent reports, the present effort: (a) overviews abiotic stresses, ROS, and their metabolism; (b) introduces and discusses SODs and their types, significance, and appraises abiotic stress-mediated modulation in plants; (c) analyzes major reports available on genetic engineering of SODs in plants; and finally, (d) highlights major aspects so far least studied in the current context. Literature appraised herein reflects clear information paucity in context with the molecular/genetic insights into the major functions (and underlying mechanisms) performed by SODs, and also with the regulation of SODs by post-translational modifications. If the previous aspects are considered in the future works, the outcome can be significant in sustainably improving plant abiotic stress tolerance and efficiently managing agricultural challenges under changing climatic conditions.

  1. Superoxide dismutase 2 gene and cancer risk: evidence from an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase, one of the antioxidant enzymes, plays an important role in defense against reactive oxygen species. Many previous studies reported the association between SOD2 polymorphism and the cancer risk but the results were divergent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between SOD2 polymorphism and the cancer susceptibility. We searched in Electronic database including Pubmed, Embase, google of scholar, and Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS) for this meta-analysis. Odds ratio (OR), 95 confidence interval (CI), and p value were calculated to evaluate the relation between SOD2 polymorphism and risk of cancer using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Corporation, NJ, USA). The fifty-two studies including 26,865 cancer cases and 32,464 control subjects were analyzed for meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis revealed that SOD2 polymorphism statistically increased or decreased the susceptibility of cancer. In the present study, we could find that SOD2 polymorphism was related to the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. It suggested that SOD2 polymorphism might be a candidate marker of cancer. PMID:26628947

  2. Are superoxide dismutase 2 and nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms associated with idiopathic infertility?

    PubMed

    Faure, Celine; Leveille, Pauline; Dupont, Charlotte; Julia, Chantal; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Sutton, Angela; Levy, Rachel

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in a case-control study the associations between idiopathic infertility and antioxidant gene polymorphisms. One hundred ten infertile subjects (58 women and 52 men) with a history of idiopathic infertility and 69 fertile subjects (35 women and 34 men) with no history of infertility were included by three hospital departments of reproductive biology in the NCT01093378 French government clinical trial. Genotyping was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction with TaqMan assay. We examined genetic polymorphisms affecting five antioxidant enzymes: manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), catalase (CAT), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The presence of at least 1 Ala-MnSOD allele (rs4880) increased significantly the risk of infertility (odds ratio [OR] 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14, 7.60; p=0.03) in male subjects. Moreover, the presence of 2 G-eNOS allele (rs1799983) increased significantly the risk of infertility in both men and women (OR 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04, 3.54; p=0.04). Our observations lead to the hypothesis that the genetic susceptibility modulating oxidative stress may represent a risk factor for male idiopathic infertility.

  3. Trichloroethylene exposure aggravates behavioral abnormalities in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Noriyuki; Homma, Takujiro; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Kaneko, Kenya; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Shichiri, Mototada; Takashima, Mizuki; Ito, Junitsu; Konno, Tasuku; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Goto, Kaoru; Fujii, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been implicated as a causative agent for Parkinson's disease (PD). The administration of TCE to rodents induces neurotoxicity associated with dopaminergic neuron death, and evidence suggests that oxidative stress as a major player in the progression of PD. Here we report on TCE-induced behavioral abnormality in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Wild-type (WT) and SOD1-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice were intraperitoneally administered TCE (500 mg/kg) over a period of 4 weeks. Although the TCE-administrated Sod1(-/-) mice showed marked abnormal motor behavior, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups by biochemical and histopathological analyses. However, treating mouse neuroblastoma-derived NB2a cells with TCE resulted in the down regulation of the SOD1 protein and elevated oxidative stress under conditions where SOD1 production was suppressed. Taken together, these data indicate that SOD1 plays a pivotal role in protecting motor neuron function against TCE toxicity. PMID:27166294

  4. Superoxide Dismutase 1 Protects Hepatocytes from Type I Interferon-Driven Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Anannya; Hegazy, Ahmed N.; Deigendesch, Nikolaus; Kosack, Lindsay; Cupovic, Jovana; Kandasamy, Richard K.; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Merkler, Doron; Kühl, Anja A.; Vilagos, Bojan; Schliehe, Christopher; Panse, Isabel; Khamina, Kseniya; Baazim, Hatoon; Arnold, Isabelle; Flatz, Lukas; Xu, Haifeng C.; Lang, Philipp A.; Aderem, Alan; Takaoka, Akinori; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Colinge, Jacques; Ludewig, Burkhard; Löhning, Max; Bergthaler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tissue damage caused by viral hepatitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Using a mouse model of viral hepatitis, we identified virus-induced early transcriptional changes in the redox pathways in the liver, including downregulation of superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1). Sod1−/− mice exhibited increased inflammation and aggravated liver damage upon viral infection, which was independent of T and NK cells and could be ameliorated by antioxidant treatment. Type I interferon (IFN-I) led to a downregulation of Sod1 and caused oxidative liver damage in Sod1−/− and wild-type mice. Genetic and pharmacological ablation of the IFN-I signaling pathway protected against virus-induced liver damage. These results delineate IFN-I mediated oxidative stress as a key mediator of virus-induced liver damage and describe a mechanism of innate-immunity-driven pathology, linking IFN-I signaling with antioxidant host defense and infection-associated tissue damage. Video Abstract PMID:26588782

  5. A superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic nanomedicine for targeted therapy of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qixiong; Tao, Hui; Lin, Yongyao; Hu, Ying; An, Huijie; Zhang, Dinglin; Feng, Shibin; Hu, Houyuan; Wang, Ruibing; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianxiang

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress, resulting from excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an efficacious and safe nanotherapy against IBD, we designed and developed a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic nanomedicine comprising a hydrogen peroxide-eliminating nanomatrix and a free radical scavenger Tempol (Tpl). To this end, an oxidation-responsive β-cyclodextrin material (OxbCD) was synthesized, and a Tpl-loaded OxbCD nanoparticle (Tpl/OxbCD NP) was produced. Hydrolysis of OxbCD NP could be triggered by hydrogen peroxide, leading to on-demand release of loaded Tpl molecules from Tpl/OxbCD NP. OxbCD NP was able to efficiently accumulate in the inflamed colon in mice, thereby dramatically reducing nonspecific distribution after oral delivery. In three mouse colitis models, oral administration of Tpl/OxbCD NP notably mitigated manifestations relevant to colitis, and significantly suppressed expression of proinflammatory mediators, with the efficacy superior over free Tpl or a control nanomedicine based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Accordingly, by scavenging multiple components of ROS, Tpl/OxbCD NP may effectively reduce ulcerative colitis in mice, and it can be intensively developed as a translational nanomedicine for the management of IBD and other inflammatory diseases.

  6. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase-mediated redox regulation of bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Salem, Kelley; McCormick, Michael L; Wendlandt, Erik; Zhan, Fenghuang; Goel, Apollina

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-cell malignancy. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) is a frontline MM drug; however, intrinsic or acquired resistance to BTZ remains a clinical hurdle. As BTZ induces oxidative stress in MM cells, we queried if altered redox homeostasis promotes BTZ resistance. In primary human MM samples, increased gene expression of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD or SOD1) correlated with cancer progression, high-risk disease, and adverse overall and event-free survival outcomes. As an in vitro model, human MM cell lines (MM.1S, 8226, U266) and the BTZ-resistant (BR) lines (MM.1SBR, 8226BR) were utilized to determine the role of antioxidants in intrinsic or acquired BTZ-resistance. An up-regulation of CuZnSOD, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), and glutathione (GSH) were associated with BTZ resistance and attenuated prooxidant production by BTZ. Enforced overexpression of SOD1 induced BTZ resistance and pharmacological inhibition of CuZnSOD with disulfiram (DSF) augmented BTZ cytotoxicity in both BTZ-sensitive and BTZ-resistant cell lines. Our data validates CuZnSOD as a novel therapeutic target in MM. We propose DSF as an adjuvant to BTZ in MM that is expected to overcome intrinsic and acquired BTZ resistance as well as augment BTZ cytotoxicity. PMID:25485927

  7. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiles of the Superoxide Dismutase Gene Family in Gossypium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingbo; Li, Bo; Yang, Yang; Hu, Wenran; Chen, Fangyuan; Xie, Lixia

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) as a group of significant and ubiquitous enzymes plays a critical function in plant growth and development. Previously this gene family has been investigated in Arabidopsis and rice; it has not yet been characterized in cotton. In our study, it was the first time for us to perform a genome-wide analysis of SOD gene family in cotton. Our results showed that 10 genes of SOD gene family were identified in Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium raimondii, including 6 Cu-Zn-SODs, 2 Fe-SODs, and 2 Mn-SODs. The chromosomal distribution analysis revealed that SOD genes are distributed across 7 chromosomes in Gossypium arboreum and 8 chromosomes in Gossypium raimondii. Segmental duplication is predominant duplication event and major contributor for expansion of SOD gene family. Gene structure and protein structure analysis showed that SOD genes have conserved exon/intron arrangement and motif composition. Microarray-based expression analysis revealed that SOD genes have important function in abiotic stress. Moreover, the tissue-specific expression profile reveals the functional divergence of SOD genes in different organs development of cotton. Taken together, this study has imparted new insights into the putative functions of SOD gene family in cotton. Findings of the present investigation could help in understanding the role of SOD gene family in various aspects of the life cycle of cotton.

  8. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences expression of superoxide dismutase genes in Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Ze, Sang-Zi; Stanley, David W; Yang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species. In this study, we identified genes encoding the extracellular and intracellular copper-zinc SODs (ecCuZnSOD and icCuZnSOD) and a manganese SOD (MnSOD) in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNAs for ecCuZnSOD, icCuZnSOD, and MnSOD, respectively, encode 24.55, 15.81, and 23.14 kDa polypeptides, which possess structural features typical of other insect SODs. They showed 20-94% identity to other known SOD sequences from Bombyx mori, Musca domestica, Nasonia vitripennis, Pediculus humanus corporis, and Tribolium castaneum. Expression of these genes was analyzed in selected tissues and developmental stages, and following exposure to Escherichia coli and parasitization by Scleroderma guani. We recorded expression of all three SODs in cuticle, fat body, and hemocytes and in the major developmental stages. Relatively higher expressions were detected in late-instar larvae and pupae, compared to other developmental stages. Transcriptional levels were upregulated following bacterial infection. Analysis of pupae parasitized by S. guani revealed that expression of T. molitor SOD genes was significantly induced following parasitization. We infer that these genes act in immune response and in host-parasitoid interactions.

  9. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiles of the Superoxide Dismutase Gene Family in Gossypium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingbo; Li, Bo; Yang, Yang; Hu, Wenran; Chen, Fangyuan; Xie, Lixia

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) as a group of significant and ubiquitous enzymes plays a critical function in plant growth and development. Previously this gene family has been investigated in Arabidopsis and rice; it has not yet been characterized in cotton. In our study, it was the first time for us to perform a genome-wide analysis of SOD gene family in cotton. Our results showed that 10 genes of SOD gene family were identified in Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium raimondii, including 6 Cu-Zn-SODs, 2 Fe-SODs, and 2 Mn-SODs. The chromosomal distribution analysis revealed that SOD genes are distributed across 7 chromosomes in Gossypium arboreum and 8 chromosomes in Gossypium raimondii. Segmental duplication is predominant duplication event and major contributor for expansion of SOD gene family. Gene structure and protein structure analysis showed that SOD genes have conserved exon/intron arrangement and motif composition. Microarray-based expression analysis revealed that SOD genes have important function in abiotic stress. Moreover, the tissue-specific expression profile reveals the functional divergence of SOD genes in different organs development of cotton. Taken together, this study has imparted new insights into the putative functions of SOD gene family in cotton. Findings of the present investigation could help in understanding the role of SOD gene family in various aspects of the life cycle of cotton. PMID:27660755

  10. Extracellular superoxide dismutase deficiency impairs wound healing in advanced age by reducing neovascularization and fibroblast function

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Duscher, Dominik; Rustad, Kristine C.; Kosaraju, Revanth; Rodrigues, Melanie; Whittam, Alexander J.; Januszyk, Michael; Maan, Zeshaan N.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced age is characterized by impairments in wound healing, and evidence is accumulating that this may be due in part to a concomitant increase in oxidative stress. Extended exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to lead to cellular dysfunction and organismal death via the destructive oxidation of intra-cellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD/SOD3) is a prime antioxidant enzyme in the extracellular space that eliminates ROS. Here, we demonstrate that reduced SOD3 levels contribute to healing impairments in aged mice. These impairments include delayed wound closure, reduced neovascularization, impaired fibroblast proliferation and increased neutrophil recruitment. We further establish that SOD3 KO and aged fibroblasts both display reduced production of TGF-β1, leading to decreased differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Taken together, these results suggest that wound healing impairments in ageing are associated with increased levels of ROS, decreased SOD3 expression and impaired extracellular oxidative stress regulation. Our results identify SOD3 as a possible target to correct age-related cellular dysfunction in wound healing. PMID:26663425

  11. Copper–zinc superoxide dismutase-mediated redox regulation of bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Kelley; McCormick, Michael L.; Wendlandt, Erik; Zhan, Fenghuang; Goel, Apollina

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-cell malignancy. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) is a frontline MM drug; however, intrinsic or acquired resistance to BTZ remains a clinical hurdle. As BTZ induces oxidative stress in MM cells, we queried if altered redox homeostasis promotes BTZ resistance. In primary human MM samples, increased gene expression of copper–zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD or SOD1) correlated with cancer progression, high-risk disease, and adverse overall and event-free survival outcomes. As an in vitro model, human MM cell lines (MM.1S, 8226, U266) and the BTZ-resistant (BR) lines (MM.1SBR, 8226BR) were utilized to determine the role of antioxidants in intrinsic or acquired BTZ-resistance. An up-regulation of CuZnSOD, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), and glutathione (GSH) were associated with BTZ resistance and attenuated prooxidant production by BTZ. Enforced overexpression of SOD1 induced BTZ resistance and pharmacological inhibition of CuZnSOD with disulfiram (DSF) augmented BTZ cytotoxicity in both BTZ-sensitive and BTZ-resistant cell lines. Our data validates CuZnSOD as a novel therapeutic target in MM. We propose DSF as an adjuvant to BTZ in MM that is expected to overcome intrinsic and acquired BTZ resistance as well as augment BTZ cytotoxicity. PMID:25485927

  12. Effects of histone acetylation on superoxide dismutase 1 gene expression in the pathogenesis of senile cataract

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Xianfang; Qiu, Xiaodi; Jiang, Yongxiang; Li, Dan; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Yinglei; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation plays key roles in gene expression, but its effects on superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) expression in senile cataract remains unknown. To address this problem, the study was to investigate the influence of histone acetylation on SOD1 expression and its effects in the pathogenesis of senile cataract. Senile cataract was classified into three types—nuclear cataract (NC), cortical cataract (CC), and posterior subcapsular cataract (SC)—using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. In senile cataracts, SOD1 expression decreased significantly. Both H3 and H4 were deacetylated at −600 bp of the SOD1 promoter of cataract lenses, and hypoacetylated at −1500, −1200, and −900 bp. In hypoacetylated histones, the hypoacetylation pattern differed among the cataracts. In vitro, anacardic acid (AA) significantly reduced H3 and H4 acetylation at the SOD1 promoter, decreased protein expression, and induced cataract formation in rabbits. AA also inhibited HLEC viability and increased cell apoptosis. In contrast, trichostatin A (TSA) was able to efficaciously stop AA’s effects on both rabbit lenses and HLECs. Decreased histone acetylation at the SOD1 promoter is associated with declined SOD1 expression in senile cataracts. Histone acetylation plays an essential role in the regulation of SOD1 expression and in the pathogenesis of senile cataracts. PMID:27703255

  13. Serum Superoxide Dismutase Is Associated with Vascular Structure and Function in Hypertensive and Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Recio-Rodriguez, José I.; García-Ortiz, Luis; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with cardiac and vascular defects leading to hypertension and atherosclerosis, being superoxide dismutase (SOD) one of the main intracellular antioxidant defence mechanisms. Although several parameters of vascular function and structure have a predictive value for cardiovascular morbidity-mortality in hypertensive patients, there are no studies on the involvement of SOD serum levels with these vascular parameters. Thus, we assessed if SOD serum levels are correlated with parameters of vascular function and structure and with cardiovascular risk in hypertensive and type 2 diabetic patients. We enrolled 255 consecutive hypertensive and diabetic patients and 52 nondiabetic and nonhypertensive controls. SOD levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Vascular function and structure were evaluated by pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, ambulatory arterial stiffness index, and carotid intima-media thickness. We detected negative correlations between SOD and pressure wave velocity, peripheral and central augmentation index and ambulatory arterial stiffness index, pulse pressure, and plasma HDL-cholesterol, as well as positive correlations between SOD and plasma uric acid and triglycerides. Our study shows that SOD is a marker of cardiovascular alterations in hypertensive and diabetic patients, since changes in its serum levels are correlated with alterations in vascular structure and function. PMID:26635913

  14. Chronic retinal effects by ultraviolet irradiation, with special reference to superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Oguni, M; Tamura, H; Kato, K; Setogawa, T

    1996-07-01

    Recently ultraviolet light (UV) reaching the Earth's surface has been gradually increasing in amounts by the destruction of the ozone layers. Large parts of UV are absorbed in the cornea and lens, and only a few amounts reached the retina; however, the effect on the retina is not fully elucidated. 38 rats were irradiated 0.5-5.0 J/cm2 UV from 6 to 50 times every 24 hours, and immunohistochemically and immunochemically for superoxide dismutases (SOD). Morphologically, the destruction of rod outer segments (ROS) and dissociation of cell membranes between the pigment epithelial cells (PE) were already observed by 6 times 0.5 J/cm2 UV irradiations. As the doses of UV increased, heterochromatins and lipid droplets increased in the PE. In normal retina, Cu/Zn SOD were mainly distributed from the inner limiting membrane (ILM) to the ganglion cell layer, and the PE; however, after 6 times 0.5 J/cm2 UV irradiations, the distribution became widened from inner to outer plexiform layer (OPL). At that time, the concentrations of Cu/Zn and Mn SOD increased in the retina. The present study reveals that the morphological damage caused by UV irradiation is observed in the ROS and PE, where no immunoreactivities could be detected to Cu/Zn and Mn SOD. However, morphological damage was not from the ILM to OPL, where the immunoreactivities to both Cu/Zn and Mn SOD were observed.

  15. A Superoxide Dismutase Maquette That Reproduces the Spectroscopic and Functional Properties of the Metalloenzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer,J.; Long, L.

    2006-01-01

    Described herein is a nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) maquette ([Ni(SOD{sup M1})]) based on the first 12 residues from the N-terminal sequence of Streptomyces coelicolor NiSOD. The apopeptide (SOD{sup M1}) was prepared by standard solid-phase Fmoc peptide synthesis. SOD{sup M1} will readily coordinate Ni{sup II} in a 1:1 ratio in slightly basic aqueous sodium phosphate buffer (0.1 M; pH = 7.2) forming a lightly colored beige/pink solution. Unlike NiSOD, which is isolated as a 1:1 mixture of oxidized (Ni{sup III}) and reduced (Ni{sup II}) forms, [Ni(SODM1)] can only be isolated in the NiII oxidation state. The UV/vis, X-ray absorption, and CD spectra of [Ni{sup II}(SOD{sup M1})] correspond well with those reported for the reduced form of NiSOD. Despite the fact that [Ni{sup III}(SOD{sup M1})] is not isolable, [Ni(SOD{sup M1})] has an appropriate redox potential to act as an SOD (E{sub 1/2} = 0.70(2) V vs. Ag/AgCl) and in fact will catalytically disproportionate >40 000 equiv of KO{sub 2}.

  16. Conformational Disorder of the Most Immature Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase Leading to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Anzai, Itsuki; Akiyama, Shuji; Imai, Mizue; Cruz, Fatima Joy C; Saio, Tomohide; Nagasawa, Kenichi; Nomura, Takao; Ishimori, Koichiro

    2016-02-19

    Misfolding of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a pathological change in the familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by mutations in the SOD1 gene. SOD1 is an enzyme that matures through the binding of copper and zinc ions and the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond. Pathogenic mutations are proposed to retard the post-translational maturation, decrease the structural stability, and hence trigger the misfolding of SOD1 proteins. Despite this, a misfolded and potentially pathogenic conformation of immature SOD1 remains obscure. Here, we show significant and distinct conformational changes of apoSOD1 that occur only upon reduction of the intramolecular disulfide bond in solution. In particular, loop regions in SOD1 lose their restraint and become significantly disordered upon dissociation of metal ions and reduction of the disulfide bond. Such drastic changes in the solution structure of SOD1 may trigger misfolding and fibrillar aggregation observed as pathological changes in the familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  17. Two superoxide dismutase prion strains transmit amyotrophic lateral sclerosis–like disease

    PubMed Central

    Bidhendi, Elaheh Ekhtiari; Bergh, Johan; Zetterström, Per; Andersen, Peter M.; Marklund, Stefan L.; Brännström, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset degeneration of motor neurons that is commonly caused by mutations in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Both patients and Tg mice expressing mutant human SOD1 (hSOD1) develop aggregates of unknown importance. In Tg mice, 2 different strains of hSOD1 aggregates (denoted A and B) can arise; however, the role of these aggregates in disease pathogenesis has not been fully characterized. Here, minute amounts of strain A and B hSOD1 aggregate seeds that were prepared by centrifugation through a density cushion were inoculated into lumbar spinal cords of 100-day-old mice carrying a human SOD1 Tg. Mice seeded with A or B aggregates developed premature signs of ALS and became terminally ill after approximately 100 days, which is 200 days earlier than for mice that had not been inoculated or were given a control preparation. Concomitantly, exponentially growing strain A and B hSOD1 aggregations propagated rostrally throughout the spinal cord and brainstem. The phenotypes provoked by the A and B strains differed regarding progression rates, distribution, end-stage aggregate levels, and histopathology. Together, our data indicate that the aggregate strains are prions that transmit a templated, spreading aggregation of hSOD1, resulting in a fatal ALS-like disease. PMID:27140399

  18. Growth on ethanol results in co-ordinated Saccharomyces cerevisiae response to inactivation of genes encoding superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Oleh V; Semchyshyn, Halyna M; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2007-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an essential enzyme protecting cells against oxidative stress. However, its specific role under different conditions is not clear. To study the possible role of SOD in the cell during respiration, Saccharomyces cerevisiae single and double mutants with inactivated SOD1 and/or SOD2 genes growing on ethanol as an energy and carbon source were used. Activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes as well as the level of protein carbonyls were measured. SOD activity was significantly higher in a Mn-SOD deficient strain than that in the wild-type parental strain, but significantly lower in a Cu, Zn-SOD mutant. A strong positive correlation between SOD and catalase activities (R(2) = 0.99) shows possible protection of catalase by SOD from inactivation in vivo and/or decrease in catalase activity because of lower H(2)O(2) formation in the mutant cells. SOD deficiency resulted in a malate dehydrogenase activity increase, whereas glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity was lower in SOD-deficient strains. Linear and non-linear positive correlations between SOD and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities are discussed. No changes in the activity of glutathione reductase and protein carbonyl levels support the idea that SOD-deficient cells are not exposed to strong oxidative stress during exponential growth of yeast cultures on ethanol.

  19. Export of recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis superoxide dismutase is dependent upon both information in the protein and mycobacterial export machinery. A model for studying export of leaderless proteins by pathogenic mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Harth, G; Horwitz, M A

    1999-02-12

    We have investigated the expression and extracellular release of enzymatically active superoxide dismutase, one of the 10 major extracellular proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, both in its native host and in the heterologous host Mycobacterium smegmatis. We found that the M. tuberculosis superoxide dismutase gene, encoding a leaderless polypeptide of Mr approximately 23,000 representing one of the four identical subunits of the enzyme, is expressed constitutively under normal growth conditions and at a 5-fold increased level under conditions of hydrogen peroxide stress. The highly pathogenic mycobacterium M. tuberculosis expresses 93-fold more superoxide dismutase than the nonpathogenic mycobacterium M. smegmatis, and it exports a much higher proportion of expressed enzyme (76 versus 21%); taking both expression and export into consideration, M. tuberculosis exports approximately 350-fold more enzyme than M. smegmatis. In M. smegmatis, recombinant M. tuberculosis superoxide dismutase is expressed at 8.4 times the level of the endogenous enzyme and the proportion exported (66%) approaches that in the homologous host; hence M. smegmatis exports up to 26-fold more of the recombinant than endogenous enzyme. Interestingly, subunits of the M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis enzymes readily and stoichiometrically exchange with each other, forming five different complexes of four subunits, both when the enzymes are expressed in the recombinant host and when the purified enzymes are incubated together; however, each subunit retains its characteristic metal ion, iron for M. tuberculosis and manganese for M. smegmatis. Compared with the cell-associated enzyme, the supernatant enzyme of recombinant M. smegmatis is enriched for M. tuberculosis enzyme subunits, consistent with preferential export of the M. tuberculosis enzyme. Recombinant M. tuberculosis superoxide dismutase transcomplements a superoxide dismutase-deficient Escherichia coli, resulting in a reduction of

  20. Pure manganese(III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP) is not a superoxide dismutase mimic in aqueous systems: a case of structure-activity relationship as a watchdog mechanism in experimental therapeutics and biology.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Júlio S; Spasojević, Ivan; Batinić-Haberle, Ines

    2008-02-01

    Superoxide is involved in a plethora of pathological and physiological processes via oxidative stress and/or signal transduction pathways. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics have, thus, been actively sought for clinical and mechanistic purposes. Manganese(III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP) is one of the most intensely explored "SOD mimics" in biology and medicine. However, we show here that this claimed SOD activity of MnTBAP in aqueous media is not corroborated by comprehensive structure-activity relationship studies for a wide set of Mn porphyrins and that MnTBAP from usual commercial sources contains different amounts of noninnocent trace impurities (Mn clusters), which inhibited xanthine oxidase and had SOD activity in their own right. In addition, the preparation and thorough characterization of a high-purity MnTBAP is presented for the first time and confirmed that pure MnTBAP has no SOD activity in aqueous medium. These findings call for an assessment of the relevance and suitability of using MnTBAP (or its impurities) as a mechanistic probe and antioxidant therapeutic; conclusions on the physiological and pathological role of superoxide derived from studies using MnTBAP of uncertain purity should be examined judiciously. An unequivocal distinction between the biological effects due to MnTBAP and that of its impurities can only be unambiguously made if a pure sample is/was used. This work also illustrates the contribution of fundamental structure-activity relationship studies not only for drug design and optimization, but also as a "watchdog" mechanism for checking/spotting eventual incongruence of drug activity in chemical and biological settings. PMID:18046586

  1. Protective effects of M40403, a selective superoxide dismutase mimetic, in myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion injury in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Masini, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Mazzon, Emanuela; Marzocca, Cosimo; Mannaioni, Pier Francesco; Salvemini, Daniela

    2002-01-01

    Myocardial injury caused by ischaemia and reperfusion comes from multiple pathogenic events, including endothelial damage, neutrophil extravasation into tissue, mast cell activation, and peroxidation of cell membrane lipids. These events are followed by myocardial cell alterations resulting eventually in cell necrosis. An enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species is widely accepted as a stimulus for tissue destruction and cardiac failure. In this study, we have investigated the cardioprotective effects of M40403 in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. M40403 is a low molecular weight, synthetic manganese containing superoxide dismutase mimetic (SODm) that selectively removes superoxide anion. Ischaemia was induced in rat hearts in vivo by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. Thirty minutes after the induction of ischaemia, the ligature was removed and reperfusion allowed to occur for at least 60 min. M40403 (0.1–1 mg kg−1) was given intravenously 15 min before ischaemia. The results obtained in this study showed that M40403 significantly reduced the extent of myocardial damage, mast cell degranulation and the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias. Furthermore, M40403 significantly attenuated, in a dose-dependent manner, neutrophil infiltration in the myocardium as well as the associated induction of lipid peroxidation. Calcium overload seen post-reperfusion of the ischaemic myocardium was also reduced by M40403. Immunohistochemical analysis for nitrotyrosine revealed a positive staining in cardiac tissue taken after reperfusion: this was attenuated by M40403. Moreover reperfused cardiac tissue sections showed positive staining for P-selectin and for anti-intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) in the vascular endothelial cells. M40403 treatment markedly reduced the intensity and degree of P-selectin and ICAM-1 in these tissues. No staining for nitrotyrosine, P-selectin or ICAM-1 was found in cardiac tissue taken at the end of the

  2. Protective effects of M40403, a selective superoxide dismutase mimetic, in myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion injury in vivo.

    PubMed

    Masini, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Mazzon, Emanuela; Marzocca, Cosimo; Mannaioni, Pier Francesco; Salvemini, Daniela

    2002-07-01

    1. Myocardial injury caused by ischaemia and reperfusion comes from multiple pathogenic events, including endothelial damage, neutrophil extravasation into tissue, mast cell activation, and peroxidation of cell membrane lipids. These events are followed by myocardial cell alterations resulting eventually in cell necrosis. An enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species is widely accepted as a stimulus for tissue destruction and cardiac failure. 2. In this study, we have investigated the cardioprotective effects of M40403 in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. M40403 is a low molecular weight, synthetic manganese containing superoxide dismutase mimetic (SODm) that selectively removes superoxide anion. Ischaemia was induced in rat hearts in vivo by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. Thirty minutes after the induction of ischaemia, the ligature was removed and reperfusion allowed to occur for at least 60 min. M40403 (0.1-1 mg kg(-1)) was given intravenously 15 min before ischaemia. 3. The results obtained in this study showed that M40403 significantly reduced the extent of myocardial damage, mast cell degranulation and the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias. Furthermore, M40403 significantly attenuated, in a dose-dependent manner, neutrophil infiltration in the myocardium as well as the associated induction of lipid peroxidation. Calcium overload seen post-reperfusion of the ischaemic myocardium was also reduced by M40403. 4. Immunohistochemical analysis for nitrotyrosine revealed a positive staining in cardiac tissue taken after reperfusion: this was attenuated by M40403. Moreover reperfused cardiac tissue sections showed positive staining for P-selectin and for anti-intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) in the vascular endothelial cells. M40403 treatment markedly reduced the intensity and degree of P-selectin and ICAM-1 in these tissues. No staining for nitrotyrosine, P-selectin or ICAM-1 was found in cardiac tissue taken at the end of

  3. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    SciTech Connect

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada )

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  4. Superoxide dismutase SodB is a protective antigen against Campylobacter jejuni colonisation in chickens.

    PubMed

    Chintoan-Uta, Cosmin; Cassady-Cain, Robin L; Al-Haideri, Halah; Watson, Eleanor; Kelly, David J; Smith, David G E; Sparks, Nick H C; Kaiser, Pete; Stevens, Mark P

    2015-11-17

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne diarrhoeal illness in the developed world and consumption or handling of contaminated poultry meat is the principal source of infection. Strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers prior to slaughter are urgently required and are predicted to limit the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. Towards this aim, a purified recombinant subunit vaccine based on the superoxide dismutase (SodB) protein of C. jejuni M1 was developed and tested in White Leghorn birds. Birds were vaccinated on the day of hatch and 14 days later with SodB fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) or purified GST alone. Birds were challenged with C. jejuni M1 at 28 days of age and caecal Campylobacter counts determined at weekly intervals. Across three independent trials, the vaccine induced a statistically significant 1 log10 reduction in caecal Campylobacter numbers in vaccinated birds compared to age-matched GST-vaccinated controls. Significant induction of antigen-specific serum IgY was detected in all vaccinated birds, however the magnitude and timing of SodB-specific IgY did not correlate with lower numbers of C. jejuni. Antibodies from SodB-vaccinated chickens detected the protein in the periplasm and not membrane fractions or on the bacterial surface, suggesting that the protection observed may not be strictly antibody-mediated. SodB may be useful as a constituent of vaccines for control of C. jejuni infection in broiler birds, however modest protection was observed late relative to the life of broiler birds and further studies are required to potentiate the magnitude and timing of protection.

  5. Effects of Altered Levels of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Female Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yani; Leu, David; Chui, Jennifer; Fike, John R.; Huang, Ting-Ting

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and cranial irradiation have been shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis. However, previous studies were only conducted in male mice, and it was not clear if there was a difference between males and females. Therefore, female mice were studied and the results compared with those generated in male mice from an earlier study. Methods and Materials: Female wild-type, EC-SOD-null (KO), and EC-SOD bigenic mice with neuronal-specific expression of EC-SOD (OE) were subjected to a single dose of 5-Gy gamma rays to the head at 8 weeks of age. Progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and long-term survival of newborn neurons were determined. Results: Similar to results from male mice, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation both resulted in significant reductions in mature newborn neurons in female mice. EC-SOD deficiency reduced long-term survival of newborn neurons whereas irradiation reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Overexpression of EC-SOD corrected the negative impacts from EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation and normalized the production of newborn neurons in OE mice. Expression of neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 were significantly reduced by irradiation in wild-type mice, but the levels were not changed in KO and OE mice even though both cohorts started out with a lower baseline level. Conclusion: In terms of hippocampal neurogenesis, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation have the same overall effects in males and females at the age the studies were conducted.

  6. Development of a sarcoidosis murine lung granuloma model using Mycobacterium superoxide dismutase A peptide.

    PubMed

    Swaisgood, Carmen M; Oswald-Richter, Kyra; Moeller, Stephen D; Klemenc, Jennifer M; Ruple, Lisa M; Farver, Carol F; Drake, John M; Culver, Daniel A; Drake, Wonder P

    2011-02-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by noncaseating granulomas containing CD4(+) T cells with a Th1 immunophenotype. Although the causative antigens remain unknown, independent studies noted molecular and immunologic evidence of mycobacterial virulence factors in sarcoidosis specimens. A major limiting factor in discovering new insights into the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis is the lack of an animal model. Using a distinct superoxide dismutase A peptide (sodA) associated with sarcoidosis granulomas, we developed a pulmonary model of sarcoidosis granulomatous inflammation. Mice were sensitized by a subcutaneous injection of sodA, incorporated in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). Control subjects consisted of mice with no sensitization (ConNS), sensitized with IFA only (ConIFA), or with Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Fourteen days later, sensitized mice were challenged by tail-vein injection of naked beads, covalently coupled to sodA peptides or to schistosome egg antigens (SEA). Histologic analysis revealed hilar lymphadenopathy and noncaseating granulomas in the lungs of sodA-treated or SEA-treated mice. Flow cytometry of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) demonstrated CD4(+) T-cell responses against sodA peptide in the sodA-sensitized mice only. Cytometric bead analysis revealed significant differences in IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion in the BAL fluid of sodA-treated mice, compared with mice that received SEA or naked beads (P = 0.008, Wilcoxon rank sum test). ConNS and ConIFA mice demonstrated no significant formation of granuloma, and no Th1 immunophenotype. The use of microbial peptides distinct for sarcoidosis reveals a histologic and immunologic profile in the murine model that correlates well with those profiles noted in human sarcoidosis, providing the framework to investigate the molecular basis for the progression or resolution of sarcoidosis. PMID:20348207

  7. Glycation in Demetalated Superoxide Dismutase 1 Prevents Amyloid Aggregation and Produces Cytotoxic Ages Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Sirangelo, Ivana; Vella, Filomena M.; Irace, Gaetano; Manco, Giuseppe; Iannuzzi, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) has been implicated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS) through accumulation of protein amyloid aggregates in motor neurons of patients. Amyloid aggregates and protein inclusions are a common pathological feature of many neurological disorders in which protein aggregation seems to be directly related to neurotoxicity. Although, extensive studies performed on the aggregation process of several amyloidogenic proteins in vitro allowed the identification of many physiological factors involved, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of amyloid aggregates in vivo and in pathological conditions are still poorly understood. Post-translational modifications are known to affect protein structure and function and, recently, much attention has been devoted to the role played by non-enzymatic glycation in stimulating amyloid aggregation and cellular toxicity. In particular, glycation seems to have a determining role both in sporadic and familial forms of ALS and SOD1 has been shown to be glycated in vivo The aim of this study was to investigate the role of glycation on the amyloid aggregation process of both wild-type SOD1 and its ALS-related mutant G93A. To this aim, the glycation kinetics of both native and demetalated SOD have been followed using two different glycating agents, i.e., D-ribose and methylglyoxal. The effect of glycation on the structure and the amyloid aggregation propensity of native and ApoSOD has been also investigated using a combination of biophysical and biochemical techniques. In addition, the effect of SOD glycated species on cellular toxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been evaluated in different cellular models. The results provided by this study contribute to clarify the role of glycation in amyloid aggregation and suggest a direct implication of glycation in the pathology of fALS. PMID:27695694

  8. Superoxide dismutase 3 dysregulation in a murine model of neonatal lung injury.

    PubMed

    Poonyagariyagorn, Hataya K; Metzger, Shana; Dikeman, Dustin; Mercado, Armando Lopez; Malinina, Alla; Calvi, Carla; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon; Neptune, Enid R

    2014-09-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a common chronic respiratory disease that occurs after premature birth, is believed to be secondary to oxidative damage from hyperoxia and inflammation, which leads to impaired alveolar formation and chronic lung dysfunction. We hypothesized that extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD)3, an antioxidant uniquely targeted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and alveolar fluid, might have a different response (down-regulation) to hyperoxic injury and recovery in room air (RA), thereby contributing to the persistent airspace injury and inflammation. We used a murine BPD model using postnatal hyperoxia (O2) (4 or 5 d) followed by short-term recovery (14 d) in RA, which mimics the durable effects after injury during alveolar development. This was associated with significantly increased mRNA expression for antioxidant genes mediated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in the O2 (n = 4) versus RA group (n = 5). SOD3, an Nrf2-independent antioxidant, was significantly reduced in the O2-exposed mice compared with RA. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased and disrupted SOD3 deposition in the alveolar ECM of O2-exposed mice. Furthermore, this distinct hyperoxic antioxidant and injury profile was reproducible in murine lung epithelial 12 cells exposed to O2. Overexpression of SOD3 rescued the injury measures in the O2-exposed cells. We establish that reduced SOD3 expression correlates with alveolar injury measures in the recovered neonatal hyperoxic lung, and SOD3 overexpression attenuates hyperoxic injury in an alveolar epithelial cell line. Such findings suggest a candidate mechanism for the pathogenesis of BPD that may lead to targeted interventions.

  9. Lack of significant effects of superoxide dismutase and catalase on development of reperfusion arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Hagar, J M; Hale, S L; Ilvento, J P; Kloner, R A

    1991-01-01

    It has been reported that agents having the ability to scavenge oxygen-derived free radicals reduce the severity of ventricular arrhythmias that occur after brief coronary occlusion and reperfusion. Superoxide dismutase plus catalase (SOD + CAT) or placebo was administered in a blinded randomized fashion prior to coronary occlusion in rats (n = 25 each group) undergoing a 5-min left coronary occlusion followed by 15 min of reperfusion. During reperfusion, ventricular tachycardia (VT) developed in 96% of animals in both groups. Reperfusion ventricular fibrillation (VF) developed in 60% of the placebo group vs 56% in the SOD + CAT group (p = 1.0). Irreversible VF occurred in 40% of the placebo group vs 20% in the SOD + CAT group (p = 0.22). Atrioventricular block occurred in 12% of placebo and 4% of SOD + CAT animals (p = 0.61). There were no significant difference between groups in duration of VT (85 +/- 15 s (mean +/- SEM) placebo vs 81 +/- 14 s SOD + CAT, p = 0.81), total duration of VT plus VF (391 +/- 76 s placebo vs 256 +/- 64 SOD + CAT, p = 0.45) or numbers of single ventricular ectopic beats (65 +/- 15 placebo vs 97 +/- 18 SOD + CAT, p = 0.18). Heart rate at reperfusion was slightly higher in control than SOD + CAT animals (340 +/- 33 vs 319 +/- 32, p = 0.02). Risk zone size, determined by Monastral blue injection, was equal in both groups (34 +/- 2% of ventricular mass). The occurrence of reperfusion VF in this model could not be predicted by heart rate at reperfusion (331 +/- 33 VF animlas vs 328 +/- 36 no VF, p = 0.77), or by risk zone size (34 +/- 2%, VF and no VF groups).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1877967

  10. Superoxide dismutase SodB is a protective antigen against Campylobacter jejuni colonisation in chickens.

    PubMed

    Chintoan-Uta, Cosmin; Cassady-Cain, Robin L; Al-Haideri, Halah; Watson, Eleanor; Kelly, David J; Smith, David G E; Sparks, Nick H C; Kaiser, Pete; Stevens, Mark P

    2015-11-17

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne diarrhoeal illness in the developed world and consumption or handling of contaminated poultry meat is the principal source of infection. Strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers prior to slaughter are urgently required and are predicted to limit the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. Towards this aim, a purified recombinant subunit vaccine based on the superoxide dismutase (SodB) protein of C. jejuni M1 was developed and tested in White Leghorn birds. Birds were vaccinated on the day of hatch and 14 days later with SodB fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) or purified GST alone. Birds were challenged with C. jejuni M1 at 28 days of age and caecal Campylobacter counts determined at weekly intervals. Across three independent trials, the vaccine induced a statistically significant 1 log10 reduction in caecal Campylobacter numbers in vaccinated birds compared to age-matched GST-vaccinated controls. Significant induction of antigen-specific serum IgY was detected in all vaccinated birds, however the magnitude and timing of SodB-specific IgY did not correlate with lower numbers of C. jejuni. Antibodies from SodB-vaccinated chickens detected the protein in the periplasm and not membrane fractions or on the bacterial surface, suggesting that the protection observed may not be strictly antibody-mediated. SodB may be useful as a constituent of vaccines for control of C. jejuni infection in broiler birds, however modest protection was observed late relative to the life of broiler birds and further studies are required to potentiate the magnitude and timing of protection. PMID:26458797

  11. Zinc Binding Modulates the Entire Folding Free Energy Surface of Human Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Kayatekin, Can; Zitzewitz, Jill A.; Matthews, C. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Over 100 amino acid replacements in human Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) are known to cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a gain-of-function neurodegenerative disease that destroys motor neurons. Supposing that aggregates of partially-folded states are primarily responsible for toxicity, the role of the structurally-important zinc ion in defining the folding free energy surface of dimeric SOD was determined by comparing the thermodynamic and kinetic folding properties of the zinc-free and zinc-bound forms of the protein. The presence of zinc was found to decrease the free energies of a peptide model of the unfolded monomer, a stable variant of the folded monomeric intermediate and the folded dimeric species. The unfolded state binds zinc weakly with a micromolar dissociation constant, and the folded monomeric intermediate and the native dimeric form both bind zinc tightly, with sub-nanomolar dissociation constants. Coupled with the strong driving force for the subunit association reaction, the shift in the populations towards more well-folded states in the presence of zinc decreases the steady-state populations of higher-energy states in SOD under expected in vivo zinc concentrations (∼nanomolar). The significant decrease in the population of partially-folded states is expected to diminish their potential for aggregation and account for the known protective effect of zinc. The ∼100-fold increase in the rate of folding of SOD in the presence of micromolar concentrations of zinc demonstrates a significant role for a pre-organized zinc-binding loop in the transition state ensemble for the rate-limiting monomer folding reaction in this β-barrel protein. PMID:18840448

  12. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes in Streptomyces peucetius: effects of SODs on secondary metabolites production.

    PubMed

    Kanth, Bashistha Kumar; Jnawali, Hum Nath; Niraula, Narayan Prasad; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2011-07-20

    Two superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes; sod1 and sod2, from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 show high similarity to other known SODs from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680. These sod1 and sod2 were cloned into pIBR25 expression vector under a strong ermE* promoter to enhance secondary metabolites from Streptomyces strains. The recombinant expression plasmids; pIBR25SD1 and pIBR25SD2, were constructed to overexpress sod1 and sod2 respectively to enhance production of doxorubicin (DXR) in S. peucetius, clavulanic acid (CA) in Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585 and actinorhodin (ACT) and undecylprodigiosin (Red) in Streptomyces lividans TK24. Biomass variation, antibiotics production and transcriptional analysis of regulatory genes in recombinant strains have been studied to understand the effect of sod1 and sod2. The cell growth analysis shows that life span of all recombinant strains was found to be elevated as compared to wild type cells. In S. peucetius, overexpression of sod1 and sod2 was not effective in DXR production but in case of S. clavuligerus, CA production was increased by 2.5 and 1.5 times in sod1 and sod2 overexpression, respectively while in case of S. lividans, ACT production was increased by 1.4 and 1.6 times and Red production by 1.5 and 1.2 times upon sod1 and sod2 overexpressions, respectively as compared to the corresponding wild type strains. PMID:20888207

  13. Epigenetic regulation of human buccal mucosa mitochondrial superoxide dismutase gene expression by diet.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Roman; Karlic, Heidrun; Rust, Petra; Haslberger, Alexander G

    2009-03-01

    The impact of nutrition on the epigenetic machinery has increasingly attracted interest. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of various diets on methylation and gene expression. The antioxidative enzyme mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was chosen as the model system because epigenetic regulation has been previously shown in cell lines for this gene. Promoter methylation and gene expression of MnSOD in buccal swabs from three sample groups were analysed. The three groups included: (1) forty vegetarians (aged 20-30 years); (2) age-matched omnivores; (3) elderly omnivores (aged>85 years). A 3-fold increase in the expression of the MnSOD gene was associated with decreased CpG methylation of the analysed promoter region in the vegetarian group compared with the age-matched omnivores group. Expression and promoter methylation of the MnSOD gene in elderly omnivores showed no significant differences compared with younger omnivores. In accordance with previous findings in various tissues, DNA global methylation was found to be significantly higher (30 %) in buccal swabs of younger subjects (independent of the diet), than in those of elderly omnivores. In the control experiment which was designed to verify the findings of the human buccal swab studies, the Caco-2 cell line was treated with zebularine. Results of the control study showed a 6-fold increase of MnSOD expression, an approximately 40 % decreased methylation of specified CpG in the MnSOD promoter and a 50 % reduction of global DNA methylation. These results indicate that diet affects the epigenetic regulation of human MnSOD.

  14. Transient structural distortion of metal-free Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase triggers aberrant oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Teilum, Kaare; Smith, Melanie H; Schulz, Eike; Christensen, Lea C; Solomentsev, Gleb; Oliveberg, Mikael; Akke, Mikael

    2009-10-27

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease linked to the misfolding of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). ALS-related defects in SOD1 result in a gain of toxic function that coincides with aberrant oligomerization. The structural events triggering oligomerization have remained enigmatic, however, as is the case in other protein-misfolding diseases. Here, we target the critical conformational change that defines the earliest step toward aggregation. Using nuclear spin relaxation dispersion experiments, we identified a short-lived (0.4 ms) and weakly populated (0.7%) conformation of metal-depleted SOD1 that triggers aberrant oligomerization. This excited state emanates from the folded ground state and is suppressed by metal binding, but is present in both the disulfide-oxidized and disulfide-reduced forms of the protein. Our results pinpoint a perturbed region of the excited-state structure that forms intermolecular contacts in the earliest nonnative dimer/oligomer. The conformational transition that triggers oligomerization is a common feature of WT SOD1 and ALS-associated mutants that have widely different physicochemical properties. But compared with WT SOD1, the mutants have enhanced structural distortions in their excited states, and in some cases slightly higher excited-state populations and lower kinetic barriers, implying increased susceptibility to oligomerization. Our results provide a unified picture that highlights both (i) a common denominator among different SOD1 variants that may explain why diverse mutations cause the same disease, and (ii) a structural basis that may aid in understanding how different mutations affect disease propensity and progression.

  15. Peroxisomal copper, zinc superoxide dismutase. Characterization of the isoenzyme from watermelon cotyledons.

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, P; Varela, J; Gimeénez-Gallego, G; del Río, L A

    1995-01-01

    The biochemical and immunochemical characterization of a superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) from peroxisomal origin has been carried out. The enzyme is a Cu,Zn-containing SOD (CuZn-SOD) located in the matrix of peroxisomes from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons (L.M. Sandalio and L.A. del Río [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 1215-1218). The amino acid composition of the enzyme was determined. Analysis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of the peroxisomal CuZn-SOD incubated with 6 M guanidine-HCl indicated that this enzyme contained a noncovalently bound chromophore group that was responsible for the absorbance peak of the native enzyme at 260 nm. The amino acid sequence of the peroxisomal CuZn-SOD was determined by Edman degradation. Comparison of its sequence with those reported for other plant SODs revealed homologies of about 70% with cytosolic CuZn-SODs and of 90% with chloroplastic CuZn-SODs. The peroxisomal SOD has a high thermal stability and resistance to inactivation by hydrogen peroxide. A polyclonal antibody was raised against peroxisomal CuZn-SOD, and by western blotting the antibody cross-reacted with plant CuZn-SODs but did not recognize either plant Mn-SOD or bacterial Fe-SOD. The antiSOD-immunoglobulin G showed a weak cross-reaction with bovine erythrocytes and liver CuZn-SODs, and also with cell-free extracts from trout liver. The possible function of this CuZn-SOD in the oxidative metabolism of peroxisomes is discussed. PMID:7630940

  16. Glycation in Demetalated Superoxide Dismutase 1 Prevents Amyloid Aggregation and Produces Cytotoxic Ages Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Sirangelo, Ivana; Vella, Filomena M.; Irace, Gaetano; Manco, Giuseppe; Iannuzzi, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) has been implicated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS) through accumulation of protein amyloid aggregates in motor neurons of patients. Amyloid aggregates and protein inclusions are a common pathological feature of many neurological disorders in which protein aggregation seems to be directly related to neurotoxicity. Although, extensive studies performed on the aggregation process of several amyloidogenic proteins in vitro allowed the identification of many physiological factors involved, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of amyloid aggregates in vivo and in pathological conditions are still poorly understood. Post-translational modifications are known to affect protein structure and function and, recently, much attention has been devoted to the role played by non-enzymatic glycation in stimulating amyloid aggregation and cellular toxicity. In particular, glycation seems to have a determining role both in sporadic and familial forms of ALS and SOD1 has been shown to be glycated in vivo The aim of this study was to investigate the role of glycation on the amyloid aggregation process of both wild-type SOD1 and its ALS-related mutant G93A. To this aim, the glycation kinetics of both native and demetalated SOD have been followed using two different glycating agents, i.e., D-ribose and methylglyoxal. The effect of glycation on the structure and the amyloid aggregation propensity of native and ApoSOD has been also investigated using a combination of biophysical and biochemical techniques. In addition, the effect of SOD glycated species on cellular toxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been evaluated in different cellular models. The results provided by this study contribute to clarify the role of glycation in amyloid aggregation and suggest a direct implication of glycation in the pathology of fALS.

  17. Copper and Zinc Metallation Status of Copper Zinc Superoxide Dismutase form Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Transgenic Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lelie, H.L.; Miller, L.; Liba, A.; Bourassa, M.W.; Chattopadhyay, M.; Chan, P.K.; Gralla, E.B.; Borchelt, D.R.; et al

    2010-09-24

    Mutations in the metalloenzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause one form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and metals are suspected to play a pivotal role in ALS pathology. To learn more about metals in ALS, we determined the metallation states of human wild-type or mutant (G37R, G93A, and H46R/H48Q) SOD1 proteins from SOD1-ALS transgenic mice spinal cords. SOD1 was gently extracted from spinal cord and separated into insoluble (aggregated) and soluble (supernatant) fractions, and then metallation states were determined by HPLC inductively coupled plasma MS. Insoluble SOD1-rich fractions were not enriched in copper and zinc. However, the soluble mutant and WT SOD1s were highly metallated except for the metal-binding-region mutant H46R/H48Q, which did not bind any copper. Due to the stability conferred by high metallation of G37R and G93A, it is unlikely that these soluble SOD1s are prone to aggregation in vivo, supporting the hypothesis that immature nascent SOD1 is the substrate for aggregation. We also investigated the effect of SOD1 overexpression and disease on metal homeostasis in spinal cord cross-sections of SOD1-ALS mice using synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy. In each mouse genotype, except for the H46R/H48Q mouse, we found a redistribution of copper between gray and white matters correlated to areas of high SOD1. Interestingly, a disease-specific increase of zinc was observed in the white matter for all mutant SOD1 mice. Together these data provide a picture of copper and zinc in the cell as well as highlight the importance of these metals in understanding SOD1-ALS pathology.

  18. Isolation and in silico analysis of Fe-superoxide dismutase in the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Kesheri, Minu; Kanchan, Swarna; Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2014-12-15

    Cyanobacteria are known to endure various stress conditions due to the inbuilt potential for oxidative stress alleviation owing to the presence of an array of antioxidants. The present study shows that Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune possesses two antioxidative enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase that jointly cope with environmental stresses prevailing at its natural habitat. Native-PAGE analysis illustrates the presence of a single prominent isoform recognized as Fe-SOD and three distinct isoforms of catalase. The protein sequence of Fe-SOD in N. commune retrieved from NCBI protein sequence database was used for in silico analysis. 3D structure of N. commune was predicted by comparative modeling using MODELLER 9v11. Further, this model was validated for its quality by Ramachandran plot, ERRAT, Verify 3D and ProSA-web which revealed good structure quality of the model. Multiple sequence alignment showed high conservation in N and C-terminal domain regions along with all metal binding positions in Fe-SOD which were also found to be highly conserved in all 28 cyanobacterial species under study, including N. commune. In silico prediction of isoelectric point and molecular weight of Fe-SOD was found to be 5.48 and 22,342.98Da respectively. The phylogenetic tree revealed that among 28 cyanobacterial species, Fe-SOD in N. commune was the closest evolutionary homolog of Fe-SOD in Nostoc punctiforme as evident by strong bootstrap value. Thus, N. commune may serve as a good biological model for studies related to survival of life under extreme conditions prevailing at the Antarctic region. Moreover cyanobacteria may be exploited for biochemical and biotechnological applications of enzymatic antioxidants.

  19. The Protective Roles of the Antioxidant Enzymes Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in the Green Photosynthetic Bacterium Chloroflexus Aurantiacus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Robert E.; Rothschild, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the biochemical response of the green thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus to oxidative stress. Lab experiments focused primarily on characterizing the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and the response of this organism to oxidative stress. Experiments in the field at the hotsprings in Yellowstone National Park focused on the changes in the level of these enzymes during the day in response to oxidants and to the different types of ultraviolet radiation.

  20. Reaction mechanism of manganese superoxide dismutase studied by combined quantum and molecular mechanical calculations and multiconfigurational methods.

    PubMed

    Srnec, Martin; Aquilante, Francesco; Ryde, Ulf; Rulísek, Lubomír

    2009-04-30

    Manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs) are enzymes that convert two molecules of the poisonous superoxide radical into molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. During the reaction, the manganese ion cycles between the Mn(2+) and Mn(3+) oxidation states and accomplishes its enzymatic action in two half-cycles (corresponding to the oxidation and reduction of O(2)(-)). Despite many experimental and theoretical studies dealing with SODs, including quantum chemical active-site-model studies of numerous variants of the reaction mechanisms, several details of MnSOD enzymatic action are still unclear. In this study, we have modeled and compared four reaction pathways (one associative, one dissociative, and two second-sphere) in a protein environment using the QM/MM approach (combined quantum and molecular mechanics calculations) at the density functional theory level. The results were complemented by CASSCF/CASPT2/MM single-point energy calculations for the most plausible models to account properly for the multireference character of the various spin multiplets. The results indicate that the oxidation of O(2)(-) to O(2) most likely occurs by an associative mechanism following a two-state (quartet-octet) reaction profile. The barrier height is estimated to be less than 25 kJ.mol(-1). On the other hand, the conversion of O(2)(-) to H(2)O(2) is likely to take place by a second-sphere mechanism, that is, without direct coordination of the superoxide radical to the manganese center. The reaction pathway involves the conical intersection of two quintet states, giving rise to an activation barrier of approximately 60 kJ.mol(-1). The calculations also indicate that the associative mechanism can represent a competitive pathway in the second half-reaction with the overall activation barrier being only slightly higher than the activation barrier in the second-sphere mechanism. The activation barriers along the proposed reaction pathways are in very good agreement with the

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi, a pathogen that lacks iron, encodes manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase essential for resistance to streptonigrin.

    PubMed

    Troxell, Bryan; Xu, Haijun; Yang, X Frank

    2012-06-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, exists in nature through a complex life cycle involving ticks of the Ixodes genus and mammalian hosts. During its life cycle, B. burgdorferi experiences fluctuations in oxygen tension and may encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS). The key metalloenzyme to degrade ROS in B. burgdorferi is SodA. Although previous work suggests that B. burgdorferi SodA is an iron-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD), later work demonstrates that B. burgdorferi is unable to transport iron and contains an extremely low intracellular concentration of iron. Consequently, the metal cofactor for SodA has been postulated to be manganese. However, experimental evidence to support this hypothesis remains lacking. In this study, we provide biochemical and genetic data showing that SodA is a manganese-dependent enzyme. First, B. burgdorferi contained SOD activity that is resistant to H(2)O(2) and NaCN, characteristics associated with Mn-SODs. Second, the addition of manganese to the Chelex-treated BSK-II enhanced SodA expression. Third, disruption of the manganese transporter gene bmtA, which significantly lowers the intracellular manganese, greatly reduced SOD activity and SodA expression, suggesting that manganese regulates the level of SodA. In addition, we show that B. burgdorferi is resistant to streptonigrin, a metal-dependent redox cycling compound that produces ROS, and that SodA plays a protective role against the streptonigrin. Taken together, our data demonstrate the Lyme disease spirochete encodes a manganese-dependent SOD that contributes to B. burgdorferi defense against intracellular superoxide.

  2. Intragastric administration of a superoxide dismutase-producing recombinant Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain attenuates DSS colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Watterlot, Laurie; Rochat, Tatiana; Sokol, Harry; Cherbuy, Claire; Bouloufa, Ismael; Lefèvre, François; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Honvo-Hueto, Edith; Chilmonczyk, Stefan; Blugeon, Sébastien; Corthier, Gérard; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

    2010-11-15

    Human immune cells release large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide via respiratory burst. In inflammatory bowel diseases, a sustained and abnormal activation of the immune response results in oxidative stress of the digestive tract and in a loss of intestinal homeostasis. We previously reported that heterologous production of the Lactobacillus plantarum manganese catalase (MnKat) enhances the survival of Lb. casei BL23 when exposed to oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory effects were observed after Lb. casei BL23 oral administrations in moderate murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, without added effects of the MnKat production. Here, we evaluated the protective effects obtained by an improved antioxidative strategy. The Lactococcus lactis sodA gene was expressed in Lb. casei BL23 which acquired an efficient manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity. The effects of Lb. casei MnSOD alone or in combination with Lb. casei MnKat were compared first in eukaryotic cell PMA-induced oxidative stress model and then in severe murine DSS-induced colitis. Based on ROS production assays as well as colonic histological scores, a significant reduction of both oxidative stress and inflammation was observed with Lb. casei MnSOD either alone or in combination with Lb. casei MnKat. No added effect of the presence of Lb. casei MnKat was observed. These results suggest that Lb. casei BL23 MnSOD could have anti-inflammatory effects on gut inflammation. PMID:20452077

  3. Immune responses of prophenoloxidase and cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase in the freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus against a virus and bacterium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ting; Chang, Chin-I; Hseu, Jinn-Rong; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Tsai, Jyh-Ming

    2013-11-01

    Prophenoloxidase (proPO) and cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD) play crucial roles in crustacean innate immunity. In the present study, both of the above genes were cloned from hemocytes of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. A phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences showed that C. quadricarinatus proPO and cytMnSOD were more closely related to the proPO and cytMnSOD of other crayfish than to those of penaeids, crabs, lobsters, or freshwater prawns. A tissue distribution analysis revealed that proPO was primarily expressed in hemocytes, gills, and the heart, while cytMnSOD was detected in all tissues examined. All of the crayfish artificially infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) died within 4 days. According to a non-lethal dose, there was no mortality in crayfish when infected deliberately with Aeromonas hydrophila. Total hemocyte counts (THCs) had significantly decreased in crayfish at 48 and 72 h after infection with WSSV compared to the control group. In contrast, THCs of crayfish after A. hydrophila challenge had recovered by 48 and 72 h from a lower level at 24 h. There were similar responses in enzyme activities toward WSSV and A. hydrophila infection. Phenoloxidase (PO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities per hemocyte significantly increased from 48 to 72 h compared to the control group. After WSSV challenge, expressions of proPO and cytMnSOD transcripts in hemocytes significantly decreased at 12h, then had respectively recovered and increased at 24 h. At 48-72 h, transcript levels were finally downregulated. No significant differences in the expression profiles of proPO and cytMnSOD were observed between the A. hydrophila-infected and control groups, besides the significant upregulation at 24h post-infection. These results implicate proPO and cytMnSOD in the immune response, and they presented similar expression patterns, although different defense mechanisms may exist for crayfish induced by WSSV and A

  4. In vitro effect of sodium fluoride on malondialdehyde concentration and on superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; García-Ortíz, Liliana; Morales González, José A; Hernández-Rodríguez, Sergio; Ramírez-García, Sotero; Núñez-Ramos, Norma R; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the in vitro effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the specific activity of the major erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes, as well as on the membrane malondialdehyde concentration, as indicators of oxidative stress. For this purpose, human erythrocytes were incubated with NaF (0, 7, 28, 56, and 100 μg/mL) or NaF (100 μg/mL) + vitamin E (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 μg/mL). The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration on the surface of the erythrocytes was determined, as were the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GlPx). Our results demonstrated that erythrocytes incubated with increasing NaF concentrations had an increased MDA concentration, along with decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes. The presence of vitamin E partially reversed the toxic effects of NaF on erythrocytes. These findings suggest that NaF induces oxidative stress in erythrocytes in vitro, and this stress is partially reversed by the presence of vitamin E.

  5. A common theme in extracellular fluids of beetles: extracellular superoxide dismutases crucial for balancing ROS in response to microbial challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gretscher, René R.; Streicher, Priska E.; Strauß, Anja S.; Wielsch, Natalie; Stock, Magdalena; Wang, Ding; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical for balancing the level of reactive oxygen species in the extracellular matrix of eukaryotes. In the present study we have detected constitutive SOD activity in the haemolymph and defensive secretions of different leaf beetle species. Exemplarily, we have chosen the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae, as representative model organism to investigate the role of extracellular SODs in antimicrobial defence. Qualitative and quantitative proteome analyses resulted in the identification of two extracellular Cu/Zn SODs in the haemolymph and one in the defensive secretions of juvenile P. cochleariae. Furthermore, quantitative expression studies indicated fat body tissue and defensive glands as the main synthesis sites of these SODs. Silencing of the two SODs revealed one of them, PcSOD3.1, as the only relevant enzyme facilitating SOD activity in haemolymph and defensive secretions in vivo. Upon challenge with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, PcSOD3.1-deficient larvae exhibited a significantly higher mortality compared to other SOD-silenced groups. Hence, our results serve as a basis for further research on SOD regulated host-pathogen interactions. In defensive secretions PcSOD3.1-silencing affected neither deterrent production nor activity against fungal growth. Instead, we propose another antifungal mechanism based on MRJP/yellow proteins in the defensive exudates. PMID:27068683

  6. In Vitro Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Malondialdehyde Concentration and on Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, and Glutathione Peroxidase in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; García-Ortíz, Liliana; Morales González, José A.; Hernández-Rodríguez, Sergio; Ramírez-García, Sotero; Núñez-Ramos, Norma R.; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the in vitro effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the specific activity of the major erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes, as well as on the membrane malondialdehyde concentration, as indicators of oxidative stress. For this purpose, human erythrocytes were incubated with NaF (0, 7, 28, 56, and 100 μg/mL) or NaF (100 μg/mL) + vitamin E (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 μg/mL). The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration on the surface of the erythrocytes was determined, as were the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GlPx). Our results demonstrated that erythrocytes incubated with increasing NaF concentrations had an increased MDA concentration, along with decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes. The presence of vitamin E partially reversed the toxic effects of NaF on erythrocytes. These findings suggest that NaF induces oxidative stress in erythrocytes in vitro, and this stress is partially reversed by the presence of vitamin E. PMID:24223512

  7. Evaluation of the anti-nitrative effect of plant antioxidants using a cowpea Fe-superoxide dismutase as a target.

    PubMed

    Urarte, Estibaliz; Asensio, Aaron C; Tellechea, Edurne; Pires, Laura; Moran, Jose F

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide cytotoxicity arises from its rapid conversion to peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in the presence of superoxide, provoking functional changes in proteins by nitration of tyrosine residues. The physiological significance of this post-translational modification is associated to tissue injury in animals, but has not been yet clarified in plants. The objective of this study was to establish new approaches that could help to understand ONOO(-) reactivity in plants. A recombinant Fe-superoxide dismutase from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), rVuFeSOD, was the target of the ONOO(-)-generator SIN-1, and the anti-nitrative effect of plant antioxidants and haemoglobins was tested in vitro. Nitration on rVuFeSOD was evaluated immunochemically or as the loss of its enzymatic activity. This assay proved to be useful to test a variety of plant compounds for anti-nitrative capacity. Experimental data confirmed that rice (Oryza sativa L.) haemoglobin-1 (rOsHbI) and cowpea leghaemoglobin-2 exerted a protective function against ONOO(-) by diminishing nitration on rVuFeSOD. Both plant haemoglobins were nitrated by SIN-1. The chelator desferrioxamine suppressed nitration in rOsHbI, indicating that Fe plays a key role in the reaction. The removal of the haem moiety in rOsHbI importantly suppressed nitration, evidencing that this reaction may be self-catalyzed. Among small antioxidants, ascorbate remarkably decreased nitration in all tests. The phenolic compounds caffeic acid, gallic acid, pyrogallol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and the flavonoid gossypin also diminished tyrosine nitration and protected rVuFeSOD to different extents. It is concluded that small plant antioxidants, especially ascorbate, and haemoglobins may well play key roles in ONOO(-) homeostasis in vivo.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD) gene.

    PubMed

    Sujiwattanarat, Penporn; Pongsanarakul, Parinya; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Temsiripong, Theeranan; Thawornkuno, Charin; Uno, Yoshinobu; Unajak, Sasimanas; Matsuda, Yoichi; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) is an antioxidant enzyme found in all living cells. It regulates oxidative stress by breaking down superoxide radicals to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. A gene coding for Cu,Zn-SOD was cloned and characterized from Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis; CSI). The full-length expressed sequence tag (EST) of this Cu,Zn-SOD gene (designated as CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD) contained 462bp encoding a protein of 154 amino acids without signal peptides, indicated as intracellular CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD. This agreed with the results from the phylogenetic tree, which indicated that CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD belonged to the intracellular Cu,Zn-SOD. Chromosomal location determined that the CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD was localized to the proximal region of the Siamese crocodile chromosome 1p. Several highly conserved motifs, two conserved signature sequences (GFHVHEFGDNT and GNAGGRLACGVI), and conserved amino acid residues for binding copper and zinc (His(47), His(49), His(64), His(72), His(81), Asp(84), and His(120)) were also identified in CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD. Real-time PCR analysis showed that CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD mRNA was expressed in all the tissues examined (liver, pancreas, lung, kidney, heart, and whole blood), which suggests a constitutively expressed gene in these tissues. Expression of the gene in Escherichia coli cells followed by purification yielded a recombinant CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD, with Km and Vmax values of 6.075mM xanthine and 1.4×10(-3)mmolmin(-1)mg(-1), respectively. This Vmax value was 40 times lower than native Cu,Zn-SOD (56×10(-3)mmolmin(-1)mg(-1)), extracted from crocodile erythrocytes. This suggests that cofactors, protein folding properties, or post-translational modifications were lost during the protein purification process, leading to a reduction in the rate of enzyme activity in bacterial expression of CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD.

  9. Evaluation of the anti-nitrative effect of plant antioxidants using a cowpea Fe-superoxide dismutase as a target.

    PubMed

    Urarte, Estibaliz; Asensio, Aaron C; Tellechea, Edurne; Pires, Laura; Moran, Jose F

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide cytotoxicity arises from its rapid conversion to peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in the presence of superoxide, provoking functional changes in proteins by nitration of tyrosine residues. The physiological significance of this post-translational modification is associated to tissue injury in animals, but has not been yet clarified in plants. The objective of this study was to establish new approaches that could help to understand ONOO(-) reactivity in plants. A recombinant Fe-superoxide dismutase from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), rVuFeSOD, was the target of the ONOO(-)-generator SIN-1, and the anti-nitrative effect of plant antioxidants and haemoglobins was tested in vitro. Nitration on rVuFeSOD was evaluated immunochemically or as the loss of its enzymatic activity. This assay proved to be useful to test a variety of plant compounds for anti-nitrative capacity. Experimental data confirmed that rice (Oryza sativa L.) haemoglobin-1 (rOsHbI) and cowpea leghaemoglobin-2 exerted a protective function against ONOO(-) by diminishing nitration on rVuFeSOD. Both plant haemoglobins were nitrated by SIN-1. The chelator desferrioxamine suppressed nitration in rOsHbI, indicating that Fe plays a key role in the reaction. The removal of the haem moiety in rOsHbI importantly suppressed nitration, evidencing that this reaction may be self-catalyzed. Among small antioxidants, ascorbate remarkably decreased nitration in all tests. The phenolic compounds caffeic acid, gallic acid, pyrogallol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and the flavonoid gossypin also diminished tyrosine nitration and protected rVuFeSOD to different extents. It is concluded that small plant antioxidants, especially ascorbate, and haemoglobins may well play key roles in ONOO(-) homeostasis in vivo. PMID:25221924

  10. Sequential Upregulation of Superoxide Dismutase 2 and Heme Oxygenase 1 by tert-Butylhydroquinone Protects Mitochondria during Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiahong; Ren, Xuefang; Simpkins, James W

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in aging and neurodegenerative conditions. The transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) regulates intracellular antioxidative capacity to combat oxidative stress. We examined the effect of tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), an Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway inducer, on mitochondrial function during oxidative challenge in neurons. tBHQ prevented glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in an HT-22 neuronal cell line even with an 8-hour exposure delay. tBHQ blocked glutamate-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial superoxide accumulation. It also protected mitochondrial function under glutamate toxicity, including maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial Ca(2+) hemostasis, and mitochondrial respiration. Glutamate-activated, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis was inhibited by tBHQ as well. In rat primary cortical neurons, tBHQ protected cells from both glutamate and buthionine sulfoximine toxicity. We found that tBHQ scavenged ROS and induced a rapid upregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expression and a delayed upregulation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression. In HT-22 cells with a knockdown of SOD2 expression, delayed treatment with tBHQ failed to prevent glutamate-induced cell death. Briefly, tBHQ rescues mitochondrial function by sequentially increasing SOD2 and HO-1 expression during glutamate-mediated oxidative stress. This study is the first to demonstrate the role of tBHQ in preserving mitochondrial function during oxidative challenge and provides a clinically relevant argument for using tBHQ against acute neuron-compromising conditions.

  11. Increased mRNA expression of manganese superoxide dismutase in psoriasis skin lesions and in cultured human keratinocytes exposed to IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Löntz, W; Sirsjö, A; Liu, W; Lindberg, M; Rollman, O; Törmä, H

    1995-02-01

    Because reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various hyperproliferative and inflammatory diseases, the mRNA expression of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was studied in psoriatic skin tissue. By using reverse transcription-PCR we found similar expression of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in the involved vs. uninvolved psoriatic skin. In contrast, the level of the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) mRNA message was consistently higher in lesional psoriatic skin as compared to adjacent uninvolved skin and healthy control skin. Parallel investigation of those cytokines that are thought to be direct or indirect inducers of the MnSOD activity revealed an increased mRNA expression of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF in lesional psoriatic skin. To study if these cytokines exert a direct effect on dismutase expression in epidermal cells, human keratinocytes in culture were challenged with IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF. It was found that IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha, but not GM-CSF, induced the mRNA expression of MnSOD, and an additive effect was demonstrated for the two former cytokines. Further, the expression of both CuZnSOD and MnSOD transcripts was similar in cultured keratinocytes maintained at low differentiation (low Ca2+ medium) and cells forced to terminal differentiation (by high Ca2+ medium). Our results indicate that the abnormal expression of MnSOD mRNA in lesional psoriatic skin is not directly linked to the pathologic state of keratinocyte differentiation in the skin. It seems more likely that the cutaneous overexpression of MnSOD in psoriatic epidermis represents a protective cellular response evoked by cytokines released from inflammatory cells invading the diseased skin. PMID:7744320

  12. Increased glycated Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase levels in erythrocytes of patients with insulin-dependent diabetis mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, N; Ookawara, T; Suzuki, K; Konishi, K; Mino, M; Taniguchi, N

    1992-06-01

    Our previous study indicated that erythrocyte Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) undergoes glycation and inactivation in vivo (1) and in vitro (2). The aim of the present study was to assess glycated Cu,Zn-SOD in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Glycated Cu,Zn-SOD, which binds to a boronic acid affinity column, was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The percentage of the glycated form in 25 insulin-dependent diabetic children was 40.2 +/- 8.2%; this was significantly higher than that in the normal controls (P less than 0.01). The specific activity of the glycated form in the diabetic children was 163,000 +/- 33,000 IU/mg Cu,Zn-SOD protein, significantly lower than that in controls (P less than 0.01). These data indicate that glycated and less active Cu,Zn-SOD is increased in erythrocytes of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  13. Use of superoxide dismutase and catalase producing lactic acid bacteria in TNBS induced Crohn's disease in mice.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; del Carmen, Silvina; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Sesma, Fernando; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Watterlot, Laurie; Perdigon, Gabriela; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra

    2011-02-10

    Reactive oxygen species are involved in various aspects of intestinal inflammation and tumor development. Decreasing their levels using antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) could therefore be useful in the prevention of certain diseases. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are ideal candidates to deliver these enzymes in the gut. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of CAT or SOD producing LAB were evaluated using a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced Crohn's disease murine model. Engineered Lactobacillus casei BL23 strains producing either CAT or SOD, or the native strain were given to mice before and after intrarectal administration of TNBS. Animal survival, live weight, intestinal morphology and histology, enzymatic activities, microbial translocation to the liver and cytokines released in the intestinal fluid were evaluated. The mice that received CAT or SOD-producing LAB showed a faster recovery of initial weight loss, increased enzymatic activities in the gut and lesser extent of intestinal inflammation compared to animals that received the wild-type strain or those that did not receive bacterial supplementation. Our findings suggest that genetically engineered LAB that produce antioxidant enzymes could be used to prevent or decrease the severity of certain intestinal pathologies.

  14. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells’ Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Solari, Claudia; Vázquez Echegaray, Camila; Cosentino, María Soledad; Petrone, María Victoria; Waisman, Ariel; Luzzani, Carlos; Francia, Marcos; Villodre, Emilly; Lenz, Guido; Miriuka, Santiago; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells possess complex systems that protect them from oxidative stress and ensure genomic stability, vital for their role in development. Even though it has been reported that antioxidant activity diminishes along stem cell differentiation, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the involved genes. The reported modulation of some of these genes led us to hypothesize that some of them could be regulated by the transcription factors critical for self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this work, we studied the expression profile of multiple genes involved in antioxidant defense systems in both ESCs and iPSCs. We found that Manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Mn-Sod/Sod2) was repressed during diverse differentiation protocols showing an expression pattern similar to Nanog gene. Moreover, Sod2 promoter activity was induced by Oct4 and Nanog when we performed a transactivation assay using two different reporter constructions. Finally, we studied Sod2 gene regulation by modulating the expression of Oct4 and Nanog in ESCs by shRNAs and found that downregulation of any of them reduced Sod2 expression. Our results indicate that pluripotency transcription factors positively modulate Sod2 gene transcription. PMID:26642061

  15. Motor neuron-astrocyte interactions and levels of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, S A; Roedica, J; Nagy, D; Hallewell, R A; Alderson, K; Marklund, S L; Kuby, J; Kushner, P D

    1995-02-01

    Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is involved in neutralizing free radicals within cells, and mutant forms of the enzyme have recently been shown to occur in about 20% of familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To explore the mechanism of SOD1 involvement in ALS, we have analyzed SOD1 in sporadic ALS using activity assays and immunocyto-chemistry. Analyses of SOD1 activity in washed erythrocytes revealed no difference between 13 ALS cases and 4 controls. Spinal cord sections from 6 ALS cases, 1 primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) case, and 1 control case were stained using three different antibodies to SOD1. Since astrocytes are closely associated with motor neurons, antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin were used as independent monitors of astrocytes. The principal findings from localizations are: (1) normal motor neurons do not have higher levels of SOD1 than other neurons, (2) there was no detectable difference in SOD1 levels in motor neurons of ALS cases and controls, (3) ALS spinal cord displayed a reduction or absence of SOD1-reactive astrocytes compared to the control and PLS cases, and (4) examination of GFAP-stained sections and morphometry showed that the normal close association between astrocytic processes and motor neuron somata was decreased in the ALS and PLS cases. These results indicate the disease mechanism in sporadic ALS may involve alterations in spinal cord astrocytes.

  16. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells' Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Solari, Claudia; Vázquez Echegaray, Camila; Cosentino, María Soledad; Petrone, María Victoria; Waisman, Ariel; Luzzani, Carlos; Francia, Marcos; Villodre, Emilly; Lenz, Guido; Miriuka, Santiago; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells possess complex systems that protect them from oxidative stress and ensure genomic stability, vital for their role in development. Even though it has been reported that antioxidant activity diminishes along stem cell differentiation, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the involved genes. The reported modulation of some of these genes led us to hypothesize that some of them could be regulated by the transcription factors critical for self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this work, we studied the expression profile of multiple genes involved in antioxidant defense systems in both ESCs and iPSCs. We found that Manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Mn-Sod/Sod2) was repressed during diverse differentiation protocols showing an expression pattern similar to Nanog gene. Moreover, Sod2 promoter activity was induced by Oct4 and Nanog when we performed a transactivation assay using two different reporter constructions. Finally, we studied Sod2 gene regulation by modulating the expression of Oct4 and Nanog in ESCs by shRNAs and found that downregulation of any of them reduced Sod2 expression. Our results indicate that pluripotency transcription factors positively modulate Sod2 gene transcription. PMID:26642061

  17. Coupled expression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and catalase in cassava improves tolerance against cold and drought stresses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia; Duan, Xiaoguang; Yang, Jun; Beeching, John R.; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Recently we reported that the joint expression of cassava Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) prolonged the shelf life of cassava storage-roots by the stabilization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis after harvest. Since oxidative damage is a major feature of plants exposed to environmental stresses, transgenic cassava showing increased expression of the cytosolic MeCu/ZnSOD and the peroxisomal MeCAT1 should have improved resistance against other abiotic stresses. After cold treatment, the transgenic cassava maintained higher SOD and CAT activities and lower malendialdehyde content than those of wild type plants (WT). Detached leaves of transgenic cassava also showed slower transpirational water loss than those of WT. When plants were not watered for 30 d, transgenic lines exhibited a significant increase in water retention ability, accumulated 13% more proline and 12% less malendialdehyde than WT’s, and showed enhanced activity of SOD and CAT. These results imply that manipulation of the antioxidative mechanism allows the development of staple crops with improved tolerance to abiotic stresses. PMID:23603959

  18. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases from Tetrahymena thermophila: molecular evolution and gene expression of the first line of antioxidant defenses.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Diana; Bakiu, Rigers; De Pittà, Cristiano; Boldrin, Francesco; Cattalini, Franco; Pucciarelli, Sandra; Miceli, Cristina; Santovito, Gianfranco

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we describe the molecular and functional characterization of two Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes, named tt-sod1a and tt-sod1b from Tetrahymena thermophila, a free-living ciliated protozoan widely used as model organism in biological research. The cDNAs and the putative amino acid sequences were compared with Cu,Zn SODs from other Alveolata. The primary sequences of T. thermophila Cu,Zn SODs are unusually long if compared to orthologous proteins, but the catalytically important residues are almost fully conserved. Both phylogenetic and preliminary homology modeling analyses provide some indications about the evolutionary relationships between the Cu,Zn SODs of Tetrahymena and the Alveolata orthologous enzymes. Copper-dependent regulation of Cu,Zn SODs expression was investigated by measuring mRNA accumulation and enzyme activity in response to chronic exposure to non-toxic doses of the metal. Our in silico analyses of the tt-sod1a and tt-sod1b promoter regions revealed putative consensus sequences similar to half Antioxidant Responsive Elements (hARE), suggesting that the transcription of these genes directly depends on ROS formation. These data emphasize the importance of complex metal regulation of tt-sod1a and tt-sod1b activation, as components of an efficient detoxification pathway allowing the survival of T. thermophila in continued, elevated presence of metals in the environment.

  19. Development of Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic Surfaces to Reduce Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species for Neural Interfacing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A.; Nguyen, Jessica K.; Kovach, Kyle M.; Gitomer, Martin M.; Srail, Tyler W.; Stewart, Wade G.; Skousen, John L.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite successful initial recording, neuroinflammatory-mediated oxidative stress products can contribute to microelectrode failure by a variety of mechanisms including: inducing microelectrode corrosion, degrading insulating/passivating materials, promoting blood-brain barrier breakdown, and directly damaging surrounding neurons. We have shown that a variety of anti-oxidant treatments can reduce intracortical microelectrode-mediated oxidative stress, and preserve neuronal viability. Unfortunately, short-term soluble delivery of anti-oxidant therapies may be unable to provide sustained therapeutic benefits due to low bio-availability and fast clearance rates. In order to develop a system to provide sustained neuroprotection, we investigated modifying the microelectrode surface with an anti-oxidative coating. For initial proof of concept, we chose the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP). Our system utilizes a composite coating of adsorbed and immobilized MnTBAP designed to provide an initial release followed by continued presentation of an immobilized layer of the antioxidant. Surface modification was confirmed by XPS and QCMB-D analysis. Antioxidant activity of composite surfaces was determined using a Riboflavin/NitroBlue Tetrazolium (RF/NBT) assay. Our results indicate that the hybrid modified surfaces provide several days of anti-oxidative activity. Additionally, in vitro studies with BV-2 microglia cells indicated a significant reduction of intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species when cultured on composite MnTBAP surfaces. PMID:25132966

  20. Coupled expression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and catalase in cassava improves tolerance against cold and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Duan, Xiaoguang; Yang, Jun; Beeching, John R; Zhang, Peng

    2013-06-01

    Recently we reported that the joint expression of cassava Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) prolonged the shelf life of cassava storage-roots by the stabilization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis after harvest. Since oxidative damage is a major feature of plants exposed to environmental stresses, transgenic cassava showing increased expression of the cytosolic MeCu/ZnSOD and the peroxisomal MeCAT1 should have improved resistance against other abiotic stresses. After cold treatment, the transgenic cassava maintained higher SOD and CAT activities and lower malendialdehyde content than those of wild type plants (WT). Detached leaves of transgenic cassava also showed slower transpirational water loss than those of WT. When plants were not watered for 30 d, transgenic lines exhibited a significant increase in water retention ability, accumulated 13% more proline and 12% less malendialdehyde than WT's, and showed enhanced activity of SOD and CAT. These results imply that manipulation of the antioxidative mechanism allows the development of staple crops with improved tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  1. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells' Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Solari, Claudia; Vázquez Echegaray, Camila; Cosentino, María Soledad; Petrone, María Victoria; Waisman, Ariel; Luzzani, Carlos; Francia, Marcos; Villodre, Emilly; Lenz, Guido; Miriuka, Santiago; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells possess complex systems that protect them from oxidative stress and ensure genomic stability, vital for their role in development. Even though it has been reported that antioxidant activity diminishes along stem cell differentiation, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the involved genes. The reported modulation of some of these genes led us to hypothesize that some of them could be regulated by the transcription factors critical for self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this work, we studied the expression profile of multiple genes involved in antioxidant defense systems in both ESCs and iPSCs. We found that Manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Mn-Sod/Sod2) was repressed during diverse differentiation protocols showing an expression pattern similar to Nanog gene. Moreover, Sod2 promoter activity was induced by Oct4 and Nanog when we performed a transactivation assay using two different reporter constructions. Finally, we studied Sod2 gene regulation by modulating the expression of Oct4 and Nanog in ESCs by shRNAs and found that downregulation of any of them reduced Sod2 expression. Our results indicate that pluripotency transcription factors positively modulate Sod2 gene transcription.

  2. Cloning and characterization of a new manganese superoxide dismutase from deep-sea thermophile Geobacillus sp. EPT3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbing; Wang, Guohong; Ni, Hui; Xiao, Anfeng; Cai, Huinong

    2014-04-01

    A new gene encoding a superoxide dismutase (SOD) was identified from a thermophile Geobacillus sp. EPT3 isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field in east Pacific. The open reading frame of this gene encoded 437 amino acid residues. It was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli (DE3), and the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity. Geobacillus sp. EPT3 SOD was of the manganese-containing SOD type, as judged by the insensitivity of the recombinant enzyme to both KCN and H₂O₂, and the activity analysis of Fe or Mn reconstituted SODs by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The recombinant SOD was determined to be a homodimer with monomeric molecular mass of 59.0 kDa. In comparison with other Mn-SODs, the manganese-binding sites are conserved in the sequence (His260, His308, Asp392, His396). The recombinant enzyme had high thermostability at 50 °C. It retained 57 % residual activity after incubation at 90 °C for 1 h, which indicated that this SOD was thermostable. The enzyme also showed striking stability over a wide range of pH 5.0-11.0. At tested conditions, the recombinant SOD from Geobacillus sp. EPT3 showed a relatively good tolerance to some inhibitors, detergents, and denaturants, such as β-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, Chaps, Triton X-100, urea, and guanidine hydrochloride.

  3. Development of Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic Surfaces to Reduce Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species for Neural Interfacing Applications.

    PubMed

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A; Nguyen, Jessica K; Kovach, Kyle M; Gitomer, Martin M; Srail, Tyler W; Stewart, Wade G; Skousen, John L; Capadona, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-28

    Despite successful initial recording, neuroinflammatory-mediated oxidative stress products can contribute to microelectrode failure by a variety of mechanisms including: inducing microelectrode corrosion, degrading insulating/passivating materials, promoting blood-brain barrier breakdown, and directly damaging surrounding neurons. We have shown that a variety of anti-oxidant treatments can reduce intracortical microelectrode-mediated oxidative stress, and preserve neuronal viability. Unfortunately, short-term soluble delivery of anti-oxidant therapies may be unable to provide sustained therapeutic benefits due to low bio-availability and fast clearance rates. In order to develop a system to provide sustained neuroprotection, we investigated modifying the microelectrode surface with an anti-oxidative coating. For initial proof of concept, we chose the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP). Our system utilizes a composite coating of adsorbed and immobilized MnTBAP designed to provide an initial release followed by continued presentation of an immobilized layer of the antioxidant. Surface modification was confirmed by XPS and QCMB-D analysis. Antioxidant activity of composite surfaces was determined using a Riboflavin/NitroBlue Tetrazolium (RF/NBT) assay. Our results indicate that the hybrid modified surfaces provide several days of anti-oxidative activity. Additionally, in vitro studies with BV-2 microglia cells indicated a significant reduction of intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species when cultured on composite MnTBAP surfaces. PMID:25132966

  4. Use of superoxide dismutase and catalase producing lactic acid bacteria in TNBS induced Crohn's disease in mice.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; del Carmen, Silvina; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Sesma, Fernando; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Watterlot, Laurie; Perdigon, Gabriela; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra

    2011-02-10

    Reactive oxygen species are involved in various aspects of intestinal inflammation and tumor development. Decreasing their levels using antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) could therefore be useful in the prevention of certain diseases. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are ideal candidates to deliver these enzymes in the gut. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of CAT or SOD producing LAB were evaluated using a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced Crohn's disease murine model. Engineered Lactobacillus casei BL23 strains producing either CAT or SOD, or the native strain were given to mice before and after intrarectal administration of TNBS. Animal survival, live weight, intestinal morphology and histology, enzymatic activities, microbial translocation to the liver and cytokines released in the intestinal fluid were evaluated. The mice that received CAT or SOD-producing LAB showed a faster recovery of initial weight loss, increased enzymatic activities in the gut and lesser extent of intestinal inflammation compared to animals that received the wild-type strain or those that did not receive bacterial supplementation. Our findings suggest that genetically engineered LAB that produce antioxidant enzymes could be used to prevent or decrease the severity of certain intestinal pathologies. PMID:21167883

  5. Probing the interactions between carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase at a molecular level.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jin; Liu, Guiliang; Cai, Kai; Gao, Canzhu; Liu, Rutao

    2015-08-01

    In order to evaluate the toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) at a molecular level, the effect of MWCNTs-COOH on antioxidant enzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy, UV/vis absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). By deducting the inner filter effect (IFE), the fluorescence emission spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra indicated that there were interactions between MWCNTs-COOH and Cu/ZnSOD. Moreover, the microenvironment of the amino acid residues in the enzyme was changed slightly. The UV/vis absorption and CD spectroscopic results showed appreciable conformational changes in Cu/ZnSOD. However, the results of a Cu/ZnSOD activity determination did not show any significant difference. In other words, MWCNTs-COOH has no significant effect on enzyme activity. The ITC results showed that the binding of MWCNTs-COOH to Cu/ZnSOD was a weak endothermic process, indicating that the predominant force of the binding was hydrophobic interaction. Moreover, it was essential to consider the IFE in fluorescence assays, which might affect the accuracy and precision of the results. The above results are helpful in evaluating the oxidative stress induced by MWCNTs-COOH in vivo.

  6. Development of Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic Surfaces to Reduce Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species for Neural Interfacing Applications.

    PubMed

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A; Nguyen, Jessica K; Kovach, Kyle M; Gitomer, Martin M; Srail, Tyler W; Stewart, Wade G; Skousen, John L; Capadona, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-28

    Despite successful initial recording, neuroinflammatory-mediated oxidative stress products can contribute to microelectrode failure by a variety of mechanisms including: inducing microelectrode corrosion, degrading insulating/passivating materials, promoting blood-brain barrier breakdown, and directly damaging surrounding neurons. We have shown that a variety of anti-oxidant treatments can reduce intracortical microelectrode-mediated oxidative stress, and preserve neuronal viability. Unfortunately, short-term soluble delivery of anti-oxidant therapies may be unable to provide sustained therapeutic benefits due to low bio-availability and fast clearance rates. In order to develop a system to provide sustained neuroprotection, we investigated modifying the microelectrode surface with an anti-oxidative coating. For initial proof of concept, we chose the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP). Our system utilizes a composite coating of adsorbed and immobilized MnTBAP designed to provide an initial release followed by continued presentation of an immobilized layer of the antioxidant. Surface modification was confirmed by XPS and QCMB-D analysis. Antioxidant activity of composite surfaces was determined using a Riboflavin/NitroBlue Tetrazolium (RF/NBT) assay. Our results indicate that the hybrid modified surfaces provide several days of anti-oxidative activity. Additionally, in vitro studies with BV-2 microglia cells indicated a significant reduction of intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species when cultured on composite MnTBAP surfaces.

  7. Superoxide radical and iron modulate aconitase activity in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Gardner, P R; Raineri, I; Epstein, L B; White, C W

    1995-06-01

    Aconitase is a member of a family of iron-sulfur-containing (de)hydratases whose activities are modulated in bacteria by superoxide radical (O2-.)-mediated inactivation and iron-dependent reactivation. The inactivation-reactivation of aconitase(s) in cultured mammalian cells was explored since these reactions may impact important and diverse aconitase functions in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Conditions which increase O2-. production including exposure to the redox-cycling agent phenazine methosulfate (PMS), inhibitors of mitochondrial ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, or hyperoxia inactivated aconitase in mammalian cells. Overproduction of mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase protected aconitase from inactivation by PMS or inhibitors of ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, but not from normobaric hyperoxia. Aconitase activity was reactivated (t1/2 of 12 +/- 3 min) upon removal of PMS. The iron chelator deferoxamine impaired reactivation and increased net inactivation of aconitase by O2-.. The ability of ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase-generated O2-. to inactivate aconitase in several cell types correlated with the fraction of the aconitase activity localized in mitochondria. Extracellular O2-. generated with xanthine oxidase did not affect aconitase activity nor did exogenous superoxide dismutase decrease aconitase inactivation by PMS. The results demonstrate a dynamic and cyclical O2-.-mediated inactivation and iron-dependent reactivation of the mammalian [4Fe-4S] aconitases under normal and stress conditions and provide further evidence for the membrane compartmentalization of O2-.. PMID:7768942

  8. Distribution of superoxide dismutase 1 and glutathione peroxidase 1 in the cyclic canine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Santos, Celso; Pires, Maria Dos Anjos; Santos, Dario; Payan-Carreira, Rita

    2016-08-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are two important antioxidant enzymes involved in tissue homeostasis by protecting cells and tissues from an accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Information concerning antioxidant enzymes in the canine uterus is almost inexistent. This work intends to establish the pattern of distribution of SOD1 and GPx1 immunoreaction in canine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle, using 46 endometrium samples of healthy dogs representing different cycle stages (anestrus-10, proestrus-10, estrus-10, early diestrus-7, and diestrus-9). SOD1 distribution in canine endometrium showed cyclic variations (P ≤ 0.001), with higher immunoscores in the progesterone-associated stages. Changing immunoreaction also concerned the different epithelial structures considered (surface epithelium, superficial glandular epithelium, and deep glandular epithelium) (P ≤ 0.001), but it was always higher than in the stroma (P ≤ 0.001). Deep glandular epithelial cells usually showed higher scores of immunoreaction compared with the other epithelial cells. Interestingly, in epithelial cells, distinct subcellular patterns for SOD1 were seen: the nuclear labeling was observed in estrus and early diestrus (P ≤ 0.001), whereas an apical reinforcement was observed in estrus (P = 0.011) in the glandular epithelia but not in the surface epithelia. In general, GPx1 distribution in canine endometrium remained relatively unchanged throughout the estrous cycle (P = 0.169) despite the slight decrease observed from proestrus to early diestrus. The highest scores were found in anestrus and diestrus (P < 0.05), varying with of the structure considered. An apical reinforcement pattern was also found for this molecule, which peaked in proestrus and estrus (P < 0.005). In summary, the present study showed that SOD1 and GPx1 are consistently distributed in the canine endometrium. The cyclic changes registered for both molecules

  9. Transcript profiles of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic manganese superoxide dismutases in Exopalaemon carinicauda under ammonia stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hai; Li, Jian; Li, Jitao; Liu, Ping; Liang, Zhongxiu; Wu, Jianhua

    2015-05-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one of the most important antioxidant defense enzymes, and is considered as the first line against oxidative stress. In this study, we cloned a mitochondrial manganese (Mn) SOD ( mMnSOD) cDNA from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The full-length cDNA for mMnSOD was 1 014-bp long, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 37-bp, a 3'-UTR of 321-bp with a poly (A) tail, and included a 657-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 218 amino acids with a 16-amino-acid signal peptide. The protein had a calculated molecular weight of 23.87 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.75. The mMnSOD sequence included two putative N-glycosylation sites (NHT and NLS), the MnSOD signature sequence 180DVWEHAYY187, and four putative Mn binding sites (H48, H96, D180, and H184). Sequence comparison showed that the mMnSOD deduced amino acid sequence of E. carinicauda shared 97%, 95%, 89%, 84%, 82%, 72%, and 69% identity with that of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Macrobrachium nipponense, Fenneropeneaus chinensis, Callinectes sapidus, Perisesarma bidens, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens, resectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that mMnSOD transcripts were present in all E. carinicauda tissues examined, with the highest levels in the hepatopancreas. During an ammonia stress treatment, the transcript levels of mMnSOD and cMnSOD were up-regulated at 12 h in hemocytes and at 24 h in the hepatopancreas. As the duration of the ammonia stress treatment extended to 72 h, the transcript levels of mMnSOD and cMnSOD significantly decreased both in hemocytes and hepatopancreas. These findings indicate that the SOD system is induced to respond to acute ammonia stress, and may be involved in environmental stress responses in E. carinicauda.

  10. Superoxide dismutase 1 encoding mutations linked to ALS adopts a spectrum of misfolded states

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), which are one cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), induce misfolding and aggregation of the protein. Misfolding can be detected by the binding of antibodies raised against peptide epitopes that are normally buried in the native conformation, shifts in solubility in non-ionic detergents, and the formation of macromolecular inclusions. In the present study, we investigate the relationship between detergent-insoluble and sedimentable forms of mutant SOD1, forms of mutant SOD1 with aberrantly accessible epitopes, and mutant protein in inclusions with the goal of defining the spectrum of misfolded states that mutant SOD1 can adopt. Results Using combined approaches in cultured cell models, we demonstrate that a substantial fraction of mutant SOD1 adopts a non-native conformation that remains soluble and freely mobile. We also show that mutant SOD1 can produce multimeric assemblies of which some are insoluble in detergent and large enough to sediment by ultracentrifugation and some are large enough to detect visually. Three conformationally restricted antibodies were found to be useful in discriminating mal-folded forms of mutant SOD1. An antibody termed C4F6 displays properties consistent with recognition of soluble, freely mobile, mal-folded mutant SOD1. An antibody termed SEDI, which recognizes C-terminal residues, detects larger inclusion structures as well as soluble misfolded entities. An antibody termed hSOD1, which recognizes aa 24-36, detects an epitope shared by soluble non-natively folded WT and mutant SOD1. This epitope becomes inaccessible in aggregates of mutant SOD1. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate how different methods of detecting misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 reveal different forms of aberrantly folded protein. Immunological and biochemical methods can be used in combination to detect soluble and insoluble misfolded forms of mutant SOD1. Our findings support the

  11. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Overexpression Can Reverse the Course of Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohamed N; Zhang, Yinzhong; Codipilly, Champa; Zaghloul, Nahla; Patel, Dhara; Wolin, Michael; Miller, Edmund J

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia leads to free radical production, which has a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH). We hypothesized that treatment with extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) could ameliorate the development of PH induced by hypoxia. In vitro studies using pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells showed that cells transfected with EC-SOD had significantly less accumulation of xanthine oxidase and reactive oxygen species than nontransfected cells after hypoxia exposure for 24 h. To study the prophylactic role of EC-SOD, adult male wild-type (WT) and transgenic (TG) mice, with lung-specific overexpression of human EC-SOD (hEC-SOD), were exposed to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) 10% for 10 d. After exposure, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular mass (RV/S + LV), pulmonary vascular wall thickness (PVWT) and pulmonary artery contraction/relaxation were assessed. TG mice were protected against PH compared with WT mice with significantly lower RVSP (23.9 ± 1.24 versus 47.2 ± 3.4), RV/S + LV (0.287 ± 0.015 versus 0.335 ± 0.022) and vascular remodeling, indicated by PVWT (14.324 ± 1.107 versus 18.885 ± 1.529). Functional studies using pulmonary arteries isolated from mice indicated that EC-SOD prevents hypoxia-mediated attenuation of nitric oxide–induced relaxation. Therapeutic potential was assessed by exposing WT mice to FiO2 10% for 10 d. Half of the group was transfected with plasmid containing cDNA encoding human EC-SOD. The remaining animals were transfected with empty vector. Both groups were exposed to FiO2 10% for a further 10 d. Transfected mice had significantly reduced RVSP (18.97 ± 1.12 versus 41.3 ± 1.5), RV/S + LV (0.293 ± 0.012 versus 0.372 ± 0.014) and PVWT (12.51 ± 0.72 versus 18.98 ± 1.24). On the basis of these findings, we concluded that overexpression of EC-SOD prevents the development of PH and ameliorates established PH. PMID:22045221

  12. Genomic structure, characterization and expression analysis of a manganese superoxide dismutase from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianchang; Cui, Shuge; Guo, Huayang; Jiang, Shigui

    2013-12-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a major component of the cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative damage. We cloned and analyzed the expression pattern and genomic structure of the MnSOD gene of pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, hereafter designated as PoMnSOD. The full-length PoMnSOD cDNA was 1080 bp in length and consisted of a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 222 bp, a 3'-UTR of 318 bp with a polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) at 15 nucleotides upstream of the poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 540 bp encoding a polypeptide of 180 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 20.4 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.72. Sequence analysis showed that PoMnSOD contained MnSOD family signatures F(44)NGGGHLNH(52), I(97)QGSGWGWLA(106) and D(138)VWEHAYY(145), four conserved residues for manganese metal binding (H(4), H(52), D(138) and H(142)), and two potential N-glycosylation sites (N(33) and N(51)). Homology analysis revealed that PoMnSOD shared 47.6-55.9% identity and 57.4-65.6% similarity to the other known PoMnSOD amino acid sequences. PoMnSOD genomic DNA was 5040 bp in length and contained three exons and two introns, which was a tripartite organization and coincided with the consensus GT-AG splicing rule. PoMnSOD promoter contained the various transcription factors associated with the immune modulation and stress responses. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that PoMnSOD was constitutively expressed in all detected tissues, and PoMnSOD mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in intestine, mantle, gills, digestive gland and haemocytes after Vibrio alginolyticus injection. These results suggested that PoMoSOD was an acute-response protein involved in the innate immune responses of pearl oyster, and provided general information about the mechanisms of innate immune defense against bacterial infection in pearl oyster.

  13. The Sequence Characteristics and Expression Models Reveal Superoxide Dismutase Involved in Cold Response and Fruiting Body Development in Volvariella volvacea

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Rui-Qing; Xie, Bin; Li, Xiao; Chen, Ren-Liang; Guo, Li-Xian; Xie, Bao-Gui

    2015-01-01

    As the first defence for cells to counteract the toxicity of active oxygen, superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays an important role in the response of living organisms to stress and cell differentiation. One extracellular Cu-ZnSOD (ecCu-ZnSOD), and two MnSODs, were identified based on the Volvariella volvacea genome sequence. All three genes have complicated alternative splicing modes during transcription; only when the fourth intron is retained can the Vv_Cu-Znsod1 gene be translated into a protein sequence with SOD functional domains. The expression levels of the three sod genes in the pilei are higher than in the stipe. The Vv_Cu-Znsod1 and the Vv_Mnsod2 are co-expressed in different developmental stages of the fruiting body, with the highest level of expression in the pilei of the egg stage, and they show a significant, positive correlation with the efficiency of karyogamy, indicating the potential role of these two genes during karyogamy. The expression of the ecCu-Znsod and two Vv_Mnsod genes showed a significant up-regulated when treated by cold stress for one hour; however, the lack of the intracellular Cu-ZnSOD encoding gene (icCu-Znsod) and the special locus of the ecCu-Znsod gene initiation codon suggested a possible reason for the autolysis phenomenon of V. volvacea in cold conditions. PMID:26784168

  14. Isozymes of Superoxide Dismutase in Mitochondria and Peroxisomes Isolated from Petals of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) during Senescence.

    PubMed

    Droillard, M J; Paulin, A

    1990-11-01

    The balance between reactions involving free radicals and processes which ameliorate their effect plays an important role in the regulation of plant senescence. In this study a method was developed to isolate peroxisomes and mitochondria from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Ember) petals. Based on electron microscopy and marker enzyme levels, the proportion of peroxisomes to mitochondria increases during senescence. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) content of these fractions was examined. Mitochondria and peroxisomes were shown to contain two electrophoretically distinct SODs, a manganese-, and an ironcontaining SOD. The Mn- and Fe-SOD were found to have relative molecular weights of 75,000 and 48,000 and isoelectric points of 4.85 and 5.00, respectively. The presence of a Fe-SOD in mitochondria and peroxisomes is unique because this enzyme is usually located in chloroplasts. The activity of these two isoenzymes decreased during senescence in mitochondria but remained high in peroxisomes from senescent tissue. It is suggested that peroxisomes play a particular role in the process of senescence.

  15. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Novel Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.: an Intrinsically Disordered Protein.

    PubMed

    Montero-Morán, Gabriela M; Sampedro, José G; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Cervantes-González, Miguel A; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2015-08-01

    A novel Cu/ZnSOD from Amaranthus hypochondriacus was cloned, expressed, and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed an open reading frame (ORF) of 456 bp, which was predicted to encode a 15.6-kDa molecular weight protein with a pI of 5.4. Structural analysis showed highly conserved amino acid residues involved in Cu/Zn binding. Recombinant amaranth superoxide dismutase (rAhSOD) displayed more than 50 % of catalytic activity after incubation at 100 °C for 30 min. In silico analysis of Amaranthus hypochondriacus SOD (AhSOD) amino acid sequence for globularity and disorder suggested that this protein is mainly disordered; this was confirmed by circular dichroism, which showed the lack of secondary structure. Intrinsic fluorescence studies showed that rAhSOD undergoes conformational changes in two steps by the presence of Cu/Zn, which indicates the presence of two binding sites displaying different affinities for metals ions. Our results show that AhSOD could be classified as an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that is folded when metals are bound and with high thermal stability.

  16. Expression and characteristic of the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene from the insect parasitizing fungus Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan-Wei; Wang, Xue-Fei; Li, Qi-Zhang

    2012-12-01

    A Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene was characterized from Cordycepes militaris by gene cloning, heterogeneous expression and function analysis. This 154-aa SOD (CmSOD) was deduced from a 465-bp gene cloned, showing 72-95 % sequence identity to Cu/Zn-SODs from other fungi. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA is highly similar to Beauveria bassiana (95 %), Isaria tenuipes (94 %) and Claviceps purpurea (88 %), respectively. The SOD gene of C. militaris spin 589 bp and consisted of two introns and three exons. The CmSOD coding region sequence was inserted into plasmid pQE-30 in order to construct prokaryotic expression vector, then transformed into Escherichia coli M15 cells for expression, and a mass of rCmSOD was obtained by IPTG induction. The enzyme activity of the purified rCmSOD was approximately 714.48 U/mg after the assay. The study provided a way for in-depth research on the expression and regulation of the CmSOD, and the molecular mechanism of anti-oxidative effect in C. militaris. PMID:23053936

  17. Effects of copper and cadmium on development and superoxide dismutase levels in horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) embryos.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Mary G; Esposito, Christopher; Malin, Mia; Cusumano, Lucas R; Botton, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Pollution by metals may adversely affect organisms through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we examined the sublethal effects of two metals, copper and cadmium, on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) embryos. Exposure to copper or cadmium at concentrations of 0.01-10 mg/L for periods of 4, 8, 16 and 24 h had minimal effect on embryo survival except at 100 mg/L Cu. However, metal-exposed embryos took significantly longer to hatch into first instar ("trilobite") larvae than seawater controls. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), believed to be important in the response to oxidative stress, were determined by Western blotting. Both the Cu/Zn and Mn cofactor forms of SOD tended to be somewhat elevated in metal-exposed embryos, but the increases were neither dose nor time-dependent. Likewise, SOD enzymatic activity showed no significant differences comparing embryos exposed to metals with seawater controls. We conclude that the protective role of SOD's against ROS produced in response to metal exposure appears to be limited in horseshoe crab embryos, at least under our experimental conditions. PMID:26405624

  18. Theoretical prediction of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis missense mutation effects on Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase structural stability

    SciTech Connect

    Potier, M.; Tu, Y.

    1994-09-01

    Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) deficiency is associated with the progressive paralytic disorder familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Fifteen missense mutations in the SOD gene were identified in several patients. These mutations may prevent correct promoter folding or hamper homodimer formation necessary for SOD activity. To understand the effect of the missense mutations on SOD structure and function, we used a theoretical analysis of structural effects based on two predictive methods using the modeled tertiary structure of human SOD. The first method uses the TORSO program which optimizes amino acid side-chains repacking in both wild-type and mutant SODs and calculates protein internal packing energy. The second method uses a hydrophobicity scale of the amino acid residues and considers both solvent accessibility and hydrophobic nature of residue substitutions to compute a stabilization energy change ({delta}E). These predictive methods have been tested in 187 single and multiple missense mutants of 8 proteins (T4 lysozyme, human carbonic anhydrase II, chymotrypsin inhibitor 2, f1 gene V protein, barnase, {lambda}-repressor, chicken and human lysozymes) with experimentally determined thermostability. The overall prediction accuracy with these proteins was 88%. Analysis of FALS missense mutations {delta}E predicts that 14 of 15 mutations destabilize the SOD structure. The other missense mutation is located at the homodimer interface and may hinder dimer formation. This approach is applicable to any protein with known tertiary structure to predict missense mutation effects on protein stability.

  19. Mutant Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) Induces Protein Secretion Pathway Alterations and Exosome Release in Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Manuela; Pozzi, Silvia; Tortarolo, Massimo; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Bisighini, Cinzia; Pasetto, Laura; Spaltro, Gabriella; Lidonnici, Dario; Gensano, Francesco; Battaglia, Elisa; Bendotti, Caterina; Bonetto, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most common motor neuron disease and is still incurable. The mechanisms leading to the selective motor neuron vulnerability are still not known. The interplay between motor neurons and astrocytes is crucial in the outcome of the disease. We show that mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) overexpression in primary astrocyte cultures is associated with decreased levels of proteins involved in secretory pathways. This is linked to a general reduction of total secreted proteins, except for specific enrichment in a number of proteins in the media, such as mutant SOD1 and valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97. Because there was also an increase in exosome release, we can deduce that astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 activate unconventional secretory pathways, possibly as a protective mechanism. This may help limit the formation of intracellular aggregates and overcome mutant SOD1 toxicity. We also found that astrocyte-derived exosomes efficiently transfer mutant SOD1 to spinal neurons and induce selective motor neuron death. We conclude that the expression of mutant SOD1 has a substantial impact on astrocyte protein secretion pathways, contributing to motor neuron pathology and disease spread. PMID:23592792

  20. Physiological analyses indicate superoxide dismutase, catalase, and phytochelatins play important roles in Pb tolerance in Eremochloa ophiuroides.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Cen, Huameng; Chen, Youxiang; Xu, Siying; Peng, Lingli; Zhu, Hanmingyue; Li, Yiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation is considered to be a promising approach to restore or stabilize soil contaminated by lead (Pb). Turfgrasses, due to their high biomass yields, are considered to be suitable for use in phytoextraction of soil contaminated with heavy metal. It has been demonstrated that centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack., Poaceae) is a good turfgrass for restore of soil contaminated by Pb. However, the enhanced tolerant mechanisms in metallicolous (M) centipedegrass accessions remain unknown. In this study, we made a comparative study of growth performance, Pb accumulation, antioxidant levels, and phytochelatin concentrations in roots and shoots from M and nonmetallicolous (NM) centipedegrass accessions. Results showed that turf quality and growth rate were less repressed in M accessions than in NM accession. Pb stress caused generation of reactive oxygen species in centipedegrass with relatively lower levels in M accessions. Antioxidant activity analysis indicated that superoxide dismutase and catalase played important roles in Pb tolerance in M accessions. M accessions accumulated more Pb in roots and shoots. Greatly increased phytochelatins and less repressed sulfur contents in roots and shoots of M accessions indicated that they correlated with Pb accumulation and tolerance in centipedegrass.

  1. Physiological analyses indicate superoxide dismutase, catalase, and phytochelatins play important roles in Pb tolerance in Eremochloa ophiuroides.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Cen, Huameng; Chen, Youxiang; Xu, Siying; Peng, Lingli; Zhu, Hanmingyue; Li, Yiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation is considered to be a promising approach to restore or stabilize soil contaminated by lead (Pb). Turfgrasses, due to their high biomass yields, are considered to be suitable for use in phytoextraction of soil contaminated with heavy metal. It has been demonstrated that centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack., Poaceae) is a good turfgrass for restore of soil contaminated by Pb. However, the enhanced tolerant mechanisms in metallicolous (M) centipedegrass accessions remain unknown. In this study, we made a comparative study of growth performance, Pb accumulation, antioxidant levels, and phytochelatin concentrations in roots and shoots from M and nonmetallicolous (NM) centipedegrass accessions. Results showed that turf quality and growth rate were less repressed in M accessions than in NM accession. Pb stress caused generation of reactive oxygen species in centipedegrass with relatively lower levels in M accessions. Antioxidant activity analysis indicated that superoxide dismutase and catalase played important roles in Pb tolerance in M accessions. M accessions accumulated more Pb in roots and shoots. Greatly increased phytochelatins and less repressed sulfur contents in roots and shoots of M accessions indicated that they correlated with Pb accumulation and tolerance in centipedegrass. PMID:26368658

  2. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Novel Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.: an Intrinsically Disordered Protein.

    PubMed

    Montero-Morán, Gabriela M; Sampedro, José G; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Cervantes-González, Miguel A; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2015-08-01

    A novel Cu/ZnSOD from Amaranthus hypochondriacus was cloned, expressed, and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed an open reading frame (ORF) of 456 bp, which was predicted to encode a 15.6-kDa molecular weight protein with a pI of 5.4. Structural analysis showed highly conserved amino acid residues involved in Cu/Zn binding. Recombinant amaranth superoxide dismutase (rAhSOD) displayed more than 50 % of catalytic activity after incubation at 100 °C for 30 min. In silico analysis of Amaranthus hypochondriacus SOD (AhSOD) amino acid sequence for globularity and disorder suggested that this protein is mainly disordered; this was confirmed by circular dichroism, which showed the lack of secondary structure. Intrinsic fluorescence studies showed that rAhSOD undergoes conformational changes in two steps by the presence of Cu/Zn, which indicates the presence of two binding sites displaying different affinities for metals ions. Our results show that AhSOD could be classified as an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that is folded when metals are bound and with high thermal stability. PMID:26129702

  3. Hepatoprotective effect of resveratrol against ethanol-induced oxidative stress through induction of superoxide dismutase in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, WEI-MING; SHAW, LEE-HSIN; CHANG, PEY-JIUM; TUNG, SHUI-YI; CHANG, TE-SHENG; SHEN, CHEIN-HENG; HSIEH, YUNG-YU; WEI, KUO-LIANG

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of resveratrol (RSV) against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in vivo, and investigate the underlying mechanisms by which RSV exerts its anti-oxidative effects on hepatic cells. C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: Untreated control, ethanol-treated, RSV-treated, and ethanol + RSV-treated. The plasma lipid profile, hepatic lipid accumulation and antioxidative enzyme activities were analyzed. HepG2 cells were used as a cellular model to analyze the effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the RSV-mediated protection of ethanol-induced oxidative stress. In C57BL/6J mice, ethanol caused a significant increase in plasma triglyceride levels and hepatic lipid accumulation (P<0.05), whereas RSV notably increased SOD activity. In HepG2 cells, SOD activity was enhanced in the RSV-treated HepG2 cells, whereas the activity of CAT and GPx was not affected. Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that RSV significantly increased SOD protein and mRNA expression levels (P<0.05). Using a transient transfection assay, PPARγ was observed to participate in the regulation of SOD gene expression in RSV-administered HepG2 cells. To conclude, the results from the present study suggest that RSV may contribute towards the protection of hepatic cells from ethanol-induced oxidative stress via the induction of SOD activity and gene expression. PMID:27073428

  4. Expression and characterization of a recombinant psychrophilic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Deschampsia antarctica E. Desv. [Poaceae].

    PubMed

    Rojas-Contreras, Juan A; de la Rosa, Ana P Barba; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    We present here the structural modeling and biochemical characterization of a recombinant superoxide dismutase (SOD) from Deschampsia antarctica E. Desv. [Poaceae] produced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA), and its identity was demonstrated by immunoblotting and inhibition by H2O2 and KCN. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis confirmed the presence of Cu and Zn. Modeling of the D. antarctica Cu/Zn-SOD (DaSOD) amino acid sequence using the SWISS-MODEL and 2Q2L_B monomer of the psychrophilic Cu/Zu-SOD from Potentilla atrosanguinea (PaSOD) as template produced a structure similar to that of the typical eukaryotic Cu/Zn-SODs. Activity assays using the p-nitro blue tetrazolium chloride (NBT) solution method showed that the purified DaSOD had a specific activity of 5818 U/mg at 25 °C and pH 7.2 and that it was active in a pH interval of 5-8 and a temperature interval of 0-40 °C. Furthermore, DaSOD was still active at -20 °C as observed by a zymogram assay. We found 100 % activity when it was heated at 80 °C for 60 min, indicating a high thermostability. DaSOD properties suggest that this enzyme could be useful for preventing the oxidation of refrigerated or frozen foods, as well as in the preparation of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. PMID:25638267

  5. Accumulation of manganese superoxide dismutase under metal-depleted conditions: proposed role for zinc ions in cellular redox balance.

    PubMed Central

    Otsu, Kaoru; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Fujii, Junichi

    2004-01-01

    A diet low in copper results in increased levels of MnSOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), a critical antioxidative enzyme conferring protection against oxidative stress, in rat liver mitochondria. The mechanism for this was investigated using cultured HepG2 cells, a human hepatocellular carcinoma-derived line. MnSOD activity increased 5-7-fold during incubation in a medium supplemented with metal-depleted fetal bovine serum, with a corresponding elevation of its mRNA levels. Metal depletion also decreased CuZnSOD and glutathione peroxidase levels to approx. 70-80% of baseline. When zinc ions were added to the medium at micromolar levels, MnSOD accumulation was suppressed; however, copper ions had essentially no effect on MnSOD expression. Since the intracellular redox status was shifted to a more oxidized state by metal depletion, we examined the DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB), an oxidative stress-sensitive transactivating factor that plays a primary role in MnSOD induction. A gel shift assay indicated that the DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB was increased in cells maintained in metal-depleted culture, suggesting the involvement of the transactivating function of NF-kappaB in this induction. This was further supported by the observation that curcumin suppressed both the DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB and the induction of MnSOD mRNA in cells cultivated under metal-depleted conditions. These results suggest that the level of zinc, rather than copper, is a critical regulatory factor in MnSOD expression. It is possible that a deficiency of zinc in the low-copper diet may be primarily involved in MnSOD induction. PMID:14531733

  6. Bicarbonate is required for the peroxidase function of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase at physiological pH.

    PubMed

    Sankarapandi, S; Zweier, J L

    1999-01-15

    Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) acts as a peroxidase in the presence of H2O2 at high pH (pH > 9). The high pH species of H2O2, HO2-, was previously implicated as the reactive species. However, recent EPR studies of the enzyme performed in the physiological pH range 7.4-7.6 with the spin trap 5,5'-dimethyl-1-pyrolline-N-oxide attributed the intense EPR signal of 5, 5'-dimethyl-1-pyrolline-N-oxide-OH obtained from SOD1 and H2O2 to the peroxidase activity of the enzyme. The present study establishes that this intense signal is obtained only in the presence of bicarbonate. To explore the critical role of HCO3-, a comprehensive EPR investigation of the radical production and redox state of the active site copper was performed. The results indicate that HCO3- competes with other anions for the anion-binding site of SOD1 (Arg141) but does not bind directly to the copper. Structurally different anions that bind to Arg141 did not stimulate, but rather blocked, peroxidase function, ruling out an effect due to mere anion binding. However, the structurally similar anions HSeO3- and HSO3- mimic HCO3- in stimulating peroxidase function. These data suggest that HCO3- bound to Arg141 anchors the neutral H2O2 molecule at the active site copper, enabling its redox cleavage. Thus, SOD1 acquires peroxidase activity at physiological pH only in the presence of HCO3- or structurally similar anions. Alterations in pH that shift the HCO3-/CO2 equilibrium as occur in disease processes such as ischemia, sepsis, or shock would modulate the peroxidase function of SOD1. PMID:9880490

  7. Tempol, a Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic Agent, Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity through Alleviation of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A.; Shehata, Nagwa I.; Abdelkader, Noha F.; Khattab, Mahmoud M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is a crucial mechanism by which cisplatin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, causes nephrotoxicity where mitochondrial electron transport complexes are shifted mostly toward imbalanced reactive oxygen species versus energy production. In the present study, the protective role of tempol, a membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent, was evaluated on mitochondrial dysfunction and the subsequent damage induced by cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice. Methods and Findings Nephrotoxicity was assessed 72 h after a single i.p. injection of cisplatin (25 mg/kg) with or without oral administration of tempol (100 mg/kg/day). Serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria were evaluated. Both kidneys were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, complexes I–IV activities and mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS) protein expression were measured along with histological examinations of renal tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Tempol was effective against cisplatin-induced elevation of serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria. Moreover, pretreatment with tempol notably inhibited cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and disruption of mitochondrial function by restoring mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, complexes I and III activities, mNOS protein expression and ATP content. Tempol also provided significant protection against apoptosis, tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Interestingly, tempol did not interfere with the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin against the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma. Conclusion This study highlights the potential role of tempol in inhibiting cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without affecting its antitumor activity via amelioration of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

  8. Inducible HSP70 regulates superoxide dismutase-2 and mitochondrial oxidative stress in the endothelial cells from developing lungs.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, Adeleye J; Teng, Ru-Jeng; Eis, Annie; Rana, Ujala; Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Corbett, John A; Pritchard, Kirkwood; Konduri, Girija G

    2014-02-15

    Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2) is synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the mitochondrial matrix, where it is activated and functions as the primary antioxidant for cellular respiration. The specific mechanisms that target SOD-2 to the mitochondria remain unclear. We hypothesize that inducible heat shock protein 70 (iHSP70) targets SOD-2 to the mitochondria via a mechanism facilitated by ATP, and this process is impaired in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). We observed that iHSP70 interacts with SOD-2 and targets SOD-2 to the mitochondria. Interruption of iHSP70-SOD-2 interaction with 2-phenylethylenesulfonamide-μ (PFT-μ, a specific inhibitor of substrate binding to iHSP70 COOH terminus) and siRNA-mediated knockdown of iHSP70 expression disrupted SOD-2 transport to mitochondria. Increasing intracellular ATP levels by stimulation of respiration with CaCl2 facilitated the mitochondrial import of SOD-2, increased SOD-2 activity, and decreased the mitochondrial superoxide (O2(·-)) levels in PPHN pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) by promoting iHSP70-SOD-2 dissociation at the outer mitochondrial membrane. In contrast, oligomycin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATPase, decreased SOD-2 expression and activity and increased O2(·-) levels in the mitochondria of control PAEC. The basal ATP levels and degree of iHSP70-SOD-2 dissociation were lower in PPHN PAEC and lead to increased SOD-2 degradation in cytosol. In normal pulmonary arteries (PA), PFT-μ impaired the relaxation response of PA rings in response to nitric oxide (NO) donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine. Pretreatment with Mito-Q, a mitochondrial targeted O2(·-) scavenger, restored the relaxation response in PA rings pretreated with PFT-μ. Our observations suggest that iHSP70 chaperones SOD-2 to the mitochondria. Impaired SOD-2-iHSP70 dissociation decreases SOD-2 import and contributes to mitochondrial oxidative stress in PPHN.

  9. A novel Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase from the fungal strain Humicola lutea 110: isolation and physico-chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolashka-Angelova, Pavlina; Angelova, Maria; Genova, Ljubka; Stoeva, Stanka; Voelter, Wolfgang

    1999-09-01

    The fungal strain Humicola lutea 110 produces a mangan- and a copper zinc-containing superoxide dismutases (SOD). In this study, the purification, N-terminal sequence and spectroscopic properties of the new Cu,Zn SOD are described. The preparation of the pure metalloenzyme was achieved via treatment of the strain with acetone followed by gel and ion exchange chromatography. The protein consists of 302 amino acid residues and has a molecular mass of approximately 32 kDa, as determined by PAG electrophoresis and 3100 U mg -1 protein-specific activity. It is a dimeric enzyme with two identical subunits of 15 950 Da, as indicated by SDS-PAGE, mass spectroscopic and amino acid analysis. The N-terminal sequence analysis of the Cu,Zn SOD from the fungal strain revealed a high degree of structural homology with enzymes from other eukaryotic sources. Conformational stability and reversibility of unfolding of the dimeric enzyme were determined by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The critical temperature of deviation from linearity ( Tc) of the Arrhenius plot ln ( Q-1-1) vs. 1/ T was calculated to be 68°C and the respective activation energy for the thermal deactivation of the excited indole chromophores is 42 kcal mol -1. The melting temperatures ( Tm) were determined by CD measurements to be 69°C for the holo- and 61°C for the apo- enzyme. The fluorescence emission of the Cu,Zn SOD is dominated by 'buried' tryptophyl chromophores. Removal of the copper-dioxygen system from the active site caused a 4-fold increase of the fluorescence quantum yield and a 10 nm shift of the emission maximum position towards higher wavelength.

  10. A novel Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase from the fungal strain Humicola lutea 110: isolation and physico-chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Dolashka-Angelova, P; Angelova, M; Genova, L; Stoeva, S; Voelter, W

    1999-09-01

    The fungal strain Humicola lutea 110 produces a mangan- and a copper zinc-containing superoxide dismutases (SOD). In this study, the purification, N-terminal sequence and spectroscopic properties of the new Cu,Zn SOD are described. The preparation of the pure metalloenzyme was achieved via treatment of the strain with acetone followed by gel and ion exchange chromatography. The protein consists of 302 amino acid residues and has a molecular mass of approximately 32 kDa, as determined by PAG electrophoresis and 3100 U mg-1 protein-specific activity. It is a dimeric enzyme with two identical subunits of 15,950 Da, as indicated by SDS-PAGE, mass spectroscopic and amino acid analysis. The N-terminal sequence analysis of the Cu,Zn SOD from the fungal strain revealed a high degree of structural homology with enzymes from other eukaryotic sources. Conformational stability and reversibility of unfolding of the dimeric enzyme were determined by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The critical temperature of deviation from linearity (Tc) of the Arrhenius plot ln (Q-1(-1)) vs. 1/T was calculated to be 68 degrees C and the respective activation energy for the thermal deactivation of the excited indole chromophores is 42 kcal mol-1. The melting temperatures (Tm) were determined by CD measurements to be 69 degrees C for the holo- and 61 degrees C for the apo-enzyme. The fluorescence emission of the Cu,Zn SOD is dominated by 'buried' tryptophyl chromophores. Removal of the copper-dioxygen system from the active site caused a 4-fold increase of the fluorescence quantum yield and a 10 nm shift of the emission maximum position towards higher wavelength. PMID:10581736

  11. Vaccination with live Escherichia coli expressing Brucella abortus Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase protects mice against virulent B. abortus.

    PubMed

    Oñate, A A; Vemulapalli, R; Andrews, E; Schurig, G G; Boyle, S; Folch, H

    1999-02-01

    Vaccination of mice with Escherichia coli expressing Brucella Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) [E. coli(pBSSOD)] induced a significant level of protection against virulent Brucella abortus challenge, although this level was not as high as the one reached with B. abortus vaccine strain RB51. In addition, vaccination with E. coli(pBSSOD) induced antibodies to Cu/Zn SOD and a strong proliferative response of splenocytes when stimulated in vitro with a thioredoxin-Cu/Zn SOD fusion protein.

  12. Inhibition of superoxide dismutase, Vitamin C and glutathione on chemiluminescence produced by luminol and the mixture of sulfite and bisulfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hong; Meng, Ziqiang

    2006-05-01

    In a system which consisted of luminol (3-aminophthalhydrazide), cobalt sulfate (CoSO 4), alkaline buffer and the mixture of NaSO 3 and sodium bisulfite (NaHSO 3) (sulfite and bisulfite = 3:1, m/m), a strong chemiluminescence (CL) was observed using a BPCL ultra-weak luminometer. The CL signals resulted from 3-aminophthalate (the product of oxidized luminol), and were affected by the buffer pH, buffer medium and the concentrations of luminol, CoSO 4 and the NaSO 3-NaHSO 3 mixture. The observation that the CL intensities were inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD), Vitamin C (Vc) and glutathione (GSH) in a dose-dependent manner suggested that superoxide radical (O 2rad -) was involved in the CL reaction and responsible for oxidation of luminol.

  13. Mitochondrial localization of fission yeast manganese superoxide dismutase is required for its lysine acetylation and for cellular stress resistance and respiratory growth

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hidekazu; Shirai, Atsuko; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Yoshida, Minoru

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Fission yeast manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is acetylated. {yields} The mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is required for the acetylation of MnSOD. {yields} The MTS is not crucial for MnSOD activity, but is important for respiratory growth. {yields} Posttranslational regulation of MnSOD differs between budding and fission yeast. -- Abstract: Manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is localized in the mitochondria and is important for oxidative stress resistance. Although transcriptional regulation of MnSOD has been relatively well studied, much less is known about the protein's posttranslational regulation. In budding yeast, MnSOD is activated after mitochondrial import by manganese ion incorporation. Here we characterize posttranslational modification of MnSOD in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Fission yeast MnSOD is acetylated at the 25th lysine residue. This acetylation was diminished by deletion of N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence, suggesting that MnSOD is acetylated after import into mitochondria. Mitochondrial localization of MnSOD is not essential for the enzyme activity, but is crucial for oxidative stress resistance and growth under respiratory conditions of fission yeast. These results suggest that, unlike the situation in budding yeast, S. pombe MnSOD is already active even before mitochondrial localization; nonetheless, mitochondrial localization is critical to allow the cell to cope with reactive oxygen species generated inside or outside of mitochondria.

  14. Enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging by overproduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase delays postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Duan, Xiaoguang; Yang, Jun; Beeching, John R; Zhang, Peng

    2013-03-01

    Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots is the result of a rapid oxidative burst, which leads to discoloration of the vascular tissues due to the oxidation of phenolic compounds. In this study, coexpression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) in transgenic cassava was used to explore the intrinsic relationship between ROS scavenging and PPD occurrence. Transgenic cassava plants integrated with the expression cassette p54::MeCu/ZnSOD-35S::MeCAT1 were confirmed by Southern-blot analysis. The expression of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeCAT1 was verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic activity analysis both in the leaves and storage roots. Under exposure to the ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen or to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the transgenic plants showed higher enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT than the wild-type plants. Levels of malondialdehyde, chlorophyll degradation, lipid peroxidation, and H2O2 accumulation were dramatically reduced in the transgenic lines compared with the wild type. After harvest, the storage roots of transgenic cassava lines show a delay in their PPD response of at least 10 d, accompanied by less mitochondrial oxidation and H2O2 accumulation, compared with those of the wild type. We hypothesize that this is due to the combined ectopic expression of Cu/ZnSOD and CAT leading to an improved synergistic ROS-scavenging capacity of the roots. Our study not only sheds light on the mechanism of the PPD process but also develops an effective approach for delaying the occurrence of PPD in cassava.

  15. Enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging by overproduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase delays postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Duan, Xiaoguang; Yang, Jun; Beeching, John R; Zhang, Peng

    2013-03-01

    Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots is the result of a rapid oxidative burst, which leads to discoloration of the vascular tissues due to the oxidation of phenolic compounds. In this study, coexpression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) in transgenic cassava was used to explore the intrinsic relationship between ROS scavenging and PPD occurrence. Transgenic cassava plants integrated with the expression cassette p54::MeCu/ZnSOD-35S::MeCAT1 were confirmed by Southern-blot analysis. The expression of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeCAT1 was verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic activity analysis both in the leaves and storage roots. Under exposure to the ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen or to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the transgenic plants showed higher enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT than the wild-type plants. Levels of malondialdehyde, chlorophyll degradation, lipid peroxidation, and H2O2 accumulation were dramatically reduced in the transgenic lines compared with the wild type. After harvest, the storage roots of transgenic cassava lines show a delay in their PPD response of at least 10 d, accompanied by less mitochondrial oxidation and H2O2 accumulation, compared with those of the wild type. We hypothesize that this is due to the combined ectopic expression of Cu/ZnSOD and CAT leading to an improved synergistic ROS-scavenging capacity of the roots. Our study not only sheds light on the mechanism of the PPD process but also develops an effective approach for delaying the occurrence of PPD in cassava. PMID:23344905

  16. Postischemic, systemic administration of polyamine-modified superoxide dismutase reduces hippocampal CA1 neurodegeneration in rat global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wengenack, T M; Curran, G L; Poduslo, J F

    1997-04-18

    Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) have shown neuroprotective effects in animal models of cerebral ischemia, but only at very high doses. Modifications to increase the plasma half-life or blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of SOD have resulted in limited neuroprotective effects. No one has demonstrated neuroprotection with postischemic administration. The specific aim of the present study was to administer systemically a polyamine-modified SOD, having increased BBB permeability and preserved enzymatic activity, following global cerebral ischemia in rats and analyze the effects on the selective vulnerability of CA1 hippocampal neurons. Following 12 min of four-vessel occlusion, global cerebral ischemia, male Wistar rats were dosed (i.v.) with either saline, native SOD (5000 U/kg), polyamine-modified SOD (5000 U/kg), or enzymatically inactive, polyamine-modified SOD (2.1 mg/kg) twice daily for 3 days. Neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neurons were assessed using standard histological methods. Saline-treated animals had very few remaining CA1 neurons (1.44 +/- 0.60 neurons/reticle; x +/- S.E.M.) compared to sham rats (58.57 +/- 0.69). Native (10.38 +/- 2.96) or inactive, polyamine-modified SOD (7.32 +/- 2.68) did not show significant neuroprotective effects. Polyamine-modified SOD, however, resulted in the survival of significantly more CA1 neurons (24.61 +/- 5.90; P < 0.01). Postischemic, systemic administration of polyamine-modified SOD, having increased BBB permeability and preserved enzymatic activity, significantly reduced hippocampal CA1 neuron loss following global cerebral ischemia. Similar modification of other antioxidant enzymes and neurotrophic factors with polyamines may provide a useful technique for the systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins across the BBB for the treatment of stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:9134958

  17. Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase and nitrate reductase coimmobilized bienzymatic biosensor for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Madasamy, Thangamuthu; Pandiaraj, Manickam; Balamurugan, Murugesan; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Karunakaran, Chandran

    2014-02-15

    This work presents a novel bienzymatic biosensor for the simultaneous determination of nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) ions using copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and nitrate reductase (NaR) coimmobilized on carbon nanotubes (CNT)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite modified platinum electrode. Morphological changes of the PPy and CNT modified electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the bienzymatic electrode (NaR-SOD1-CNT-PPy-Pt) was characterized by cyclic voltammetry exhibiting quasi-reversible redox peak at +0.06 V and reversible redox peaks at -0.76 and -0.62V vs. Ag/AgCl, for the immobilized SOD1 and NaR respectively. The electrocatalytic activity of SOD1 towards NO2(-) oxidation observed at +0.8 V was linear from 100 nM to 1mM with a detection limit of 50 nM and sensitivity of 98.5 ± 1.7 nA µM(-1)cm(-2). Similarly, the coimmobilized NaR showed its electrocatalytic activity towards NO3(-) reduction at -0.76 V exhibiting linear response from 500 nM to 10mM NO3(-) with a detection limit of 200 nM and sensitivity of 84.5 ± 1.56 nA µM(-1)cm(-2). Further, the present bienzymatic biosensor coated with cellulose acetate membrane for the removal of non-specific proteins was used for the sensitive and selective determinations of NO2(-) and NO3(-) present in human plasma, whole blood and saliva samples.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD) gene.

    PubMed

    Sujiwattanarat, Penporn; Pongsanarakul, Parinya; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Temsiripong, Theeranan; Thawornkuno, Charin; Uno, Yoshinobu; Unajak, Sasimanas; Matsuda, Yoichi; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) is an antioxidant enzyme found in all living cells. It regulates oxidative stress by breaking down superoxide radicals to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. A gene coding for Cu,Zn-SOD was cloned and characterized from Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis; CSI). The full-length expressed sequence tag (EST) of this Cu,Zn-SOD gene (designated as CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD) contained 462bp encoding a protein of 154 amino acids without signal peptides, indicated as intracellular CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD. This agreed with the results from the phylogenetic tree, which indicated that CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD belonged to the intracellular Cu,Zn-SOD. Chromosomal location determined that the CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD was localized to the proximal region of the Siamese crocodile chromosome 1p. Several highly conserved motifs, two conserved signature sequences (GFHVHEFGDNT and GNAGGRLACGVI), and conserved amino acid residues for binding copper and zinc (His(47), His(49), His(64), His(72), His(81), Asp(84), and His(120)) were also identified in CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD. Real-time PCR analysis showed that CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD mRNA was expressed in all the tissues examined (liver, pancreas, lung, kidney, heart, and whole blood), which suggests a constitutively expressed gene in these tissues. Expression of the gene in Escherichia coli cells followed by purification yielded a recombinant CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD, with Km and Vmax values of 6.075mM xanthine and 1.4×10(-3)mmolmin(-1)mg(-1), respectively. This Vmax value was 40 times lower than native Cu,Zn-SOD (56×10(-3)mmolmin(-1)mg(-1)), extracted from crocodile erythrocytes. This suggests that cofactors, protein folding properties, or post-translational modifications were lost during the protein purification process, leading to a reduction in the rate of enzyme activity in bacterial expression of CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD. PMID:26523498

  19. Oxygen-dependent free radicals in spermine oxidation cytostasis and chemiluminescence and the role of superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Gaugas, J. M.; Dewey, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Spermine interacted with serum polyamine oxidase (PAO) to arrest proliferation of cultured Bri8 lymphocytes. Arrest was independent of catalase activity and was not directly due to an H2O2 byproduct. Arrest was averted by 3-hydroxybenzyloxyamine, which inactivates the pyridoxal co-factor of PAO. The oxidation of spermine in the presence of different concentrations of PAO was non-linear, which implied complex intermediate events for conversion of spermine to labile di-oxidized spermine (N,N′-bis(3-propionaldehyde)-1,4-butanediamine) with, perhaps, overall generation of free radicals (O2-· and ·OH) which are damaging to cells. Exogenous free radicals were apparently neither direct participants in cytostasis, nor in the chemiluminescence demonstrable for spermine oxidation. Thiourea, an ·OH scavenger, protected against both proliferation arrest and luminescence. Many other powerful ·OH scavengers, however, were ineffective. Though reaction mixtures reduced ferricytochrome c initially, reduction was not inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD) which indicated that the anion O2-· had not been generated. The powerful reducing capability of di-oxidized spermine itself could have competed against any O2-· for ferricytochrome c reduction. Nevertheless, O2-· was generated during further PAO conversion and/or auto-oxidation of di-oxidized spermine. Curiously, addition of SOD to destroy presumptive O2-· variably potentiated cytotoxicity. Blockage of any anion channels in the cell plasma membrane by stilbene derivatives did not influence cytotoxicity. Thus, findings support our previous evidence that cationic di-oxidized spermine is a potent G1 inhibitor of cell proliferation. The possibility of intracellular free-radical and thiol involvement is discussed. PMID:7426319

  20. Effects of Aging and Oxidative Stress on Spermatozoa of Superoxide-Dismutase 1- and Catalase-Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Selvaratnam, Johanna S; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Advanced paternal age is linked to complications in pregnancy and genetic diseases in offspring. Aging results in excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in spermatozoa; this damage can be transmitted to progeny with detrimental consequences. Although there is a loss of antioxidants with aging, the impact on aging male germ cells of the complete absence of either catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) has not been investigated. We used CAT-null (Cat(-/-)) and SOD1-null (Sod(-/-)) mice to determine whether loss of these antioxidants increases germ cell susceptibility to redox dysfunction with aging. Aging reduced fertility and the numbers of Sertoli and germ cells in all mice. Aged Sod(-/-) mice displayed an increased loss of fertility compared to aged wild-type mice. Treatment with the pro-oxidant SIN-10 increased ROS in spermatocytes of aged wild-type and Sod(-/-) mice, while aged Cat(-/-) mice were able to neutralize this ROS. The antioxidant peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) increased with age in wild-type and Cat(-/-) mice but was consistently low in young and aged Sod(-/-) mice. DNA damage and repair markers (γ-H2AX and 53BP1) were reduced with aging and lower in young Sod(-/-) and Cat(-/-) mice. Colocalization of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 suggested active repair in young wild-type mice but reduced in young Cat(-/-) and in Sod(-/-) mice and with age. Oxidative DNA damage (8-oxodG) increased in young Sod(-/-) mice and with age in all mice. These studies show that aged Sod(-/-) mice display severe redox dysfunction, while wild-type and Cat(-/-) mice have compensatory mechanisms to partially alleviate oxidative stress and reduce age-related DNA damage in spermatozoa. Thus, SOD1 but not CAT is critical to the maintenance of germ cell quality with aging. PMID:27465136

  1. Phenotypic rescue by a bovine transgene in a Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-null mutant of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Reveillaud, I.; Kongpachith, A.; Fleming, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Null mutants for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in Drosophila melanogaster are male sterile, have a greatly reduced adult life span, and are hypersensitive to paraquat. We have introduced a synthetic bovine CuZnSOD transgene under the transcriptional control of the D. melanogaster 5C actin promoter into a CuZnSOD-null mutant of D. melanogaster. This was carried out by P-element-mediated transformation of the Drosophila-bovine CuZnSOD transgene into a CuZnSOD{sup +} recipient strain followed by genetic crossing of the transgene into a strain carrying the CuZnSOD-null mutation, cSOD{sup n108}. The resulting transformants express bovine CuZnSOD exclusively to about 30% of normal Drosophila CuZnSOD levels. Expression of the Drosophila-bovine CuZnSOD transgene in the CuZnSOD-null mutant rescues male fertility and resistance to paraquat to apparently normal levels. However, adult life span is restored to only 30% of normal, and resistance to hyperoxia is 90% of that found in control flies. This striking differential restoration of pleiotropic phenotypes could be the result of a threshold of CuZnSOD expression necessary for normal male fertility and resistance to the toxicity of paraquat or hyperoxia which is lower than the threshold required to sustain a normal adult life span. Alternatively, the differential rescue of fertility, resistance to active oxygen, and life span might indicate different cell-specific transcriptional requirements for these functions which are normally provided by the control elements of the native CuZnSOD gene but are only partly compensated for by the transcriptional control elements of the actin 5C promoter. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. A Multinuclear Copper(I) Cluster Forms the Dimerization Interface in Copper-Loaded Human Copper Chaperone for Superoxide Dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Stasser, J.P.; Siluvai, G.S.; Barry, A.N.; Blackburn, N.J.

    2009-06-04

    Copper binding and X-ray aborption spectroscopy studies are reported on untagged human CCS (hCCS; CCS = copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase) isolated using an intein self-cleaving vector and on single and double Cys to Ala mutants of the hCCS MTCQSC and CSC motifs of domains 1 (D1) and 3 (D3), respectively. The results on the wild-type protein confirmed earlier findings on the CCS-MBP (maltose binding protein) constructs, namely, that Cu(I) coordinates to the CXC motif, forming a cluster at the interface of two D3 polypeptides. In contrast to the single Cys to Ser mutations of the CCS-MBP protein (Stasser, J. P., Eisses, J. F., Barry, A. N., Kaplan, J. H., and Blackburn, N. J. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 3143-3152), single Cys to Ala mutations in D3 were sufficient to eliminate cluster formation and significantly reduce CCS activity. Analysis of the intensity of the Cu-Cu cluster interaction in C244A, C246A, and C244/246A variants suggested that the nuclearity of the cluster was greater than 2 and was most consistent with a Cu4S6 adamantane-type species. The relationship among cluster formation, oligomerization, and metal loading was evaluated. The results support a model in which Cu(I) binding converts the apo dimer with a D2-D2 interface to a new dimer connected by cluster formation at two D3 CSC motifs. The predominance of dimer over tetramer in the cluster-containing species strongly suggests that the D2 dimer interface remains open and available for sequestering an SOD1 monomer. This work implicates the copper cluster in the reactive form and adds detail to the cluster nuclearity and how copper loading affects the oligomerization states and reactivity of CCS for its partner SOD1.

  3. Gene organization and homology modeling of two iron superoxide dismutases of the early branching protist Perkinsus marinus.

    PubMed

    Schott, Eric J; Robledo, José Antonio F; Wright, Anita C; Silva, Abelardo M; Vasta, Gerardo R

    2003-04-24

    The facultative intracellular oyster parasite, Perkinsus marinus, taxonomically related to both dinoflagellates and apicomplexans, possesses at least two distinct genes (PmSOD1 and PmSOD2) predicted to encode iron-containing superoxide dismutases (FeSOD). DNA blots and sequence analysis suggest that both PmSOD1 and PmSOD2 are single copy and are unlinked. PmSOD1 and PmSOD2 are composed of five and six exons, respectively. All introns are delimited by canonical GT/AG boundaries, and have some features more similar to apicomplexan than dinoflagellate introns. Interestingly, exon 1 of PmSOD2 encodes putative transmembrane and spacer domains with no homology to FeSODs, while exon 2 begins with a methionine codon and is homologous to the N-terminus of FeSODs. The position of introns is not highly conserved between PmSOD1 and PmSOD2, although one intron is in a similar location. Comparison of the intron positions of PmSOD1 and PmSOD2 to those of available apicomplexan FeSODs shows that the intron position shared by PmSOD1 and PmSOD2 is also observed in the FeSOD of Toxoplasma gondii. Comparison of the untranscribed regions 5' and 3' of the coding regions for PmSOD1 and PmSOD2 reveals few motifs in common. Instead, each gene possesses a distinct set of putative upstream transcription factor binding sites. Although the proteins encoded by PmSOD1 and PmSOD2 are only 38% identical to each other, homology modeling indicates that they have nearly identical active site structures. The divergent genomic organizations of two FeSOD genes in the same organism illustrates the complexity of the antioxidant system of even simple, early-branching protists such as P. marinus.

  4. Bladder function in mice with inducible smooth muscle-specific deletion of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiming; Elrashidy, Rania A; Xiao, Nan; Kavran, Michael; Huang, Yexiang; Tao, Mingfang; Powell, C Thomas; Kim, Edward; Sadeghi, Ghazal; Mohamed, Hoda E; Daneshgari, Firouz

    2015-08-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is considered a critical component of the antioxidant systems that protect against oxidative damage. We are interested in the role of oxidative stress in bladder detrusor smooth muscle (SM) in different disease states. In this study, we generated an inducible, SM-specific Sod2(-/-) mouse model to investigate the effects of MnSOD depletion on the function of the bladder. We crossbred floxed Sod2 (Sod2(lox/lox)) mice with mice containing heterozygous knock-in of a gene encoding a tamoxifen-activated Cre recombinase in the SM22α promoter locus [SM-CreER(T2)(ki)(Cre/+)]. We obtained Sod2(lox/lox),SM-CreER(T2)(ki)(Cre/+) mice and injected 8-wk-old males with 4-hydroxytamoxifen to induce Cre-mediated excision of the floxed Sod2 allele. Twelve weeks later, SM-specific deletion of Sod2 and depletion of MnSOD were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. SM-specific Sod2(-/-) mice exhibited normal growth with no gross abnormalities. A significant increase in nitrotyrosine concentration was found in bladder SM tissue of SM-specific Sod2(-/-) mice compared with both wild-type mice and Sod2(+/+), SM-CreER(T2)(ki)(Cre/+) mice treated with 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Assessment of 24-h micturition in SM-specific Sod2(-/-) mice revealed significantly higher voiding frequency compared with both wild-type and SM-specific Cre controls. Conscious cystometry revealed significantly shorter intercontraction intervals and lower functional bladder capacity in SM-specific Sod2(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. This novel model can be used for exploring the mechanistic role of oxidative stress in organs rich in SM in different pathological conditions. PMID:25948732

  5. Role of manganese superoxide dismutase on growth and invasive properties of human estrogen-independent breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kattan, Zilal; Minig, Vanessa; Leroy, Pierre; Dauça, Michel; Becuwe, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is known to play a role in cancer. MnSOD exerts a tumor suppressive effect in estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells. In the present study we investigated the in vitro role of MnSOD in the growth of some aggressive and highly metastatic estrogen-independent breast cancer cells, i.e., MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 cells. We show that estrogen-independent cells expressed a significantly higher basal MnSOD level compared to estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and T47D). For MDA-MB231 cells, the high-MnSOD level was accompanied by an overproduction of intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and by a low expression of the major H2O2-detoxifying enzymes, catalase, and peroxiredoxin 3, compared to MCF-7 cells. Suppression of MnSOD expression by antisense RNA was associated with a decrease of H2O2 content and caused a stimulation of growth with a reduced cell doubling time but induced a decrease of colony formation. Furthermore, treatment of MDA-MB231 cells with H2O2 scavengers markedly reduced tumor cell growth and colony formation. In addition, MnSOD suppression or treatment with H2O2 scavengers reduced the invasive properties of MDA-MB231 cells up to 43%, with a concomitant decrease of metalloproteinase-9 activity. We conclude that MnSOD plays a role in regulating tumor cell growth and invasive properties of estrogen-independent metastatic breast cancer cells. These action are mediated by MnSOD-dependent H2O2 production. In addition, these results suggest that MnSOD up-regulation may be one mechanism that contributes to the development of metastatic breast cancers.

  6. Adipocyte-Specific Deletion of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Protects From Diet-Induced Obesity Through Increased Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong Hwan; Buffolo, Márcio; Pires, Karla Maria; Pei, Shaobo; Scherer, Philipp E; Boudina, Sihem

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with oxidative stress (OS). The causal role of adipose OS in the pathogenesis of these conditions is unknown. To address this issue, we generated mice with an adipocyte-selective deletion of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), the AdSod2 knockout (KO) mice exhibited less adiposity, reduced adipocyte hypertrophy, and decreased circulating leptin. The resistance to diet-induced adiposity was the result of an increased metabolic rate and energy expenditure. Furthermore, palmitate oxidation was elevated in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue of AdSod2 KO mice fed an HFD, and the expression of key fatty acid oxidation genes was increased. To gain mechanistic insight into the increased fat oxidation in HFD-fed AdSod2 KO mice, we quantified the mitochondrial function and mitochondrial content in WAT and found that MnSOD deletion increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption and induced mitochondrial biogenesis. This effect was preserved in cultured adipocytes from AdSod2 KO mice in vitro. As expected from the enhanced fat oxidation, circulating levels of free fatty acids were reduced in the HFD-fed AdSod2 KO mice. Finally, HFD-fed AdSod2 KO mice were protected from hepatic steatosis, adipose tissue inflammation, and glucose and insulin intolerance. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MnSOD deletion in adipocytes triggered an adaptive stress response that activated mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, thereby preventing diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:27284109

  7. Induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of superoxide dismutase expression in rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum by PTU-induced hypothyroidism and its reversal by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Jena, Srikanta; Anand, Chinmay; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Dandapat, Jagneshwar

    2012-08-01

    The present study was carried out to elucidate the effectiveness of curcumin in ameliorating the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rat brain under 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism. Induction of hypothyroidism in adult rats by PTU resulted in augmentation of lipid peroxidation (LPx), an index of oxidative stress in cerebellum but not in cerebral cortex. Curcumin-supplementation to PTU-treated (hypothyroid) rats showed significant reduction in the level of LPx in both the regions of brain. The decreased translated products (SOD1 and SOD2) and the unchanged activity of SOD in cerebral cortex of PTU-treated rats were increased on supplementation of curcumin to the hypothyroid rats. Declined translated products of SOD1 and SOD2 in cerebellum of PTU-treated rats were alleviated on administration of curcumin to hypothyroid rats. On the other hand, the decreased activity of SOD in cerebellum of PTU-treated rats was further declined on administration of curcumin to the hypothyroid rats. Results of the present investigation indicate that curcumin differentially modulates the expression of superoxide dismutase in rat brain cortex and cerebellum under PTU-induced hypothyroidism.

  8. Functional analysis of iron superoxide dismutase-A in wild-type and antimony-resistant Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum lines.

    PubMed

    Tessarollo, N G; Andrade, J M; Moreira, D S; Murta, S M F

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we characterized the gene encoding iron superoxide dismutase-A (FeSOD-A) in wild-type (WTS) and antimony-resistant (SbR) L. (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (Leishmania) infantum lines, which were selected in vitro. FeSOD-A transcript and protein expression were similar in all tested lines; however, specific enzyme activity analysis revealed higher superoxide dismutase activity in SbIII-resistant LbSbR and LiSbR lines than in the corresponding WTS lines. These parasites were also more tolerant to oxidative stress generated by the herbicide paraquat. Functional analysis showed that in comparison to non-transfected lines, wild-type LbWTS and LiWTS clones overexpressing the FeSOD-A enzyme are 1.6- and 1.7-fold more resistant to SbIII, respectively. Our results suggest that FeSOD-A is involved in the antimony resistance phenotype in L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) infantum.

  9. Effect of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pongsavee, Malinee

    2015-01-01

    Sodium benzoate is food preservative that inhibits microbial growth. The effects of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes were studied. Sodium benzoate concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL were treated in lymphocyte cell line for 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. Micronucleus test, standard chromosome culture technique, PCR, and automated sequencing technique were done to detect micronucleus, chromosome break, and gene mutation. The results showed that, at 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL increased micronucleus formation when comparing with the control group (P < 0.05). At 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 2.0 mg/mL increased chromosome break when comparing with the control group (P < 0.05). Sodium benzoate did not cause Ala40Thr (GCG→ACG) in superoxide dismutase gene. Sodium benzoate had the mutagenic and cytotoxic toxicity in lymphocytes caused by micronucleus formation and chromosome break.

  10. The protective effect of M40401, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, on post-ischemic brain damage in Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Mollace, Vincenzo; Iannone, Michelangelo; Muscoli, Carolina; Palma, Ernesto; Granato, Teresa; Modesti, Andrea; Nisticò, Robert; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Salvemini, Daniela

    2003-01-01

    Background Overproduction of free radical species has been shown to occur in brain tissues after ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, most of free radical scavengers known to antagonize oxidative damage (e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase), are unable to protect against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury when given in vivo, an effect mainly due to their difficulty to gain access to brain tissues. Here we studied the effect of a low molecular weight superoxide dismutase mimetic (M40401) in brain damage subsequent to ischemia-reperfusion injury in Mongolian gerbils. Results In animals undergoing ischemia-reperfusion injury, neuropathological and ultrastructural changes were monitored for 1–7 days either in the presence or in the absence of M40401 after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCO). Administration of M40401 (1–40 mg/kg, given i.p. 1 h after BCCO) protected against post-ischemic, ultrastructural and neuropathological changes occurring within the hippocampal CA1 area. The protective effect of M40401 was associated with a significant reduction of the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA; a marker of lipid peroxidation) in ischemic brain tissues after ischemia-reperfusion. Conclusion Taken together, these results demonstrate that M40401 provides protective effects when given early after the induction of ischemia-reperfusion of brain tissues and suggest the possible use of such compounds in the treatment of neurological dysfunction subsequent to cerebral flow disturbances. PMID:12809567

  11. Short-term assessment of toxicological aspects, oxidative and inflammatory response to dietary melon superoxide dismutase in rats.

    PubMed

    Carillon, Julie; Fouret, Gilles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Lacan, Dominique; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2013-05-01

    The protective effects of SODB, a gastro-resistant encapsulated melon superoxide dismutase, on haematological and biochemical parameters and inflammatory and oxidative status, were evaluated in the blood and liver tissue. The study consisted in a 28-day experiment on rats supplemented with three doses (10, 40 and 160USOD/day) of SODB-M, SODB-D or SODB-S, different depending on the nature of the coating (palm oil, shellac or gum Arabic respectively). No mortality, abnormal clinical signs, behavioural changes or macroscopic findings were observed whatever the groups. Haematological parameters (total red blood cell count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit, red cell indices, white blood cell count and platelets count) were not modified in SODB treated-groups. No marked change was recorded in biochemical parameters (plasma urea, creatinine, lipids, electrolytes, bilirubin, transaminases and gamma-glutamyl transferase). The liver endogenous antioxidant enzymes (copper/zinc and manganese superoxide dismutase) expressions were significantly increased in the rats receiving the highest dose of SODB (160USOD/day) whatever the coating. Moreover, interleukin-6, a marker of inflammation, was significantly decreased in these high dose-treated-groups. The present study indicates that dietary supplementation of SODB on rats has no harmful side effects and could be beneficial especially at high doses.

  12. Structural, functional and immunogenic insights on Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase pathogenic virulence factors from Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus

    DOE PAGES

    Pratt, Ashley J.; DiDonato, Michael; Shin, David S.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Bruns, Cami K.; Belzer, Carol A.; Gorringe, Andrew R.; Langford, Paul R.; Tabatabai, Louisa B.; Kroll, J. Simon; et al

    2015-10-12

    Bacterial pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus pose threats to human and animal health worldwide, causing meningococcal disease and brucellosis, respectively. Mortality from acute N. meningitidis infections remains high despite antibiotics, and brucellosis presents alimentary and health consequences. Superoxide dismutases are master regulators of reactive oxygen, general pathogenicity factors and therefore therapeutic targets. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) localized to the periplasm promote survival by detoxifying superoxide radicals generated by major host antimicrobial immune responses. We discovered that passive immunization with an antibody directed at N. meningitidis SOD (NmSOD) was protective in a mouse infection model. To define the relevant atomicmore » details and solution assembly states of this important virulence factor, we report high-resolution and X-ray scattering analyses of NmSOD and SOD from B. abortus (BaSOD). The NmSOD structures revealed an auxiliary tetrahedral Cu-binding site bridging the dimer interface; mutational analyses suggested that this metal site contributes to protein stability, with implications for bacterial defense mechanisms. Biochemical and structural analyses informed us about electrostatic substrate guidance, dimer assembly and an exposed C-terminal epitope in the NmSOD dimer. In contrast, the monomeric BaSOD structure provided insights for extending immunogenic peptide epitopes derived from the protein. These collective results reveal unique contributions of SOD to pathogenic virulence, refine predictive motifs for distinguishing SOD classes and suggest general targets for anti-bacterial immune responses. The identified functional contributions, motifs, and targets distinguishing bacterial and eukaryotic SOD assemblies presented here provide a foundation for efforts to develop SOD-specific inhibitors or vaccines against these harmful pathogens. IMPORTANCE By protecting microbes against reactive oxygen

  13. The role of two periplasmic copper- and zinc-cofactored superoxide dismutases in the virulence of Salmonella choleraesuis.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Assunta; Watson, Patricia R; Wallis, Timothy S; Langford, Paul R; Kroll, J Simon

    2002-03-01

    Periplasmic copper- and zinc-cofactored superoxide dismutases ([Cu,Zn]-SODs, SodC) of several Gram-negative pathogens can protect against superoxide-radical-mediated host defences, and thus contribute to virulence. This role has been previously defined for one [Cu,Zn]-SOD in various Salmonella serovars. Following the recent discovery of a second periplasmic [Cu,Zn]-SOD in Salmonella, the effect of knockout mutations in one or both of the original sodC-1 and the new sodC-2 on the virulence of the porcine pathogen Salmonella choleraesuis is investigated here. In comparison to wild-type, while sodC mutants--whether single or double--showed no impairment in growth, they all showed equally enhanced sensitivity to superoxide and a dramatically increased sensitivity to the combination of superoxide and nitric oxide in vitro. This observation had its correlate in experimental infection both ex vivo and in vivo. Mutation of sodC significantly impaired survival of S. choleraesuis in interferon gamma-stimulated murine macrophages compared to wild-type organisms, and all S. choleraesuis sodC mutants persisted in significantly lower numbers than wild-type in BALB/c (Ity(s)) and C3H/HeN (Ity(r)) mice after experimental infection, but in no experimental system were sodC-1 sodC-2 double mutants more attenuated than either single mutant. These data suggest that both [Cu,Zn]-SODs are needed to protect bacterial periplasmic or membrane components. While SodC plays a role in S. choleraesuis virulence, the data presented here suggest that this is through overcoming a threshold effect, probably achieved by acquisition of sodC-1 on a bacteriophage. Loss of either sodC gene confers maximum vulnerability to superoxide on S. choleraesuis.

  14. Structural, functional and immunogenic insights on Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase pathogenic virulence factors from Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus

    DOE PAGES

    Cabelli, Diane E.; Pratt, Ashley J.; DiDonato, Michael; Shin, David S.; Bruns, Cami K.; Belzer, Carol A.; Gorringe, Andrew R.; Langford, Paul R.; Tabatabai, Louisa B.; Kroll, J. Simon; et al

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus pose threats to human and animal health worldwide, causing meningococcal disease and brucellosis, respectively. Mortality from acute N. meningitidis infections remains high despite antibiotics, and brucellosis presents alimentary and health consequences. Superoxide dismutases are master regulators of reactive oxygen and general pathogenicity factors and are therefore therapeutic targets. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) localized to the periplasm promote survival by detoxifying superoxide radicals generated by major host antimicrobial immune responses. We discovered that passive immunization with an antibody directed at N. meningitidis SOD (NmSOD) was protective in a mouse infection model. To define themore » relevant atomic details and solution assembly states of this important virulence factor, we report high-resolution and X-ray scattering analyses of NmSOD and of SOD from B. abortus (BaSOD). The NmSOD structures revealed an auxiliary tetrahedral Cu-binding site bridging the dimer interface; mutational analyses suggested that this metal site contributes to protein stability, with implications for bacterial defense mechanisms. Biochemical and structural analyses informed us about electrostatic substrate guidance, dimer assembly, and an exposed C-terminal epitope in the NmSOD dimer. In contrast, the monomeric BaSOD structure provided insights for extending immunogenic peptide epitopes derived from the protein. These collective results reveal unique contributions of SOD to pathogenic virulence, refine predictive motifs for distinguishing SOD classes, and suggest general targets for antibacterial immune responses. Furthermore, the identified functional contributions, motifs, and targets distinguishing bacterial and eukaryotic SOD assemblies presented here provide a foundation for efforts to develop SOD-specific inhibitors of or vaccines against these harmful pathogens.« less

  15. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide, produced through a respiratory burst oxidase/superoxide dismutase pathway, directs ingrowth wall formation in epidermal transfer cells of Vicia faba cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xue; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Andriunas, Felicity A; Offler, Christina E; Patrick, John W

    2012-09-01

    The intricate, and often polarized, ingrowth walls of transfer cells (TCs) amplify their plasma membrane surface areas to confer a transport function of supporting high rates of nutrient exchange across apo-/symplasmic interfaces. The TC ingrowth wall comprises a uniform wall layer on which wall ingrowths are deposited. Signals and signal cascades inducing trans-differentiation events leading to formation of TC ingrowth walls are poorly understood. Vicia faba cotyledons offer a robust experimental model to examine TC induction as, when placed into culture, their adaxial epidermal cells rapidly (h) and synchronously form polarized ingrowth walls accessible for experimental observations. Using this model, we recently reported findings consistent with extracellular hydrogen peroxide, produced through a respiratory burst oxidase homolog/superoxide dismutase pathway, initiating cell wall biosynthetic activity and providing directional information guiding deposition of the polarized uniform wall. Our conclusions rested on observations derived from pharmacological manipulations of hydrogen peroxide production and correlative gene expression data sets. A series of additional studies were undertaken, the results of which verify that extracellular hydrogen peroxide contributes to regulating ingrowth wall formation and is generated by a respiratory burst oxidase homolog/superoxide dismutase pathway.

  16. A novel amperometric biosensor for superoxide anion based on superoxide dismutase immobilized on gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid biocomposite film.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Wen, Wei; Xiong, Huayu; Zhang, Xiuhua; Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Shengfu

    2013-01-01

    A novel superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) biosensor is proposed based on the immobilization of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid (GNPs-CS-IL) biocomposite film. The SOD-based biosensor was constructed by one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition of GNP-CS-IL composite onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE), followed by immobilization of SOD on the modified electrode. Surface morphologies of a set of representative films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performance of the biosensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. A pair of quasi-reversible redox peaks of SOD with a formal potential of 0.257V was observed at SOD/GNPs-CS-IL/GCE in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, 0.1M, pH 7.0). The effects of varying test conditions on the electrochemical behavior of the biosensor were investigated. Furthermore, several electrochemical parameters were calculated in detail. Based on the biomolecule recognition of the specific reactivity of SOD toward O(2)(-), the developed biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response (<5s), wide linear range (5.6-2.7×10(3)nM), low detection limit (1.7nM), and excellent selectivity for the real-time measurement of O(2)(-). The proposed method is promising for estimating quantitatively the dynamic changes of O(2)(-) in biological systems. PMID:23245897

  17. The expression of different superoxide dismutase forms is cell-type dependent in olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Corpas, Francisco J; Fernández-Ocaña, Ana; Carreras, Alfonso; Valderrama, Raquel; Luque, Francisco; Esteban, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Chaki, Mounira; Pedrajas, José R; Sandalio, Luisa M; del Río, Luis A; Barroso, Juan B

    2006-07-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a key antioxidant enzyme present in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells as a first line of defense against the accumulation of superoxide radicals. In olive leaves, the SOD enzymatic system was characterized and was found to be comprised of three isozymes, an Mn-SOD, an Fe-SOD and a CuZn-SOD. Transcript expression analysis of whole leaves showed that the three isozymes represented 82, 17 and 0.8% of the total SOD expressed, respectively. Using the combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), the expression of these SOD isozymes was studied in different cell types of olive leaves, including spongy mesophyll, palisade mesophyll, xylem and phloem. In spongy mesophyll cells, the isozyme proportion was similar to that in whole leaves, but in the other cells the proportion of expressed SOD isozymes was different. In palisade mesophyll cells, Fe-SOD was the most abundant, followed by Mn-SOD and CuZn-SOD, but in phloem cells Mn-SOD was the most prominent isozyme, and Fe-SOD was present in trace amounts. In xylem cells, only the Mn-SOD was detected. On the other hand, the highest accumulation of superoxide radicals was localized in vascular tissue which was the tissue with the lowest level of SOD transcripts. These data show that in olive leaves, each SOD isozyme has a different gene expression depending on the cell type of the leaf.

  18. Inhibitory effects of superoxide dismutase and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate on estrogen production in cultured rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    LaPolt, P S; Hong, L S

    1995-12-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SOD) modulate oxygen free radical metabolism and influence second messenger signaling in a variety of cell types. We have investigated the influence and possible mechanisms of action of SOD on aromatase activity in cultured rat granulosa cells. Although treatment of granulosa cells with FSH (0.3-30 ng/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent stimulation of estrogen levels, cotreatment of cells with SOD (10(-6) M) significantly attenuated estrogen production at the highest doses of FSH. The effects of SOD were dose dependent between 10(-7)-10(-5) M, with increasing amounts of SOD causing decreasing concentrations of estrogen. Cotreatment of cells with catalase (1500 U/ml) failed to prevent the inhibitory influence of SOD on estrogen production, indicating that the effects of SOD were not due to accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. Although incubation with either forskolin or (Bu)2cAMP alone stimulated estrogen production from granulosa cells, cotreatment with SOD significantly attenuated estrogen levels, indicating that SOD can inhibit aromatase activity at one or more post-FSH receptor sites. Treatment of cells with SOD, FSH, or forskolin resulted in small, but significant, increase in cGMP concentrations. In contrast, cotreatment of cells with FSH plus SOD as well as forskolin plus SOD had a marked synergistic effect on cGMP content, increasing cGMP levels over 100-fold. Incubation of granulosa cells with (Bu)2cGMP (2 mM) significantly decreased FSH-induced estrogen levels in a dose-dependent manner (0.25-2 mM). In addition, (Bu)2cGMP attenuated both forskolin- and (Bu)2cAMP-induced estrogen production. In contrast to the effects of (Bu)2cGMP and SOD on estradiol levels, these agents had no significant effect on progesterone production by cultured granulosa cells. These results demonstrate attenuated induction of aromatase activity by FSH in cultured rat granulosa cells cotreated with SOD, suggesting a potential modulatory role of this antioxidant on

  19. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and the proton ATPase Pma1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J. Allen; Chen, Janice S.; Culotta, Valeria C.

    2015-07-03

    In eukaryotes, the Cu/Zn containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1) plays a critical role in oxidative stress protection as well as in signaling. We recently demonstrated a function for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sod1p in signaling through CK1γ casein kinases and identified the essential proton ATPase Pma1p as one likely target. The connection between Sod1p and Pma1p was explored further by testing the impact of sod1Δ mutations on cells expressing mutant alleles of Pma1p that alter activity and/or post-translational regulation of this ATPase. We report here that sod1Δ mutations are lethal when combined with the T912D allele of Pma1p in the C-terminal regulatory domain. This “synthetic lethality” was reversed by intragenic suppressor mutations in Pma1p, including an A906G substitution that lies within the C-terminal regulatory domain and hyper-activates Pma1p. Surprisingly the effect of sod1Δ mutations on Pma1-T912D is not mediated through the Sod1p signaling pathway involving the CK1γ casein kinases. Rather, Sod1p sustains life of cells expressing Pma1-T912D through oxidative stress protection. The synthetic lethality of sod1Δ Pma1-T912D cells is suppressed by growing cells under low oxygen conditions or by treatments with manganese-based antioxidants. We now propose a model in which Sod1p maximizes Pma1p activity in two ways: one involving signaling through CK1γ casein kinases and an independent role for Sod1p in oxidative stress protection. - Highlights: • In yeast, the anti-oxidant enzyme SOD1 promotes activity of the proton ATPase Pma1p. • Cells expressing a T912D variant of Pma1p are not viable without SOD1. • SOD1 is needed to protect Pma1-T912D expressing cells from severe oxidative damage. • SOD1 activates Pma1p through casein kinase signaling and oxidative stress protection.

  20. Candida albicans SOD5 represents the prototype of an unprecedented class of Cu-only superoxide dismutases required for pathogen defense

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Julie E.; Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Peterson, Ryan L.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Holloway, Stephen P.; Waninger-Saroni, Jessica; Cormack, Brendan P.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Hart, P. John; Culotta, Valeria Cizewski

    2014-01-01

    The human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Histoplasma capsulatum have been reported to protect against the oxidative burst of host innate immune cells using a family of extracellular proteins with similarity to Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). We report here that these molecules are widespread throughout fungi and deviate from canonical SOD1 at the primary, tertiary, and quaternary levels. The structure of C. albicans SOD5 reveals that although the β-barrel of Cu/Zn SODs is largely preserved, SOD5 is a monomeric copper protein that lacks a zinc-binding site and is missing the electrostatic loop element proposed to promote catalysis through superoxide guidance. Without an electrostatic loop, the copper site of SOD5 is not recessed and is readily accessible to bulk solvent. Despite these structural deviations, SOD5 has the capacity to disproportionate superoxide with kinetics that approach diffusion limits, similar to those of canonical SOD1. In cultures of C. albicans, SOD5 is secreted in a disulfide-oxidized form and apo-pools of secreted SOD5 can readily capture extracellular copper for rapid induction of enzyme activity. We suggest that the unusual attributes of SOD5-like fungal proteins, including the absence of zinc and an open active site that readily captures extracellular copper, make these SODs well suited to meet challenges in zinc and copper availability at the host–pathogen interface. PMID:24711423

  1. Acquired Mitochondrial Abnormalities, Including Epigenetic Inhibition of Superoxide Dismutase 2, in Pulmonary Hypertension and Cancer: Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Archer, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    There is no cure for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Therapies lack efficacy and/or are toxic, reflecting a failure to target disease abnormalities that are distinct from processes vital to normal cells. NSCLC and PAH share reversible mitochondrial-metabolic abnormalities which may offer selective therapeutic targets. The following mutually reinforcing, mitochondrial abnormalities favor proliferation, impair apoptosis, and are relatively restricted to PAH and cancer cells: (1) Epigenetic silencing of superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2) by methylation of CpG islands creates a pseudohypoxic redox environment that causes normoxic activation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α). (2) HIF-1α increases expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), which impairs oxidative metabolism and promotes a glycolytic metabolic state. (3) Mitochondrial fragmentation, partially due to mitofusin-2 downregulation, promotes proliferation. This review focuses on the recent discovery that decreased expression of SOD2, a putative tumor-suppressor gene and the major source of H2O2, results from hypermethylation of CpG islands. In cancer and PAH hypermethylation of a site in the enhancer region of intron 2 inhibits SOD2 transcription. In normal PASMC, SOD2 siRNA decreases H2O2 and activates HIF-1α. In PAH, reduced SOD2 expression decreases H2O2, reduces the cytosol and thereby activates HIF-1α. This causes a glycolytic shift in metabolism and increases the proliferation/apoptosis ratio by downregulating Kv1.5 channels, increasing cytosolic calcium, and inhibiting caspases. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, which restores SOD2 expression, corrects the proliferation/apoptosis imbalance in PAH and cancer cells. The specificity of PAH for lung vessels may relate to the selective upregulation of DNA methyltransferases that mediate CpG methylation in PASMC (DNA MT-1A and -3B). SOD2 augmentation inactivates HIF-1α in PAH

  2. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  3. Screening of Drugs Inhibiting In vitro Oligomerization of Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase with a Mutation Causing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Anzai, Itsuki; Toichi, Keisuke; Tokuda, Eiichi; Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Akiyama, Shuji; Furukawa, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Dominant mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene have been shown to cause a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SOD1-ALS). A major pathological hallmark of this disease is abnormal accumulation of mutant SOD1 oligomers in the affected spinal motor neurons. While no effective therapeutics for SOD1-ALS is currently available, SOD1 oligomerization will be a good target for developing cures of this disease. Recently, we have reproduced the formation of SOD1 oligomers abnormally cross-linked via disulfide bonds in a test tube. Using our in vitro model of SOD1 oligomerization, therefore, we screened 640 FDA-approved drugs for inhibiting the oligomerization of SOD1 proteins, and three effective classes of chemical compounds were identified. Those hit compounds will provide valuable information on the chemical structures for developing a novel drug candidate suppressing the abnormal oligomerization of mutant SOD1 and possibly curing the disease. PMID:27556028

  4. Screening of Drugs Inhibiting In vitro Oligomerization of Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase with a Mutation Causing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Itsuki; Toichi, Keisuke; Tokuda, Eiichi; Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Akiyama, Shuji; Furukawa, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Dominant mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene have been shown to cause a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SOD1-ALS). A major pathological hallmark of this disease is abnormal accumulation of mutant SOD1 oligomers in the affected spinal motor neurons. While no effective therapeutics for SOD1-ALS is currently available, SOD1 oligomerization will be a good target for developing cures of this disease. Recently, we have reproduced the formation of SOD1 oligomers abnormally cross-linked via disulfide bonds in a test tube. Using our in vitro model of SOD1 oligomerization, therefore, we screened 640 FDA-approved drugs for inhibiting the oligomerization of SOD1 proteins, and three effective classes of chemical compounds were identified. Those hit compounds will provide valuable information on the chemical structures for developing a novel drug candidate suppressing the abnormal oligomerization of mutant SOD1 and possibly curing the disease. PMID:27556028

  5. Molecular mass spectrometric identification of superoxide dismutase in the liver of mice Mus musculus and Mus spretus using a metallomics analytical approach.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, M; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports the identification and quantification of superoxide dismutase in the liver of Mus musculus and Mus spretus mice using a metallomics analytical approach. The approach consisted of using orthogonal chromatographic systems coupled to ICP-MS and UV detectors. Size-exclusion fractionation of the cytosolic extracts was followed by anion-exchange chromatographic separation of Cu- and Zn-containing species. After purification then tryptic digestion, Cu- and Zn-containing superoxide dismutase was identified by nESI-QqTOF. The MS-MS spectra of doubly charged peptides, with the Mascot searching engine, were used to obtain the sequence of the protein.

  6. The Induction of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Supeoxide Anion, Myeloperoxidase, and Superoxide Dismutase in the Peritoneal Lavage Cells of Mice after Prolonged Exposure to Dichloroacetate and Trichloroacetate

    PubMed Central

    Spildener, Jessica; Cearfoss, Jacquelyn

    2010-01-01

    The induction of phagocytic activation in response to prolonged treatment with different doses of dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA) has been investigated in mice. Groups of B6C3F1 male mice were administered 7.7, 77, 154 and 410 mg of DCA or TCA/ kg/day , post orally, for 4- and 13-weeks. Peritoneal lavage cells (PLCs) were isolated and assayed for the different biomarkers of phagocytyic activation, including superoxide anion (SA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). In addition, the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the SA production was also assessed. DCA and TCA produced significant and dose-dependent increases in SA and TNF-α production and in MPO activity but the increases in response to the high doses of the compounds (> 77 mg/kg/day) in the 13-week treatment period were less significant than those produced in the 4-week treatment period. Also, dose-dependent increases in SOD activity were observed in both periods of treatments. In general, the results demonstrate significant induction of the biomarkers of phagocytic activation by doses of DCA and TCA that were previously shown to be non carcinogenic, with significantly greater increases observed at the earlier period of exposure, as compared with later period. These findings may argue against the contribution of those mechanisms to the hepatotoxicity/hepatocarcinogenicity of the compounds and suggest them to be early adaptive/ protective mechanisms against their long term effects. PMID:20391627

  7. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)-mimetic M40403 Is Protective in Cell and Fly Models of Paraquat Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Filograna, Roberta; Godena, Vinay K.; Sanchez-Martinez, Alvaro; Ferrari, Emanuele; Casella, Luigi; Beltramini, Mariano; Bubacco, Luigi; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Bisaglia, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease is a debilitating and incurable neurodegenerative disorder affecting ∼1–2% of people over 65 years of age. Oxidative damage is considered to play a central role in the progression of Parkinson disease and strong evidence links chronic exposure to the pesticide paraquat with the incidence of the disease, most probably through the generation of oxidative damage. In this work, we demonstrated in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells the beneficial role of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes against paraquat-induced toxicity, as well as the therapeutic potential of the SOD-mimetic compound M40403. Having verified the beneficial effects of superoxide dismutation in cells, we then evaluated the effects using Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model. Besides protecting against the oxidative damage induced by paraquat treatment, our data demonstrated that in Drosophila M40403 was able to compensate for the loss of endogenous SOD enzymes, acting both at a cytosolic and mitochondrial level. Because previous clinical trials have indicated that the M40403 molecule is well tolerated in humans, this study may have important implication for the treatment of Parkinson disease. PMID:26953346

  8. Manganese superoxide dismutase promotes interaction of actin, S100A4 and Talin, and enhances rat gastric tumor cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Indo, Hiroko P.; Matsui, Hirofumi; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Haining; Hawkins, Clare L.; Davies, Michael J.; Yarana, Chontida; St. Clair, Daret K.; Majima, Hideyuki J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that cancer cells are under high levels of oxidative stress and express high levels of Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) to protect themselves and support the anabolic metabolism needed for growth and cell motility. The aim of this study was to identify proteins that may have a correlation with invasion and redox regulation by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). MnSOD scavenges superoxide anions generated from mitochondria and is an important regulator of cellular redox status. Oxidative posttranslational modification of cysteine residues is a key mechanism that regulates protein structure and function. We hypothesized that MnSOD regulates intracellular reduced thiol status and promotes cancer invasion. A proteomic thiol-labeling approach with 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein was used to identify changes in intracellular reduced thiol-containing proteins. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of MnSOD maintained the major structural protein, actin, in a reduced state, and enhanced the invasion ability in gastric mucosal cancer cells, RGK1. We also found that the expression of Talin and S100A4 were increased in MnSOD-overexpressed RGK1 cells. Moreover, Talin bound not only with actin but also with S100A4, suggesting that the interaction of these proteins may, in part, contribute to the invasive ability of rat gastric cancer. PMID:26236095

  9. Inflammatory cytokines in vitro production are associated with Ala16Val superoxide dismutase gene polymorphism of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Montano, Marco Aurélio Echart; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Krewer, Cristina da Costa; da Rocha, Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques; Mânica-Cattani, Maria Fernanda; Soares, Felix Alexandre Antunes; Rosa, Guilherme; Maris, Angélica Francesca; Battiston, Francielle Garghetti; Trott, Alexis; Lera, Juan Pablo Barrio

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory state associated with a chronic oxidative stress caused by superoxide production (O(2)(-)). The superoxide dismutase manganese dependent (SOD2) catalyzes O(2)(-) in H(2)O(2) into mitochondria and is encoded by a single gene that presents a common polymorphism that results in the replacement of alanine (A) with a valine (V) in the 16 codon. This polymorphism has been implicated in a decreased efficiency of SOD2 transport into targeted mitochondria in V allele carriers. Previous studies described an association between VV genotype and metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes. However, the causal mechanisms to explain this association need to be more elucidated. We postulated that the polymorphism could influence the inflammatory response. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the in vitro cytokines production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) carrier's different Ala16Val-SOD2 genotypes (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ). Additionally, we evaluated if the culture medium glucose, enriched insulin, could influence the cytokine production. Higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines were observed in VV-PBMCs when compared to AA-PBMCs. However, the culture medium glucose and enriched insulin did not affect cytokine production. The results suggest that Ala16Val-SOD2 gene polymorphism could trigger the PBMCs proinflammatory cytokines level. However, discerning if a similar mechanism occurs in fat cells is an open question.

  10. Structural, Functional, and Immunogenic Insights on Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase Pathogenic Virulence Factors from Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Ashley J.; DiDonato, Michael; Shin, David S.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Bruns, Cami K.; Belzer, Carol A.; Gorringe, Andrew R.; Langford, Paul R.; Tabatabai, Louisa B.; Kroll, J. Simon; Tainer, John A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus pose threats to human and animal health worldwide, causing meningococcal disease and brucellosis, respectively. Mortality from acute N. meningitidis infections remains high despite antibiotics, and brucellosis presents alimentary and health consequences. Superoxide dismutases are master regulators of reactive oxygen and general pathogenicity factors and are therefore therapeutic targets. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) localized to the periplasm promote survival by detoxifying superoxide radicals generated by major host antimicrobial immune responses. We discovered that passive immunization with an antibody directed at N. meningitidis SOD (NmSOD) was protective in a mouse infection model. To define the relevant atomic details and solution assembly states of this important virulence factor, we report high-resolution and X-ray scattering analyses of NmSOD and of SOD from B. abortus (BaSOD). The NmSOD structures revealed an auxiliary tetrahedral Cu-binding site bridging the dimer interface; mutational analyses suggested that this metal site contributes to protein stability, with implications for bacterial defense mechanisms. Biochemical and structural analyses informed us about electrostatic substrate guidance, dimer assembly, and an exposed C-terminal epitope in the NmSOD dimer. In contrast, the monomeric BaSOD structure provided insights for extending immunogenic peptide epitopes derived from the protein. These collective results reveal unique contributions of SOD to pathogenic virulence, refine predictive motifs for distinguishing SOD classes, and suggest general targets for antibacterial immune responses. The identified functional contributions, motifs, and targets distinguishing bacterial and eukaryotic SOD assemblies presented here provide a foundation for efforts to develop SOD-specific inhibitors of or vaccines against these harmful pathogens. IMPORTANCE By protecting microbes against

  11. [Transport of RNA from rat liver cell nuclei in vitro. Effect of superoxide dismutase on the release of rapidly labeled RNA from isolated nuclei].

    PubMed

    Koen, Ia M; Peskin, A V; Baru, V A; Fedorchenko, V V; Zbarskiĭ, I B; Konstantinov, A A

    1978-12-01

    Purified superoxide dismutase from beaf and rat liver cytosol was found to inhibit in vitro a release of the newly synthesized poly(A)-containing RNA from isolated hepatocyte nuclei in a cell-free system. The inhibition was concentration-dependent. Similar effect was observed with Cu2+ and coppertyrosine complex, which possess SOD-like type catalytic activity. The effectiveness of the complex and of Cu2+ however was an order smaller than that of SOD. The inhibitory effects of SOD and the two other copper-containing compounds could be abolished by potassium cyanide and reduced glutathione as far as by gomologous cytosol. Catalase failed to effect the RNA release. Although serum albumin itself did not affect release of RNA it was capable to abolish the inhibitory effects of Cu2+ and of copper-tyrosine, but not that of SOD. Possible mechanisms for the inhibitory effect of SOD on RNA transfer across the nuclear envelope are discussed. PMID:743506

  12. Superoxide-Dismutase Deficient Mutants in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Genetic Control, Differential Expressions of Isozymes, and Sensitivity to Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2013-01-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) mutants, sodPv 1 and sodPv 2, exhibiting foliar superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of only 25% and 40% of their mother control (MC) cv. VL 63 were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 8 h) M2 progeny. Native-PAGE analysis revealed occurrence of Mn SOD, Fe SOD, Cu/Zn SOD I and Cu/Zn SOD II isozymes in MC, while Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were not formed in sodPv 1 and sodPv 2 leaves, respectively. In-gel activity of individual isozymes differed significantly among the parents. SOD deficiency is inherited as recessive mutations, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. Gene expressions using qRT PCR confirmed higher expressions of Cu/Zn SOD transcripts in both mutants and the absence of Fe SOD in sodPv 1 and Mn SOD in sodPv 2. In 50 μM arsenic, Cu/Zn SODs genes were further upregulated but other isoforms downregulated in the two mutants, maintaining SOD activity in its control level. In an F2 double mutants of sodPv 1 × sodPv 2, no Fe SOD, and Mn SOD expressions were detectable, while both Cu/Zn SODs are down-regulated and arsenic-induced leaf necrosis appeared. In contrast to both mutants, ROS-imaging study revealed overaccumulation of both superoxides and H2O2 in leaves of double mutant. PMID:24078924

  13. Superoxide-dismutase deficient mutants