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Sample records for activity television viewing

  1. Survey Measurement of Cognitive Activity during Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Robert P.; And Others

    One hundred seventy-one middle school students participated in a study to assess cognitive activity during television viewing. Students completed a questionnaire about their favorite programs, viewing habits, and social reality beliefs, then viewed a 17-minute professionally edited episode of a family drama and answered a multiple choice…

  2. Television viewing and physical activity among Latino children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watching television and using other forms of media such as video games, computers, print, music and movies takes up a surprisingly large amount of our children’s time. U.S. children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleep. According to a recent nationwide report on c...

  3. Reducing Excessive Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Rooney-Rebeck, Patty

    1984-01-01

    A youngster who excessively watched television was placed on a modified token economy: earned tokens were used to activate the television for set periods of time. Positive effects resulted in the child's school work, in the amount of time his family spent together, and in his mother's perception of family social support. (KH)

  4. The Relationship between Active Viewing of Different Television Content Types and Individual Perception of a Mean World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouner, Donna

    A study tested the validity of two active TV viewing constructs that predicted the effects of content and degree of active viewing on a television viewer's perception of a mean world. Random digit dialing produced interviews with 163 subjects who were asked separate questions about their prime time and daytime viewing to determine their level of…

  5. Time with friends and physical activity as mechanisms linking obesity and television viewing among youth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Though bivariate relationships between childhood obesity, physical activity, friendships and television viewing are well documented, empirical assessment of the extent to which links between obesity and television may be mediated by these factors is scarce. This study examines the possibility that time with friends and physical activity are potential mechanisms linking overweight/obesity to television viewing in youth. Methods Data were drawn from children ages 10-18 years old (M = 13.81, SD = 2.55) participating in the 2002 wave of Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) (n = 1,545). Data were collected both directly and via self-report from children and their parents. Path analysis was employed to examine a model whereby the relationships between youth overweight/obesity and television viewing were mediated by time spent with friends and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results Overweight/obesity was directly related to less time spent with friends, but not to MVPA. Time spent with friends was directly and positively related to MVPA, and directly and negatively related to time spent watching television without friends. In turn, MVPA was directly and negatively related to watching television without friends. There were significant indirect effects of both overweight/obesity and time with friends on television viewing through MVPA, and of overweight/obesity on MVPA through time with friends. Net of any indirect effects, the direct effect of overweight/obesity on television viewing remained. The final model fit the data extremely well (χ2 = 5.77, df = 5, p<0.0001, RMSEA = 0.01, CFI = 0.99, TLI =0.99). Conclusions We found good evidence that the positive relationships between time with friends and physical activity are important mediators of links between overweight/obesity and television viewing in youth. These findings highlight the importance of moving from examinations of bivariate relationships

  6. Home VCR Owners' Use of Television and Public Television: Viewing, Recording, and Playback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agostino, Don; Zenaty, Jayne

    A telephone survey of randomly selected homes was conducted to locate current owners of videocassette recorders (VCRs) for a study of their VCR-associated television viewing of both public (PTV) and commercial (CTV) television, and a one-week TV activity diary was mailed to homes in 16 cities. Analysis of data from 250 completed diaries indicates…

  7. Gender Constancy and Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecke-Aleksa, Diane; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explored gender constancy's interaction with television viewing, using videotapes of television viewing and viewing diaries for 5-year olds. Gender-constant boys focused on more male characters and watched more action and sports programs than preconstant boys. Gender-constant girls viewed more action programming than preconstant girls. Acquisition…

  8. "TV's Sort of...Just There": Critical Television Viewing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, John

    Television viewing is shaping all of us and especially young people, far more than we know, and perhaps more than we are shaping ourselves. On television Americans see a lot of alcohol consumption; few old people; and many policemen, doctors, lawyers, judges, and law-breakers, but few blue collar workers, artists, salespeople, clerks, or…

  9. Some Opportunity Costs of Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selnow, Gary W.; Reynolds, Hal

    Interviews were conducted with 184 sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students to determine patterns of pastime activities that stand as alternatives to television viewing. In the first portion of the 35-minute interview, respondents were presented with a current daily television listing and asked to indicate which programs they normally watched. To…

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Physical Activity, Sports, and Television Viewing During Childhood to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Levy, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The diverse developmental patterns of obesogenic behaviors during childhood and adolescence can be better understood by using new analytic approaches to assess the heterogeneity in variation during growth and development and to map the clustering of behavior patterns. OBJECTIVES To identify distinct trajectories of daily time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) from ages 5 to 19 years and to examine the associations of MVPA trajectories with sports participation and television viewing trajectories. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cohort members in the prospective population-based Iowa Bone Development Study participated in MVPA assessments via accelerometry from September 16, 1998, to December 9, 2013, at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years and completed a questionnaire every 6 months on sports participation and daily time spent in television viewing. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Trajectories of MVPA (minutes per day), participation in organized sports (yes or no), and television viewing time (hours per day). RESULTS Based on the data from 537 participants (50.1% females; 94.6% white), we identified 4 MVPA trajectories: consistently inactive (14.9%), consistently active (18.1%), decreasing moderate physical activity (52.9%), and substantially decreasing high physical activity (14.1%). All participants in the consistently inactive trajectory also followed a trajectory of no participation in sports. The consistently active trajectory was associated with decreasing an already low television viewing trajectory (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study provided a nuanced look at the known decrease in MVPA during childhood and adolescence. Sports participation could be a critical way to avoid the consistently inactive pattern. Most important, we identified a subset of participants who maintained a seemingly healthy level of MVPA from childhood to young adulthood. The developmental pathways of physical activity and

  11. Associations between television viewing and physical activity and low back pain in community-based adults

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Sultana Monira; Urquhart, Donna M.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dunstan, David; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Wluka, Anita E.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two systematic reviews concluded that there was limited evidence to support an association between physical activity and sedentary behavior and developing low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of physical activity and television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability in community-based adults. Five thousand fifty-eight participants (44% men) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study had physical activity and television viewing time measured in 1999 to 2000, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2012, and LBP intensity and disability assessed in 2013 to 2014 using the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio for LBP intensity and disability associated with physical activity and television viewing time. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, smoking, dietary guideline index score, body mass index, and mental component summary score. To test whether associations of physical activity or television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability were modified by sex, obesity, or age, interactions were tested using the likelihood ratio test. As gender modified the associations between physical activity and television viewing time and LBP disability (P = 0.05), men and women were examined separately. A total of 81.7% men and 82.1% women had LBP. Most men (63.6%) and women (60.2%) had low intensity LBP with fewer having high intensity LBP (18.1% men, 21.5% women). Most participants had no LBP disability (74.5% men, 71.8% women) with the remainder reporting low (15.8% men, 15.3% women) or high (9.7% men, 12.9% women) LBP disability. Insufficient physical activity (<2.5 hours/week) was not associated with LBP intensity or disability. High television viewing time (≥2 hours/day) was associated with greater prevalence of LBP disability in women (low disability OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04–1.73; high disability OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01–1.72). Although it needs

  12. Study of television viewing habits in children.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Gupta, Yogita; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from developing countries have reported that Television (TV) viewing, if excessive and of poor quality has a proven negative influence on child health. Indian studies on this subject are few. The present study aimed at determining TV viewing habits of children and their families as well as parental perspectives on the impact of TV on child health using a provider completed indigenously developed questionnaire in Hindi. The study group comprised of 109 children attending a government hospital who belonged predominantly to lower socio-economic strata with poor maternal literacy. It was observed that 100 % children watched excessive TV (> 2 h daily), with majority viewing unsupervised and low quality content. There were minimal parental restrictions and no active discussion regarding contents. Negative impact was found on play, hobbies, sleep hygiene and eating habits in most children. Most parents were unaware of unhealthy viewing and the associated deleterious effects. As pediatricians we need to enquire about TV viewing habits routinely and educate parents about appropriate TV viewing. PMID:24682808

  13. Parental Mediation of Children's Viewing in a Changing Television Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidhar, Chava E.; Levinsohn, Hanna

    1997-01-01

    This study surveyed the effects of cable television on Israeli parents' mediation of their childrens' viewing. Results indicate the introduction of cable television changed strategies of parental control and mediation and parents' assessment of television's influence on children. Active parental mediation was closely related to the attribution of…

  14. The Social Character of Children's Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    1981-01-01

    Provides examples of observed behavior to support the claim that television viewing is an interactive phenomenon, a social experience in which young children actively participate with parents, siblings, and others. Contends that the view of a passive receiver underestimates the abilities of the child to understand and shape experiences. (PD)

  15. Some Opportunity Costs of Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selnow, Gary W.; Reynolds, Hal

    1984-01-01

    This study explored patterns of pastime activities that stand as alternatives to television viewing among middle school children. Findings are compared with those of Robinson's study (1981) for alternative media, video games, and sleeping variables, as well as dichotomous measures for group membership, playing a musical instrument, and hobbies.…

  16. Associations between television viewing and physical activity and low back pain in community-based adults: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sultana Monira; Urquhart, Donna M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dunstan, David; Shaw, Jonathan E; Magliano, Dianna J; Wluka, Anita E; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2016-06-01

    Two systematic reviews concluded that there was limited evidence to support an association between physical activity and sedentary behavior and developing low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of physical activity and television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability in community-based adults.Five thousand fifty-eight participants (44% men) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study had physical activity and television viewing time measured in 1999 to 2000, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2012, and LBP intensity and disability assessed in 2013 to 2014 using the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio for LBP intensity and disability associated with physical activity and television viewing time. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, smoking, dietary guideline index score, body mass index, and mental component summary score. To test whether associations of physical activity or television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability were modified by sex, obesity, or age, interactions were tested using the likelihood ratio test.As gender modified the associations between physical activity and television viewing time and LBP disability (P = 0.05), men and women were examined separately. A total of 81.7% men and 82.1% women had LBP. Most men (63.6%) and women (60.2%) had low intensity LBP with fewer having high intensity LBP (18.1% men, 21.5% women). Most participants had no LBP disability (74.5% men, 71.8% women) with the remainder reporting low (15.8% men, 15.3% women) or high (9.7% men, 12.9% women) LBP disability. Insufficient physical activity (<2.5 hours/week) was not associated with LBP intensity or disability. High television viewing time (≥2 hours/day) was associated with greater prevalence of LBP disability in women (low disability OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04-1.73; high disability OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.72).Although it needs to be confirmed

  17. Couch kids: correlates of television viewing among youth.

    PubMed

    Gorely, Trish; Marshall, Simon J; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the published empirical correlates of television/video viewing among youth (2 to 18 years). A descriptive semi-quantitative review was conducted based on 68 primary studies. Variables consistently associated with TV/video viewing were ethnicity (non-white +), parent income (-), parent education (-), body weight (+), between meal snacking (+), number of parents in the house (-), parents TV viewing habits (+), weekend (+) and having a TV in the bedroom (+). Variables consistently unrelated to TV/video viewing were sex, other indicators of socio-economic status, body fatness, cholesterol levels, aerobic fitness, strength, other indicators of fitness, self-perceptions, emotional support, physical activity, other diet variables, and being an only child. Few modifiable correlates have been identified. Further research should aim to identify modifiable correlates of TV/video viewing if interventions are to be successfully tailored to reduce this aspect of inactivity among youth. PMID:15496343

  18. Television Viewing Habits of San Juan Students Related to Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housden, Theresa

    This paper summarizes research on the effects of television viewing on student achievement. Information concerning students in the San Juan Unified School District in California is highlighted. Studies have revealed that: (1) watching more than 3 hours of television a day prevents students from engaging in other activities; (2) moderate television…

  19. A Survey of Public Television Viewing in the WBRA-TV and WSVN-TV Signal Areas of Southwestern Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Nicholas A.; Spain, Peter

    A telephone survey was conducted in November 1973 to determine television viewing patterns in southwestern Virginia. Data were collected concerning family characteristics and time spent watching the various programs offered by WBRA-TV and WSVN-TV, the local public broadcasting stations. Income and occupational status proved to be significant…

  20. College Students' Views of Marriage on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perse, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the congruence between the view of marriage identified in content analysis and that rated by college students. Finds that students rated most marriages as "traditional," and rated traditional marriages as the most realistic. Notes that the amount of television exposure was unrelated to television marriage ratings. Discusses implications…

  1. Television Viewing of Selected Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Sandra G.; Cissna, Kenneth N. Leone

    In this study of children's television viewing, 105 junior-high-school students reported the television programs they watched, the amount of time they spent each day watching television, and their reasons for watching television. The following results are reported: sixth graders watch more television than do seventh or eighth graders; sixth-grade…

  2. Associations between dietary patterns, physical activity (leisure-time and occupational) and television viewing in middle-aged French adults.

    PubMed

    Charreire, Hélène; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Simon, Chantal; Chaix, Basile; Weber, Christiane; Touvier, Mathilde; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2011-03-01

    Diet and physical activity are considered to be major components of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined in detail the relationships between specific types of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and diet in adults. The objective of the present study was to assess differential relationships between dietary patterns, leisure-time and occupational physical activities and time spent watching television (TV), as an indicator of sedentary behaviour, in middle-aged French subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 1359 participants in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study, who completed a detailed physical activity questionnaire and at least six 24 h dietary records. Sex-specific dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis; their relationships with leisure-time and occupational physical activities and TV viewing were assessed using ANCOVA, after adjustment for age, educational level and smoking status. Three dietary patterns were identified in each sex. After adjustment for potential confounders, leisure-time physical activity was positively associated with a 'healthy' food pattern in both men (P for trend < 0·01) and women (P for trend < 0·03) and negatively associated with an 'alcohol/meat' pattern in men (P for trend < 0·01). TV viewing was positively associated with a 'convenience' pattern in men and with a 'alcohol-appetiser' pattern in women. In conclusion, identification of relationships between dietary patterns, physical activity and sedentary behaviour can enable identification of different types of lifestyle and should help to target at-risk groups in nutrition prevention programmes. PMID:21251337

  3. The Relationship between Television Viewing and Obesity in Young Children: A Review of Existing Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenvey, Vickii B.

    2007-01-01

    It has often been proposed that young (three to six years old) children's television viewing habits contribute to early-onset obesity. Three explanations that link television viewing patterns of young children with the development of obesity are considered. First, television viewing displaces time available for physical activity, reduces energy…

  4. Television Viewing Does Not Have to Be Sedentary: Motivation to Participate in a TV Exercise Program.

    PubMed

    Meis, Jessie J M; Kremers, Stef P J; Bouman, Martine P A

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored which underlying motivations induced people to participate in a television exercise program called "The Netherlands on the Move!-television" (NOM-tv). A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,349 viewers of NOM-tv. The respondents completed the intrinsic motivation inventory (IMI), assessing their levels of intrinsic motivation towards participating in the NOM-tv exercises. The results showed that higher levels of intrinsic motivation (i.e. enjoying the NOM-tv exercises, feeling competent to perform this activity, and willingness to put effort into the exercises) were the most important predictive factors of more frequent participation in the NOM-tv exercises. Future screen-based interventions to reduce sedentary behavior should aim especially at encouraging people's intrinsic orientations towards physical activity in an autonomy-supportive way. PMID:22187637

  5. Television viewing and obesity in adult males.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, L A; Friedman, G M

    1989-01-01

    We estimated the extent to which time spent watching television is associated with obesity and super-obesity among 6,138 employed adult males. After adjustment for age, smoking status, length of work week, measured physical fitness, and reported weekly hours of exercise, people who viewed TV more than three hours/day were twice as likely to be obese as those who viewed less than 1 hour/day. Those who viewed for 1 to 2 hours daily had a relative risk of 1.60 (1.21, 2.11). Physical fitness consistently confounded the associations between TV viewing and obesity/super-obesity, but the other control variables did not do so. PMID:2929820

  6. Longitudinal associations between television viewing patterns and adolescent body satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Deborah; Trinh, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed profiles of adolescent television use and associations between television viewing profiles and the development of body satisfaction. A sample of 841 adolescent boys and girls, ages 11-17, was recruited for participation in a longitudinal study of adolescent media use. Prior research established eight adolescent television profiles among this sample, reflecting unique patterns of consumption of certain genres, character types, and themes (e.g., romance). This study examined whether an adolescent's television profile predicted Time 2 body satisfaction, after controlling for Time 1 body satisfaction. Among boys, television viewing was unrelated to Time 2 body satisfaction. After controlling for initial body satisfaction, hours spent watching television marginally predicted lower Time 2 body satisfaction among girls. After including television profiles alongside television hours, however, television profile emerged as the stronger predictor. Specifically, a group of girls who watched television frequently and indiscriminately reported the most severe drop in body satisfaction. PMID:21050831

  7. Early childhood television viewing and adolescent behavior: the recontact study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D R; Huston, A C; Schmitt, K L; Linebarger, D L; Wright, J C

    2001-01-01

    In this Monograph, we report the follow-up of 570 adolescents who had been studied as preschoolers in one of two separate investigations of television use. The primary goal of the study was to determine the long-term relations between preschool television viewing and adolescent achievement, behavior, and attitudes. Using a telephone interview and high school transcripts, we assessed adolescent media use; grades in English, science, and math; leisure reading; creativity; aggression; participation in extracurricular activities; use of alcohol and cigarettes; and self-image. In each domain, we tested theories emphasizing the causal role of television content (e.g., social learning, information processing) as contrasted with those theories positing effects of television as a medium, irrespective of content (e.g., time displacement, pacing, interference with language). The results provided much stronger support for content-based hypotheses than for theories emphasizing television as a medium; moreover, the patterns differed for boys and girls. Viewing educational programs as preschoolers was associated with higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, greater creativity, and less aggression. These associations were more consistent for boys than for girls. By contrast, the girls who were more frequent preschool viewers of violent programs had lower grades than those who were infrequent viewers. These associations held true after taking into account family background, other categories of preschool viewing, and adolescent media use. One hypothesis accounting for the sex differences is that early experiences, such as television viewing, have greater effects when they counteract normative developmental trends and predominant sex-typed socialization influences than when they reinforce them. Adolescents in the study used both television and print media to support ongoing interests. Television content (e.g., entertainment, sports, or world events

  8. The Effect of Viewing Television Violence on Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primavera, Louis H.; Herron, William G.; Jauier, Rafael A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on the negative impact of television and movies, scientific research on television violence and aggression, laboratory research, criticisms of laboratory research, field research, correlation studies. Concludes there is no evidence that viewing television violence increases aggression in children or adults but viewing it can…

  9. Inside Television: A Guide To Critical Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Ned

    This course is divided into seven units, each focusing on a particular aspect of television. The unit topics and some of the subtopics included are: (1) television and the American viewer; (2) the television industry (the networks, the role of the Federal Communications Commission, public television, and the business of television); (3) programs…

  10. Television Viewing by School-Age Children: Associations with Physical Activity, Snack Food Consumption and Unhealthy Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Broom, Dorothy H.; Bittman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. Television viewing is often a focus of the obesity debate. Not only is it sedentary, it also has the potential to influence other lifestyle behaviours either by displacing physical activities…

  11. The Effect of Parent-Child Function on Physical Activity and Television Viewing among Adolescents with and without Special Healthcare Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Beth M.; Mandic, Carmen Gomez; Carle, Adam C.; Robert, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, the association between parent-child function and physical activity and television viewing was investigated among a national sample of adolescents in the United States. Parent-child function was measured using the National Survey of Children's Health "Family Function" survey items and…

  12. Television viewing and its impact on childhood behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jolin, Edith M; Weller, Ronald A

    2011-04-01

    Despite the emergence of new media technologies, television remains the most widely used screen media format. Unfortunately, concerns have arisen about its effects on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. This article reviews television usage trends and television's impact on sleep, attention, and interpersonal relationships. American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations on television use are also discussed. Many studies on television viewing have cross-sectional designs, and longitudinal research is limited. However, research to date suggests that excessive television viewing is associated with negative effects on sleep, attention, and interpersonal relationships. As use of different media formats escalates, research across multiple specialties (including child psychiatry) will need to incorporate evaluation of media use into its assessments. More research and education are needed on the appropriate use of media in youth. Information on the health effects of television may also increase awareness of potential issues with less well-studied media formats. PMID:21267680

  13. Critical Television Viewing Skills Curriculum. Final Report (October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd-Kolkin, Donna

    This report describes activities undertaken during Phase I of a two-year project sponsored by the U.S. Office of Education to prepare, evaluate, and distribute a print-based curriculum which will encourage the development of critical television viewing skills in teenagers, and to develop television viewing skills guides and workshops for parents…

  14. Association of Television Viewing Time with Body Composition and Calcified Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Singapore Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; van Dam, Rob M.; Tan, Chuen Seng; Mueller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Lim, Yi Ting; Ong, Kai Zhi; Ee, Siqing; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E. Shyong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behavior such as television viewing may be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, few studies have assessed the impact of television viewing time on coronary artery calcification and it remains unclear how body fat contributes to this relationship. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis and whether effects on visceral or subcutaneous fat may mediate any associations observed. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 398 Chinese participants (192 men and 206 women) from Singapore prospective study. Participants were free from known cardiovascular diseases and underwent interview, health screening, computed tomography scans of coronary arteries and abdomen. Spearman’s correlation was used to test the correlation between television viewing time, physical activity, body composition and abdominal fat distribution. The association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results In men, television viewing time was significantly correlated with higher body fat mass index, percent body fat, subcutaneous and visceral fat. These associations were in the same direction, but weaker and not statistically significant in women. Television viewing time (hours/day) was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men (odds ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.93) but no significant association was observed in women (odds ratio: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.59-1.31) after adjusting for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Further adjustments for biological factors did not affect these associations. Conclusions Television viewing time was associated with greater adiposity and higher subcutaneous and visceral fat in men. TV viewing time was also associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and the potential mechanisms underlying this association require further investigation

  15. Helping Parents Reduce Children's Television Viewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…

  16. Access to TV contingent on physical activity: effects on reducing TV-viewing and body-weight.

    PubMed

    Jason, L A; Brackshaw, E

    1999-06-01

    One child was recruited for a study assessing the effectiveness of a device aimed at reducing excessive television viewing and increasing exercising. The device was comprised of a control box which attaches to the electrical cord of a television set, and two sensors which attached to the wheel and corresponding wheel rim of a stationary bicycle. The child in this study was watching an excessive amount of TV (averaging over 4 hours per day), and she had a weight problem. An ABAB design was used in the study. After collecting baseline data, the child was required to ride a bicycle for 60 minutes to watch 60 minutes of TV, and this program successfully reduced TV viewing. Reductions in TV viewing and weight loss were found at a follow-up. PMID:10489090

  17. Children's television-viewing habits and the family environment.

    PubMed

    Taras, H L; Sallis, J F; Nader, P R; Nelson, J

    1990-03-01

    Pediatricians are encouraged to modify the impact of television on children, based on the assumption that parents mediate children's viewing habits through the home environment. Sixty-six parents of children aged 3 to 8 years responded to an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Responses to questions on family environment were compared with reported childhood viewing of educational programming (Public Broadcasting Service) and the child's television-viewing hours. Most homes surveyed had a videocassette recorder, cable television, and more than one television set. Frequent parental discussion of program content with children was reported by 38% of respondents. Availability of television and parent-child discussion of content were not correlated with viewing hours or viewing Public Broadcasting Service. Frequent use of television as a distraction for the child correlated positively with viewing hours. Viewing Public Broadcasting Service correlated negatively with parent-child coviewing and with use of television as a form of entertainment. Children's own television viewing content correlated positively with viewing Public Broadcasting Service. Of all measured factors in the home environment, parental attitudes were most closely associated with children's viewing habits. PMID:2305746

  18. Television and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

  19. Children's Television Viewing, Body Fat, and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Colin A.; Sallis, James F.; Alcaraz, John E.; Kolody, Bohdan; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between elementary students' television viewing and their physical fitness. Data from parent and student questionnaires and measures of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength/endurance, and muscular flexibility indicated that television viewing weakly and inconsistently related to various components of…

  20. Does Television Viewing Cultivate Unrealistic Expectations About Marriage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrin, Chris; Nabi, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines relationship between television viewing, holding idealistic expectations about marriage, and intentions to marry among undergraduate students. Finds overall television viewing has a negative association with idealistic marriage expectations; romantic genre programming was positively associated with high expectations; and expectations were…

  1. Television Viewing: Its Relationship to Early School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perney, Jan; And Others

    To examine the relationship between television viewing and early school achievement, children's quantitative and verbal test scores were correlated with parental responses to a questionnaire concerning the television viewing habits of their children. The sample consisted of 202 kindergarten children and their parents from two suburban school…

  2. Television Viewing, Bedroom Television, and Sleep Duration From Infancy to Mid-Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, Matthew W.; Kleinman, Ken; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Redline, Susan; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Television and insufficient sleep are associated with poor mental and physical health. This study assessed associations of TV viewing and bedroom TV with sleep duration from infancy to midchildhood. METHOD: We studied 1864 children in Project Viva. Parents reported children’s average daily TV viewing and sleep (at 6 months and annually from 1–7 years) and the presence of a bedroom TV (annually 4–7 years). We used mixed effects models to assess associations of TV exposures with contemporaneous sleep, adjusting for child age, gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, and income. RESULTS: Six hundred forty-three children (35%) were racial/ethnic minorities; 37% of households had incomes ≤$70 000. From 6 months to 7 years, mean (SD) sleep duration decreased from 12.2 (2.0) hours to 9.8 (0.9) hours per day; TV viewing increased from 0.9 (1.2) hours to 1.6 (1.0) hours per day. At 4 years, 17% had a bedroom TV, rising to 23% at 7 years. Each 1 hour per day increase in lifetime TV viewing was associated with 7 minutes per day (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4 to 10) shorter sleep. The association of bedroom TV varied by race/ethnicity; bedroom TV was associated with 31 minutes per day shorter sleep (95% CI: 16 to 45) among racial/ethnic minority children, but not among white, non-Hispanic children (8 fewer minutes per day [95% CI: −19 to 2]). CONCLUSIONS: More TV viewing, and, among racial/ethnic minority children, the presence of a bedroom TV, were associated with shorter sleep from infancy to midchildhood. PMID:24733878

  3. The impact of television viewing on brain structures: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Yokota, Susumu; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-05-01

    Television (TV) viewing is known to affect children's verbal abilities and other physical, cognitive, and emotional development in psychological studies. However, the brain structural development associated with TV viewing has never been investigated. Here we examined cross-sectional correlations between the duration of TV viewing and regional gray/white matter volume (rGMV/rWMV) among 133 boys and 143 girls as well as correlations between the duration of TV viewing and longitudinal changes that occurred a few years later among 111 boys and 105 girls. After correcting for confounding factors, we found positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the frontopolar and medial prefrontal areas in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV/rWMV of areas of the visual cortex in cross-sectional analyses, and positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the hypothalamus/septum and sensorimotor areas in longitudinal analyses. We also confirmed negative effects of TV viewing on verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. These anatomical correlates may be linked to previously known effects of TV viewing on verbal competence, aggression, and physical activity. In particular, the present results showed effects of TV viewing on the frontopolar area of the brain, which has been associated with intellectual abilities. PMID:24256892

  4. Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June

    2008-09-01

    The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males. PMID:26158956

  5. Age and Family Control Influences on Children's Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…

  6. Motivations for Television Viewing among Deaf and Hearing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bruce A.

    Motivations for watching television were compared for 128 hearing and 178 hearing impaired freshman students at a technical college. The questionnaire consisted of 31 television viewing motivation items, a list of program titles for frequency and enjoyment information, attitudinal statements, and demographic items. Ss reported the amount of time…

  7. How Young Children Spend Their Time: Television and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; Wright, John C.; Marquis, Janet; Green, Samuel B.

    1999-01-01

    Examined television viewing over three years among two cohorts of 2- and 4-year olds. Found that viewing declined with age. With age, time in reading and educational activities increased on weekdays but declined on weekends, and sex differences in time-use patterns increased. Increased time in educational activities, social interaction, and video…

  8. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L; Hamer, M

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Conclusion Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. PMID:24975987

  9. Adolescent Television Viewing and Belief in Vampires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr; Robbins, Mandy; Picton, Laura

    2006-01-01

    A total of 1133 13-15-year-old pupils in six secondary schools in South Wales were invited to complete questions concerning vampire belief and amount of television watching. The data demonstrate that belief in vampires was positively associated with higher levels of television watching.

  10. Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…

  11. Active Student Involvement Focusing on Critical Analysis of Commercial Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Ellen E.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

    This paper examines classroom techniques for stimulating students' critical faculties in viewing commercial television. The thrust is not only to increase critical viewing judgments, but also to heighten their knowledge of the literary elements of television. Television literacy may be developed by attention to the artistry of the television…

  12. 29. FET 601312 VIEW OF TELEVISION DOLLY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. FET 60-1312 VIEW OF TELEVISION DOLLY IN TAN 629 HANGAR, AN ASPECT OF INSTRUMENTATION. PHOTO DATE: MARCH 23, 1960. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Using TV as a Guide: Associations between Television Viewing and Adolescents' Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Friedman, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    Using both correlational and experimental methodology, this study examined contributions of TV viewing to adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior. A sample of 244 high school students was assigned to view clips depicting either one of three sexual stereotypes or neutral content. Participants then completed measures assessing their attitudes…

  14. The Complex Model of Television Viewing and Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razel, Micha

    2001-01-01

    Meta-analyzed data from six national studies of elementary through high school students to determine the relationship between amount of television viewing and educational achievement. According to a complex viewing-achievement model, for small amounts of viewing, achievement increased with viewing, but as viewing increased beyond a certain point,…

  15. Prevalence of Infant Television Viewing and Maternal Depression Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vibha; Downs, Stephen M; Bauer, Nerissa S; Carroll, Aaron E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early TV viewing has been linked with maternal depression and has adverse health effects in children. However it is not known how early TV viewing occurs. We evaluated the prevalence at which parents report television (TV) viewing for their children if asked in the first two years of life and whether TV viewing is associated with maternal depression symptoms. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, we evaluated TV viewing in children 0 – 2 years of age in 4 pediatric clinics in Indianapolis, IN between January 2011 and April 2012. Families were screened for any parental report of depression symptoms (0 – 15 months) and for parental report of TV viewing (before 2 years of age) using a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS) linked to the patient’s electronic health record (EHR). Results There were 3,254 children in the study. By parent report 50% of children view TV by 2 months of age, 75% by 4 months of age and 90% by 2 years of age. Complete data for both TV viewing and maternal depression symptoms were available for 2,397 (74%) of children. In regression models, the odds of parental report of TV viewing increased by 27% for each additional month of child’s age (OR: 1.27, CI: 1.25 – 1.30, p < 0.001). The odds of TV viewing increased by almost half with parental report of depression symptoms (OR: 1.47, CI: 1.07 – 2.00, p = 0.016). Publicly insured children had three times the odds of TV viewing compared to children with private insurance (OR: 3.00, CI: 1.60 – 5.63, p = 0.001). Black children had almost four times the odds (OR: 3.75, CI: 2.70 – 5.21, p < 0.001) and White children had one and a half times the odds (OR: 1.55, CI: 1.04 – 2.30, p = 0.032) of TV viewing when compared to Latino children. Conclusions By parental report TV viewing occurs at a very young age in infancy, usually between 0 to 3 months and varies by insurance and race/ethnicity. Children whose parents report depression symptoms are especially at risk

  16. RuHe ZhiDao HaiZi GuanKan DianShi (Guidelines for Family Television Viewing). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.

    This digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

  17. Using a token-actuated timer to reduce television viewing.

    PubMed

    Jason, L A

    1985-01-01

    A child watching an excessive amount of T.V. was provided a behavioral program featuring a token-actuated timer. Earned tokens were used to activate the T.V. for thirty-minute periods. The token-exchange system effectively reduced T.V. viewing and the reductions were maintained at two follow-up points. The principal contribution of the study is the development and evaluation of an electronically controlled device that was used to check the accuracy of parent-reported data. PMID:16795690

  18. EXPERIMENTS ON ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONSE TO TELEVISED INSTRUCTION. STUDIES IN TELEVISED INSTRUCTION, INTERIM REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROPPER, GEORGE L.; LUMSDAINE, ARTHUR A.

    EXPERIMENTS WERE DEVISED TO TEST THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TELEVISED INSTRUCTION. THESE WERE CONCERNED WITH WHETHER (1) METHODS OF LESSON PREPARATION AND TRYOUT COULD USE STUDENT RESPONSES TO REVISE AND IMPROVE A TELEVISION LESSON, (2) METHODS OF ELICITING ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONSE DURING INSTRUCTION COULD INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF LEARNING, AND (3)…

  19. Balance and coordination after viewing stereoscopic 3D television.

    PubMed

    Read, Jenny C A; Simonotto, Jennifer; Bohr, Iwo; Godfrey, Alan; Galna, Brook; Rochester, Lynn; Smulders, Tom V

    2015-07-01

    Manufacturers and the media have raised the possibility that viewing stereoscopic 3D television (S3D TV) may cause temporary disruption to balance and visuomotor coordination. We looked for evidence of such effects in a laboratory-based study. Four hundred and thirty-three people aged 4-82 years old carried out tests of balance and coordination before and after viewing an 80 min movie in either conventional 2D or stereoscopic 3D, while wearing two triaxial accelerometers. Accelerometry produced little evidence of any change in body motion associated with S3D TV. We found no evidence that viewing the movie in S3D causes a detectable impairment in balance or in visuomotor coordination. PMID:26587261

  20. Balance and coordination after viewing stereoscopic 3D television

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Simonotto, Jennifer; Bohr, Iwo; Godfrey, Alan; Galna, Brook; Rochester, Lynn; Smulders, Tom V.

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers and the media have raised the possibility that viewing stereoscopic 3D television (S3D TV) may cause temporary disruption to balance and visuomotor coordination. We looked for evidence of such effects in a laboratory-based study. Four hundred and thirty-three people aged 4–82 years old carried out tests of balance and coordination before and after viewing an 80 min movie in either conventional 2D or stereoscopic 3D, while wearing two triaxial accelerometers. Accelerometry produced little evidence of any change in body motion associated with S3D TV. We found no evidence that viewing the movie in S3D causes a detectable impairment in balance or in visuomotor coordination. PMID:26587261

  1. Television Viewing Habits of Kindergarten, Third and Sixth Grade Students in a Western Kentucky County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossing, Lewis; Mikulcik, Marilyn

    Parents from rural and urban areas of Calloway County, Kentucky were surveyed regarding their children's television viewing habits. Fifteen survey questions were asked, among them whether there was a television set in the home; whether the child had a personal set; whether the family ate meals while watching television; whether television sound…

  2. Young Females' Images of Motherhood in Relation to Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ex, Carine T. G. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines young Dutch adolescent and young females' self-image and ideal image of motherhood and the extent to which television viewing and viewing motives were related to these images. Notes none of the subjects were mothers and all were selected from a variety of educational settings. Concludes that sitcoms and soaps that portrayed mothers with a…

  3. Television Viewing and Reading Achievement of Seventh and Eighth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degrosky, Deborah S.

    Data were collected from 123 seventh and eighth grade students to examine the relationship between the quality of television viewing time and reading achievement, age, grade, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and intelligence quotient (IQ). Highlights of the data analyses include the following: (1) The mean weekly viewing time for the subjects was…

  4. Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Television Viewing Conditions of Preschoolers in Northern Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsiopoulou, Triantafillia; Melissa-Halikiopoulou, Chrisoula

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of television (TV) on preschoolers, their TV viewing patterns and the conditions under which they watch TV, taking into consideration their different socioeconomic and regional backgrounds. The survey instrument was a questionnaire with 23 closed-ended questions, given to parents whose children…

  5. Tween Gender Differences in Snacking Preferences During Television Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Skatrud-Mickelson, Monica; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Television (TV) viewing is associated with an increased risk in childhood obesity. Research surrounding food habits of tweens largely bypass snacking preferences while watching TV in the home. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe snacking prevalence by tween gender, and to describe parental rules surrounding snacking while watching TV at home. Survey data were obtained in 2008 from 4th through 6th grade students (N=1557) who attended 12 New England schools. Complete self-reported measures (N=1448) included demographics, household and bedroom TV ownership, TV watching frequency, snacking prevalence, snacking preferences, and parental rules regarding snacking while watching TV. Comparisons were generated using chi-square analyses. Overall, the majority of children (69.2%) snacked “sometimes” or “always” during TV viewing, with the majority of responses (62.9%) categorized as foods. The most popular food snacks for both genders in this sample were salty snacks (47.9%), with fruits and vegetables ranking a distant second (18.4%). Girls (22.6%) selected fruits and vegetables more frequently than boys (14.7%), P=0.003. Of those drinking beverages (n=514), boys selected sugar-sweetened beverages more often than girls (43.5% versus 31.7%), P=0.006, and girls chose juice more often than boys (12.3% versus 6.1%), P=0.02. Overall, approximately half (53.2%) of students consumed less healthy snacks while watching TV. Interventions for parents and both genders of tweens focusing on healthful snacking choices may have long-term beneficial outcomes. PMID:21872703

  6. 12. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing television ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing television monitoring of tests and personnel operating rocket engine test controls. May 27, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Facility, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-45021. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. Early Childhood Television Viewing and Adolescent Behavior: The Recontact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; Huston, Aletha C.; Schmitt, Kelly L.; Linebarger, Deborah L.; Wright, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Followed up on 570 adolescents studied as preschoolers. Found that preschoolers' viewing of educational television programs was associated with achieving higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, exhibiting greater creativity, and behaving less aggressively as adolescents more consistently for boys than girls. Found…

  8. Parent-Child Communication about Television: A View from the Parent's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantz, Walter; Weaver, James B., III

    This study examined both general and specific parent-child television viewing experiences together with any interactions related to television viewing whether the child has watched television with a parent or alone. A total of 384 telephone interviews of parents (57% female, 43% male) with children at home between the ages of 6 and 18 were…

  9. The Effects of Television: Views from the Next Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krendl, Kathy A.; Lasky, Kathryn

    Research on audience response to television suggests that viewers are actively involved, apply identifiable and consistent evaluative criteria, and have distinct ideas about the role of the medium in their lives. In light of this research, a study focused on 264 randomly selected sixth through tenth grade students in a Tennessee school system to…

  10. International epidemic of childhood obesity and television viewing.

    PubMed

    Guran, T; Bereket, A

    2011-12-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity. PMID:22075803

  11. Television viewing by young Latino children: Evidence of heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Sibinga, Erica M.S.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if hours of daily television viewed by varying age groups of young children with Latina mothers differs by maternal language preference (English/Spanish) and to compare these differences to young children with non-Latina white mothers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2000 from the National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Setting Nationally representative sample. Participants 1,347 mothers of children 4-35 months. Main Exposure Subgroups of self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (non-Latina white (white), Latina) and within Latinas, stratification by maternal language preference (English/Spanish). Outcome Measure Hours of daily television viewed by the child. Results Bivariate analyses showed children of English- versus Spanish-speaking Latinas watch more daily television (1.88 versus 1.31 hours,p<0.01). Multivariable regression analyses stratified by age revealed differences by age group. Among 4-11 month olds, children of English- and Spanish-speaking Latinas watch similar amounts of television. However, among children 12-23 and 24-35 months, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more television than children of Spanish-speaking Latinas (IRR=1.61,CI=1.17-2.22; IRR=1.66,CI=1.10-2.51, respectively). Compared to children of white mothers, children of both Latina subgroups watched similar amounts among the 4-11 month olds. However, among 12-23 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more compared to children of white mothers (IRR=1.57,CI=1.18-2.11). Among 24-35 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched similar amounts compared to children of white mothers, but children of Spanish-speaking Latinas watched less (IRR=0.69,CI=0.50-0.95). Conclusions Television viewing amounts among young children with Latina mothers vary by child age and maternal language preference supporting the need to explore sociocultural factors that influence viewing in Latino children. PMID:20124147

  12. Television watching, diet quality, and physical activity and diabetes among three ethnicities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Fatma G; Vaccaro, Joan A; Exebio, Joel C; Zarini, Gustavo G; Katz, Timothy; Dixon, Zisca

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a world-wide epidemic associated with multiple environmental factors. Prolonged television viewing (TV) time has been related to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. TV viewing has been positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower energy expenditure, over-eating high-calorie and high-fat foods. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of hours of TV viewing with dietary quality, obesity and physical activity for three ethnic minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Diet quality and physical activity were inversely related to prolonged TV viewing. African Americans and participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to watch more than 4 hours of TV per day as compared to their counterparts. Diet quality was inversely associated with physical activity level. Future studies are needed to establish the risk factors of prolonged TV watching in adult populations for the development of diabetes or diabetes-related complications. Although strategies to reduce TV watching have been proven effective among children, few trials have been conducted in adults. Intervention trials aimed at reducing TV viewing targeting people with type 2 diabetes may be beneficial to improve dietary quality and physical activity, which may reduce diabetes complications. PMID:22851980

  13. Television Watching, Diet Quality, and Physical Activity and Diabetes among Three Ethnicities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Fatma G.; Vaccaro, Joan A.; Exebio, Joel C.; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Katz, Timothy; Dixon, Zisca

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a world-wide epidemic associated with multiple environmental factors. Prolonged television viewing (TV) time has been related to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. TV viewing has been positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower energy expenditure, over-eating high-calorie and high-fat foods. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of hours of TV viewing with dietary quality, obesity and physical activity for three ethnic minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Diet quality and physical activity were inversely related to prolonged TV viewing. African Americans and participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to watch more than 4 hours of TV per day as compared to their counterparts. Diet quality was inversely associated with physical activity level. Future studies are needed to establish the risk factors of prolonged TV watching in adult populations for the development of diabetes or diabetes-related complications. Although strategies to reduce TV watching have been proven effective among children, few trials have been conducted in adults. Intervention trials aimed at reducing TV viewing targeting people with type 2 diabetes may be beneficial to improve dietary quality and physical activity, which may reduce diabetes complications. PMID:22851980

  14. Ultraviolet Viewing with a Television Camera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Thomas; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a portable video color camera that is fully suited for seeing ultraviolet images and offers some expanded viewing possibilities. Discusses the basic technique, specialized viewing, and the instructional value of this system of viewing reflectance patterns of flowers and insects that are invisible to the unaided eye. (CW)

  15. Television Viewing and Cultural Indicators: Some Notes on Theory and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Robert P.; Pingree, Suzanne

    Two underlying assumptions of the Cultural Indicators approach to television research were examined, using data on the television viewing habits of 76 second grade, 150 fifth grade, 509 eighth grade, and 350 eleventh grade students in Perth, Australia. The assumptions were that commercial television presented an organically composed total world of…

  16. Teenage Television Viewing. Focused Access to Selected Topics (FAST) Bibliography No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Michael

    Surveying the television habits of teenagers, this annotated bibliography contains 30 references of articles and papers in the ERIC database. The first section, "Impact on Health, Sexual Behavior, Use of Alcohol," addresses such issues as the relationship of viewing sexual content to sexual activity and sex role acquisition, and relationships…

  17. AN EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON OF A CONVENTIONAL TV LESSON WITH A PROGRAMMED TV LESSON REQUIRING ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONSE. STUDIES IN TELEVISED INSTRUCTION, REPORT 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROPPER, GEORGE L.; LUMSDAINE, ARTHUR A.

    A SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS WAS CONDUCTED TO TEST THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TELEVISED INSTRUCTION. THIS REPORT, THE SECOND IN A SERIES, EXAMINED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONSE ON LEARNING DURING TELEVISED LESSON. PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAMING DERIVED FROM TEACHING-MACHINE RESEARCH AND APPLIED IN THIS STUDY INCLUDED (1) THE REDUCTION OF LESSON…

  18. Pre- and Postdiagnosis Physical Activity, Television Viewing, and Mortality Among Patients With Colorectal Cancer in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Arem, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Engels, Eric A.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Park, Yikyung; Matthews, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Physical inactivity has been associated with higher mortality risk among survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the independent effects of pre- versus postdiagnosis activity are unclear, and the association between watching television (TV) and mortality in survivors of CRC is previously undefined. Methods We analyzed the associations between prediagnosis (n = 3,797) and postdiagnosis (n = 1,759) leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and TV watching and overall and disease-specific mortality among patients with CRC. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs, adjusting for known mortality risk factors. Results Comparing survivors of CRC reporting more than 7 hours per week (h/wk) of prediagnosis LTPA with those reporting no LTPA, we found a 20% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.95; P for trend = .021). Postdiagnosis LTPA of ≥ 7 h/wk, compared with none, was associated with a 31% lower all-cause mortality risk (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.98; P for trend = .006), independent of prediagnosis activity. Compared with 0 to 2 TV hours per day (h/d) before diagnosis, those reporting ≥ 5 h/d of TV before diagnosis had a 22% increased all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.41; P trend = .002), and more postdiagnosis TV watching was associated with a nonsignificant 25% increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.67; P for trend = .126). Conclusion LTPA was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, whereas more TV watching was associated with increased mortality risk. For both LTPA and TV watching, postdiagnosis measures independently explained the association with mortality. Clinicians should promote both minimizing TV time and increasing physical activity for longevity among survivors of CRC, regardless of previous behaviors. PMID:25488967

  19. CHILDREN AND TV, TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON THE CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRAY, NAN; SUNDERLIN, SYLVIA

    VARIOUS POINTS OF VIEW ARE PRESENTED ON THE EFFECT OF TELEVISION UPON CHILDREN. CONTENTS--(1) TELEVISION, TIGER BY THE TAIL--ERNA CHRISTENSEN. (2) TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON THE CHILD--RALPH GARRY. (3) SOME RESEARCH ON TV--PAUL A. WITTY. (4) THE CURRICULUM CONTENT OF CHILDREN'S TELEVISION PROGRAMS AND COMMERCIALS--MARIE TOWNSEND MOORE AND JULIANA…

  20. Cross-sectional study of diet, physical activity, television viewing and sleep duration in 233 110 adults from the UK Biobank; the behavioural phenotype of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Sophie; Chau, Josephine Y; Catt, Michael; Bauman, Adrian; Trenell, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Simultaneously define diet, physical activity, television (TV) viewing, and sleep duration across cardiometabolic disease groups, and investigate clustering of non-diet lifestyle behaviours. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting 22 UK Biobank assessment centres across the UK. Participants 502 664 adults aged 37–63 years old, 54% women. 4 groups were defined based on disease status; ‘No disease’ (n=103 993), ‘cardiovascular disease’ (CVD n=113 469), ‘Type 2 diabetes without CVD’ (n=4074) and ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ (n=11 574). Main outcomes Diet, physical activity, TV viewing and sleep duration. Results People with ‘CVD’ report low levels of physical activity (<918 MET min/week, OR (95% CI) 1.23 (1.20 to 1.25)), high levels of TV viewing (>3 h/day; 1.42 (1.39 to 1.45)), and poor sleep duration (<7, >8 h/night; 1.37 (1.34 to 1.39)) relative to people without disease. People with ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ were more likely to report low physical activity (1.71 (1.64 to 1.78)), high levels of TV viewing (1.92 (1.85 to 1.99)) and poor sleep duration (1.52 (1.46 to1.58)) relative to people without disease. Non-diet behaviours were clustered, with people with ‘CVD’ or ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ more likely to report simultaneous low physical activity, high TV viewing and poor sleep duration than those without disease (2.15 (2.03 to 2.28) and 3.29 (3.02 to 3.58), respectively). By contrast, 3 in 4 adults with ‘Type 2 diabetes’, and 2 in 4 adults with ‘CVD’ have changed their diet in the past 5 years, compared with only 1 in 4 in the ‘No disease’ group. Models were adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, Townsend Deprivation Index, ethnicity, alcohol intake, smoking and meeting fruit/vegetable guidelines. Conclusions Low physical activity, high TV and poor sleep duration are prominent unaddressed high-risk characteristics of both CVD and type 2 diabetes, and are likely to be clustered

  1. Viewing death on television increases the appeal of advertised products.

    PubMed

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current article explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with Terror Management Theory's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:22468421

  2. Viewing Death on Television Increases the Appeal of Advertised Products

    PubMed Central

    DAR-NIMROD, ILAN

    2012-01-01

    References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory (TMT) postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current paper explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with TMT's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:22468421

  3. Television Viewing, Computer Use, Time Driving and All‐Cause Mortality: The SUN Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Basterra‐Gortari, Francisco Javier; Bes‐Rastrollo, Maira; Gea, Alfredo; Núñez‐Córdoba, Jorge María; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez‐González, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviors have been directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, little is known about different types of sedentary behaviors in relation to overall mortality. Our objective was to assess the association between different sedentary behaviors and all‐cause mortality. Methods and Results In this prospective, dynamic cohort study (the SUN Project) 13 284 Spanish university graduates with a mean age of 37 years were followed‐up for a median of 8.2 years. Television, computer, and driving time were assessed at baseline. Poisson regression models were fitted to examine the association between each sedentary behavior and total mortality. All‐cause mortality incidence rate ratios (IRRs) per 2 hours per day were 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06 to 1.84) for television viewing, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.18) for computer use, and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.44) for driving, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, total energy intake, Mediterranean diet adherence, body mass index, and physical activity. The risk of mortality was twofold higher for participants reporting ≥3 h/day of television viewing than for those reporting <1 h/d (IRR: 2.04 [95% CI 1.16 to 3.57]). Conclusions Television viewing was directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, computer use and time spent driving were not significantly associated with higher mortality. Further cohort studies and trials designed to assess whether reductions in television viewing are able to reduce mortality are warranted. The lack of association between computer use or time spent driving and mortality needs further confirmation. PMID:24965030

  4. Effects Of Long-Term Viewing Of VISIDEP tm 3-D Television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaurin, A. P.; Jones, Edwin R.

    1988-06-01

    A comparison was made between viewing normal television and VISIDEPTM television which produces three-dimensional images by the method of alternating images. Two separate groups of fifteen university students reviewed fifty minute unrelieved exposure to television; one group watched standard television and the other watched VISIDEP. Both groups were surveyed regarding questions of eye strain, fatigue, headache, or other discomforts, as well as questions of apparent depth and image quality. One week later the participants were all shown the VISIDEP television and surveyed in the same manner as before. In addition, they were given a chance to make a direct side-by-side comparison and evaluate the images. Analysis of the viewer responses shows that in relation to viewer comfort, VISIDEP television is as acceptable to viewers as normal television, for it introduces no additional problems. However, the VISIDEP images were clearly superior in there ability to invoke an enhanced perception of depth.

  5. Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

  6. Television viewing, computer use, obesity, and adiposity in US preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited evidence in preschool children linking media use, such as television/video viewing and computer use, to obesity and adiposity. We tested three hypotheses in preschool children: 1) that watching > 2 hours of TV/videos daily is associated with obesity and adiposity, 2) that computer u...

  7. Reading Meta-Television: A New Model for Reader-Response Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Scott R.

    Many current models of television viewing regard viewers either as passive receptors, active participants, or addled dupes. A study proposed a more flexible model for television viewing research. The study used the television program "St. Elsewhere," an example of "meta-television" (television programming which contains hidden references to song…

  8. Taking a Look at Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, William, Comp.

    1981-01-01

    A collection of quotations drawn from research and opinion papers dealing with the impact of television viewing on children. Subtopics addressed are: television viewing statistics, effects of television violence, and the relationship of television to education. (JJD)

  9. Maternal Characteristics Associated with Television Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…

  10. Factors Affecting Parental Control over Children's Television Viewing: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Lynne Schafer; Walsh, R. Patricia

    1980-01-01

    Presents 10 questions pertaining to the amount of control over television viewing in the home to 100 families. Preliminary evidence included indications that (1) viewing habits are affected by the number of sets in the house and (2) parents who frequently watch television exert greater influence over their children's use. (MER)

  11. Critical Television Viewing Skills Curriculum. Final Report (October 1, 1979-November 30, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Debra; And Others

    The product of Phase II of a two-year project funded by the U.S. Office of Education to prepare, evaluate, and distribute a print-based curriculum on critical television viewing skills for teenagers, and to prepare guides and workshops on television viewing for parents and teachers, this final report describes tasks undertaken in four areas during…

  12. Relations of Television Viewing and Reading: Findings from a 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennemoser, Marco; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the long-term effects of television viewing on the development of children's reading competencies. Among 2 cohorts of German children (N[subscript 1] = 165, N[subscript 2] = 167), measures of television viewing were collected over 4 years, and tests of reading speed and reading comprehension were administered…

  13. The Relationship of Homework and Television Viewing to Cognitive and Noncognitive Student Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohr, Richard L.

    This paper reports on secondary analyses of data collected in March 1978 by the Pennsylvania Educational Quality Assessment Program, which was designed to examine television viewing and the amount of school assigned homework in relation to student cognitive and noncognitive outcomes. Also examined were television viewing and homework patterns for…

  14. Associations of Television Viewing With Eating Behaviors in the 2009 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Leah M.; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of television viewing with eating behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Public and private schools in the United States during the 2009–2010 school year. Participants A total of 12 642 students in grades 5 to 10 (mean [SD] age, 13.4[0.09] years; 86.5% participation). Main Exposures Television viewing (hours per day) and snacking while watching television (days per week). Main Outcome Measures Eating (≥1 instance per day) fruit, vegetables, sweets, and sugary soft drinks; eating at a fast food restaurant (≥1 d/wk); and skipping breakfast (≥1 d/wk). Results Television viewing was inversely related to intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88–0.96) and vegetables (0.95; 0.91–1.00) and positively related to intake of candy (1.18; 1.14–1.23) and fast food (1.14; 1.09–1.19) and skipping breakfast (1.06; 1.02–1.10) after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, computer use, and physical activity. Television snacking was related to increased intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.10), candy (1.20; 1.16–1.24), soda (1.15; 1.11–1.18), and fast food (1.09; 1.06–1.13), independent of television viewing. The relationships of television viewing with fruit and vegetable intake and with skipping breakfast were essentially unchanged after adjustment for television snacking; the relationships with intake of candy, soda, and fast food were moderately attenuated. Age and race/ethnicity modified relationships of television viewing with soda and fast food intake and with skipping breakfast. Conclusion Television viewing was associated with a cluster of unhealthy eating behaviors in US adolescents after adjustment for socioeconomic and behavioral covariates. PMID:22566548

  15. Too Much Tube Time? Television Viewing and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2007-01-01

    The rates of overweight in infancy and childhood are rapidly growing. One contributor to the rising tide of childhood obesity, and a target included in many obesity prevention and intervention programs, is television (TV) use. This article examines the amount of media to which young children are exposed, and considers the evidence for the…

  16. Fit5Kids TV reduction program and Latino preschoolers' TV viewing behaviors: A pilot cluster RCT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive television (TV) viewing has been associated with a greater risk of childhood obesity. Latino children watch higher amounts of TV than their peers and are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. Since TV viewing and obesity track from preschool into adolescence, early intervention...

  17. Gender Organization of Schooling and Television Viewing among Early Adolescents: A Test of Two Alternative Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutsaert, Herman

    2004-01-01

    In this analysis, single-sex and mixed schools are compared in terms of pupils' television viewing habits, the latter factor being considered as an indicator of a pupil's sense of educational responsibilities. It was hypothesized that the presumably lower levels of television watching among girls attending single-sex schools could be explained by…

  18. Television in Inner-City Homes: Viewing Behavior of Young Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John P.

    To determine whether watching violence on television instills aggressive behavior in a child, the television viewing of 27 5-and 6-year old black males from a sample of urban poor families was periodically observed and charted over a 1-year period. Data was collected on each child's family unit, home setting and available media. Longitudinal…

  19. From Blooming, Buzzing Confusion to Media Literacy: The Early Development of Television Viewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; Hanson, Katherine G.

    2010-01-01

    Television comprehension is a surprisingly demanding task for very young children. Based on a task analysis of television viewing and review of research, we suggest that by 6 months of age, infants can identify objects and people on screen. By 24 months they can comprehend and imitate simple actions contained in single shots and begin to integrate…

  20. Determinants of Parental Guidance of Children's Television Viewing for a Special Subgroup: Mass Media Scholars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Carl; And Others

    An examination of the level and nature of guidance that parents exercised with their children regarding television viewing was undertaken by means of a survey of 200 mass media scholars. In addition to providing information concerning their beliefs about the effects of television, characteristics of their scholarship, and basic demographic…

  1. Parental Influence on Children during Educational Television Viewing in Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yuting; Phillips, Beth M.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested by researchers that educational television programmes may support the language and literacy development for children, especially those in immigrant families. In an immigrant family, many family characteristics appear to be related to educational television programme viewing of children at home, for example, parental…

  2. The Role of Television Viewing in the Development of Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Broek, Paul

    Given the central role of television in most children's lives, it is important to understand its potential positive and negative effects on a variety of cognitive, academic, social, behavioral, and attitudinal outcomes. A study aims to explore the relation between early television viewing and later reading achievement. Motivating the research is…

  3. Social Isolation and Social Support as Correlates of Television Viewing Motivations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Seth; Gorr, Mary Beth

    1988-01-01

    Explores relationships between motivations for television viewing, including shyness, loneliness, self-esteem, and three measures of social support. Suggests viewing motivations are related to needs arising from two distinct sources: social compensation and mood management. (MS)

  4. Television and Children's Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman

    1985-01-01

    Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)

  5. Parental mediation of television viewing and videogaming of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and their siblings.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Melissa H; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-08-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of different strategies, and whether mediation strategies changed over time. A secondary purpose was to examine whether parents applied different mediation strategies to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder versus siblings, and the factors that created stress related to managing media use. Parents of 29 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 16 siblings completed questionnaires at two time points. Parents most frequently supervised their television viewing by watching it with the adolescents, and used restrictive strategies to regulate their videogaming. Parents used similar strategies for siblings, but more frequently applied restrictive and instructive strategies for videogaming with adolescents with autism spectrum disorder than their siblings. Restrictive mediation of television viewing for the adolescents decreased significantly over the year. Adolescents' time spent in media activities, age, and behavior problems, and parents' concerns about media use were significant factors associated with the strategies that parents employed. Parents' stress related to the adolescents' behavioral and emotional responses to parental restrictions. PMID:25336095

  6. What Does TV Viewing Have to Do with Internet Reading?: Readers, Television "Texts", and Intertextual Links to Companion Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of television programs direct their viewers to access an Internet website for further information on a presented topic. The explicit link between television programs and companion Internet websites, both of which communicate information through multiple modes, can be considered a form of intertextuality. Do college students…

  7. Association between childhood and adolescent television viewing and unemployment in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Landhuis, C Erik; Perry, David K; Hancox, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term association between childhood television viewing and adult unemployment, and if this association is mediated by educational achievement. Method Study members were a general-population birth cohort of 1037 participants born in New Zealand in 1972/1973. Hours of weekday television viewing were reported at ages 5–15. Since age 18, unemployment was assessed retrospectively using life-history calendars to age 32. Information on educational qualifications was collected at age 32. Results Childhood and adolescent television viewing predicted adult unemployment. This association was significant for male study members only (β=0.20, p<0.0001). The association for male study members remained after further controlling for socioeconomic status, cognitive ability, and early indications of behaviour problems (p<0.0007). The association was only partially mediated by educational achievement and television viewing remained a predictor of unemployment after adjusting for this (p=0.0035). By logistic regression, each additional hour of daily television viewing was associated with an increased likelihood of spending at least 6 months in unemployment between ages 18–32 years (OR=1.36, 95%, CI=1.06, 1.76, p=0.0157). Conclusion Childhood and adolescent television viewing may have long-lasting consequences for adult unemployment for boys. This association is only partially explained by the association between television viewing and educational achievement. PMID:22178044

  8. ObesiTV: how television is influencing the obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Rebecca; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Chang, Hannah; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-08-20

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States. Over the last several decades, the prevalence of obesity among both adults and children has grown at an alarming rate and is now reaching epidemic proportions. The increase in obesity has been associated with rises in a host of other chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, there is growing evidence that television viewing is a major contributor. Results of numerous studies indicate a direct association between time spent watching television and body weight. Possible explanations for this relationship include: 1) watching television acts as a sedentary replacement for physical activity; 2) food advertisements for nutrient-poor, high-calorie foods stimulate food intake; and 3) television viewing is associated with "mindless" eating. In addition to decreasing physical activity and increasing the consumption of highly palatable foods, television viewing can also promote weight gain in indirect ways, such as through the use of targeted product placements in television shows; by influencing social perceptions of body image; and airing programs that portray cooking, eating and losing weight as entertainment. This paper will provide an interdisciplinary review of the direct and indirect ways in which television influences the obesity epidemic, and conclude with ways in which the negative impact of television on obesity could be reduced. PMID:22677722

  9. Do Children Learn How To Watch Television? The Impact of Extensive Experience With "Blue's Clues" on Preschool Children's Television Viewing Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Alisha M.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Santomero, Angela; Wilder, Alice; Williams, Marsha; Evans, Marie K.; Bryant, Jennings

    2002-01-01

    Presents the first investigation of the effects of experience with a particular program series on children's subsequent television viewing behavior and comprehension. Notes three- to five-year-old regular, experienced viewers of "Blue's Clues" were compared to new, inexperienced viewers. Suggests that a television series can teach children a style…

  10. Television viewing and food intake during television viewing in normal-weight, overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P < 0·05). Children who watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention. PMID:26090104

  11. Perceived Neighborhood and Home Environmental Factors Associated with Television Viewing among Taiwanese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Ming-Chun; Liao, Yung; Chang, Shao-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations between perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors and excessive television (TV) viewing time among Taiwanese older adults. The sample data was collected by administering computer-assisted telephone interviewers to 980 Taiwanese older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) living in two regions. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine the associations between self-reported perceived neighborhood and home environmental attributions and TV viewing time by using logistic regression analyses. The results showed that perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors were associated with excessive TV viewing time (≥2 h/day) after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with a reference group, older adults who perceived their neighborhoods to have unsafe traffic were more likely to report excessive TV viewing time (OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.02–1.82). Older adults who reported having two or more TV sets in the home (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.28–2.44) and having a TV in the bedroom (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.18–2.03) were also more likely to report excessive TV viewing time. Further longitudinal research can confirm these findings, and tailored interventions focusing on the perceptions of neighborhood traffic safety and TV access at home for older adults might be effective means of preventing excessive TV viewing time. PMID:27420086

  12. Childhood and Adolescent Television Viewing and Antisocial Behavior in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day. PMID:23420910

  13. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  14. TV viewing, independent of physical activity and obesogenic foods, increases overweight and obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Khalkhali, Hamid Reza; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity (OAO) and associated risk factors in a representative sample of students aged 11-20 years in Urmia, Iran. In this population-based cross-sectional study, a multistage random cluster-sampling method was used, through which 2,498 students were selected. OAO were defined based on criteria set by the US Center for Health Statistics in collaboration with the US Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion under the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). OAO risk factors were assessed using a questionnaire containing questions about TV viewing, nutrition, physical activities (PA), social and economic factors. Contents of the questionnaire were validated by calculating the content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI), based on the responses elicited from 15 experts. Reliability of the questionnaire was obtained from a test and re-test of the questionnaire completed by 15 students. To analyze the data, x2-test, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted. The prevalence of OAO was found to be 14.1% among the 11-20 years old students of junior and senior high schools. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the educational level of mothers, type of school, and the time spent on viewing TV were associated with an increased risk of OAO while obesogenic foods and PA had no effect on the frequency of OAO [Odds ratio (OR) for the time spent on watching TV one hour more than usual equals 1.27 at p=0.001]. The direct correlation between TV viewing and OAO, which is independent of PA and obesogenic foods, needs to be carefully investigated through randomized clinical trials and cohort studies. PMID:24288947

  15. The Relationships between Television Viewing in Midlife and the Development of Alzheimer's Disease in a Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, H.A.; Fritsch, T.; Petot, G.; Smyth, K.A.; Chen, C.H.; Debanne, S.M.; Lerner, A.J.; Friedland, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between leisure activities and development of cognitive impairment in aging has been the subject of recent research. We examined television viewing in association with risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a case-control study. Given recent focus on the importance of intellectually stimulating activities as preventive…

  16. Australian children's views about food advertising on television.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Kaye; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Magarey, Anthea; Spurrier, Nicola; Udell, Tuesday

    2010-08-01

    This study explored children's views about food advertising on television in the light of recent public interest in childhood obesity and obesogenic environments. Thirty-seven children aged between 8 and 11 years, discussed their perceptions of food advertising, in focus groups. The children engaged as consumers of advertising, noticing technical aspects, and expressing their likes and dislikes of particular techniques. While they understood the persuasive intent of advertising, they nevertheless desired products and made purchase requests. They particularly desired energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The children demonstrated sophisticated levels of advertising literacy through their articulation of problems such as deception, impacts on children's health and wellbeing, and family conflict. They revealed themselves as sentient beings, with the capacity to react, respond and reflect on their experience of advertising. This study makes a contribution to research on consumer socialisation by introducing the perspective of Australian children. As stakeholders in the childhood obesity problem, the views of children should also be of interest to health policymakers. PMID:20346383

  17. Computer Game Use and Television Viewing Increased Risk for Overweight among Low Activity Girls: Fourth Thai National Health Examination Survey 2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    Nontarak, Jiraluck; Satheannoppakao, Warapone

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between sedentary behaviors and overweight among children and adolescents show mixed results. The fourth Thai National Health Examination Survey data collected between 2008 and 2009 were used to explore this association in 5,999 children aged 6 to 14 years. The prevalence of overweight defined by the age- and gender-specific body mass index cut-points of the International Obesity Task Force was 16%. Using multiple logistic regression, computer game use for more than 1 hour a day was found to be associated with an increased risk of overweight (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–1.93). The effect of computer game use and TV viewing on the risk for overweight was significantly pronounced among girls who spent ≤3 days/week in 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (AOR = 1.99 and 1.72, resp.). On the contrary, these sedentary behaviors did not exert significant risk for overweight among boys. The moderating effect on risk of overweight by physical inactivity and media use should be taken into consideration in designing the interventions for overweight control in children and adolescents. Tracking societal changes is essential for identification of potential areas for targeted interventions. PMID:24995018

  18. Removing the Bedroom Television Set: A Possible Method for Decreasing Television Viewing Time in Overweight and Obese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine E.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Harvey-Berino, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations between…

  19. Television transmission at end of second extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, Apollo 14 lunar module pilot, can be seen throwing a 'javelin' left handed during a television transmission near the close of the second extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Apollo 14 Fra Mauro landing site. Mitchell used the staff of the Solar Wind Composition experiment as the 'javelin'. Behind Mitchell is Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander. Also visible in the picture are the erectable S-Band antenna (left foreground) and Lunar Module (left background) (20783); Shepard can be seen preparing to swing at a golf ball during television transmission at end of EVA-2 (20784).

  20. Family Patterns and Television Viewing as Predictors of Children's Beliefs and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jerome L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This longitudinal study provides some indication that heavy television viewing is significantly associated with elementary schoolchildrens' later aggressive behavior, restlessness, and belief in a "mean and scary world." (PD)

  1. Children's Use of Television Commercials to Initiate Social Interaction in Family Viewing Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; Frazer, Charles F.

    1980-01-01

    Reports research that investigated whether children use television commercials in family viewing situations to initiate, control, and manipulate social interaction with other family group members, especially their parents. Observational data are presented and discussed. (Author/JD)

  2. The Displacement Effect: Assessing the Relation between Television Viewing and Reading Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.

    1988-01-01

    Examines television's impact on reading and school achievement in terms of the displacement hypothesis (watching television displaces developmental reading activities). Indicates small differences in reading scores for children watching two to four hours a day, but beyond four hours effects are negative and increasingly deleterious. (SR)

  3. Decrease in Television Viewing Predicts Lower Body Mass Index at 1-Year Follow-Up in Adolescents, but Not Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…

  4. Summary of Closed Circuit Television Activities in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London Univ. (England). Inst. of Education.

    This 1967 summary of closed circuit television (CCTV) activities in medical education presents descriptive information on 35 different medical institutions in Great Britain. Specific data on CCTV are offered by institution, equipment, and uses under each medical field: anatomy, anaesthetics, geriatrics, medicine, obstretrics and gynaecology,…

  5. Medical and Nursing Students’ Television Viewing Habits: Potential Implications for Bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Czarny, Matthew J.; Faden, Ruth R.; Nolan, Marie T.; Bodensiek, Edwin; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Television medical dramas frequently depict the practice of medicine and bioethical issues in a strikingly realistic but sometimes inaccurate fashion. Because these shows depict medicine so vividly and are so relevant to the career interests of medical and nursing students, they may affect these students’ beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions regarding the practice of medicine and bioethical issues. We conducted a web-based survey of medical and nursing students to determine the medical drama viewing habits and impressions of bioethical issues depicted in them. More than 80% of medical and nursing students watch television medical dramas. Students with more clinical experience tended to have impressions that were more negative than those of students without clinical experience. Furthermore, viewing of television medical dramas is a social event and many students discuss the bioethical issues they observe with friends and family. Television medical dramas may stimulate students to think about and discuss bioethical issues. PMID:19085461

  6. Educational inequalities in TV viewing among older adults: a mediation analysis of ecological factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Television (TV) viewing, a prevalent leisure-time sedentary behaviour independently related to negative health outcomes, appears to be higher in less educated and older adults. In order to tackle the social inequalities, evidence is needed about the underlying mechanisms of the association between education and TV viewing. The present purpose was to examine the potential mediating role of personal, social and physical environmental factors in the relationship between education and TV viewing among Australian 55–65 year-old adults. Methods In 2010, self-reported data was collected among 4082 adults (47.6% men) across urban and rural areas of Victoria, for the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study. The mediating role of personal (body mass index [BMI], quality of life), social (social support from family and friends, social participation at proximal level, and interpersonal trust, social cohesion, personal safety at distal level) and physical environmental (neighbourhood aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, number of televisions) factors in the association between education and TV viewing time was examined using the product-of-coefficients test of MacKinnon based on multilevel linear regression analyses (conducted in 2012). Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that BMI (p ≤ 0.01), personal safety (p < 0.001), neighbourhood aesthetics (p ≤ 0.01) and number of televisions (p ≤ 0.01) partly explained the educational inequalities in older adult’s TV viewing. No proximal social factors mediated the education-TV viewing association. Conclusions Interventions aimed to reduce TV viewing should focus on personal (BMI) and environmental (personal safety, neighbourhood aesthetics, number of televisions) factors, in order to overcome educational inequalities in sedentary behaviour among older adults. PMID:24350830

  7. Study group report on the impact of television on adolescent views of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Bearinger, L H

    1990-01-01

    There is not much research done on US television's portrayal of sex and its relation to teenage attitudes and sex behavior. What has been done is on marital fidelity, gender roles, and rape myths. Sexuality taboos have created research problems. Future research should include longitudinal studies. These should use sex behavior as a dependent variable and focus on correlational and causal questions. Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans should be included in future research. Research should address the decision-making process within the television industry. A "consortium" of researchers from different disciplines should be used. Health professionals and the television industry should talk. Key people in professional organizations should have this dialog with the television industry. Press releases should be sent to key industry publications. The study group recommends a 6-12 month "sabbatical" wherein television and health professionals could work in each others' settings. There is a restriction on the advertising of contraceptive in the networks. Condoms can be promoted for disease protection, but not for birth control. Prescription products can't be advertised. Generic contraceptive advertisement should be created. Products could be advertised in magazines, too. Guidelines should be set up for television advertising. It is not possible to predict which hours adolescents will be watching television anymore. Critical viewing skills should be taught in "media literacy" curricula for "early and middle" adolescents. PMID:2307598

  8. Hidden addiction: Television

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  9. SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR, NOT TV VIEWING, PREDICTS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG 3- TO 7-YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information about relationships between the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of young children is available in the literature. We therefore examined how sedentary behaviors, TV watching, and encouragements and discouragements for activity were associated with physical activity (as me...

  10. An Asset-Based Community Initiative to Reduce Television Viewing in New York State

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Ida R.; Dennison, Barbara A.; Boyer, Penny S.; Sellers, Kathleen F.; Russo, Theresa J.; Sherwood, Nancy A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is an epidemic. Addressing this problem will require the input of many sectors and change in many behaviors. The “community” must be part of the solution, and the solution must be constructed on existing assets that lend strength to positive environmental change. Objective To catalyze an established asset-based community partnership to support efforts to reduce television viewing time by developing and providing alternative activities as part of a broader, 3-year study to reduce childhood obesity among preschool-aged children in rural, upstate New York. Method Asset mapping was utilized to compile an inventory of individual and community strengths upon which a partnership could be established. Facilitated focus group sessions were conducted to better understand childcare environmental policies and practices, and to guide changes conducive to health and fitness. Planning meetings and targeted outreach brought key stakeholders together for a community-participatory initiative to support positive environmental change. Results The partnership planned and initiated an array of after-school and weekend community activities for preschool-aged children and their families in the weeks preceding, during, and following a designated ‘TV Turn-off’ week in April, 2004 and March, 2005. Conclusion Methods of asset-based community development are an effective way to engage community participation in public health initiatives. PMID:17207848

  11. Attentional Inertia and Recognition Memory in Adult Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John J.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    1993-01-01

    Finds that inertial engagement sustains looks across boundaries between programs and commercials; inertial engagement does not carry over from one look to the next; inertial engagement was associated with greater recognition memory for television content; and look length distributions are approximately lognormal, and hazard functions are…

  12. Television Viewing and Adolescents' Beliefs about Male-Female Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Kim Walsh; Brown, Jane D.

    Drawing on a social cognitive understanding of the relationship between television and viewers which suggests that adolescents will seek media content consistent with their already developed notions about the sexes, a study surveyed 1,613 adolescents (aged 12 to 17). Respondents were drawn from 10 standard metropolitan statistical areas that are…

  13. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Methods Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Results Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Conclusions Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. PMID:23929886

  14. Watching television in later life: a deeper understanding of TV viewing in the homes of old people and in geriatric care contexts.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Britt

    2010-06-01

    A secret among staff at nursing homes is that they are often ambivalent about old residents spending more time in watching TV as it is a common cultural perception that it makes the viewer passive. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of reflecting on the TV viewing habits that old people bring with them when they move into geriatric care. The findings are based on a study involving qualitative interviews and observations in two nursing home settings - urban and rural - of 20 persons between 82 and 100 years of age. The results confirm that TV viewing is far from a passive activity. Instead, it contributes to structuring daily life, to satisfying old peoples' needs for reflection and contemplation and to remain socially integrated. As such, TV viewing makes a significant contribution to their capacity to cope with disengagement in old age and can be used as a way of promoting communication and well-being in geriatric care. PMID:20030771

  15. Convergent validity of preschool children's television viewing measures among low-income Latino families: a cross-sectional study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Television viewing is an important modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity. However, valid methods for measuring children's TV viewing are sparse and few studies have included Latinos, a population disproportionately affected by obesity. The goal of this study was to test the reliability and co...

  16. The Impact of Cable Television in Canada on the Audiences to Canadian TV Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    A survey was made of television viewing in Canada in order to show the impact of cable television on television viewing in general, with special emphasis on examining the effect on the various categories of television station ownership. The report shows the extent to which television viewing habits vary between (a) those who watch television via…

  17. The role of television viewing and direct experience in predicting adolescents’ beliefs about the health risks of fast-food consumption

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Buhrau, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Background Fast-food advertising abounds on television (TV), and programs targeting youth often display fast-food consumption but rarely with any negative consequences. Cultivation research maintains that cumulative exposure to TV influences audiences’ views of and beliefs about the real world. Thus, the amount of TV adolescents watch is likely to bias their views of the consequences of eating fast food. This research posits that this relationship varies as a function of adolescents’ actual experience with fast food. Method Two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the cultivation research tradition assess the relationship between the amount of adolescents’ regular exposure to TV and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of eating fast food. Teenage children of members of online panels reported hours of TV viewing, beliefs about the consequences of eating fast food, and their frequency of fast-food consumption. Results In both studies, beliefs about health risks of fast-food consumption vary as a function of the amount of TV watched. Heavy TV viewers have less negative and more positive beliefs about the consequences of fast-food consumption than light viewers. As direct experience with fast food increases, the relationship between TV viewing and risk perceptions weakens, but the relationship between TV viewing and positive perceptions strengthens. These moderated relationships remain when we control for physical activity (Study 1) and the density of fast-food restaurants in respondents’ geographical area (Study 2). Conclusion Given the role of TV viewing in biasing perceptions of the consequences of eating fast food, public health researchers and practitioners should carefully monitor and perhaps regulate the amount of fast-food advertising on TV and the content of TV programs. PMID:26009205

  18. Do excessive internet use, television viewing and poor lifestyle habits affect low vision in school children?

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mahdi, Huda S; Vachhani, Pankit J; Al-Nufal, Mohammed; Ali, Awab I

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether excessive internet use, television viewing and the ensuing poor lifestyle habits affect low vision in school children in a rapidly developing country. This is a cross-sectional study and 3000 school students aged between six and 18 years were approached and 2467 (82.2%) students participated. Of the studied school children 12.6 percent had low vision. Most of the low vision school children were in the 6-10 years age group and came from middle income backgrounds (41.8%; p = 0.008). A large proportion of the children with low vision spent ≥ 3 hours per day on the internet (48.2%; p< 0.001) and ≥ 3 hours reclining (62.4%; p < 0.001). A significantly smaller frequency of studied children with low vision participated in each of the reviewed forms of physical activity (p < 0.001) yet a larger proportion consumed fast food (86.8%; p < 0.001). Highly significant positive correlations were found between low vision and BMI, hours spent reclining and on the internet respectively. Blurred vision was the most commonly complained of symptom among the studied children (p < 0.001). The current study suggested a strong association between spending prolonged hours on the computer or TV, fast food eating, poor lifestyle habits and low vision. PMID:20823076

  19. Effect of television viewing on social-emotional competence of young Thai children.

    PubMed

    Intusoma, Utcharee; Mo-Suwan, Ladda; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Panyayong, Benjaporn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2013-12-01

    Exposure time, program content and cultural context may affect the impact of television (TV) on the social-emotional competence (SEC) of children. This study examined the effects of TV viewing on the SEC of Thai infants. The study was based on a Thai birth cohort study from which duration and content of TV viewing and data from the Modified Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment instrument at 1 and 3 years of age were available. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine whether scores below the 10th national percentile were associated with TV viewing duration. The relationship between viewing duration and SEC risk was quadratic rather than linear. Viewing duration of 30-120 min/day was associated with a decreased risk of low overall SEC compared to non-viewers after adjustments for confounding factors. However, the beneficial effect diminished when the duration exceeded 120 min/day. Viewing educational programs was associated with a risk reduction of having low overall SEC compared to non-educational programs. These results suggest that a short period of TV viewing may be beneficial for the SEC of Thai infants, especially if the programs are educational. PMID:23948636

  20. Viewing and Enjoyment of Prime Time Commercial Television among Deaf and Hearing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bruce A.; Myers, John W,

    Questionnaires on television viewing were administered to 128 hearing students and 178 hearing impaired students in a technical college. In addition to the questionnaire which examined demographic information as well as viewing preferences and attitudes, all Ss were asked to report their average daily viewing time. Programs were categorized into…

  1. Television Viewing and Its Associations with Overweight, Sedentary Lifestyle, and Insufficient Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables among U.S. High School Students: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Galuska, Deborah A.; Fulton, Janet E.; Kann, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Examined race, ethnic, and gender specific differences in the association between television viewing and high school students' overweight, decreased physical activity, and unhealthy dietary behaviors. Data from the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that most students' television viewing exceeded recommended levels, many students were…

  2. Television viewing and food habits in toddlers and preschoolers in Greece: the GENESIS study.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Kondaki, Katerina; Kourlaba, Georgia; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Birbilis, Manolis; Ioannou, Elina

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between television (TV) viewing time and dietary habits of preschoolers. A representative sample of 2,374 Greek children aged 1-5 years was examined (GENESIS study). The majority of participants (74.0%) spent less than 2 h/day watching TV. Children spending > or =2 h/day watching TV seem to have higher energy intake compared to children watching TV less than 2 h/day, even after adjustment for potential confounders (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it was detected that the former were more likely to consume more than 5, 2, and 1.5 exchanges of fat, meat, and other carbohydrates per day, respectively, compared to the latter. In conclusion, the current findings indicate that prolonged TV viewing time may be associated with increased consumption of high-fat and high-sugar foods resulting in increased daily energy intake. Therefore, interventions aiming to modify children's TV viewing behaviour might need to be implemented. PMID:18836742

  3. Pilot Study for the Active TV Viewer Scholar Education. Final Report. Years 1984-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Miguel Reyes

    The purposes of the "Pilot Study for the Active TV Viewer Scholar Education" project were to find low cost teaching methods that developed critical television viewing skills among elementary and secondary students, and to develop a parallel program of family education in an effort to modify family viewing practices to encourage critical viewing.…

  4. Television viewing and its associations with overweight, sedentary lifestyle, and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables among US high school students: differences by race, ethnicity, and gender.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Galuska, Deborah A; Fulton, Janet E; Kann, Laura

    2002-12-01

    Television (TV) viewing has been associated with overweight, decreased physical activity, and unhealthy dietary behavior among children and adolescents, and may represent a modifiable cause of childhood obesity. This study examined race, ethnic, and gender-specific differences in these associations among high school students in the United States. The study analyzed data from the 1999 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a representative sample (N = 15,349) of US high school students. Logistic regression tested for significant associations. TV viewing on an average school day exceeded 2 hours/day among 43% of students; it was greater among Black (74%) and Hispanic (52%) than White (34%) students. Overall, 11% of students were overweight, 31% of students were sedentary (i.e., did not participate in moderate or vigorous physical activity at recommended levels), and 76% ate less than five servings/day of fruits and vegetables. Watching TV more than 2 hours/day was associated with being overweight, being sedentary, and eating insufficient fruits and vegetables among White females, and with being overweight among Hispanic females. No significant associations were found among Black females. TV viewing was associated with being overweight and eating insufficient fruits and vegetables among White males. No significant associations were found among Hispanic males. Among Black males, TV viewing was associated with greater participation in physical activity. These findings suggest the presence of cultural factors to consider when developing interventions to promote physical activity, healthy eating, and healthy weight through reduced TV viewing among adolescents. PMID:12617028

  5. Children's Television Behaviour: Its Antecedents and Relationship to School Performance. A Study of the Television Viewing Behaviour of Children in Grade 6 of State Primary Schools in the Metropolitan Area of Melbourne. Occasional Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Kevin James

    A study was conducted to describe the television viewing habits of grade 6 children in primary schools within the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Australia; to examine the nature of the relationships between factors found to be relevant in explaining television behavior; and to examine the relationship between television behavior and school…

  6. TV and Teens: Television In Adolescent Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Richard; Johnston, Jerome

    1988-01-01

    Presents television as an instrument through which adolescents can gain social experience and strengthen social development. Examines the link between watching television and social relationships, discussing how television viewing can provide "blueprints" for behavior in social situations. Lists four steps for using television as a learning tool.…

  7. Television viewing duration during childhood and long- association with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Giselle; Piñero Casas, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Vicente, Mònica López; Davand, Payam; Torrent, Maties; Martínez-Murciano, David; García-Esteban, Raquel; Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1). Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing > 14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms), beta (CI) = 53 (0-107). After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions. PMID:27617190

  8. Hispanic parents of overweight and obese children and their outcome expectations for children's television viewing: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to explore parental outcome expectations (OE) regarding children's television (TV) viewing among parents of overweight or obese children. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 20 parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight or obese children. We found tha...

  9. The Development of Television Viewing Patterns in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; And Others

    A 2-year longitudinal investigation of developing television viewing patterns involved 271 children who were followed from 3 to 5 or 5 to 7 years of age. Viewing was measured from diaries maintained by parents for 1 week in the spring and 1 week in the fall for 2 years. Programs were classified as (1) child informative or educational; (2)…

  10. Psychological Escapism: Predicting the Amount of Television Viewing by Need for Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Bernd; Vorderer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Investigates differences observed among German students regarding amount of television viewing. Finds a significant negative effect of need for cognition on viewing amount. Interprets this as a manifestation of individual-psychological escapism in which the lower viewers' need for cognition is, the less pleasant they feel when they have nothing to…

  11. Do Hours Spent Viewing Television at Ages 3 and 4 Predict Vocabulary and Executive Functioning at Age 5?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…

  12. On the road to obesity: Television viewing increases intake of high-density foods.

    PubMed

    Blass, Elliott M; Anderson, Daniel R; Kirkorian, Heather L; Pempek, Tiffany A; Price, Iris; Koleini, Melanie F

    2006-07-30

    Television viewing (TVV) has been linked with obesity, possibly through increased sedentary behavior and/or through increased ingestion during TVV. The proposition that TVV causes increased feeding, however, has not been subjected to experimental verification until recently. Our objective was to determine if the amount eaten of two familiar, palatable, high-density foods (pizza and macaroni and cheese) was increased during a 30-min meal when watching TV. In a within-subjects design, one group of undergraduates (n = 10) ate pizza while watching a TV show of their choice for one session and when listening to a symphony during the other session. A second group of undergraduates (n = 10) ate macaroni and cheese (M&C). TVV increased caloric intake by 36% (one slice on average) for pizza and by 71% for M&C. Eating patterns also differed between conditions. Although the length of time to eat a slice of pizza remained stable between viewing conditions, the amount of time before starting another slice was shorter during TVV. In contrast, M&C was eaten at a faster rate and for a longer period of time during TVV. Thus, watching television increases the amount eaten of high-density, palatable, familiar foods and may constitute one vector contributing to the current obesity crisis. PMID:16822530

  13. Association between energy intake and viewing television, distractibility, and memory for advertisements12345

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K; Coulon, Sandra M; Markward, Nathan; Greenway, Frank L; Anton, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Background: The effect of television viewing (TVV) with and without advertisements (ads) on energy intake is unclear. Objective: The objectives were to test 1) the effect of TVV, with and without ads, on energy intake compared with a control and reading condition and 2) the association of distractibility and memory for ads with energy intake and body weight. Design: Forty-eight (26 female) adults (age: 19–54 y) with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 20–35 completed this laboratory-based study. All participants completed 4 buffet-style meals in random order in the following conditions: 1) control, 2) while reading, 3) while watching TV with food and nonfood ads (TV-ads), and 4) while watching TV with no ads (TV-no ads). Energy intake was quantified by weighing foods. Distractibility and memory for ads in the TV-ads condition were quantified with a norm-referenced test and recognition task, respectively. Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that energy and macronutrient intake did not differ significantly among the 4 conditions (P > 0.65). Controlling for sex, memory for ads was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) and energy intake but only when viewing TV (r = 0.39, P < 0.05 during the TV-no ads condition, and r = 0.29, P = 0.06 during the TV-ads condition). Controlling for sex, distractibility was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) but not energy intake. Distractibility, however, accounted for 13% of the variance in men's energy intake (P = 0.11). Conclusions: TVV did not affect energy intake, but individual characteristics (memory for ads) were associated with body weight and energy intake in certain conditions. These characteristics should be considered in food intake and intervention studies. PMID:19056603

  14. The Worldwide Association between Television Viewing and Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies exploring the effect of television viewing on obesity throughout childhood are conflicting. Most studies have been confined to single high-income countries. Our aim was to examine the association between television viewing habits and Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescents and children in a multicentre worldwide sample. Methods In the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children Phase Three, adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years completed questionnaires which included questions on television viewing habits, height and weight. Parents/guardians of children aged between 5 and 8 years completed the same questionnaire on behalf of their children. The questionnaire asked “During a normal week, how many hours a day (24 hours) do you (does your child) watch television?” Responses were categorised as; “short” (<1 hour), “moderate” (1 to ≤3 hours), “long” (3 to ≤5 hours) and “prolonged” (>5 hours). Findings 207,672 adolescents from 37 countries and 77,003 children from 18 countries provided data. Daily television viewing in excess of one hour was reported in 89% of adolescents and 79% of children. Compared with adolescents in the short viewing group, those in the moderate, long and prolonged groups had BMIs that were 0.14 kg/m2, 0.21 kg/m2, 0.30 kg/m2 and 0.08 kg/m2, 0.16 kg/m2 and 0.17 kg/m2 larger for females and males respectively (both P<0.001). Compared with children in the short viewing group, those in the moderate, long and prolonged groups had BMIs that were 0.24 kg/m2, 0.34 kg/m2, 0.36 kg/m2 and 0.19 kg/m2, 0.32 kg/m2 and 0.36 kg/m2 larger for females and males respectively (both P<0.001). Interpretation Increased television viewing hours were positively associated with BMI in both adolescents and children with an apparent dose response effect. These findings extend the evidence that television viewing contributes to increased BMI in childhood. PMID:24086327

  15. Children's Television Viewing: Attention and Comprehension of Auditory versus Visual Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezdek, Kathy; Hartman, Eileen F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the relationship between children's attention and comprehension of auditory and visual information on television. After viewing a videotape of "Sesame Street" with visual, auditory, or no distractors, 60 five-year-olds were asked comprehension questions. Findings indicated that children could process auditory and visual information from…

  16. Exploring Pathways from Television Viewing to Academic Achievement in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Nary

    2004-01-01

    The author's purpose in this study was to test 4 hypotheses that proposed different paths for the influences of children's television viewing on their academic achievement. Data were drawn from the 1997 Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The population for this study included 1,203 children between the…

  17. View of the earth transmitted during live television transmission Apollo 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    View of the earth that was transmitted back from space during the sixth live television transmission from the Apollo 8 spacecraft as it continued its journey home. At the time this picture was made, the Apollo 8 spacecraft was about 97,000 nautical miles from earth, and was traveling at a speed of 6,084 ft per second.

  18. Television viewing is associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Hispanic elders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective of this study was to examine associations between television viewing and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among a representative sample of Caribbean origin Hispanic elders living in Massachusetts. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in 350 Puerto Rican and 105 Dominican elders ...

  19. Exposure to Violence, Parental Monitoring, and Television Viewing as Contributors to Children's Psychological Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Mark I.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Guo, Shenyang; Miller, David; Leibbrandt, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of exposure to violence, parental monitoring, and television viewing habits to children's self-reported symptoms of psychological trauma. Children in grades 3-8 in 11 public schools completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire administered during usual school hours. The final sample was comprised…

  20. Television Viewing and Symptoms of Inattention and Hyperactivity across Time: The Importance of Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Tara; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; To, Yen

    2009-01-01

    The importance of well-specified research questions in the evaluation of early predictors of later inattention and hyperactivity is examined. In an analysis of a nationally representative sample of 2,717 children aged 4 to 10, latent growth trajectories for television viewing and inattention and hyperactivity are determined and the relationship of…

  1. Children's Interactional Experience with Television Advertising as an Index of Viewing Sophistication: A Symbolic Interactionist Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; Frazer, Charles F.

    After seven judges had ranked 30 families for observed parental consumer teaching orientations and family television viewing habits, one family was selected for each cell of a 3X3 factorial design for age of children (3 to 5, 6 to 8, 9 to 11) and family consumer teaching orientation (high, moderate, low). These nine family groups were observed…

  2. The association of parent's outcome expectations for child TV viewing with parenting practices and child TV viewing: An examination using path analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Television (TV) viewing has been associated with many undesirable outcomes for children, such as increased risk of obesity, but TV viewing can also have benefits. Although restrictive parenting practices are effective in reducing children's TV viewing, not all parents use them and it is currently un...

  3. Associations between television viewing and love styles: an interpretation using cultivation theory.

    PubMed

    Hetsroni, Amir

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the associations between television viewing and love styles. The Love Attitudes Scale (LAS), based on Lee's love style taxonomy, was administered to a sample of 338 unmarried Israeli students along with questions about TV viewing habits, current involvement in a serious romantic relationship, and marital intentions. A confirmatory factor analysis of the LAS indicated that the expected six-factor solution adequately fit the data. Correlations between individual love styles and TV viewing were small to moderate, ranging from .12 to .29. Scores for Ludus love style correlated positively with viewing of news and general programming. Those for Pragma love style correlated positively with news viewing and negatively with viewing genres frequently including love themes such as soap operas and family drama, while scores for Eros love style positively correlated with watching these love abundant genres. No significant association was found for TV viewing with Storge, Mania, and Agape love styles. Hierarchical regression using demographic variables, love status, and viewing habits mirrored these results, with the unique R2 for Ludus, Pragma, and Eros ranging from 1.8% to 8%, while the total variance accounted for by the models ranged from 12% to 21%. The findings can be interpreted as support for a weak cultivation effect, in which habits in long-term TV viewing among young adults correspond to small to moderate tendencies for particular love styles that thematically relate them. However, because they are correlational, the findings could equally be interpreted in terms of tendencies that exist due to modeling within families and socialization during development. PMID:22489376

  4. Impacts of Television Viewing on Young Children's Literacy Development in the USA: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Annie M.

    2008-01-01

    Television viewing plays an important role in the lives of many young children and has received a great deal of attention in the public as well as in research. This review examined research on television and literacy development in early childhood, including studies of messages about literacy in children's programs as well as the impact of…

  5. Using Project-Based Data in Physics to Examine Television Viewing in Relation to Student Performance in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Mass media, particularly television, influence public conceptions and attitudes toward learning science. The discovery of an original method that does not rely on self-reported viewing habits to measure the impact of television on students' performance in science arose from a study of a unit on electricity in a Physics course. In determining the…

  6. Television Viewing = Lo que los padres de estudiantes dotados necesitan saber sobre ver...television. What Parents of Gifted Students Need To Know about...Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    This booklet (Practitioner's Guide), in both an English version and a Spanish version, is intended to help parents apply the findings of research to parental mediation of television viewing by their children, including gifted children. Research facts are briefly summarized and implications for the home are drawn. Suggestions for parents are…

  7. Television and Creativity; The Effect of Viewing Certain Categories of Commercial Television Broadcasting on the Divergent Thinking Abilities of Intellectually Gifted Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Stanley Lawrence

    Research sought to determine what effect viewing increased amounts of specific types of televised material would have upon the creative performance of highly intelligent children. Gifted students in grades 4, 5, and 6 of a suburban district were given Guilford's tests of creativity and then divided into seven groups. Six of these watched a…

  8. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence. PMID:26595354

  9. Turkish Parents' Views on Quality Standards for Children's Television Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onder, Alev; Dagal, Asude Balaban

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the opinions of parents of pre-school children about children's programmes on TV. The study had two phases: In the first step "The Evaluation Scale for Children's Programmes" was translated into Turkish, the reliability and validity of the scale was tested through analyzing of the data collected from…

  10. Living Happily with Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGilvary, Linda; Penrose, Pat

    The amount of violence and inappropriate information that children receive through television and other media is a matter of concern. This paper reviews the values of fantasy play and compares those values with the effects of television viewing on New Zealand children. Both obvious and subtle messages that children receive from television are…

  11. Young children's food brand knowledge. Early development and associations with television viewing and parent's diet.

    PubMed

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey

    2014-09-01

    Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television - both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3-5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased significantly between 3 and 4 years; and (iii) children had significantly greater knowledge of unhealthy food brands, compared with similarly advertised healthy brands. In addition, (iv) children's healthy food brand knowledge was not related to their television viewing, their mother's education, or parent or child eating. However, (v) unhealthy brand knowledge was significantly related to all these factors, although only parent eating and children's age were independent predictors. Findings indicate that effects of food marketing for unhealthy foods take place through routes other than television advertising alone, and are present before pre-schoolers develop the concept of healthy eating. Implications are that marketing restrictions of unhealthy foods should extend beyond television advertising; and that family-focused obesity prevention programmes should begin before children are 3 years of age. PMID:24859112

  12. Linking Obesity and Activity Level with Children's Television and Video Game Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Shim, Mi-suk; Caplovitz, Allison G.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the links between childhood obesity, activity participation and television and video game use in a nationally representative sample of children (N=2831) ages 1-12 using age-normed body mass index (BMI) ratings. Results indicated that while television use was not related to children's weight status, video game use was. Children…

  13. Parental Mediation of Television Viewing and Videogaming of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Melissa H.; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of…

  14. The home physical activity environment and adolescent BMI, physical activity and TV viewing: Disparities across a diverse sample

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Berge, Jerica M.; Thul, Chelsey; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characteristics of the home and family have been associated with adolescents' BMI and physical and sedentary activity, but few studies have examined how these characteristics vary across ethnic/racial groups. This study explores whether recommendations for activity promotion are equally relevant to different adolescent populations. Design Participants included 2,374 adolescents and their parent(s), recruited through 20 public schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN in 2009-2010. Ethnic/racial groups included African American, Asian (primarily Hmong), East African, Hispanic, Native American, White, and mixed/other race. Linear regression analysis modeled adolescents' BMI z-scores and physical and sedentary activity based on six measures of the family/home activity environment, adjusted for covariates. Interactions of ethnicity/race and family/home environment were tested. Results All six family/home environment measures varied significantly across ethnicity/race. Family/home variables were significantly associated with adolescent physical activity and TV viewing in the expected directions, and these relationships were consistent across ethnic/racial groups in two-thirds of the models. However, in one-third of the cases, these associations were modified by ethnicity/race. For example, home access to a greater number of media devices was significantly associated with more TV viewing (β=.40, p=.015) only among White youth. Conclusion Health promotion recommendations for adolescent physical activity are largely relevant across ethnic/racial groups. However, given differences found in the family/home environments of adolescents, cultural sensitivity is recommended in discussing these issues, and tailored recommendations may be appropriate for select groups or behaviors. Further mixed methods research is warranted to help identify key messages for specific groups. PMID:25396114

  15. The Value of Reanalysis: TV Viewing and Attention Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael; Watkins, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 1,159), this study reexamines the link between maternal reports of television viewing at ages 1 and 3 and attention problems at age 7. This work represents a reanalysis and extension of recent research suggesting young children's television viewing causes subsequent attention problems.…

  16. Incident-related television viewing and psychiatric disorders in Oklahoma City bombing survivors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Houston, J Brian; Regens, James L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine terrorism media coverage and psychiatric outcomes in directly-exposed terrorism survivors. The study used (1) self-report questionnaires to retrospectively assess event-related media behaviors and reactions in a cross sectional design and (2) longitudinal structured diagnostic interviews to assess psychopathologic outcomes. The participants were 99 directly-exposed Oklahoma City bombing survivors who were initially studied six months after the 1995 incident. Though a fear reaction to bombing-related television coverage and fear-driven discontinuation of bombing-related media contact were associated with diagnostic outcomes, the number of hours viewing bombing-related television coverage in the first week after the event was not associated with the prevalence of bombing-related posttraumatic stress disorder or post-bombing major depressive disorder during the seven years post event. The results raise doubt about the effects of quantified incident-related television viewing on clinically-significant emotional outcomes in directly-exposed terrorism survivors. PMID:23980489

  17. User experience while viewing stereoscopic 3D television

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C.A.; Bohr, Iwo

    2014-01-01

    3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the ‘nocebo effect'). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D. Practitioner Summary: Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) has been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. Viewers watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (between-subjects design). Around 14% reported effects such as headache and eyestrain linked to S3D itself, while 8% report adverse effects attributable to 3D glasses or negative expectations. PMID:24874550

  18. User experience while viewing stereoscopic 3D television.

    PubMed

    Read, Jenny C A; Bohr, Iwo

    2014-01-01

    3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the 'nocebo effect'). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D. PMID:24874550

  19. Obesity and low vision as a result of excessive Internet use and television viewing.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mahdi, Huda S; Ali, Awab I; Al-Nufal, Mohammed; Vachhani, Pankit J; Tewfik, Ihab

    2011-02-01

    The technological age has resulted in children spending prolonged hours in front of television (TV) and computer screens (on the Internet). The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study is to determine the effect of this phenomenon on both childhood obesity and low vision in the State of Qatar. A total of 3000 school students aged 6 to 18 years were approached from September 2009 to March 2010 and 2467 (82.2%) students agreed to participate. Face-to-face interviews based on a designed questionnaire were conducted. The highest proportion of obese children were aged between 15-18 years (9.4%; p < 0.001); spent ≥ 3 hours on the Internet (5.6%; p < 0.001), and spent between 5-7 hours or less sleeping (4.1%; p < 0.001). Forty-six (1.9%) children spent ≥ 3 hours/day on the Internet, and were either overweight/obese and had low vision. The study findings confirmed a positive association between obesity and low vision as a result of excessive time spent on the TV view and Internet use. PMID:20645888

  20. The Obesogenic Quality of the Home Environment: Associations with Diet, Physical Activity, TV Viewing, and BMI in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Fisher, Abigail; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The home environment is thought to play a key role in early weight trajectories, although direct evidence is limited. There is general agreement that multiple factors exert small individual effects on weight-related outcomes, so use of composite measures could demonstrate stronger effects. This study therefore examined whether composite measures reflecting the ‘obesogenic’ home environment are associated with diet, physical activity, TV viewing, and BMI in preschool children. Methods Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 1096) completed a telephone interview (Home Environment Interview; HEI) when their children were 4 years old. Diet, physical activity, and TV viewing were reported at interview. Child height and weight measurements were taken by the parents (using standard scales and height charts) and reported at interview. Responses to the HEI were standardized and summed to create four composite scores representing the food (sum of 21 variables), activity (sum of 6 variables), media (sum of 5 variables), and overall (food composite/21 + activity composite/6 + media composite/5) home environments. These were categorized into ‘obesogenic risk’ tertiles. Results Children in ‘higher-risk’ food environments consumed less fruit (OR; 95% CI = 0.39; 0.27–0.57) and vegetables (0.47; 0.34–0.64), and more energy-dense snacks (3.48; 2.16–5.62) and sweetened drinks (3.49; 2.10–5.81) than children in ‘lower-risk’ food environments. Children in ‘higher-risk’ activity environments were less physically active (0.43; 0.32–0.59) than children in ‘lower-risk’ activity environments. Children in ‘higher-risk’ media environments watched more TV (3.51; 2.48–4.96) than children in ‘lower-risk’ media environments. Neither the individual nor the overall composite measures were associated with BMI. Conclusions Composite measures of the obesogenic home environment were associated as expected with diet, physical activity, and TV viewing

  1. Tuning in to Television, News, Views, and How To Live with It. 15th Anniversary Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rosalind, Ed.; Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Media & Values" provides essays and teaching ideas for addressing the influence of television in society. Articles in this issue include: (1) "Wrestling with Television" (Elizabeth Thoman); (2) "Comics and Culture" (Rosalind Silver); (3) "Society's Storyteller" (George Gerbner); (4) "Five Important Ideas to Teach Your Kids about TV"…

  2. Young low-income ethnic minority children watch less television when their mothers regulate what they are viewing

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Matson, Pamela A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Parenting practices can reduce how much television (TV) children watch. This study evaluated the longitudinal association between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by low-income ethnic minority children. Methods This was a secondary data analysis of the Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Data were used from ethnic minority mothers with a child from birth to four-years-old, collected over two waves approximately 16 months apart. The dependent variable was the amount of TV watched by the child (wave two). The main independent variable was the maternal regulation of TV content (wave one). Using multiple linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by the child, adjusting for covariates. Results Of the 835 mothers, 71% were high content regulators and 8% reported no content regulation. Children whose mothers reported no regulation watched more TV approximately 16 months later than those whose mothers reported high regulation of content (β =0.91, 95% CI: 0.09–1.73). Conclusion Our findings suggest that regulating content influences viewing amounts in young children approximately 16 months later. Interventions focused on heightening parental regulation of content may improve content and diminish viewing amounts. PMID:25424888

  3. The impact of hearing impairment on television viewing in the UK.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Aldridge, J; Davis, A

    1993-06-01

    Just under one in 10 of a nationally representative sample of UK television viewers said that they experienced difficulty with their hearing. These hard-of-hearing viewers were found to report much greater difficulty watching programmes (mean difficulty rating = 32%) than elderly viewers with no reported hearing difficulty (mean difficulty rating = 10%), or those viewers generally who said they had no hearing problems (mean difficulty rating = 3%). Using a similarly constructed rating for reported enjoyment of different television programmes, hard-of-hearing viewers were found to exhibit a small reduction in enjoyment across the majority of programmes types. While it might have been anticipated that a greater proportion of those with impaired hearing owned a teletext television set giving them access to subtitling, this was not found to be the case. Across the sample as a whole, teletext ownership was shown to be 45%, but was lower than this (38.5%) amongst the hard-of-hearing. The findings corroborate what has been shown in another study, namely that teletext ownership is lower among older viewers. Hearing impairment, if it is not congenital or of early childhood origin, is a condition associated with increasing age. Thus, those whose viewing and appreciation of programmes might be enhanced by subtitles, in the main, do not have access to them. Among hard-of-hearing viewers who did have access to the teletext subtitle service, two thirds of those aged 51 years and over felt that subtitles assisted their understanding of television programmes. As one might expect, of those owning teletext, hard-of-hearing viewers reported greatest use of subtitles. Thirteen per cent of those with hearing difficulty and aged over 51 years said they used subtitles for all programmes watched and a further 26% of the over fifties with hearing difficulty reported regularly using subtitles for selected programmes. These data advocate that there are many hard-of-hearing viewers whose

  4. Adult-Child Co-Viewing of Educational Television: Enhancing Preschoolers' Understanding of Mathematics Shown on "Sesame Street"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenlander, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Can adults help children to understand the content in preschool educational television by watching shows with them? Research indicates that co-viewing occurs rarely and has mixed benefits for learning. This study investigates the idea that a special kind of adult-child co-viewing, namely "dialogic viewing," in which adults ask open-ended questions…

  5. Sport and Leisure and Its Use in Television Programs and Commercials-- A Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Studied influence of television as a leisure activity in adult women between the ages of 36 and 50 (two groups: one, sports-oriented, the other, not sports-oriented). Nonsports-oriented subjects watched television for passing of time, companionship, and information; the other group viewed television for current events. Leisure activity was direct…

  6. Quality in Instructional Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur, Ed.

    The result of an interdisciplinary conference on the qualities of an effective instructional television program, this book reports the ideas of various participants. Two papers by broadcasters represent the producer's view of ITV; one deals with instructional television in Sweden and the other with a Nigerian project. The scholar's view is…

  7. Children and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewalt, Mark W.; Erickson, Laurie

    This study reviews the literature on the effects of television viewing on children, examines the preferences of children for television programs and commercials, and analyzes selected characteristics of these programs. A stratified sample of 1,416 students in grades 1-6 in six eastern states was polled on their viewing preferences in November of…

  8. Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Television, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Television in medical education is featured in this supplement to "Educational Television." James Lieberman offers an overview of the present state of medical instructional television. He concludes his article by suggesting that the primary requisite for making optimum use of television in biomedical education is the preparation of a cadre of…

  9. Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    Aspects of educational television (ETV) covered in this report include its history, growth and development, noncommerical television broadcast stations, instructional television fixed service (ITFS), microwave relay system, television signal translators, cable systems, and the use of satellites. The report also outlines the Federal Communications…

  10. What are the television viewing and eating habits of children in Peru?

    PubMed

    Busse, Peter; Díaz, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    While there is already consensus in the scientific community about the deleterious effects of TV exposure, especially through TV advertisements, on children's beliefs, preferences, and food intake, the link between TV and children's eating behaviors is under-studied in Peru, a country experiencing a steady economic growth in recent years and currently with a status of upper-middle-income country. Following research about the effects of media exposure on childhood obesity, we report on a qualitative study of TV viewing and the eating habits of children attending elementary schools in Lima, the capital. Data from eight focus groups with 38 boys and girls between 6 and 11 years old, eight focus groups with 36 female caretakers, and in-depth interviews with two fathers provided consistent information about children's eating habits and media viewing patterns. After dual coding the entire corpus of qualitative data, we found that children watch a great deal of TV during the school season: children watch as early as when they wake up in the morning, then during lunchtime (after returning from school), and then again after completing their homework from 5 pm to 9 pm or 10 pm. Survey data from the parents showed that, on average, children watch about 5 hours of TV on weekdays and more during a weekend-day. This large amount of exposure is concerning, especially because the focus groups revealed that children (1) recall a number of TV advertisements involving food items, (2) request food items seen on TV, and (3) are able to buy food for themselves, which usually involves chocolate, candy, or potato chips. Boys and girls reported different favorite TV shows, suggesting differences in exposure to TV content related to food. In addition, some families reported drinking sodas frequently, underlining a behavior that should be discouraged by public health officials. PMID:25316673

  11. A Critical View of Television through the Eyes of Classical Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, A. Anthony

    Unlike the criticism of the literary arts and the spoken word, rhetoric, television criticism is in its infancy. The styles suggested for television criticism have primarily been drawn from modern drama, literature and semiotics. Today, television critics of the scholarly sort are looking at a variety of styles to see if they can tell their…

  12. The Hidden Compulsion in Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Arthur Asa

    1978-01-01

    Describes how television viewing encourages nonrationality, alienation, idiocy, dependency, deindividuation, consumer lust, and hyperkinesis, and provides a framework for a critical response to the pervasive force of television. (JMF)

  13. Parental outcome expectations on children's TV viewing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's TV viewing has been associated with increased sedentary behavior and poor eating habits. Positive intervention effects have been observed when addressing outcome expectations as a mediator in interventions targeting children's dietary behavior. Little is known about parental outcome expec...

  14. The value of reanalysis: TV viewing and attention problems.

    PubMed

    Foster, E Michael; Watkins, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 1,159), this study reexamines the link between maternal reports of television viewing at ages 1 and 3 and attention problems at age 7. This work represents a reanalysis and extension of recent research suggesting young children's television viewing causes subsequent attention problems. The nonlinear specification reveals the association between television watching and attention problems exists-if at all-only at very high levels of viewing. Adding 2 covariates to the regression model eliminated even this modest effect. The earlier findings are not robust. This study also considers whether its own findings are sensitive to unobserved confounding using fixed-effects estimation. In general, it finds no meaningful relation between television viewing and attention problems. PMID:20331673

  15. Children, Radio and Television--Now and in the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Feilitzen, Cecilia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes aspects of television and radio broadcasting in Sweden. Particular attention is given to children's programs, children's viewing patterns, the influence of TV on children, and how to improve the quality of radio and television programs. (Author/SS)

  16. Annoyance response to spectrally modified recorded aircraft noise during television-viewing.

    PubMed

    Gunn, W J; Shigehisa, T; Shepherd, W T

    1977-10-01

    Magnitude estimations of the annoyance of 27 individual noise stimuli were made by 24 Ss while viewing television; 8 different spectrum modifications of a basic aircraft noise were introduced at 3 overall intensities. The basic spectrum was that of an untreated commercial jet aircraft takeoff noise; the other 8 were created by removal of one of two amounts of energy from an octave band centerered at either .315, .8, 1.6, or 4 kc/s. An ANOVA showed significant annoyance differences for spectrum modification, overall noise intensity and their interaction. Annoyance reduction was greatest when energy was removed at the octave band centered at 1.6 kc/s, next at .8, and .315, and least at 4 kc/s. Although greater overall intensity reduction yielded progressively less annoyance with various spectrally-modified noises as well as unmodified noise, the spectrum modification was apparently most effective in reducing annoyance when the overall maximum noise intensity ranged from 88.0 to 89.1 dbA, and was least effective from 83.9 to 85.3 dbA. Annoyance reduction resulting from spectrum modification at a single octave band (centered at either .8 or 1.6 kc/s) was equivalent to that resulting from a 2.7 dbA overall intensity reduction. The results are discussed in terms of speech interference as well as intermodal effects of noise during television viewing. PMID:617812

  17. Television Viewing, Computer Use, Obesity, And Adiposity In US Preschool Children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested whether three sedentary activities were associated with obesity and adiposity in U.S. preschool children: 1) watching >2 hours/day of TV/videos, 2) computer use, and 3) >2 hours/day of media use (TV/videos and computer use). We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representat...

  18. Cultivation and counter cultivation: does religiosity shape the relationship between television viewing and estimates of crime prevalence and assessment of victimization likelihood?

    PubMed

    Hetsroni, Amir; Lowenstein, Hila

    2013-02-01

    Religiosity may change the direction of the effect of TV viewing on assessment of the likelihood of personal victimization and estimates concerning crime prevalence. A content analysis of a representative sample of TV programming (56 hours of prime-time shows) was done to identify the most common crimes on television, followed by a survey of a representative sample of the adult public in a large urban district (778 respondents) who were asked to estimate the prevalence of these crimes and to assess the likelihood of themselves being victimized. People who defined themselves as non-religious increased their estimates of prevalence for crimes often depicted on TV, as they reported more time watching TV (ordinary cultivation effect), whereas estimates regarding the prevalence of crime and assessment of victimization likelihood among religious respondents were lower with reports of more time devoted to television viewing (counter-cultivation effect). PMID:23654044

  19. Beginnings and Beyond: The Relationship between Television Violence and Neurodevelopment of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes research findings on the effect of televised violence on young children's behavior and neurodevelopment. Suggests ways parents can manage their child's television viewing and outlines activities for early childhood educators to incorporate into their curriculum to help children cope with television. Asserts that it is essential that…

  20. Television the Medium, the Message and Nutritional Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Laurie A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a review of research linking nutritional health and body image attitudes with television viewing. Highlights include content analyses of advertisements and programming; audience uses of television; television as reality; socialization of attitudes and television; television, body image and self-esteem; television and health behaviors; and…

  1. Religion and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbner, George; And Others

    This 2-year study was conducted to investigate the nature of religious television, its viewers, and its effect on mainline or other local churches. Four specific areas were addressed: the nature of the viewing audience, the content of religious television, the appeals and satisfactions (uses and functions) of religious programs, and behavioral…

  2. FUNDAMENTALS OF TELEVISION SYSTEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KESSLER, WILLIAM J.

    DESIGNED FOR A READER WITHOUT SPECIAL TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE, THIS ILLUSTRATED RESOURCE PAPER EXPLAINS THE COMPONENTS OF A TELEVISION SYSTEM AND RELATES THEM TO THE COMPLETE SYSTEM. SUBJECTS DISCUSSED ARE THE FOLLOWING--STUDIO ORGANIZATION AND COMPATIBLE COLOR TELEVISION PRINCIPLES, WIRED AND RADIO TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS, DIRECT VIEW AND PROJECTION…

  3. Television at Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; Frazer, Charles F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses children as television viewers capable of manipulating the co-viewing setting by interpreting, constructing, and carrying out planned lines of play in relation to television and its content. Examples illustrate program-oriented and free-form improvisational play situations. (JMF)

  4. Television Violence and Your Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sally; Crane, Valerie

    Television programing has a high degree of credibility to the undiscriminating eyes of children. Programing on commercial television is composed of shows produced specifically for children and shows formerly made for adults but now shown as reruns. Observation and imitation of behavior viewed on television by children may be a link to aggressive…

  5. Television Images: Exploring How They Affect People's View of Self and Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrin, Julie R.

    2009-01-01

    Through television, many different images of ethnic, cultural, and ability groups are presented. Different people perceive these images in different ways. These perceptions affect how people value themselves and judge and interact with others. This article first summaries research on TV images and people's meaning and reaction to them. Second, it…

  6. The associations of physical activity and television watching with change in kidney function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Marquis; Newman, Anne B.; Madero, Magdalena; Patel, Kushang V.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Cooper, Jennifer; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Fried, Linda F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physical activity (PA) may play a role in preserving kidney health. The purpose of this study was to determine if PA and sedentary behavior are associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and change in kidney function in older adults. METHODS The Health, Aging and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of 3,075 well-functioning older adults. PA and television watching was measured by self-report and serum cystatin C was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Rapid kidney function decline was defined as an annual loss in eGFR of >3ml/min/1.73m2. Discrete survival analysis was used to determine if baseline PA and television watching were related to 10-year cumulative incidence of CKD and rapid decline in kidney function. RESULTS Individuals who reported watching television >3 hours/day had a higher risk of incident CKD (HR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.65) and experiencing a rapid decline in kidney function (HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.05, 1.52) compared to individuals who watched television < 2 hours/day. PA was not related to either outcome. CONCLUSIONS High levels of television watching are associated with declining kidney function; the mechanisms that underlie this association need further study. PMID:24762526

  7. Effects of Viewing the Television Program Between the Lions on the Emergent Literacy Skills of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linebarger, Deborah L.; Kosanic, Anjelika Z.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Doku, Nii Sai

    2004-01-01

    Does viewing Between the Lions, an educational television series featuring literacy instruction, improve the emergent literacy skills of kindergarten and first-grade children? Do improvements vary as a function of the child's initial reading risk status? In this study, higher word recognition and standardized reading test scores were noted for all…

  8. Television-Viewing and Imaginative Play in Pre-Schoolers: A Developmental and Parent-Intervention Study, Progress Report #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jerome L.; Singer, Dorothy G.

    This study examined the patterns of ongoing play manifested over a year's time by 141 three- and four-year-old boys and girls at nursery schools and daycare centers. The relationships between such play and concurrent language usage and the child's patterns of television viewing at home were examined during this period. Parents of the children were…

  9. From Ally McBeal to Sabado Gigante: Contributions of Television Viewing to the Gender Role Attitudes of Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Ward, L. Monique

    2005-01-01

    Although previous findings indicate that frequent television viewing is associated with holding more stereotypical attitudes about gender, no studies have examined this connection among Latino youth, who are frequent viewers of both English- and Spanish-language programming. The present study attempted to rectify this situation by examining…

  10. A Sociological Study of Children's Use of Television Commercials to Initiate Social Interaction in Family Group Viewing Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; Frazer, Charles F.

    In a two-stage procedure to discover how children use television commercials in family group viewing situations, researchers first conducted thirty family interviews with as many family members present as possible; then they selected nine children's families for extended (three month) participant observation to study the formative aspects of each…

  11. Parental Involvement in Middle Childhood: Can It Protect Children from Harmful TV Viewing Habits and Behavior? Fact Sheet. Publication #2008-28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbwana, Kassim; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2008-01-01

    School-age children spend more time watching television than in any other activity except sleeping. Although some studies have suggested that watching educational programs can have positive effects on learning and behavior, numerous studies have found an association between television viewing and negative childhood outcomes. This study finds that…

  12. Exploring Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William

    "Exploring Television" is an inquiry/discovery textbook designed to help students to understand, analyze, criticize, evaluate, and judge the experiences they have had in front of the television set. The text consists of three main parts. "The Medium" inquires into the radio-movie origins of television and prompts research into the networks and…

  13. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity. PMID:24892903

  14. Az Altalanos Iskola Kezdo Evei es a Tanulok Otthoni TV-Nezese (The First Grades of Primary School and the Pupils' Television-Watching at Home).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suranyi, Balint

    A study incorporated into classroom activities knowledge gained by Hungarian primary students' television viewing at home, as well as assessing the effects of this practice. A secondary purpose was to improve the level of the children's television viewing. Subjects, first and second graders in 15 classes in the capital city, a country town and…

  15. Locus of Control, Television Viewing, and Eating Disorder Symptomatology in Young Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouts, Gregory; Vaughan, Kimberley

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the effects of locus of control and television watching on eating disorder symptomatology in girls between the ages 10-17 years. Girls with an external locus of control had significantly greater eating disorder symptomatology. Girls who watched higher amounts of television and had an external locus of control had significantly greater…

  16. The Association between Television-Viewing Behaviors and Adolescent Dating Role Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Lebo, Melanie J.

    2008-01-01

    Two hundred and fifteen ninth grade students were surveyed to examine the relationship between television use and gender role attitudes and behavior in dating situations. Findings indicate the existence of a relationship between watching "romantic" television programming and having more traditional gender role attitudes in dating situations.…

  17. Naturally Occurring Changes in Time Spent Watching Television Are Inversely Related to Frequency of Physical Activity during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with…

  18. Television: Travesty and Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagana, Joseph F.; Iannacone, George

    1977-01-01

    Argues against the effectiveness of the family viewing plan described in an earlier issue of the "Bulletin," and offers recommendations urging the Federal Communications Commission to assume more of a social responsibility in regulating television. (IRT)

  19. CABOODLE: An Arts and Humanities Television Series for Children. Final Report. Section I: Summary of Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Texas Public Broadcasting Council, Austin.

    This chronological summary describes the activities of the group that is developing CABOODLE, a children's educational television series in the arts and humanities, for the year 1978. Program areas reviewed include project personnel, project administration, curriculum design, physical facilities, materials and script development, research and…

  20. Rationale and Activities of Project on Television in Early Education: Progress Report, July - December 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Margaret E.; Williams, Frederick

    This progress report discusses the rationale and activities of the Project on Television in Early Childhood Education at the University of Southern California. Since January 1975, the Annenberg School and the School for Early Childhood Education have cooperated in a program of faculty and student interaction and informal research projects aimed at…

  1. Correlates of child activity and television: The contribution of children's athletic identity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is evidence that athletic self-concept can be both an important outcome and/or a mediating variable for physical activity in children and adolescents. However much less is known about the relationship between sedentary behaviors, such as television with athletic self-concept. This study exam...

  2. Proposed Literacy Program Activities for Educational Radio and Television of Iran. Technical Report No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekka, Lawrence T.

    This report proposes a role for Educational Radio and Television of Iran (ERTI) in the national literacy campaign. Joint planning activities are proposed between ERTI and the National World Literacy Campaign (NWLC) to develop long range media support of the campaign. Key findings and recommendations are summarized. Subsequent sections give…

  3. "Television" Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2010-01-01

    In an art class, children browse through space-age knobs, robot antennas and gyroscopic signal searchers. They extend space needle antennas before turning on an old TV. They discover the sights and sounds of televisions past, hearing the hiss, the gathering power, and seeing the blinking eye, the black-and-white light and blurry images projected…

  4. A correlational and experimental examination of reality television viewing and interest in cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Markey, Charlotte N; Markey, Patrick M

    2010-03-01

    Two studies are presented that examine the influence of media messages about cosmetic surgery on youths' interest in altering their own physical appearance. In Study 1, 170 participants (59% female; M age=19.77 years) completed surveys assessing their impression of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery, appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and their interest in cosmetic surgery. Results indicated that participants who reported favorable impressions of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery were more likely to indicate interest in pursuing surgery. One hundred and eighty-nine participants (51% female; M age=19.84 years) completed Study 2. Approximately half of the participants were exposed to a television message featuring a surgical make-over; the other half was exposed to a neutral message. Results indicated that participants who watched a television program about cosmetic surgery wanted to alter their own appearance using cosmetic surgery more than did participants who were not exposed to this program. PMID:20089464

  5. Locus of control, television viewing, and eating disorder symptomatology in young females.

    PubMed

    Fouts, Gregory; Vaughan, Kimberley

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of locus of control and television watching (number of hours of television watched per week) on eating disorder symptomatology in girls between the ages 10-17 years. A 2 x 2 factorial design was employed in which girls were identified either as (a) being higher or lower viewers of television, and (b) having either an external or internal locus of control. Girls with an external locus of control had significantly greater eating disorder symptomatology than those with an internal locus of control. For girls watching higher amounts of television, those having an external locus of control had significantly greater eating disorder symptomatology than those having an internal locus of control. PMID:12128041

  6. Correction of chromatic aberrations at television registration of image through protective viewing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyas, Oleg L.; Nikitin, Konstantin A.

    2016-03-01

    Ways of chromatic aberration in images are examined and analyzed which are generated at television supervision through protective glasses of a considerable thickness. The results of experimental check up of the given method of correction is introduced and described.

  7. Revisiting the Association Between Television Viewing in Adolescence and Contact With the Criminal Justice System in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2016-09-01

    A substantial number of previous studies have reported significant associations between television viewing habits and a host of detrimental outcomes including increased contact with the criminal justice system. However, it remains unclear whether the results flowing from this literature are generalizable to other samples and whether previously observed associations are confounded due to uncontrolled genetic influences. The current study addresses these limitations using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The results of the preliminary models, which do not include controls for genetic influences, produced a pattern of results similar to those previously reported in the extant literature. The results of the genetically informed models revealed that the associations between television viewing and antisocial outcomes are not causal, but rather are driven by uncontrolled genetic influences. Further replication is required, but these findings suggest that results drawn from the extant literature may not be trustworthy. PMID:25818861

  8. Naturally occurring changes in time spent watching television are inversely related to frequency of physical activity during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Lytle, Leslie A

    2006-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with an increase in frequency of leisure-time physical activity. That relationship was strong in magnitude and independent of sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, and the value participants placed on health, appearance, and achievement. Our results encourage the design of interventions that reduce television watching as a possible means of increasing adolescent physical activity. PMID:16338428

  9. The effects of listening to music or viewing television on human gait.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Findlay, Briar; Merey, Celeste; Chau, Tom

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a two-part study with walking conditions involving music and television (TV) to investigate their effects on human gait. In the first part, we observed seventeen able-bodied adults as they participated in three 15-minute walking trials: (1) without music, (2) with music and (3) without music again. In the second part, we observed fifteen able-bodied adults as they walked on a treadmill for 15 min while watching (1) TV with sound (2) TV without sound and (3) TV with subtitles but no sound. Gait timing was recorded via bilateral heel sensors and center-of-mass accelerations were measured by tri-axial accelerometers. Measures of statistical persistence, dynamic stability and gait variability were calculated. Our results showed that none of the considered gait measures were statistically different when comparing music with no-music trials. Therefore, walking to music did not appear to affect intrinsic walking dynamics in the able-bodied adult population. However, stride interval variability and stride interval dynamics were significantly greater in the TV with sound walking condition when compared to the TV with subtitles condition. Treadmill walking while watching TV with subtitles alters intrinsic gait dynamics but potentially offers greater gait stability. PMID:24034741

  10. The effects of listening to music or viewing television on human gait

    PubMed Central

    Sejdić, Ervin; Findlay, Briar; Merey, Celeste; Chau, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a two-part study with walking conditions involving music and television (TV) to investigate their effects on human gait. In the first part, we observed seventeen able-bodied adults as they participated in three 15-minute walking trials: 1. without music, 2. with music and 3. without music again. In the second part, we observed fifteen able-bodied adults as they walked on a treadmill for fifteen minutes while watching 1. TV with sound 2. TV without sound and 3. TV with subtitles but no sound. Gait timing was recorded via bilateral heel sensors and center-of-mass accelerations were measured by tri-axial accelerometers. Measures of statistical persistence, dynamic stability and gait variability were calculated. Our results showed that none of the considered gait measures were statistically different when comparing music with no-music trials. Therefore, walking to music did not appear to affect intrinsic walking dynamics in the able-bodied adult population. However, stride interval variability and stride interval dynamics were significantly greater in the TV with sound walking condition when compared to the TV with subtitles condition. Treadmill walking while watching TV with subtitles alters intinsic gait dynamics but potentially offers greater gait stability. PMID:24034741

  11. Television viewing at mealtime reduces caloric compensation in peripubertal, but not postpubertal, girls.

    PubMed

    Patel, Barkha P; Bellissimo, Nick; Thomas, Scott G; Hamilton, Jill K; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-11-01

    The effect of television viewing (TVV) and pubertal status of 9- to 14-y-old girls on mealtime food intake (FI) after a premeal glucose drink was determined. On four separate mornings, girls randomly received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control) or glucose (1.0 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast. FI from an ad libitum pizza meal was measured 30 min later with or without TVV. Appetite was measured at 15 min intervals to lunch and postmeal. TVV at mealtime had no effect on FI, however, glucose suppressed FI more with no TVV compared with TVV (24 versus 10%, p < 0.001), primarily because of its effect in peripubertal girls (p < 0.028). In postpubertal girls (n = 8), glucose reduced FI by ~27% in both the no TVV and TVV conditions, but in peripubertal girls (n = 17), reduction in FI was 22% without TVV and only 1% while TVV. Appetite correlated with FI at 30 min only in postpubertal girls. TVV at mealtime reduced caloric compensation after consumption of the glucose drink in peripubertal, but not postpubertal, girls, with no effect on mealtime FI. (Clinical trial number NCT01025687.) PMID:21772226

  12. Adolescent soft drink consumption, television viewing and habit strength. Investigating clustering effects in the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; van den Putte, Bas

    2009-08-01

    Clustering refers to the co-occurrence of behaviour and may be particularly relevant in light of the present obesity epidemic. Since evidence regarding clustering of motivational and habitual constructs within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is limited, clustering effects of TPB cognitions and habit strength regarding soft drink consumption and television viewing were studied in a sample of Dutch adolescents (n = 312; mean age = 14.62; SD = 1.62) using cross-sectional data. Results showed that not only soft drink consumption and television viewing cluster (r = .42), but also their intentional (r = .36) and habitual (r = .37) constructs. Furthermore, unmediated effects were found between habit strength and its respective behaviour, whereas habit strength was associated with its clustered behaviour through decreased perceptions of controllability. Our findings suggest that interventions that aim to change habitual soft drink consumption and television viewing may need to incorporate an environmental component, as well as explore the potential usefulness of synergistic effects of incorporating multiple clustered behaviours, as well as their corresponding beliefs and habits in health behaviour change interventions. PMID:19463873

  13. Presidential Elections in the Age of Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    2000-01-01

    Explores the role of television in politics providing historical examples of the use of television and its possible effects on elections. Focuses on television as the dominant medium for politics, the connections among television, advertising, and political money, and ideas for reforming the electoral process. Includes a teaching activity on…

  14. The Relationship between Television Viewing and Unhealthy Eating: Implications for Children and Media Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The concern over increasing rates of obesity and associated health issues have led to calls for solutions to the potentially unhealthy influence of television and food advertising on children's diets. Research demonstrates that children's food preferences are acquired through learning processes, and that these preferences have long-lasting effects on diet. We examined food preferences and eating behaviors among college students, and assessed the relative influence of two potential contributors: parental communication and television experience. In line with previous studies with children, prior television experience continued to predict unhealthy food preferences and diet in early adulthood, and perceived taste had the most direct relationship to both healthy and unhealthy diets. In addition, both television experience and parenting factors independently influenced preferences and diet. These findings provide insights into the potential effectiveness of alternative media interventions to counteract the unhealthy influence of television on diet, including nutrition education, parental communication and media literacy education to teach children to defend against unwanted influence, and reduced exposure to unhealthy messages. PMID:20183373

  15. An Educator Looks at Home Television -- TV or Not TV: That Is the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hilmar

    1979-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of home television are examined from a developmental point of view, and recommendations for action by educators and parents are made. Strengths considered are educational growth, aesthetic development, and entertainment. Weaknesses discussed include television violence and aggressive behavior, passivity by viewer, and…

  16. Television Viewing Habits and Their Relationship to Tolerance toward People with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granello, Darcy Haag; Pauley, Pamela S.

    2000-01-01

    Study investigates individuals who receive their information about mental illness primarily from. Results reveal that the amount of television watched per week was significantly and positively related to intolerance and that the type of show watched accounted for significant variance in measures of tolerance toward people with mental illness.…

  17. The Mass Media and Political Behavior: Television Viewing Habits and Vote Turnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellstedt, Lyman A.

    Data from a 1976 election study were used to compare the effects of different types of television watching (daytime, evening entertainment, news, campaign programing, presidential debates) on voter turnout and to compare these effects with those of other media (radio, magazines, newspapers). After controlling for the effects of the traditional…

  18. "Medicine Today;" A Small Scale Trial of Subjective Responses of Doctors Viewing Television in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyrick, R. L.

    The intent of this admittedly small scale and unsophisticated trial was to test the response of General Practitioners to being given a form to fill out following a television broadcast, to test the value of the semantic differential method for testing subjective responses to the programs, and to see if some means of testing by multiple-choice…

  19. Family Television Viewing Habits and the Spontaneous Play of Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.

    This research study examined ways in which exposure to a children's television show (Misterogers' Neighborhood) would enhance the spontaneous imaginative play of children after several weeks. The project, which is detailed extensively elsewhere, involved a comparison of three groups of preschool children in a day care center who either: (1)…

  20. Public Television Viewing in a Dual Channel Market: Some Big Surprises! Info. Packets No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoy, David; LeRoy, Judith

    In a recent study of the Tampa (Florida) market, TRAC Media Services acquired some interesting information about the market's response to its two public television stations. WEDU is a VHF-signal community station that reaches about 745,000 households in a week, and WUSF is a university-licensed UHF station that reaches about 547,000. Month-long…

  1. Prime-Time Television: Assessing Violence during the Most Popular Viewing Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stacy L.; Nathanson, Amy I.; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the prevalence and context of violence in prime-time television programming using a random, representative sample. Shows that, regardless of the time of day, viewers are likely to encounter violence in roughly 2 out of 3 programs. Identifies specific channel types and genres that feature potentially harmful depictions of violence during…

  2. Four Masculine Styles in Television Programming: A Study of the Viewing Preferences of Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Raymond L.; And Others

    Since television programs portray a wide variety of masculine styles, this aspect of a program may become the most important feature for adolescent boys seeking information about ideal prototypes. The program preferences of a sample of 14-year-old boys, evenly divided between white and black and between aggressive and non-aggressive subjects, were…

  3. Television viewing and its association with overweight in Colombian children: results from the 2005 National Nutrition Survey: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Luis F; Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Samper, Belen; Moreno, José; Jacoby, Enrique; Lucumi, Diego I; Matsudo, Sandra; Borda, Catalina

    2007-01-01

    Background There has been an ongoing discussion about the relationship between time spent watching television and childhood obesity. This debate has special relevance in the Latin American region were the globalization process has increased the availability of screen-based entertainment at home. The aim of this study is to examine the association between television viewing and weight status in Colombian children. Methods This cross sectional investigation included children aged 5 to12 yrs from the National Nutrition Survey in Colombia (ENSIN 2005). Weight and height were measured in 11,137 children in order to calculate body mass index. Overweight was defined by international standards. Time spent viewing television was determined for these children through parental reports. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for different subgroups and adjusted for potential confounders in order to study the association between television viewing and weight status in this population. Results Among the surveyed children, 41.5% viewed television less than two hours/day; 36.8% between two and 3.9 hours/day and 21.7% four or more hours/day. The prevalence of overweight (obesity inclusive) in this population was 11.1%. Children who were classified as excessive television viewers (between two and 3.9 hours/day or 4 or more hours/day) were more likely to be overweight (OR: 1.44 95% CI: 1.41–1.47 and OR: 1.32 95% CI: 1.30–1.34, respectively) than children who reported to watch television less than 2 hours/day. Stratified analyses by age, gender and urbanization levels showed similar results. Conclusion Television viewing was positively associated with the presence of overweight in Colombian children. A positive association between urbanization level and television viewing was detected. Considering that the majority of Colombian children lives in densely populated cities and appear to engage in excessive television viewing these findings are of public health relevance

  4. Interactive Cable Television. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Active Learning Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

    This report describes an interactive video system developed by Active Learning Systems which utilizes a cable television (TV) network as its delivery system to transmit computer literacy lessons to high school and college students. The system consists of an IBM PC, Pioneer LDV 4000 videodisc player, and Whitney Supercircuit set up at the head end…

  5. AN EXPERIMENT, WITH EVALUATION, IN THE ERADICATION OF ADULT ILLITERACY BY USE OF TELEVISION INSTRUCTION OVER A STATE EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION NETWORK SUPPLEMENTED BY SUPERVISED GROUP VIEWING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEERSON, NELL; AND OTHERS

    THE APPLICATION OF THE LAUBACH METHOD TO TEACH ILLITERATE ADULTS BY TELEVISION WAS REPORTED. THE PROGRAM INVOLVED 600 STUDENTS OF WHOM 250 COMPLETED THE COURSE OF STUDY. THE STUDENTS WERE ILLITERATES ABOUT 40 YEARS OF AGE WITH 2 TO 3 YEARS OF FORMAL SCHOOLING. LESSONS WERE PREPARED AND TELECAST USING MATERIAL DEVELOPED BY F.C. LAUBACH. CLASSES…

  6. Television, Obesity, and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Dietz

    1993-10-01

    Two national survey from the early 1960s indicate that the prevalence of obesity is directly related to the amount of time spent in viewing television in young people aged 6 to 17 years. The author discusses the mechanisms by which television affects obesity and other eating disorders. PMID:10356231

  7. Associations of Television Content Type and Obesity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Janice F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the associations of content types of children's television viewing with subsequent body mass index (BMI) to assess the plausibility of different causal pathways. Methods. We used time-use diary data from the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics to measure television viewing categorized by format and educational and commercial content. Analyses were stratified by age because children younger than 7 years are less able to understand the persuasive intent of advertising. BMI z scores in 2002 were regressed on television viewing, sociodemographic variables, mother's BMI, and BMI in 1997 (for older children only). Results. Among children aged 0 to 6 years in 1997, commercial viewing in 1997 was significantly associated with BMI z scores in 2002 in fully adjusted regressions. Among children older than 6 years, commercial viewing in 2002 was associated with 2002 BMI. These results were robust after adjustment for exercise and eating while watching television. Conclusions. The evidence does not support the contention that television viewing contributes to obesity because it is a sedentary activity. Television advertising, rather than viewing per se, is associated with obesity. PMID:20019313

  8. Television's Impact on Fantasy Play: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Voort, Tom H.; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research literature on television's influence on children's fantasy play. Notes evidence that television viewing absorbs time that children would otherwise spend in play and that television's influence on play depends on the types of programs watched. Examines whether television viewing influences fantasy play positively or negatively and…

  9. A Methodology for Criticism of Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Vicki

    This paper offers a critical approach to television viewing that considers the literary and rhetorical impact of television programing. The methodology described is composed of three stages of criticism that are designed to examine and describe television drama: (1) the descriptive stage, in which the critic examines the plot, characters,…

  10. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  11. Digital Television: The Future of Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maushak, Nancy; Cheng, Yahua; Wang, Hsi-chih

    Digital technology has turned a new page for television broadcasting. The convergence of television and computer has brought about powerful effects to television viewing experiences. Digital broadcasting combined with the Internet is conceived as a new driving force that will change the mode of learning in the very near future. Many educators…

  12. Television and the Brain: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Katherine V.

    In recent years, a number of claims have appeared in the popular media and press suggesting that television viewing has potentially detrimental effects on human brain development or activity. An extensive review of the published scientific literature finds that virtually no credible experimental evidence appears to exist in the current literature…

  13. An investigation of stride interval stationarity while listening to music or viewing television.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Jeffery, Rebecca; Vanden Kroonenberg, Alanna; Chau, Tom

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of auditory and visual distractions on pedestrian ambulation. A fundamental temporal characteristic of ambulation is the temporal fluctuation of the stride interval. In this paper, we investigate the stationarity of stride interval time series when people are exposed to different forms of auditory and visual distractions. An increase in nonstationary behavior may be suggestive of divided attention and more frequent central modulation of locomotion, both of which may have ramifications on pedestrian vigilance and responsiveness to environmental perturbations. One group of fifteen able-bodied (6 females) young adult participants completed a music protocol (overground walking with and without music). A second group of fifteen (7 females) did a television protocol (treadmill walking while watching TV with and without sound). Three walking trials, each 15min in duration, were performed at each participant's comfortable walking speed, with force sensitive resistors under the heel of each foot. Using the reverse arrangements test, the vast majority of time series were nonstationary, with a time-varying mean as the principal source of nonstationarity. Furthermore, the television trial with sound had the greatest number of nonstationarities followed by overground walking while listening to music. We discuss the possibility that these conditions measurably affect gait dynamics through a subconscious synchronization to external rhythms or a cyclic distraction followed by a period of increased conscious correction of gait timing. Our findings suggest that the regulation of stride timing is particularly susceptible to constant, time-evolving auditory stimuli, but that normal pacing can be restored quickly upon stimulus withdrawal. These kinds of sensory distractions should thus be carefully considered in studies of pedestrian ambulation. PMID:21820194

  14. An investigation of stride interval stationarity while listening to music or viewing television

    PubMed Central

    Sejdić, Ervin; Jeffery, Rebecca; Kroonenberg, Alanna Vanden; Chau, Tom

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of auditory and visual distractions on pedestrian ambulation. A fundamental temporal characteristic of ambulation is the temporal fluctuation of the stride interval. In this paper, we investigate the stationarity of stride interval time series when people are exposed to different forms of auditory and visual distractions. An increase in nonstationary behavior may be suggestive of divided attention and more frequent central modulation of locomotion, both of which may have ramifications on pedestrian vigilance and responsiveness to environmental perturbations. One group of fifteen able-bodied (6 females) young adult participants completed a music protocol (overground walking with and without music). A second group of fifteen (7 females) did a television protocol (treadmill walking while watching TV with and without sound). Three walking trials, each 15 minutes in duration, were performed at each participant’s comfortable walking speed, with force sensitive resistors under the heel of each foot. Using the reverse arrangements test, the vast majority of time series were nonstationary, with a time-varying mean as the principal source of nonstationarity. Furthermore, the television trial with sound had the greatest number of nonstationarities followed by overground walking while listening to music. We discuss the possibility that these conditions measurably affect gait dynamics through a subconscious synchronization to external rhythms or a cyclic distraction followed by a period of increased conscious correction of gait timing. Our findings suggest that the regulation of stride timing is particularly susceptible to constant, time-evolving auditory stimuli, but that normal pacing can be restored quickly upon stimulus withdrawal. These kinds of sensory distractions should thus be carefully considered in studies of pedestrian ambulation. PMID:21820194

  15. The Relations of Early Television Viewing to School Readiness and Vocabulary of Children from Low-Income Families: The Early Window Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, John C.; Auston, Aletha C.; Murphy, Kimberlee C.; St. Peters, Michelle; Pinon, Ronda Scantlin; Kotler, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Collected time-use diaries of television viewing from two cohorts of children (ages 2-5 and 4-7) from low-income families and gave annual tests of reading, math, receptive vocabulary, and school readiness. Found that viewing of child-audience informative programs between ages 2 and 3 predicted higher academic performance. Frequent viewers of…

  16. Benchmarking the cultivation approach to video game effects: a comparison of the correlates of TV viewing and game play.

    PubMed

    Van Mierlo, Jan; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2004-02-01

    This study found significant relationships between first- and second-order cultivation measures and TV viewing, but found a relationship with video game play for only two variables in a sample of 322 Flemish 3rd and 6th year secondary school children. This suggests that the absence of a relationship with video game play is not the result of the absence of cultivation effects in Flanders. On the other hand it shows that the relationship between TV viewing and cultivation measures is not an artifact of systematic over reporting. The study concludes that cultivation measures typical of the "television world" are not related to playing video games. To study video game cultivation measures must be sought which reflect the mainstream of (particular genres of) video games. The role of selectivity needs to be studied more closely. As gamers play an active role in the violence of the games the possibility that self-protecting strategies are employed in processing video game contents must be taken into consideration. Existing process theories explaining what happens in television cultivation may be challenged by research into the cultivation effects of video games. PMID:15013263

  17. On learning science and pseudoscience from prime-time television programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittle, Christopher Henry

    The purpose of the present dissertation is to determine whether the viewing of two particular prime-time television programs, ER and The X-Files, increases viewer knowledge of science and to identify factors that may influence learning from entertainment television programming. Viewer knowledge of scientific dialogue from two science-based prime-time television programs, ER, a serial drama in a hospital emergency room and The X-Files, a drama about two Federal Bureau of Investigation agents who pursue alleged extraterrestrial life and paranormal activity, is studied. Level of viewing, education level, science education level, experiential factors, level of parasocial interaction, and demographic characteristics are assessed as independent variables affecting learning from entertainment television viewing. The present research involved a nine-month long content analysis of target television program dialogue and data collection from an Internet-based survey questionnaire posted to target program-specific on-line "chat" groups. The present study demonstrated that entertainment television program viewers incidentally learn science from entertainment television program dialogue. The more they watch, the more they learn. Viewing a pseudoscientific fictional television program does necessarily influence viewer beliefs in pseudoscience. Higher levels of formal science study are reflected in more science learning and less learning of pseudoscience from entertainment television program viewing. Pseudoscience learning from entertainment television programming is significantly related to experience with paranormal phenomena, higher levels of viewer parasocial interaction, and specifically, higher levels of cognitive parasocial interaction. In summary, the greater a viewer's understanding of science the more they learn when they watch their favorite science-based prime-time television programs. Viewers of pseudoscience-based prime-time television programming with higher levels

  18. Educational Television in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Narendra; Chandiram, Jai

    In a program launched in 1961, more than one and a half million students in nearly three-hundred Delhi Secondary Schools regularly view television lessons closely related to their prescribed course of studies. The outstanding elements in the Delhi scheme are: planning, cooperation at all levels, integration with the syllabi in the schools, and…

  19. Film, Radio, and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This journal issue covers the history of film, radio, and television in Iowa. The first article, "When Pictures and Sound Came to Iowa," summarizes the origin of movies and radio and their early beginnings in Iowa. Using old photographs and measurement charts, the viewing, reading, and listening habits of young people in 1950 and 1958 are…

  20. Psychometric validity of the parent's outcome expectations for children's television viewing (POETV) scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TV and other screen use are common among elementary-school-aged children with both potential benefits and harms. It is not clear why some parents restrict their children's screen use and others do not. Parents' outcome expectations for allowing their child to watch TV and other screen media, i.e., t...

  1. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  2. Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The report summarizes information about the history, technology and operation of educational television (ETV) in the U.S. The history of educational broadcasting is outlined from 1941 when the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved applications for five noncommercial FM radio channels, to 1967 and the passing of the Public Broadcasting…

  3. Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) presents a brief description of cable television and explains some basic regulations pertaining to it. The history of cable regulation covers the initial jurisdiction, economic considerations of the regulation, court tests, and the holding of public hearings. The major provisions of new cable rules are…

  4. Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This report provides information about cable television and the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating its operation. The initial jurisdiction and rules covered in this report pertain to the court test, public hearing, certificate of compliance, franchising, signal carriage, leapfrogging, access and origination…

  5. Genre-Specific Cultivation Effects: Lagged Associations between Overall TV Viewing, Local TV News Viewing, and Fatalistic Beliefs about Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation theory and research has been criticized for its failure to consider variation in effects by genre, employ appropriate third-variable controls, and determine causal direction. Recent studies, controlling for a variety of demographic characteristics and media use variables, have found that exposure to local television (TV) newscasts is associated with a variety of problematic “real-world” beliefs. However, many of these studies have not adequately assessed causal direction. Redressing this limitation, we analyzed data from a two-wave national representative survey which permitted tests of lagged association between overall TV viewing, local TV news viewing, and fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention. We first replicated the original cultivation effect and found a positive association between overall TV viewing at time 1 and increased fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention at time 2. Analyses also provided evidence that local TV news viewing at time 1 predicts increased fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention at time 2. There was little evidence for reverse causation in predicting changes in overall TV viewing or local TV news viewing. The paper concludes with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:25605981

  6. "What Are You Viewing?" Exploring the Pervasive Social TV Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Raimund; Baillie, Lynne; Fröhlich, Peter; Egger, Sebastian; Grechenig, Thomas

    The vision of pervasive TV foresees users engaging with interactive video services across a variety of contexts and user interfaces. Following this idea, this chapter extends traditional Social TV toward the notion of pervasive Social TV (PSTV) by including mobile viewing scenarios. We discuss social interaction enablers that integrate TV content consumption and communication in the context of two case studies that evaluate Social TV on mobile smartphones as well as the traditional set-top-box-based setup. We report on the impact of social features such as text-chat, audio-chat, and synchronized channel-choice on the end-user's media experience. By analyzing the commonalities and the differences between mobile and living-room Social TV that we found, we provide guidance on the design of pervasive Social TV systems as well as on future research issues.

  7. Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Adolescent Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationship between television viewing frequency and adolescents' health-related and psychosocial characteristics. Found that shyness and exercise frequency predicted television viewing frequency. Among females, exercise frequency, shyness, loneliness, and perceived attractiveness predicted viewing frequency. Light viewers exercised more…

  8. Television Violence: Content, Context, and Consequences. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reports recent findings on violent television content, highlights the recently developed television ratings system, and offers suggestions for parental mediation of children's television viewing. The National Television Violence Study has demonstrated that not all violence is equal. Certain plot elements in portrayals of violence are…

  9. The Relation between Television Exposure and Executive Function among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…

  10. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    PubMed

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake. PMID:26921486

  11. NFE-TV: Television for Nonformal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Jonathan Forrest

    This study develops guidelines for the use of television in nonformal education in developing countries. Its recommendations are based on analysis of three cases of television usage: in the formal educational system in El Salvador, community development in village Alaska, and in nonformal education for parenthood in Bogota, Colombia. A selective…

  12. Television and Metaphors of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, Jane

    1992-01-01

    The experience of television viewing should be part of the literacy curriculum, enabling students to explore and reflect on their interests as critical participants in their cultural environment. (SK)

  13. Television Monitoring System for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallow, K.; Gordon, S.

    1986-01-01

    Welding process in visually inaccessible spots viewed and recorded. Television system enables monitoring of welding in visually inaccessible locations. System assists welding operations and provide video record, used for weld analysis and welder training.

  14. Elementary and Secondary Educational Services of Public Television Grantees: Highlights from the 1997 Station Activities Survey. CPB Research Notes, No. 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This report provides a summary of K-12 educational services offered by Corporation for Public Broadcasting-supported television stations from CPB's annual Station Activities Survey. Stations are broken into cohorts by license type and budget size. The 1997 Station Activities Survey asked public television stations whether they provided…

  15. TV Violence: Myth and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, with an average national television viewing time of more than seven hours daily, the prevalence of violence in broadcasts is a serious concern. Summarizes research on the effects of television violence on children. Includes eight suggested student activities to develop critical media skills. (CFR)

  16. Television Planning in the 1952 Eisenhower Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkin, Steve M.

    This report of a study of the activities of a secret planning board, formed to promote the nomination of Dwight Eisenhower through the intensive use of television, concludes that the significance of television planning in the 1952 Eisenhower campaign had less to do with the outcome of the election than with the first massive use of television with…

  17. [Correlations between television viewing, attitudes toward the mentally ill and psychiatric professionals, and willingness to seek therapy].

    PubMed

    Németh, Erzsébet

    2009-01-01

    This study collected data proving that the images presented on television can have a significant influence over a person's social construction of reality. Television portrayals of psychologists and psychiatrist often contribute to an unfavourable perception of mental health services. The length of TV watching and exposure to frequency of comedy and drama significantly contribute to perceptions of stigma and negative expectations about psychological services that can lead to negative attitudes and lower intentions to seek such services. Results suggest it would be helpful for the spokespeople, and professionals to convey messages that provide information about the role of therapists, function of therapy, and how to seek help. Making better use of the television to educate the public about the services they offer could directly combat some of the inaccurate information portrayed on television that may increase people's concerns about seeking professional help. Hungarians spend a huge amount of time with television watching. Publishing scientific and popular articles in Hungarian, and acceptance of TV invitation are essential. PMID:19667424

  18. Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents. PMID:23477208

  19. Perceptions of Television Advertising Directed at Children: An Investigation of the Views of an Entire Community, April and May, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Frank N.; And Others

    A survey of 900 residents of Gainesville, Florida, conducted in April and May 1974 assessed their opinions on a number of statements regarding advertising and programing on children's television shows. Of the 14 statements used, 6 were worded so that the television advertiser might be regarded as a "good guy" or his "commercial as hero." The other…

  20. Historical Development of Television Aesthetics/Television Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    Even though television scholar Herbert Zettl singlehandedly created the term "television aesthetics" by proclaiming that TV is an art, television studies are still excluded from the respectable divisions and disciplines of knowledge. Television is considered the epitome of mass culture/kitsch, and the very idea of a TV "masterpiece," for example,…

  1. Children's coping after psychological stress. Choices among food, physical activity, and television.

    PubMed

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Roemmich, James N

    2012-10-01

    Children's stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if other behavioral alternatives are available. The purpose was to determine individual difference factors that moderate the duration of stress coping choices and to determine if stress-induced eating in youth persists when other stress coping behaviors are available. Thirty children (8-12 years) completed a speech stressor on one day and read magazines on another day. They completed a free-choice period with access to food, TV, and physical activity on both days. Dietary restraint moderated changes in time spent eating and energy consumed from the control to stress day. Children high in restraint increased their energy intake on the stress day. Changes in the time spent watching TV were moderated by usual TV time, as children higher in usual TV increased their TV time after stress. Thus, dietary restrained children eat more when stressed when other common stress coping behaviors are freely available. These results extend the external validity of laboratory studies of stress-induced eating. PMID:22634198

  2. Enhanced Television Strategy Models: A Study of TV Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Louisa

    2002-01-01

    Compares the use of enhanced television features and television commerce features on the Web sites of cable and broadcast television networks. Shows differences in strategies and site usability; proposes three enhanced television strategy models; and discusses implications on television revenue and viewership. (Author/LRW)

  3. Excessive TV viewing and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents. The AVENA cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Excessive television (TV) viewing might play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to examine the independent associations between TV viewing and CVD risk factors in adolescents. Methods A sample of 425 adolescents, aged 13- to 18.5-year-old, was included in this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) A-1, apo B-100, and lipoprotein(a) levels were determined. A composite CVD risk score was computed based on age-, sex-, sexual maturation- and race-standardized triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and glucose. TV viewing was self-reported. Results Two hundred and twenty-five adolescents (53%) who spent >3 hrs/day watching TV were considered as the "high TV viewing" group. Ninety-nine adolescents (23%) from the total sample were classified as overweight according to International age- and sex-specific BMI values. The high TV viewing group had significantly less favorable values of HDL-cholesterol, glucose, apo A1 and CVD score, independent of age, sex, sexual maturation, race and weight status. There was a significant interaction effect of TV viewing × weight status (P = 0.002) on WC, and the negative influence of TV viewing on WC persisted in the overweight group (P = 0.031) but was attenuated in non-overweight adolescents (P > 0.05). Conclusion Excessive TV viewing seems to be related to an unfavorable CVD risk factors profile in adolescence. Reducing TV viewing in overweight adolescents might be beneficial to decrease abdominal body fat. PMID:20500845

  4. No excuses: televised pornography harms children.

    PubMed

    Benedek, E P; Brown, C F

    1999-01-01

    All youngsters are at some risk from exposure to televised pornography, as described above. At particular risk for harm, however, are the most vulnerable children in our society--children in single-parent homes, children with mental and emotional disturbances, mentally challenged children, children who have been physically and/or sexually abused, and children in dysfunctional families. Youngsters for whom television serves as a babysitter or parental surrogate unfortunately are exposed to few competing influences to television viewing. In addition, parents in such homes are least likely to know what their children are viewing and to be able to pass on their own values about sex and sexual behavior. The main possible effects of televised pornography that must concern us as clinicians, educators, and parents are modeling and imitation of language heard and behaviors observed in televised pornography; negative interference with children's normal sexual development; emotional reactions such as nightmares and feelings of anxiety, guilt, confusion, and/or shame; stimulation of premature sexual activity; development of unrealistic, misleading, and/or harmful attitudes toward sex and adult male-female relationships; and undermining of family values with resultant conflict between parents and children. Much more research is clearly needed on this topic. Because of the ethical and procedural problems surrounding research on children exposed to pornography, ideal research designs may never be possible. Nonetheless, we hope that this article will stimulate further discussion and work. To devise public policy that protects children from potentially harmful material while at the same time respecting the media's First Amendment rights, such public discourse and responsible research are essential. PMID:10579105

  5. [Reform of the Italian radio and TV and the active presence of TV watchers. Psychological aspects].

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, A

    1975-09-12

    The psychological aspects of television reception are reviewed. It is suggested that the choice of programmes should take account of the value of viewing as a mental and individually affective stimulus, and with a proposal for contents directed to social groups. PMID:1161189

  6. Children and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevallier, Eric; Mansour, Sylvie

    1993-01-01

    This booklet examines the influence of television on children and adolescents in developing and developed nations, reviewing research on television's relationship to child health and development. The first section reviews specific research on such variables as number of television sets in use, amount of time spent watching television, age, sex,…

  7. Effect of Cable on Public Television: Two Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agostino, Donald E.; Avery, Robert K.

    Summaries are provided for two complementary studies assessing the effects of cable on public television in the areas of viewing patterns and viewer financial support. "The Cable Subscriber's Viewing of Public Television" consisted of an analysis of some 2,500 Arbitron television diaries from cable and noncable homes in 13 selected markets. The…

  8. How Do Adolescents' Perceptions of Television Reality Change over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James

    1992-01-01

    Finds that middle and high school students change their views of television watching along three ways of evaluating television: as a "magic window" to reality; as a utility route to information; and as an identity source of almost real people. Concludes that views of television reality are complex and dynamic. (SR)

  9. Teaching on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Anne G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes experiences in teaching with Interactive TV (ITV) network, and the mindsets and goals educators encounter in utilizing this technology. Presents four basic principles of teaching well on TV: television technology is a brand new member of the class, every student is present in class with you, our goal is not "good TV" but a good class,…

  10. 76 FR 66250 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Community Television of Ohio License, LLC (``Community Television''), the licensee of station WJW (TV... on its VHF channel. Many viewers reporting difficulty receiving WJW (TV)'s signal report they have...

  11. Potential hazards of viewing 3-D stereoscopic television, cinema and computer games: a review.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Peter A

    2011-03-01

    The visual stimulus provided by a 3-D stereoscopic display differs from that of the real world because the image provided to each eye is produced on a flat surface. The distance from the screen to the eye remains fixed, providing a single focal distance, but the introduction of disparity between the images allows objects to be located geometrically in front of, or behind, the screen. Unlike in the real world, the stimulus to accommodation and the stimulus to convergence do not match. Although this mismatch is used positively in some forms of Orthoptic treatment, a number of authors have suggested that it could negatively lead to the development of asthenopic symptoms. From knowledge of the zone of clear, comfortable, single binocular vision one can predict that, for people with normal binocular vision, adverse symptoms will not be present if the discrepancy is small, but are likely if it is large, and that what constitutes 'large' and 'small' are idiosyncratic to the individual. The accommodation-convergence mismatch is not, however, the only difference between the natural and the artificial stimuli. In the former case, an object located in front of, or behind, a fixated object will not only be perceived as double if the images fall outside Panum's fusional areas, but it will also be defocused and blurred. In the latter case, however, it is usual for the producers of cinema, TV or computer game content to provide an image that is in focus over the whole of the display, and as a consequence diplopic images will be sharply in focus. The size of Panum's fusional area is spatial frequency-dependent, and because of this the high spatial frequencies present in the diplopic 3-D image will provide a different stimulus to the fusion system from that found naturally. PMID:21309798

  12. North of the Namaskeag; A Case Study in Viewer-Active Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Bogart, Erik

    The Maine Public Broadcasting Network (MPBN) presented a "television simulation" to make the citizens of Main more aware of 1) environmental challenges, 2) the process of reconciling problems, and 3) the importance of the individual in the process. In the simulation a fictitious town, Freeboro, was faced with a decision regarding a new canning…

  13. Television and Our Children. A Report of the Activities of the Alternatives in Children's Broadcasting Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainse, David

    Two major objectives of the Alternatives in Children's Broadcasting Project were to determine the extent of the influence of violence in children's television and to determine if children's interest in prosocial programming makes it a viable alternative to violence programming. Both adults and 8-10 year old children were surveyed about their…

  14. Providing Efficient Active Learning on E-Television: Case of "Open Class"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurses, Gulfem

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken with an aim to understand whether the effective use of the blackboard, one of the teaching aids utilized by Anadolu University's distance learning program in the e-television Open Classroom, has a positive effect on focus and concentration. Gagne's Theory of Instruction was utilized during this research. Knowledge of the…

  15. Arousal Model Components in Television Programming: Form Activity and Violent Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; Krull, Robert

    In research reported in this paper, an attempt was made to isolate arousal components due to the "form" of a television program from arousal components due to the "content" of the program. The following hypotheses were formulated: (1) emotional arousal will take place in programing segments depicting violent acts, (2) arousal due to the cognitive…

  16. Results of a Survey of Pupils and Teachers Regarding Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia; Rapoport, Max

    To test the validity of hypotheses regarding television violence and social behavior of viewers, a survey was conducted of a large stratified sample of sixth grade and kindergarten pupils and of teachers. The student survey identified: (1) frequency with which pupils watch television; (2) parental control of television viewing; (3) family…

  17. The Influence of Television on Children's Gender Role Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Susan D.

    2000-01-01

    Examines young children's gender role development, focusing on the impact of television viewing. Maintains that role models and imitation are extremely influential factors shaping gender-typed behavior. Identifies gender bias in television programming, including music television and commercials, and discusses gender bias in children's television…

  18. A Discriminant Analysis of Television Viewers and Nonviewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankard, James W., Jr.; Harris, Murray

    Since statistics on television viewing and television ownership suggest that this medium is a pervasive and powerful influence on most people's lives, it is potentially informative to identify and study that relative handful of people who are not regularly exposed to television, identifying their defining characteristics. In contrast to previous…

  19. Human Ecology and Television in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Klaus

    A human ecological approach to the study of children's television viewing raises questions that researchers have largely neglected. Does television influence the interaction patterns of socializing agents with children and with one another? Are there long-term, psychological consequences of unintegrated and competing influences from television and…

  20. Uses and Values for News on Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Thomas F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses cable television subscribers' perceptions and consumption patterns of television news and describes a survey that compared broadcast and cable television news viewing habits. Media dependency and media consumption are considered, attitudes toward news sources and the perceived monetary value of the Cable News Network (CNN) are studied,…

  1. FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BYSTROM, JOHN W.

    THE GROWTH AND PROGRESS OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IS DESCRIBED. GRANTS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF NONCOMMERCIAL TELEVISION (TV) BROADCASTING STATIONS (EDUCATIONAL TV FACILITIES ACT), GRANTS OF SURPLUS PROPERTY UNDER THE NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT HAVE AIDED THE GROWTH OF EDUCATIONAL TV. GREATER USE IS MADE OF EDUCATIONAL TV BECAUSE OF GREATER USE…

  2. Music Interferes with Learning from Television during Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Shuck, Lauren; Salerno, Katherine; Atkinson, Emily; Linebarger, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    Infants are frequently exposed to music during daily activities, including free play, and while viewing infant-directed videotapes that contain instrumental music soundtracks. In Experiment 1, an instrumental music soundtrack was played during a live or televised demonstration to examine its effects on deferred imitation by 6-, 12-, and…

  3. Delivering Extension to the Living Room Using Internet TV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Grant G., III

    2014-01-01

    Television is a widely adopted source for viewing educational information. Unfortunately, producing a television show on network television can be costly and time consuming. Internet TV offers Extension video content producers the opportunity to create a niche topic channel quickly and at low cost. Internet TV offers viewers a low-cost and…

  4. Person-related determinants of TV viewing and computer time in a cohort of young Dutch adults: Who sits the most?

    PubMed

    Uijtdewilligen, L; Singh, A S; Chinapaw, M J M; Twisk, J W R; van Mechelen, W

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to assess the associations of person-related factors with leisure time television (TV) viewing and computer time among young adults. We analyzed self-reported TV viewing (h/week) and leisure computer time (h/week) from 475 Dutch young adults (47% male) who had participated in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study at the age of 32 and 36 years. Sociodemographic factors (i.e., marital and employment status), physical factors (i.e., skin folds, aerobic fitness, neuromotor fitness, back problems), psychological factors (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping, personality), lifestyle (i.e., alcohol consumption, smoking, energy intake, physical activity), and self-rated health (i.e., general health status, mild health complaints) were assessed. Univariable and multivariable generalized estimating equations were performed. Male gender, higher sum of skin folds, lower values of aerobic fitness, higher rigidity, higher self-sufficiency/recalcitrance, and smoking were positively associated with TV time. Male gender, higher sum of skin folds, higher scores on self-esteem, low energy intake, and a not so good general health status were significantly associated with higher computer time. Determinants of TV viewing and computer time were not identical, suggesting that both behaviors (a) have different at-risk populations and (b) should be targeted differently. PMID:25186285

  5. American Academy of Pediatrics: Children, adolescents, and television.

    PubMed

    2001-02-01

    This statement describes the possible negative health effects of television viewing on children and adolescents, such as violent or aggressive behavior, substance use, sexual activity, obesity, poor body image, and decreased school performance. In addition to the television ratings system and the v-chip (electronic device to block programming), media education is an effective approach to mitigating these potential problems. The American Academy of Pediatrics offers a list of recommendations on this issue for pediatricians and for parents, the federal government, and the entertainment industry. PMID:11158483

  6. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  7. Television Broadcasting for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Geoffrey

    1973-01-01

    An outline of the BBC's provision of television for British schools describing the constitution and function of the School Broadcasting Council and the role of the BBC School Television Department. (Author)

  8. Handbook on Hospital Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prynne, T. A.

    Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…

  9. Cable Television Service; Cable Television Relay Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Register, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) concerning cable television service and cable relay service are presented along with the comments of the National Cable Television Association, the National Association of Broadcasters, the Association of Maximum Service Telecasters, and a major group of program suppliers.…

  10. The Impact of TV Viewing Motivations on Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    A study examined the impact of TV viewing motivations on 126 Asian students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Subjects were enrolled in a midsize university in the New England area. TV viewing motivation was measured by A. M. Rubin's TV Viewing Motivations Scale. Psychological adjustment was measured by W. Zung's Self Rating Depression…

  11. Coping with Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

    This book could be a useful supplement in any course dealing with television, such as mass media, communication, film, and humanities. The book is divided into six sections. "The Impact of Television" discusses the impact of television on society, the broadcast media, the Federal Communications Commission, public broadcasting, educational…

  12. Action for Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranly, Donald P.

    The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…

  13. The Television Iceberg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, P.L.

    This presentation is concerned with television as it relates to the planning and administration of facilities in which it is utilized. The role of television as a teaching aid, teaching medium, and teacher is discussed. Consideration is given to the following aspects concerned with implementing educational television: plant layout, amount of space…

  14. Television Broadcasting and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriott, J. F. X., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Topics in this special journal issue are research suggesting television encourages higher behavior standards among children; processes British broadcasters use to decide what to show or not to show on television; the role of broadcasting in nonformal adult education; the influence of international television; and neglected issues regarding…

  15. The Impact on Children's Education: Television's Influence on Cognitive Development. Working Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; Collins, Patricia A.

    It is widely believed that television viewing has a negative impact on school achievement. This belief is supported by negative statistical associations sometimes found between school achievement and amount of television viewing; that is, heavy TV viewers tend to show poorer achievement than light viewers. One possible explanation of this…

  16. Park availability and physical activity, TV time, and overweight and obesity among women: Findings from Australia and the United States.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Jenny; Abbott, Gavin; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A; Besenyi, Gina M; Lamb, Karen E

    2016-03-01

    This study examined relationships between three measures of park availability and self-reported physical activity (PA), television viewing (TV) time, and overweight/obesity among women from Australia and the United States. Having more parks near home was the only measure of park availability associated with an outcome. Australian women (n=1848) with more parks near home had higher odds of meeting PA recommendations and lower odds of being overweight/obese. In the US sample (n=489), women with more parks near home had lower odds of watching >4h TV per day. A greater number of parks near home was associated with lower BMI among both Australian and US women. Evidence across diverse contexts provides support to improve park availability to promote PA and other health behaviors. PMID:26828409

  17. The Television and Delinquency Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Graham; McCron, Robin

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the continuing debate about the effects of televised violence on viewers, particularly children, in terms of aggressive behavior. The two opposing views, the psychologistic and the relational, are each supported by research which, in turn, affects the use of censorship. (JMF)

  18. Field-sequential stereo television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    System includes viewing devices that provide low interference to normal vision. It provides stereo display observable from broader area. Left and right video cameras are focused on object. Output signals from cameras are time provided by each camera. Multiplexed signal, fed to standard television monitor, displays left and right images of object.

  19. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...

  20. Television and Behavior: Research Conclusions of the 1982 NIMH Report and Their Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Eli A.

    1983-01-01

    A review of recent studies on the effects of television viewing on behavior indicates that television has significantly influenced cognitive and affective child development, social behavior, social relationships, and health attitudes and practices. Researchers and the television industry must collaborate to maximize television's positive effects.…

  1. Children and Television. Current Issues in Education: A Bibliographic Series. Volume 5, No. 1, July 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christo, Doris Hedlund

    Focused on research concerning children and television, this annotated bibliography lists 44 articles selected from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database from 1983 to 1988. Topics include: (1) the effects of television violence on children; (2) television viewing patterns; (3) children's television programs; and (4)…

  2. Exploring the Realities of Television with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morison, Patricia; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Examines first- , third- , and sixth-grade children's abilities to discriminate between the reality and fantasy of television programs. Lengthy clinical interviews were conducted with each of 36 children, including viewing and discussion of 12 videotaped program segments. (SW)

  3. Cable Television in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoglin, Mary Lou

    Rather than merely being a televised version of a classroom lecture, a true telecourse uses television to present information that is best conveyed visually and employs various methods (e.g., study guides, mailed assignments, special review sessions, and exams scheduled at community sites) to replace other classroom activities. Coastline Community…

  4. Community Television. A Handbook for Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to encourage older people to take an active role in local television program production and to design and produce programs that will enhance the quality of life for other older Americans. It is noted that locally produced television offers older people a voice at the local level, the opportunity for making new friends and…

  5. Use TV to Improve Your Child's Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criscuolo, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Suggestions are provided for parents of ways in which they can use the television to encourage and improve their child's reading. Activities include: discussing television characters; watching television specials geared for the child's age; and researching favorite television stars. (CB)

  6. The relationship between viewing US-produced television programs and intentions to drink alcohol among a group of Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Steven R; Rekve, Dag

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of exposure to US-produced television programs and family rules prohibiting alcohol use on the development of normative beliefs, expectancies, and intentions to drink alcohol in the next 12 months among a group of Norwegian adolescents who reported that they had not previously consumed alcohol. Data were collected via a survey administered to 622 eighth and ninth graders enrolled at ten junior highs in southeastern Norway. To examine these relationships we tested the fit of a structural equation model which was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1988). Data from the non-drinkers (n= 392, 63% of the respondents) were used. To control for the influence of peer drinking on behavioral intentions, our model was tested under two group conditions: (1) those subjects reporting that they have no friends who drink alcohol and (2) those subjects reporting that they have one or more friends who drink. The findings indicate that the influence of TV exposure was a significant predictor (directly) of normative beliefs, expectancies (indirectly) and intentions to drink (both directly and indirectly) only for those subjects who reported having no friends who drink. For the group with non-drinking friends, family rules constrain intentions only indirectly by influencing normative beliefs. For those with friends who drink, however, family rules have a direct (inverse) effect on intentions. It is concluded that exposure to US-produced television programs functions as a limited knowledge source only for those subjects who had little or no personal experience with alcohol while the presence of family rules have limited impact on behavioral intentions. PMID:16433660

  7. Can TV Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partridge, Susan

    Since the average child spends an estimated 30 hours a week watching television, it is important to consider the negative and positive effects of television viewing on the development of reading attitudes and habits. Possible negative aspects of television viewing include the following: the rapid pacing of programs encourages shallow reading; the…

  8. Elaborating the Relationship between TV Viewing and Beliefs about the Real World: Possible Contingent Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James

    Two studies investigated the validity of the Cultivation Hypothesis, which holds that the more people view television the more they will see the world as mean and violent. Specifically, the study examined whether three psychological variables affected the relationship. The variables are (1) Magic Window, the degree to which a person believes…

  9. Television and contraception.

    PubMed

    Klein, L

    1986-01-01

    This article consists of excerpts from a speach made on October 19th at the 1986 annual meeting of the Association of Planned Parenthood Professionals by Dr. Luella Klein, President of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) between 1984-85. The speaker described the reaction of US television network to the ACOG's request that the networks air a public service announcement encouraging responsible sexual behavior among the nation's young people. In 1984 the ACOG initiated a public information program aimed at reducing the high number of unwanted births among young people. The ACOG with the help of an advertising agency developed a 27-second public service announcement stressing responsible parenthood and informing young people that they could write or call for further information. A booklet, entitled "Facts," was prepared for distribution to those who inquired. It advised young people to consider postponing sexual intercourse but to use the most effective methods of contraception if they decided to be sexually active. Oral contraceptives for females and condoms for males were recommended as the most effective methods. When the 3 major television networks, i.e., the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), were requested to carry the announcement, all 3 networks claimed the announcement was too controversial to air. These same networks do not hesitate to show blatant, irresponsible sexual behavior repeatedly during their entertainment programming, and commercials with sexual innuendos are routinely accepted for airing by the networks. In July, 1986, the ACOG called a news conference in New York City to inform the news media about the rejection of the announcement by the networks. The conference stimulated considerable interest, and the story was carried by many newspapers and by radio and television news programs. Many of the news accounts of the story contained

  10. Television and children's consumption patterns. A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coon, K A; Tucker, K L

    2002-10-01

    The recent increase in childhood obesity has, among other things, focused attention on the role that television may play. This paper summarizes results of studies published in peer review journals since 1970 with data pertaining to the relationship between television use and children's food intake. Studies fall into four categories: content analyses; effects of television advertising on children's food behaviors; television and pediatric obesity, with effects on children's dietary intake and physical activity; and television use and children's food consumption patterns. Content analyses have shown that food is the most frequently advertised product category on children's TV. The majority of these ads target highly sweetened products, but more recently, the proportion from fast food meal promotions has been growing. Controlled studies on children's choices have consistently shown that children exposed to advertising choose advertised food products at significantly higher rates than do those not exposed. Purchase request studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and number of requests from the child to the mother for specific food items, as well as the presence of those items in the home. Greater TV use has been associated with higher intakes of energy, fat, sweet and salty snacks, and carbonated beverages and lower intakes of fruit and vegetables. Several large studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and both the prevalence and incidence of obesity. The combination of lifestyle factors that accompany heavy television use appear to place children at risk of obesity and poor nutritional status. PMID:12244280

  11. Applied Television Aesthetics in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    Television aesthetics is the study of the compositional principles pertinent to the television medium in which basic elements of the television picture such as light, color, framing, space, time, motion, editing, sound, etc. are examined in relation to the finished product, the television program. The major areas covered by television aesthetics…

  12. Ethical Dilemmas of Prosocial Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William J.; Singhal, Arvind

    1990-01-01

    Examines ethical dilemmas associated with using entertainment television for prosocial development. Discusses the ethics of distinguishing prosocial from antisocial television content; depicting socio-cultural equality through television programs; limiting the unintended effects of television programs; and using television as a persuasive tool to…

  13. The Future of Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Robert B.

    In order to predict the future of educational television, the author discusses first instructional television, then public television, and also comments on the applications of communications satellites to television in both industrialized and developing nations. He predicts that in the future instructional television will be mainly carried by…

  14. The Vicissitudes of "Progressive Television."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Ien

    This document analyzes and evaluates dilemmas and difficulties in developing/implementing "progressive television," a kind of television that seeks to transgress the boundaries of dominant (mainstream) television by proposing a new constellation of television production and consumption. The ideal is described as a television that tries to…

  15. MASTER TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)

  16. The Chinese Television University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, R.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an overview of China's Beijing Broadcasting and Television University: background, establishment, administration and structure, students, courses, teaching package, and course production. (JD)

  17. Relationship between Television Viewing and Language Delay in Toddlers: Evidence from a Korea National Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon; Hong, Saemi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relationship between 2-year-old children’s exposure to TV and language delay. Methods The subjects of this study were 1,778 toddlers (906 males and 872 females) who participated in the Panel Study on Korean Children conducted in 2010. The linguistic ability of the toddlers was measured with the K-ASQ (Korean-Ages and Stages Questionnaire). The relationship between the amount of young children’s exposure to TV and language delay was analyzed with Poisson regression. Results The average daily TV watching time of 2-year-old Korean toddlers in this study was 1.21 hours. After all confounding variables were adjusted, toddlers with over 2 hours and less than 3 hours of TV watching time had 2.7 times more risk (RR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.13–6.65) of language delay than those with less than 1 hour of TV watching time. Those with more than 3 hours of TV watching time had approximately 3 times (RR = 3.03, 95% CI: 1.12–8.21) more risk (p<0.05). In addition, the risk of language delay increased proportionately with the increase in toddlers’ TV watching time (p = 0.004). Conclusion Two-year-old Korean toddlers’ average daily TV watching time of more than 2 hours was related with language delay. PMID:25785449

  18. Technician Setting up RCA Television Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    A television camera is focused by NACA technician on a ramjet engine model through the schlieren optical windows of the 10 x 10 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel's test section. Closed-circuit television enables aeronautical research scientists to view the ramjet, used for propelling missiles, while the wind tunnel is operating at speeds from 1500 to 2500 mph. (8.570) The tests were performed at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, now John H. Glenn Research Center.

  19. Payload operation television system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Payload Operation Television System is a high performance closed-circuit TV system designed to determine the feasibility of using TV to augment purely visual monitoring of operations, and to establish optimum system design of an operating unit which can ultimately be used to assist the operator of a remotely manipulated space-borne cargo loading device. The TV system assembled on this program is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator.

  20. Fantasy Activity and the Televiewing Event: Considerations for an Information Processing Construct of Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindlof, Thomas R.

    The similarities between television viewing and fantasy activity (daydreaming, reverie, mind-wandering, internal dialogue) more than warrant the building of a theoretical construct, especially in the context of recent empirical research on television viewing consequences. A construct of the television viewing process, based on cognitive theories…

  1. Broadcast Management: Radio; Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaal, Ward L.; Martin, Leo A.

    After outlining the qualities necessary in a good radio or television manager, the book describes his duties which fall in three major areas: programming, engineering, and sales. It discusses the relationship between the station and its audience in detail. Sections on radio and television programming describe the way most stations operate and…

  2. RX for Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicholas

    In his remarks delivered at the Second National Symposium on Children and Television, Federal Communications Commissioner Nicholas Johnson charges that television is not adequately serving those 20 million Americans under the age of five. He scores the networks for the inane, if not actually harmful, nature of their programming and for the…

  3. Researching Television News Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoit, Frances Goins

    To demonstrate the uses and efficiency of major television news archives, a study was conducted to describe major archival programs and to compare the Vanderbilt University Television News Archives and the CBS News Index. Network coverage of an annual news event, the 1983 State of the Union address, is traced through entries in both. The findings…

  4. Exploring Television Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William; And Others

    This inquiry/discovery program is built on two assumptions: (1) that the students know more about television, have had more extensive television experience than their teachers; and (2) that the best moments in this course will spring from the students' ideas, projects, reports, and initiatives. Things to do before the course begins are suggested.…

  5. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  6. Cable Television and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Joseph L.

    Cable television can augment educational broadcast services and also provide a level of individualized educational services not possible with either broadcasting or classroom audiovisual aids. The extra channels provided by cable television allow the following extra services for education: 1) broadcast of a multitude of programs, including delayed…

  7. Television and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Roger G.

    The television industry is characterized by numerous imperfections in market competition. The spectrum allocation policy of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assures that there will be only three national television networks; consequently in nearly all markets these stations account for 75% to 100% of revenues. These networks in turn…

  8. Community Antenna Television (CATV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The number of households hooked up to cable television or community antenna television (CATV) is expanding rapidly, and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been developing regulations since 1962 to guide the growth of the industry. By 1965 the FCC had claimed jurisdiction over all CATV systems in the U. S. This jurisdiction was challenged…

  9. Children and Television Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  10. Science on Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, John

    2011-01-01

    Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC Schools…

  11. Long-Term Norms and Cognitive Structures as Shapers of Television Viewer Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Margaret; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study of high school students that examined responses to a music video dealing with teenage pregnancy. Students' motivations for viewing music videos, experiences with sex and pregnancy, and family communication patterns are related to the cognitive activities of thinking about the video content and relating it to their own lives. (20…

  12. Does Self-Directed and Web-Based Support for Parents Enhance the Effects of Viewing a Reality Television Series Based on the Triple P--Positive Parenting Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Matthew; Calam, Rachel; Durand, Marianne; Liversidge, Tom; Carmont, Sue Ann

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study investigated whether providing self-directed and web-based support for parents enhanced the effects of viewing a reality television series based on the Triple P--Positive Parenting Programme. Method: Parents with a child aged 2 to 9 (N=454) were randomly assigned to either a standard or enhanced intervention condition. In…

  13. High-definition television evaluation for remote handling task performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (1) high-definition color television, (2) high-definition monochromatic television, (3) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (4) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television. The stereo system accomplished stereoscopy by displaying two cross-polarized images, one reflected by a half-silvered mirror and one seen through the mirror. Observers wore a pair of glasses with cross-polarized lenses so that the left eye received only the view from the left camera and the right eye received only the view from the right camera.

  14. TV as storyteller: how exposure to television narratives impacts at-risk preschoolers' story knowledge and narrative skills.

    PubMed

    Linebarger, Deborah L; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2009-03-01

    Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children's development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers' acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television's natural capacity as storyteller and the role it plays in preschoolers' early literacy development has been largely overlooked. This study examined the effects of viewing different TV program types on 311 at-risk preschoolers' story knowledge and narrative skills. Children were assigned to one of 4 viewing conditions (i.e. watching up to 40 episodes of a particular program type): no viewing; expository; embedded narrative; or traditional narrative. Story knowledge scores were higher for those viewing either narrative type. In contrast, viewing specific narrative types differentially affected the component skills of narrative competence. Story retelling and identification of explicit story events were higher after repeat viewing of embedded narratives while generating implicit story content was higher after repeat viewing of traditional narratives. PMID:19972662

  15. Tuning in to Young Viewers: Social Science Perspectives on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeth, Tannis M., Ed.

    Research indicates that children are especially vulnerable to the effects of television viewing. Taking a psychological, social-science perspective, this book explores how television viewing affects children. Chapter 1, "Introduction," (MacBeth) discusses the issues involved, how researchers go about studying media effects, whether television…

  16. 47 CFR 76.1506 - Carriage of television broadcast signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... from multichannel video programming distributors as follows: (1) For a full or partial network station... that do not receive television signals from multichannel video programming distributors viewed the... television signals from multichannel video programming distributors that viewed the station for 5 minutes...

  17. Family Income, TV Viewing, and Children's Cereal Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A survey of 148 children revealed that although the majority of children from both low-income and moderate-to-high income backgrounds understood the selling intent of television commercials for cereals, there were significant differences between income groups in children's ability to evaluate the nutritional value of heavily advertised cereals.…

  18. Television vs. Your Child's Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christine Ciensczyk

    Emphasizing the influence of television on children, this pamphlet explores some of the major criticisms of television and discusses ways parents can help their children get the most out of television. It is argued that the major problem with television is the amount of time that it steals from our lives, time that could be spent in developing…

  19. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  20. Television: How to Use it Wisely With Children. Third Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Josette

    Now that television (TV) appears to be here to stay, parents should not resign themselves to it, but rather thoughtfully manage its use by their children. Children should be provided with play activity to break into the spell-binding hold of the TV set. Also, it is wise to sift through TV programs according to the child's make-up, and provide…

  1. Is Television Bad for Your Health? Behavior and Body Image of the Adolescent "Couch Potato."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bulck, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Studied the potential health effects of watching television for 1,035 Finnish 17-and 18-year-olds. Findings show that television viewing is linked with behaviors that can affect the viewer's health. Discusses the relationship between television viewing and people's assessment of their own bodies. (SLD)

  2. Attention Skills and Looking to Television in Children from Low Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danielle D.; Weatherholt, Tara N.; Burns, Barbara M.

    2010-01-01

    Attentional skills and home environment were examined as predictors of looking patterns during television viewing by 70 48- to 91-month-old children from low income families. Looking to the television was assessed in conditions without distractors and with continuous distractors. Looking patterns during television viewing reflected attentional…

  3. Do Weight Status and Television-Viewing Influence Children’s Subsequent Dietary Changes? A National Longitudinal Study in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Jen; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is unknown how children’s dietary changes would vary by overweight/obese status and length of TV-viewing. This study examined whether US children’s weight status and TV-viewing duration influenced their subsequent dietary behavioral changes. Methods A national representative sample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Cohort were followed between 5th and 8th grades during 2004–2007 (N=7,720). Children’s daily TV-viewing hour and weight status were measured at 5th grade. Children reported their dietary behaviors at the 5th and 8th grades, including fruit/vegetable consumption ≥5 times/day (five-a-day), daily fast food and soft drink consumption. Logistic models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of dietary behavioral changes by children’s baseline weight status and TV-viewing duration. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in the ORs were examined. Sampling weight and design effect were considered for the analysis. Results Among those without five-a-day at 5th grade, overweight/obese children were more likely to develop the five-a-day behavior at 8th grade than normal weight children (for overweight: OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.14-2.39; obese: OR=1.35, 95% CI=0.81-2.23). Among girls, overweight group was more likely to develop eating vegetable ≥3 times/day than normal weight group, but 1 more hour/day of TV-viewing at baseline was associated with lower odds of developing eating vegetable ≥3 times/day. Overweight/obese black and Hispanic children were significantly more likely to develop five-a-day than their normal weight counterparts. TV-viewing did not show modification effect on the association between weight status and subsequent dietary changes. Conclusions Overweight/obese children were more likely to improve their subsequent FV consumption than normal weight children, but TV-viewing’s independent relationship with dietary changes may counteract the weight status-associated dietary improvement. PMID:25666531

  4. Description of Children's Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcus, F. Earle

    This paper is a report of two studies which were conducted on children's television. The first, "Saturday Children's Television," is a content analysis of programming and advertising matter on four Boston commercial TV stations. The second, "Romper Room, An Analysis," focuses on that program's commercial practices. The first study involved the…

  5. Is the Television Rating System Valid? Indirect, Verbal, and Physical Aggression in Programs Viewed by Fifth Grade Girls and Associations with Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Gentile, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study had two goals: first, to examine the validity of the television rating system for assessing aggression in programs popular among girls; second, to evaluate the importance of inclusion of non-physical forms of aggression in the ratings system by examining associations between television aggression exposure and behavior. Ninety-nine fifth…

  6. Television Training in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Iqbal

    1973-01-01

    A general discussion of training programs which resulted from India's decision to expand television as a nationwide network and a vastly expanded use of educational technology within the educational system. (Author/HB)

  7. THE UTILIZATION OF CLASSROOM TELEVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LENIHAN, KENNETH J.; MENZEL, HERBERT

    THIS REPORT CONSOLIDATES FINDINGS OF 3 EARLIER REPORTS OF CLASSROOM TV IN NEW YORK. A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS MAILED TO ALL PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOLS IN 32 COUNTIES OF THE VIEWING AREA TO ASSESS CLASSROOM AUDIENCE SIZE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SCHOOLS USING THE TV PROGRAMS. SCHOOLS RETURNING QUESTIONNAIRES WERE SAMPLED AT RANDOM AND…

  8. Overview of FTV (Free-viewpoint Television)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a new type of television named FTV (Free-viewpoint TV). FTV is an innovative visual media that enables us to view a 3D scene by freely changing our viewpoints. FTV is based on the ray-space method that represents one ray in real space with one point in the ray-space. We have also developed new type of ray capture and display technologies such as a 360-degree mirror-scan ray capturing system and a 360 degree ray-reproducing display. The international standardization of FTV has been conducted in MPEG.

  9. 76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... amendments to 47 CFR 73.624(g), published at 76 FR 44821, July 27, 2011, are effective on November 28, 2011... FR 44821, July 27, 2011. Synopsis As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, (44 U.S.C. 3507... (namely, ``low power television, TV translator, and Class A television station DTV licensees'')....

  10. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Claire G.; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S.; Rich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents’ television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents’ likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents’ likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games. PMID:26549930

  11. EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IN THE SMALL SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEDFORD, LOWELL E.

    HENSLEY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, CONSISTING OF 72 STUDENTS AND 3 TEACHERS, HAS INCORPORATED 12 EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION PROGRAMS AS A REGULAR PART OF THE CURRICULUM IN THE FIRST 6 GRADES. GRADES 1 AND 2 VIEWED PROGRAMS IN SCIENCE, SPEECH, ART, MUSIC, AND STORY TIME. GRADES 3 AND 4 VIEWED SERIES IN MUSIC, SCIENCE, ART, AND SPEECH, WHILE GRADES 5 AND 6 WERE…

  12. Television transmission of Astronaut Eugene Cernan using Lunar Surface Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan operates the Apollo Lunar Surface Drill during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Cernan is the commander of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission.

  13. Television transmission of Astronaut Harrison Schmitt falling during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt loses his balance and heads for a fall during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot.

  14. TV and Kids, Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Public Radio, Washington, DC.

    In this series of National Public Radio interviews, individuals from education and television broadcasting discuss the use and abuse of television by schools and the influence of television on children in home viewing. It is asserted that television is and will continue to be watched, and therefore it is necessary to learn how to deal with it. By…

  15. Influence of viewing distance and size of tv on visual fatigue and feeling of involvement.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kiyomi; Asahara, Shigeo; Yamashita, Kuniko; Okada, Akira

    2012-12-01

    Using physiological and psychological measurements, we carried out experiments to investigate the influence of viewing distance and TV screen size on visual fatigue and feeling of involvement using 17-inch, 42-inch and 65-inch displays. The experiment was an ordinary viewing test with the content similar to everyday TV programs for one hour including scenery, sport, drama, etc., with commercials sandwiched in between. The number of participants was 16 (8 persons aged 21-31, and 8 persons aged 50-70) for each display size. In all, 48 participants viewed 3 display sizes. In our physiological evaluation, CFF (critical flicker fusion frequency), blink rate and a sympathetic nerve activity index were used; and in the psychological evaluation, questionnaires and interviews were employed. Our results, based on physiological and psychological measurements, suggest the opti- mum viewing distance to be around 165-220 cm, irrespective of screen size. Our evaluations, which are based on optimum viewing distance for minimal visual fatigue and a closer feeling of involvement, might therefore not agree with the currently recommended viewing distance, which is defined as 2 or 3 times the display's height. PMID:25665195

  16. Commercial Network Television: Strategies for Programming and the Content of Prime Time TV, 1976-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bruce A.

    The 1976-79 schedules of the three major television networks were analyzed to determine what strategies were used to organize prime time schedules and what types of programs appeared during prime time viewing periods. Five essential programing strategies were identified: fraction of selection (cost versus reward), lowest common denominator (wide…

  17. Disappearing TVs and Evolving Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himley, Margaret

    1986-01-01

    Explores four drafts of a child's story about the disappearance of television, showing how the later draft suggests the writer's interest in questions about the nature of reality, and how the student grew as writer. (HTH)

  18. Television and Social Behavior: A Prototype for Experimental Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebert, Robert M.; And Others

    This paper describes the production of three 30-second prosocial television spots and the evaluation of the effects of these spots on children's behavior. The psychological process of observational learning was used to conceptualize the way television viewing influences children's behavior; the three stages of observational learning (exposure,…

  19. National Children's Television, United States (1970-1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condry, John C.; Scheibe, Cynthia L.

    Trends in the content and structure of television programs and commercials during children's viewing hours on U.S. network television over the past 20 years reveal a steady decrease in educational programs for children and an increase in violent acts. In addition, characters in both programs and commercials have remained remarkably sex-typed. A…

  20. Educational and Prosocial Programming on Saturday Morning Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; And Others

    This study assessed the educational and informational television programming provided by four major networks, ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox. Assessed were 29 children's television programs during the 1995-1996 season. Programs were videotaped from 7:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m., a time frame when children are most likely to be in the viewing audience. A content…

  1. The Depiction of Mental Illnesses in Children's Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto; Hanrahan, Erin; Karl, Kelly; Lasher, Erin; Swaye, Janel

    2007-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that negative attitudes toward people with mental illnesses begin to develop early in childhood. This study examines one of the possible sources of learning of such negative attitudes--children's television programs. Two hundred sixty-nine (269) hours of children's television programming were videotaped, viewed, and…

  2. Current Research on Television-Influenced Constructions of Social Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogles, Robert M.

    On the assumption that the mass media, to some degree, shape their users' thoughts about the nature of the world, this paper explores the development of a framework for studying television-influenced social reality--the controversial television-viewing-and-aggression hypothesis known as cultivation theory, as well as recent cultivation theory…

  3. Internet for Educational Television: An Opportunity or Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Among several uses, educational use of television is a prominent one. The public broadcasters of many countries routinely provide locally-relevant and useful educational television programs. In other side, there has been phenomenal growth in Internet use worldwide. The researchers are of the view that Internet has challenged the supremacy of…

  4. Open Primary Education School Students' Opinions about Mathematics Television Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez, Kursat

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes. This study indicated that to determine differences among open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes point of view students' characteristics like gender, age, grade,…

  5. Games Theory, Television and Leisure: An Adolescent Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, L. B.; Thornton D. J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Sutton-Smith's games typologies were applied to television viewing preferences in order to construct a television classification based on Sutton-Smith's three types, and ascertain whether or not 204 adolescents designated as potents, strategists, and fortunists could be distinguished in terms of their games involvement, attitudes to sport, and…

  6. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  7. Serial Monogamy: Extended Fictions and the Television Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Changes in television technology have fostered changes in how we view fiction on television. This article explores some of these changes in the context of the teenage series, "Felicity" (WBTV, 1998-2002). It draws comparisons with the experience of reading series fiction in print, referring to the children's print series, "The Beverly Gray College…

  8. Evaluation of Educational Television Programs for Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhter, Nasreen

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of educational television programs in distance learning system. Using the procedure of survey method, this study finds out the worth of educational television programs. Its results are based on the responses of the learners of distance teaching system. The views of students were collected by…

  9. Alcohol Advertising in Sport and Non-Sport TV in Australia, during Children's Viewing Times.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Carr, Sherilene; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Miller, Peter; Livingston, Michael; Kypri, Kypros; Lynott, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children's viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6 am-8.29 pm) and evening periods (8.30 pm-11.59 pm) and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0-4 years, 5-13 years, 14-17 years, 18-29 years). During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87%) was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86%) was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0-17 years) viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989), compared with the daytime (N = 235,233). In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1) than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94). Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30 pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising. PMID:26263170

  10. Television and children's executive function.

    PubMed

    Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected. PMID:25735946

  11. Affects of Television as a Natural Educator: Can Television be a Tool as an Informal Educator? A TRNC Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Sarem

    2006-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to discuss the effects of television on children and adolescents. Our children are spending many hours in front of the television. This study examined the viewing habits and personal opinions of Turkish Cypriot children. The participants were 250 children and adolescents whose ages varied between 4-17. This…

  12. Affects of Television as a Natural Educator: Can Television Be a Tool as an Informal Educator?: A TRNC Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Sarem

    2006-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to discuss the effects of television on children and adolescents. Our children are spending many hours in front of the television. This study examined the viewing habits and personal opinions of Turkish Cypriot children. The participants were 250 children and adolescents whose ages varied between 4-17. This…

  13. [Reliability and validity of the Japanese revised version of the television affinity scale].

    PubMed

    Erikawa, Shigeru; Yamada, Kazunari

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the Japanese version of the Television Affinity Scale (TAS), and to examine the relationship between affinity for television and viewing behavior. Data was based on a random sample of 552 people in Hachioji City (Tokyo, Japan); the response rate was 55.2%. The results revealed the following: (a) the TAS 6-item version had sufficient reliability and validity, (b) the TAS provided information which could not be explained directly by demographic factors, and (c) affinity for television was positively correlated with unplanned and non-concentrated television viewing. These results are consistent with the findings of Erikawa, Yamada, Kawabata, and Numazaki (2007). In addition, the TAS scores correlated positively with entertainment program viewing. This is consistent with the findings of Rubin (1984) that television affinity correlated with ritualized television viewing. The implications of these results for contemporary television viewing are discussed. PMID:22514907

  14. Influences of Television on Children's Behavior: Implications for War and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Television is robbing children of their childhood. Moreover, it is destroying children's developing symbolic processes, and inhibiting their creativity and play. Television has remarkable influence over children's behavior. At this point, it is plausible to hypothesize linkages between television viewing and numerous social problems involving…

  15. Children's Person Perception: The Generalization from Television People to Real People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Byron; Garramone, Gina

    1982-01-01

    Measured children's identification with and perceived reality of television characters and children's rating of peers on 11 traits. Found, among other results, that identification with television characters was a significant predictor of the mean evaluation of peers, and that television viewing was a significant predictor of the variance in…

  16. Integrative Review of Educational Television for Young Children: Implications for Children from Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherholt, Tara N.

    2007-01-01

    Since the creation of "Sesame Street", children's educational television programs have grown in both number and popularity. However, controversy has shadowed the children's television arena for many years. Some have claimed that viewing television is a passive event, requiring little or no effort on the part of the viewer. However, research on…

  17. Television and Media Literacy in Young Children: Issues and Effects in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Sahimi, Nurul Nadiah

    2009-01-01

    Television viewing among young children has been an on going issue as it is found to effect their development in various areas. This problem is getting more worrisome as the percentage and amount of hours of television exposure among young children is increasing, especially with the growing production of children television programs. Studies have…

  18. A Laboratory/Field Study of Television Violence and Aggression in Children's Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Ann E.; Moriarty, Richard J.

    A study on the effect of viewing violence on television on childrens' behavior was conducted within the context of sport activity. Three sports--baseball, hockey, and lacrosse--were chosen. Teams of children from three different age groups were the subjects. Within each of the age levels in each sport, teams were selected and assigned to…

  19. 76 FR 52632 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief... Gray Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), the licensee of station WJHG-TV, channel 7, Panama...

  20. Children's Expectations for Television Entertainment vs. Television News Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzes, Katherine A.; White, Mary Alice

    1982-01-01

    Found that sixth- and eighth-grade children (1) predicted a greater proportion of positive outcomes for television entertainment events than for television news events and (2) rated news events as more likely to happen in everyday life than entertainment events. Concluded that children can discriminate between the two facets of television reality.…

  1. Maternal beliefs and parenting practices regarding their preschool child's TV viewing: An exploration in a sample of low-income Mexican-origin mothers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Polk, Sarah; Cheah, Charissa S.L.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Susan L.; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore maternal beliefs about TV viewing and related parenting practices in low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Interviews were audio recorded and analyzed using a theoretically based thematic analytic approach. Results Mothers described strong beliefs about the positive and negative impact of television content. Mothers emphasized the educational value of specific programming. Content restrictions were common. Time restrictions were not clearly defined; however, many mothers preferred short versus long episodes of viewing. Mothers spoke positively about family viewing and the role of TV viewing in enabling mothers to accomplish household tasks. Discussion These findings have implications for intervening in this population. Interventionists should consider the value mothers place on the educational role of TV viewing, the direct benefit to mothers of viewing time, the lack of clear time limits, and the common practice of family co-viewing. PMID:25724994

  2. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  3. Television and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

    1990-01-01

    Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored. PMID:2307597

  4. Television Criticism: A Multifarious Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, A. Anthony

    Recognizing the need for a multifarious approach to television, this paper provides the reader with the following multidimensional approaches to television criticism: rhetorical, dramatic, literary, cinematic, content analysis, myth, linguistics, semiotics, phenomenalism, phenomenology, interpersonal communication, public relations, image,…

  5. Enabling active and healthy ageing decision support systems with the smart collection of TV usage patterns

    PubMed Central

    Billis, Antonis S.; Batziakas, Asterios; Bratsas, Charalampos; Tsatali, Marianna S.; Karagianni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Smart monitoring of seniors behavioural patterns and more specifically activities of daily living have attracted immense research interest in recent years. Development of smart decision support systems to support the promotion of health smart homes has also emerged taking advantage of the plethora of smart, inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring sensors, devices and software tools. To this end, a smart monitoring system has been used in order to extract meaningful information about television (TV) usage patterns and subsequently associate them with clinical findings of experts. The smart TV operating state remote monitoring system was installed in four elderly women homes and gathered data for more than 11 months. Results suggest that TV daily usage (time the TV is turned on) can predict mental health change. Conclusively, the authors suggest that collection of smart device usage patterns could strengthen the inference capabilities of existing health DSSs applied in uncontrolled settings such as real senior homes. PMID:27284457

  6. Television and music video exposure and adolescent 'alcopop' use.

    PubMed

    Van den Bulck, Jan; Beullens, Kathleen; Mulder, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among adolescents is a cause for concern. Around 1995 alcopops (sweetened alcoholic drinks) entered the scene and caused even more concern. Many fear that the sweet taste makes is easier to start drinking for those not yet used to drinking alcohol and the marketing appears aimed at adolescents. Because alcohol use has been linked to television viewing in general and music video viewing in particular this article examined whether a relationship existed between television and music video exposure and the consumption of alcopops. Data were collected with a questionnaire focused on television exposure and alcohol behavior. Respondents were a random sample of 2,546 first- and fourth year schoolchildren of Flanders, the Dutch speaking region of Belgium (60% of the Belgian population). Self reported general TV viewing, music video exposure and drinking of alcopops at home and/or while going out were measured. 68.4% of the respondents watched music videos at least several times a week. The odds of being an alcopop drinker at home increased by 196% for those, who watched music videos at least several times a week (OR = 1.961). For each additional hour of TV viewed per day, the respondents were 17% more likely to be drinkers of altopops at home (OR = 1.169). The odds of being an alcopop drinker, when going out increased by 239% for those who watched music videos at least several times a week (OR = 2.394). For each additional hour of TV viewed per day, the respondents were 19% more likely to be drinkers of alcopops when going out (OR = 1.186). These findings suggest that there is an association between music video exposure and use of alcopops not explained by overall exposure to television. This relationship merits further attention as it is a better predictor of alcopop use, than the control variables and overall TV viewing. PMID:16639864

  7. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita; Reeder, Anthony I

    2007-01-01

    Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television. PMID:17270053

  8. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression. PMID:15203299

  9. Venus in motion. [Mariner 10 television pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Danielson, G. E.; Evans, N.; Soha, J. M.; Belton, M. J. S.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive set of television pictures of Venus taken by the Mariner 10 spacecraft is presented. Included is a chronological sequence of television images illustrating the development, variety, and circulation of Venus upper-atmospheric phenomena as viewed in the near-ultraviolet. The higher-resolution images have been assembled into global mosaics to facilitate comparison. Figures and tables describing the imaging sequences have been included to provide a guide to the more complete set of 3400 Venus images on file at the National Space Science Data Center.

  10. Television and the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys ERIC/ChESS resources on both the influence of television on children and methods for using television effectively in the classroom. Titles of documents include "Getting Through: The Use of Media in the Classroom"; "Censorship, the Classroom, and the Electronic Environment"; and "Inside Television. Instructor's Guide (and) Students…

  11. Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…

  12. Television and the Female Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Denise, Ed.; Spigel, Lynn, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This special issue brings together an editorial, six articles, and three book reviews that focus on the relationship between television and the female audience. The articles are: (1) "Installing the Television Set: Popular Discourses on Television and Domestic Space, 1948-1955" (Lynn Spigel); (2) "The Spectacularization of Everyday Life: Recycling…

  13. A GUIDE TO INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DIAMOND, ROBERT M., ED.

    THIS IS A GUIDE DESIGNED AS A SINGLE REFERENCE FOR ADMINISTRATORS, TEACHERS, STUDENTS, AND LAYMEN INTERESTED IN TELEVISION FOR A SPECIFIC SCHOOL OR SCHOOL SYSTEM. FOUR EXAMPLES OF SINGLE-ROOM TELEVISION ARE GIVEN AND SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS OF STUDIO TELEVISION ARE PRESENTED. ITS USE IN GUIDANCE AND IN ADMINISTRATION IS EXPLAINED. THE PROBLEMS…

  14. What Audience for European Television?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendelbo, Harald Arni

    This discussion of the audience for European television argues that satellite television has taken an upside-down approach, i.e., it has begun by focusing on the hardware, and then the software, before checking to see if there would be a user at the end of the line willing to pay for the whole operation. "European television" is then defined as…

  15. From sex to sexuality: exposing the heterosexual script on primetime network television.

    PubMed

    Kim, Janna L; Sorsoli, C Lynn; Collins, Katherine; Zylbergold, Bonnie A; Schooler, Deborah; Tolman, Deborah L

    2007-05-01

    Although it is widely recognized that sexual content pervades television, research rarely examines how television's sexual messages are gendered and occur in a relational context. This study describes the development and implementation of a new coding scheme to evaluate sexual content from a feminist perspective. Merging scripting theory (Gagnon and Simon, 1987) with the theory of compulsory heterosexuality (Rich, 1980), we explicate a heteronormative and dominant sexual script, the Heterosexual Script, and assessed its presence in the 25 primetime television programs viewed most frequently by adolescents. Our codes captured depictions of boys/men and girls/women thinking, feeling, and behaving in relational and sexual encounters in ways that sustain power inequalities between men and women. Male characters most frequently enacted the Heterosexual Script by actively and aggressively pursuing sex. Less frequently but still at high rates were depictions of female characters willingly objectifying themselves and being judged by their sexual conduct. PMID:17599272

  16. Family and Television: Some Latinoamerican Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Miguel Torres

    Highlighting the importance of media education in Latin America, this paper describes projects conducted by the Latin American Institute for Communicative Education and the National Council for the Population of Mexico to examine the family's influence in promoting critical television viewing. A theoretical model for media education is then…

  17. The People Look at Public Television, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Jack

    Based on data collected by several individuals in recent years, this report is intended to provide an overview of American public broadcasting and its audiences. The size, characteristics, and viewing patterns of public, noncommercial television viewers are described. Among the findings cited in the report are the following: (1) 80 percent of…

  18. Incidental Learning of Aging Adults via Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Laura C.; Pankowski, Mary L.

    1988-01-01

    Seventy-nine older adults viewed a television documentary in an informal setting. Cued-recall tests were given immediately after the program and again one week later to determine the proportion of recall of main and subordinate ideas. Regression was used to analyze the importance to retention of subjects' individual characteristics. (Author/CH)

  19. Energy-efficient lighting system for television

    DOEpatents

    Cawthorne, Duane C.

    1987-07-21

    A light control system for a television camera comprises an artificial light control system which is cooperative with an iris control system. This artificial light control system adjusts the power to lamps illuminating the camera viewing area to provide only sufficient artificial illumination necessary to provide a sufficient video signal when the camera iris is substantially open.

  20. Should I Let My Child Watch Television?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    While the prevalence of autism has been increasing globally, there is a search for the causative factors behind the rise. The point of view presented here examines the possibility of children brought up in social deprivation and watching television being at higher risk for developing autistic symptoms. The association is evident in the clinical…

  1. Analyzing Value Content in Television Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Larry; Zelig, Mark

    Four prime time television programs--"Charlie's Angels,""Little House on the Prairie,""Grizzly Adams," and "Lou Grant" --were rated by university students for their portrayal of moral reasoning and values. Data were obtained from three episodes of each program by randomly assigning raters to one of two viewing groups, both of which used an…

  2. The Competitive Ethos in Television Newswork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Matthew C.

    1995-01-01

    Views competition in terms of a corporate drive for profit and as a way in which television news workers make sense of their jobs and socially construct their world. Argues that through these competitive norms and practices, news workers inadvertently help legitimate the societal status quo and perpetuate corporate control of the media, with…

  3. A Q-Analysis of Television Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Documents an experiment in the application of R. H. Atkin's methodology of Q-analysis in the field of television which demonstrates how it may be applied to program schedules. A theoretical discussion illustrates the relationships between the program-time interval backcloth and the viewing patterns it can support. (Author/VT)

  4. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Docket No. 03-185, FCC 04-220, 69 FR 69325, November 29, 2004. Synopsis As required by the Paperwork... (``LPTV'') and television translator (``TV translator'') stations and modifies certain rules applicable to digital Class A TV stations (``Class A''). The Commission addresses important issues such as: (1)...

  5. TV Viewing, Perceived Similarity, Coviewing, and Mental Well-Being among African American, Latino, and White Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Wallander, Jan; Elliott, Marc; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Tortolero, Susan; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Research among adults has demonstrated concurrent and prospective negative associations between TV viewing and mental health, yet little research has examined these associations among African American and Latino youth or examined the role of children's involvement with TV and parental mediation of TV viewing via coviewing. The purpose of the…

  6. Must See TV: The Timelessness of Television as a Teaching Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Courtney Shelton

    2001-01-01

    Examples of ways to use themes and characters from television shows in classroom activities for organizational behavior courses are provided, related to need theories of motivation, perceptual biases and errors, and equity theory. Six appendices provide sample activities and test questions. (SK)

  7. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Radio and T.V. Repair. Course: Television Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, R.; And Others

    One of four individualized courses included in a radio and television repair, curriculum, this course focuses on trouble-shooting procedures for both black and white and color television equipment. The course is comprised of ten units: (1) Introduction to/and Block Diagrams of Television, (2) Television Audio Section Troubles, (3) Television Video…

  8. Tourism on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bruce

    Thirteen half-hour television programs entitled "The Geography of Tourism" developed for use in Wilfrid Laurier University's (Canada) distance education program are discussed. Distance education embraces teaching, or communicating with, students who are not physically in the classroom with the instructor. The central theme of the series is the…

  9. Television and Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George; And Others

    To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…

  10. FRENCH THROUGH TELEVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AN EARLY MORNING TELEVISION COURSE IN ELEMENTARY FRENCH IS DESCRIBED. THE COURSE IS CONDUCTED PRIMARILY IN FRENCH AND BUILDS FROM ZERO KNOWLEDGE, TEACHING A SMALL HIGH-UTILITY VOCABULARY. INTAKE OF VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURE IS GENTLY GRADED IN SENTENCES MADE UNDERSTANDABLE BY MEANS OF PICTURE-SITUATIONS. EACH LESSON CONSISTS OF THE FILM LESSON OF…

  11. Filming for Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander, A. Arthur; Petzold, Paul

    Film makers, professional or amateur, will find in this volume an extensive discussion of the adaptation of film technique to television work, of the art of the camera operator, and of the productive relationships between people, organization, and hardware. Chapters include "The Beginnings," an overview of the interrelationship between roles in…

  12. Television Report Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Internal Revenue Service (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC. National Training Center.

    Videotape and closed circuit instructional television (ITV) have been used for training Internal Revenue Service agents, and its use should be expanded. Experiments show that for every hour of conventional instruction converted to ITV a 25% time savings with equal or increased learning effectiveness can be expected. Although the capital cost of…

  13. A Vilestone for Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Sherwood Davidson

    1977-01-01

    Television programming has reached a point at which most viewers are getting up and turning off their sets because there is little worth watching. This means an opportunity is available for creativity and if the industry's executives are smart they will let in some fresh air. (Author/IRT)

  14. Information Retrieval by Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billowes, C. A.

    1968-01-01

    Bell Canada, the Public School and Collegiate Institute Boards of Ottawa, and the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education are collaborating on an educational television project which will provide a retrieval system that can supply any given program at any time under the control of the classroom teacher. Four schools in Ottawa will participate…

  15. Television and Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Robert L.

    To make adequate use of mass media for children's education, we must recognize that the medium is the message, that the conveyer is the content. The medium itself changes behavior, learning and growth patterns of the child. For example television itself teaches a special kind of visual awareness and enhances the ability to relate non-immediate…

  16. Researching Television Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtzel, Alan; Lometti, Guy

    1984-01-01

    Two officals from the American Broadcasting Companies (ABC) (1) review a 1982 National Institute of Mental Health Study on television and violence, and (2) summarize the broadcast standards, practices, policies, and procedures employed by the network regarding the depiction of violence. (GC)

  17. Educational Television in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vera, Jose Maria

    With an eye toward further collaboration between U.S. and Japanese broadcasters, the overall approach and effect of Japanese educational television (ETV) is examined. While in the United States ETV has no advertisement and is non-profit, the Japanese only require that any advertisement be not obstructive to social education. Their broadcasting has…

  18. Television's "Soap" Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Brent

    The situation comedy, "Soap," television's first prime-time sex farce, stirred controversy months before its premiere, and subsequent pressure on advertisers forced the network to change the show's concept from an adult comedy to a "whodunit." This report summarizes the controversy, recounts reactions to the series, and lists the implications of…

  19. Television Microwave--1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roger E.

    Since it became a reality just before World War II, terrestrial microwave has improved in systems and equipments, but with the improvements have come higher costs. Television microwave costs are so high because users are demanding more capability, land prices have increased, operating costs are higher, and there is frequency congestion along many…

  20. Pediatrics and Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Edward; And Others

    The Department of Community Medicine of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (New York City), in cooperation with the TelePrompTer Corporation and with funding from the Health Services and Mental Health Administration of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, has developed a bidirectional television system using coaxial cable which links…

  1. Television meteor observations in INASAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The results of TV observations of meteors during the period 18 July-19 August (activity period of the Perseid meteor shower) in 2011 and 2012 are presented. The wide field-of-view cameras "PatrolCa" were used for the observations. Observations were carried out by the single-station as well as the double-station method. The double-station observations were aimed at determining the individual orbits of the observed meteors. The principle of Index Meteor Activity (IMA) calculations can be used for all meteor showers active during the observing period. We can use the IMA parameter to estimate the influx of meteor particles to the Earth per hour, both for shower and sporadic meteors. The distribution of the influx rate (IMA) for the Perseids to the Earth for the observing periods in 2011 and 2012 is given. Distributions of Perseid meteors by stellar magnitude are also presented.

  2. Evaluation of high-definition television for remote task performance

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Fujita, Y.; Herndon, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    High-definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard-resolution TV) of horizontal scan lines that standard-resolution TV provides. The improvement in picture quality (compared to standard-resolution TV) that the extra scan lines provide is impressive. Objects in the HDTV picture have more sharply defined edges, better contrast, and more accurate reproduction of shading and color patterns than do those in the standard-resolution TV picture. Because the TV viewing system is a key component for teleoperator performance, an improvement in TV picture quality could mean an improvement in the speed and accuracy with which teleoperators perform tasks. This report describes three experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The performance of HDTV was compared to that of standard-resolution, monochromatic TV and standard-resolution, stereoscopic, monochromatic TV in the context of judgment of depth in a televised scene, visual inspection of an object, and performance of a typical remote handling task. The results of the three experiments show that in some areas HDTV can lead to improvement in teleoperator performance. Observers inspecting a small object for a flaw were more accurate with HDTV than with either of the standard-resolution systems. High resolution is critical for detection of small-scale flaws of the type in the experiment (a scratch on a glass bottle). These experiments provided an evaluation of HDTV television for use in tasks that must be routinely performed to remotely maintain a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. 5 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. 75 FR 72968 - Implementation of Section 203 of the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...In this document, the Commission modifies its satellite television ``significantly viewed'' rules to implement Section 203 of the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010 (STELA). Section 203 of the STELA amends Section 340 of the Communications Act, which gives satellite carriers the authority to offer out-of-market but ``significantly viewed'' broadcast television network......

  4. 75 FR 44198 - Implementation of Section 203 of the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...In this document, the Commission proposes changes to its satellite television ``significantly viewed'' rules to implement Section 203 of the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010 (STELA). Section 203 of the STELA amends Section 340 of the Communications Act, which gives satellite carriers the authority to offer out-of-market but ``significantly viewed'' broadcast television......

  5. Text in a Texture of Television: Children's Homework Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wober, J. Mallory

    1992-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of British children ages 7 to 15 that examined time spent watching television, listening to music, reading, and playing outdoors; attitudes and stereotypes regarding these activities; and frequency and opinions of doing homework with the television on. Correlations of various behaviors and perceptions are presented.…

  6. 3-D Television Without Glasses: On Standard Bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collender, Robert B.

    1983-10-01

    This system for stereoscopic television uses relative camera to scene translating motion and does not require optical aids at the observer's eyes, presents a horizontal parallax (hologram like) 3-D full motion scene to a wide audience, has no dead zones or pseudo 3-D zones over the entire horizontal viewing field and operates on standard telecast signals requiring no changes to the television studio equipment or the home television antenna. The only change required at the receiving end is a special television projector. The system is compatible with pre-recorded standard color television signals. The cathode ray tube is eliminated by substituting an array of solid state charge couple device liquid crystal light valves which have the property to receive television fields in parallel from memory and which are arrayed in an arc for scanning purposes. The array contains a scrolled sequence of successive television frames which serve as the basis for 3-D horizontal viewing parallax. These light valves reflect polarized light with the degree of polarization made a function of the scene brightness. The array is optically scanned and the sequence rapidly projected onto a cylindrical concaved semi-specular screen that returns all of the light to a rapidly translating vertical "aerial" exit slit of light through which the audience views the reconstructed 3-D scene.

  7. Interactive TV: An Effective Instructional Mode for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Ling; Iris, Carole

    2004-01-01

    The inclusion of interactive television (iTV) programs for learning is an emerging genre in education. Literature has concluded that any aspect of learning requires some form of interaction or feedback to be most effective. As television (TV) evolves from being a passive to an active medium, it has the potential to engage learners and reach a mass…

  8. Watching television by kids: How much and why?

    PubMed Central

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Karimi, Masoud; Ghorbanzadeh, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Television (TV) viewing by children may be linked to a range of adverse health and behavioral outcomes. This study was aimed at examining the relationship between socioeconomic factors of families and TV watching behavior among 3–5 years old children in Ardakan, Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: In the cross-sectional study, mothers of 188 children (93 boys and 95 girls) between 3 and 5 years old completed a researcher-designed questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using SPSS, using bivariate correlations and t-test for independent samples. Results: The mean of TV viewing was 2.68 ± 1.6 h daily, ranging from 0 to 9 h. There were no statistically significant gender differences on the basis of daily TV watching. There were positive associations between the children's daily TV watching and age as well aschildren's daily TV watching and their mothers’ time spent on watching TV. Children who lived in houses with the yard and could use it as a playground watched less TV than did the children who lived in houses without the yard. Conclusion: The results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of the association between different socioeconomic status aspects of families, such as the children's and mothers’ time spent on watching TV and having a yard in the house in an attempt to develop effective strategies and interventions to prevent excess TV watching. PMID:26097850

  9. Saturday Children's Television; A Report of TV Programming and Advertising on Boston Commercial Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcus, F. Earle

    Saturday children's television programming in Boston was monitored and videotaped so that the content could be analyzed for a study to gather data relevant to content and commercial practices. Some of the major findings were that overall, about 77 percent of time is devoted to program content and 23 percent to announcements of various kinds; that…

  10. The Uses of Television and Their Educational Implications; Preliminary Findings from a Survey of Adult and Adolescent New York Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Herbert J.

    To collect data on how to make television a more effective learning instrument outside of the classroom, a standard probability sample with quotas consisting of 200 adults and 200 adolescents living in New York City was interviewed to study how people use TV, their attitudes toward various types of programing, and their viewing preferences.…

  11. Toward a Rhetorical Vision for Public Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavitsky, Alan G.

    Critics contend American public television has failed to realize the potential envisioned by the Carnegie Commission on Educational Television. Using Ernest Bormann's theory of fantasy theme analysis as a framework to examine public TV reveals that American public television has been unable to develop a coherent rhetorical vision or a clear…

  12. Television and Its Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lewis

    This paper presents a redefinition of the term "television," examines problems of determining the effects of television on children, reviews research on possible effects of TV on children, and concludes by focusing on prosocial, educational programming. The argument is made that because we are immersed in the phenomenon of television, we can not…

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Radio and Television Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Radio and Television section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Two Pacific Powers View the World: News on CBS and TBS Television" (Anne Cooper-Chen); "Nicholas Johnson: The Public's Defender on the Federal Communication Commission, 1966-1973" (Max V. Grubb); "News Tips, TV Viewers, and Computer Links: A Follow-Up Story"…

  14. Television noise reduction device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, B. L.; Stamps, J. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A noise reduction system that divides the color video signal into its luminance and chrominance components is reported. The luminance component of a given frame is summed with the luminance component of at least one preceding frame which was stored on a disc recorder. The summation is carried out so as to achieve a signal amplitude equivalent to that of the original signal. The averaged luminance signal is then recombined with the chrominance signal to achieve a noise-reduced television signal.

  15. Children's Television Workshop Quarterly Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    The quarterly report for the Children's Television Workshop (CTW) describes the major activities and accomplishments in production and research for the Sesame Street and Electric Company programs. In addition, activities in public affairs, personnel, budget, international broadcasts, CTW products, and community education services, including…

  16. Effects of TV time and other sedentary pursuits.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, B; Shelly, A

    2008-12-01

    Television (TV) viewing is the dominant recreational pastime at all ages, especially for children and adolescents. Many studies have shown that higher TV viewing hours are associated with higher body mass index (BMI), lower levels of fitness and higher blood cholesterol levels. Although the effect size estimated from observational studies is small (with TV viewing explaining very little of the variance in BMI), the results of intervention studies show large effect sizes. The potential mediators of the effect of higher TV viewing on higher BMI include less time for physical activity, reduced resting metabolic rate (for which there is little supporting evidence) and increased energy intake (from more eating while watching TV and a greater exposure to marketing of energy dense foods). Electronic games may have an effect on unhealthy weight gain, but are less related to increased energy intake and their usage is relatively new, making effect size difficult to determine. Thus, TV viewing does not explain much of the differences in body size between individuals or the rise in obesity over time, perhaps because of the uniformly high, but relatively stable, TV viewing hours. Reducing TV viewing hours is a difficult prospect because potential actions, such as social marketing and education, are likely to be relatively weak interventions, although the evidence would suggest that, if viewing could be reduced, it could have a significant impact on reducing obesity prevalence. Regulations to reduce the heavy marketing of energy dense foods and beverages on TV may be the most effective public health measure available to minimize the impact of TV viewing on unhealthy weight gain. PMID:19136983

  17. Parents, Children, and TV: A Guide to Using TV Wisely.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman

    Adapted from a series of 20 monthly columns which originally appeared in Highlights for Children, Inc.'s "Newsletter of Parenting," the material in this booklet explores: (1) ways in which television influences viewers; (2) what television teaches; and (3) some positive aspects of television. It also suggests activities for parents which will…

  18. Is There Any Association between TV Viewing and Obesity in Preschool Children in Japan?

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ayako; Yorifuji, Takashi; Iwase, Toshihide; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    Obesity in children is a serious public health problem, and TV viewing is considered a potential risk factor. Since, however, no relevant association studies have been conducted in Japan, we evaluated the association between TV viewing and obesity using a population-based study conducted in a Japanese town. All 616 preschool children in the town were enrolled in February 2008, and a self-administered questionnaire to collect children's and parents' characteristics was sent to the parents. We dichotomized the time spent TV viewing and evaluated associations by logistic regression using a "less than 2h" category as a reference. The questionnaire was collected from 476 participants (77.3%), of whom 449 were available for the final analyses. Among them, 26.9% of preschool children reported 2 or more hours of TV viewing per day and 8.2% were defined as obese. In logistic regression analyses, there was no positive association in unadjusted (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:0.50-2.49) or adjusted models for exclusively breastfed status, sleep duration, or maternal factors (OR = 1.11, 95% CI:0.50-2.51). We also found no positive association between TV viewing and overweight status, possibly owing to the influence of social environment, low statistical power, or misclassification. PMID:20424669

  19. Improving Visuals for Televised Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Francis M.

    1970-01-01

    To assist educators to develop improved instructional television presentations, research is needed to assess the instructional effects of stimuli emitted by various types of visual illustrations. (IR)

  20. Television Production. A Career Development Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Virginia; Hogan, William

    In an attempt to build career development activities into the English curriculum this hands-on television production course focusing on video tape production was offered as an English elective in a Minnesota high school. The course was developed to emphasize the following objectives: (1) to develop and apply the interpersonal competency skills…

  1. Functional Literacy and Continuing Education by Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva e Souza, Alfredina de

    1970-01-01

    As a result of a pilot project (in Rio de Janeiro) of functional literacy for adolescents and adults by television, 90 percent of the students in experimental tele-classes" became literate with 36 broadcasts of 20 minutes each, distributed over three months three times each week, supported by 50 minutes of discussion and other activities carried…

  2. Defining Cable Television: Structuration and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Patrick R.

    1989-01-01

    Suggests Anthony Giddens' theory of "structuration" offers a framework for the study of social activity that will help analyze the process of reification. Demonstrates the usefulness of structuration to policy analysis and explores the evolution and consequences of definitions of cable television prior to the "blue sky" era. (MS)

  3. Using Television Critically in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckle, John

    1995-01-01

    Uses video extracts about environment and development issues in China to explore how television can best be used with interactive teaching techniques to further the aims of a critical education which promotes sustainable development. Introduces some of the central concepts of media education and describes classroom activities borrowed and adapted…

  4. Educational Needs in the Cable Television Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlow, H. LeRoy; Alderman, Everett

    A preliminary survey was conducted analyzing the perceived educational needs of 67 top managers, 131 systems managers, and 194 technicians employed by 89 member companies of the National Cable Television Association. Results for all respondents included: educational background; current or contemplated educational activities; their perception of…

  5. Television transmission of Astronauts Cernan and Schmitt sending greetings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan (on left) and Harrison H. Schmitt pay their respects and send their best wishes to the members of the International Youth Science Tour, who were visiting the Manned Spacecraft Center, in brief ceremonies near the close of the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture is a reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle.

  6. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief... Lincoln Broadcasting, LLC (``LBL''), the licensee of KFXL-TV, channel 51, Lincoln, Nebraska,...

  7. The Impact of the Cable Television Industry on Public Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoy, David J.; LeRoy, Judith M.

    This assessment of the possible impact of the cable television industry upon public television relies primarily on audience demographic characteristics as a convenient summary indicator and, in many instances, the only kind of evidence available for review. Primary sources of information used were the national Nielsen ratings; mail surveys of…

  8. Computerized Television: New Developments in Television Production Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    Based on the notion that technological and artistic developments in the area of television production affect viewers' comprehension and appreciation of televised programs, this essay examines the impact of telecommunication advances on the industry. The first section briefly considers the technological advances of the last decade in major TV…

  9. 47 CFR 74.798 - Digital television transition notices by broadcasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.798 Digital television transition notices by broadcasters. (a) Each low power television, TV translator and Class A television...

  10. 47 CFR 74.798 - Digital television transition notices by broadcasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.798 Digital television transition notices by broadcasters. (a) Each low power television, TV translator and Class A television...

  11. 47 CFR 74.798 - Digital television transition notices by broadcasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.798 Digital television transition notices by broadcasters. (a) Each low power television, TV translator and Class A television...

  12. 47 CFR 74.798 - Digital television transition notices by broadcasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.798 Digital television transition notices by broadcasters. (a) Each low power television, TV translator and Class A television...

  13. Payload operation television system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The TV system assembled is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The TV system assembled for this program is a black and white, monocular, high performance system. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator. One pan/tilt unit provides control of the pointing of the camera, the other similarly controls the position of a simulated payload.

  14. Television observations of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avanesov, G. A.; Bonev, B. I.; Boicheva, V.; Kempe, F.; Bazilevskii, A. T.; Duxbury, T.

    1989-01-01

    In February and March 1989 the Phobos 2 spacecraft took 37 television images of Phobos from a distance of 190-1100 km. The data are being used to update the three-dimensional model of Phobos, to provide improved determinations of its density and orbital dynamics, and to study its surface color, composition, and texture. Preliminary findings are presented here which include different integrated photometric behavior in visible and near-infrared bands, observation of a region immediately west of Stickney which is relatively free of large grooves, the prevalence of bright rims on grooves and younger craters, and low bulk density.

  15. Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

  16. The Effects of Time Context on Children's Perceptions of Aggressive Television Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Thomas F.

    The major question of this study is: Does the time context of a TV program affect children's conclusions about the action? If violent or aggressive behavior is viewed on television by children, how will they respond to the action when they know the action takes place in either the past, the present, or the future? Fifth and sixth grade boys viewed…

  17. The Role of Graphic and Sanitized Violence in the Enjoyment of Television Dramas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Andrew J.; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment explores the relationship between television violence and viewer enjoyment. Over 400 participants were randomly assigned to one of 15 conditions that were created by editing five TV programs into three versions each: A graphically violent version, a sanitized violent version, and a nonviolent version. After viewing, participants…

  18. Next time somebody asks: "Is it good for young people to watch TV?" say YA TV, the Young Asia Television: the eyes and ears of young Asians.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    This article presents a profile of the Young Asia Television (YATV) initiative by the WorldView International Foundation. The YATV channel brings news and analysis of Asia-focussed environmental concerns, current affairs, population and reproductive health issues, social problems including poverty and illiteracy, arts and culture, and other topics. In addition, it broadcasts programs produced by different countries on reproductive and sexual health, including AIDS and sexually transmitted disease prevention, and youth/adolescent awareness of sexual health. It was launched by the Foundation with a thrust stating that "television must encourage dialogue and debate; advance the creativity of people, especially the younger generation who will be the leaders of the future." In order to reach many more millions of viewers, YATV programs are networked with the Asian Broadcasting Union and 1000 other organizations through the Foundation's own NGOs network. This network provides the medium for value-based broadcasts in an entertaining fashion. The International Office of Worldview International Foundation in Colombo monitors the program activities on a continuing basis and uses the information gathered for impact assessment and long-term planning. PMID:12158252

  19. Kansas Public Television Network (KPTN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemen, Jack A.

    The plans of the Kansas Public Television Board (KPTB) for development of the Kansas Television Network are detailed for the period extending from FY 1979 to FY 1983; the proposed system is designed to serve the needs of the communities by extending existing capabilities and resources, sharing common resources, and enriching the total system.…

  20. Instructional Television: Potentials or Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekich, John

    The potential of instructional television (ITV) for creating excitement for learning has been demonstrated by such productions as Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood, The Electric Company, and The Adams Chronicles. However, not all producers have been this successful in merging the capabilities of television with the needs of learners, and a review of the…

  1. About Television Reality and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Brice

    The author presents the argument that television reality is a new kind of performance in our environment: we don't respond to it and it doesn't acknowledge our presence. The images and sounds of television reality are "its", and our human organisms must be disconcerted by these "its" occuring in the privacy of our homes. We are being taught to…

  2. The Individualized Television Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Bernard

    This paper describes the development of a reading program based on popular television broadcasts. The project was carried out in one inner-city middle school--seventh and eighth grades--(Rhodes Middle School, Philadelphia). The aims of the project were to use television as a means for children to read and for drawing administrators and teachers…

  3. Cable Television and the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Richard

    Universities contain powerful blocs of resistance to new educational technology, perhaps especially to television. University attitudes and structures as well as faculty ignorance, apathy, and resistance affect the development of cable television. No one seems to speak with great confidence and precision about the educational potential of cable.…

  4. The Future of Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Joan Ganz

    1984-01-01

    The United States remains one of the few postindustrial societies that does not take television seriously, especially as it affects children. Expectations that the new technologies, such as cable and video discs, may provide new opportunities to serve the real interests of children should be tempered by television's past performance. (RM)

  5. Television Violence and Violent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a survey investigation of whether exposure to television violence is associated with an increased probability of engaging in violent behavior. Questionnaire data collected in 1970 in junior and senior high schools in Maryland, included self-reports of favorite television show, amount of violence in that show, and respondent's violent…

  6. Educational Television: "Let's Explore Science".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth P.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical overview of the development of instructional television as a tool within the context of science education. Traces the technology from its beginning as experiments in public service broadcasting by universities and television networks. Examines the use of the technology as a teaching tool in terms of scientific literacy.…

  7. Empirical Studies on Television Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    A review of research on television's major compositional factors was undertaken to determine the status of such research and to note the major variables involved in the structure of television pictures. It was found that such research could be grouped in four categories--lighting and color, staging, editing, and sound--and that these areas covered…

  8. TELEVISION IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRANT, THEO. S.; MERRILL, IRVING R.

    A MAJOR MEDICAL CENTER CONDUCTED A SERIES OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES CONCERNED WITH THE USE OF CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION INSTRUCTION IN THE CURRICULUMS OF MEDICINE, DENTISTRY, PHARMACY, AND NURSING. THE SIX STUDIES REPORTED WERE (1) OVER 300 HEALTH SCIENCE TELEVISION PRESENTATIONS WERE PRODUCED, PRESENTED TO STUDENTS, AND EVALUATED. REPORTS WERE MADE…

  9. Background Television and Reading Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, G. Blake; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Tests G. Armstrong's and B. Greenberg's model of the effect of background television on cognitive performance, applied to reading comprehension and memory. Finds significant deleterious effects of background television, stronger and more consistent effects when testing immediately after reading, and more consistently negative effects resulting…

  10. Studies in Violence and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Melvin S.; Polsky, Samuel

    The complete reports of the research efforts on the effects of televised violence on children sponsored by the American Broadcasting Company in the past five years are presented. Ten research projects on aggression and violence are described which examined primarily the effect of television on children who were emotionally disturbed, came from…

  11. The Benefits of Watching Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Paul

    The unfounded and sometimes absurd attacks on television have tended to obscure many of the medium's obvious personal, social, and aesthetic benefits. It is easy to watch, and if its content does not always provide viewers with much to think about, television does not ask much of them either: they may eat, sleep, and unwind in front of it,…

  12. Nielsen Television '73; A Look at the Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen (A.C.) Co., Chicago, IL.

    The latest (1973) edition of Nielsen Television presents data on the television audience. Major findings are graphically summarized and data are presented for: number of stations receivable by household; households equipped with TV sets; United States TV households with color television; total United States households using television by time of…

  13. The Sociability of Mobile TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geerts, David

    Both mobile phones and television are known for the social practices they enable. Television has been a social medium since its introduction in households all over the world. Although its main aim is entertaining and informing its viewers, people often watch television together with close relatives or good friends, talk about what is going on while watching television or even structure their social activities around a television show (e.g., eating dinner while watching the news) (Lull 1980). But television programs are also part of social interactions away from the television set, when discussing favorite television programs around the water cooler at work, or recommending shows to watch to good friends. The main function of mobile phones on the other hand has always been social from the start: communicating with other people, when and wherever you want, first using voice communication and later also with text messages and video communication. So what happens when these two social media are combined? It is clear that mobile TV cannot be successful without taking social practices when watching TV on a mobile device into account. Although one approach could be to let the users appropriate the device in their social environment, as happened with text messaging, the risk that it does not match their current practices is too big. A better approach is to design mobile TV applications that take direct advantage of the social aspects of each medium, which means adding interactive features that will enable and support social interaction between users on different levels. In order to get an idea of the possibilities, it is interesting to look at recent research in the closely related domain of interactive television.

  14. Optimized watermarking for light field rendering based free-view TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolidis, Evlampios; Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Manifavas, Charalampos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios A.

    2013-03-01

    In Free-View Television the viewers select freely the viewing position and angle of the transmitted multiview video. It is apparent that copyright and copy protection problems exist, since a video of this arbitrarily selected view can be recorded and then misused. In this context, the watermark in FTV should not only be resistant to common video processing and multi-view video processing operations (as in 2D case), but it should also be extracted from a generated video of an arbitrary view. Based on this remark, this paper focuses on this problem by evaluating the functionality and the efficiency of the watermarks and their corresponding Mathematical Distributions, in terms of "robustness" and "successful detection" from new constructed views of FTV, using Light Field Rendering (LFR) techniques. We studied the values which characterize the watermark's performance and the parameters introduced by the watermark's insertion-extraction scheme. Therefore, we ended up to the best five Mathematical Distributions, and we concluded that the watermark's robustness in FTV case does not depend only on the FTV image's characteristics, but it also relies on the characteristics of the Mathematical Distribution that is used as watermark generator. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Using Television for Teaching a Second Language Through Dramatized Every Day Situations; An Assessment of Effects on Active Speech and On Understanding Dialogues Presented by Other Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidhar, Hava

    A series of experiments explored the use of television in Israel to teach English to Hebrew-Speaking students. The emphasis of the experiments was on assessing the ways in which television can be used to fulfill specific tasks in language instruction that are not easily fulfilled by the classroom teachers. Ninth graders were divided into two…

  16. Television Violence and Aggression: A Genotype-Environment Correlation and Interaction Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships among aggression, viewing and enjoyment of television violence, and personality traits of extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism in sibling pairs (N=386) ages 11 to 16. Found no support for theory of causal effect on amount of viewing television violence on aggression. Found no within family correlations between amount…

  17. Pro- and Anti-Social Behaviors Subsequent to Arousal and Observational Learning from Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; And Others

    Ninety-five college students participated in an investigation of the arousal and observational learning effects produced by television viewing. The subjects were assigned to one of three experimental television viewing conditions: a serious dramatic presentation with high physical and verbal violence, a comedy with high verbal conflict but no…

  18. Time transfer in India using satellite-TV signals in a common view mode

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, P.; Saxena, M.; Mathur, B.S.

    1994-12-31

    For the use of satellite-TV signals in a common view mode a detailed analysis relates the prediction errors of satellite co-ordinates to time comparison accuracy. It promises an accuracy better than two microseconds over India with the available quality of satellite ephemerides. The development of an automatic recorder for this purpose improves the measurement capability and its applicability.

  19. Is Childhood Obesity Related to TV Addiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, David

    1988-01-01

    Excessive television viewing is associated with obesity in children because it decreases time spent on physical activity, and promotes overeating of snacks and high calorie foods. Childhood obesity demands physicians' concern because of the physical and psychological damage which follows its victims into adulthood. (IAH)

  20. Generating Stereoscopic Television Images With One Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Paul P.

    1996-01-01

    Straightforward technique for generating stereoscopic television images involves use of single television camera translated laterally between left- and right-eye positions. Camera acquires one of images (left- or right-eye image), and video signal from image delayed while camera translated to position where it acquires other image. Length of delay chosen so both images displayed simultaneously or as nearly simultaneously as necessary to obtain stereoscopic effect. Technique amenable to zooming in on small areas within broad scenes. Potential applications include three-dimensional viewing of geological features and meteorological events from spacecraft and aircraft, inspection of workpieces moving along conveyor belts, and aiding ground and water search-and-rescue operations. Also used to generate and display imagery for public education and general information, and possible for medical purposes.