Hawkins, Robert P.; And Others
One hundred seventy-one middle school students participated in a study to assess cognitive activity during television viewing. Students completed a questionnaire about their favorite programs, viewing habits, and social reality beliefs, then viewed a 17-minute professionally edited episode of a family drama and answered a multiple choice…
Graham, Dan J.; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.
Purpose To determine whether amount of TV watched by participants enrolled in a physical activity intervention mediates or moderates program effectiveness Design Nine-month controlled school-based physical activity intervention Setting Public high school Participants One hundred twenty two sedentary adolescent females (mean age = 15.04 ± 0.79 years) Intervention Supervised in-class exercise, health education, and internet-based self-monitoring Measures Physical Activity - 3 Day Physical Activity Recall; Television Viewing – self-report; Cardiovascular Fitness – Cycle Ergometer Analysis T-tests were conducted to examine between-group differences. Linear regression equations tested the mediating and/or moderating role of television watching relative to the intervention. Results TV viewing moderated the intervention’s effect on vigorous activity; the intervention significantly predicted physical activity among high (β = −.45; p <.001), but not low (p >.05), TV watchers. TV viewing did not mediate the intervention effect. Conclusions Consistent with displacement theory, adolescents who watched more television prior to the intervention showed post-intervention increases in vigorous physical activity and concomitant decreases in television viewing, whereas those who watched less TV showed no change in physical activity or television viewing. PMID:19004156
Watching television and using other forms of media such as video games, computers, print, music and movies takes up a surprisingly large amount of our children’s time. U.S. children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleep. According to a recent nationwide report on c...
Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Phillips, Barbara; Tulio de Mello, Marco; Hirshkowitz, Max
BACKGROUND: Excess sitting is emerging as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, mental illness, and all-cause mortality. Physical activity, distinct from sitting, is associated with better sleep and lower risk for OSA, yet relationships among sitting behaviors and sleep/OSA remain unknown. We examined whether total sitting time and sitting while viewing television were associated with sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and sleepiness. METHODS: The 2013 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll was a cross-sectional study of 1,000 adults aged 23 to 60 years. Total sitting time, time watching television while sitting, sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and daytime sleepiness were assessed. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounding factors (including BMI and physical activity), each additional hour per day of total sitting was associated with greater odds of poor sleep quality (OR [95% CI] = 1.06 [1.01, 1.11]) but not with other sleep metrics (including sleep duration), OSA risk, or daytime sleepiness. For television viewing while sitting, each additional hour per day was associated with greater odds of long sleep onset latency (≥ 30 min) (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.27]), waking up too early in the morning (OR = 1.12 [1.03, 1.23]), poor sleep quality (OR = 1.12 [1.02, 1.24]), and “high risk” for OSA (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.28]). Based upon an interaction analysis, regular physical activity was protective against OSA risk associated with television viewing (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Excess sitting was associated with relatively poor sleep quality. Sitting while watching television was associated with relatively poor sleep quality and OSA risk and may be an important risk factor for sleep disturbance and apnea risk. PMID:25633255
Jason, Leonard A.; Rooney-Rebeck, Patty
A youngster who excessively watched television was placed on a modified token economy: earned tokens were used to activate the television for set periods of time. Positive effects resulted in the child's school work, in the amount of time his family spent together, and in his mother's perception of family social support. (KH)
Bennett, Gary G.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Viswanath, K.; Askew, Sandy; Puleo, Elaine; Emmons, Karen M.
Objectives. We evaluated the association between television viewing and pedometer-determined physical activity among predominantly racial/ethnic minority residents of low-income housing in metropolitan Boston in 2005. Methods. We used mixed models to analyze the association between reported hours of television viewing and pedometer-determined steps per day among 486 adults. We also examined whether television viewing was associated with the achievement of 10000 steps per day. Results. There was a mean 3.6 hours of average daily television watching. In multivariable analyses, each hour of television viewing on an average day was associated with 144 (95% confidence interval [CI]= −276, −12) fewer steps per day and a decreased likelihood of accumulating 10 000 steps per day (odds ratio [OR]=0.84; 95% CI=0.71, 0.99). Weekday and weekend television viewing were each also associated with fewer steps per day. Conclusions. Average daily television viewing was associated with reductions in total pedometer-determined physical activity levels (approximately 520 steps per day) in this lower-income sample. As part of a comprehensive physical activity promotion plan, recommendations to reduce television viewing should be made. PMID:16873736
A study tested the validity of two active TV viewing constructs that predicted the effects of content and degree of active viewing on a television viewer's perception of a mean world. Random digit dialing produced interviews with 163 subjects who were asked separate questions about their prime time and daytime viewing to determine their level of…
Background Though bivariate relationships between childhood obesity, physical activity, friendships and television viewing are well documented, empirical assessment of the extent to which links between obesity and television may be mediated by these factors is scarce. This study examines the possibility that time with friends and physical activity are potential mechanisms linking overweight/obesity to television viewing in youth. Methods Data were drawn from children ages 10-18 years old (M = 13.81, SD = 2.55) participating in the 2002 wave of Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) (n = 1,545). Data were collected both directly and via self-report from children and their parents. Path analysis was employed to examine a model whereby the relationships between youth overweight/obesity and television viewing were mediated by time spent with friends and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results Overweight/obesity was directly related to less time spent with friends, but not to MVPA. Time spent with friends was directly and positively related to MVPA, and directly and negatively related to time spent watching television without friends. In turn, MVPA was directly and negatively related to watching television without friends. There were significant indirect effects of both overweight/obesity and time with friends on television viewing through MVPA, and of overweight/obesity on MVPA through time with friends. Net of any indirect effects, the direct effect of overweight/obesity on television viewing remained. The final model fit the data extremely well (χ2 = 5.77, df = 5, p<0.0001, RMSEA = 0.01, CFI = 0.99, TLI =0.99). Conclusions We found good evidence that the positive relationships between time with friends and physical activity are important mediators of links between overweight/obesity and television viewing in youth. These findings highlight the importance of moving from examinations of bivariate relationships
Agostino, Don; Zenaty, Jayne
A telephone survey of randomly selected homes was conducted to locate current owners of videocassette recorders (VCRs) for a study of their VCR-associated television viewing of both public (PTV) and commercial (CTV) television, and a one-week TV activity diary was mailed to homes in 16 cities. Analysis of data from 250 completed diaries indicates…
This study examines two concepts--the relationship between different types of television viewing as evidence of viewer selectivity, and the structural relationships between television viewing and experiences derived from a subculture and location in the social structure. A review of the way mainstream research has characterized the viewing…
Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Levy, Steven M.
IMPORTANCE The diverse developmental patterns of obesogenic behaviors during childhood and adolescence can be better understood by using new analytic approaches to assess the heterogeneity in variation during growth and development and to map the clustering of behavior patterns. OBJECTIVES To identify distinct trajectories of daily time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) from ages 5 to 19 years and to examine the associations of MVPA trajectories with sports participation and television viewing trajectories. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cohort members in the prospective population-based Iowa Bone Development Study participated in MVPA assessments via accelerometry from September 16, 1998, to December 9, 2013, at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years and completed a questionnaire every 6 months on sports participation and daily time spent in television viewing. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Trajectories of MVPA (minutes per day), participation in organized sports (yes or no), and television viewing time (hours per day). RESULTS Based on the data from 537 participants (50.1% females; 94.6% white), we identified 4 MVPA trajectories: consistently inactive (14.9%), consistently active (18.1%), decreasing moderate physical activity (52.9%), and substantially decreasing high physical activity (14.1%). All participants in the consistently inactive trajectory also followed a trajectory of no participation in sports. The consistently active trajectory was associated with decreasing an already low television viewing trajectory (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study provided a nuanced look at the known decrease in MVPA during childhood and adolescence. Sports participation could be a critical way to avoid the consistently inactive pattern. Most important, we identified a subset of participants who maintained a seemingly healthy level of MVPA from childhood to young adulthood. The developmental pathways of physical activity and
Hussain, Sultana Monira; Urquhart, Donna M.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dunstan, David; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Wluka, Anita E.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.
Abstract Two systematic reviews concluded that there was limited evidence to support an association between physical activity and sedentary behavior and developing low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of physical activity and television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability in community-based adults. Five thousand fifty-eight participants (44% men) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study had physical activity and television viewing time measured in 1999 to 2000, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2012, and LBP intensity and disability assessed in 2013 to 2014 using the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio for LBP intensity and disability associated with physical activity and television viewing time. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, smoking, dietary guideline index score, body mass index, and mental component summary score. To test whether associations of physical activity or television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability were modified by sex, obesity, or age, interactions were tested using the likelihood ratio test. As gender modified the associations between physical activity and television viewing time and LBP disability (P = 0.05), men and women were examined separately. A total of 81.7% men and 82.1% women had LBP. Most men (63.6%) and women (60.2%) had low intensity LBP with fewer having high intensity LBP (18.1% men, 21.5% women). Most participants had no LBP disability (74.5% men, 71.8% women) with the remainder reporting low (15.8% men, 15.3% women) or high (9.7% men, 12.9% women) LBP disability. Insufficient physical activity (<2.5 hours/week) was not associated with LBP intensity or disability. High television viewing time (≥2 hours/day) was associated with greater prevalence of LBP disability in women (low disability OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04–1.73; high disability OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01–1.72). Although it needs
Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Gupta, Yogita; Aneja, Satinder
Previous studies from developing countries have reported that Television (TV) viewing, if excessive and of poor quality has a proven negative influence on child health. Indian studies on this subject are few. The present study aimed at determining TV viewing habits of children and their families as well as parental perspectives on the impact of TV on child health using a provider completed indigenously developed questionnaire in Hindi. The study group comprised of 109 children attending a government hospital who belonged predominantly to lower socio-economic strata with poor maternal literacy. It was observed that 100 % children watched excessive TV (> 2 h daily), with majority viewing unsupervised and low quality content. There were minimal parental restrictions and no active discussion regarding contents. Negative impact was found on play, hobbies, sleep hygiene and eating habits in most children. Most parents were unaware of unhealthy viewing and the associated deleterious effects. As pediatricians we need to enquire about TV viewing habits routinely and educate parents about appropriate TV viewing. PMID:24682808
Rubin, Alan M.
Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M
We assessed the roles of energy intake and physical activity in the relationships among television (TV) viewing, body composition, and obesity using high-quality measurement methods. Adult women (n = 300) reported TV viewing behavior, which was categorized into infrequent (≤ 1 h/day), moderate (2 h/day), and frequent (≥ 3 h/day) viewing. Body fat percentage (BF%) was assessed using plethysmography (Bod Pod) and BMI was calculated from height and body weight. Energy intake and physical activity, including time spent in sedentary, moderate, and vigorous physical activity (PA), were objectively measured using 7-day weighed food records and 7-day accelerometry, respectively. The mean BF% of frequent TV viewers (34.6 ± 6.9%) was significantly greater (F = 3.9, P = 0.0218) than those of moderate (31.5 ± 6.7%) and infrequent viewers (30.8 ± 7.0%); however, BMI did not differ across the TV viewing groups (F = 0.8, P = 0.4172). Controlling statistically for differences in age, education, time in sedentary activity, time in moderate activity, and energy intake, considered individually, had no influence on the relationships between TV viewing and BF%, nor TV and BMI. Moreover, the relationship between TV and BF% remained significant after adjusting for differences in BMI (F = 3.6, P = 0.0276). However, adjusting for total PA reduced the relationship between TV and BF% to nonsignificance (F = 2.5, P = 0.0810), as did time spent in vigorous PA (F = 2.2, P = 0.1307). These data suggest a strong relationship between TV viewing and BF%. This association appears to be due, in part, to differences in total PA, particularly vigorous PA, but not time spent in sedentary activity, moderate activity, or energy intake.
Hammermeister, Jon; Brock, Barbara; Winterstein, David; Page, Randy
Much attention has been paid to the amount of time Americans spend watching television. Cultivation theory has been important in exploring behavioral effects of television viewing for many years. However, psychosocial health has received much less scrutiny in relation to television viewing time. This investigation examined the hypotheses that television-free individuals and viewers adhering to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations (up to 2 hr of viewing per day) would display a more positive psychosocial health profile when compared with more frequent television viewers. Results confirmed the hypothesis for women, but not for men. Our analysis showed that moderate television viewing, as defined by the AAP, provides a similar relation with psychosocial health as being television-free. Results are discussed in a cultivation theory framework. PMID:15855072
Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others
Finds, studying 491 adults, stress (measured by life events) was unrelated to time spent viewing TV but, for women, was positively related to television "addiction." Finds, studying 329 families, confirmation of mood management theory--stress was associated with increased comedy and decreased news viewing. Finds, studying 140 adults, positive…
Brown, J D; Newcomer, S F
Over the past two decades the sexual content on television has increased in frequency and explicitness but has seldom included depiction of the use of contraceptives. Concurrently, the age of initiation of heterosexual intercourse has decreased and the number of teenaged pregnancies has remained high. Are these trends related? This survey of 391 adolescents found that those who chose heavier diets of sexy television shows were more likely than those who viewed a smaller proportion of sexual content on television to have had sexual intercourse. This relationship held regardless of perceived peer encouragement to engage in sex and across race and gender groups. While causal direction is not clear from these data, the relationship suggests that either sexual activity results in increased interest in sexual content in the media and/or that viewing such content leads to sexual activity. In either case, the finding points to the need for further research and increased discussion and portrayal of the use of contraceptives on television.
Hussain, Sultana Monira; Urquhart, Donna M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dunstan, David; Shaw, Jonathan E; Magliano, Dianna J; Wluka, Anita E; Cicuttini, Flavia M
Two systematic reviews concluded that there was limited evidence to support an association between physical activity and sedentary behavior and developing low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of physical activity and television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability in community-based adults.Five thousand fifty-eight participants (44% men) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study had physical activity and television viewing time measured in 1999 to 2000, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2012, and LBP intensity and disability assessed in 2013 to 2014 using the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio for LBP intensity and disability associated with physical activity and television viewing time. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, smoking, dietary guideline index score, body mass index, and mental component summary score. To test whether associations of physical activity or television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability were modified by sex, obesity, or age, interactions were tested using the likelihood ratio test.As gender modified the associations between physical activity and television viewing time and LBP disability (P = 0.05), men and women were examined separately. A total of 81.7% men and 82.1% women had LBP. Most men (63.6%) and women (60.2%) had low intensity LBP with fewer having high intensity LBP (18.1% men, 21.5% women). Most participants had no LBP disability (74.5% men, 71.8% women) with the remainder reporting low (15.8% men, 15.3% women) or high (9.7% men, 12.9% women) LBP disability. Insufficient physical activity (<2.5 hours/week) was not associated with LBP intensity or disability. High television viewing time (≥2 hours/day) was associated with greater prevalence of LBP disability in women (low disability OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04-1.73; high disability OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.72).Although it needs to be confirmed
Starkey, John D.; Swinford, Helen Lee
Two hundred twenty-six 5th and 6th graders were the subjects of this study to correlate amount of television viewing and reading scores. It was found that the average viewing time per week for girls was 28 hours and for boys 30 hours. A slight relationship was reported between reading ability and amount of leisure time spent watching television.…
Rider, Brian C.; Bassett, David R.; Strohacker, Kelley; Overstreet, Brittany S.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.; Raynor, Hollie A.
We propose that enjoyment is an important factor in the adoption and long-term maintenance of exercise. Television (TV) viewing is believed to be a highly enjoyed leisure-time activity, combining it with exercise may make for a more enjoyable exercise experience. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of television (TV) viewing on psychological and physiological variables during a moderate-intensity exercise bout. Twenty-eight insufficiently active (<150 minutes per week of moderate intensity PA and/or 75 minutes of vigorous PA) adults (Age: M = 47.4 ± 7.6 years) participated in this study. Each participant performed three separate 30-minute walking bouts on a motorized treadmill. During each bout, participants watched a program they selected (30-minute scripted show) (self-selected TV condition), a British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) nature program (standardized TV condition), or no TV program (no TV condition). Participants were unable to select the nature program as their self-selected program, as it was not a 30-minute scripted program. A Polar Heart Rate (HR) monitor and validated surveys on affect and enjoyment were used. Participants reported greater enjoyment of exercise for both self-selected and standardized TV conditions (97.1 ± 15.2 and 92.7 ± 15.2), compared to the No TV condition (77.5 ± 13.4, p < 0.001). The two TV conditions resulted in similar levels of focus on TV viewing (self-selected TV: 81.2 ± 19.7; standardized TV: 79.1 ± 14.2, p > 0.05) and dissociation from walking (self-selected TV: 38.1 ± 6.7 and standardized TV: 33.2 ± 3.9); they also resulted in more dissociation than the no TV condition (TV: 72.6 ± 5.6, p = 0.002). The findings indicate that TV viewing, regardless of whether the programming is self-selected or standardized, associates with greater enjoyment of exercise. Key points The use of TV viewing is a novel method of increasing enjoyment of exercise. TV viewing resulted in greater reported enjoyment of
Valenzuela, Nicholas A.; Spain, Peter
A telephone survey was conducted in November 1973 to determine television viewing patterns in southwestern Virginia. Data were collected concerning family characteristics and time spent watching the various programs offered by WBRA-TV and WSVN-TV, the local public broadcasting stations. Income and occupational status proved to be significant…
Lehrer, Sandra G.; Cissna, Kenneth N. Leone
In this study of children's television viewing, 105 junior-high-school students reported the television programs they watched, the amount of time they spent each day watching television, and their reasons for watching television. The following results are reported: sixth graders watch more television than do seventh or eighth graders; sixth-grade…
Charreire, Hélène; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Simon, Chantal; Chaix, Basile; Weber, Christiane; Touvier, Mathilde; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Oppert, Jean-Michel
Diet and physical activity are considered to be major components of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined in detail the relationships between specific types of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and diet in adults. The objective of the present study was to assess differential relationships between dietary patterns, leisure-time and occupational physical activities and time spent watching television (TV), as an indicator of sedentary behaviour, in middle-aged French subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 1359 participants in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study, who completed a detailed physical activity questionnaire and at least six 24 h dietary records. Sex-specific dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis; their relationships with leisure-time and occupational physical activities and TV viewing were assessed using ANCOVA, after adjustment for age, educational level and smoking status. Three dietary patterns were identified in each sex. After adjustment for potential confounders, leisure-time physical activity was positively associated with a 'healthy' food pattern in both men (P for trend < 0·01) and women (P for trend < 0·03) and negatively associated with an 'alcohol/meat' pattern in men (P for trend < 0·01). TV viewing was positively associated with a 'convenience' pattern in men and with a 'alcohol-appetiser' pattern in women. In conclusion, identification of relationships between dietary patterns, physical activity and sedentary behaviour can enable identification of different types of lifestyle and should help to target at-risk groups in nutrition prevention programmes. PMID:21251337
Jenvey, Vickii B.
It has often been proposed that young (three to six years old) children's television viewing habits contribute to early-onset obesity. Three explanations that link television viewing patterns of young children with the development of obesity are considered. First, television viewing displaces time available for physical activity, reduces energy…
Lin, Carolyn A.
Examines adolescents' television viewing motives, activities, and satisfaction, in an attempt to integrate the audience activity construct into the uses and gratifications model. Suggests that more strongly motivated viewers engage more actively in various audience activities throughout the viewing process and receive greater viewing satisfaction…
Tucker, L A; Friedman, G M
We estimated the extent to which time spent watching television is associated with obesity and super-obesity among 6,138 employed adult males. After adjustment for age, smoking status, length of work week, measured physical fitness, and reported weekly hours of exercise, people who viewed TV more than three hours/day were twice as likely to be obese as those who viewed less than 1 hour/day. Those who viewed for 1 to 2 hours daily had a relative risk of 1.60 (1.21, 2.11). Physical fitness consistently confounded the associations between TV viewing and obesity/super-obesity, but the other control variables did not do so. PMID:2929820
Pfau, Michael; And Others
Examines theoretical and methodological controversies identified with the cultivation explanation of the way television shapes perceptions of social reality. Finds that content-specific viewing is a more reliable predictor than total viewing or select viewer sociodemographic variables of the public's tendency to perceive attorneys in the same way…
Schooler, Deborah; Trinh, Sarah
This study addressed profiles of adolescent television use and associations between television viewing profiles and the development of body satisfaction. A sample of 841 adolescent boys and girls, ages 11-17, was recruited for participation in a longitudinal study of adolescent media use. Prior research established eight adolescent television profiles among this sample, reflecting unique patterns of consumption of certain genres, character types, and themes (e.g., romance). This study examined whether an adolescent's television profile predicted Time 2 body satisfaction, after controlling for Time 1 body satisfaction. Among boys, television viewing was unrelated to Time 2 body satisfaction. After controlling for initial body satisfaction, hours spent watching television marginally predicted lower Time 2 body satisfaction among girls. After including television profiles alongside television hours, however, television profile emerged as the stronger predictor. Specifically, a group of girls who watched television frequently and indiscriminately reported the most severe drop in body satisfaction. PMID:21050831
Anderson, D R; Huston, A C; Schmitt, K L; Linebarger, D L; Wright, J C
In this Monograph, we report the follow-up of 570 adolescents who had been studied as preschoolers in one of two separate investigations of television use. The primary goal of the study was to determine the long-term relations between preschool television viewing and adolescent achievement, behavior, and attitudes. Using a telephone interview and high school transcripts, we assessed adolescent media use; grades in English, science, and math; leisure reading; creativity; aggression; participation in extracurricular activities; use of alcohol and cigarettes; and self-image. In each domain, we tested theories emphasizing the causal role of television content (e.g., social learning, information processing) as contrasted with those theories positing effects of television as a medium, irrespective of content (e.g., time displacement, pacing, interference with language). The results provided much stronger support for content-based hypotheses than for theories emphasizing television as a medium; moreover, the patterns differed for boys and girls. Viewing educational programs as preschoolers was associated with higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, greater creativity, and less aggression. These associations were more consistent for boys than for girls. By contrast, the girls who were more frequent preschool viewers of violent programs had lower grades than those who were infrequent viewers. These associations held true after taking into account family background, other categories of preschool viewing, and adolescent media use. One hypothesis accounting for the sex differences is that early experiences, such as television viewing, have greater effects when they counteract normative developmental trends and predominant sex-typed socialization influences than when they reinforce them. Adolescents in the study used both television and print media to support ongoing interests. Television content (e.g., entertainment, sports, or world events
A total of 286 subjects was presented with a series of motivations and asked to evaluate the relative importance of each in their exposure/avoidance decisions about watching sports programs on television. The 188 sports viewers assessed the importance of each motivation for their viewing of baseball, hockey, football, and tennis. The 98…
Selnow, Gary W.
This study investigated whether heavy television viewing habits influenced children's perception of the ease (certainty, speed and predictable nature) with which everyday problems are solved. Results showed heavy television viewers tended to view problems in a manner consistent with the way television depicts them. (JDH)
This course is divided into seven units, each focusing on a particular aspect of television. The unit topics and some of the subtopics included are: (1) television and the American viewer; (2) the television industry (the networks, the role of the Federal Communications Commission, public television, and the business of television); (3) programs…
Brown, Judith E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Broom, Dorothy H.; Bittman, Michael
Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. Television viewing is often a focus of the obesity debate. Not only is it sedentary, it also has the potential to influence other lifestyle behaviours either by displacing physical activities…
Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte
Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting) can be associated detrimentally with health outcomes. Older adults, the most sedentary age group, are especially at risk due to their high levels of television viewing time. This study examined individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of older adults' television viewing. Data on daily television viewing time, plus individual, social, and physical environmental factors were collected from 50,986 noninstitutionalized older adults (≥ 65 years) in Flanders (Belgium). The results showed significant relationships between television viewing time and individual, social, and physical environmental factors. Subgroups at risk for high levels of television viewing were those who were functionally limited, less educated, widowed, and (semi)urban-dwelling older adults. Our findings illustrate a cross-sectional link between older adults' television viewing time and social composition of their neighborhood, formal participation, access to alternative activities, and safety from crime.
McManus, Beth M.; Mandic, Carmen Gomez; Carle, Adam C.; Robert, Stephanie A.
Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, the association between parent-child function and physical activity and television viewing was investigated among a national sample of adolescents in the United States. Parent-child function was measured using the National Survey of Children's Health "Family Function" survey items and…
Cohen, Akiba A.; Salomon, Gavriel
Compares American middle-class children, as representatives of heavy television viewers, and Israeli middle-class children, as representatives of lighter television viewers, to determine the extent to which accumulated television viewing enhances the development of particular mental skills. (PD)
Greenberg, Marshall G.; Frank, Ronald E.
Using their own 1978 national survey sample, the authors describe the social and demographic characteristics, psychological needs, and television viewing behaviors of persons who exhibit each of 14 patterns of leisure activities. The patterns were isolated through factor analysis and clustering techniques. (Author/RM)
This report describes activities undertaken during Phase I of a two-year project sponsored by the U.S. Office of Education to prepare, evaluate, and distribute a print-based curriculum which will encourage the development of critical television viewing skills in teenagers, and to develop television viewing skills guides and workshops for parents…
Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; van Dam, Rob M.; Tan, Chuen Seng; Mueller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Lim, Yi Ting; Ong, Kai Zhi; Ee, Siqing; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E. Shyong
Objective Sedentary behavior such as television viewing may be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, few studies have assessed the impact of television viewing time on coronary artery calcification and it remains unclear how body fat contributes to this relationship. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis and whether effects on visceral or subcutaneous fat may mediate any associations observed. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 398 Chinese participants (192 men and 206 women) from Singapore prospective study. Participants were free from known cardiovascular diseases and underwent interview, health screening, computed tomography scans of coronary arteries and abdomen. Spearman’s correlation was used to test the correlation between television viewing time, physical activity, body composition and abdominal fat distribution. The association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results In men, television viewing time was significantly correlated with higher body fat mass index, percent body fat, subcutaneous and visceral fat. These associations were in the same direction, but weaker and not statistically significant in women. Television viewing time (hours/day) was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men (odds ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.93) but no significant association was observed in women (odds ratio: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.59-1.31) after adjusting for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Further adjustments for biological factors did not affect these associations. Conclusions Television viewing time was associated with greater adiposity and higher subcutaneous and visceral fat in men. TV viewing time was also associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and the potential mechanisms underlying this association require further investigation
Introduces a theoretical perspective on media viewing choices, grounded in social identity theory. Content analysis demonstrates that child, younger adult, and older adult television viewers show a preference for viewing characters of their own age. The experiment demonstrates that young adults' preference for viewing young adult characters exists…
Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael
Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…
Shaughnessy, Michael F.
While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…
Armstrong, Colin A.; Sallis, James F.; Alcaraz, John E.; Kolody, Bohdan; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.
Examined the relationship between elementary students' television viewing and their physical fitness. Data from parent and student questionnaires and measures of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength/endurance, and muscular flexibility indicated that television viewing weakly and inconsistently related to various components of…
Perney, Jan; And Others
To examine the relationship between television viewing and early school achievement, children's quantitative and verbal test scores were correlated with parental responses to a questionnaire concerning the television viewing habits of their children. The sample consisted of 202 kindergarten children and their parents from two suburban school…
Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Yokota, Susumu; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta
Television (TV) viewing is known to affect children's verbal abilities and other physical, cognitive, and emotional development in psychological studies. However, the brain structural development associated with TV viewing has never been investigated. Here we examined cross-sectional correlations between the duration of TV viewing and regional gray/white matter volume (rGMV/rWMV) among 133 boys and 143 girls as well as correlations between the duration of TV viewing and longitudinal changes that occurred a few years later among 111 boys and 105 girls. After correcting for confounding factors, we found positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the frontopolar and medial prefrontal areas in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV/rWMV of areas of the visual cortex in cross-sectional analyses, and positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the hypothalamus/septum and sensorimotor areas in longitudinal analyses. We also confirmed negative effects of TV viewing on verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. These anatomical correlates may be linked to previously known effects of TV viewing on verbal competence, aggression, and physical activity. In particular, the present results showed effects of TV viewing on the frontopolar area of the brain, which has been associated with intellectual abilities.
Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Yokota, Susumu; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta
Television (TV) viewing is known to affect children's verbal abilities and other physical, cognitive, and emotional development in psychological studies. However, the brain structural development associated with TV viewing has never been investigated. Here we examined cross-sectional correlations between the duration of TV viewing and regional gray/white matter volume (rGMV/rWMV) among 133 boys and 143 girls as well as correlations between the duration of TV viewing and longitudinal changes that occurred a few years later among 111 boys and 105 girls. After correcting for confounding factors, we found positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the frontopolar and medial prefrontal areas in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV/rWMV of areas of the visual cortex in cross-sectional analyses, and positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the hypothalamus/septum and sensorimotor areas in longitudinal analyses. We also confirmed negative effects of TV viewing on verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. These anatomical correlates may be linked to previously known effects of TV viewing on verbal competence, aggression, and physical activity. In particular, the present results showed effects of TV viewing on the frontopolar area of the brain, which has been associated with intellectual abilities. PMID:24256892
Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June
The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males. PMID:26158956
Tucker, Larry A.
Determined the extent to which light, moderate, and heavy television viewing relates to multiple measures of obesity and physical fitness among high school males (N=379). Showed that light television viewers scored significantly better than heavy viewers on a composite fitness index. Light viewers were not significantly less obese than moderate or…
Smith, L; Hamer, M
Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Conclusion Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. PMID:24975987
Huston, Aletha C.; Wright, John C.; Marquis, Janet; Green, Samuel B.
Examined television viewing over three years among two cohorts of 2- and 4-year olds. Found that viewing declined with age. With age, time in reading and educational activities increased on weekdays but declined on weekends, and sex differences in time-use patterns increased. Increased time in educational activities, social interaction, and video…
Tucker, Larry A.
Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…
Williams, Emyr; Robbins, Mandy; Picton, Laura
A total of 1133 13-15-year-old pupils in six secondary schools in South Wales were invited to complete questions concerning vampire belief and amount of television watching. The data demonstrate that belief in vampires was positively associated with higher levels of television watching.
29. FET 60-1312 VIEW OF TELEVISION DOLLY IN TAN 629 HANGAR, AN ASPECT OF INSTRUMENTATION. PHOTO DATE: MARCH 23, 1960. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID
Rubin, Alan M.; And Others
Investigating the nature of parasocial interaction (relationship of friendship or intimacy of the television viewer with a remote media personality). Developed a model to measure parasocial interaction and tested news-viewing motives and patterns. (PD)
Meadowcroft, Jeanne M.; Olson, Beth
As universities gain access to satellite delivery systems, faculty are asking questions about how information processing varies between print versus television delivery systems. A study compared 68 undergradaute adults' information processing activity when the same message is presented in print vs. on television. Results reveal little differences…
Ward, L. Monique; Friedman, Kimberly
Using both correlational and experimental methodology, this study examined contributions of TV viewing to adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior. A sample of 244 high school students was assigned to view clips depicting either one of three sexual stereotypes or neutral content. Participants then completed measures assessing their attitudes…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.
This digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…
Background Time spent watching television affects multiple aspects of child and adolescent health. Although a diverse range of factors have been found to be associated with young people's television viewing, parents and the home environment are particularly influential. However, little is known about whether parents, particularly those who are concerned about their child's television viewing habits, translate their concern into action by providing supportive home environments (e.g. rules restricting screen-time behaviours, limited access to screen-based media). The aim of this study was to examine associations between parental concerns for child television viewing and child television viewing and the home sedentary environment. Methods Parents of children aged 5-6 years ('younger' children, n = 430) and 10-12 years ('older children', n = 640) reported usual duration of their child's television (TV) viewing, their concerns regarding the amount of time their child spends watching TV, and on aspects of the home environment. Regression analyses examined associations between parental concern and child TV viewing, and between parental concern and aspects of the home environment. Analyses were stratified by age group. Results Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents were not concerned (B = 9.63, 95% CI = 1.58-17.68, p = 0.02 and B = 15.82, 95% CI = 8.85-22.80, p < 0.01, for younger and older children respectively). Parental concern was positively associated with younger children eating dinner in front of the television, and with parental restriction of sedentary behaviours and offering sedentary activities (i.e. TV viewing or computer use) as a reward for good behaviour among older and young children. Furthermore, parents of older children who were concerned had fewer televisions in the home and a lower count of sedentary equipment in the home. Conclusions Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents who were not
Read, Jenny C. A.; Simonotto, Jennifer; Bohr, Iwo; Godfrey, Alan; Galna, Brook; Rochester, Lynn; Smulders, Tom V.
Manufacturers and the media have raised the possibility that viewing stereoscopic 3D television (S3D TV) may cause temporary disruption to balance and visuomotor coordination. We looked for evidence of such effects in a laboratory-based study. Four hundred and thirty-three people aged 4–82 years old carried out tests of balance and coordination before and after viewing an 80 min movie in either conventional 2D or stereoscopic 3D, while wearing two triaxial accelerometers. Accelerometry produced little evidence of any change in body motion associated with S3D TV. We found no evidence that viewing the movie in S3D causes a detectable impairment in balance or in visuomotor coordination. PMID:26587261
Ex, Carine T. G. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.
Examines young Dutch adolescent and young females' self-image and ideal image of motherhood and the extent to which television viewing and viewing motives were related to these images. Notes none of the subjects were mothers and all were selected from a variety of educational settings. Concludes that sitcoms and soaps that portrayed mothers with a…
Degrosky, Deborah S.
Data were collected from 123 seventh and eighth grade students to examine the relationship between the quality of television viewing time and reading achievement, age, grade, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and intelligence quotient (IQ). Highlights of the data analyses include the following: (1) The mean weekly viewing time for the subjects was…
Natsiopoulou, Triantafillia; Melissa-Halikiopoulou, Chrisoula
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of television (TV) on preschoolers, their TV viewing patterns and the conditions under which they watch TV, taking into consideration their different socioeconomic and regional backgrounds. The survey instrument was a questionnaire with 23 closed-ended questions, given to parents whose children…
Skatrud-Mickelson, Monica; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.
Television (TV) viewing is associated with an increased risk in childhood obesity. Research surrounding food habits of tweens largely bypass snacking preferences while watching TV in the home. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe snacking prevalence by tween gender, and to describe parental rules surrounding snacking while watching TV at home. Survey data were obtained in 2008 from 4th through 6th grade students (N=1557) who attended 12 New England schools. Complete self-reported measures (N=1448) included demographics, household and bedroom TV ownership, TV watching frequency, snacking prevalence, snacking preferences, and parental rules regarding snacking while watching TV. Comparisons were generated using chi-square analyses. Overall, the majority of children (69.2%) snacked “sometimes” or “always” during TV viewing, with the majority of responses (62.9%) categorized as foods. The most popular food snacks for both genders in this sample were salty snacks (47.9%), with fruits and vegetables ranking a distant second (18.4%). Girls (22.6%) selected fruits and vegetables more frequently than boys (14.7%), P=0.003. Of those drinking beverages (n=514), boys selected sugar-sweetened beverages more often than girls (43.5% versus 31.7%), P=0.006, and girls chose juice more often than boys (12.3% versus 6.1%), P=0.02. Overall, approximately half (53.2%) of students consumed less healthy snacks while watching TV. Interventions for parents and both genders of tweens focusing on healthful snacking choices may have long-term beneficial outcomes. PMID:21872703
Anderson, Daniel R.; Huston, Aletha C.; Schmitt, Kelly L.; Linebarger, Deborah L.; Wright, John C.
Followed up on 570 adolescents studied as preschoolers. Found that preschoolers' viewing of educational television programs was associated with achieving higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, exhibiting greater creativity, and behaving less aggressively as adolescents more consistently for boys than girls. Found…
12. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing television monitoring of tests and personnel operating rocket engine test controls. May 27, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Facility, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-45021. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH
Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.
Factors related to parent ratings of young children's (mean age = 3.72, range = 3-6) fidgeting and reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined in a nationally representative sample of US families via the National Household Education Surveys. In structural equation models, the number of television hours viewed daily was…
Wijndaele, Katrien; Brage, Søren; Besson, Hervé; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Sharp, Stephen J.; Luben, Robert; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ekelund, Ulf
Background Although television viewing time is detrimentally associated with intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, the relationship with incident total (i.e. combined fatal and non-fatal) cardiovascular disease (CVD), non-fatal CVD and coronary heart disease is largely unknown. This study examined whether television viewing time is associated with these three outcomes, independently of physical activity energy expenditure and other confounding variables. Methodology/Principal Findings A population-based cohort of 12,608 men and women (aged 61.4±9.0), free from stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer at baseline in 1998–2000 were followed up until 2007 (6.9±1.9 years). Participants self-reported education, smoking, alcohol use, antihypertensive, lipid lowering and antidepressant medication, disease history, total energy intake, sleep duration, physical activity and television viewing. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured by standardized procedures; a clustered metabolic risk score was constructed. Every one hour/day increase in television viewing was associated with an increased hazard for total (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03–1.08; 2,620 cases), non-fatal CVD (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03–1.09; 2,134 cases), and coronary heart disease (HR = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.03–1.13; 940 cases), independent of gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol, medication, diabetes status, CVD family history, sleep duration and physical activity energy expenditure. Energy intake, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, HbA1c and the clustered metabolic risk score only partially mediated these associations. Conclusions These results indicate that the most prevalent leisure time (sedentary) behaviour, television viewing, independently contributes to increased CVD risk. Recommendations on reducing television viewing time should be considered. PMID
Gantz, Walter; Weaver, James B., III
This study examined both general and specific parent-child television viewing experiences together with any interactions related to television viewing whether the child has watched television with a parent or alone. A total of 384 telephone interviews of parents (57% female, 43% male) with children at home between the ages of 6 and 18 were…
Schmitt, Kelly L.; Woolf, Kimberly Duyck; Anderson, Daniel R.
Reveals that 46% of the time with television was spent in some activity instead of or in addition to looking at the TV. Notes that social interaction was the most common nonviewing activity for all viewers, followed by playing and eating for children and reading for adults. Considers how nonviewing behaviors occurred most often during programming…
Background Television viewing has been associated with poor eating behaviours in adolescents. Changing unhealthy eating behaviours is most likely to be achieved by identifying and targeting factors shown to mediate the association between these behaviours. However, little is known about the mediators of the associations between television viewing and eating behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine mediators of the longitudinal associations between television viewing (TV) and eating behaviours among Australian adolescents. Method Eating behaviours were assessed using a web-based survey completed by a community-based sample of 1729 adolescents from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, at baseline (2004-2005) and two years later. TV viewing and the potential mediators (snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing) were assessed via the web-based survey at baseline. Results Adolescents who watched more than two hours of TV/day had higher intakes of energy-dense snacks and beverages, and lower intakes of fruit two years later. Furthermore, the associations between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, energy-dense drinks and fruit were mediated by snacking while watching TV. Perceived value of TV viewing mediated the association between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, beverages and fruit. Conclusion Snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing mediated the longitudinal association between TV viewing and eating behaviours among adolescents. The efficacy of methods to reduce TV viewing, change snacking habits while watching TV, and address the values that adolescents place on TV viewing should be examined in an effort to promote healthy eating among adolescents. PMID:21450065
Guran, T; Bereket, A
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity.
Guran, T; Bereket, A
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity. PMID:22075803
Huffman, Fatma G; Vaccaro, Joan A; Exebio, Joel C; Zarini, Gustavo G; Katz, Timothy; Dixon, Zisca
Diabetes is a world-wide epidemic associated with multiple environmental factors. Prolonged television viewing (TV) time has been related to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. TV viewing has been positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower energy expenditure, over-eating high-calorie and high-fat foods. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of hours of TV viewing with dietary quality, obesity and physical activity for three ethnic minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Diet quality and physical activity were inversely related to prolonged TV viewing. African Americans and participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to watch more than 4 hours of TV per day as compared to their counterparts. Diet quality was inversely associated with physical activity level. Future studies are needed to establish the risk factors of prolonged TV watching in adult populations for the development of diabetes or diabetes-related complications. Although strategies to reduce TV watching have been proven effective among children, few trials have been conducted in adults. Intervention trials aimed at reducing TV viewing targeting people with type 2 diabetes may be beneficial to improve dietary quality and physical activity, which may reduce diabetes complications.
Thompson, Darcy A.; Sibinga, Erica M.S.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Christakis, Dimitri A.
Objective To determine if hours of daily television viewed by varying age groups of young children with Latina mothers differs by maternal language preference (English/Spanish) and to compare these differences to young children with non-Latina white mothers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2000 from the National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Setting Nationally representative sample. Participants 1,347 mothers of children 4-35 months. Main Exposure Subgroups of self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (non-Latina white (white), Latina) and within Latinas, stratification by maternal language preference (English/Spanish). Outcome Measure Hours of daily television viewed by the child. Results Bivariate analyses showed children of English- versus Spanish-speaking Latinas watch more daily television (1.88 versus 1.31 hours,p<0.01). Multivariable regression analyses stratified by age revealed differences by age group. Among 4-11 month olds, children of English- and Spanish-speaking Latinas watch similar amounts of television. However, among children 12-23 and 24-35 months, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more television than children of Spanish-speaking Latinas (IRR=1.61,CI=1.17-2.22; IRR=1.66,CI=1.10-2.51, respectively). Compared to children of white mothers, children of both Latina subgroups watched similar amounts among the 4-11 month olds. However, among 12-23 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more compared to children of white mothers (IRR=1.57,CI=1.18-2.11). Among 24-35 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched similar amounts compared to children of white mothers, but children of Spanish-speaking Latinas watched less (IRR=0.69,CI=0.50-0.95). Conclusions Television viewing amounts among young children with Latina mothers vary by child age and maternal language preference supporting the need to explore sociocultural factors that influence viewing in Latino children. PMID:20124147
Eisner, Thomas; And Others
Reports on a portable video color camera that is fully suited for seeing ultraviolet images and offers some expanded viewing possibilities. Discusses the basic technique, specialized viewing, and the instructional value of this system of viewing reflectance patterns of flowers and insects that are invisible to the unaided eye. (CW)
Jason, Leonard A.
While many studies have documented the negative consequences of excessive television watching, few behavioral programs have investigated techniques for reducing television viewing. A 13-year-old girl who watched from 6 to 9 hours of television daily was provided a behavioral program featuring a token-actuated timer in an attempt to reduce her…
Surveying the television habits of teenagers, this annotated bibliography contains 30 references of articles and papers in the ERIC database. The first section, "Impact on Health, Sexual Behavior, Use of Alcohol," addresses such issues as the relationship of viewing sexual content to sexual activity and sex role acquisition, and relationships…
Raskin, M M; Vining, P E
Remote viewing of ultrasound scans facilitates assessment of a student's technique while minimizing anxiety for both him and the patient. This method may also be effective for the busy physician who must monitor several procedures at the same time.
Tucker, L A
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which light, moderate, and heavy television viewing relates to multiple measures of obesity and physical fitness among 379 high school males. The Body Mass Index and Tucker's Perceived Somatotype Scale were employed to assess obesity; physical fitness was measured by six tests: pushups, pullups, sidestep, long jump, situps, and jog-walk. Results showed that light television viewers scored significantly better than heavy viewers on a composite fitness index and on pushups, pullups, sidestep, situps, and jog-walk considered individually. Similarly, light viewers performed better than moderate viewers on the composite fitness measure and on pushups, pullups, and jog-walk. Light viewers displayed a strong tendency toward better fitness than moderate viewers on the long jump, situps, and sidestep tests, although statistical significance was not attained. Light viewers were not significantly less obese than moderate or heavy viewers. Statistical control of the demographic variables, applied simultaneously, had little influence on the associations found in this study. The findings indicate that for purposes of good physical fitness, television viewing should be limited to one hour or less per day.
Tucker, L A
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which light, moderate, and heavy television viewing relates to multiple measures of obesity and physical fitness among 379 high school males. The Body Mass Index and Tucker's Perceived Somatotype Scale were employed to assess obesity; physical fitness was measured by six tests: pushups, pullups, sidestep, long jump, situps, and jog-walk. Results showed that light television viewers scored significantly better than heavy viewers on a composite fitness index and on pushups, pullups, sidestep, situps, and jog-walk considered individually. Similarly, light viewers performed better than moderate viewers on the composite fitness measure and on pushups, pullups, and jog-walk. Light viewers displayed a strong tendency toward better fitness than moderate viewers on the long jump, situps, and sidestep tests, although statistical significance was not attained. Light viewers were not significantly less obese than moderate or heavy viewers. Statistical control of the demographic variables, applied simultaneously, had little influence on the associations found in this study. The findings indicate that for purposes of good physical fitness, television viewing should be limited to one hour or less per day. PMID:3825662
Gutschoven, Klaas; Van den Bulck, Jan
This cross-sectional study of children assessed the association between television viewing and age at smoking initiation, using self-reports administered by research assistants in schools. Participants were 909 students in their first and fourth years of secondary education in a random sample of 15 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium, who had smoked at least one cigarette. The main outcome measure was age at smoking initiation. The independent variable was weekly television viewing volume. Gender, educational level, parental smoking, and peer smoking were the control variables. The relationship between television viewing and age at smoking initiation was significant. Higher levels of television viewing were related to earlier onset of smoking behavior in adolescents. The relationship of television viewing with age at smoking initiation was stronger than that of peer smoking, parental smoking, and gender. For each hour of television viewing per day, the average smoking initiation age decreased by 60 days. Heavier television viewers start smoking at an earlier age. Two possible explanations for this relationship are suggested. Social learning theory suggests that actors and actresses serve as behavioral role models for heavy viewers. Cultivation theory suggests that exposure to positive messages influences smoking attitudes. Further research should examine whether the relationship is causal and whether television acts as a provider of smoking role models or whether it influences smoking attitudes. PMID:16085505
Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Greisinger, Anthony; Murray, Nancy G; Brehm, Brenda
Media consumption may contribute to childhood obesity. This study developed and evaluated a theory-based, parent-focused intervention to reduce television and other media consumption to prevent and reduce childhood obesity. Families (n = 202) with children ages 6-9 were recruited from a large, urban multiethnic population into a randomized controlled trial (101 families into the intervention group and 101 into the control group), and were followed for 6 months. The intervention consisted of a 2-hour workshop and six bimonthly newsletters. Behavioral objectives included: (i) reduce TV watching; (ii) turn off TV when nobody is watching; (iii) no TV with meals; (iv) no TV in the child's bedroom; and (v) engage in fun non-media related activities. Parents were 89% female, 44% white, 28% African American, 17% Latino, and 11% Asian, mean age 40 years (s.d. = 7.5); 72% were married. Children were 49% female, mean age 8 years (s.d. = 0.95). Sixty-five percent of households had three or more TVs and video game players; 37% had at least one handheld video game, and 53% had three or more computers. Average children's weekday media exposure was 6.1 hours. At 6 months follow-up, the intervention group was less likely to report the TV being on when nobody was watching (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.23, P < 0.05), less likely to report eating snacks while watching TV (AOR = 0.47, P < 0.05), and less likely to have a TV in the child's bedroom (AOR = 0.23, P < 0.01). There was a trend toward reducing actual media consumption but these outcomes did not reach statistical significance. Effective strategies to reduce children's TV viewing were identified. PMID:20107469
GRAY, NAN; SUNDERLIN, SYLVIA
VARIOUS POINTS OF VIEW ARE PRESENTED ON THE EFFECT OF TELEVISION UPON CHILDREN. CONTENTS--(1) TELEVISION, TIGER BY THE TAIL--ERNA CHRISTENSEN. (2) TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON THE CHILD--RALPH GARRY. (3) SOME RESEARCH ON TV--PAUL A. WITTY. (4) THE CURRICULUM CONTENT OF CHILDREN'S TELEVISION PROGRAMS AND COMMERCIALS--MARIE TOWNSEND MOORE AND JULIANA…
Cassidy, Sophie; Chau, Josephine Y; Catt, Michael; Bauman, Adrian; Trenell, Michael I
Objectives Simultaneously define diet, physical activity, television (TV) viewing, and sleep duration across cardiometabolic disease groups, and investigate clustering of non-diet lifestyle behaviours. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting 22 UK Biobank assessment centres across the UK. Participants 502 664 adults aged 37–63 years old, 54% women. 4 groups were defined based on disease status; ‘No disease’ (n=103 993), ‘cardiovascular disease’ (CVD n=113 469), ‘Type 2 diabetes without CVD’ (n=4074) and ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ (n=11 574). Main outcomes Diet, physical activity, TV viewing and sleep duration. Results People with ‘CVD’ report low levels of physical activity (<918 MET min/week, OR (95% CI) 1.23 (1.20 to 1.25)), high levels of TV viewing (>3 h/day; 1.42 (1.39 to 1.45)), and poor sleep duration (<7, >8 h/night; 1.37 (1.34 to 1.39)) relative to people without disease. People with ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ were more likely to report low physical activity (1.71 (1.64 to 1.78)), high levels of TV viewing (1.92 (1.85 to 1.99)) and poor sleep duration (1.52 (1.46 to1.58)) relative to people without disease. Non-diet behaviours were clustered, with people with ‘CVD’ or ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ more likely to report simultaneous low physical activity, high TV viewing and poor sleep duration than those without disease (2.15 (2.03 to 2.28) and 3.29 (3.02 to 3.58), respectively). By contrast, 3 in 4 adults with ‘Type 2 diabetes’, and 2 in 4 adults with ‘CVD’ have changed their diet in the past 5 years, compared with only 1 in 4 in the ‘No disease’ group. Models were adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, Townsend Deprivation Index, ethnicity, alcohol intake, smoking and meeting fruit/vegetable guidelines. Conclusions Low physical activity, high TV and poor sleep duration are prominent unaddressed high-risk characteristics of both CVD and type 2 diabetes, and are likely to be clustered
The advantages and disadvantages of presenting telecourse video programs are discussed with respect to three basic delivery modes used by Austin Community College (ACC): broadcast television, cable television, and videotapes in libraries and other public facilities. First, background information is presented about Austin, the local availability of…
Woal, Michael B.
The proposition advanced by media critics John Fiske and John Hartley, that television provides the experience of "defamiliarization" (the demand that viewers "negotiate" a response to the ideological frameworks that television presents), is considered by the Russian Formalist critics and the structuralists who elaborated and refined their ideas…
References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory (TMT) postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current paper explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with TMT's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:22468421
References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current article explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with Terror Management Theory's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:22468421
Background Television (TV) viewing has been associated with obesity although the effects of specific TV content on health and other behaviours remains unknown. We examined the association between watching sport on TV, physical activity levels, and risk of obesity. Methods We studied 6,733 (aged 64.9 ± 9.2 yrs) men and women from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Data were collected on self reported TV time and content, and physical activity. Nurses measured height and weight for the calculation of body mass index. Results On average, participants reported viewing TV for 5.3 ± 4.1 hours per day and 30.3% of the sample watched sport on TV at least twice a week. There was no association between watching sport and physical activity levels. Participants that watched sports every day were at higher risk of obesity [odds ratio = 1.39, 95% CI, 1.15, 1.68) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, total TV time, disability, and self-rated health. Conclusions Watching elite athletes may have no role in the promotion of physical activity in older adults, which has implications for staging large sporting events with physical activity legacy promises. PMID:24400697
Basterra‐Gortari, Francisco Javier; Bes‐Rastrollo, Maira; Gea, Alfredo; Núñez‐Córdoba, Jorge María; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez‐González, Miguel Ángel
Background Sedentary behaviors have been directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, little is known about different types of sedentary behaviors in relation to overall mortality. Our objective was to assess the association between different sedentary behaviors and all‐cause mortality. Methods and Results In this prospective, dynamic cohort study (the SUN Project) 13 284 Spanish university graduates with a mean age of 37 years were followed‐up for a median of 8.2 years. Television, computer, and driving time were assessed at baseline. Poisson regression models were fitted to examine the association between each sedentary behavior and total mortality. All‐cause mortality incidence rate ratios (IRRs) per 2 hours per day were 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06 to 1.84) for television viewing, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.18) for computer use, and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.44) for driving, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, total energy intake, Mediterranean diet adherence, body mass index, and physical activity. The risk of mortality was twofold higher for participants reporting ≥3 h/day of television viewing than for those reporting <1 h/d (IRR: 2.04 [95% CI 1.16 to 3.57]). Conclusions Television viewing was directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, computer use and time spent driving were not significantly associated with higher mortality. Further cohort studies and trials designed to assess whether reductions in television viewing are able to reduce mortality are warranted. The lack of association between computer use or time spent driving and mortality needs further confirmation. PMID:24965030
Hoge, John Douglas
This paper offers a collection of activity ideas to help children gain perspective on the present use of television. The activities address both advantages and drawbacks of a television society. Students develop a critical view of the impact of television on the culture by participating in the activities. The activities include: (1) "TV Timeline";…
McLaurin, A. P.; Jones, Edwin R.
A comparison was made between viewing normal television and VISIDEPTM television which produces three-dimensional images by the method of alternating images. Two separate groups of fifteen university students reviewed fifty minute unrelieved exposure to television; one group watched standard television and the other watched VISIDEP. Both groups were surveyed regarding questions of eye strain, fatigue, headache, or other discomforts, as well as questions of apparent depth and image quality. One week later the participants were all shown the VISIDEP television and surveyed in the same manner as before. In addition, they were given a chance to make a direct side-by-side comparison and evaluate the images. Analysis of the viewer responses shows that in relation to viewer comfort, VISIDEP television is as acceptable to viewers as normal television, for it introduces no additional problems. However, the VISIDEP images were clearly superior in there ability to invoke an enhanced perception of depth.
Research has shown that producers and consumers of television programs are still uncertain about the nature of the "grammar" or "lexicon" that makes up the language of television. Although attempts have been made in experimental television ("video art"), systematic studies on the idiosyncratic nature, unique features, and specific components of…
Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart
In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…
There is limited evidence in preschool children linking media use, such as television/video viewing and computer use, to obesity and adiposity. We tested three hypotheses in preschool children: 1) that watching > 2 hours of TV/videos daily is associated with obesity and adiposity, 2) that computer u...
Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Larson, Nicole I; Nelson, Melissa C; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary
Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort) and 1366 high school students (older cohort) who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999) and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively). Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (<2 hours/daily), moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily), and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily). Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television) five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating habits in young
Ennemoser, Marco; Schneider, Wolfgang
This longitudinal study explored the long-term effects of television viewing on the development of children's reading competencies. Among 2 cohorts of German children (N[subscript 1] = 165, N[subscript 2] = 167), measures of television viewing were collected over 4 years, and tests of reading speed and reading comprehension were administered…
Rubin, Alan M.
Examination of the relationship between viewing motivation and viewing patterns among young adult television viewers identifies nine motivational categories: relaxation, companionship, habit, time passing, entertainment, social interaction, information, arousal, and escape. Two basic types of television use are described as time consumption and…
Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.
Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…
Ogles, Robert M.; Sparks, Glenn G.
Comparing two measures of television exposure (time spent viewing, and the number of violent acts viewed per hour) as predictors of television-influenced fear of criminal victimization, a study conducted probability surveys in two midwestern cities with dissimilar crime rates. A preliminary study of 142 undergraduates in a mass communication class…
Lipsky, Leah M.; Iannotti, Ronald J.
Objective To examine associations of television viewing with eating behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Public and private schools in the United States during the 2009–2010 school year. Participants A total of 12 642 students in grades 5 to 10 (mean [SD] age, 13.4[0.09] years; 86.5% participation). Main Exposures Television viewing (hours per day) and snacking while watching television (days per week). Main Outcome Measures Eating (≥1 instance per day) fruit, vegetables, sweets, and sugary soft drinks; eating at a fast food restaurant (≥1 d/wk); and skipping breakfast (≥1 d/wk). Results Television viewing was inversely related to intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88–0.96) and vegetables (0.95; 0.91–1.00) and positively related to intake of candy (1.18; 1.14–1.23) and fast food (1.14; 1.09–1.19) and skipping breakfast (1.06; 1.02–1.10) after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, computer use, and physical activity. Television snacking was related to increased intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.10), candy (1.20; 1.16–1.24), soda (1.15; 1.11–1.18), and fast food (1.09; 1.06–1.13), independent of television viewing. The relationships of television viewing with fruit and vegetable intake and with skipping breakfast were essentially unchanged after adjustment for television snacking; the relationships with intake of candy, soda, and fast food were moderately attenuated. Age and race/ethnicity modified relationships of television viewing with soda and fast food intake and with skipping breakfast. Conclusion Television viewing was associated with a cluster of unhealthy eating behaviors in US adolescents after adjustment for socioeconomic and behavioral covariates. PMID:22566548
Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Lumeng, Julie C.
The rates of overweight in infancy and childhood are rapidly growing. One contributor to the rising tide of childhood obesity, and a target included in many obesity prevention and intervention programs, is television (TV) use. This article examines the amount of media to which young children are exposed, and considers the evidence for the…
Excessive television (TV) viewing has been associated with a greater risk of childhood obesity. Latino children watch higher amounts of TV than their peers and are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. Since TV viewing and obesity track from preschool into adolescence, early intervention...
van den Broek, Paul
Given the central role of television in most children's lives, it is important to understand its potential positive and negative effects on a variety of cognitive, academic, social, behavioral, and attitudinal outcomes. A study aims to explore the relation between early television viewing and later reading achievement. Motivating the research is…
Zhao, Yuting; Phillips, Beth M.
It has been suggested by researchers that educational television programmes may support the language and literacy development for children, especially those in immigrant families. In an immigrant family, many family characteristics appear to be related to educational television programme viewing of children at home, for example, parental…
Anderson, Daniel R.; Hanson, Katherine G.
Television comprehension is a surprisingly demanding task for very young children. Based on a task analysis of television viewing and review of research, we suggest that by 6 months of age, infants can identify objects and people on screen. By 24 months they can comprehend and imitate simple actions contained in single shots and begin to integrate…
Finn, Seth; Gorr, Mary Beth
Explores relationships between motivations for television viewing, including shyness, loneliness, self-esteem, and three measures of social support. Suggests viewing motivations are related to needs arising from two distinct sources: social compensation and mood management. (MS)
Kuo, Melissa H; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of different strategies, and whether mediation strategies changed over time. A secondary purpose was to examine whether parents applied different mediation strategies to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder versus siblings, and the factors that created stress related to managing media use. Parents of 29 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 16 siblings completed questionnaires at two time points. Parents most frequently supervised their television viewing by watching it with the adolescents, and used restrictive strategies to regulate their videogaming. Parents used similar strategies for siblings, but more frequently applied restrictive and instructive strategies for videogaming with adolescents with autism spectrum disorder than their siblings. Restrictive mediation of television viewing for the adolescents decreased significantly over the year. Adolescents' time spent in media activities, age, and behavior problems, and parents' concerns about media use were significant factors associated with the strategies that parents employed. Parents' stress related to the adolescents' behavioral and emotional responses to parental restrictions.
Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman
Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)
View of the earth that was transmitted back from space during the live television transmission from the Apollo 8 spacecraft on the third day of its journey toward the moon. This view is looking through a spacecraft window. At the time of this TV transmission, Apollo 8 was traveling on its translunar course at about 3,254 ft per second, and was some 176,533 miles from earth.
A growing number of television programs direct their viewers to access an Internet website for further information on a presented topic. The explicit link between television programs and companion Internet websites, both of which communicate information through multiple modes, can be considered a form of intertextuality. Do college students…
Crawley, Alisha M.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Santomero, Angela; Wilder, Alice; Williams, Marsha; Evans, Marie K.; Bryant, Jennings
Presents the first investigation of the effects of experience with a particular program series on children's subsequent television viewing behavior and comprehension. Notes three- to five-year-old regular, experienced viewers of "Blue's Clues" were compared to new, inexperienced viewers. Suggests that a television series can teach children a style…
Boulos, Rebecca; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Chang, Hannah; Kanarek, Robin B
Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States. Over the last several decades, the prevalence of obesity among both adults and children has grown at an alarming rate and is now reaching epidemic proportions. The increase in obesity has been associated with rises in a host of other chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, there is growing evidence that television viewing is a major contributor. Results of numerous studies indicate a direct association between time spent watching television and body weight. Possible explanations for this relationship include: 1) watching television acts as a sedentary replacement for physical activity; 2) food advertisements for nutrient-poor, high-calorie foods stimulate food intake; and 3) television viewing is associated with "mindless" eating. In addition to decreasing physical activity and increasing the consumption of highly palatable foods, television viewing can also promote weight gain in indirect ways, such as through the use of targeted product placements in television shows; by influencing social perceptions of body image; and airing programs that portray cooking, eating and losing weight as entertainment. This paper will provide an interdisciplinary review of the direct and indirect ways in which television influences the obesity epidemic, and conclude with ways in which the negative impact of television on obesity could be reduced. PMID:22677722
Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P < 0·05). Children who watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention.
Hsueh, Ming-Chun; Liao, Yung; Chang, Shao-Hsi
This study examined the associations between perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors and excessive television (TV) viewing time among Taiwanese older adults. The sample data was collected by administering computer-assisted telephone interviewers to 980 Taiwanese older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) living in two regions. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine the associations between self-reported perceived neighborhood and home environmental attributions and TV viewing time by using logistic regression analyses. The results showed that perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors were associated with excessive TV viewing time (≥2 h/day) after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with a reference group, older adults who perceived their neighborhoods to have unsafe traffic were more likely to report excessive TV viewing time (OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.02–1.82). Older adults who reported having two or more TV sets in the home (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.28–2.44) and having a TV in the bedroom (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.18–2.03) were also more likely to report excessive TV viewing time. Further longitudinal research can confirm these findings, and tailored interventions focusing on the perceptions of neighborhood traffic safety and TV access at home for older adults might be effective means of preventing excessive TV viewing time. PMID:27420086
Hsueh, Ming-Chun; Liao, Yung; Chang, Shao-Hsi
This study examined the associations between perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors and excessive television (TV) viewing time among Taiwanese older adults. The sample data was collected by administering computer-assisted telephone interviewers to 980 Taiwanese older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) living in two regions. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine the associations between self-reported perceived neighborhood and home environmental attributions and TV viewing time by using logistic regression analyses. The results showed that perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors were associated with excessive TV viewing time (≥2 h/day) after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with a reference group, older adults who perceived their neighborhoods to have unsafe traffic were more likely to report excessive TV viewing time (OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.02-1.82). Older adults who reported having two or more TV sets in the home (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.28-2.44) and having a TV in the bedroom (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.18-2.03) were also more likely to report excessive TV viewing time. Further longitudinal research can confirm these findings, and tailored interventions focusing on the perceptions of neighborhood traffic safety and TV access at home for older adults might be effective means of preventing excessive TV viewing time.
Pettee, Kelley K; Ham, Sandra A; Macera, Caroline A; Ainsworth, Barbara E
Research into the accuracy of self-reported measures used to quantify physical inactivity has been limited. The purposes of the current report were to examine the reliability of a survey question assessing time spent watching television and to describe associations between television watching and physical activity and health risk factors. Data from this cross-sectional investigation were obtained from a study designed to evaluate a physical activity module for potential use in the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Participants were 93 men and women (aged 45.9 (15.4) years) who answered the question pertaining to television watching during an initial visit and three follow-up visits to the study center. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) between administrations of the survey question were used to assess test-retest reliability. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients were used to examine the associations of television viewing with physical activity and health risk factors. The test-retest reliability of the television-watching question suggested moderate agreement (ICCs of 0.42 and 0.55 over a 3-week and 1-week period, respectively). After adjustment for age and sex, reported television-watching hours were positively associated with BMI (P = 0.0002), percentage fat (P = 0.0001), and light-intensity physical activity (P = 0.006) and negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness (P = 0.004) and moderate-intensity and hard-intensity physical activity (P = 0.03 and P = 0.003, respectively). Increased time spent in sedentary behaviors has been identified as a major modifiable risk factor in the development of chronic diseases and conditions. The single-item survey question evaluated in this study was shown to be a reliable measure of television watching and was associated with physical activity and health risk factor outcomes.
Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day. PMID:23420910
Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886
Lindstrom, H.A.; Fritsch, T.; Petot, G.; Smyth, K.A.; Chen, C.H.; Debanne, S.M.; Lerner, A.J.; Friedland, R.P.
The relationship between leisure activities and development of cognitive impairment in aging has been the subject of recent research. We examined television viewing in association with risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a case-control study. Given recent focus on the importance of intellectually stimulating activities as preventive…
Mehta, Kaye; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Magarey, Anthea; Spurrier, Nicola; Udell, Tuesday
This study explored children's views about food advertising on television in the light of recent public interest in childhood obesity and obesogenic environments. Thirty-seven children aged between 8 and 11 years, discussed their perceptions of food advertising, in focus groups. The children engaged as consumers of advertising, noticing technical aspects, and expressing their likes and dislikes of particular techniques. While they understood the persuasive intent of advertising, they nevertheless desired products and made purchase requests. They particularly desired energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The children demonstrated sophisticated levels of advertising literacy through their articulation of problems such as deception, impacts on children's health and wellbeing, and family conflict. They revealed themselves as sentient beings, with the capacity to react, respond and reflect on their experience of advertising. This study makes a contribution to research on consumer socialisation by introducing the perspective of Australian children. As stakeholders in the childhood obesity problem, the views of children should also be of interest to health policymakers.
Mehta, Kaye; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Magarey, Anthea; Spurrier, Nicola; Udell, Tuesday
This study explored children's views about food advertising on television in the light of recent public interest in childhood obesity and obesogenic environments. Thirty-seven children aged between 8 and 11 years, discussed their perceptions of food advertising, in focus groups. The children engaged as consumers of advertising, noticing technical aspects, and expressing their likes and dislikes of particular techniques. While they understood the persuasive intent of advertising, they nevertheless desired products and made purchase requests. They particularly desired energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The children demonstrated sophisticated levels of advertising literacy through their articulation of problems such as deception, impacts on children's health and wellbeing, and family conflict. They revealed themselves as sentient beings, with the capacity to react, respond and reflect on their experience of advertising. This study makes a contribution to research on consumer socialisation by introducing the perspective of Australian children. As stakeholders in the childhood obesity problem, the views of children should also be of interest to health policymakers. PMID:20346383
Jones, Katherine E.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Harvey-Berino, Jean R.
U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations between…
Singer, Jerome L.; Singer, Dorothy G.
Examines some of the ways television may influence the imagination, motor activity, and aggressiveness of preschool and early school-aged children. Proposes a model in which a number of family and personal variables influence the growing child's response to television, and reports the results of several empirical studies that investigated family…
Richmond, Tracy K.; Walls, Courtney; Gooding, Holly C.; Field, Alison E.
Previous studies have observed that television viewing is predictive of obesity and weight gain. We examined whether the cross-sectional association between television viewing and body mass index (BMI) varied by racial/ethnic subgroups among young women in Wave III (collected in 2001–2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We used multivariate linear regression to examine the relationship between TV viewing and BMI among 6,049 females while controlling for socio-demographic and health attributes. We stratified the sample by race/ethnicity to better understand the association between TV viewing and BMI across different groups. Black and Hispanic females had higher BMIs (Black: 28.5 kg/m2, Hispanic: 27.3 kg/m2, White: 26.0kg/m2) than White females while Black females reported higher numbers of hours spent watching TV (Black: 14.7 hrs/wk, Hispanic: 10.6 hrs/wk, White: 11.2 hrs/wk) when compared to their White and Hispanic peers. TV viewing was positively associated with BMI (β=0.79, p=0.003 for 8–14 v. ≤7 hrs/wk; β=1.18, p=0.01 for >14 v. ≤ 7 hrs/wk) independent of race/ethnicity, age, maternal education, history of pregnancy, parental obesity, and household income. However, in models stratified by race/ethnicity, increased TV viewing was associated with increased BMI only among White females. TV viewing was not predictive of higher BMI in Black or Hispanic young adult females. Among Black and Hispanic females, counseling to decrease TV viewing may be important but insufficient for promoting weight loss. PMID:19876003
French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.
Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…
Hird, John R.; Balzarini, Steven
This document is a course of study to provide high school students with an introduction to television production skills and techniques and to provide a framework for developing critical television viewing skills. The nine units of the course introduce students to storyboards, camera operations, lighting, audio, video recording, graphics,…
London Univ. (England). Inst. of Education.
This 1967 summary of closed circuit television (CCTV) activities in medical education presents descriptive information on 35 different medical institutions in Great Britain. Specific data on CCTV are offered by institution, equipment, and uses under each medical field: anatomy, anaesthetics, geriatrics, medicine, obstretrics and gynaecology,…
Tucker, L A
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which multiple health and lifestyle variables differ among 406 adolescent males classified according to average duration of daily television viewing. Cattell's 16PF Questionnaire, Form C, and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale were employed to assess psychological health, and the Physical Performance Test for California was used to measure six dimensions of physical fitness. Participants also completed a questionnaire requesting general demographic data, and information regarding lifestyle and average amount of time spent watching television per day. Results indicated that the well-being of the boys was related significantly to the extent of television viewing. Light television viewers were more physically fit, emotionally stable, sensitive, imaginative, outgoing, physically active, self-controlled, intelligent, moralistic, college bound, church oriented, and self-confident than their counterparts, especially heavy television viewers. Furthermore, light television viewers were less troubled, frustrated, and shrewd, and used drugs less frequently, particularly alcohol, than moderate and heavy television watchers, especially the latter. PMID:24277468
Czarny, Matthew J.; Faden, Ruth R.; Nolan, Marie T.; Bodensiek, Edwin; Sugarman, Jeremy
Television medical dramas frequently depict the practice of medicine and bioethical issues in a strikingly realistic but sometimes inaccurate fashion. Because these shows depict medicine so vividly and are so relevant to the career interests of medical and nursing students, they may affect these students’ beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions regarding the practice of medicine and bioethical issues. We conducted a web-based survey of medical and nursing students to determine the medical drama viewing habits and impressions of bioethical issues depicted in them. More than 80% of medical and nursing students watch television medical dramas. Students with more clinical experience tended to have impressions that were more negative than those of students without clinical experience. Furthermore, viewing of television medical dramas is a social event and many students discuss the bioethical issues they observe with friends and family. Television medical dramas may stimulate students to think about and discuss bioethical issues. PMID:19085461
Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.
Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294
Little information about relationships between the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of young children is available in the literature. We therefore examined how sedentary behaviors, TV watching, and encouragements and discouragements for activity were associated with physical activity (as me...
Baker, Ida R.; Dennison, Barbara A.; Boyer, Penny S.; Sellers, Kathleen F.; Russo, Theresa J.; Sherwood, Nancy A.
Background Childhood obesity is an epidemic. Addressing this problem will require the input of many sectors and change in many behaviors. The “community” must be part of the solution, and the solution must be constructed on existing assets that lend strength to positive environmental change. Objective To catalyze an established asset-based community partnership to support efforts to reduce television viewing time by developing and providing alternative activities as part of a broader, 3-year study to reduce childhood obesity among preschool-aged children in rural, upstate New York. Method Asset mapping was utilized to compile an inventory of individual and community strengths upon which a partnership could be established. Facilitated focus group sessions were conducted to better understand childcare environmental policies and practices, and to guide changes conducive to health and fitness. Planning meetings and targeted outreach brought key stakeholders together for a community-participatory initiative to support positive environmental change. Results The partnership planned and initiated an array of after-school and weekend community activities for preschool-aged children and their families in the weeks preceding, during, and following a designated ‘TV Turn-off’ week in April, 2004 and March, 2005. Conclusion Methods of asset-based community development are an effective way to engage community participation in public health initiatives. PMID:17207848
Henderson, Vani R.
Purpose: Childhood overweight is one of the most important public health problems facing America today, and time spent watching television has been proposed as a causal factor. This study examines the effects of TV viewing on the trajectory of BMI over the course of adolescence. Methods: We analyzed data on TV viewing and BMI from the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, a panel study of 2,379 White and Black girls followed for up to 10 annual visits, beginning at age 9 or 10. Latent growth curve models were used to estimate the effects of daily TV viewing on the slope of BMI, one using TV viewing at age 10 to predict the trajectory of BMI from ages 11 to 14, and one using TV viewing at age 14 to predict BMI trajectory from ages 15-19. Models controlled for baseline BMI, physical activity, maturation stage, and socio-economic status. Results: For White girls, higher levels of baseline TV viewing were positively associated with a steeper trajectory of BMI for the four years following a baseline visit (ages 11 to 14, on average). TV viewing was not associated with the trajectory of BMI over the last five of the ten visits. For Black girls, TV viewing was not associated with either trajectory of BMI. Conclusions: White girls who watched more TV at baseline showed a steeper increase in BMI over early adolescence compared to girls who watched less TV. TV viewing may be a factor contributing to overweight among young girls. PMID:18023782
Potter, W. James
Finds that a scale to measure television viewers' risk of disinhibition cannot be developed because three antecedent issues need to be addressed: the need for a theoretical calculus for assembling contextual information into an overall assessment of risk; a broad conceptual definition of violence; and a conceptualization about the frequency of…
Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John
Background Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Methods Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Results Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Conclusions Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. PMID:23929886
Perse, Elizabeth M.; Ferguson, Douglas A.
Finds that use of new television technologies (cable television, videocassette recorders, and remote control devices) had an impact on receiving, pass-the-time, and companionship gratifications from television viewing. Shows that instrumental viewing motives, television exposure, and receiving informational gratifications from television viewing…
Television viewing is an important modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity. However, valid methods for measuring children's TV viewing are sparse and few studies have included Latinos, a population disproportionately affected by obesity. The goal of this study was to test the reliability and co...
Russell, Cristel Antonia; Buhrau, Denise
Background Fast-food advertising abounds on television (TV), and programs targeting youth often display fast-food consumption but rarely with any negative consequences. Cultivation research maintains that cumulative exposure to TV influences audiences’ views of and beliefs about the real world. Thus, the amount of TV adolescents watch is likely to bias their views of the consequences of eating fast food. This research posits that this relationship varies as a function of adolescents’ actual experience with fast food. Method Two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the cultivation research tradition assess the relationship between the amount of adolescents’ regular exposure to TV and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of eating fast food. Teenage children of members of online panels reported hours of TV viewing, beliefs about the consequences of eating fast food, and their frequency of fast-food consumption. Results In both studies, beliefs about health risks of fast-food consumption vary as a function of the amount of TV watched. Heavy TV viewers have less negative and more positive beliefs about the consequences of fast-food consumption than light viewers. As direct experience with fast food increases, the relationship between TV viewing and risk perceptions weakens, but the relationship between TV viewing and positive perceptions strengthens. These moderated relationships remain when we control for physical activity (Study 1) and the density of fast-food restaurants in respondents’ geographical area (Study 2). Conclusion Given the role of TV viewing in biasing perceptions of the consequences of eating fast food, public health researchers and practitioners should carefully monitor and perhaps regulate the amount of fast-food advertising on TV and the content of TV programs. PMID:26009205
Fitzpatrick, Eileen; Edmunds, Lynn S; Dennison, Barbara A
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test the independent associations of eating dinner as a family and having the television on during dinner with child feeding behaviors. Parents/guardians of children participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in New York state were surveyed (n=1,336). Main outcome variables were frequencies of serving fruits, vegetables, and milk. Main exposure variables were the number of days per week the family ate dinner together and the number of days per week the television was on during dinner. Multiple logistic regressions assessed the association between the exposure variables and each of the main outcome measures controlling for race/ethnicity and parental educational attainment. Each night the family ate dinner together was positively associated with serving fruits (odds ratio [OR]=1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07 to 1.21) or vegetables (OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.23). Serving fruits (OR= 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99) or vegetables (OR=0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98) decreased with each night the television was on during dinner. Neither family dinner nor television on during dinner was significantly associated with serving milk. Family dinners and dinners without television on are independent predictors of servings of fruits or vegetables offered to preschool children. Because dietary habits and preferences are established early in life, parents should be counseled to promote family meal environments that support healthful eating.
Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).
A survey was made of television viewing in Canada in order to show the impact of cable television on television viewing in general, with special emphasis on examining the effect on the various categories of television station ownership. The report shows the extent to which television viewing habits vary between (a) those who watch television via…
Television Viewing and Its Associations with Overweight, Sedentary Lifestyle, and Insufficient Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables among U.S. High School Students: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender.
Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Galuska, Deborah A.; Fulton, Janet E.; Kann, Laura
Examined race, ethnic, and gender specific differences in the association between television viewing and high school students' overweight, decreased physical activity, and unhealthy dietary behaviors. Data from the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that most students' television viewing exceeded recommended levels, many students were…
Torres, Miguel Reyes
The purposes of the "Pilot Study for the Active TV Viewer Scholar Education" project were to find low cost teaching methods that developed critical television viewing skills among elementary and secondary students, and to develop a parallel program of family education in an effort to modify family viewing practices to encourage critical viewing.…
Excessive exposure of children to television and videos (viewing time) is associated with impaired childhood development and childhood obesity. In 2001, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended that children watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of "quality programming" per day, and that televisions be removed from children's bedrooms. To determine the risk for excessive viewing time among children aged 2 years, CDC and the Oregon Public Health Division analyzed 2006 and 2007 data from the Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Survey follow-back survey (Oregon PRAMS-2), which was used to re-interview mothers who had participated in PRAMS. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, on a typical day, 19.6% of children aged 2 years spent >or=2 hours watching television or videos. A total of 18.2% of children had a television in their bedroom; these children were more likely to have >or=2 hours viewing time compared with children without a television in the bedroom (34.1% versus 16.3%). In multivariable analysis, >or=2 hours of viewing time was positively associated with the presence of a television in the child's bedroom, non-Hispanic black maternal race/ethnicity, fewer than four outings with the child during the preceding week, and was negatively associated with obtaining child care in a child care center. In Oregon, these findings support the AAP recommendations that health professionals, parents, and caregivers recognize the extent of children's media consumption, and that televisions be removed from children's bedrooms. Other states should consider conducting similar surveys.
Television viewing and its associations with overweight, sedentary lifestyle, and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables among US high school students: differences by race, ethnicity, and gender.
Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Galuska, Deborah A; Fulton, Janet E; Kann, Laura
Television (TV) viewing has been associated with overweight, decreased physical activity, and unhealthy dietary behavior among children and adolescents, and may represent a modifiable cause of childhood obesity. This study examined race, ethnic, and gender-specific differences in these associations among high school students in the United States. The study analyzed data from the 1999 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a representative sample (N = 15,349) of US high school students. Logistic regression tested for significant associations. TV viewing on an average school day exceeded 2 hours/day among 43% of students; it was greater among Black (74%) and Hispanic (52%) than White (34%) students. Overall, 11% of students were overweight, 31% of students were sedentary (i.e., did not participate in moderate or vigorous physical activity at recommended levels), and 76% ate less than five servings/day of fruits and vegetables. Watching TV more than 2 hours/day was associated with being overweight, being sedentary, and eating insufficient fruits and vegetables among White females, and with being overweight among Hispanic females. No significant associations were found among Black females. TV viewing was associated with being overweight and eating insufficient fruits and vegetables among White males. No significant associations were found among Hispanic males. Among Black males, TV viewing was associated with greater participation in physical activity. These findings suggest the presence of cultural factors to consider when developing interventions to promote physical activity, healthy eating, and healthy weight through reduced TV viewing among adolescents.
O'Connor, Giselle; Piñero Casas, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Vicente, Mònica López; Davand, Payam; Torrent, Maties; Martínez-Murciano, David; García-Esteban, Raquel; Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi
This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1). Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing > 14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms), beta (CI) = 53 (0-107). After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions.
O'Connor, Giselle; Piñero Casas, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Vicente, Mònica López; Davand, Payam; Torrent, Maties; Martínez-Murciano, David; García-Esteban, Raquel; Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi
This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1). Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing > 14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms), beta (CI) = 53 (0-107). After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions. PMID:27617190
Our objective was to explore parental outcome expectations (OE) regarding children's television (TV) viewing among parents of overweight or obese children. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 20 parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight or obese children. We found tha...
Dorr, Aimee; And Others
Ninety-four children, aged 5 to 12 years, were subjects of a study of recall of television literacy messages (drop-ins). The 30-second "How To Watch TV" (HTWTV) segments were designed for broadcast on Saturday mornings by the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) to convey to children some information and values about television (e.g., animals do…
Huston, Aletha C.; And Others
A 2-year longitudinal investigation of developing television viewing patterns involved 271 children who were followed from 3 to 5 or 5 to 7 years of age. Viewing was measured from diaries maintained by parents for 1 week in the spring and 1 week in the fall for 2 years. Programs were classified as (1) child informative or educational; (2)…
Henning, Bernd; Vorderer, Peter
Investigates differences observed among German students regarding amount of television viewing. Finds a significant negative effect of need for cognition on viewing amount. Interprets this as a manifestation of individual-psychological escapism in which the lower viewers' need for cognition is, the less pleasant they feel when they have nothing to…
Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.
We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…
Blass, Elliott M; Anderson, Daniel R; Kirkorian, Heather L; Pempek, Tiffany A; Price, Iris; Koleini, Melanie F
Television viewing (TVV) has been linked with obesity, possibly through increased sedentary behavior and/or through increased ingestion during TVV. The proposition that TVV causes increased feeding, however, has not been subjected to experimental verification until recently. Our objective was to determine if the amount eaten of two familiar, palatable, high-density foods (pizza and macaroni and cheese) was increased during a 30-min meal when watching TV. In a within-subjects design, one group of undergraduates (n = 10) ate pizza while watching a TV show of their choice for one session and when listening to a symphony during the other session. A second group of undergraduates (n = 10) ate macaroni and cheese (M&C). TVV increased caloric intake by 36% (one slice on average) for pizza and by 71% for M&C. Eating patterns also differed between conditions. Although the length of time to eat a slice of pizza remained stable between viewing conditions, the amount of time before starting another slice was shorter during TVV. In contrast, M&C was eaten at a faster rate and for a longer period of time during TVV. Thus, watching television increases the amount eaten of high-density, palatable, familiar foods and may constitute one vector contributing to the current obesity crisis.
Davies, P; Lee, L; Fox, A; Fox, E
Aims: To assess the rates of violence in nursery rhymes compared to pre-watershed television viewing. Methods: Data regarding television viewing habits, and the amount of violence on British television, were obtained from Ofcom. A compilation of nursery rhymes was examined for episodes of violence by three of the researchers. Each nursery rhyme was analysed by number and type of episode. They were then recited to the fourth researcher whose reactions were scrutinised. Results: There were 1045 violent scenes on pre-watershed television over two weeks, of which 61% showed the act and the result; 51% of programmes contained violence. The 25 nursery rhymes had 20 episodes of violence, with 41% of rhymes being violent in some way; 30% mentioned the act and the result, with 50% only the act. Episodes of law breaking and animal abuse were also identified. Television has 4.8 violent scenes per hour and nursery rhymes have 52.2 violent scenes per hour. Analysis of the reactions of the fourth researcher were inconclusive. Conclusions: Although we do not advocate exposure for anyone to violent scenes or stimuli, childhood violence is not a new phenomenon. Whether visual violence and imagined violence have the same effect is likely to depend on the age of the child and the effectiveness of the storyteller. Re-interpretation of the ancient problem of childhood and youth violence through modern eyes is difficult, and laying the blame solely on television viewing is simplistic and may divert attention from vastly more complex societal problems. PMID:15557041
Television (TV) viewing has been associated with many undesirable outcomes for children, such as increased risk of obesity, but TV viewing can also have benefits. Although restrictive parenting practices are effective in reducing children's TV viewing, not all parents use them and it is currently un...
Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A.
Background Studies exploring the effect of television viewing on obesity throughout childhood are conflicting. Most studies have been confined to single high-income countries. Our aim was to examine the association between television viewing habits and Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescents and children in a multicentre worldwide sample. Methods In the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children Phase Three, adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years completed questionnaires which included questions on television viewing habits, height and weight. Parents/guardians of children aged between 5 and 8 years completed the same questionnaire on behalf of their children. The questionnaire asked “During a normal week, how many hours a day (24 hours) do you (does your child) watch television?” Responses were categorised as; “short” (<1 hour), “moderate” (1 to ≤3 hours), “long” (3 to ≤5 hours) and “prolonged” (>5 hours). Findings 207,672 adolescents from 37 countries and 77,003 children from 18 countries provided data. Daily television viewing in excess of one hour was reported in 89% of adolescents and 79% of children. Compared with adolescents in the short viewing group, those in the moderate, long and prolonged groups had BMIs that were 0.14 kg/m2, 0.21 kg/m2, 0.30 kg/m2 and 0.08 kg/m2, 0.16 kg/m2 and 0.17 kg/m2 larger for females and males respectively (both P<0.001). Compared with children in the short viewing group, those in the moderate, long and prolonged groups had BMIs that were 0.24 kg/m2, 0.34 kg/m2, 0.36 kg/m2 and 0.19 kg/m2, 0.32 kg/m2 and 0.36 kg/m2 larger for females and males respectively (both P<0.001). Interpretation Increased television viewing hours were positively associated with BMI in both adolescents and children with an apparent dose response effect. These findings extend the evidence that television viewing contributes to increased BMI in childhood. PMID:24086327
View of the earth that was transmitted back from space during the sixth live television transmission from the Apollo 8 spacecraft as it continued its journey home. At the time this picture was made, the Apollo 8 spacecraft was about 97,000 nautical miles from earth, and was traveling at a speed of 6,084 ft per second.
Doolittle, John Charles
An experimental curriculum module was designed and was tested to determine its success in helping children cope with negative influences of viewing violence on television. Instructional treatments were administered in two forms: concept presentation, in which subjects were shown how various components of production are used to create a dramatic…
Stevens, Tara; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; To, Yen
The importance of well-specified research questions in the evaluation of early predictors of later inattention and hyperactivity is examined. In an analysis of a nationally representative sample of 2,717 children aged 4 to 10, latent growth trajectories for television viewing and inattention and hyperactivity are determined and the relationship of…
Our objective of this study was to examine associations between television viewing and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among a representative sample of Caribbean origin Hispanic elders living in Massachusetts. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in 350 Puerto Rican and 105 Dominican elders ...
Singer, Mark I.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Guo, Shenyang; Miller, David; Leibbrandt, Sylvia
This study examined the relative contributions of exposure to violence, parental monitoring, and television viewing habits to children's self-reported symptoms of psychological trauma. Children in grades 3-8 in 11 public schools completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire administered during usual school hours. The final sample was comprised…
Prell, Hillevi; Palmblad, Eva; Lissner, Lauren; Berg, Christina M
Food marketing influences children's food preferences and consumption and is important to consider in the prevention of child obesity. In this paper, health messages in commercials during children's peak viewing times were analysed by examining how food is articulated in the health discourse. In total, 82 food commercials from 66h of television recordings of the most popular commercial channels with children in Sweden (TV3, TV4 and Channel 5) were analysed with discourse theoretical tools according to Laclau and Mouffe and with a focus on rhetoric. Physical, mental and social health aspects were present in 71% of the commercials. Three health discourse types; a medical (food as protection and treatment), a hedonic (food as feeling good) and a social discourse type (food as caring) were discerned. In relation to these, the heart symbol, lifestyle associations and nature/the natural were elements that could be interpreted in different ways. Moreover, foods carrying unhealthy associations were promoted in the health discourse and presented as especially healthy by offensive rhetoric. The analysis raises awareness of the prevailing health messages in food marketing. Children and parents should be encouraged to develop their critical thinking about television food advertising and how it may influence social norms and dietary practices. PMID:21295628
Prell, Hillevi; Palmblad, Eva; Lissner, Lauren; Berg, Christina M
Food marketing influences children's food preferences and consumption and is important to consider in the prevention of child obesity. In this paper, health messages in commercials during children's peak viewing times were analysed by examining how food is articulated in the health discourse. In total, 82 food commercials from 66h of television recordings of the most popular commercial channels with children in Sweden (TV3, TV4 and Channel 5) were analysed with discourse theoretical tools according to Laclau and Mouffe and with a focus on rhetoric. Physical, mental and social health aspects were present in 71% of the commercials. Three health discourse types; a medical (food as protection and treatment), a hedonic (food as feeling good) and a social discourse type (food as caring) were discerned. In relation to these, the heart symbol, lifestyle associations and nature/the natural were elements that could be interpreted in different ways. Moreover, foods carrying unhealthy associations were promoted in the health discourse and presented as especially healthy by offensive rhetoric. The analysis raises awareness of the prevailing health messages in food marketing. Children and parents should be encouraged to develop their critical thinking about television food advertising and how it may influence social norms and dietary practices.
Miller, John L.; Kelly, John M.; Ehlen, Jon
A series of helicopter flight tests were conducted to test the feasibility and assess the performance of a gimbaled active television system and co-located IR system. The laser light was provided to the gimbal via a fiber optic cable from a remote semiconductor laser. A high power, divergent beam was used to illuminate a scene providing enhanced performance in poor weather, the recording of registry and augmentation to existing night vision devices. The flight tests were conducted in clear-weather conditions over land and water. Additionally, a series of ground test were conducted.
This study evaluated the associations between television viewing and love styles. The Love Attitudes Scale (LAS), based on Lee's love style taxonomy, was administered to a sample of 338 unmarried Israeli students along with questions about TV viewing habits, current involvement in a serious romantic relationship, and marital intentions. A confirmatory factor analysis of the LAS indicated that the expected six-factor solution adequately fit the data. Correlations between individual love styles and TV viewing were small to moderate, ranging from .12 to .29. Scores for Ludus love style correlated positively with viewing of news and general programming. Those for Pragma love style correlated positively with news viewing and negatively with viewing genres frequently including love themes such as soap operas and family drama, while scores for Eros love style positively correlated with watching these love abundant genres. No significant association was found for TV viewing with Storge, Mania, and Agape love styles. Hierarchical regression using demographic variables, love status, and viewing habits mirrored these results, with the unique R2 for Ludus, Pragma, and Eros ranging from 1.8% to 8%, while the total variance accounted for by the models ranged from 12% to 21%. The findings can be interpreted as support for a weak cultivation effect, in which habits in long-term TV viewing among young adults correspond to small to moderate tendencies for particular love styles that thematically relate them. However, because they are correlational, the findings could equally be interpreted in terms of tendencies that exist due to modeling within families and socialization during development.
This annotated bibliography cites 36 articles dealing with the influence of television viewing on the attitudes and values of the young child. Articles are listed in three categories--negative, ambivalent, and positive. The material contained in the "negative" approach indicates that television has increased unfavorable reactions among young…
Pinon, M F; Huston, A C; Wright, J C
This study investigated how sociological variables, program access, family attributes, and child characteristics influence children's viewing of the most well-established educational television program in the United States--"Sesame Street." 2 cohorts were followed from ages 3 to 5 and 5 to 7, respectively. Each family kept a diary of television viewed during 5 1-week periods over 2 years. Interviews and testing sessions were conducted before and after the 2-year period. "Sesame Street" viewing increased from age 3 to a peak between the ages of 3 1/2 and 4; thereafter, viewing declined. This developmental change appeared to be a function of age-correlated life events and perceived age appropriateness of the program rather than of ontogenetic cognitive change. Individual differences were primarily a function of family ecology--opportunities to view and characteristics of other viewers--rather than of family demographics or individual child attributes. Maternal employment and the amount of time children attended child care or preschool were negatively related to viewing. The presence of older siblings reduced viewing; the presence of younger siblings increased it. Viewing was unrelated to parent education or occupational status, child gender, child's vocabulary level, involvement in television, or interest in print and other media. Parental encouragement to watch the program was positively related to viewing for 3-5-year-olds.
Stern, Stanley Lawrence
Research sought to determine what effect viewing increased amounts of specific types of televised material would have upon the creative performance of highly intelligent children. Gifted students in grades 4, 5, and 6 of a suburban district were given Guilford's tests of creativity and then divided into seven groups. Six of these watched a…
Heath, Carla W.
There are two categories of children's television in Kenya: television "for" children, most of which is imported, and television "by" children, all of which is produced in Kenya. Most of the television by children is produced and broadcast by Voice of Kenya television, much of it made up of programs growing out of extra-curricular activities at…
Television is a large part of growing up in America, and a part that meshes in various ways with other influences. Teachers should understand it, and as the occasion requires, confront, correct, or take advantage of it. Research on television viewing yields five lessons. Television experience is an individual one, although there are definite…
Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey
Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television - both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3-5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased significantly between 3 and 4 years; and (iii) children had significantly greater knowledge of unhealthy food brands, compared with similarly advertised healthy brands. In addition, (iv) children's healthy food brand knowledge was not related to their television viewing, their mother's education, or parent or child eating. However, (v) unhealthy brand knowledge was significantly related to all these factors, although only parent eating and children's age were independent predictors. Findings indicate that effects of food marketing for unhealthy foods take place through routes other than television advertising alone, and are present before pre-schoolers develop the concept of healthy eating. Implications are that marketing restrictions of unhealthy foods should extend beyond television advertising; and that family-focused obesity prevention programmes should begin before children are 3 years of age.
Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey
Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television - both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3-5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased significantly between 3 and 4 years; and (iii) children had significantly greater knowledge of unhealthy food brands, compared with similarly advertised healthy brands. In addition, (iv) children's healthy food brand knowledge was not related to their television viewing, their mother's education, or parent or child eating. However, (v) unhealthy brand knowledge was significantly related to all these factors, although only parent eating and children's age were independent predictors. Findings indicate that effects of food marketing for unhealthy foods take place through routes other than television advertising alone, and are present before pre-schoolers develop the concept of healthy eating. Implications are that marketing restrictions of unhealthy foods should extend beyond television advertising; and that family-focused obesity prevention programmes should begin before children are 3 years of age. PMID:24859112
Larson, Nicole I.; Berge, Jerica M.; Thul, Chelsey; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective Characteristics of the home and family have been associated with adolescents' BMI and physical and sedentary activity, but few studies have examined how these characteristics vary across ethnic/racial groups. This study explores whether recommendations for activity promotion are equally relevant to different adolescent populations. Design Participants included 2,374 adolescents and their parent(s), recruited through 20 public schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN in 2009-2010. Ethnic/racial groups included African American, Asian (primarily Hmong), East African, Hispanic, Native American, White, and mixed/other race. Linear regression analysis modeled adolescents' BMI z-scores and physical and sedentary activity based on six measures of the family/home activity environment, adjusted for covariates. Interactions of ethnicity/race and family/home environment were tested. Results All six family/home environment measures varied significantly across ethnicity/race. Family/home variables were significantly associated with adolescent physical activity and TV viewing in the expected directions, and these relationships were consistent across ethnic/racial groups in two-thirds of the models. However, in one-third of the cases, these associations were modified by ethnicity/race. For example, home access to a greater number of media devices was significantly associated with more TV viewing (β=.40, p=.015) only among White youth. Conclusion Health promotion recommendations for adolescent physical activity are largely relevant across ethnic/racial groups. However, given differences found in the family/home environments of adolescents, cultural sensitivity is recommended in discussing these issues, and tailored recommendations may be appropriate for select groups or behaviors. Further mixed methods research is warranted to help identify key messages for specific groups. PMID:25396114
Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Shim, Mi-suk; Caplovitz, Allison G.
This study examined the links between childhood obesity, activity participation and television and video game use in a nationally representative sample of children (N=2831) ages 1-12 using age-normed body mass index (BMI) ratings. Results indicated that while television use was not related to children's weight status, video game use was. Children…
Kuo, Melissa H.; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of…
Kaune, W T; Miller, M C; Linet, M S; Hatch, E E; Kleinerman, R A; Wacholder, S; Mohr, A H; Tarone, R E; Haines, C
Two epidemiologic studies have reported increased risk of childhood leukemia associated with the length of time children watched television (TV) programs or played video games connected to TV sets. To evaluate magnetic field exposures resulting from these activities, the static, ELF, and VLF magnetic fields produced by 72 TV sets used by children to watch TV programs and 34 TV sets used to play video games were characterized in a field study conducted in Washington DC and its Maryland suburbs. The resulting TV-specific magnetic field data were combined with information collected through questionnaires to estimate the magnetic field exposure levels associated with TV watching and video game playing. The geometric means of the ELF and VLF exposure levels so calculated were 0.0091 and 0.0016 microT, respectively, for children watching TV programs and 0.023 and 0.0038 microT, respectively, for children playing video games. Geometric means of ambient ELF and VLF levels with TV sets turned off were 0.10 and 0.0027 microT, respectively. Summed over the ELF frequency range (6-3066 Hz), the exposure levels were small compared to ambient levels. However, in restricted ELF frequency ranges (120 Hz and 606-3066 Hz) and in the VLF band, TV exposure levels were comparable to or larger than normal ambient levels. Even so, the strengths of the 120 Hz or 606-3066 Hz components of TV fields were small relative to the overall ambient levels. Consequently, our results provide little support for a linkage between childhood leukemia and exposure to the ELF magnetic fields produced by TV sets. Our results do suggest that any future research on possible health effects of magnetic fields from television sets might focus on the VLF electric and magnetic fields produced by TV sets because of their enhanced ability relative to ELF fields to induce electric currents.
Foster, E. Michael; Watkins, Stephanie
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 1,159), this study reexamines the link between maternal reports of television viewing at ages 1 and 3 and attention problems at age 7. This work represents a reanalysis and extension of recent research suggesting young children's television viewing causes subsequent attention problems.…
Rubin, Alan M.
Examines the relationships between child and adolescent television use motivations and various sociodemographic characteristics, television viewing levels, program preference, and television attitudes. Viewing motivations include learning, passing time, companionship, escape, arousal, and relaxation. Discusses implications within the conceptual…
Read, Jenny C A; Bohr, Iwo
3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the 'nocebo effect'). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D. PMID:24874550
Read, Jenny C A; Bohr, Iwo
3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the 'nocebo effect'). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D.
Read, Jenny C.A.; Bohr, Iwo
3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the ‘nocebo effect'). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D. Practitioner Summary: Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) has been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. Viewers watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (between-subjects design). Around 14% reported effects such as headache and eyestrain linked to S3D itself, while 8% report adverse effects attributable to 3D glasses or negative expectations. PMID:24874550
Wolf, Willavene; And Others
An analysis of the types of eye movements of subjects viewing motion picture films and telelessons revealed a continuum of movements. Two of the intervals of this continuum (No Observable Movements and Minimovements) were found to be related to intelligence. The factors of age and learning did not correlate with any of the indices. Subjects in the…
Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mahdi, Huda S; Ali, Awab I; Al-Nufal, Mohammed; Vachhani, Pankit J; Tewfik, Ihab
The technological age has resulted in children spending prolonged hours in front of television (TV) and computer screens (on the Internet). The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study is to determine the effect of this phenomenon on both childhood obesity and low vision in the State of Qatar. A total of 3000 school students aged 6 to 18 years were approached from September 2009 to March 2010 and 2467 (82.2%) students agreed to participate. Face-to-face interviews based on a designed questionnaire were conducted. The highest proportion of obese children were aged between 15-18 years (9.4%; p < 0.001); spent ≥ 3 hours on the Internet (5.6%; p < 0.001), and spent between 5-7 hours or less sleeping (4.1%; p < 0.001). Forty-six (1.9%) children spent ≥ 3 hours/day on the Internet, and were either overweight/obese and had low vision. The study findings confirmed a positive association between obesity and low vision as a result of excessive time spent on the TV view and Internet use. PMID:20645888
Silver, Rosalind, Ed.; Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.
This issue of "Media & Values" provides essays and teaching ideas for addressing the influence of television in society. Articles in this issue include: (1) "Wrestling with Television" (Elizabeth Thoman); (2) "Comics and Culture" (Rosalind Silver); (3) "Society's Storyteller" (George Gerbner); (4) "Five Important Ideas to Teach Your Kids about TV"…
Sun, Jiang-Wei; Zhao, Long-Gang; Yang, Yang; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Ying-Ying; Xiang, Yong-Bing
Findings on the association between television (TV) viewing and all-cause mortality in epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of data from prospective cohort studies to quantify this association. Relevant articles were identified by searching MEDLINE (PubMed; National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) and EMBASE (Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, the Netherlands) from inception to March 1, 2015, and reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Study-specific results were pooled using a random-effects model. Of 2,578 citations identified by the search strategy, 10 cohort studies (61,494 deaths among 647,475 individuals) met the inclusion criteria. The summary relative risk of all-cause mortality for the highest category of TV viewing time versus the lowest was 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.20, 1.47), with heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 66.7%, P(heterogeneity) = 0.001). In dose-response meta-analysis, TV viewing time was statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality risk in a J-shaped fashion (P(nonlinearity) = 0.001). These results indicate that prolonged TV viewing time might increase the risk of all-cause mortality. Given the high prevalence of excessive TV viewing, public health recommendations or interventions aimed at decreasing the amount of TV viewing time in modern societies are warranted.
Kapil, Umesh; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh
The process of modernization has brought about changes in lifestyle of people leading to improvement in standard of living but it is associated with certain unwanted life styles like decreased physical activity and increased sedentary work. Thus, improvement in motorized transport availability of house hold gadgets like washing machine, vaccum cleaners, dish washers all tend to reduce activity level. Obese and overweight individuals are less active than their lean counterparts. Cross sectional data often reveals that there is an inverse relationship between BMI and physical activity both among adults and children.
Sancho-Aldridge, J; Davis, A
Just under one in 10 of a nationally representative sample of UK television viewers said that they experienced difficulty with their hearing. These hard-of-hearing viewers were found to report much greater difficulty watching programmes (mean difficulty rating = 32%) than elderly viewers with no reported hearing difficulty (mean difficulty rating = 10%), or those viewers generally who said they had no hearing problems (mean difficulty rating = 3%). Using a similarly constructed rating for reported enjoyment of different television programmes, hard-of-hearing viewers were found to exhibit a small reduction in enjoyment across the majority of programmes types. While it might have been anticipated that a greater proportion of those with impaired hearing owned a teletext television set giving them access to subtitling, this was not found to be the case. Across the sample as a whole, teletext ownership was shown to be 45%, but was lower than this (38.5%) amongst the hard-of-hearing. The findings corroborate what has been shown in another study, namely that teletext ownership is lower among older viewers. Hearing impairment, if it is not congenital or of early childhood origin, is a condition associated with increasing age. Thus, those whose viewing and appreciation of programmes might be enhanced by subtitles, in the main, do not have access to them. Among hard-of-hearing viewers who did have access to the teletext subtitle service, two thirds of those aged 51 years and over felt that subtitles assisted their understanding of television programmes. As one might expect, of those owning teletext, hard-of-hearing viewers reported greatest use of subtitles. Thirteen per cent of those with hearing difficulty and aged over 51 years said they used subtitles for all programmes watched and a further 26% of the over fifties with hearing difficulty reported regularly using subtitles for selected programmes. These data advocate that there are many hard-of-hearing viewers whose
In this article, the author discusses the possible changes in the medium of television by the year 2020. He predicts that the viewers of the future will each have a simple gadget that will enable them to select exactly what they want to view--at their own choice of time. Nobody will sit through the end of a programme they do not want to watch in…
Can adults help children to understand the content in preschool educational television by watching shows with them? Research indicates that co-viewing occurs rarely and has mixed benefits for learning. This study investigates the idea that a special kind of adult-child co-viewing, namely "dialogic viewing," in which adults ask open-ended questions…
Groves, David L.
Studied influence of television as a leisure activity in adult women between the ages of 36 and 50 (two groups: one, sports-oriented, the other, not sports-oriented). Nonsports-oriented subjects watched television for passing of time, companionship, and information; the other group viewed television for current events. Leisure activity was direct…
Schramm, Wilbur, Ed.
The result of an interdisciplinary conference on the qualities of an effective instructional television program, this book reports the ideas of various participants. Two papers by broadcasters represent the producer's view of ITV; one deals with instructional television in Sweden and the other with a Nigerian project. The scholar's view is…
Busse, Peter; Díaz, Ramón
While there is already consensus in the scientific community about the deleterious effects of TV exposure, especially through TV advertisements, on children's beliefs, preferences, and food intake, the link between TV and children's eating behaviors is under-studied in Peru, a country experiencing a steady economic growth in recent years and currently with a status of upper-middle-income country. Following research about the effects of media exposure on childhood obesity, we report on a qualitative study of TV viewing and the eating habits of children attending elementary schools in Lima, the capital. Data from eight focus groups with 38 boys and girls between 6 and 11 years old, eight focus groups with 36 female caretakers, and in-depth interviews with two fathers provided consistent information about children's eating habits and media viewing patterns. After dual coding the entire corpus of qualitative data, we found that children watch a great deal of TV during the school season: children watch as early as when they wake up in the morning, then during lunchtime (after returning from school), and then again after completing their homework from 5 pm to 9 pm or 10 pm. Survey data from the parents showed that, on average, children watch about 5 hours of TV on weekdays and more during a weekend-day. This large amount of exposure is concerning, especially because the focus groups revealed that children (1) recall a number of TV advertisements involving food items, (2) request food items seen on TV, and (3) are able to buy food for themselves, which usually involves chocolate, candy, or potato chips. Boys and girls reported different favorite TV shows, suggesting differences in exposure to TV content related to food. In addition, some families reported drinking sodas frequently, underlining a behavior that should be discouraged by public health officials.
Busse, Peter; Díaz, Ramón
While there is already consensus in the scientific community about the deleterious effects of TV exposure, especially through TV advertisements, on children's beliefs, preferences, and food intake, the link between TV and children's eating behaviors is under-studied in Peru, a country experiencing a steady economic growth in recent years and currently with a status of upper-middle-income country. Following research about the effects of media exposure on childhood obesity, we report on a qualitative study of TV viewing and the eating habits of children attending elementary schools in Lima, the capital. Data from eight focus groups with 38 boys and girls between 6 and 11 years old, eight focus groups with 36 female caretakers, and in-depth interviews with two fathers provided consistent information about children's eating habits and media viewing patterns. After dual coding the entire corpus of qualitative data, we found that children watch a great deal of TV during the school season: children watch as early as when they wake up in the morning, then during lunchtime (after returning from school), and then again after completing their homework from 5 pm to 9 pm or 10 pm. Survey data from the parents showed that, on average, children watch about 5 hours of TV on weekdays and more during a weekend-day. This large amount of exposure is concerning, especially because the focus groups revealed that children (1) recall a number of TV advertisements involving food items, (2) request food items seen on TV, and (3) are able to buy food for themselves, which usually involves chocolate, candy, or potato chips. Boys and girls reported different favorite TV shows, suggesting differences in exposure to TV content related to food. In addition, some families reported drinking sodas frequently, underlining a behavior that should be discouraged by public health officials. PMID:25316673
Educational Television, 1969
Television in medical education is featured in this supplement to "Educational Television." James Lieberman offers an overview of the present state of medical instructional television. He concludes his article by suggesting that the primary requisite for making optimum use of television in biomedical education is the preparation of a cadre of…
Oseguera, A. Anthony
Unlike the criticism of the literary arts and the spoken word, rhetoric, television criticism is in its infancy. The styles suggested for television criticism have primarily been drawn from modern drama, literature and semiotics. Today, television critics of the scholarly sort are looking at a variety of styles to see if they can tell their…
Von Feilitzen, Cecilia; And Others
Describes aspects of television and radio broadcasting in Sweden. Particular attention is given to children's programs, children's viewing patterns, the influence of TV on children, and how to improve the quality of radio and television programs. (Author/SS)
We tested whether three sedentary activities were associated with obesity and adiposity in U.S. preschool children: 1) watching >2 hours/day of TV/videos, 2) computer use, and 3) >2 hours/day of media use (TV/videos and computer use). We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representat...
Hetsroni, Amir; Lowenstein, Hila
Religiosity may change the direction of the effect of TV viewing on assessment of the likelihood of personal victimization and estimates concerning crime prevalence. A content analysis of a representative sample of TV programming (56 hours of prime-time shows) was done to identify the most common crimes on television, followed by a survey of a representative sample of the adult public in a large urban district (778 respondents) who were asked to estimate the prevalence of these crimes and to assess the likelihood of themselves being victimized. People who defined themselves as non-religious increased their estimates of prevalence for crimes often depicted on TV, as they reported more time watching TV (ordinary cultivation effect), whereas estimates regarding the prevalence of crime and assessment of victimization likelihood among religious respondents were lower with reports of more time devoted to television viewing (counter-cultivation effect).
Summarizes research findings on the effect of televised violence on young children's behavior and neurodevelopment. Suggests ways parents can manage their child's television viewing and outlines activities for early childhood educators to incorporate into their curriculum to help children cope with television. Asserts that it is essential that…
Television projects for the deaf are described with special focus on activities by the Deafness Research and Training Center to develop a cable television cooperative to produce and distribute programs for the deaf. The chapter on cable television considers principles of cable television, the model for a cable television cooperative, steps in…
Chaffee, Steven H.; McLeod, Jack M.
Three hypotheses could explain a positive correlation between violence viewing and social aggressiveness in adolescents: 1) Heavy exposure to television (TV) violence somehow reinforces or induces aggressive tendencies; 2) An aggressive child is more likely to be attracted to violent TV programs; 3) Some third factors exist which could cause both…
Wadsworth, Laurie A.
Presents a review of research linking nutritional health and body image attitudes with television viewing. Highlights include content analyses of advertisements and programming; audience uses of television; television as reality; socialization of attitudes and television; television, body image and self-esteem; television and health behaviors; and…
KESSLER, WILLIAM J.
DESIGNED FOR A READER WITHOUT SPECIAL TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE, THIS ILLUSTRATED RESOURCE PAPER EXPLAINS THE COMPONENTS OF A TELEVISION SYSTEM AND RELATES THEM TO THE COMPLETE SYSTEM. SUBJECTS DISCUSSED ARE THE FOLLOWING--STUDIO ORGANIZATION AND COMPATIBLE COLOR TELEVISION PRINCIPLES, WIRED AND RADIO TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS, DIRECT VIEW AND PROJECTION…
Reid, Leonard N.; Frazer, Charles F.
Discusses children as television viewers capable of manipulating the co-viewing setting by interpreting, constructing, and carrying out planned lines of play in relation to television and its content. Examples illustrate program-oriented and free-form improvisational play situations. (JMF)
Gerbner, George; And Others
This 2-year study was conducted to investigate the nature of religious television, its viewers, and its effect on mainline or other local churches. Four specific areas were addressed: the nature of the viewing audience, the content of religious television, the appeals and satisfactions (uses and functions) of religious programs, and behavioral…
Alexandrin, Julie R.
Through television, many different images of ethnic, cultural, and ability groups are presented. Different people perceive these images in different ways. These perceptions affect how people value themselves and judge and interact with others. This article first summaries research on TV images and people's meaning and reaction to them. Second, it…
Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Ward, L. Monique
Although previous findings indicate that frequent television viewing is associated with holding more stereotypical attitudes about gender, no studies have examined this connection among Latino youth, who are frequent viewers of both English- and Spanish-language programming. The present study attempted to rectify this situation by examining…
Linebarger, Deborah L.; Kosanic, Anjelika Z.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Doku, Nii Sai
Does viewing Between the Lions, an educational television series featuring literacy instruction, improve the emergent literacy skills of kindergarten and first-grade children? Do improvements vary as a function of the child's initial reading risk status? In this study, higher word recognition and standardized reading test scores were noted for all…
Hawkins, Marquis; Newman, Anne B.; Madero, Magdalena; Patel, Kushang V.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Cooper, Jennifer; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Fried, Linda F
BACKGROUND Physical activity (PA) may play a role in preserving kidney health. The purpose of this study was to determine if PA and sedentary behavior are associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and change in kidney function in older adults. METHODS The Health, Aging and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of 3,075 well-functioning older adults. PA and television watching was measured by self-report and serum cystatin C was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Rapid kidney function decline was defined as an annual loss in eGFR of >3ml/min/1.73m2. Discrete survival analysis was used to determine if baseline PA and television watching were related to 10-year cumulative incidence of CKD and rapid decline in kidney function. RESULTS Individuals who reported watching television >3 hours/day had a higher risk of incident CKD (HR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.65) and experiencing a rapid decline in kidney function (HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.05, 1.52) compared to individuals who watched television < 2 hours/day. PA was not related to either outcome. CONCLUSIONS High levels of television watching are associated with declining kidney function; the mechanisms that underlie this association need further study. PMID:24762526
Mbwana, Kassim; Moore, Kristin Anderson
School-age children spend more time watching television than in any other activity except sleeping. Although some studies have suggested that watching educational programs can have positive effects on learning and behavior, numerous studies have found an association between television viewing and negative childhood outcomes. This study finds that…
"Exploring Television" is an inquiry/discovery textbook designed to help students to understand, analyze, criticize, evaluate, and judge the experiences they have had in front of the television set. The text consists of three main parts. "The Medium" inquires into the radio-movie origins of television and prompts research into the networks and…
Owen, Bruce M.; And Others
Intended as an introduction to the economics of commercial television for the general reader, this volume considers the theory and analytical basis of television and the policy implications of those economics. Part I considers the economics of television markets with particular attention of the determinants of viewer markets; the supply of…
Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.
Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity. PMID:24892903
A study incorporated into classroom activities knowledge gained by Hungarian primary students' television viewing at home, as well as assessing the effects of this practice. A secondary purpose was to improve the level of the children's television viewing. Subjects, first and second graders in 15 classes in the capital city, a country town and…
Notes that in 1997, a system of television ratings was instituted to label objectionable television content for parents. Explains that this study gathered ratings use data from parents of preschool and school-age children. Concludes that parents most likely to use the ratings are those who already mediate television viewing. (PM)
This is how the surface of the moon looked from an altitude of approximately 60 miles as photographed by a television camera aboard the Apollo 8 spacecraft. This is Apollo 8's third live television transmission back to earth. At the time this picture was made, the Apollo 8 spacecraft was making its second revolution of the moon.
Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Lebo, Melanie J.
Two hundred and fifteen ninth grade students were surveyed to examine the relationship between television use and gender role attitudes and behavior in dating situations. Findings indicate the existence of a relationship between watching "romantic" television programming and having more traditional gender role attitudes in dating situations.…
Brosius, Hans-Bernd; Kepplinger, Hans Mathias
Investigates static and dynamic approaches to agenda-setting research by means of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the same data, comparing agenda-setting effects of German television news shows. Finds the static models to be unsatisfactory, while the dynamic model revealed two types of effects: television coverage caused problem…
Alexander, Alison; And Others
Demonstrates through a case study and a participant observation study that siblings interact about television in such a way that the form and content of their talk creates a learning context. Concludes that, despite concerns about "zombie" viewers, children are not passive, unresponsive recipients of television. (PD)
Broddason, Thorbjorn; And Others
This report on a study conducted in Iceland to determine the relationship between mass media--especially television--and the attitudes of preadolescents and adolescents toward foreign countries begins by reviewing the following topics: (1) the history of television from its start in 1966 to the present in Iceland; (2) the origins of Icelandic…
Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.
In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with…
Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Weatherspoon, Lorraine
To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers' and toddlers' food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother-toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire to assess toddler mealtime behavior. Data were analyzed using a three-step multiple regression: (a) step one was to determine what characteristics predicted family TV viewing during mealtime; (b) step two was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted maternal food consumption, and (c) step three was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted toddler food consumption. Direct and indirect effects of TV watching were explored via path models. Maternal race, education, and depressive symptoms predicted 8% of the variance in TV viewing during mealtime (P < or = 0.001). African American mothers and mothers who had fewer years of schooling and exhibited more depressive symptoms tended to watch more TV during mealtime. More TV viewing during mealtime predicted mothers' intake of 'more' unhealthy foods. Mothers' food consumption was the single best predictor of toddlers' food consumption, while TV viewing during mealtime had an indirect effect through mothers' TV viewing. TV viewing practices affect mothers' food consumption and mealtime behaviors; this, in turn, impacts toddlers' food consumption. Practical interventions are needed to positively influence the nutritional habits of lower-income mothers. Reducing mothers' "unhealthy" food consumption while watching TV may offer one effective strategy.
Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Weatherspoon, Lorraine
To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers' and toddlers' food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother-toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire to assess toddler mealtime behavior. Data were analyzed using a three-step multiple regression: (a) step one was to determine what characteristics predicted family TV viewing during mealtime; (b) step two was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted maternal food consumption, and (c) step three was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted toddler food consumption. Direct and indirect effects of TV watching were explored via path models. Maternal race, education, and depressive symptoms predicted 8% of the variance in TV viewing during mealtime (P < or = 0.001). African American mothers and mothers who had fewer years of schooling and exhibited more depressive symptoms tended to watch more TV during mealtime. More TV viewing during mealtime predicted mothers' intake of 'more' unhealthy foods. Mothers' food consumption was the single best predictor of toddlers' food consumption, while TV viewing during mealtime had an indirect effect through mothers' TV viewing. TV viewing practices affect mothers' food consumption and mealtime behaviors; this, in turn, impacts toddlers' food consumption. Practical interventions are needed to positively influence the nutritional habits of lower-income mothers. Reducing mothers' "unhealthy" food consumption while watching TV may offer one effective strategy. PMID:19629662
Ateneo de Manila Univ., Quezon City (Philippines). Center for Educational Television.
Information about instructional television (ITV) programing in the Philippines is summarized in this three part document. An outline of the status of the Center for Educational Television, Inc., (CETV) and a description of its current activities and financial support are provided in the first section. A narrative review of both CETV and other…
King, Marjorie; Witney, Lois W.
Using adult learning theory, this quasi-experimental study, involving a convenience sample of senior student nurses (n=13) enrolled in an Interactive Television (ITV) Course at East Tennessee State University, evaluated the perceived importance of engaged learning activities used. Subjects completed pre-test, post-test, and reflective papers.…
There is evidence that athletic self-concept can be both an important outcome and/or a mediating variable for physical activity in children and adolescents. However much less is known about the relationship between sedentary behaviors, such as television with athletic self-concept. This study exam...
Grøntved, Anders; Hu, Frank B.
Context Prolonged television (TV) viewing is the most prevalent and pervasive sedentary behavior in industrialized countries and has been associated with morbidity and mortality. However, a systematic and quantitative assessment of published studies is not available. Objective To perform a meta-analysis of all prospective cohort studies to determine the association between TV viewing and risk of type 2 diabetes, fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Data Sources and Study Selection Relevant studies were identified by searches of the MEDLINE database from 1970 to March 2011 and the EMBASE database from 1974 to March 2011 without restrictions and by reviewing reference lists from retrieved articles. Cohort studies that reported relative risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of interest were included. Data Extraction Data were extracted independently by each author and summary estimates of association were obtained using a random-effects model. Data Synthesis Of the 8 studies included, 4 reported results on type 2 diabetes (175 938 individuals; 6428 incident cases during 1.1 million person-years of follow-up), 4 reported on fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular disease (34 253 individuals; 1052 incident cases), and 3 reported on all-cause mortality (26 509 individuals; 1879 deaths during 202 353 person-years of follow-up). The pooled relative risks per 2 hours of TV viewing per day were 1.20 (95% CI, 1.14-1.27) for type 2 diabetes, 1.15 (95% CI, 1.06-1.23) for fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular disease, and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.07-1.18) for all-cause mortality. While the associations between time spent viewing TV and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease were linear, the risk of all-cause mortality appeared to increase with TV viewing duration of greater than 3 hours per day. The estimated absolute risk differences per every 2 hours of TV viewing per day were 176 cases of type 2 diabetes per 100 000
Milkovich, Mark; And Others
This report, the third in a series of six reports on television advertising and children, describes a study designed to determine how the massive exposure to television affects children's language development. A total of 153 children in grades K-6 were interviewed about the entertainment, informational, and advertising content of 24 programs…
GROPPER, GEORGE L.; LUMSDAINE, ARTHUR A.
A SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS WAS CONDUCTED TO TEST THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TELEVISED INSTRUCTION. THIS STUDY, THE THIRD IN A SERIES, EXPLORED THE ROLE IN FIXED-PACE TELEVISION INSTRUCTION OF SOME OF THE TECHNIQUES AND PRACTICES EMPLOYED IN TEACHING-MACHINE INSTRUCTION. THREE SEPARATE EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED--(1) A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LESSON ON NEWTON'S…
In an art class, children browse through space-age knobs, robot antennas and gyroscopic signal searchers. They extend space needle antennas before turning on an old TV. They discover the sights and sounds of televisions past, hearing the hiss, the gathering power, and seeing the blinking eye, the black-and-white light and blurry images projected…
Markey, Charlotte N; Markey, Patrick M
Two studies are presented that examine the influence of media messages about cosmetic surgery on youths' interest in altering their own physical appearance. In Study 1, 170 participants (59% female; M age=19.77 years) completed surveys assessing their impression of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery, appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and their interest in cosmetic surgery. Results indicated that participants who reported favorable impressions of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery were more likely to indicate interest in pursuing surgery. One hundred and eighty-nine participants (51% female; M age=19.84 years) completed Study 2. Approximately half of the participants were exposed to a television message featuring a surgical make-over; the other half was exposed to a neutral message. Results indicated that participants who watched a television program about cosmetic surgery wanted to alter their own appearance using cosmetic surgery more than did participants who were not exposed to this program. PMID:20089464
Kulyas, Oleg L.; Nikitin, Konstantin A.
Ways of chromatic aberration in images are examined and analyzed which are generated at television supervision through protective glasses of a considerable thickness. The results of experimental check up of the given method of correction is introduced and described.
Markey, Charlotte N; Markey, Patrick M
Two studies are presented that examine the influence of media messages about cosmetic surgery on youths' interest in altering their own physical appearance. In Study 1, 170 participants (59% female; M age=19.77 years) completed surveys assessing their impression of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery, appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and their interest in cosmetic surgery. Results indicated that participants who reported favorable impressions of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery were more likely to indicate interest in pursuing surgery. One hundred and eighty-nine participants (51% female; M age=19.84 years) completed Study 2. Approximately half of the participants were exposed to a television message featuring a surgical make-over; the other half was exposed to a neutral message. Results indicated that participants who watched a television program about cosmetic surgery wanted to alter their own appearance using cosmetic surgery more than did participants who were not exposed to this program.
Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M
A substantial number of previous studies have reported significant associations between television viewing habits and a host of detrimental outcomes including increased contact with the criminal justice system. However, it remains unclear whether the results flowing from this literature are generalizable to other samples and whether previously observed associations are confounded due to uncontrolled genetic influences. The current study addresses these limitations using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The results of the preliminary models, which do not include controls for genetic influences, produced a pattern of results similar to those previously reported in the extant literature. The results of the genetically informed models revealed that the associations between television viewing and antisocial outcomes are not causal, but rather are driven by uncontrolled genetic influences. Further replication is required, but these findings suggest that results drawn from the extant literature may not be trustworthy.
Sejdić, Ervin; Findlay, Briar; Merey, Celeste; Chau, Tom
This paper presents a two-part study with walking conditions involving music and television (TV) to investigate their effects on human gait. In the first part, we observed seventeen able-bodied adults as they participated in three 15-minute walking trials: (1) without music, (2) with music and (3) without music again. In the second part, we observed fifteen able-bodied adults as they walked on a treadmill for 15 min while watching (1) TV with sound (2) TV without sound and (3) TV with subtitles but no sound. Gait timing was recorded via bilateral heel sensors and center-of-mass accelerations were measured by tri-axial accelerometers. Measures of statistical persistence, dynamic stability and gait variability were calculated. Our results showed that none of the considered gait measures were statistically different when comparing music with no-music trials. Therefore, walking to music did not appear to affect intrinsic walking dynamics in the able-bodied adult population. However, stride interval variability and stride interval dynamics were significantly greater in the TV with sound walking condition when compared to the TV with subtitles condition. Treadmill walking while watching TV with subtitles alters intrinsic gait dynamics but potentially offers greater gait stability.
Patel, Barkha P; Bellissimo, Nick; Thomas, Scott G; Hamilton, Jill K; Anderson, G Harvey
The effect of television viewing (TVV) and pubertal status of 9- to 14-y-old girls on mealtime food intake (FI) after a premeal glucose drink was determined. On four separate mornings, girls randomly received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control) or glucose (1.0 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast. FI from an ad libitum pizza meal was measured 30 min later with or without TVV. Appetite was measured at 15 min intervals to lunch and postmeal. TVV at mealtime had no effect on FI, however, glucose suppressed FI more with no TVV compared with TVV (24 versus 10%, p < 0.001), primarily because of its effect in peripubertal girls (p < 0.028). In postpubertal girls (n = 8), glucose reduced FI by ~27% in both the no TVV and TVV conditions, but in peripubertal girls (n = 17), reduction in FI was 22% without TVV and only 1% while TVV. Appetite correlated with FI at 30 min only in postpubertal girls. TVV at mealtime reduced caloric compensation after consumption of the glucose drink in peripubertal, but not postpubertal, girls, with no effect on mealtime FI. (Clinical trial number NCT01025687.) PMID:21772226
This final report summarizes the activities of Phase 1 and Phase 2 of a project designed to develop curriculum materials to teach critical television viewing skills at the postsecondary level, including individuals in various community and professional groups, as well as students in formal educational programs. Defining such skills as those which…
de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; van den Putte, Bas
Clustering refers to the co-occurrence of behaviour and may be particularly relevant in light of the present obesity epidemic. Since evidence regarding clustering of motivational and habitual constructs within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is limited, clustering effects of TPB cognitions and habit strength regarding soft drink consumption and television viewing were studied in a sample of Dutch adolescents (n = 312; mean age = 14.62; SD = 1.62) using cross-sectional data. Results showed that not only soft drink consumption and television viewing cluster (r = .42), but also their intentional (r = .36) and habitual (r = .37) constructs. Furthermore, unmediated effects were found between habit strength and its respective behaviour, whereas habit strength was associated with its clustered behaviour through decreased perceptions of controllability. Our findings suggest that interventions that aim to change habitual soft drink consumption and television viewing may need to incorporate an environmental component, as well as explore the potential usefulness of synergistic effects of incorporating multiple clustered behaviours, as well as their corresponding beliefs and habits in health behaviour change interventions. PMID:19463873
Fabio, Anthony; Chen, Chung-Yu; Kim, Kevin H.; Erickson, Darin; Jacobs, David R.; Zgibor, Janice C.; Chung, Tammy; Matthews, Karen A.; Sidney, Steven; Iribarren, Carlos; Pereira, Mark A.
Background. It was hypothesized that television viewing is predictive of cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, people with hostile personality type may be more susceptible to TV-induced negative emotions and harmful health habits which increase occurrence of cardiometabolic risk. Purpose. The prospective association of TV viewing on cardiometabolic risk was examined along with whether hostile personality trait was a modifier. Methods. A total of 3,269 Black and White participants in the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study were assessed from age 23 to age 35. A cross-lagged panel model at exam years 5, 10, 15, and 20, covering 15 years, was used to test whether hours of daily TV viewing predicted cardiometabolic risk, controlling confounding variables. Multiple group analysis of additional cross-lagged panel models stratified by high and low levels of hostility was used to evaluate whether the association was modified by the hostile personality trait. Results. The cross-lagged association of TV viewing at years 5 and 15 on clustered cardiometabolic risk score at years 10 and 20 was significant (B = 0.058 and 0.051), but not at 10 to 15 years. This association was significant for those with high hostility (B = 0.068 for exam years 5 to 10 and 0.057 for exam years 15 to 20) but not low hostility. Conclusion. These findings indicate that TV viewing is positively associated with cardiometabolic risk. Further, they indicate that hostility might be a modifier for the association between TV viewing and cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25050178
Rothwell, Jennifer Truran
Explores the role of television in politics providing historical examples of the use of television and its possible effects on elections. Focuses on television as the dominant medium for politics, the connections among television, advertising, and political money, and ideas for reforming the electoral process. Includes a teaching activity on…
Doggett, N.; Dogra, S.
Abstract Introduction: The purpose of this analysis was to 1) determine the association between asthma and physical activity levels or sedentary time among Aboriginal adults, and 2) understand the influence of physical inactivity and sedentary time on health care use among Aboriginal adults with asthma. Methods: We analyzed 20 953 adults from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. Those with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and a current prescription for asthma medication were considered to have current asthma. Insufficient physical activity was defined as < 3 hours/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity; high television screen time was defined as > 10 hours/week. Health care use was assessed using the number of health professional visits and overnight hospital stays. Results: Aboriginal adults with asthma were more likely to report high television-viewing time (OR = 1.16; CI: 1.11–1.22) and insufficient physical activity (OR = 1.15; CI: 1.10–1.20) than those without asthma. Those with asthma who reported high television-viewing time reported more health professional consults in the past 12 months (OR = 2.59; CI: 2.34–2.87), more overnight stays in hospital in the past year (OR = 1.95; CI: 1.82–2.08) and more overnight stays in the hospital in the past 5 years (OR = 1.13; CI: 1.07–1.18); results were less consistent for physical activity and health care use. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Aboriginal adults with asthma are less active than their peers without asthma and that such a lifestyle may be associated with higher health care use. These findings have implications for physical activity promotion and sedentary behaviour strategies targeting Aboriginal adults with asthma. PMID:25970805
Lee, Eui Bun; Browne, Louis A.
Surveyed 449 Blacks of varying ages to examine patterns of television use, amount of television viewing, attachment to the medium, and the differences in Black viewers' motivations for watching television. Fifteen references are cited. (FM)
Balon, Robert E.
Among the findings of a study of the television viewing preferences of prison inmates were that inmates convicted of aggressive assault preferred family drama programs, that those convicted of aggravated robbery preferred ethnic comedy, and that all inmate subgroups were inclined toward crime and action programs. (GW)
Harris, Jennifer L; Bargh, John A
The concern over increasing rates of obesity and associated health issues has led to calls for solutions to the potentially unhealthy influence of television and food advertising on children's diets. Research demonstrates that children's food preferences are acquired through learning processes, and that these preferences have long-lasting effects on diet. We examined food preferences and eating behaviors among college students, and assessed the relative influence of 2 potential contributors: parental communication and television experience. In line with previous studies with children, prior television experience continued to predict unhealthy food preferences and diet in early adulthood, and perceived taste had the most direct relationship to both healthy and unhealthy diets. In addition, both television experience and parenting factors independently influenced preferences and diet. These findings provide insights into the potential effectiveness of alternative media interventions to counteract the unhealthy influence of television on diet, including a) nutrition education; b) parental communication and media literacy education to teach children to defend against unwanted influence; and c) reduced exposure to unhealthy messages. PMID:20183373
Ricci, S; Vigevano, F; Manfredi, M; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G
Television (TV) and video games (VG) can provoke seizures in patients with photosensitive epilepsies. Flicker frequency is the most important factor in screen activation. We tested conventional 50-Hz versus 100-Hz monitors during TV viewing and VG playing in 30 photosensitive subjects, 23 of whom had a history of TV or VG seizures or both. Fifteen subjects' discharges were activated by 50-Hz TV; 17 by 50-Hz VG; and one by a 100-Hz screen. Thus, 100-Hz screens protect against screen activation. PMID:9521278
Ricci, S; Vigevano, F; Manfredi, M; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G
Television (TV) and video games (VG) can provoke seizures in patients with photosensitive epilepsies. Flicker frequency is the most important factor in screen activation. We tested conventional 50-Hz versus 100-Hz monitors during TV viewing and VG playing in 30 photosensitive subjects, 23 of whom had a history of TV or VG seizures or both. Fifteen subjects' discharges were activated by 50-Hz TV; 17 by 50-Hz VG; and one by a 100-Hz screen. Thus, 100-Hz screens protect against screen activation.
Allen, Craig M.
Contrary to the prevailing view that 1952 was the year of the first nationally televised political conventions, only 32 states had TV stations at that time; nor did the term "TV candidate" originate in the Kennedy (1960) or Nixon (1968) campaigns. In fact, it is Dwight Eisenhower and the campaign of 1956 that deserve this recognition. Contemporary…
Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.
Subscription television (STV), established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1968, involves transmitting television programs over the air to viewers who pay for the service. The development, trial operation, and test results of subscription television are described in this report, along with four Commission reports, and FCC…
As Taiwan is striving to become an integral part of the global community, the dissemination of international news and the diversity of its representation are increasingly vital in shaping people's knowledge of the world. This paper serves as a first-hand account of the work of a television news translator--a reflection on the author's five years…
Kellstedt, Lyman A.
Data from a 1976 election study were used to compare the effects of different types of television watching (daytime, evening entertainment, news, campaign programing, presidential debates) on voter turnout and to compare these effects with those of other media (radio, magazines, newspapers). After controlling for the effects of the traditional…
Shastri, Jigisha; Mohite, Prerana
Classified primary students in India into light, moderate, and heavy television viewers (controlling for socioeconomic status) and assessed them for either academic performance or cognitive skills, using various instruments. Found no significant differences among groups, but light viewers performed significantly better on oral reading; results may…
Darden, Douglas W.; Bertrand, Alvin L.
Study was undertaken to obtain information on use rural Louisianians make of radio and television, and to determine the part various mass media play in lives of rural people. Information was solicited from 25 households within each of 12 parishes in the state. Total number of persons sampled was 600. Cultural background, economic enterprises in…
LeRoy, David; LeRoy, Judith
In a recent study of the Tampa (Florida) market, TRAC Media Services acquired some interesting information about the market's response to its two public television stations. WEDU is a VHF-signal community station that reaches about 745,000 households in a week, and WUSF is a university-licensed UHF station that reaches about 547,000. Month-long…
Gomez, Luis F; Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Samper, Belen; Moreno, José; Jacoby, Enrique; Lucumi, Diego I; Matsudo, Sandra; Borda, Catalina
Background There has been an ongoing discussion about the relationship between time spent watching television and childhood obesity. This debate has special relevance in the Latin American region were the globalization process has increased the availability of screen-based entertainment at home. The aim of this study is to examine the association between television viewing and weight status in Colombian children. Methods This cross sectional investigation included children aged 5 to12 yrs from the National Nutrition Survey in Colombia (ENSIN 2005). Weight and height were measured in 11,137 children in order to calculate body mass index. Overweight was defined by international standards. Time spent viewing television was determined for these children through parental reports. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for different subgroups and adjusted for potential confounders in order to study the association between television viewing and weight status in this population. Results Among the surveyed children, 41.5% viewed television less than two hours/day; 36.8% between two and 3.9 hours/day and 21.7% four or more hours/day. The prevalence of overweight (obesity inclusive) in this population was 11.1%. Children who were classified as excessive television viewers (between two and 3.9 hours/day or 4 or more hours/day) were more likely to be overweight (OR: 1.44 95% CI: 1.41–1.47 and OR: 1.32 95% CI: 1.30–1.34, respectively) than children who reported to watch television less than 2 hours/day. Stratified analyses by age, gender and urbanization levels showed similar results. Conclusion Television viewing was positively associated with the presence of overweight in Colombian children. A positive association between urbanization level and television viewing was detected. Considering that the majority of Colombian children lives in densely populated cities and appear to engage in excessive television viewing these findings are of public health relevance
Tiene, Drew; Whitmore, Evonne
Examines the use of television equipment in schools that subscribe to Channel One based on a survey of secondary schools in the Midwest. Highlights include viewing Classroom Channel programming; viewing or taping programs on other cable television channels; use for local school activities, including student productions; and evaluation of Channel…
Active Learning Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.
This report describes an interactive video system developed by Active Learning Systems which utilizes a cable television (TV) network as its delivery system to transmit computer literacy lessons to high school and college students. The system consists of an IBM PC, Pioneer LDV 4000 videodisc player, and Whitney Supercircuit set up at the head end…
Barcus, F. Earle
Research investigated parents' opinions about children's television (TV). Questionnaire respondents were mainly parents of children ages 2-6; mothers outnumbered fathers 9:1. Results included the findings that children watched TV an average of three hours a day; this varied little throughout the country and between those viewing Public…
Bell, Janice F.
Objectives. We tested the associations of content types of children's television viewing with subsequent body mass index (BMI) to assess the plausibility of different causal pathways. Methods. We used time-use diary data from the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics to measure television viewing categorized by format and educational and commercial content. Analyses were stratified by age because children younger than 7 years are less able to understand the persuasive intent of advertising. BMI z scores in 2002 were regressed on television viewing, sociodemographic variables, mother's BMI, and BMI in 1997 (for older children only). Results. Among children aged 0 to 6 years in 1997, commercial viewing in 1997 was significantly associated with BMI z scores in 2002 in fully adjusted regressions. Among children older than 6 years, commercial viewing in 2002 was associated with 2002 BMI. These results were robust after adjustment for exercise and eating while watching television. Conclusions. The evidence does not support the contention that television viewing contributes to obesity because it is a sedentary activity. Television advertising, rather than viewing per se, is associated with obesity. PMID:20019313
Demonstrates that audience members create specific and sometimes elaborate practical actions involving television in order to gratify particular needs in the context of family viewing. Supports a typology of the social uses of television using ethnographic research and current uses and gratifications literature. (JMF)
Mota, Jorge; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Maria Paula; Martins, Júlio
The aim of this study was twofold (1), to examine the prospective relationship of baseline TV viewing with BMI and CRF both at baseline and over a 2-year period, and (2) to examine the prospective relationship of baseline TV viewing and changes (Delta) on BMI and CRF over a 2-year period. Data were collected in a sample of 135 (64 girls) rural children ages 7 yr-old from elementary schools in Fundão, Portugal. Obesity status was obtained by the age-sex specific BMI cut points and CRF by a 9 min run test. TV viewing was also analyzed and children were assigned as one of two groups: the low TV watching (LTV), and high TV watching (HTV), users based upon them reported to spend less or more than 2 h/day watching TV, respectively. Logistic regression showed that those who were assigned to HTV group were 2.4 times (OR= 2.48; p = .04) more likely to be classified as unfit at time 1. Further the data showed that the LTV were more likely (OR= 0.36; p = .02) to be classified in high DeltaCRF change over time. The findings of this study suggest that there was a significant inverse association between times spent watching TV and CRF but not BMI over a 2-yr period.
Based on a pilot research project conducted in the Spring of 1985, this report on an investigation of the use of television within different families, and how television material is interpreted by its audiences, begins by discussing the project's central thesis, i.e., that the changing patterns of television viewing can only be understood in the…
Maushak, Nancy; Cheng, Yahua; Wang, Hsi-chih
Digital technology has turned a new page for television broadcasting. The convergence of television and computer has brought about powerful effects to television viewing experiences. Digital broadcasting combined with the Internet is conceived as a new driving force that will change the mode of learning in the very near future. Many educators…
This paper offers a critical approach to television viewing that considers the literary and rhetorical impact of television programing. The methodology described is composed of three stages of criticism that are designed to examine and describe television drama: (1) the descriptive stage, in which the critic examines the plot, characters,…
Lam, Pamela Y. Y.
This study investigated the influence of television commercials for toys and cereals on young children. Forty-four children, ranging in age from 4 to 7 years, were interviewed regarding their television viewing habits, their attitudes toward television commercials, their demands for their mothers to buy cereals and toys, and their interpretation…
Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.
Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…
Sejdić, Ervin; Jeffery, Rebecca; Vanden Kroonenberg, Alanna; Chau, Tom
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of auditory and visual distractions on pedestrian ambulation. A fundamental temporal characteristic of ambulation is the temporal fluctuation of the stride interval. In this paper, we investigate the stationarity of stride interval time series when people are exposed to different forms of auditory and visual distractions. An increase in nonstationary behavior may be suggestive of divided attention and more frequent central modulation of locomotion, both of which may have ramifications on pedestrian vigilance and responsiveness to environmental perturbations. One group of fifteen able-bodied (6 females) young adult participants completed a music protocol (overground walking with and without music). A second group of fifteen (7 females) did a television protocol (treadmill walking while watching TV with and without sound). Three walking trials, each 15min in duration, were performed at each participant's comfortable walking speed, with force sensitive resistors under the heel of each foot. Using the reverse arrangements test, the vast majority of time series were nonstationary, with a time-varying mean as the principal source of nonstationarity. Furthermore, the television trial with sound had the greatest number of nonstationarities followed by overground walking while listening to music. We discuss the possibility that these conditions measurably affect gait dynamics through a subconscious synchronization to external rhythms or a cyclic distraction followed by a period of increased conscious correction of gait timing. Our findings suggest that the regulation of stride timing is particularly susceptible to constant, time-evolving auditory stimuli, but that normal pacing can be restored quickly upon stimulus withdrawal. These kinds of sensory distractions should thus be carefully considered in studies of pedestrian ambulation. PMID:21820194
Sejdić, Ervin; Jeffery, Rebecca; Kroonenberg, Alanna Vanden; Chau, Tom
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of auditory and visual distractions on pedestrian ambulation. A fundamental temporal characteristic of ambulation is the temporal fluctuation of the stride interval. In this paper, we investigate the stationarity of stride interval time series when people are exposed to different forms of auditory and visual distractions. An increase in nonstationary behavior may be suggestive of divided attention and more frequent central modulation of locomotion, both of which may have ramifications on pedestrian vigilance and responsiveness to environmental perturbations. One group of fifteen able-bodied (6 females) young adult participants completed a music protocol (overground walking with and without music). A second group of fifteen (7 females) did a television protocol (treadmill walking while watching TV with and without sound). Three walking trials, each 15 minutes in duration, were performed at each participant’s comfortable walking speed, with force sensitive resistors under the heel of each foot. Using the reverse arrangements test, the vast majority of time series were nonstationary, with a time-varying mean as the principal source of nonstationarity. Furthermore, the television trial with sound had the greatest number of nonstationarities followed by overground walking while listening to music. We discuss the possibility that these conditions measurably affect gait dynamics through a subconscious synchronization to external rhythms or a cyclic distraction followed by a period of increased conscious correction of gait timing. Our findings suggest that the regulation of stride timing is particularly susceptible to constant, time-evolving auditory stimuli, but that normal pacing can be restored quickly upon stimulus withdrawal. These kinds of sensory distractions should thus be carefully considered in studies of pedestrian ambulation. PMID:21820194
Sejdić, Ervin; Jeffery, Rebecca; Vanden Kroonenberg, Alanna; Chau, Tom
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of auditory and visual distractions on pedestrian ambulation. A fundamental temporal characteristic of ambulation is the temporal fluctuation of the stride interval. In this paper, we investigate the stationarity of stride interval time series when people are exposed to different forms of auditory and visual distractions. An increase in nonstationary behavior may be suggestive of divided attention and more frequent central modulation of locomotion, both of which may have ramifications on pedestrian vigilance and responsiveness to environmental perturbations. One group of fifteen able-bodied (6 females) young adult participants completed a music protocol (overground walking with and without music). A second group of fifteen (7 females) did a television protocol (treadmill walking while watching TV with and without sound). Three walking trials, each 15min in duration, were performed at each participant's comfortable walking speed, with force sensitive resistors under the heel of each foot. Using the reverse arrangements test, the vast majority of time series were nonstationary, with a time-varying mean as the principal source of nonstationarity. Furthermore, the television trial with sound had the greatest number of nonstationarities followed by overground walking while listening to music. We discuss the possibility that these conditions measurably affect gait dynamics through a subconscious synchronization to external rhythms or a cyclic distraction followed by a period of increased conscious correction of gait timing. Our findings suggest that the regulation of stride timing is particularly susceptible to constant, time-evolving auditory stimuli, but that normal pacing can be restored quickly upon stimulus withdrawal. These kinds of sensory distractions should thus be carefully considered in studies of pedestrian ambulation.
Whittle, Christopher Henry
The purpose of the present dissertation is to determine whether the viewing of two particular prime-time television programs, ER and The X-Files, increases viewer knowledge of science and to identify factors that may influence learning from entertainment television programming. Viewer knowledge of scientific dialogue from two science-based prime-time television programs, ER, a serial drama in a hospital emergency room and The X-Files, a drama about two Federal Bureau of Investigation agents who pursue alleged extraterrestrial life and paranormal activity, is studied. Level of viewing, education level, science education level, experiential factors, level of parasocial interaction, and demographic characteristics are assessed as independent variables affecting learning from entertainment television viewing. The present research involved a nine-month long content analysis of target television program dialogue and data collection from an Internet-based survey questionnaire posted to target program-specific on-line "chat" groups. The present study demonstrated that entertainment television program viewers incidentally learn science from entertainment television program dialogue. The more they watch, the more they learn. Viewing a pseudoscientific fictional television program does necessarily influence viewer beliefs in pseudoscience. Higher levels of formal science study are reflected in more science learning and less learning of pseudoscience from entertainment television program viewing. Pseudoscience learning from entertainment television programming is significantly related to experience with paranormal phenomena, higher levels of viewer parasocial interaction, and specifically, higher levels of cognitive parasocial interaction. In summary, the greater a viewer's understanding of science the more they learn when they watch their favorite science-based prime-time television programs. Viewers of pseudoscience-based prime-time television programming with higher levels
Hoffner, Cynthia A.; Levine, Kenneth J.; Sullivan, Quintin E.; Crowell, Dennis; Pedrick, Laura; Berndt, Patricia
Television regularly depicts work-related activities of fictional characters and is one of several important sources of occupational information for young people. However, no research appears to have examined the influence of televised occupational portrayals on economically disadvantaged youths, although television may be an especially important…
Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.
This journal issue covers the history of film, radio, and television in Iowa. The first article, "When Pictures and Sound Came to Iowa," summarizes the origin of movies and radio and their early beginnings in Iowa. Using old photographs and measurement charts, the viewing, reading, and listening habits of young people in 1950 and 1958 are…
Hendry, Leo B.; Patrick, Helen
Over 2,000 15-16 year old adolescents from central Scotland were surveyed to determine characteristics of high- vs. low-frequency television viewers. Personality characteristics, attitudes toward school and sports, and socioeconomic status were related to viewing habits. Sex of the viewer was found to be related to choice of programs. (GDC)
Coyne, Sarah M.
Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…
TV and other screen use are common among elementary-school-aged children with both potential benefits and harms. It is not clear why some parents restrict their children's screen use and others do not. Parents' outcome expectations for allowing their child to watch TV and other screen media, i.e., t...
El Monte Union High School District, Rosemead, CA.
An overview of the Rosemead High School (California) student-operated educational television system (KRHS) is presented, starting with its inception in 1964. Briefly described are the development of KRHS into a closed-circuit production facility with editing capabilities; awards that KRHS programs have won; places that KRHS student crews have…
Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.
This report provides information about cable television and the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating its operation. The initial jurisdiction and rules covered in this report pertain to the court test, public hearing, certificate of compliance, franchising, signal carriage, leapfrogging, access and origination…
Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.
The report summarizes information about the history, technology and operation of educational television (ETV) in the U.S. The history of educational broadcasting is outlined from 1941 when the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved applications for five noncommercial FM radio channels, to 1967 and the passing of the Public Broadcasting…
Bisesi, Michael; Felder, B. Dell
Universities can offer opportunities for workers in high-technology fields to gain state-of-the-art information and skills without traveling to campus, through interactive television training. Careful organization and planning of such programs, including selection of effective faculty and remote site personnel, are essential to their success. (MSE)
Marden, W W; Steinberger, R L; Bracco, F V
A pulsed illumination closed circuit television system is described whereby fast (times <33 ms), unsteady events can be observed in real time. A low-power helium-neon laser beam is modulated to send a short duration light pulse through the unsteady test medium. The light is refracted according to the instantaneous optical properties of the medium. The refracted light travels to a solid state television camera, known as a charge injection device (CID), in which the sensor array is charged within microseconds. The scanning of the charged array then follows, requiring the standard 33 ms for information transfer to video tape and a TV monitor. The image is thus formed during the laser pulse duration (which presently is 10 to 100 micros, but shorter duration pulses are possible with more powerful lasers), but no more than one image every 33 ms can be observed and recorded. Thus this method is particularly suited for the investigation of high frequency periodic events in which one can observe both a single image, or an ensemble average of as many as 100 images, occurring at corresponding times in different cycles. The reported applications include the recording of steady and transient propane torch flames, of the transient fuel injection process in a motored internal combustion engine, and of the propagation of a flame under firing conditions in the engine. In the shadowgraph and Schlieren modes the method is particularly suited for application to periodic combustion events such as those occurring in internal combustion engines. The method then presents the following advantages over high-speed filming (> 3000 pictures/s); real-time observation and recording of chamber events at any crankangle; real-time observation and recording of the effects of changes in the engine variables (speed, load, spark timing, injection pressure and duration, chamber swirl, etc.) on the combustion events; real-time observation and recording of ensemble averages and cycle-to-cycle variations
Page, Randy M.; And Others
Examined relationship between television viewing frequency and adolescents' health-related and psychosocial characteristics. Found that shyness and exercise frequency predicted television viewing frequency. Among females, exercise frequency, shyness, loneliness, and perceived attractiveness predicted viewing frequency. Light viewers exercised more…
van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O
Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake. PMID:26921486
Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn
This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…
Studies and writings on the effects of television on children are reviewed and summarized. Topics are the young people's pattern of exposure to television, the nature of their viewing experience, the way they respond to television, and the direct effects on their values, attitudes and behavior. Research on the influence of television violence on…
Spagnoli, T D; Bioletti, L; Bo, C; Formigatti, M
The relationship between television viewing and obesity in children and adults was examined in a large number of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Some randomised, controlled trials confirmed the evidence that television viewing is a cause of increased body fatness. It seems of utility in nutritional surveillance to esteem time spent by children and adults in television watching and to evaluate ads contents and food preferences suggested by them. This editorial shows a two-years long analysis of food commercials broadcasted by the main Italian TV networks; food ads targeted on children, housewives and sport fans were evaluated; the relationship between television viewing, commercials and food intake or global lifestyle was investigated in a Piedmont's population (from Northern Italy). School projects aimed to reduce television viewing represent a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity. PMID:14969315
Vallow, K.; Gordon, S.
Welding process in visually inaccessible spots viewed and recorded. Television system enables monitoring of welding in visually inaccessible locations. System assists welding operations and provide video record, used for weld analysis and welder training.
Kennedy, C M
Television viewing patterns in preschool age Hispanic children were studied in order to explore the role of TV in the establishment of early childhood health behaviors. The television viewing habits and patterns of children and parents and parental coviewing, regulation, and encouragement practices were examined. Using the dimensions of regulation and encouragement, four parental typologies were established: laissez-faire, restrictive, promotive, and selective. Children in this study watched television 3-4 hours a day, half of which consisted of viewing adult shows. This amount of time is significantly higher than the guideline of less than 2 hours a day suggested by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Relationships between television viewing, injury behaviors, risk taking, and acculturation were established and implications for primary care, school, and community health care nursing are discussed. PMID:12026392
Cable television has been introduced to the public as a revolutionary development in communications, but its history, evolving structure, and present operation indicate otherwise. A few large industrial conglomerates have come to dominate the field of cable television and studies by private institutions and the regulatory activities of the Federal…
Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.
This report provides a summary of K-12 educational services offered by Corporation for Public Broadcasting-supported television stations from CPB's annual Station Activities Survey. Stations are broken into cohorts by license type and budget size. The 1997 Station Activities Survey asked public television stations whether they provided…
Shestak, Sergey; Kim, Dae-Sik; Cha, Kyung-Hoon
We have devised a full-resolution stereoscopic television system incorporating both a patterned retarder and active glasses. Selective vision of the left image by the left eye and the right image by the right eye is achieved by a conventional combination of a patterned retarder and left and right polarized filters. Full resolution is provided by the active components of the glasses acting as a switchable refractive-type beam displacer. Pairs of line-interleaved images are displayed on an LCD screen sequentially at a frame rate of 120 Hz. With the help of active refraction glasses, the viewer can see full-resolution stereoscopic images as if they are displayed in an interlaced manner. Active glasses are flicker-free. Measured stereoscopic crosstalk is 0.6%, which is defined only by the performance of the patterned retarder.
Gilbert, Steven W.
Suggests that independent school teachers and administrators need to know as much as possible about television and that they can and should influence the role television plays in their students' lives. Critically evaluates television programming and its impact upon parents and students. Also gives some TV guidelines for parents concerned about…
Barkin, Steve M.
This report of a study of the activities of a secret planning board, formed to promote the nomination of Dwight Eisenhower through the intensive use of television, concludes that the significance of television planning in the 1952 Eisenhower campaign had less to do with the outcome of the election than with the first massive use of television with…
This study collected data proving that the images presented on television can have a significant influence over a person's social construction of reality. Television portrayals of psychologists and psychiatrist often contribute to an unfavourable perception of mental health services. The length of TV watching and exposure to frequency of comedy and drama significantly contribute to perceptions of stigma and negative expectations about psychological services that can lead to negative attitudes and lower intentions to seek such services. Results suggest it would be helpful for the spokespeople, and professionals to convey messages that provide information about the role of therapists, function of therapy, and how to seek help. Making better use of the television to educate the public about the services they offer could directly combat some of the inaccurate information portrayed on television that may increase people's concerns about seeking professional help. Hungarians spend a huge amount of time with television watching. Publishing scientific and popular articles in Hungarian, and acceptance of TV invitation are essential. PMID:19667424
Pierce, Frank N.; And Others
A survey of 900 residents of Gainesville, Florida, conducted in April and May 1974 assessed their opinions on a number of statements regarding advertising and programing on children's television shows. Of the 14 statements used, 6 were worded so that the television advertiser might be regarded as a "good guy" or his "commercial as hero." The other…
Rubin, Alan M.
Data from 464 adults were analyzed to provide a more heuristic paradigm for mass communication uses and gratifications research in a study of the interactive nature of television viewing motivations, viewing behavior, and attitude gratifications. Factor analysis located five principal television viewing motivations: passing time, information,…
Television's impact on children and the positive role of parents in moderating that impact is discussed in terms of: (1) the view that television has a largely negative impact on children; (2) the importance of television literacy; (3) ways in which parents are molding television's impact to their purposes; (4) variation in television's impact…
Even though television scholar Herbert Zettl singlehandedly created the term "television aesthetics" by proclaiming that TV is an art, television studies are still excluded from the respectable divisions and disciplines of knowledge. Television is considered the epitome of mass culture/kitsch, and the very idea of a TV "masterpiece," for example,…
Background Excessive television (TV) viewing might play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to examine the independent associations between TV viewing and CVD risk factors in adolescents. Methods A sample of 425 adolescents, aged 13- to 18.5-year-old, was included in this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) A-1, apo B-100, and lipoprotein(a) levels were determined. A composite CVD risk score was computed based on age-, sex-, sexual maturation- and race-standardized triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and glucose. TV viewing was self-reported. Results Two hundred and twenty-five adolescents (53%) who spent >3 hrs/day watching TV were considered as the "high TV viewing" group. Ninety-nine adolescents (23%) from the total sample were classified as overweight according to International age- and sex-specific BMI values. The high TV viewing group had significantly less favorable values of HDL-cholesterol, glucose, apo A1 and CVD score, independent of age, sex, sexual maturation, race and weight status. There was a significant interaction effect of TV viewing × weight status (P = 0.002) on WC, and the negative influence of TV viewing on WC persisted in the overweight group (P = 0.031) but was attenuated in non-overweight adolescents (P > 0.05). Conclusion Excessive TV viewing seems to be related to an unfavorable CVD risk factors profile in adolescence. Reducing TV viewing in overweight adolescents might be beneficial to decrease abdominal body fat. PMID:20500845
Compares the use of enhanced television features and television commerce features on the Web sites of cable and broadcast television networks. Shows differences in strategies and site usability; proposes three enhanced television strategy models; and discusses implications on television revenue and viewership. (Author/LRW)
Jeffres, Leo W.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the introduction of cable television into a small Minnesota community, focusing on changes in viewing patterns and motives for watching. One hundred seventy-two individuals were contacted with a mail questionnaire: 34 completed an initial TV viewing log in which they kept track of their…
Benedek, E P; Brown, C F
All youngsters are at some risk from exposure to televised pornography, as described above. At particular risk for harm, however, are the most vulnerable children in our society--children in single-parent homes, children with mental and emotional disturbances, mentally challenged children, children who have been physically and/or sexually abused, and children in dysfunctional families. Youngsters for whom television serves as a babysitter or parental surrogate unfortunately are exposed to few competing influences to television viewing. In addition, parents in such homes are least likely to know what their children are viewing and to be able to pass on their own values about sex and sexual behavior. The main possible effects of televised pornography that must concern us as clinicians, educators, and parents are modeling and imitation of language heard and behaviors observed in televised pornography; negative interference with children's normal sexual development; emotional reactions such as nightmares and feelings of anxiety, guilt, confusion, and/or shame; stimulation of premature sexual activity; development of unrealistic, misleading, and/or harmful attitudes toward sex and adult male-female relationships; and undermining of family values with resultant conflict between parents and children. Much more research is clearly needed on this topic. Because of the ethical and procedural problems surrounding research on children exposed to pornography, ideal research designs may never be possible. Nonetheless, we hope that this article will stimulate further discussion and work. To devise public policy that protects children from potentially harmful material while at the same time respecting the media's First Amendment rights, such public discourse and responsible research are essential.
Chen, Milton; And Others
Describes study that investigated whether a new children's television series on mathematics, "Square One TV," produced primarily for an at-home audience, could be repurposed for elementary school classroom use. Teacher and student characteristics and attitudes are examined, teacher-led activities using the edited videocassettes are described, and…
Chevallier, Eric; Mansour, Sylvie
This booklet examines the influence of television on children and adolescents in developing and developed nations, reviewing research on television's relationship to child health and development. The first section reviews specific research on such variables as number of television sets in use, amount of time spent watching television, age, sex,…
Potter, W. James
Finds that middle and high school students change their views of television watching along three ways of evaluating television: as a "magic window" to reality; as a utility route to information; and as an identity source of almost real people. Concludes that views of television reality are complex and dynamic. (SR)
Perse, Elizabeth M.
Examines associations between local news viewing motives and attention to government reports or to sports reports. Identifies significant connections between need for cognition, utilitarian local news viewing motives, and attention to government news reports. Finds attention to sports news explained only by respondent sex. Discusses implications…
Howarth, Peter A
The visual stimulus provided by a 3-D stereoscopic display differs from that of the real world because the image provided to each eye is produced on a flat surface. The distance from the screen to the eye remains fixed, providing a single focal distance, but the introduction of disparity between the images allows objects to be located geometrically in front of, or behind, the screen. Unlike in the real world, the stimulus to accommodation and the stimulus to convergence do not match. Although this mismatch is used positively in some forms of Orthoptic treatment, a number of authors have suggested that it could negatively lead to the development of asthenopic symptoms. From knowledge of the zone of clear, comfortable, single binocular vision one can predict that, for people with normal binocular vision, adverse symptoms will not be present if the discrepancy is small, but are likely if it is large, and that what constitutes 'large' and 'small' are idiosyncratic to the individual. The accommodation-convergence mismatch is not, however, the only difference between the natural and the artificial stimuli. In the former case, an object located in front of, or behind, a fixated object will not only be perceived as double if the images fall outside Panum's fusional areas, but it will also be defocused and blurred. In the latter case, however, it is usual for the producers of cinema, TV or computer game content to provide an image that is in focus over the whole of the display, and as a consequence diplopic images will be sharply in focus. The size of Panum's fusional area is spatial frequency-dependent, and because of this the high spatial frequencies present in the diplopic 3-D image will provide a different stimulus to the fusion system from that found naturally.
Lembo, Ronald; Tucker, Kenneth H., Jr.
Addresses issues of culture, cultural politics, social power, and television audience in cultural studies. Argues that cultural studies as a field tends to analyze all cultural interpretation in terms of struggles between dominant and subordinate groups and that the text-centered approach of cultural studies misses much of television viewing's…
Cheney, Michael R.
A content analysis was made of the advertisements broadcast during a half-hour of prime-time television, in an effort to discern the overt (obvious) and covert (underlying) themes present in television advertising. The analysis revealed an overt theme of a world view of individual determination, initiative, self-confidence and self-reliance, and…
Corcoran, Farrel; Schneider, Michael J.
Explores the social correlates of the interpretive abilities of young children to assess televised narratives. Demonstrates negative correlations between amount of television viewed by parents and children's television comprehension, indicating that the more parents viewed television, the worse their children performed on comprehension tests.…
Rice, Grant G., III
Television is a widely adopted source for viewing educational information. Unfortunately, producing a television show on network television can be costly and time consuming. Internet TV offers Extension video content producers the opportunity to create a niche topic channel quickly and at low cost. Internet TV offers viewers a low-cost and…
This study was undertaken with an aim to understand whether the effective use of the blackboard, one of the teaching aids utilized by Anadolu University's distance learning program in the e-television Open Classroom, has a positive effect on focus and concentration. Gagne's Theory of Instruction was utilized during this research. Knowledge of the…
Watt, James H., Jr.; Krull, Robert
In research reported in this paper, an attempt was made to isolate arousal components due to the "form" of a television program from arousal components due to the "content" of the program. The following hypotheses were formulated: (1) emotional arousal will take place in programing segments depicting violent acts, (2) arousal due to the cognitive…
Van de Bogart, Erik
The Maine Public Broadcasting Network (MPBN) presented a "television simulation" to make the citizens of Main more aware of 1) environmental challenges, 2) the process of reconciling problems, and 3) the importance of the individual in the process. In the simulation a fictitious town, Freeboro, was faced with a decision regarding a new canning…
Analyzes a few of the prominent issues in black television, examining public television, commercial television, black ownership of stations, cable television, and some projections for the future. (Author/JM)
Baldwin, Thomas F.; And Others
Discusses cable television subscribers' perceptions and consumption patterns of television news and describes a survey that compared broadcast and cable television news viewing habits. Media dependency and media consumption are considered, attitudes toward news sources and the perceived monetary value of the Cable News Network (CNN) are studied,…
A human ecological approach to the study of children's television viewing raises questions that researchers have largely neglected. Does television influence the interaction patterns of socializing agents with children and with one another? Are there long-term, psychological consequences of unintegrated and competing influences from television and…
Tankard, James W., Jr.; Harris, Murray
Since statistics on television viewing and television ownership suggest that this medium is a pervasive and powerful influence on most people's lives, it is potentially informative to identify and study that relative handful of people who are not regularly exposed to television, identifying their defining characteristics. In contrast to previous…
Lombard, Matthew; Reich, Robert D.; Grabe, Maria Elizabeth; Bracken, Cheryl Campanella; Ditton, Theresa Bolmarcich
Investigates the possibility that television can evoke presence by showing 65 undergraduate students examples of rapid point-of-view movement from commercially available videotapes on a television with either a small or large screen. Finds that participants watching the large screen television thought the movement in the scenes was faster, enjoyed…
Witt, Susan D.
Examines young children's gender role development, focusing on the impact of television viewing. Maintains that role models and imitation are extremely influential factors shaping gender-typed behavior. Identifies gender bias in television programming, including music television and commercials, and discusses gender bias in children's television…
Barr, Rachel; Shuck, Lauren; Salerno, Katherine; Atkinson, Emily; Linebarger, Deborah L.
Infants are frequently exposed to music during daily activities, including free play, and while viewing infant-directed videotapes that contain instrumental music soundtracks. In Experiment 1, an instrumental music soundtrack was played during a live or televised demonstration to examine its effects on deferred imitation by 6-, 12-, and…
Uijtdewilligen, L; Singh, A S; Chinapaw, M J M; Twisk, J W R; van Mechelen, W
We aimed to assess the associations of person-related factors with leisure time television (TV) viewing and computer time among young adults. We analyzed self-reported TV viewing (h/week) and leisure computer time (h/week) from 475 Dutch young adults (47% male) who had participated in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study at the age of 32 and 36 years. Sociodemographic factors (i.e., marital and employment status), physical factors (i.e., skin folds, aerobic fitness, neuromotor fitness, back problems), psychological factors (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping, personality), lifestyle (i.e., alcohol consumption, smoking, energy intake, physical activity), and self-rated health (i.e., general health status, mild health complaints) were assessed. Univariable and multivariable generalized estimating equations were performed. Male gender, higher sum of skin folds, lower values of aerobic fitness, higher rigidity, higher self-sufficiency/recalcitrance, and smoking were positively associated with TV time. Male gender, higher sum of skin folds, higher scores on self-esteem, low energy intake, and a not so good general health status were significantly associated with higher computer time. Determinants of TV viewing and computer time were not identical, suggesting that both behaviors (a) have different at-risk populations and (b) should be targeted differently.
Prynne, T. A.
Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…
A study examined the impact of TV viewing motivations on 126 Asian students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Subjects were enrolled in a midsize university in the New England area. TV viewing motivation was measured by A. M. Rubin's TV Viewing Motivations Scale. Psychological adjustment was measured by W. Zung's Self Rating Depression…
Hill, Jonnie Lynn
This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.
An outline of the BBC's provision of television for British schools describing the constitution and function of the School Broadcasting Council and the role of the BBC School Television Department. (Author)
Anderson, Daniel R.; Collins, Patricia A.
It is widely believed that television viewing has a negative impact on school achievement. This belief is supported by negative statistical associations sometimes found between school achievement and amount of television viewing; that is, heavy TV viewers tend to show poorer achievement than light viewers. One possible explanation of this…
Stetten, Kenneth J.
If the scope of current cable television (CATV) content could be broadened to include interactive television services, it is conceivable that these new services would provide reasonable substitutes for the interactive communications that people miss when their surroundings change from a small community to a large urban community, and would thus…
Wiggins, James D.
This study was designed to investigate the influence of television on the lives of young people and the correlation between home computer programming, the playing of video games at home, and the playing of arcade games out of the home related to self-esteem and locus of control. Subjects were 405 students in grades 4 through 12 from 21 classrooms…
Discusses problems that mass media, particularly television, pose for humanities teachers. Considers how television affects viewers, urges teachers to help students guard against manipulation by the media, acknowledges the educational potential of television, and points to the dangers to thought and informed decision making presented by…
Ranly, Donald P.
The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…
Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.
This book could be a useful supplement in any course dealing with television, such as mass media, communication, film, and humanities. The book is divided into six sections. "The Impact of Television" discusses the impact of television on society, the broadcast media, the Federal Communications Commission, public broadcasting, educational…
Hartman, Hermene D.
What is television doing to our society and our culture? What has it done to education? Television has had a great impact on human behavior but rather than communicating, it dictates a philosophy of life, moral judgments and a lifestyle. Television presents a violent image of society where fantasy and reality are often confused. It is a system…
This presentation is concerned with television as it relates to the planning and administration of facilities in which it is utilized. The role of television as a teaching aid, teaching medium, and teacher is discussed. Consideration is given to the following aspects concerned with implementing educational television: plant layout, amount of space…
Harriott, J. F. X., Ed.
Topics in this special journal issue are research suggesting television encourages higher behavior standards among children; processes British broadcasters use to decide what to show or not to show on television; the role of broadcasting in nonformal adult education; the influence of international television; and neglected issues regarding…
Bretz, R.; Shinar, D.
Based on evaluation of nine Brazilian educational television centers, an Instructional Television Training Model (ITV) was developed to aid in determining and designing training requirements for instructional television systems. Analysis based on this model would include these tasks: (1) determine instructional purpose of the television…
Perry, W. E.
System includes viewing devices that provide low interference to normal vision. It provides stereo display observable from broader area. Left and right video cameras are focused on object. Output signals from cameras are time provided by each camera. Multiplexed signal, fed to standard television monitor, displays left and right images of object.
... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...
... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...
... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...
Morison, Patricia; And Others
Examines first- , third- , and sixth-grade children's abilities to discriminate between the reality and fantasy of television programs. Lengthy clinical interviews were conducted with each of 36 children, including viewing and discussion of 12 videotaped program segments. (SW)
Zoglin, Mary Lou
Rather than merely being a televised version of a classroom lecture, a true telecourse uses television to present information that is best conveyed visually and employs various methods (e.g., study guides, mailed assignments, special review sessions, and exams scheduled at community sites) to replace other classroom activities. Coastline Community…
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
This manual is designed to encourage older people to take an active role in local television program production and to design and produce programs that will enhance the quality of life for other older Americans. It is noted that locally produced television offers older people a voice at the local level, the opportunity for making new friends and…
Suggestions are provided for parents of ways in which they can use the television to encourage and improve their child's reading. Activities include: discussing television characters; watching television specials geared for the child's age; and researching favorite television stars. (CB)
Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J. V.; Herndon, J. N.
Described are experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV (High-Definition Television) on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (1) high-definition color television, (2) high-definition monochromatic television, (3) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (4) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television. The stereo system accomplished stereoscopy by displaying two cross-polarized images, one reflected by a half-silvered mirror and one seen through the mirror. Observers wore spectacles with cross-polarized lenses so that the left eye received only the view from the left camera and the right eye received only the view from the right camera.
Thomsen, Steven R; Rekve, Dag
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of exposure to US-produced television programs and family rules prohibiting alcohol use on the development of normative beliefs, expectancies, and intentions to drink alcohol in the next 12 months among a group of Norwegian adolescents who reported that they had not previously consumed alcohol. Data were collected via a survey administered to 622 eighth and ninth graders enrolled at ten junior highs in southeastern Norway. To examine these relationships we tested the fit of a structural equation model which was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1988). Data from the non-drinkers (n= 392, 63% of the respondents) were used. To control for the influence of peer drinking on behavioral intentions, our model was tested under two group conditions: (1) those subjects reporting that they have no friends who drink alcohol and (2) those subjects reporting that they have one or more friends who drink. The findings indicate that the influence of TV exposure was a significant predictor (directly) of normative beliefs, expectancies (indirectly) and intentions to drink (both directly and indirectly) only for those subjects who reported having no friends who drink. For the group with non-drinking friends, family rules constrain intentions only indirectly by influencing normative beliefs. For those with friends who drink, however, family rules have a direct (inverse) effect on intentions. It is concluded that exposure to US-produced television programs functions as a limited knowledge source only for those subjects who had little or no personal experience with alcohol while the presence of family rules have limited impact on behavioral intentions. PMID:16433660
Topolovac, Eleanore R.; And Others
The Jog America Read-A-Thon guide is one of the reading incentive strategies used in the Books and Beyond program which is designed to increase K-6 students' recreational reading and reduce their indiscriminate television viewing. The method used in this guide is to have students read books and move a running shoe marker on a large map of the…
Potter, W. James
Two studies investigated the validity of the Cultivation Hypothesis, which holds that the more people view television the more they will see the world as mean and violent. Specifically, the study examined whether three psychological variables affected the relationship. The variables are (1) Magic Window, the degree to which a person believes…
Since the average child spends an estimated 30 hours a week watching television, it is important to consider the negative and positive effects of television viewing on the development of reading attitudes and habits. Possible negative aspects of television viewing include the following: the rapid pacing of programs encourages shallow reading; the…
Coon, K A; Tucker, K L
The recent increase in childhood obesity has, among other things, focused attention on the role that television may play. This paper summarizes results of studies published in peer review journals since 1970 with data pertaining to the relationship between television use and children's food intake. Studies fall into four categories: content analyses; effects of television advertising on children's food behaviors; television and pediatric obesity, with effects on children's dietary intake and physical activity; and television use and children's food consumption patterns. Content analyses have shown that food is the most frequently advertised product category on children's TV. The majority of these ads target highly sweetened products, but more recently, the proportion from fast food meal promotions has been growing. Controlled studies on children's choices have consistently shown that children exposed to advertising choose advertised food products at significantly higher rates than do those not exposed. Purchase request studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and number of requests from the child to the mother for specific food items, as well as the presence of those items in the home. Greater TV use has been associated with higher intakes of energy, fat, sweet and salty snacks, and carbonated beverages and lower intakes of fruit and vegetables. Several large studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and both the prevalence and incidence of obesity. The combination of lifestyle factors that accompany heavy television use appear to place children at risk of obesity and poor nutritional status. PMID:12244280
This article consists of excerpts from a speach made on October 19th at the 1986 annual meeting of the Association of Planned Parenthood Professionals by Dr. Luella Klein, President of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) between 1984-85. The speaker described the reaction of US television network to the ACOG's request that the networks air a public service announcement encouraging responsible sexual behavior among the nation's young people. In 1984 the ACOG initiated a public information program aimed at reducing the high number of unwanted births among young people. The ACOG with the help of an advertising agency developed a 27-second public service announcement stressing responsible parenthood and informing young people that they could write or call for further information. A booklet, entitled "Facts," was prepared for distribution to those who inquired. It advised young people to consider postponing sexual intercourse but to use the most effective methods of contraception if they decided to be sexually active. Oral contraceptives for females and condoms for males were recommended as the most effective methods. When the 3 major television networks, i.e., the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), were requested to carry the announcement, all 3 networks claimed the announcement was too controversial to air. These same networks do not hesitate to show blatant, irresponsible sexual behavior repeatedly during their entertainment programming, and commercials with sexual innuendos are routinely accepted for airing by the networks. In July, 1986, the ACOG called a news conference in New York City to inform the news media about the rejection of the announcement by the networks. The conference stimulated considerable interest, and the story was carried by many newspapers and by radio and television news programs. Many of the news accounts of the story contained
Hudson, Robert B.
In order to predict the future of educational television, the author discusses first instructional television, then public television, and also comments on the applications of communications satellites to television in both industrialized and developing nations. He predicts that in the future instructional television will be mainly carried by…
Rowland, Willard D., Jr., Ed.
Discusses public broadcasters' views of the objectives, problems, and future possibilities for the public television system. The need for local, regional, and national interdependence is emphasized. (BK)
Strasburger, V C
Television is ubiquitous in American households and is becoming a pervasive force in the growth and development of American children. More time is spent watching television than in formal classroom instruction. Early studies, which failed to control for IQ and socioeconomic status, showed variable effects of heavy viewing on school performance. Later, better controlled studies have consistently demonstrated a significant deleterious effect of more than 1 or 2 h/day on academic performance, particularly reading scores. Innovative school programs that teach children how to watch television critically and appropriate management strategies for parents are discussed. PMID:3822948
Neville, Leonie; Thomas, Margaret; Bauman, Adrian
The objective of this study was to investigate the extent and nature of food advertising during Australian children's television (TV) viewing hours and programs, and to determine whether confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements were more likely to be broadcast during children's programs than during adults' programs on Sydney television stations. One week (390 h) of Australian advertising data broadcast during children's TV viewing hours over 15 television stations were analysed to determine the proportion of food advertisements and, in turn, the proportion of those advertisements promoting foods high in fat and/or sugar. One week (346 h) of confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements broadcast over three Sydney television stations were analysed to determine whether these types of advertisements were more likely to be advertised during children's programs than adults' programs. Half of all food advertisements promoted foods high in fat and/or sugar. 'Confectionery' and 'fast food restaurants' were the most advertised food categories during children's TV viewing hours. Confectionery advertisements were three times as likely, and fast food restaurant advertisements twice as likely, to be broadcast during children's programs than adults' programs. It can be concluded that foods most advertised during children's viewing hours are not those foods that contribute to a healthy diet for children. Confectionery and fast food restaurant advertising appears to target children. Australian children need protection from the targeted promotion of unhealthy foods on television, but currently little exists.
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules for Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications... the low power television digital transition. Although Congress established a hard deadline of June...
Identifies criticisms of public television, including mismanagement, underwriting abuses, declining public service, and overcommercialization. Discusses trends in the areas of corporate underwriting, program distribution, and program production. (JMF)
Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.
SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)
Presents an overview of China's Beijing Broadcasting and Television University: background, establishment, administration and structure, students, courses, teaching package, and course production. (JD)
A television camera is focused by NACA technician on a ramjet engine model through the schlieren optical windows of the 10 x 10 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel's test section. Closed-circuit television enables aeronautical research scientists to view the ramjet, used for propelling missiles, while the wind tunnel is operating at speeds from 1500 to 2500 mph. (8.570) The tests were performed at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, now John H. Glenn Research Center.
The Payload Operation Television System is a high performance closed-circuit TV system designed to determine the feasibility of using TV to augment purely visual monitoring of operations, and to establish optimum system design of an operating unit which can ultimately be used to assist the operator of a remotely manipulated space-borne cargo loading device. The TV system assembled on this program is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator.
Three-dimensional television (3D-TV) will become the next big step in the development of advanced TV systems. One of the major challenges for the deployment of 3D-TV systems is the diversity of display technologies and the high cost of capturing multi-view content. Depth image-based rendering (DIBR) has been identified as a key technology for the generation of new views for stereoscopic and multi-view displays from a small number of views captured and transmitted. We propose a disparity compensation method for DIBR that does not require spatial interpolation of the disparity map. We use a forward-mapping disparity compensation with real precision. The proposed method deals with the irregularly sampled image resulting from this disparity compensation process by applying a re-sampling algorithm based on a bi-cubic spline function space that produces smooth images. The fact that no approximation is made on the position of the samples implies that geometrical distortions in the final images due to approximations in sample positions are minimized. We also paid attention to the occlusion problem. Our algorithm detects the occluded regions in the newly generated images and uses simple depth-aware inpainting techniques to fill the gaps created by newly exposed areas. We tested the proposed method in the context of generation of views needed for viewing on SynthaGram TM auto-stereoscopic displays. We used as input either a 2D image plus a depth map or a stereoscopic pair with the associated disparity map. Our results show that this technique provides high quality images to be viewed on different display technologies such as stereoscopic viewing with shutter glasses (two views) and lenticular auto-stereoscopic displays (nine views).
Lindlof, Thomas R.
The similarities between television viewing and fantasy activity (daydreaming, reverie, mind-wandering, internal dialogue) more than warrant the building of a theoretical construct, especially in the context of recent empirical research on television viewing consequences. A construct of the television viewing process, based on cognitive theories…
Rivenburgh, Nancy K.
What is currently happening in China is similar to what happened in the United States in the 1950s and the Soviet Union in the 1970s--television is quickly becoming a mainstay of popular entertainment and news. The Chinese government has made substantial efforts to provide television service to all regions of the country, with importance attached…
Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…
Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.
The number of households hooked up to cable television or community antenna television (CATV) is expanding rapidly, and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been developing regulations since 1962 to guide the growth of the industry. By 1965 the FCC had claimed jurisdiction over all CATV systems in the U. S. This jurisdiction was challenged…
Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC Schools…
Kuhns, William; And Others
This inquiry/discovery program is built on two assumptions: (1) that the students know more about television, have had more extensive television experience than their teachers; and (2) that the best moments in this course will spring from the students' ideas, projects, reports, and initiatives. Things to do before the course begins are suggested.…
Stern, Joseph L.
Cable television can augment educational broadcast services and also provide a level of individualized educational services not possible with either broadcasting or classroom audiovisual aids. The extra channels provided by cable television allow the following extra services for education: 1) broadcast of a multitude of programs, including delayed…
Television, the author asserts, is the overwhelming factor in the continuous education and socialization of people of developed nations. Examines criticism of mass media's potential for behavior modification and subconscious manipulation. Advocates alternative uses of television based on Paulo Freier's "total language" approach, to teach viewers…
Thompson, Margaret; And Others
Describes a study of high school students that examined responses to a music video dealing with teenage pregnancy. Students' motivations for viewing music videos, experiences with sex and pregnancy, and family communication patterns are related to the cognitive activities of thinking about the video content and relating it to their own lives. (20…
Meltzoff, Andrew N.
Studies indicate that infants in our culture are exposed to significant amounts of TV, often as a baby-sitting strategy by busy caretakers. The question arises whether TV viewing merely presents infants with a salient collection of moving patterns or whether they will readily pick up information depicted in this 2-D representation and incorporate it into their own behavior. Can infants “understand” the content of television enough to govern their real-world behavior accordingly? One way to explore this question is to present a model via television for infants to imitate. Infants’ ability to imitate TV models was explored at 2 ages, 14 and 24 months, under conditions of immediate and deferred imitation. In deferred imitation, infants were exposed to a TV depiction of an adult manipulating a novel toy in a particular way but were not presented with the real toy until the next day. The results showed significant imitation at both ages, and furthermore showed that even the youngest group imitated after the 24-hour delay. The finding of deferred imitation of TV models has social and policy implications, because it suggests that TV viewing in the home could potentially affect infant behavior and development more than heretofore contemplated. The results also add to a growing body of literature on prelinguistic representational capacities. They do so in the dual sense of showing that infants can relate 2-D representations to their own actions on real objects in 3-D space, and moreover that the information picked up through TV can be internally represented over lengthy delays before it is used to guide the real-world action. PMID:3168638
Sanders, Matthew; Calam, Rachel; Durand, Marianne; Liversidge, Tom; Carmont, Sue Ann
Background: This study investigated whether providing self-directed and web-based support for parents enhanced the effects of viewing a reality television series based on the Triple P--Positive Parenting Programme. Method: Parents with a child aged 2 to 9 (N=454) were randomly assigned to either a standard or enhanced intervention condition. In…
Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.
This paper describes experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (1) high-definition color television, (2) high-definition monochromatic television, (3) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (4) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television. The stereo system accomplished stereoscopy by displaying two cross-polarized images, one reflected by a half-silvered mirror and one seen through the mirror. Observers wore a pair of glasses with cross-polarized lenses so that the left eye received only the view from the left camera and the right eye received only the view from the right camera.
Linebarger, Deborah L; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor
Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children's development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers' acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television's natural capacity as storyteller and the role it plays in preschoolers' early literacy development has been largely overlooked. This study examined the effects of viewing different TV program types on 311 at-risk preschoolers' story knowledge and narrative skills. Children were assigned to one of 4 viewing conditions (i.e. watching up to 40 episodes of a particular program type): no viewing; expository; embedded narrative; or traditional narrative. Story knowledge scores were higher for those viewing either narrative type. In contrast, viewing specific narrative types differentially affected the component skills of narrative competence. Story retelling and identification of explicit story events were higher after repeat viewing of embedded narratives while generating implicit story content was higher after repeat viewing of traditional narratives. PMID:19972662
Stroink, H; Dekker, E; Trenité, D G A Kasteleijn-Nolst
Two girls and one boy suffered seizures caused by television and other visual stimuli from 11, 12 and 12 years of age onwards, respectively. EEG recording revealed that intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) provoked epileptiform activity. Technological progress (video games, computer, disco, car, train) has considerably increased the risk for visually-induced seizures. A comprehensive clinical history with special attention to the environmental circumstances is important. For correct diagnosis an EEG with standardised IPS is necessary. Treatment consists of avoidance of strong visual stimuli. Patients may need prophylaxis with valproic acid, which should only be withdrawn after clear reduction of the EEG response to IPS. Repeating the EEG after the dosage has been lowered will help avoiding unnecessary recurrence of seizures. PMID:12085553
Stroink, H; Dekker, E; Trenité, D G A Kasteleijn-Nolst
Two girls and one boy suffered seizures caused by television and other visual stimuli from 11, 12 and 12 years of age onwards, respectively. EEG recording revealed that intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) provoked epileptiform activity. Technological progress (video games, computer, disco, car, train) has considerably increased the risk for visually-induced seizures. A comprehensive clinical history with special attention to the environmental circumstances is important. For correct diagnosis an EEG with standardised IPS is necessary. Treatment consists of avoidance of strong visual stimuli. Patients may need prophylaxis with valproic acid, which should only be withdrawn after clear reduction of the EEG response to IPS. Repeating the EEG after the dosage has been lowered will help avoiding unnecessary recurrence of seizures.
Reid, Leonard N.; And Others
A survey of 148 children revealed that although the majority of children from both low-income and moderate-to-high income backgrounds understood the selling intent of television commercials for cereals, there were significant differences between income groups in children's ability to evaluate the nutritional value of heavily advertised cereals.…
MacBeth, Tannis M., Ed.
Research indicates that children are especially vulnerable to the effects of television viewing. Taking a psychological, social-science perspective, this book explores how television viewing affects children. Chapter 1, "Introduction," (MacBeth) discusses the issues involved, how researchers go about studying media effects, whether television…
Signorielli, Nancy; Lears, Margaret
Examines relationships between television viewing and sex-role attitudes and behaviors for 530 fourth and fifth graders from the perspective of cultivation theory. Correlation and regression analyses reveal that television viewing is positively related to children's attitudes toward sex-stereotyped chores. Those who watched more television…
Critiques Neil Postman's book, "Teaching as a Conserving Activity," which focuses on television's transformation of the information environment and the implications of this development for educational policy and practice. Points out some serious flaws in Postman's argument. (JMF)
Smith, Christine Ciensczyk
Emphasizing the influence of television on children, this pamphlet explores some of the major criticisms of television and discusses ways parents can help their children get the most out of television. It is argued that the major problem with television is the amount of time that it steals from our lives, time that could be spent in developing…
Reviews three books concerned with the effects of television advertising upon children and their parents: "Television Advertising and Children," edited by June Esserman; "Children and the Faces of Television," edited by Edward Palmer and Aimee Dorr; and "The Effects of Television Advertising on Children," by Richard Adler and others. (JJD)
Offers eight projects and activities designed to make elementary students wiser television viewers and better thinkers. The activities help students get more out of television, determine what is questionable, and develop visual literacy and thinking skills. Children become active consumers of television and other visual media. (SM)
Chen, Hsin-Jen; Wang, Youfa
Objective It is unknown how children’s dietary changes would vary by overweight/obese status and length of TV-viewing. This study examined whether US children’s weight status and TV-viewing duration influenced their subsequent dietary behavioral changes. Methods A national representative sample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Cohort were followed between 5th and 8th grades during 2004–2007 (N=7,720). Children’s daily TV-viewing hour and weight status were measured at 5th grade. Children reported their dietary behaviors at the 5th and 8th grades, including fruit/vegetable consumption ≥5 times/day (five-a-day), daily fast food and soft drink consumption. Logistic models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of dietary behavioral changes by children’s baseline weight status and TV-viewing duration. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in the ORs were examined. Sampling weight and design effect were considered for the analysis. Results Among those without five-a-day at 5th grade, overweight/obese children were more likely to develop the five-a-day behavior at 8th grade than normal weight children (for overweight: OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.14-2.39; obese: OR=1.35, 95% CI=0.81-2.23). Among girls, overweight group was more likely to develop eating vegetable ≥3 times/day than normal weight group, but 1 more hour/day of TV-viewing at baseline was associated with lower odds of developing eating vegetable ≥3 times/day. Overweight/obese black and Hispanic children were significantly more likely to develop five-a-day than their normal weight counterparts. TV-viewing did not show modification effect on the association between weight status and subsequent dietary changes. Conclusions Overweight/obese children were more likely to improve their subsequent FV consumption than normal weight children, but TV-viewing’s independent relationship with dietary changes may counteract the weight status-associated dietary improvement. PMID:25666531
Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S
Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored.
Koolstra, Cees M.; And Others
Explores longitudinal effects of television viewing on 1,050 Dutch children's reading comprehension, causal mechanisms that underlie these effects on reading comprehension, and longitudinal effects of television on decoding skills. Surveys children three times at one-year intervals. Suggests that television viewing inhibited development of reading…
Williams, Wenmouth, Jr.; Shapiro, Mitchell E.
A study was conducted to determine (1) if the gratifications sought and obtained model were applicable to local television news viewing, and (2) if the scales constructed from factor analyses of gratifications sought and obtained could predict television news viewing. The focus of the study was a new television station in central Illinois that…
Brown, Danielle D.; Weatherholt, Tara N.; Burns, Barbara M.
Attentional skills and home environment were examined as predictors of looking patterns during television viewing by 70 48- to 91-month-old children from low income families. Looking to the television was assessed in conditions without distractors and with continuous distractors. Looking patterns during television viewing reflected attentional…
Katchen, Johanna E.
This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…
Barcus, F. Earle
This paper is a report of two studies which were conducted on children's television. The first, "Saturday Children's Television," is a content analysis of programming and advertising matter on four Boston commercial TV stations. The second, "Romper Room, An Analysis," focuses on that program's commercial practices. The first study involved the…
Shipman, John M., Jr.
In 1981, the conservative Coalition for Better Television (CBTV) threatened an economic boycott against advertisers who marketed their wares on programs that the coalition felt had excessive sex and violence. Because television networks are dependent on advertising, the coalition believed economic pressure on advertisers would force a…
Reed, W. R.
Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.
Educational television offers a number of effective options for instruction. The development of several exemplary programs which have provided educational alternatives for schools, colleges, and other organizations are described. (Author/PP)
Christensen, Claire G.; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S.; Rich, Michael
Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents’ television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents’ likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents’ likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games. PMID:26549930
Sakamoto, Kiyomi; Asahara, Shigeo; Yamashita, Kuniko; Okada, Akira
Using physiological and psychological measurements, we carried out experiments to investigate the influence of viewing distance and TV screen size on visual fatigue and feeling of involvement using 17-inch, 42-inch and 65-inch displays. The experiment was an ordinary viewing test with the content similar to everyday TV programs for one hour including scenery, sport, drama, etc., with commercials sandwiched in between. The number of participants was 16 (8 persons aged 21-31, and 8 persons aged 50-70) for each display size. In all, 48 participants viewed 3 display sizes. In our physiological evaluation, CFF (critical flicker fusion frequency), blink rate and a sympathetic nerve activity index were used; and in the psychological evaluation, questionnaires and interviews were employed. Our results, based on physiological and psychological measurements, suggest the opti- mum viewing distance to be around 165-220 cm, irrespective of screen size. Our evaluations, which are based on optimum viewing distance for minimal visual fatigue and a closer feeling of involvement, might therefore not agree with the currently recommended viewing distance, which is defined as 2 or 3 times the display's height. PMID:25665195
Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan operates the Apollo Lunar Surface Drill during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Cernan is the commander of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission.
Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt loses his balance and heads for a fall during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot.
This update of a bibliography published in Canadian Journal of Educational Communication (Fall 1982; Winter 1983) cites qualitative research seeking a more comprehensive, contextual account of children's television viewing. Specific items deal with viewing time, family role, habit modification, fright reaction, commercials, affective and language…
National Public Radio, Washington, DC.
In this series of National Public Radio interviews, individuals from education and television broadcasting discuss the use and abuse of television by schools and the influence of television on children in home viewing. It is asserted that television is and will continue to be watched, and therefore it is necessary to learn how to deal with it. By…
Draper, J. V.; Handel, S. J.; Herndon, J. N.
High definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number of horizontal scan lines that standard resolution television provides (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard resolution television), with impressive picture quality improvement. These experimental activities are part of a joint collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan in the field of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Reprocessing Technology. Objects in the HDTV picture have more sharply defined edges, better contrast, and more accurate shading and color pattern reproduction. Because television is a key component for teleoperator performance, picture quality improvement could improve speed and accuracy. This paper describes three experiments which evaluated the impact of HDTV on remote task performance. HDTV was compared to standard resolution, monochromatic television and standard resolution, stereoscopic, monochromatic television. Tasks included judgement of depth in a televised scene, visual inspection, and a remote maintenance task. The experiments show that HDTV can improve performance. HDTV is superior to monoscopic, monochromatic, standard resolution television and to stereoscopic television for remote inspection tasks; it is less proficient than stereo television for distance matching. HDTV leads to lower error rate during tasks but does not reduce time required to complete tasks.
O'Brien, Kerry S; Carr, Sherilene; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Miller, Peter; Livingston, Michael; Kypri, Kypros; Lynott, Dermot
Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children's viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6 am-8.29 pm) and evening periods (8.30 pm-11.59 pm) and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0-4 years, 5-13 years, 14-17 years, 18-29 years). During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87%) was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86%) was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0-17 years) viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989), compared with the daytime (N = 235,233). In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1) than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94). Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30 pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising. PMID:26263170
O'Brien, Kerry S; Carr, Sherilene; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Miller, Peter; Livingston, Michael; Kypri, Kypros; Lynott, Dermot
Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children's viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6 am-8.29 pm) and evening periods (8.30 pm-11.59 pm) and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0-4 years, 5-13 years, 14-17 years, 18-29 years). During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87%) was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86%) was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0-17 years) viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989), compared with the daytime (N = 235,233). In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1) than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94). Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30 pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising.
Austin, Bruce A.
The 1976-79 schedules of the three major television networks were analyzed to determine what strategies were used to organize prime time schedules and what types of programs appeared during prime time viewing periods. Five essential programing strategies were identified: fraction of selection (cost versus reward), lowest common denominator (wide…
Liebert, Robert M.; And Others
This paper describes the production of three 30-second prosocial television spots and the evaluation of the effects of these spots on children's behavior. The psychological process of observational learning was used to conceptualize the way television viewing influences children's behavior; the three stages of observational learning (exposure,…
Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.
Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…
Helregel, Brenda K.; Weaver, James B.
Discussion of mood management strategies focuses on a study of pregnant and non-pregnant women and new mothers, that was designed to examine television program preferences as a function of the physiologically induced affective stages of pregnancy. Television viewing habits are examined and affective dispositions are ascertained. (29 references)…
Changes in television technology have fostered changes in how we view fiction on television. This article explores some of these changes in the context of the teenage series, "Felicity" (WBTV, 1998-2002). It draws comparisons with the experience of reading series fiction in print, referring to the children's print series, "The Beverly Gray College…
Misra, Pradeep Kumar
Among several uses, educational use of television is a prominent one. The public broadcasters of many countries routinely provide locally-relevant and useful educational television programs. In other side, there has been phenomenal growth in Internet use worldwide. The researchers are of the view that Internet has challenged the supremacy of…
The purpose of this study was to determine open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes. This study indicated that to determine differences among open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes point of view students' characteristics like gender, age, grade,…
This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of educational television programs in distance learning system. Using the procedure of survey method, this study finds out the worth of educational television programs. Its results are based on the responses of the learners of distance teaching system. The views of students were collected by…
Ogles, Robert M.
On the assumption that the mass media, to some degree, shape their users' thoughts about the nature of the world, this paper explores the development of a framework for studying television-influenced social reality--the controversial television-viewing-and-aggression hypothesis known as cultivation theory, as well as recent cultivation theory…
Zohoori, Ali Reza
Describes a 1981 study that compared uses of U.S. television by foreign children residing in the United States and American children in light of theories of acculturation, cultivation, and uses and gratifications. Children's television viewing is discussed, research methodology is described, and results are analyzed. (22 references) (Author/LRW)
Wahl, Otto; Hanrahan, Erin; Karl, Kelly; Lasher, Erin; Swaye, Janel
Concern has been expressed that negative attitudes toward people with mental illnesses begin to develop early in childhood. This study examines one of the possible sources of learning of such negative attitudes--children's television programs. Two hundred sixty-nine (269) hours of children's television programming were videotaped, viewed, and…
Mokhtar, Fattawi B.
The purpose of this study was to investigate viewers' knowledge of program content under various television translation modes and viewing experiences. Subjects were 176 students from the Center for Matriculation Program, Universiti Sains Malaysia in Penang, Malaysia. The Spanish version of an instructional television program was used; the program…
Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie
Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected.
The major objective of this study is to discuss the effects of television on children and adolescents. Our children are spending many hours in front of the television. This study examined the viewing habits and personal opinions of Turkish Cypriot children. The participants were 250 children and adolescents whose ages varied between 4-17. This…
Erikawa, Shigeru; Yamada, Kazunari
The purpose of this study was to improve the Japanese version of the Television Affinity Scale (TAS), and to examine the relationship between affinity for television and viewing behavior. Data was based on a random sample of 552 people in Hachioji City (Tokyo, Japan); the response rate was 55.2%. The results revealed the following: (a) the TAS 6-item version had sufficient reliability and validity, (b) the TAS provided information which could not be explained directly by demographic factors, and (c) affinity for television was positively correlated with unplanned and non-concentrated television viewing. These results are consistent with the findings of Erikawa, Yamada, Kawabata, and Numazaki (2007). In addition, the TAS scores correlated positively with entertainment program viewing. This is consistent with the findings of Rubin (1984) that television affinity correlated with ritualized television viewing. The implications of these results for contemporary television viewing are discussed. PMID:22514907
Reeves, Byron; Garramone, Gina
Measured children's identification with and perceived reality of television characters and children's rating of peers on 11 traits. Found, among other results, that identification with television characters was a significant predictor of the mean evaluation of peers, and that television viewing was a significant predictor of the variance in…
Until the 1960's, the prevailing view within the scientific community was that television was a relatively unimportant influence, but studies have shown that television does have an important effect on the behavior of its viewers, particularly aggressive behavior. Consequently, recent research has focused on the role of television in the…
Brown, Mac Henry
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 64 six- and seven-year-old children's perception of the reality of television and the Piagetian construct of cognitive development. The children were asked to view two television episodes (a highly similar, closely matched pair from the television series "Star Trek") and to…
Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Sahimi, Nurul Nadiah
Television viewing among young children has been an on going issue as it is found to effect their development in various areas. This problem is getting more worrisome as the percentage and amount of hours of television exposure among young children is increasing, especially with the growing production of children television programs. Studies have…
Weatherholt, Tara N.
Since the creation of "Sesame Street", children's educational television programs have grown in both number and popularity. However, controversy has shadowed the children's television arena for many years. Some have claimed that viewing television is a passive event, requiring little or no effort on the part of the viewer. However, research on…
Frost, Joe L.
Television is robbing children of their childhood. Moreover, it is destroying children's developing symbolic processes, and inhibiting their creativity and play. Television has remarkable influence over children's behavior. At this point, it is plausible to hypothesize linkages between television viewing and numerous social problems involving…
Kill, B; King, L S
Although health education is a relatively new professional discipline, health educators have actively utilized television for informational and persuasive purposes since its inception as a public mass medium. Informational messages have been developed for classroom and public television, while persuasive messages have been developed for commercial television. With the current health education emphasis on developing and maintaining behaviors conductive to health, the school health educator can blend both informational and persuasive methods to create a more dynamic classroom teaching environment.
McCabe, Ann E.; Moriarty, Richard J.
A study on the effect of viewing violence on television on childrens' behavior was conducted within the context of sport activity. Three sports--baseball, hockey, and lacrosse--were chosen. Teams of children from three different age groups were the subjects. Within each of the age levels in each sport, teams were selected and assigned to…
Thompson, Darcy A.; Polk, Sarah; Cheah, Charissa S.L.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Susan L.; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Tschann, Jeanne M.
Objective To explore maternal beliefs about TV viewing and related parenting practices in low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Interviews were audio recorded and analyzed using a theoretically based thematic analytic approach. Results Mothers described strong beliefs about the positive and negative impact of television content. Mothers emphasized the educational value of specific programming. Content restrictions were common. Time restrictions were not clearly defined; however, many mothers preferred short versus long episodes of viewing. Mothers spoke positively about family viewing and the role of TV viewing in enabling mothers to accomplish household tasks. Discussion These findings have implications for intervening in this population. Interventionists should consider the value mothers place on the educational role of TV viewing, the direct benefit to mothers of viewing time, the lack of clear time limits, and the common practice of family co-viewing. PMID:25724994
Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Carrillo, Jesús M
INTRODUCTION. Since James Parkinson published what can be considered the first treaty on the disease that bears his name in 1817, the scientific literature on this pathology has not ceased to grow. But the illness has also been represented in literature, the cinema and on television, where the symptoms, treatment and socio-familial context of the disease have often been examined very closely. AIM. To address the cases in which Parkinson's disease appears in literature, cinema and television, as well as to reflect on the image of the condition presented in those contexts. DEVELOPMENT. We reviewed some of the most important works in the literature dealing with Parkinson's disease from any period of history and many of them were found to offer very faithful portrayals of the disease. Likewise, we also reviewed major films and TV series that sometimes offer the general public a close look at the vision and the impact of the disease on patients or their relatives. CONCLUSIONS. Literature, cinema and television have helped provide a realistic view of both Parkinson's disease and the related healthcare professionals, and there are many examples that portray the actual experiences of the patients themselves, while also highlighting the importance of healthcare and socio-familial care. PMID:24469940
Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Carrillo, Jesús M
INTRODUCTION. Since James Parkinson published what can be considered the first treaty on the disease that bears his name in 1817, the scientific literature on this pathology has not ceased to grow. But the illness has also been represented in literature, the cinema and on television, where the symptoms, treatment and socio-familial context of the disease have often been examined very closely. AIM. To address the cases in which Parkinson's disease appears in literature, cinema and television, as well as to reflect on the image of the condition presented in those contexts. DEVELOPMENT. We reviewed some of the most important works in the literature dealing with Parkinson's disease from any period of history and many of them were found to offer very faithful portrayals of the disease. Likewise, we also reviewed major films and TV series that sometimes offer the general public a close look at the vision and the impact of the disease on patients or their relatives. CONCLUSIONS. Literature, cinema and television have helped provide a realistic view of both Parkinson's disease and the related healthcare professionals, and there are many examples that portray the actual experiences of the patients themselves, while also highlighting the importance of healthcare and socio-familial care.
Reitzes, Katherine A.; White, Mary Alice
Found that sixth- and eighth-grade children (1) predicted a greater proportion of positive outcomes for television entertainment events than for television news events and (2) rated news events as more likely to happen in everyday life than entertainment events. Concluded that children can discriminate between the two facets of television reality.…
Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike
Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…
Billis, Antonis S; Batziakas, Asterios; Bratsas, Charalampos; Tsatali, Marianna S; Karagianni, Maria; Bamidis, Panagiotis D
Smart monitoring of seniors behavioural patterns and more specifically activities of daily living have attracted immense research interest in recent years. Development of smart decision support systems to support the promotion of health smart homes has also emerged taking advantage of the plethora of smart, inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring sensors, devices and software tools. To this end, a smart monitoring system has been used in order to extract meaningful information about television (TV) usage patterns and subsequently associate them with clinical findings of experts. The smart TV operating state remote monitoring system was installed in four elderly women homes and gathered data for more than 11 months. Results suggest that TV daily usage (time the TV is turned on) can predict mental health change. Conclusively, the authors suggest that collection of smart device usage patterns could strengthen the inference capabilities of existing health DSSs applied in uncontrolled settings such as real senior homes.
Billis, Antonis S.; Batziakas, Asterios; Bratsas, Charalampos; Tsatali, Marianna S.; Karagianni, Maria
Smart monitoring of seniors behavioural patterns and more specifically activities of daily living have attracted immense research interest in recent years. Development of smart decision support systems to support the promotion of health smart homes has also emerged taking advantage of the plethora of smart, inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring sensors, devices and software tools. To this end, a smart monitoring system has been used in order to extract meaningful information about television (TV) usage patterns and subsequently associate them with clinical findings of experts. The smart TV operating state remote monitoring system was installed in four elderly women homes and gathered data for more than 11 months. Results suggest that TV daily usage (time the TV is turned on) can predict mental health change. Conclusively, the authors suggest that collection of smart device usage patterns could strengthen the inference capabilities of existing health DSSs applied in uncontrolled settings such as real senior homes. PMID:27284457
Oseguera, A. Anthony
Recognizing the need for a multifarious approach to television, this paper provides the reader with the following multidimensional approaches to television criticism: rhetorical, dramatic, literary, cinematic, content analysis, myth, linguistics, semiotics, phenomenalism, phenomenology, interpersonal communication, public relations, image,…
Van den Bulck, Jan; Beullens, Kathleen; Mulder, Joost
Alcohol abuse among adolescents is a cause for concern. Around 1995 alcopops (sweetened alcoholic drinks) entered the scene and caused even more concern. Many fear that the sweet taste makes is easier to start drinking for those not yet used to drinking alcohol and the marketing appears aimed at adolescents. Because alcohol use has been linked to television viewing in general and music video viewing in particular this article examined whether a relationship existed between television and music video exposure and the consumption of alcopops. Data were collected with a questionnaire focused on television exposure and alcohol behavior. Respondents were a random sample of 2,546 first- and fourth year schoolchildren of Flanders, the Dutch speaking region of Belgium (60% of the Belgian population). Self reported general TV viewing, music video exposure and drinking of alcopops at home and/or while going out were measured. 68.4% of the respondents watched music videos at least several times a week. The odds of being an alcopop drinker at home increased by 196% for those, who watched music videos at least several times a week (OR = 1.961). For each additional hour of TV viewed per day, the respondents were 17% more likely to be drinkers of altopops at home (OR = 1.169). The odds of being an alcopop drinker, when going out increased by 239% for those who watched music videos at least several times a week (OR = 2.394). For each additional hour of TV viewed per day, the respondents were 19% more likely to be drinkers of alcopops when going out (OR = 1.186). These findings suggest that there is an association between music video exposure and use of alcopops not explained by overall exposure to television. This relationship merits further attention as it is a better predictor of alcopop use, than the control variables and overall TV viewing.
McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita; Reeder, Anthony I
Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television. PMID:17270053
McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Wallander, Jan; Elliott, Marc; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Tortolero, Susan; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.
Research among adults has demonstrated concurrent and prospective negative associations between TV viewing and mental health, yet little research has examined these associations among African American and Latino youth or examined the role of children's involvement with TV and parental mediation of TV viewing via coviewing. The purpose of the…
Anderson, J. L.; Danielson, G. E.; Evans, N.; Soha, J. M.; Belton, M. J. S.
A comprehensive set of television pictures of Venus taken by the Mariner 10 spacecraft is presented. Included is a chronological sequence of television images illustrating the development, variety, and circulation of Venus upper-atmospheric phenomena as viewed in the near-ultraviolet. The higher-resolution images have been assembled into global mosaics to facilitate comparison. Figures and tables describing the imaging sequences have been included to provide a guide to the more complete set of 3400 Venus images on file at the National Space Science Data Center.
Mann, Denise, Ed.; Spigel, Lynn, Ed.
This special issue brings together an editorial, six articles, and three book reviews that focus on the relationship between television and the female audience. The articles are: (1) "Installing the Television Set: Popular Discourses on Television and Domestic Space, 1948-1955" (Lynn Spigel); (2) "The Spectacularization of Everyday Life: Recycling…
Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.
This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…
Seiter, David M.
Surveys ERIC/ChESS resources on both the influence of television on children and methods for using television effectively in the classroom. Titles of documents include "Getting Through: The Use of Media in the Classroom"; "Censorship, the Classroom, and the Electronic Environment"; and "Inside Television. Instructor's Guide (and) Students…
Propper, Ruth E; Stickgold, Robert; Keeley, Raeann; Christman, Stephen D
The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were traumatic for people living throughout the United States. It has been suggested that people living far from the attacks experienced increased stress because of their exposure to the terrorist events via the media, particularly via television. Following a traumatic or stressful event, individuals may have dreams that reflect that experience. As part of a course on dreaming, individuals recorded their dreams both prior to and following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. On September 12, these same individuals reported their activities and media exposure the previous day. Results revealed (a) changes in dream features following the attacks and (b) a strong relation between exposure to the events on television and changes in dream features after the attacks. Because of the study's within-subjects design, the results provide evidence for a direct association between television viewing and subsequent increases in stress and trauma.
Jensen, Larry; Zelig, Mark
Four prime time television programs--"Charlie's Angels,""Little House on the Prairie,""Grizzly Adams," and "Lou Grant" --were rated by university students for their portrayal of moral reasoning and values. Data were obtained from three episodes of each program by randomly assigning raters to one of two viewing groups, both of which used an…
Hooks, Benjamin L.
Three Federal Communications Commissioners (FCC) filed supplementary statements to the FCC Children's Television Report, elaborating on their individual views. Commissioner Benjamin L. Hooks concurred in the proposed limit on commercial minutes in children's programs, but suggested a lower figure. He also suggested that commercials be "clustered"…
While the prevalence of autism has been increasing globally, there is a search for the causative factors behind the rise. The point of view presented here examines the possibility of children brought up in social deprivation and watching television being at higher risk for developing autistic symptoms. The association is evident in the clinical…
Cawthorne, Duane C.
A light control system for a television camera comprises an artificial light control system which is cooperative with an iris control system. This artificial light control system adjusts the power to lamps illuminating the camera viewing area to provide only sufficient artificial illumination necessary to provide a sufficient video signal when the camera iris is substantially open.
Read, Jenny C A; Godfrey, Alan; Bohr, Iwo; Simonotto, Jennifer; Galna, Brook; Smulders, Tom V
With the rise in stereoscopic 3D media, there has been concern that viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content could have long-term adverse effects, but little data are available. In the first study to address this, 28 households who did not currently own a 3D TV were given a new TV set, either S3D or 2D. The 116 members of these households all underwent tests of balance, coordination and eyesight, both before they received their new TV set, and after they had owned it for 2 months. We did not detect any changes which appeared to be associated with viewing 3D TV. We conclude that viewing 3D TV does not produce detectable effects on balance, coordination or eyesight over the timescale studied. Practitioner Summary: Concern has been expressed over possible long-term effects of stereoscopic 3D (S3D). We looked for any changes in vision, balance and coordination associated with normal home S3D TV viewing in the 2 months after first acquiring a 3D TV. We find no evidence of any changes over this timescale.
Read, Jenny C.A.; Godfrey, Alan; Bohr, Iwo; Simonotto, Jennifer; Galna, Brook; Smulders, Tom V.
Abstract With the rise in stereoscopic 3D media, there has been concern that viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content could have long-term adverse effects, but little data are available. In the first study to address this, 28 households who did not currently own a 3D TV were given a new TV set, either S3D or 2D. The 116 members of these households all underwent tests of balance, coordination and eyesight, both before they received their new TV set, and after they had owned it for 2 months. We did not detect any changes which appeared to be associated with viewing 3D TV. We conclude that viewing 3D TV does not produce detectable effects on balance, coordination or eyesight over the timescale studied. Practitioner Summary: Concern has been expressed over possible long-term effects of stereoscopic 3D (S3D). We looked for any changes in vision, balance and coordination associated with normal home S3D TV viewing in the 2 months after first acquiring a 3D TV. We find no evidence of any changes over this timescale. PMID:26758965
Hunt, Courtney Shelton
Examples of ways to use themes and characters from television shows in classroom activities for organizational behavior courses are provided, related to need theories of motivation, perceptual biases and errors, and equity theory. Six appendices provide sample activities and test questions. (SK)
Arneson, R.; And Others
One of four individualized courses included in a radio and television repair, curriculum, this course focuses on trouble-shooting procedures for both black and white and color television equipment. The course is comprised of ten units: (1) Introduction to/and Block Diagrams of Television, (2) Television Audio Section Troubles, (3) Television Video…
O'Bryan, Kenneth G.
Writing considerations specific to instructional television (ITV) situations are discussed in this handbook written for the beginner, but designed to be of use to anyone creating an ITV script. Advice included in the handbook is based on information obtained from ITV wirters, literature reviews, and the author's personal experience. The ITV…
In Western societies, television has transformed the life, culture, and points of reference of the child. Its particular sphere of influence is the child's play culture. This play culture is not hermetic: it is very oriented toward manipulation; has a symbolic role as a representational medium; evolves along with the child; has a certain amount of…
Evansville-Vanderburgh School Corp., IN.
Three general goals guided the creation of this summer education project: to maintain academic basic skills over the summer months, to involve parents in the learning process, and to involve teachers in reading inservice training. The summer television programs available to all Indiana children are "Ride the Reading Rocket" for grade 2; "Catch a…
Kohn, Sherwood Davidson
Television programming has reached a point at which most viewers are getting up and turning off their sets because there is little worth watching. This means an opportunity is available for creativity and if the industry's executives are smart they will let in some fresh air. (Author/IRT)
Baggaley, P. Jonathan, Ed.; And Others
Eleven articles on the evaluation of educational television (ETV) in South Africa are provided. Under the heading "Theory" are: (1) "The Meaning of Evaluation and Its Practice" (D. Nevo); (2) "Criteria for Evaluating ETV: A Theoretical Framework" (R. Israeli); and (3) "Sources of Evaluation Criteria in Education, with Particular Reference to the…
Discusses adverse effects of FCC deregulation of children's television programming on children's play behavior. Discusses the difference between play and imitation, the role of high quality dramatic play in healthy child development, the popularity of war play, and use of toys to increase dramatic play. Considers ways to help children gain control…
Englander, A. Arthur; Petzold, Paul
Film makers, professional or amateur, will find in this volume an extensive discussion of the adaptation of film technique to television work, of the art of the camera operator, and of the productive relationships between people, organization, and hardware. Chapters include "The Beginnings," an overview of the interrelationship between roles in…
Hilliard, Robert L.
To make adequate use of mass media for children's education, we must recognize that the medium is the message, that the conveyer is the content. The medium itself changes behavior, learning and growth patterns of the child. For example television itself teaches a special kind of visual awareness and enhances the ability to relate non-immediate…
Internal Revenue Service (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC. National Training Center.
Videotape and closed circuit instructional television (ITV) have been used for training Internal Revenue Service agents, and its use should be expanded. Experiments show that for every hour of conventional instruction converted to ITV a 25% time savings with equal or increased learning effectiveness can be expected. Although the capital cost of…
Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others
Content analyses of the depiction of aggression and images of reality on Canadian television were performed on 109 program tapes of top-rated Toronto programs. Content was coded in terms of global messages communicated, character portrayals, context and setting of the program, amount and nature of conflict portrayed, and detailed information on…
Billowes, C. A.
Bell Canada, the Public School and Collegiate Institute Boards of Ottawa, and the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education are collaborating on an educational television project which will provide a retrieval system that can supply any given program at any time under the control of the classroom teacher. Four schools in Ottawa will participate…
National Education Association, Washington, DC. Educational Technology Div.
The papers gathered here are designed to provide a foundation of background information for those charged with the responsibility of formulating school district goals regarding cable television (CATV) and of obtaining the necessary cooperation from the local CATV franchise operators to reach these goals. The position of the National Education…
Peterson, Roger E.
Since it became a reality just before World War II, terrestrial microwave has improved in systems and equipments, but with the improvements have come higher costs. Television microwave costs are so high because users are demanding more capability, land prices have increased, operating costs are higher, and there is frequency congestion along many…
The situation comedy, "Soap," television's first prime-time sex farce, stirred controversy months before its premiere, and subsequent pressure on advertisers forced the network to change the show's concept from an adult comedy to a "whodunit." This report summarizes the controversy, recounts reactions to the series, and lists the implications of…
Thirteen half-hour television programs entitled "The Geography of Tourism" developed for use in Wilfrid Laurier University's (Canada) distance education program are discussed. Distance education embraces teaching, or communicating with, students who are not physically in the classroom with the instructor. The central theme of the series is the…
... amendments to 47 CFR 73.624(g), published at 76 FR 44821, July 27, 2011, are effective on November 28, 2011... FR 44821, July 27, 2011. Synopsis As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, (44 U.S.C. 3507... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television...
Draper, J.V.; Fujita, Y.; Herndon, J.N.
High-definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard-resolution TV) of horizontal scan lines that standard-resolution TV provides. The improvement in picture quality (compared to standard-resolution TV) that the extra scan lines provide is impressive. Objects in the HDTV picture have more sharply defined edges, better contrast, and more accurate reproduction of shading and color patterns than do those in the standard-resolution TV picture. Because the TV viewing system is a key component for teleoperator performance, an improvement in TV picture quality could mean an improvement in the speed and accuracy with which teleoperators perform tasks. This report describes three experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The performance of HDTV was compared to that of standard-resolution, monochromatic TV and standard-resolution, stereoscopic, monochromatic TV in the context of judgment of depth in a televised scene, visual inspection of an object, and performance of a typical remote handling task. The results of the three experiments show that in some areas HDTV can lead to improvement in teleoperator performance. Observers inspecting a small object for a flaw were more accurate with HDTV than with either of the standard-resolution systems. High resolution is critical for detection of small-scale flaws of the type in the experiment (a scratch on a glass bottle). These experiments provided an evaluation of HDTV television for use in tasks that must be routinely performed to remotely maintain a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. 5 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.
Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Karimi, Masoud; Ghorbanzadeh, Fatemeh
Introduction: Television (TV) viewing by children may be linked to a range of adverse health and behavioral outcomes. This study was aimed at examining the relationship between socioeconomic factors of families and TV watching behavior among 3–5 years old children in Ardakan, Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: In the cross-sectional study, mothers of 188 children (93 boys and 95 girls) between 3 and 5 years old completed a researcher-designed questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using SPSS, using bivariate correlations and t-test for independent samples. Results: The mean of TV viewing was 2.68 ± 1.6 h daily, ranging from 0 to 9 h. There were no statistically significant gender differences on the basis of daily TV watching. There were positive associations between the children's daily TV watching and age as well aschildren's daily TV watching and their mothers’ time spent on watching TV. Children who lived in houses with the yard and could use it as a playground watched less TV than did the children who lived in houses without the yard. Conclusion: The results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of the association between different socioeconomic status aspects of families, such as the children's and mothers’ time spent on watching TV and having a yard in the house in an attempt to develop effective strategies and interventions to prevent excess TV watching. PMID:26097850
Gabel, L.; Ridgers, N. D.; Della Gatta, P. A.; Arundell, L.; Cerin, E.; Robinson, S.; Daly, R. M.; Dunstan, D. W.
Summary Objective Investigate associations of TV viewing time and accelerometry‐derived sedentary time with inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers in children. Methods Cross‐sectional analysis of 164 7–10‐year‐old children. TV viewing time was assessed by parental proxy report and total and patterns of sedentary time accumulation (e.g. prolonged bouts) were assessed by accelerometry. C‐reactive protein (CRP), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, interleukin‐2, ‐6, ‐8, ‐10, tumour necrosis factor alpha, adiponectin, resistin, brain‐derived neurotrophic factor, soluble intercellular and vascular adhesion molecule 1, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and soluble E‐selectin were assessed. Generalised linear models assessed the associations of TV viewing and sedentary time with biomarkers, adjusting for sex, waist circumference, moderate‐ to vigorous‐intensity physical activity and diet density. Results Each additional h week−1 of TV viewing was associated with 4.4% (95% CI: 2.1, 6.7) greater CRP and 0.6% (0.2, 1.0) greater sVCAM‐1 in the fully adjusted model. The association between frequency and duration of 5–10 min bouts of sedentary time and CRP was positive after adjustment for sex and waist circumference but attenuated after adjustment for diet density. Conclusions This study suggests that TV viewing was unfavourably associated with several markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The detrimental association between 5 and 10 min bouts of sedentary time and CRP approached significance, suggesting that further research with a stronger study design (longitudinal and/or experimental) is needed to better understand how the accumulation of sedentary time early in life may influence short and longer term health. PMID:26097139
Wober, J. Mallory
Reports results of a survey of British children ages 7 to 15 that examined time spent watching television, listening to music, reading, and playing outdoors; attitudes and stereotypes regarding these activities; and frequency and opinions of doing homework with the television on. Correlations of various behaviors and perceptions are presented.…
Collender, Robert B.
This system for stereoscopic television uses relative camera to scene translating motion and does not require optical aids at the observer's eyes, presents a horizontal parallax (hologram like) 3-D full motion scene to a wide audience, has no dead zones or pseudo 3-D zones over the entire horizontal viewing field and operates on standard telecast signals requiring no changes to the television studio equipment or the home television antenna. The only change required at the receiving end is a special television projector. The system is compatible with pre-recorded standard color television signals. The cathode ray tube is eliminated by substituting an array of solid state charge couple device liquid crystal light valves which have the property to receive television fields in parallel from memory and which are arrayed in an arc for scanning purposes. The array contains a scrolled sequence of successive television frames which serve as the basis for 3-D horizontal viewing parallax. These light valves reflect polarized light with the degree of polarization made a function of the scene brightness. The array is optically scanned and the sequence rapidly projected onto a cylindrical concaved semi-specular screen that returns all of the light to a rapidly translating vertical "aerial" exit slit of light through which the audience views the reconstructed 3-D scene.
Liu, Yi; Shangguan, Hong; Zhang, Quan; Zhu, Hongqing; Shu, Huazhong; Gui, Zhiguo
It is known that lowering the X-ray tube current (mAs) or tube voltage (kVp) and simultaneously reducing the total number of X-ray views (sparse view) is an effective means to achieve low-dose in computed tomography (CT) scan. However, the associated image quality by the conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) usually degrades due to the excessive quantum noise. Although sparse-view CT reconstruction algorithm via total variation (TV), in the scanning protocol of reducing X-ray tube current, has been demonstrated to be able to result in significant radiation dose reduction while maintain image quality, noticeable patchy artifacts still exist in reconstructed images. In this study, to address the problem of patchy artifacts, we proposed a median prior constrained TV regularization to retain the image quality by introducing an auxiliary vector m in register with the object. Specifically, the approximate action of m is to draw, in each iteration, an object voxel toward its own local median, aiming to improve low-dose image quality with sparse-view projection measurements. Subsequently, an alternating optimization algorithm is adopted to optimize the associative objective function. We refer to the median prior constrained TV regularization as "TV_MP" for simplicity. Experimental results on digital phantoms and clinical phantom demonstrated that the proposed TV_MP with appropriate control parameters can not only ensure a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed image, but also its resolution compared with the original TV method.
Gans, Herbert J.
To collect data on how to make television a more effective learning instrument outside of the classroom, a standard probability sample with quotas consisting of 200 adults and 200 adolescents living in New York City was interviewed to study how people use TV, their attitudes toward various types of programing, and their viewing preferences.…
This paper presents a redefinition of the term "television," examines problems of determining the effects of television on children, reviews research on possible effects of TV on children, and concludes by focusing on prosocial, educational programming. The argument is made that because we are immersed in the phenomenon of television, we can not…
Stavitsky, Alan G.
Critics contend American public television has failed to realize the potential envisioned by the Carnegie Commission on Educational Television. Using Ernest Bormann's theory of fantasy theme analysis as a framework to examine public TV reveals that American public television has been unable to develop a coherent rhetorical vision or a clear…
Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.
The Radio and Television section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Two Pacific Powers View the World: News on CBS and TBS Television" (Anne Cooper-Chen); "Nicholas Johnson: The Public's Defender on the Federal Communication Commission, 1966-1973" (Max V. Grubb); "News Tips, TV Viewers, and Computer Links: A Follow-Up Story"…
Vaala, Sarah E; Hornik, Robert C
There has been rising international concern over media use with children under two. As little is known about the factors associated with more or less viewing among very young children, this study examines maternal factors predictive of TV/video viewing rates among American infants and toddlers. Guided by the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this survey study examines relationships between children's rates of TV/video viewing and their mothers' structural life circumstances (e.g., number of children in the home; mother's screen use), and cognitions (e.g., attitudes; norms). Results suggest that mothers' structural circumstances and cognitions respectively contribute independent explanatory power to the prediction of children's TV/video viewing. Influence of structural circumstances is partially mediated through cognitions. Mothers' attitudes as well as their own TV/video viewing behavior were particularly predictive of children's viewing. Implications of these findings for international efforts to understand and reduce infant/toddler TV/video exposure are discussed. PMID:25489335
Cao, Y; Keum, N N; Chan, A T; Fuchs, C S; Wu, K; Giovannucci, E L
Background: Prolonged TV watching, a major sedentary behaviour, is associated with increased risk of obesity and diabetes and may involve in colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 31 065 men with ⩾1 endoscopy in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1988–2008) to evaluate sitting while watching TV and its joint influence with leisure-time physical activity on risk of colorectal adenoma. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Prolonged sitting while watching TV was significantly associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma (n=4280), and adjusting for physical activity or a potential mediator body mass index did not change the estimates. The ORs (95% CIs) across categories of TV watching (0–6, 7–13, 14–20, and 21+ h per week) were 1.00 (referent), 1.09 (1.01–1.17), 1.16 (1.06–1.27), and 1.10 (0.97–1.25) (OR per 14-h per week increment=1.11; 95% CI: 1.04–1.18; Ptrend=0.001). Compared with the least sedentary (0–6 h per week of TV) and most physically active (highest quintile) men, the most sedentary (14+ h per week) and least active (lowest quintile) men had a significant increased risk of adenoma (OR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.05–1.49), particularly for high-risk adenoma. Conclusions: Prolonged TV viewing is associated with modest increased risk of colorectal adenoma independent of leisure-time physical activity and minimally mediated by obesity. PMID:25590667
Swinburn, B; Shelly, A
Television (TV) viewing is the dominant recreational pastime at all ages, especially for children and adolescents. Many studies have shown that higher TV viewing hours are associated with higher body mass index (BMI), lower levels of fitness and higher blood cholesterol levels. Although the effect size estimated from observational studies is small (with TV viewing explaining very little of the variance in BMI), the results of intervention studies show large effect sizes. The potential mediators of the effect of higher TV viewing on higher BMI include less time for physical activity, reduced resting metabolic rate (for which there is little supporting evidence) and increased energy intake (from more eating while watching TV and a greater exposure to marketing of energy dense foods). Electronic games may have an effect on unhealthy weight gain, but are less related to increased energy intake and their usage is relatively new, making effect size difficult to determine. Thus, TV viewing does not explain much of the differences in body size between individuals or the rise in obesity over time, perhaps because of the uniformly high, but relatively stable, TV viewing hours. Reducing TV viewing hours is a difficult prospect because potential actions, such as social marketing and education, are likely to be relatively weak interventions, although the evidence would suggest that, if viewing could be reduced, it could have a significant impact on reducing obesity prevalence. Regulations to reduce the heavy marketing of energy dense foods and beverages on TV may be the most effective public health measure available to minimize the impact of TV viewing on unhealthy weight gain.
Swinburn, B; Shelly, A
Television (TV) viewing is the dominant recreational pastime at all ages, especially for children and adolescents. Many studies have shown that higher TV viewing hours are associated with higher body mass index (BMI), lower levels of fitness and higher blood cholesterol levels. Although the effect size estimated from observational studies is small (with TV viewing explaining very little of the variance in BMI), the results of intervention studies show large effect sizes. The potential mediators of the effect of higher TV viewing on higher BMI include less time for physical activity, reduced resting metabolic rate (for which there is little supporting evidence) and increased energy intake (from more eating while watching TV and a greater exposure to marketing of energy dense foods). Electronic games may have an effect on unhealthy weight gain, but are less related to increased energy intake and their usage is relatively new, making effect size difficult to determine. Thus, TV viewing does not explain much of the differences in body size between individuals or the rise in obesity over time, perhaps because of the uniformly high, but relatively stable, TV viewing hours. Reducing TV viewing hours is a difficult prospect because potential actions, such as social marketing and education, are likely to be relatively weak interventions, although the evidence would suggest that, if viewing could be reduced, it could have a significant impact on reducing obesity prevalence. Regulations to reduce the heavy marketing of energy dense foods and beverages on TV may be the most effective public health measure available to minimize the impact of TV viewing on unhealthy weight gain. PMID:19136983
Gordon, B. L.; Stamps, J. C. (Inventor)
A noise reduction system that divides the color video signal into its luminance and chrominance components is reported. The luminance component of a given frame is summed with the luminance component of at least one preceding frame which was stored on a disc recorder. The summation is carried out so as to achieve a signal amplitude equivalent to that of the original signal. The averaged luminance signal is then recombined with the chrominance signal to achieve a noise-reduced television signal.
Sasaki, Ayako; Yorifuji, Takashi; Iwase, Toshihide; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki
Obesity in children is a serious public health problem, and TV viewing is considered a potential risk factor. Since, however, no relevant association studies have been conducted in Japan, we evaluated the association between TV viewing and obesity using a population-based study conducted in a Japanese town. All 616 preschool children in the town were enrolled in February 2008, and a self-administered questionnaire to collect children's and parents' characteristics was sent to the parents. We dichotomized the time spent TV viewing and evaluated associations by logistic regression using a "less than 2h" category as a reference. The questionnaire was collected from 476 participants (77.3%), of whom 449 were available for the final analyses. Among them, 26.9% of preschool children reported 2 or more hours of TV viewing per day and 8.2% were defined as obese. In logistic regression analyses, there was no positive association in unadjusted (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:0.50-2.49) or adjusted models for exclusively breastfed status, sleep duration, or maternal factors (OR = 1.11, 95% CI:0.50-2.51). We also found no positive association between TV viewing and overweight status, possibly owing to the influence of social environment, low statistical power, or misclassification.
Wainwright, Charles Anthony
All the steps in making a television commercial, from conception to writing through production, are laid out, and many examples of real commercials illustrate the process. The book is directed toward those who want to write successful commercials. Subjects include the use of research in constructing and evaluating commercials, budgeting, choosing…
Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman
Adapted from a series of 20 monthly columns which originally appeared in Highlights for Children, Inc.'s "Newsletter of Parenting," the material in this booklet explores: (1) ways in which television influences viewers; (2) what television teaches; and (3) some positive aspects of television. It also suggests activities for parents which will…
Morgan, Michael; Rothschild, Nancy
Examines the intervening and/or conditioning roles of integration into peer groups (a traditional socializing agent) and access to new video technology via home cable viewing (a new socializing agent) in the relationship between television viewing and adolescents' sex-role images. (Author/CMG)
Parsons, Patrick R.
Suggests Anthony Giddens' theory of "structuration" offers a framework for the study of social activity that will help analyze the process of reification. Demonstrates the usefulness of structuration to policy analysis and explores the evolution and consequences of definitions of cable television prior to the "blue sky" era. (MS)
Uses video extracts about environment and development issues in China to explore how television can best be used with interactive teaching techniques to further the aims of a critical education which promotes sustainable development. Introduces some of the central concepts of media education and describes classroom activities borrowed and adapted…
Allen, Johnny Mac
Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC) has its own cable television channel by lease agreement with Storer Communications, Inc., enabling the college to reach a potential viewership of more than 100,000 subscribers. The channel, which primarily broadcasts telecourses for long-distance learning and a "bulletin board" of campus activities and events,…
Burton, Virginia; Hogan, William
In an attempt to build career development activities into the English curriculum this hands-on television production course focusing on video tape production was offered as an English elective in a Minnesota high school. The course was developed to emphasize the following objectives: (1) to develop and apply the interpersonal competency skills…
Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan (on left) and Harrison H. Schmitt pay their respects and send their best wishes to the members of the International Youth Science Tour, who were visiting the Manned Spacecraft Center, in brief ceremonies near the close of the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture is a reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle.
Based on the notion that technological and artistic developments in the area of television production affect viewers' comprehension and appreciation of televised programs, this essay examines the impact of telecommunication advances on the industry. The first section briefly considers the technological advances of the last decade in major TV…
The TV system assembled is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The TV system assembled for this program is a black and white, monocular, high performance system. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator. One pan/tilt unit provides control of the pointing of the camera, the other similarly controls the position of a simulated payload.
Weaver, Andrew J.; Wilson, Barbara J.
This experiment explores the relationship between television violence and viewer enjoyment. Over 400 participants were randomly assigned to one of 15 conditions that were created by editing five TV programs into three versions each: A graphically violent version, a sanitized violent version, and a nonviolent version. After viewing, participants…
Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer
This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…
Avanesov, G. A.; Bonev, B. I.; Boicheva, V.; Kempe, F.; Bazilevskii, A. T.; Duxbury, T.
In February and March 1989 the Phobos 2 spacecraft took 37 television images of Phobos from a distance of 190-1100 km. The data are being used to update the three-dimensional model of Phobos, to provide improved determinations of its density and orbital dynamics, and to study its surface color, composition, and texture. Preliminary findings are presented here which include different integrated photometric behavior in visible and near-infrared bands, observation of a region immediately west of Stickney which is relatively free of large grooves, the prevalence of bright rims on grooves and younger craters, and low bulk density.
This article presents a profile of the Young Asia Television (YATV) initiative by the WorldView International Foundation. The YATV channel brings news and analysis of Asia-focussed environmental concerns, current affairs, population and reproductive health issues, social problems including poverty and illiteracy, arts and culture, and other topics. In addition, it broadcasts programs produced by different countries on reproductive and sexual health, including AIDS and sexually transmitted disease prevention, and youth/adolescent awareness of sexual health. It was launched by the Foundation with a thrust stating that "television must encourage dialogue and debate; advance the creativity of people, especially the younger generation who will be the leaders of the future." In order to reach many more millions of viewers, YATV programs are networked with the Asian Broadcasting Union and 1000 other organizations through the Foundation's own NGOs network. This network provides the medium for value-based broadcasts in an entertaining fashion. The International Office of Worldview International Foundation in Colombo monitors the program activities on a continuing basis and uses the information gathered for impact assessment and long-term planning. PMID:12158252
This article presents a profile of the Young Asia Television (YATV) initiative by the WorldView International Foundation. The YATV channel brings news and analysis of Asia-focussed environmental concerns, current affairs, population and reproductive health issues, social problems including poverty and illiteracy, arts and culture, and other topics. In addition, it broadcasts programs produced by different countries on reproductive and sexual health, including AIDS and sexually transmitted disease prevention, and youth/adolescent awareness of sexual health. It was launched by the Foundation with a thrust stating that "television must encourage dialogue and debate; advance the creativity of people, especially the younger generation who will be the leaders of the future." In order to reach many more millions of viewers, YATV programs are networked with the Asian Broadcasting Union and 1000 other organizations through the Foundation's own NGOs network. This network provides the medium for value-based broadcasts in an entertaining fashion. The International Office of Worldview International Foundation in Colombo monitors the program activities on a continuing basis and uses the information gathered for impact assessment and long-term planning.
To help educational television (ETV) practitioners achieve maximum clarity, economy and purposiveness, the range of techniques of television graphics is explained. Closed-circuit and broadcast ETV are compared. The design process is discussed in terms of aspect ratio, line structure, cut off, screen size, tone scales, studio apparatus, and…