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Sample records for activity theory framework

  1. Activity theory as a framework for analyzing and redesigning work.

    PubMed

    Engeström, Y

    2000-07-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory is a new framework aimed at transcending the dichotomies of micro- and macro-, mental and material, observation and intervention in analysis and redesign of work. The approach distinguishes between short-lived goal-directed actions and durable, object-oriented activity systems. A historically evolving collective activity system, seen in its network relations to other activity systems, is taken as the prime unit of analysis against which scripted strings of goal-directed actions and automatic operations are interpreted. Activity systems are driven by communal motives that are often difficult to articulate for individual participants. Activity systems are in constant movement and internally contradictory. Their systemic contradictions, manifested in disturbances and mundane innovations, offer possibilities for expansive developmental transformations. Such transformations proceed through stepwise cycles of expansive learning which begin with actions of questioning the existing standard practice, then proceed to actions of analyzing its contradictions and modelling a vision for its zone of proximal development, then to actions of examining and implementing the new model in practice. New forms of work organization increasingly require negotiated 'knotworking' across boundaries. Correspondingly, expansive learning increasingly involves horizontal widening of collective expertise by means of debating, negotiating and hybridizing different perspectives and conceptualizations. Findings from a longitudinal intervention study of children's medical care illuminate the theoretical arguments.

  2. Activity Theory as a Framework for Project Work in Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David W. L.; Wong, Angela F. L.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes activity theory as a framework for student project work that is a form of open-ended contextual activity-based learning emphasizing problem solving as a collaborative effort. Topics include project work from a Vygotskian perspective of activity theory; and the design of a prototype for Web-based project work. (LRW)

  3. A Conceptual Framework Based on Activity Theory for Mobile CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurita, Gustavo; Nussbaum, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for collaborative group activities that promote student social interaction in the classroom. Handheld computers interconnected by a wireless network allow people who work on a common task to interact face to face while maintaining the mediation afforded by a technology-based system. Wirelessly interconnected handhelds open up new…

  4. Blogs and Social Network Sites as Activity Systems: Exploring Adult Informal Learning Process through Activity Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Gyeong Mi; Lee, Romee

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to explore adult user activities and informal learning processes as reflected in their blogs and social network sites (SNS). Using the assumption that a web-based space is an activity system in which learning occurs, typical features of the components were investigated and each activity system then…

  5. Activity Theory as a Conceptual Framework for Understanding Teacher Approaches to Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasavvidis, Ilias

    2009-01-01

    While the issue of teachers' perspectives on the barriers to technology use has received considerable attention, teacher concerns have not been studied in a systematic and holistic way. The present paper examines teacher concerns regarding a proposed technology-based innovation using Activity Theory as a theoretical framework. Fifty-one teachers…

  6. From Traditional to Constructivist Epistemologies: A Proposed Theoretical Framework Based on Activity Theory for Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Tan, Seng-Chee; Koh, Thiam-Seng

    2006-01-01

    This article is concerned with how learning communities are transformed as they evolve from traditional learning epistemologies towards constructivist orientations and pedagogies. Adopting activity theory as a framework, the article discusses how transformations take place through a two-way process of appropriation (learning from one another as a…

  7. Activity Theory as a Framework for Designing the Model of College English Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Activity theory signifies that activities are at the centre of human behaviour and it has been used to study cognitive process in many fields. Nowadays, college English listening learning is time-consuming but less effective in China, so enhancing the performance of listening instruction is a very hot topic. Theoretically, activity theory is able…

  8. Pavlov's Position on Old Age within the Framework of the Theory of Higher Nervous Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windholz, George

    1995-01-01

    In later life, I. P. Pavlov incorporated his findings on aging into his theory of higher nervous activity. Some of the major findings showed that salivary conditioning and stimulus differentiation were difficult to establish in old dogs, but that conditioned reflexes established earlier in life persisted into old age. Pavlov hypothesized that…

  9. Activity Theory as a Theoretical Framework for Health Self-Quantification: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-quantification (SQ) is a way of working in which, by using tracking tools, people aim to collect, manage, and reflect on personal health data to gain a better understanding of their own body, health behavior, and interaction with the world around them. However, health SQ lacks a formal framework for describing the self-quantifiers’ activities and their contextual components or constructs to pursue these health related goals. Establishing such framework is important because it is the first step to operationalize health SQ fully. This may in turn help to achieve the aims of health professionals and researchers who seek to make or study changes in the self-quantifiers’ health systematically. Objective The aim of this study was to review studies on health SQ in order to answer the following questions: What are the general features of the work and the particular activities that self-quantifiers perform to achieve their health objectives? What constructs of health SQ have been identified in the scientific literature? How have these studies described such constructs? How would it be possible to model these constructs theoretically to characterize the work of health SQ? Methods A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. A total of 26 empirical studies were included. The content of these studies was thematically analyzed using Activity Theory as an organizing framework. Results The literature provided varying descriptions of health SQ as data-driven and objective-oriented work mediated by SQ tools. From the literature, we identified two types of SQ work: work on data (ie, data management activities) and work with data (ie, health management activities). Using Activity Theory, these activities could be characterized into 6 constructs: users, tracking tools, health objectives, division of work, community or group setting, and SQ plan and rules. We could not find a reference to any single study that accounted for all these activities and

  10. Pavlov's conceptualization of voluntary movements within the framework of the theory of higher nervous activity.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1998-01-01

    Pavlov became interested in the nature of voluntary movements after receiving Konorski and Miller's letter in 1928 describing their experiments on conditioning of motor movements in dogs. Their paradigmatic experiment involved presenting an indifferent stimulus, followed by passive raising of the dog's leg and then reinforcement. If the same stimulus was provided during a number of trials, the animal lifted its corresponding leg. In 1928 Pavlov asked his students to condition motor movements in his laboratory. Although their findings were equivocal, Pavlov incorporated the so-called voluntary movements into his theory of higher nervous activity. Voluntary movements were responses to external environmental contingencies. On the cortical level, the motor analyzer's cells had both afferent and efferent functions. In Pavlov's view, the motor analyzer's cells established connections with the afferent cells of other sensory analyzers. Pavlov held that motor movements, as responses to external and internal environments, give humans the illusion of voluntary behavior.

  11. Pavlov's conceptualization of voluntary movements within the framework of the theory of higher nervous activity.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1998-01-01

    Pavlov became interested in the nature of voluntary movements after receiving Konorski and Miller's letter in 1928 describing their experiments on conditioning of motor movements in dogs. Their paradigmatic experiment involved presenting an indifferent stimulus, followed by passive raising of the dog's leg and then reinforcement. If the same stimulus was provided during a number of trials, the animal lifted its corresponding leg. In 1928 Pavlov asked his students to condition motor movements in his laboratory. Although their findings were equivocal, Pavlov incorporated the so-called voluntary movements into his theory of higher nervous activity. Voluntary movements were responses to external environmental contingencies. On the cortical level, the motor analyzer's cells had both afferent and efferent functions. In Pavlov's view, the motor analyzer's cells established connections with the afferent cells of other sensory analyzers. Pavlov held that motor movements, as responses to external and internal environments, give humans the illusion of voluntary behavior. PMID:9805363

  12. The Systems Theory Framework of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The Systems Theory Framework (STF; McMahon & Patton, 1995; Patton & McMahon, 2006) of career development was proposed as a metatheoretical framework that accommodates the contribution of all theories and offers an integrative and coherent framework of career influences. In this article, the author provides an overview of the STF, outlines its…

  13. Activity Theory as a Framework for Investigating District-Classroom System Interactions and Their Influences on Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Anika Ball

    2012-01-01

    Technology implementation research indicates that teachers' beliefs and knowledge, as well as a host of institutional factors, can influence technology integration. Drawing on third-generation activity theory, this article conceptualizes technology implementation as a network of planning and integration activities carried out by technology…

  14. Unicam Activity Framework (UAF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, R.; Mauri, M.; Polzonetti, A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation illustrates the framework of processing performance of the faculty of the University of Camerino. The evaluation criteria are explained and the technological structure that allows automatic performance assessment available online anywhere and anytime. The designed framework is usually applied to the performance evaluation of…

  15. Pavlov's conceptualization of unconditional reflexes, or instincts, within the framework of the theory of higher nervous activity.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1987-01-01

    According to I. P. Pavlov's theory of higher nervous activity, the establishment and dissolution of conditional reflexes enhances the higher organism's adaptation to the external environment. Pavlov asserted that, ontogenetically, conditional reflexes are based upon innate, unconditional reflexes (UR) or instincts. Pavlov did not distinguish between URs and instincts, but he preferred the former term. Phylogenetically the URs emerged out of well-established conditional reflexes during the development of higher organisms. An outgrowth of the experimental conditioning procedure, developed during the second decade of this century, was the observation and delineation of new URs. While studying human nervous and psychiatric disorders in the 1930s, Pavlov elucidated other URs. Pavlov identified 13 major URs, but he failed to formulate an exhaustive classification scheme of URs.

  16. Molecular g-tensors from analytical response theory and quasi-degenerate perturbation theory in the framework of complete active space self-consistent field method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Lan, Tran; Chalupský, Jakub; Yanai, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    The molecular g-tensor is an important spectroscopic parameter provided by electron para magnetic resonance (EPR) measurement and often needs to be interpreted using computational methods. Here, we present two new implementations based on the first-order and second-order perturbation theories to calculate the g-tensors within the complete-active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function model. In the first-order method, the quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT) is employed for constructing relativistic CASSCF states perturbed with the spin-orbit coupling operator, which is described effectively in one-electron form with the flexible nuclear screening spin-orbit approximation introduced recently by us. The second-order method is a newly reported approach built upon the linear response theory which accounts for the perturbation with respect to external magnetic field. It is implemented with the coupled-perturbed CASSCF (CP-CASSCF) approach, which provides an equivalent of untruncated sum-over-states expansion. The comparison of the performances between the first-order and second-order methods is shown for various molecules containing light to heavy elements, highlighting their relative strength and weakness. The formulations of QDPT and CP-CASSCF approaches as well as the derivation of the second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess picture change of Zeeman operators are given in detail.

  17. Activity Theory and Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  18. Reflections on Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  19. Motivational interviewing as a way to promote physical activity in obese adolescents: a randomised-controlled trial using self-determination theory as an explanatory framework.

    PubMed

    Gourlan, Mathieu; Sarrazin, Philippe; Trouilloud, David

    2013-11-01

    Using self-determination theory (SDT) as an explanatory framework, this randomised-controlled study evaluates the effect of a motivational interviewing (MI)-based intervention as an addition to a standard weight loss programme (SWLP) on physical activity (PA) practice in obese adolescents over a six-month period. Fifty-four obese adolescents (mean age = 13 years, mean BMI = 29.57 kg/m²) were randomly assigned to an SWLP group (n = 28) or SWLP + MI group (n = 26). Both groups received two SWLP sessions, supplemented for the SWLP + MI group, by six MI sessions. Perceived autonomy support, perceived competence, motivational regulations, PA and BMI were assessed at baseline, three and six months (i.e. the end of the programme). MLM analyses revealed that compared to SWLP, the SWLP + MI group had a greater BMI decrease and a greater PA practice increase over time. Moreover, the SWLP + MI group reported greater autonomy support from medical staff at the end of the programme, greater increase in integrated and identified regulations and a stronger decrease in amotivation. MI appears as an efficient counselling method as an addition to an SWLP to promote PA in the context of pediatric obesity.

  20. Critical theory as a framework for academic nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Martha K

    2014-05-01

    In academic centers of nursing, faculty or academic practice has become more widespread and integrated into the expectations and criteria for appointment and promotion. Yet, the concept of academic practice is not fully embraced among all schools of nursing. Numerous models of academic nursing practice have evolved and vary widely according to the clinical site, the roles of the practitioners, and the systems for generating revenue. Although most models are related to the mission statements of the schools of nursing, few seem to be based on a distinct philosophy of practice. In this article, a consideration of critical theory that provides a framework for practice-based nursing education is presented. By applying the philosophical underpinnings and assumptions of practice that are guided by critical theory, educators may begin to better identify the values of academic nursing practice and incorporate this activity more fully into the educational environment.

  1. Relationships among Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory Frameworks via Factor Analytic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Nidhi; Koran, Jennifer; Henn, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    There are well-defined theoretical differences between the classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) frameworks. It is understood that in the CTT framework, person and item statistics are test- and sample-dependent. This is not the perception with IRT. For this reason, the IRT framework is considered to be theoretically superior…

  2. A Framework for Chaos Theory Career Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Robert G. L.

    2010-01-01

    Theory in career development counselling provides a map that counsellors can use to understand and structure the career counselling process. It also provides a means to communicate this understanding and structuring to their clients as part of the counselling intervention. The chaos theory of careers draws attention to the complexity,…

  3. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  4. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.

  5. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  6. [A proposal to combine Roy's conceptual framework with crisis theory].

    PubMed

    Luis, M V

    1990-04-01

    It is reported the crisis theory framework's and is proposed its linkage with the Callista Roy conceptual Model. The aim is to provide the nurse with an instrumental and theoretical framework of the knowledge of the person in crisis intervention. In this proposition is still suggested, a guide to nursing care. It is derived of both theories and exemplified by the author trough practice application.

  7. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…

  8. Supporting Teachers on Science-Focused School Trips: Towards an Integrated Framework of Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Osborne, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Although science centres and museums are important educational resources, school trips to these places are not often conducted in a manner that could maximise learning. In addressing this issue, a Framework for Museum Practice (FMP) is proposed, derived from the perspectives of Cultural Historical Activity Theory, theories of intrinsic motivation,…

  9. Reversible Framework for Quantum Resource Theories.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Fernando G S L; Gour, Gilad

    2015-08-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that properties of physical systems such as entanglement, athermality, and asymmetry, can be viewed as resources for important tasks in quantum information, thermodynamics, and other areas of physics. This recognition was followed by the development of specific quantum resource theories (QRTs), such as entanglement theory, determining how quantum states that cannot be prepared under certain restrictions may be manipulated and used to circumvent the restrictions. Here we discuss the general structure of QRTs, and show that under a few assumptions (such as convexity of the set of free states), a QRT is asymptotically reversible if its set of allowed operations is maximal, that is, if the allowed operations are the set of all operations that do not generate (asymptotically) a resource. In this case, the asymptotic conversion rate is given in terms of the regularized relative entropy of a resource which is the unique measure or quantifier of the resource in the asymptotic limit of many copies of the state. This measure also equals the smoothed version of the logarithmic robustness of the resource.

  10. Weak Quantum Theory: Formal Framework and Selected Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas; Roemer, Hartmann

    2006-01-04

    Two key concepts of quantum theory, complementarity and entanglement, are considered with respect to their significance in and beyond physics. An axiomatically formalized, weak version of quantum theory, more general than the ordinary quantum theory of physical systems, is described. Its mathematical structure generalizes the algebraic approach to ordinary quantum theory. The crucial formal feature leading to complementarity and entanglement is the non-commutativity of observables.The ordinary Hilbert space quantum mechanics can be recovered by stepwise adding the necessary features. This provides a hierarchy of formal frameworks of decreasing generality and increasing specificity. Two concrete applications, more specific than weak quantum theory and more general than ordinary quantum theory, are discussed: (i) complementarity and entanglement in classical dynamical systems, and (ii) complementarity and entanglement in the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli.

  11. Conceptual Change from the Framework Theory Side of the Fence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosniadou, Stella; Skopeliti, Irini

    2014-01-01

    We describe the main principles of the framework theory approach to conceptual change and briefly report on the results of a text comprehension study that investigated some of the hypotheses that derive from it. We claim that children construct a naive physics which is based on observation in the context of lay culture and which forms a relatively…

  12. Research on a Modified Framework of Implicit Personality Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2010-01-01

    There is ample evidence that labeled gifted students exhibit maladaptive behavior patterns. According to Carol Dweck those students who subscribe to a fixed view of their abilities are particularly at risk. In this contribution we extended Dweck's framework and distinguished two aspects of the implicit theory of one's own abilities. We…

  13. An Examination of Rater Drift within a Generalizability Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harik, Polina; Clauser, Brian E.; Grabovsky, Irina; Nungester, Ronald J.; Swanson, Dave; Nandakumar, Ratna

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the long-term usefulness of estimated parameters used to adjust the scores from a performance assessment to account for differences in rater stringency. Ratings from four components of the USMLE[R] Step 2 Clinical Skills Examination data were analyzed. A generalizability-theory framework was used to examine the extent to…

  14. Design of Mobile Augmented Reality in Health Care Education: A Theory-Driven Framework

    PubMed Central

    Lilienthal, Anneliese; Shluzas, Lauren Aquino; Masiello, Italo; Zary, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    . Suggestions for learning activities and the requirements of the learning environment form the foundation for AR to fill the gap between learning outcomes and medical learners’ personal paradigms. With the design framework, the expected rational use of antibiotics by GPs is described and is easy to execute and evaluate. The comparison of specific expected abilities with the GP personal paradigm helps solidify the GP practical learning objectives and helps design the learning environment and activities. The learning environment and activities were supported by learning theories. Conclusions This paper describes a framework for guiding the design, development, and application of mobile AR for medical education in the health care setting. The framework is theory driven with an understanding of the characteristics of AR and specific medical disciplines toward helping medical education improve professional development from knowledge to practice. Future research will use the framework as a guide for developing AR apps in practice to validate and improve the design framework. PMID:27731839

  15. Design Activity Framework for Visualization Design.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Sean; Mazur, Dominika; Agutter, James; Meyer, Miriah

    2014-12-01

    An important aspect in visualization design is the connection between what a designer does and the decisions the designer makes. Existing design process models, however, do not explicitly link back to models for visualization design decisions. We bridge this gap by introducing the design activity framework, a process model that explicitly connects to the nested model, a well-known visualization design decision model. The framework includes four overlapping activities that characterize the design process, with each activity explicating outcomes related to the nested model. Additionally, we describe and characterize a list of exemplar methods and how they overlap among these activities. The design activity framework is the result of reflective discussions from a collaboration on a visualization redesign project, the details of which we describe to ground the framework in a real-world design process. Lastly, from this redesign project we provide several research outcomes in the domain of cybersecurity, including an extended data abstraction and rich opportunities for future visualization research. PMID:26356933

  16. Design Activity Framework for Visualization Design.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Sean; Mazur, Dominika; Agutter, James; Meyer, Miriah

    2014-12-01

    An important aspect in visualization design is the connection between what a designer does and the decisions the designer makes. Existing design process models, however, do not explicitly link back to models for visualization design decisions. We bridge this gap by introducing the design activity framework, a process model that explicitly connects to the nested model, a well-known visualization design decision model. The framework includes four overlapping activities that characterize the design process, with each activity explicating outcomes related to the nested model. Additionally, we describe and characterize a list of exemplar methods and how they overlap among these activities. The design activity framework is the result of reflective discussions from a collaboration on a visualization redesign project, the details of which we describe to ground the framework in a real-world design process. Lastly, from this redesign project we provide several research outcomes in the domain of cybersecurity, including an extended data abstraction and rich opportunities for future visualization research.

  17. Body parts in property theory: an integrated framework.

    PubMed

    Nwabueze, Remigius Nnamdi

    2014-01-01

    The role of property theory as a framework for analysis and regulation of body parts has become a debate of topical importance because of the emergence of biomedical technologies that utilise body parts, and also because the application of the concept of property, even with respect to historically and traditionally accepted forms of property, raises serious challenges to the property analyst. However, there is another reason for the topicality of property in relation to body parts: a proprietary approach confers on a claimant the advantage of continuing control that is tellingly lacking in non-property frameworks underpinned, for instance, by consent, negligence, privacy and unjust enrichment rules. In some circumstances, such as an unauthorised blood test performed on a blood sample obtained with consent, the continuing control provided by property law might be the only chance a claimant has to obtain a remedy. Economy of space, however, requires that only a prolegomenon on body parts and property theory is given below. Thus, the analysis begins by providing in outline a framework for comprehensive analysis of body parts within the realm of property theory; thereafter, the author engages with the normative question of whether body parts or rights exercisable over body parts could be admitted into the category of property.

  18. A Bayesian framework for active artificial perception.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João Filipe; Lobo, Jorge; Bessière, Pierre; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Dias, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present a Bayesian framework for the active multimodal perception of 3-D structure and motion. The design of this framework finds its inspiration in the role of the dorsal perceptual pathway of the human brain. Its composing models build upon a common egocentric spatial configuration that is naturally fitting for the integration of readings from multiple sensors using a Bayesian approach. In the process, we will contribute with efficient and robust probabilistic solutions for cyclopean geometry-based stereovision and auditory perception based only on binaural cues, modeled using a consistent formalization that allows their hierarchical use as building blocks for the multimodal sensor fusion framework. We will explicitly or implicitly address the most important challenges of sensor fusion using this framework, for vision, audition, and vestibular sensing. Moreover, interaction and navigation require maximal awareness of spatial surroundings, which, in turn, is obtained through active attentional and behavioral exploration of the environment. The computational models described in this paper will support the construction of a simultaneously flexible and powerful robotic implementation of multimodal active perception to be used in real-world applications, such as human-machine interaction or mobile robot navigation.

  19. A Bayesian framework for active artificial perception.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João Filipe; Lobo, Jorge; Bessière, Pierre; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Dias, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present a Bayesian framework for the active multimodal perception of 3-D structure and motion. The design of this framework finds its inspiration in the role of the dorsal perceptual pathway of the human brain. Its composing models build upon a common egocentric spatial configuration that is naturally fitting for the integration of readings from multiple sensors using a Bayesian approach. In the process, we will contribute with efficient and robust probabilistic solutions for cyclopean geometry-based stereovision and auditory perception based only on binaural cues, modeled using a consistent formalization that allows their hierarchical use as building blocks for the multimodal sensor fusion framework. We will explicitly or implicitly address the most important challenges of sensor fusion using this framework, for vision, audition, and vestibular sensing. Moreover, interaction and navigation require maximal awareness of spatial surroundings, which, in turn, is obtained through active attentional and behavioral exploration of the environment. The computational models described in this paper will support the construction of a simultaneously flexible and powerful robotic implementation of multimodal active perception to be used in real-world applications, such as human-machine interaction or mobile robot navigation. PMID:23014760

  20. Evolutionary game theory as a framework for studying biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Pintor, Lauren M; Brown, Joel S; Vincent, Thomas L

    2011-04-01

    Although biological invasions pose serious threats to biodiversity, they also provide the opportunity to better understand interactions between the ecological and evolutionary processes structuring populations and communities. However, ecoevolutionary frameworks for studying species invasions are lacking. We propose using game theory and the concept of an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) as a conceptual framework for integrating the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of invasions. We suggest that the pathways by which a recipient community may have no ESS provide mechanistic hypotheses for how such communities may be vulnerable to invasion and how invaders can exploit these vulnerabilities. We distinguish among these pathways by formalizing the evolutionary contexts of the invader relative to the recipient community. We model both the ecological and the adaptive dynamics of the interacting species. We show how the ESS concept provides new mechanistic hypotheses for when invasions result in long- or short-term increases in biodiversity, species replacement, and subsequent evolutionary changes.

  1. Conceptual Change from the Framework Theory Side of the Fence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosniadou, Stella; Skopeliti, Irini

    2014-07-01

    We describe the main principles of the framework theory approach to conceptual change and briefly report on the results of a text comprehension study that investigated some of the hypotheses that derive from it. We claim that children construct a naive physics which is based on observation in the context of lay culture and which forms a relatively coherent conceptual system—i.e., a framework theory—that can be used as a basis for explanation and prediction of everyday phenomena. Learning science requires fundamental ontological, epistemological, and representational changes in naive physics. These conceptual changes take a long time to be achieved, giving rise to fragmentation and synthetic conceptions. We also argue that both fragmentation and synthetic conceptions can be explained to result from learners' attempts assimilate scientific information into their existing but incompatible naive physics.

  2. An Application of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marken, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Activity Theory has often been used in workplace settings to gain new theoretical understandings about work and the humans who engage in work, but rarely has there been sufficient detail in the literature to allow HPT practitioners to do their own activity analysis. The detail presented in this case is sufficient for HPT practitioners to begin to…

  3. [Relational frame theory - a theoretical framework for contextual behavioral science].

    PubMed

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-05-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms.

  4. Operator space theory: a natural framework for bell inequalities.

    PubMed

    Junge, M; Palazuelos, C; Pérez-García, D; Villanueva, I; Wolf, M M

    2010-04-30

    In this Letter we show that the field of operator space theory provides a general and powerful mathematical framework for arbitrary Bell inequalities, in particular, regarding the scaling of their violation within quantum mechanics. We illustrate the power of this connection by showing that bipartite quantum states with local, Hilbert space dimension n can violate a Bell inequality by a factor of order sqrt[n]/(log{2}n) when observables with n possible outcomes are used. Applications to resistance to noise, Hilbert space dimension estimates, and communication complexity are given.

  5. Variation Theory: A Theory of Learning and a Useful Theoretical Framework for Chemical Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay; Crippen, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors are constantly baffled by the fact that two students who are sitting in the same class, who have access to the same materials, can come to understand a particular chemistry concept differently. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore possible variations in experience and the resulting differences in…

  6. Parallel framework for wormlike chains using self consistent field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, David; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar

    2015-03-01

    The Gaussian chain model commonly used in Self Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) has enabled study of a wide range of macromolecule systems; however, the flexible nature of the model makes it unsuitable for many biomolecules and systems such as liquid crystals where alignment effects are critical. The orientations accounted for in a wormlike chain model can correctly capture the physics of these systems. The primary problem with a wormlike chain model is the computational cost of implementation, which far exceeds that of the Gaussian chain model. We address this problem though a parallel SCFT framework for wormlike chains incorporating orientation interactions. The framework can scale to 10s of thousands of processors using an efficient finite element (FE) approach. Orientations are treated with an FE in FE method which overlays a surface orientation mesh on top of the spatial geometry mesh. The finite element approach allows use of arbitrarily shaped systems and is ideal for studying confinement effects. We explore how this framework works on a few examples for polymers confined to a sphere.

  7. Technology, Mathematics and Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes 11 papers in which the authors report their research on technology as enhancement in the teaching and learning of mathematics, in the context of the application of activity theory for design and/or analysis. There is considerable diversity across the papers in how the authors have interpreted their task and in particular how…

  8. A framework for applying ethical theory to public health practice.

    PubMed

    Sciegaj, M; Wade, T E; Dever, G E; Alley, J W

    1987-05-01

    Like most other public health agencies, the Georgia Department of Human Resources, Division of Public Health (DPH) has encountered a growing number of questions and conflicts with ethical implications. To address these and other questions, DPH started to develop a framework, in January 1985, specifically related to solving problems, setting priorities, and developing policy that adds an ethical perspective. DPH must deal with issues and conflicts that transcend the traditional model of medical care: with the new economic reality, programs must continue with less resources; medical technology is now raising questions, but not necesarily answers, related to life and death; and the rights and responsibilities of individuals and institutions are not clearly defined. In this context, DPH has started to examine ethical considerations with respect to the individual and the community. An interface exists between ethical theory and health care. Over the years, however, this relationship has assumed different manifestations, ranging from the formation of precise conduct codes for health care professionals to the establishment of review boards that examine specific morally questionable procedures. DPH's purpose in applying ethical theory to its health care practices is not to develop an inflexible code nor a committee to review isolated cases of moral conflict. The purpose is to use ethical theory as a form of vision for the remainder of the 1980s and beyond.

  9. Reconstructing inflationary paradigm within Effective Field Theory framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Sayantan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper my prime objective is to analyse the constraints on a sub-Planckian excursion of a single inflaton field within Effective Field Theory framework in a model independent fashion. For a generic single field inflationary potential, using the various parameterization of the primordial power spectrum I have derived the most general expression for the field excursion in terms of various inflationary observables, applying the observational constraints obtained from recent Planck 2015 and Planck 2015 + BICEP2/Keck Array data. By explicit computation I have reconstructed the structural form of the inflationary potential by constraining the Taylor expansion co-efficients appearing in the generic expansion of the potential within the Effective Field Theory. Next I have explicitly derived, a set of higher order inflationary consistency relationships, which would help us to break the degeneracy between various class of inflationary models by differentiating them. I also provided two simple examples of Effective Theory of inflation- inflection-point model and saddle-point model to check the compatibility of the prescribed methodology in the light of Planck 2015 and Planck 2015 + BICEP2/Keck Array data. Finally, I have also checked the validity of the prescription by estimating the cosmological parameters and fitting the theoretical CMB TT, TE and EE angular power spectra with the observed data within the multipole range 2 < l < 2500.

  10. Concerning interpretations of activity theory.

    PubMed

    Mironenko, Irina A

    2013-09-01

    Activity theory (AT) is the most recognised part of Russian psychology outside Russia. However the general view of AT in international science is rather unilateral, lacking substantial aspects and areas necessary for proper understanding. This article is aimed at expanding the image of AT dominant in the mainstream which reduces the AT trend to A.N. Leontiev's theory. This reduction impoverishes the creative potentialities of the trend, and decreases the ability of AT to contribute to international science. We aim to reveal that AT is not limited to Leontiev's approach, to explain which ideas of the founders of AT, S.L. Rubinstein and L.S. Vygotsky, were pursued and which were rejected by A.N. Leontiev, and to assess another important contribution to the AT trend - the theory of B.G. Ananiev, where the ideas of AT's founders were developed which were not succeeded by A.N. Leontiev. Historical causes and consequences of the general reduction of the image of AT in the mainstream to Leontiev's theory are considered: why the discrepancies between views of Rubinstein, Vygotsky and Leontiev were hardly ever discussed in public and why other theories contemporary to Leontiev's theory were never given account appropriate to their value in Russia and remain almost unknown abroad. PMID:23512520

  11. Concerning interpretations of activity theory.

    PubMed

    Mironenko, Irina A

    2013-09-01

    Activity theory (AT) is the most recognised part of Russian psychology outside Russia. However the general view of AT in international science is rather unilateral, lacking substantial aspects and areas necessary for proper understanding. This article is aimed at expanding the image of AT dominant in the mainstream which reduces the AT trend to A.N. Leontiev's theory. This reduction impoverishes the creative potentialities of the trend, and decreases the ability of AT to contribute to international science. We aim to reveal that AT is not limited to Leontiev's approach, to explain which ideas of the founders of AT, S.L. Rubinstein and L.S. Vygotsky, were pursued and which were rejected by A.N. Leontiev, and to assess another important contribution to the AT trend - the theory of B.G. Ananiev, where the ideas of AT's founders were developed which were not succeeded by A.N. Leontiev. Historical causes and consequences of the general reduction of the image of AT in the mainstream to Leontiev's theory are considered: why the discrepancies between views of Rubinstein, Vygotsky and Leontiev were hardly ever discussed in public and why other theories contemporary to Leontiev's theory were never given account appropriate to their value in Russia and remain almost unknown abroad.

  12. Io. [theories concerning volcanic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    A report on the continuing investigation of Io is presented. Gravitational resonance is discussed as the cause of Io's volcanism, and the volcanic activity is explained in terms of sulfur chemistry. Theories concerning the reasons for the two main types of volcanic eruptions on Io are advanced and correlated with geographical features of the satellite. The sulfur and silicate models of the calderas are presented, citing the strengths and weaknesses of each. Problems of the gravitational resonance theory of Io's heat source are then described. Finally, observations of Io planned for the Galileo mission are summarized.

  13. PDAs as Lifelong Learning Tools: An Activity Theory Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waycott, Jenny; Jones, Ann; Scanlon, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an activity theory (AT) framework to analyze the ways that distance part time learners and mobile workers adapted and appropriated mobile devices for their activities and in turn how their use of these new tools changed the ways that they carried out their learning or their work. It is argued that there are two key…

  14. An Assessment of Agency Theory as a Framework for the Government-University Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivisto, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to use agency theory as the theoretical framework for an examination of the government-university relationship and to assess the main strengths and weaknesses of the theory in this context. Because of its logically consistent framework, agency theory is able to manifest many of the complexities and difficulties that…

  15. Models and theories of brain function in cognition within a framework of behavioral cognitive psychology.

    PubMed

    Karakaş, Sirel; Başar, Erol

    2006-05-01

    The present article presents a nonexhaustive collection of contemporary models and theories on brain function and discusses these models and theories within a framework of explanatory formulations in behavioral cognitive psychology. Such a mission was accomplished by evaluating the cognitive implications in the explanatory formulations with respect to established laws/principles and models/theories of behavioral cognitive psychology. The article also points to problem areas of behavioral cognitive psychology for which the explanatory formulations have solutions to offer. The article shows that the cinematographic hypothesis, the new visual model, the synergetic model, and the theory of whole-brain-work emphasize various aspects of perception. The formulations on P300 theory emphasize attention and also working memory. The theory on cognits is a comprehensive account of memory. Characteristic to all of these explanatory formulations and also to that on the complexity and its evolution and that on neurocognitive networks is the emphasis on selective distribution, integration to the point of supersynergy, and dynamicity. Such a viewpoint was not only applied to the operations of the brain but also of cognition. With such a conceptualization, the explanatory formulations could account for cognitive processes other than the ones emphasized. A common aspect in a majority of the formulations is the utilization of the oscillatory activity as the valid activity of the brain. The article points out that a frontier in cognitive psychophysiology would be the study of the genetics of brain oscillations.

  16. Social theory and current affairs: a framework for intellectual engagement.

    PubMed

    Stones, Rob

    2014-06-01

    The paper aims to facilitate more adequate critical engagement with current affairs events by journalists, and with current affairs texts by audiences. It draws on social theory to provide the intellectual resources to enable this. The academic ambition is for the framework to be adopted and developed by social thinkers in producing exemplary critical readings of news and current affairs texts. To this end it is offered as a research paradigm. The paper situates its argument in relation to the wider literature in media and cultural studies, acknowledging the subtle skills required to appreciate the relative autonomy of texts. However, it draws attention to the lack of an adequate perspective with which to assess the frames, representations, and judgments within news and current affairs texts. To address this lacuna it proposes the conception of a social-theoretical frame, based on a number of meta-theoretical approaches, designed to provide audiences with a systematic means of addressing the status and adequacy of individual texts. Social theoretical frames can reveal the shortcomings of media framing of the contextual fields within which news and current affairs events take place. Two illustrative case studies are used to indicate the value and potential of the approach: the analysis of a short newspaper report of the return of protesters to Cairo's Tahrir Square in 2011, and a critique of four current affairs reports from various genres on the political turmoil in Thailand leading up to the clashes of May 2010.

  17. Using Activity Theory to Model the Taiwan Atayal Students' Classroom Mathematical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chih-Hsien; Lin, Fou-Lai

    2013-01-01

    From the sociocultural perspective, this research utilized activity theory as the theoretical framework to analyze the influences of cultural factors for Taiwanese Atayal junior high school students' study in mathematics. The research methodology adopted grounded theory, theoretical and methodological approaches which are illustrated through…

  18. "Vygotsky's Neglected Legacy": Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lee, Yew-Jin

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe an evolving theoretical framework that has been called one of the best kept secrets of academia: cultural-historical activity theory, the result of proposals Lev Vygotsky first articulated but that his students and followers substantially developed to constitute much expanded forms in its second and third generations. Besides…

  19. Videogames, Tools for Change: A Study Based on Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Méndez, Laura; Lacasa, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for analysis from which to interpret the transformations that take place, as perceived by the participants, when commercial video games are used in the classroom. We will show how Activity Theory (AT) is able to explain and interpret these changes. Method: Case studies are…

  20. Rethinking the Introduction of Particle Theory: A Substance-Based Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Philip; Papageorgiou, George

    2010-01-01

    In response to extensive research exposing students' poor understanding of the particle theory of matter, this article argues that the conceptual framework within which the theory is introduced could be a limiting factor. The standard school particle model is characterized as operating within a "solids, liquids, and gases" framework. Drawing on an…

  1. Hope Theory: A Framework for Understanding Suicidal Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grewal, Parveen; Porter, James

    2007-01-01

    This article examines C. R. Snyder's (1994, 2000a) theory of hope and its application for understanding suicide. Strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in the suicide literature are outlined, and A. T. Beck's theory of hopelessness is compared with Snyder's hope theory. Hope theory constructs are used to examine the relationship of suicide to…

  2. Theory of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    The involvement of accretion disks around supermassive black holes in the theory of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is discussed. The physics of thin and thick accretion disks is discussed and the partition between thermal and nonthermal energy production in supermassive disks is seen as uncertain. The thermal limit cycle may operate in supermassive disks (Shields, 1985), with accumulation of gas in the disk for periods of 10 to the 4th to 10 to the 7th years, punctuated by briefer outbursts during which the mass is rapidly transferred to smaller radii. An extended X-ray source in AGN is consistent with observations (Tennant and Mushotsky, 1983), and a large wind mass loss rate exceeding the central accretion rate means that only a fraction of the mass entering the disk will reach the central object; the rest being lost to the wind. Controversy in the relationship between the broad lines and the disk is also discussed.

  3. What propels sexual murderers: a proposed integrated theory of social learning and routine activities theories.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Beauregard, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Despite the great interest in the study of sexual homicide, little is known about the processes involved in an individual's becoming motivated to sexually kill, deciding to sexually kill, and acting on that desire, intention, and opportunity. To date, no comprehensive model of sexual murdering from the offending perspective has been proposed in the criminological literature. This article incorporates the works of Akers and Cohen and Felson regarding their social learning theory and routine activities theory, respectively, to construct an integrated conceptual offending framework in sexual homicide. This integrated model produces a stronger and more comprehensive explanation of sexual murder than any single theory currently available.

  4. What propels sexual murderers: a proposed integrated theory of social learning and routine activities theories.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Beauregard, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Despite the great interest in the study of sexual homicide, little is known about the processes involved in an individual's becoming motivated to sexually kill, deciding to sexually kill, and acting on that desire, intention, and opportunity. To date, no comprehensive model of sexual murdering from the offending perspective has been proposed in the criminological literature. This article incorporates the works of Akers and Cohen and Felson regarding their social learning theory and routine activities theory, respectively, to construct an integrated conceptual offending framework in sexual homicide. This integrated model produces a stronger and more comprehensive explanation of sexual murder than any single theory currently available. PMID:20160008

  5. A Test for Theoretical Integration: Systems Theory Framework and Dialogical Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlveen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Theory Framework (STF) is presented as an integrating and organising concept for the predominant theories of career. In order to test the integrative capacity of the STF, this research merges the STF's theoretical element of story with the Theory of Dialogical Self's model of personality. Implications for the practice of career…

  6. Perturbative quantum field theory in the framework of the fermionic projector

    SciTech Connect

    Finster, Felix

    2014-04-15

    We give a microscopic derivation of perturbative quantum field theory, taking causal fermion systems and the framework of the fermionic projector as the starting point. The resulting quantum field theory agrees with standard quantum field theory on the tree level and reproduces all bosonic loop diagrams. The fermion loops are described in a different formalism in which no ultraviolet divergences occur.

  7. The Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory as a curriculum conceptual framework in baccalaureate education.

    PubMed

    Berbiglia, Violeta A

    2011-04-01

    Although Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory has been used for curricula framework for years, it was not until 2001 that Orem identified the nursing practice sciences and the foundational nursing sciences and specified the appropriate content for the two sciences. The broad purpose of this paper is to reinforce the importance of utilizing nursing theories as curricular conceptual frameworks. The specific purpose is to delineate the appropriate content for baccalaureate programs that adopt a Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory conceptual framework for their curriculum. PMID:21471038

  8. Root Metaphor Theory: A Philosophical Framework for Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyddon, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Offers an overview of the root metaphors and philosophical assumptions associated with formism, mechanism, contextualism, and organicism, the four world views described in Pepper's 1942 philosophical treatise and his presentation of root metaphor theory. Examines recent and historical trends of development in counseling theory and practice within…

  9. Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

  10. The Mapping of a Framework: Critical Race Theory and TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liggett, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…

  11. Coalescent: an open-source and scalable framework for exact calculations in coalescent theory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there is no open-source, cross-platform and scalable framework for coalescent analysis in population genetics. There is no scalable GUI based user application either. Such a framework and application would not only drive the creation of more complex and realistic models but also make them truly accessible. Results As a first attempt, we built a framework and user application for the domain of exact calculations in coalescent analysis. The framework provides an API with the concepts of model, data, statistic, phylogeny, gene tree and recursion. Infinite-alleles and infinite-sites models are considered. It defines pluggable computations such as counting and listing all the ancestral configurations and genealogies and computing the exact probability of data. It can visualize a gene tree, trace and visualize the internals of the recursion algorithm for further improvement and attach dynamically a number of output processors. The user application defines jobs in a plug-in like manner so that they can be activated, deactivated, installed or uninstalled on demand. Multiple jobs can be run and their inputs edited. Job inputs are persisted across restarts and running jobs can be cancelled where applicable. Conclusions Coalescent theory plays an increasingly important role in analysing molecular population genetic data. Models involved are mathematically difficult and computationally challenging. An open-source, scalable framework that lets users immediately take advantage of the progress made by others will enable exploration of yet more difficult and realistic models. As models become more complex and mathematically less tractable, the need for an integrated computational approach is obvious. Object oriented designs, though has upfront costs, are practical now and can provide such an integrated approach. PMID:23033878

  12. A Unified Framework for Monetary Theory and Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagos, Ricardo; Wright, Randall

    2005-01-01

    Search-theoretic models of monetary exchange are based on explicit descriptions of the frictions that make money essential. However, tractable versions of these models typically make strong assumptions that render them ill suited for monetary policy analysis. We propose a new framework, based on explicit micro foundations, within which macro…

  13. Connecting Practice, Theory and Method: Supporting Professional Doctoral Students in Developing Conceptual Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Swapna; Antonenko, Pavlo

    2014-01-01

    From an instrumental view, conceptual frameworks that are carefully assembled from existing literature in Educational Technology and related disciplines can help students structure all aspects of inquiry. In this article we detail how the development of a conceptual framework that connects theory, practice and method is scaffolded and facilitated…

  14. Using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory to Design and Evaluate an Educational Game in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarou, D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) at the initial stages of the design process of an educational game, by exploring how the theory can be used as a framework for producing not only usable but also useful computer tools. The research also aimed to investigate how the theory could…

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Landau Migdal theory of interacting Fermi systems: a framework for effective theories in nuclear structure physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grümmer, Frank; Speth, Josef

    2006-07-01

    We review Migdal's theory of finite Fermi systems and its application to the structure of nuclei. The theory is an extension of Landau's theory of interacting Fermi systems. In the first part the basic formulae are derived within the many-body Green functions approach. The theory is applied to isovector electric giant resonances in medium and heavy mass nuclei. The parameterizations of the renormalized effective ph-interaction and the effective operators are discussed. It is shown that the number of free parameters is restricted by conservation laws. We also present an extension of Migdal's theory, where the low-lying phonons are considered in a consistent manner. The extended theory is again applied to the same isovector electric giant resonances and to the analysis of (α, α') reaction data. We point out that the extended theory is the appropriate framework for self-consistent nuclear structure calculations starting from effective Lagrangians and Hamiltonians.

  16. Using Student Development Theories as Conceptual Frameworks in Leadership Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Julie E.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of student learning and development are particularly important in leadership education because they make prescriptions about how people can adopt increasingly complex ways of being, knowing, and doing--essential forms of development for leadership learning. Increasingly, there is a call for leadership educators to adopt interdisciplinary…

  17. Aspects of Theories, Frameworks and Paradigms in Mathematics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses major theoretical debates and paradigms from the last decades in general education and their specific influences in mathematics education contexts. Behaviourism, cognitive science, constructivism, situated cognition, critical theory, place-based learning, postmodernism and poststructuralism and their significant aspects in…

  18. Barker's Behavior Setting Theory: A Useful Conceptual Framework for Research on Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, S. J.; Scott, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Research in educational administration needs a coherent empirical base for a comprehensive, ecologically valid theory of administration. This paper describes Roger Barker's Behavior Setting Theory and promotes it as a broad-based conceptual framework for research on educational administration. (Author/TE)

  19. Generalizability Theory as a Unifying Framework of Measurement Reliability in Adolescent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao; Sun, Shaojing

    2014-01-01

    In adolescence research, the treatment of measurement reliability is often fragmented, and it is not always clear how different reliability coefficients are related. We show that generalizability theory (G-theory) is a comprehensive framework of measurement reliability, encompassing all other reliability methods (e.g., Pearson "r,"…

  20. Active cell mechanics: Measurement and theory.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Fodor, Étienne; Betz, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Living cells are active mechanical systems that are able to generate forces. Their structure and shape are primarily determined by biopolymer filaments and molecular motors that form the cytoskeleton. Active force generation requires constant consumption of energy to maintain the nonequilibrium activity to drive organization and transport processes necessary for their function. To understand this activity it is necessary to develop new approaches to probe the underlying physical processes. Active cell mechanics incorporates active molecular-scale force generation into the traditional framework of mechanics of materials. This review highlights recent experimental and theoretical developments towards understanding active cell mechanics. We focus primarily on intracellular mechanical measurements and theoretical advances utilizing the Langevin framework. These developing approaches allow a quantitative understanding of nonequilibrium mechanical activity in living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

  1. Extended scalar-tensor theory and thermodynamics in teleparallel framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salti, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Oktay; Acikgoz, Irfan

    2016-09-01

    We present here a new modified gravitation theory for the galactic dark energy effect by using a general Lagrangian density which is represented by an arbitrary function f(T, ϕ, X) where T describes the torsion scalar in teleparallel gravity while X shows the kinetic scalar field energy. While the function is in general form, once reduced, the model can be transformed into some of the other well-known gravitation theories. After deriving the corresponding field equations and considering the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker type universe which is filled with ordinary cosmic matter, we discuss both the non-equilibrium and equilibrium profiles of galactic thermodynamics. We find that there exists an equilibrium picture of thermodynamics. Additionally, we also generalize ordinary f(T, ϕ, X) model’s action to the case in which there exists an interaction between the chameleon and scalar fields.

  2. Online Asynchronous Threaded Discussions: Good Enough to Advance Students through the Proximal Zone of Activity Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurino, Paula San Millan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study which involved researching student interaction and participation under the lens of Activity Theory and Social Computing. Activity Theory is a philosophical framework that integrates the objective, the sociocultural, and the ecological, while Social Computing describes any type of computing application in which software…

  3. Interactive image segmentation framework based on control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liangjia; Kolesov, Ivan; Ratner, Vadim; Karasev, Peter; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2015-03-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical imagery is a key step in a variety of clinical applications. Designing a generic, automated method that works for various structures and imaging modalities is a daunting task. Instead of proposing a new specific segmentation algorithm, in this paper, we present a general design principle on how to integrate user interactions from the perspective of control theory. In this formulation, Lyapunov stability analysis is employed to design an interactive segmentation system. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method are demonstrated.

  4. Activation Theory and Uses and Gratifications Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, E. D.

    Uses and gratifications research involves a critical appraisal of conceptual and theoretical issues in mass communication and is concerned with what audience members do with the media. Activation theory understands people as active manipulators of their environment. (Activation refers to that level of psychological and physiological excitement an…

  5. The ICAP Framework: Linking Cognitive Engagement to Active Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Michelene T. H.; Wylie, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the ICAP framework that defines cognitive engagement activities on the basis of students' overt behaviors and proposes that engagement behaviors can be categorized and differentiated into one of four modes: "Interactive," "Constructive," "Active," and "Passive." The ICAP…

  6. The potential of critical social theory as an educational framework for people with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Bergin, Michael; Wells, John S G

    2016-01-01

    Effective education can support people with epilepsy to develop the attributes and skills required to function as equal partners with clinical service providers, make informed decisions, and competently self-manage their healthcare. However, despite knowledge deficits, unmet information needs, and a poor sense of empowerment, the study of education for people with epilepsy is often neglected and is a poorly understood component of holistic practice within epilepsy healthcare. Historically, the only debate with regard to education and people with epilepsy has been guided either within a positivist or within a constructivist philosophy. We argue that new pedagogies are warranted, recognizing the views of people with epilepsy regarding their illness. Therefore, this paper explores the potential of an educational framework for people with epilepsy based upon critical social theory (CST). By utilizing a CST approach for education, people with epilepsy are engaged with as active 'participants'. This is a key difference that distinguishes CST from other metatheoretical frameworks. It has the potential to support people with epilepsy to acquire the skills and confidence to manage the biopsychosocial challenges associated with their condition.

  7. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    PubMed

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  8. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a “Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind” that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call “Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind.” While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation. PMID:26236228

  9. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    PubMed

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation. PMID:26236228

  10. A Lightweight Hierarchical Activity Recognition Framework Using Smartphone Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Manhyung; Bang, Jae Hun; Nugent, Chris; McClean, Sally; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    Activity recognition for the purposes of recognizing a user's intentions using multimodal sensors is becoming a widely researched topic largely based on the prevalence of the smartphone. Previous studies have reported the difficulty in recognizing life-logs by only using a smartphone due to the challenges with activity modeling and real-time recognition. In addition, recognizing life-logs is difficult due to the absence of an established framework which enables the use of different sources of sensor data. In this paper, we propose a smartphone-based Hierarchical Activity Recognition Framework which extends the Naïve Bayes approach for the processing of activity modeling and real-time activity recognition. The proposed algorithm demonstrates higher accuracy than the Naïve Bayes approach and also enables the recognition of a user's activities within a mobile environment. The proposed algorithm has the ability to classify fifteen activities with an average classification accuracy of 92.96%. PMID:25184486

  11. Culture care theory: a framework for expanding awareness of diversity and racism in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    As American society becomes increasingly diverse, and the nursing profession does not, there has been a focus on promoting both cultural competence and diversity within the profession. Although culture and diversity are widely discussed in nursing education, the issue of racism may be avoided or suppressed. Institutionalized racism within nursing education must be acknowledged and discussed before nursing education may be transformed. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory is an established nursing theory that emphasizes culture and care as essential concepts in nursing. Theoretical frameworks abound in nursing, and Culture Care Theory may be underutilized and misunderstood within nursing education. This article examines the issue of racism in nursing education and recommends Culture Care Theory as a relevant framework for enhancing both cultural competence and diversity.

  12. Psychosocial Factors and Theory in Physical Activity Studies in Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McNeill, Lorna H.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To summarize the effectiveness of interventions targeting psychosocial factors to increase physical activity (PA) among ethnic minority adults and explore theory use in PA interventions. Methods Studies (N = 11) were identified through a systematic review and targeted African American/Hispanic adults, specific psychosocial factors, and PA. Data were extracted using a standard code sheet and the Theory Coding Scheme. Results Social support was the most common psychosocial factor reported, followed by motivational readiness, and self-efficacy, as being associated with increased PA. Only 7 studies explicitly reported using a theoretical framework. Conclusions Future efforts should explore theory use in PA interventions and how integration of theoretical constructs, including psychosocial factors, increases PA. PMID:25290599

  13. Bayesian inference and decision theory - A framework for decision making in natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, R.M.; Johnson, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian inference and decision theory may be used in the solution of relatively complex problems of natural resource management, owing to recent advances in statistical theory and computing. In particular, Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms provide a computational framework for fitting models of adequate complexity and for evaluating the expected consequences of alternative management actions. We illustrate these features using an example based on management of waterfowl habitat.

  14. Changing Investment in Activities and Interests in Elders' Lives: Theory and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kathryn Betts

    2004-01-01

    Socioemotional selectivity and gerotranscendence, newer theories with roots in the disengagement theory of aging, provided the theoretical framework for a new measure of perceived change in investment in a variety of pursuits. The 30-item Change in Activity and Interest Index (CAII) was given to a sample of 327 outpatients aged 65-94. Items with…

  15. An Evolving Framework for Describing Student Engagement in Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Flavio S.; diSessa, Andrea A.; Sherin, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Student engagement in classroom activities is usually described as a function of factors such as human needs, affect, intention, motivation, interests, identity, and others. We take a different approach and develop a framework that models classroom engagement as a function of students' "conceptual competence" in the "specific content" (e.g., the…

  16. A Longitudinal Examination of Adolescent Career Planning and Exploration Using a Social Cognitive Career Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), as a framework to investigate predictors of career choice actions, operationalised as career planning and career exploration. The model was tested cross-sectionally and longitudinally with 631 high school students enrolled in Grades 10-12. Students completed measures of…

  17. Facilitator Presence and Identity in Online Discourse: Use of Positioning Theory as an Analytic Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennen, Vanessa P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, positioning theory was used as a theoretical framework for analyzing facilitator presence and identity in online discussion transcripts. The study has two purposes. First, the study provides a description of naturally occurring facilitator positioning by facilitators and students in two online and two blended classes. Second, it…

  18. Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

  19. Towards a Research Framework for Race in Education: Critical Race Theory and Judith Butler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    There has been much debate around the extent to which post-structuralist theory can be applied to critical research. In this article, it is argued that aspects of the two approaches can be combined, resulting in productive tensions that point towards a possible new framework for researching race and racism in education in the UK. The article…

  20. Argumentation, Dialogue Theory, and Probability Modeling: Alternative Frameworks for Argumentation Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Toulmin's model of argumentation, developed in 1958, has guided much argumentation research in education. However, argumentation theory in philosophy and cognitive science has advanced considerably since 1958. There are currently several alternative frameworks of argumentation that can be useful for both research and practice in education. These…

  1. Understanding Critical Race Theory as a Framework in Higher Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savas, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature to discuss how critical race theory has been applied as a theoretical framework to higher educational research in the United States and what its contributions are. To provide necessary context, I will discuss race and racism in the United States, the background of US higher education in relation to race,…

  2. The Power of Social Theory: The Anti-Colonial Discursive Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefa Dei, George J.; Asgharzadeh, Alireza

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the anti-colonial discourse as a guiding framework for forming alliances and partnerships among anti-oppression activists in academia and the larger society. Asserts that the anti-colonial discourse seeks to reclaim a new independent space strongly connected to other theories, such as Marxist, feminist, and deconstructionist. Describes…

  3. Self-determination theory: a framework for clubhouse psychosocial rehabilitation research.

    PubMed

    Raeburn, Toby; Schmied, Virginia; Hungerford, Catherine; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    The Clubhouse model is a widely used approach to psychosocial rehabilitation that has been a pioneer in supporting recovery-oriented programmes. Little consideration has been given however, to the theories that guide research of the recovery practices used by Clubhouses. In this paper, we provide a description of self-determination theory, including its philosophical background followed by explanation of its relevance to health care and Clubhouse contexts. We argue that self-determination theory provides a robust social constructionist theoretical framework that is well-suited to informing research related to psychosocial rehabilitation, recovery-oriented practices and the Clubhouse model.

  4. Integrating Theory and Practice to Increase Scientific Workforce Diversity: A Framework for Career Development in Graduate Research Training

    PubMed Central

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Gutierrez, Belinda; Topp, Sharon; Carnes, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Few, if any, educational interventions intended to increase underrepresented minority (URM) graduate students in biological and behavioral sciences are informed by theory and research on career persistence. Training and Education to Advance Minority Scholars in Science (TEAM-Science) is a program funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences at the University of Wisconsin–Madison with the twin goals of increasing the number of URM students entering and completing a PhD in BBS and increasing the number of these students who pursue academic careers. A framework for career development in graduate research training is proposed using social cognitive career theory. Based on this framework, TEAM-Science has five core components: 1) mentor training for the research advisor, 2) eight consensus-derived fundamental competencies required for a successful academic career, 3) career coaching by a senior faculty member, 4) an individualized career development plan that aligns students’ activities with the eight fundamental competencies, and 5) a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats personal career analysis. This paper describes the theoretical framework used to guide development of these components, the research and evaluation plan, and early experience implementing the program. We discuss the potential of this framework to increase desired career outcomes for URM graduate trainees in mentored research programs and, thereby, strengthen the effectiveness of such interventions on participants’ career behaviors. PMID:22135370

  5. Integrating theory and practice to increase scientific workforce diversity: a framework for career development in graduate research training.

    PubMed

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Gutierrez, Belinda; Topp, Sharon; Carnes, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Few, if any, educational interventions intended to increase underrepresented minority (URM) graduate students in biological and behavioral sciences are informed by theory and research on career persistence. Training and Education to Advance Minority Scholars in Science (TEAM-Science) is a program funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Madison with the twin goals of increasing the number of URM students entering and completing a PhD in BBS and increasing the number of these students who pursue academic careers. A framework for career development in graduate research training is proposed using social cognitive career theory. Based on this framework, TEAM-Science has five core components: 1) mentor training for the research advisor, 2) eight consensus-derived fundamental competencies required for a successful academic career, 3) career coaching by a senior faculty member, 4) an individualized career development plan that aligns students' activities with the eight fundamental competencies, and 5) a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats personal career analysis. This paper describes the theoretical framework used to guide development of these components, the research and evaluation plan, and early experience implementing the program. We discuss the potential of this framework to increase desired career outcomes for URM graduate trainees in mentored research programs and, thereby, strengthen the effectiveness of such interventions on participants' career behaviors.

  6. An Activity Theory Approach to Analyze Barriers to a Virtual Management Information Systems (MIS) Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaradat, Suhair; Qablan, Ahmad; Barham, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains how the activity theory is used as a framework to analyze the barriers to a virtual Management Information Stream (MIS) Curriculum in Jordanian schools, from both the sociocultural and pedagogical perspectives. Taking the activity system as a unit of analysis, this study documents the processes by which activities shape and are…

  7. Analyzing learning during Peer Instruction dialogues: A resource activation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Hardy, Judy; Sinclair, Christine M.

    2014-12-01

    Peer Instruction (PI) is an evidence based pedagogy commonly used in undergraduate physics instruction. When asked questions designed to test conceptual understanding, it has been observed that the proportion of students choosing the correct answer increases following peer discussion; however, relatively little is known about what takes place during these discussions or how they are beneficial to the processes of learning physics [M. C. James and S. Willoughby, Am. J. Phys. 79, 123 (2011)]. In this paper a framework for analyzing PI discussions developed through the lens of the "resources model" [D. Hammer, Am. J. Phys. 64, 1316 (1996); D. Hammer et al., Information Age Publishing (2005)] is proposed. A central hypothesis for this framework is that the dialogue with peers plays a crucial role in activating appropriate cognitive resources, enabling the students to see the problem differently, and therefore to answer the questions correctly. This framework is used to gain greater insights into the PI discussions of first year undergraduate physics students at the University of Edinburgh, UK, which were recorded using Livescribe Smartpens. Analysis of the dialogues revealed three different types of resource activation corresponding to increasing cognitive grain size. These were activation of knowledge elements, activation of linkages between knowledge elements, and activation of control structures (epistemic games and epistemological frames). Three case studies are examined to illustrate the role that peer dialogue plays in the activation of these cognitive resources in a PI session. The implications for pedagogical practice are discussed.

  8. Activity Theory and Language Teacher Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a broadly sociocultural perspective on the development of an Armenian English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher. It focuses on how experiences and actions outside the professional development classroom influence language teacher agency. The paper is framed within activity theory and specifically draws on Galperin's orienting…

  9. An expanded framework to determine physical activity and falls risks among diverse older adults.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Falling is a major health-related risk among older adults due to injuries, disability, and even death. Although physical activity (PA) can prevent falls, most older adults are inactive due to limited motivation. The purpose was to examine a motivational framework whereby the stages of change (SOC) and PA mediated the relations between the theory of planned behavior constructs and falls risks among 172 diverse older adults (M age = 72.36). The participants were assessed using standardized scales. Based on the path analysis, the hypothesized framework fit the sample data. The SOC and perceived control had significant path coefficients for PA (.48 and .43, respectively), and PA was linked to falls risks (-.54). Subjective norm was mostly associated with the SOC followed by attitude and perceived control. The variance explained in the SOC, PA, and falls risks were 28%, 59%, and 29%, respectively. Health promoters can use the proposed framework to promote PA and decrease falls risk. PMID:25651602

  10. An Alienation-Based Framework for Student Experience in Higher Education: New Interpretations of Past Observations in Student Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Bradford; Ginns, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article orients a recently proposed alienation-based framework for student learning theory (SLT) to the empirical basis of the approaches to learning perspective. The proposed framework makes new macro-level interpretations of an established micro-level theory, across three levels of interpretation: (1) a context-free psychological state…

  11. Transition path theory analysis of c-Src kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yilin; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S; Roux, Benoît

    2016-08-16

    Nonreceptor tyrosine kinases of the Src family are large multidomain allosteric proteins that are crucial to cellular signaling pathways. In a previous study, we generated a Markov state model (MSM) to simulate the activation of c-Src catalytic domain, used as a prototypical tyrosine kinase. The long-time kinetics of transition predicted by the MSM was in agreement with experimental observations. In the present study, we apply the framework of transition path theory (TPT) to the previously constructed MSM to characterize the main features of the activation pathway. The analysis indicates that the activating transition, in which the activation loop first opens up followed by an inward rotation of the αC-helix, takes place via a dense set of intermediate microstates distributed within a fairly broad "transition tube" in a multidimensional conformational subspace connecting the two end-point conformations. Multiple microstates with negligible equilibrium probabilities carry a large transition flux associated with the activating transition, which explains why extensive conformational sampling is necessary to accurately determine the kinetics of activation. Our results suggest that the combination of MSM with TPT provides an effective framework to represent conformational transitions in complex biomolecular systems. PMID:27482115

  12. Dynamo theory prediction of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamo theory technique to predict decadal time scale solar activity variations is introduced. The technique was developed following puzzling correlations involved with geomagnetic precursors of solar activity. Based upon this, a dynamo theory method was developed to predict solar activity. The method was used successfully in solar cycle 21 by Schatten, Scherrer, Svalgaard, and Wilcox, after testing with 8 prior solar cycles. Schatten and Sofia used the technique to predict an exceptionally large cycle, peaking early (in 1990) with a sunspot value near 170, likely the second largest on record. Sunspot numbers are increasing, suggesting that: (1) a large cycle is developing, and (2) that the cycle may even surpass the largest cycle (19). A Sporer Butterfly method shows that the cycle can now be expected to peak in the latter half of 1989, consistent with an amplitude comparable to the value predicted near the last solar minimum.

  13. The PROactive innovative conceptual framework on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dobbels, Fabienne; de Jong, Corina; Drost, Ellen; Elberse, Janneke; Feridou, Chryssoula; Jacobs, Laura; Rabinovich, Roberto; Frei, Anja; Puhan, Milo A; de Boer, Willem I; van der Molen, Thys; Williams, Kate; Pinnock, Hillary; Troosters, Thierry; Karlsson, Niklas; Kulich, Karoly; Rüdell, Katja

    2014-11-01

    Although physical activity is considered an important therapeutic target in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), what "physical activity" means to COPD patients and how their perspective is best measured is poorly understood. We designed a conceptual framework, guiding the development and content validation of two patient reported outcome (PRO) instruments on physical activity (PROactive PRO instruments). 116 patients from four European countries with diverse demographics and COPD phenotypes participated in three consecutive qualitative studies (63% male, age mean±sd 66±9 years, 35% Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage III-IV). 23 interviews and eight focus groups (n = 54) identified the main themes and candidate items of the framework. 39 cognitive debriefings allowed the clarity of the items and instructions to be optimised. Three themes emerged, i.e. impact of COPD on amount of physical activity, symptoms experienced during physical activity, and adaptations made to facilitate physical activity. The themes were similar irrespective of country, demographic or disease characteristics. Iterative rounds of appraisal and refinement of candidate items resulted in 30 items with a daily recall period and 34 items with a 7-day recall period. For the first time, our approach provides comprehensive insight on physical activity from the COPD patients' perspective. The PROactive PRO instruments' content validity represents the pivotal basis for empirically based item reduction and validation. PMID:25034563

  14. The PROactive innovative conceptual framework on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dobbels, Fabienne; de Jong, Corina; Drost, Ellen; Elberse, Janneke; Feridou, Chryssoula; Jacobs, Laura; Rabinovich, Roberto; Frei, Anja; Puhan, Milo A; de Boer, Willem I; van der Molen, Thys; Williams, Kate; Pinnock, Hillary; Troosters, Thierry; Karlsson, Niklas; Kulich, Karoly; Rüdell, Katja

    2014-11-01

    Although physical activity is considered an important therapeutic target in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), what "physical activity" means to COPD patients and how their perspective is best measured is poorly understood. We designed a conceptual framework, guiding the development and content validation of two patient reported outcome (PRO) instruments on physical activity (PROactive PRO instruments). 116 patients from four European countries with diverse demographics and COPD phenotypes participated in three consecutive qualitative studies (63% male, age mean±sd 66±9 years, 35% Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage III-IV). 23 interviews and eight focus groups (n = 54) identified the main themes and candidate items of the framework. 39 cognitive debriefings allowed the clarity of the items and instructions to be optimised. Three themes emerged, i.e. impact of COPD on amount of physical activity, symptoms experienced during physical activity, and adaptations made to facilitate physical activity. The themes were similar irrespective of country, demographic or disease characteristics. Iterative rounds of appraisal and refinement of candidate items resulted in 30 items with a daily recall period and 34 items with a 7-day recall period. For the first time, our approach provides comprehensive insight on physical activity from the COPD patients' perspective. The PROactive PRO instruments' content validity represents the pivotal basis for empirically based item reduction and validation.

  15. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Redus, Kenneth, S.

    2003-02-26

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R&D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

  16. Classical Nucleation Theory Description of Active Colloid Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redner, Gabriel S.; Wagner, Caleb G.; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael F.

    2016-09-01

    Nonaligning self-propelled particles with purely repulsive excluded volume interactions undergo athermal motility-induced phase separation into a dilute gas and a dense cluster phase. Here, we use enhanced sampling computational methods and analytic theory to examine the kinetics of formation of the dense phase. Despite the intrinsically nonequilibrium nature of the phase transition, we show that the kinetics can be described using an approach analogous to equilibrium classical nucleation theory, governed by an effective free energy of cluster formation with identifiable bulk and surface terms. The theory captures the location of the binodal, nucleation rates as a function of supersaturation, and the cluster size distributions below the binodal, while discrepancies in the metastable region reveal additional physics about the early stages of active crystal formation. The success of the theory shows that a framework similar to equilibrium thermodynamics can be obtained directly from the microdynamics of an active system, and can be used to describe the kinetics of evolution toward nonequilibrium steady states.

  17. Gold-catalyzed oxidative cycloadditions to activate a quinoline framework.

    PubMed

    Huple, Deepak B; Ghorpade, Satish; Liu, Rai-Shung

    2013-09-23

    Going for gold! Gold-catalyzed reactions of 3,5- and 3,6-dienynes with 8-alkylquinoline oxides results in an oxidative cycloaddition with high stereospecificity (see scheme; EWG = electron-withdrawing group); this process involves a catalytic activation of a quinoline framework. The reaction mechanism involves the intermediacy of α-carbonyl pyridinium ylides (I) in a concerted [3+2]-cycloaddition with a tethered alkene.

  18. Feminist Framework Plus: Knitting Feminist Theories of Rape Etiology Into a Comprehensive Model.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Beverly A

    2016-07-01

    The radical-liberal feminist perspective on rape posits that the assault is motivated by power and control rather than sexual gratification and is a violent rather than a sexual act. However, rape is a complex act. Relying on only one early strand of feminist thought to explain the etiology of rape limits feminists' understanding of rape and the practice based upon the theory. The history of the adoption of the "power, not sex" theory is presented and the model critiqued. A more integrated model is developed and presented, the Feminist Framework Plus, which knits together five feminist theories into a comprehensive model that better explains the depth and breadth of the etiology of rape. Empirical evidence that supports each theory is detailed as well as the implications of the model on service provision, education, and advocacy. PMID:26018209

  19. Feminist Framework Plus: Knitting Feminist Theories of Rape Etiology Into a Comprehensive Model.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Beverly A

    2016-07-01

    The radical-liberal feminist perspective on rape posits that the assault is motivated by power and control rather than sexual gratification and is a violent rather than a sexual act. However, rape is a complex act. Relying on only one early strand of feminist thought to explain the etiology of rape limits feminists' understanding of rape and the practice based upon the theory. The history of the adoption of the "power, not sex" theory is presented and the model critiqued. A more integrated model is developed and presented, the Feminist Framework Plus, which knits together five feminist theories into a comprehensive model that better explains the depth and breadth of the etiology of rape. Empirical evidence that supports each theory is detailed as well as the implications of the model on service provision, education, and advocacy.

  20. The PROactive innovative conceptual framework on physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Dobbels, Fabienne; de Jong, Corina; Drost, Ellen; Elberse, Janneke; Feridou, Chryssoula; Jacobs, Laura; Rabinovich, Roberto; Frei, Anja; Puhan, Milo A.; de Boer, Willem I.; van der Molen, Thys; Williams, Kate; Pinnock, Hillary; Troosters, Thierry; Karlsson, Niklas; Kulich, Karoly; Rüdell, Katja; Brindicci, Caterina; Higenbottam, Tim; Troosters, Thierry; Dobbels, Fabienne; Decramer, Marc; Tabberer, Margaret; Rabinovich, Roberto A; MacNee, William; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Polkey, Michael; Hopkinson, Nick; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Puhan, Milo; Frei, Anja; van der Molen, Thys; de Jong, Corina; de Boer, Pim; Jarrod, Ian; McBride, Paul; Kamel, Nadia; Rudell, Katja; Wilson, Frederick J.; Ivanoff, Nathalie; Kulich, Karoly; Glendenning, Alistair; Karlsson, Niklas X.; Corriol-Rohou, Solange; Nikai, Enkeleida; Erzen, Damijan

    2014-01-01

    Although physical activity is considered an important therapeutic target in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), what “physical activity” means to COPD patients and how their perspective is best measured is poorly understood. We designed a conceptual framework, guiding the development and content validation of two patient reported outcome (PRO) instruments on physical activity (PROactive PRO instruments). 116 patients from four European countries with diverse demographics and COPD phenotypes participated in three consecutive qualitative studies (63% male, age mean±sd 66±9 years, 35% Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage III–IV). 23 interviews and eight focus groups (n = 54) identified the main themes and candidate items of the framework. 39 cognitive debriefings allowed the clarity of the items and instructions to be optimised. Three themes emerged, i.e. impact of COPD on amount of physical activity, symptoms experienced during physical activity, and adaptations made to facilitate physical activity. The themes were similar irrespective of country, demographic or disease characteristics. Iterative rounds of appraisal and refinement of candidate items resulted in 30 items with a daily recall period and 34 items with a 7-day recall period. For the first time, our approach provides comprehensive insight on physical activity from the COPD patients’ perspective. The PROactive PRO instruments’ content validity represents the pivotal basis for empirically based item reduction and validation. PMID:25034563

  1. A mass-deformed BLG theory in Gribov-Zwanziger framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we extend the Gribov-Zwanziger framework accounting for the existence of Gribov copies to the mass deformed Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson (BLG) theory in 𝒩 = 1 superspace. The restriction of the domain of integration in the Euclidean functional integral to the first Gribov horizon is implemented, by adding a nonlocal horizon term to the effective action. Furthermore, the soft breaking of the BRST symmetry due to horizon term is restored with the help of external sources. We compute the various Ward identities for this theory relying on the Lie 3-algebras.

  2. How can a Theory of Change framework be applied to short-term international volunteering?

    PubMed

    Loiseau, Bethina; Benedict, Darren; Sibbald, Rebekah; Raman, Salem A; Loh, Lawrence C; Dimaras, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Short-term international volunteering has become enormously popular among individuals from high-income countries who travel to low-income countries to offer support on initiatives often related to health and development. However, their impact on global development is questionable, particularly when volunteer skills are not matched to local needs, or when teams operate outside the local health system. Furthermore, the impact of these volunteer programs is rarely evaluated. Theory of Change is a framework for program design meant to facilitate measurable social change. We propose that a Theory of Change framework, appropriately deployed in the design and conduct of short-term international volunteerism, could help improve volunteer efforts by identifying problems and clearly defining goals, designing and implementing effective strategies, and evaluating the real impacts these have on identified concerns. PMID:27620921

  3. Toward a common theory for learning from reward, affect, and motivation: the SIMON framework

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    While the effects of reward, affect, and motivation on learning have each developed into their own fields of research, they largely have been investigated in isolation. As all three of these constructs are highly related, and use similar experimental procedures, an important advance in research would be to consider the interplay between these constructs. Here we first define each of the three constructs, and then discuss how they may influence each other within a common framework. Finally, we delineate several sources of evidence supporting the framework. By considering the constructs of reward, affect, and motivation within a single framework, we can develop a better understanding of the processes involved in learning and how they interplay, and work toward a comprehensive theory that encompasses reward, affect, and motivation. PMID:24109436

  4. Grounding theories of W(e)Learn: a framework for online interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Casimiro, Lynn; MacDonald, Colla J; Thompson, Terrie Lynn; Stodel, Emma J

    2009-07-01

    Interprofessional care (IPC) is a prerequisite for enhanced communication between healthcare team members, improved quality of care, and better outcomes for patients. A move to an IPC model requires changing the learning experiences of healthcare providers during and after their qualification program. With the rapid growth of online and blended approaches to learning, an educational framework that explains how to construct quality learning events to provide IPC is pressing. Such a framework would offer a quality standard to help educators design, develop, deliver, and evaluate online interprofessional education (IPE) programs. IPE is an extremely delicate process due to issues related to knowledge, status, power, accountability, personality traits, and culture that surround IPC. In this paper, a review of the pertinent literature that would inform the development of such a framework is presented. The review covers IPC, IPE, learning theories, and eLearning in healthcare. PMID:19517287

  5. Integrating Social Activity Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis: A Multilayered Methodological Model for Examining Knowledge Mediation in Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becher, Ayelet; Orland-Barak, Lily

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests an integrative qualitative methodological framework for capturing complexity in mentoring activity. Specifically, the model examines how historical developments of a discipline direct mentors' mediation of professional knowledge through the language that they use. The model integrates social activity theory and a framework of…

  6. Researching Contradictions: Cultural Historical Activity Theory Research (CHAT) in the English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is an appropriate theoretical and methodological framework for researchers in English interested in the social contexts of culture and its relationship with the formation of mind and activity in the English classroom. Two key concepts in Vygotsky's thought central to understanding…

  7. Understanding Preschool Emergent Science in a Cultural Historical Context through Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Bodil; Areljung, Sofie; Due, Karin; Ekström, Kenneth; Ottander, Christina; Tellgren, Britt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore how cultural factors interact with preschool teachers' shaping of activities with science content, and also how Activity Theory (AT) as a theoretical framework can be useful for examining interrelations within preschool systems. Qualitative data was collected from three preschools in the form of guided group…

  8. Exploration of Tensions in a Mobile-Technology Supported Fieldtrip: An Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Chih-Hung; Chen, Fei-Ching; Yang, Jie-Chi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how mobile technologies were incorporated and implemented in an outdoor learning activity. Two classes of primary school students participated in the experiment. Using activity theory as an analytical framework, it is found that underlying tensions provided rich insights into system dynamics and that…

  9. Cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS).

    PubMed

    Ursin, Holger; Eriksen, Hege R

    2010-05-01

    The cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS) is based on a long series of experiments on animals and on humans, in the laboratory, and in real life situations. From the common sense coping concept formulated by Seymour Levine; coping is when my "tommy" does not hurt, we have advanced to a systematic theory for what is behind the relaxed and happy coping rat (and cat). We also cover the translational leap to humans, starting with the now classic parachutist study. The bridge is based on formal and symbolic definitions, a theoretical short cut that Levine actually never really accepted. The essential pathophysiological concept is the potential pathological effects of sustained activation, which may occur in the absence of coping (positive response outcome expectancy). We review the current status of CATS in Behavioural Medicine by discussing its potential explanatory power in epidemiology, prevention and treatment of "subjective health complaints".

  10. Framework for coordination of activities in dynamic situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Jörn; Charoy, François; El Khoury, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Recent disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005, have shown several issues for the coordination of human activities in these dynamic situations. Contemporary tools for the coordination used in the disaster response, such as e-mail, Whiteboards or phones, only allow for unstructured coordination, which can cause coordination problems. Hence, we discuss about the current information systems for coordinating the activities in a structured manner and identify their weaknesses in the context of a process modelling effort conducted together with experienced disaster managers. Afterwards, we propose a framework for coordination of activities in dynamic situations. The framework presented in this paper has been implemented as an extension to an open collaboration service. This shows how it can be used in the context of other tools required for disaster response management, such as maps, pictures or videos of the situation. The work described here is the foundation for enabling inter-organisational coordination of activities relevant in other domains, e.g. enterprise support processes, production processes or distributed software development projects. Furthermore, comments by disaster managers show that the concepts are relevant for their work. The expected impact is a more effective and efficient coordination of human activities in dynamic situations by structuring what needs to be coordinated.

  11. Coalescent: an open-science framework for importance sampling in coalescent theory.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Susanta; Spouge, John L

    2015-01-01

    Background. In coalescent theory, computer programs often use importance sampling to calculate likelihoods and other statistical quantities. An importance sampling scheme can exploit human intuition to improve statistical efficiency of computations, but unfortunately, in the absence of general computer frameworks on importance sampling, researchers often struggle to translate new sampling schemes computationally or benchmark against different schemes, in a manner that is reliable and maintainable. Moreover, most studies use computer programs lacking a convenient user interface or the flexibility to meet the current demands of open science. In particular, current computer frameworks can only evaluate the efficiency of a single importance sampling scheme or compare the efficiencies of different schemes in an ad hoc manner. Results. We have designed a general framework (http://coalescent.sourceforge.net; language: Java; License: GPLv3) for importance sampling that computes likelihoods under the standard neutral coalescent model of a single, well-mixed population of constant size over time following infinite sites model of mutation. The framework models the necessary core concepts, comes integrated with several data sets of varying size, implements the standard competing proposals, and integrates tightly with our previous framework for calculating exact probabilities. For a given dataset, it computes the likelihood and provides the maximum likelihood estimate of the mutation parameter. Well-known benchmarks in the coalescent literature validate the accuracy of the framework. The framework provides an intuitive user interface with minimal clutter. For performance, the framework switches automatically to modern multicore hardware, if available. It runs on three major platforms (Windows, Mac and Linux). Extensive tests and coverage make the framework reliable and maintainable. Conclusions. In coalescent theory, many studies of computational efficiency consider only

  12. Coalescent: an open-science framework for importance sampling in coalescent theory

    PubMed Central

    Spouge, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In coalescent theory, computer programs often use importance sampling to calculate likelihoods and other statistical quantities. An importance sampling scheme can exploit human intuition to improve statistical efficiency of computations, but unfortunately, in the absence of general computer frameworks on importance sampling, researchers often struggle to translate new sampling schemes computationally or benchmark against different schemes, in a manner that is reliable and maintainable. Moreover, most studies use computer programs lacking a convenient user interface or the flexibility to meet the current demands of open science. In particular, current computer frameworks can only evaluate the efficiency of a single importance sampling scheme or compare the efficiencies of different schemes in an ad hoc manner. Results. We have designed a general framework (http://coalescent.sourceforge.net; language: Java; License: GPLv3) for importance sampling that computes likelihoods under the standard neutral coalescent model of a single, well-mixed population of constant size over time following infinite sites model of mutation. The framework models the necessary core concepts, comes integrated with several data sets of varying size, implements the standard competing proposals, and integrates tightly with our previous framework for calculating exact probabilities. For a given dataset, it computes the likelihood and provides the maximum likelihood estimate of the mutation parameter. Well-known benchmarks in the coalescent literature validate the accuracy of the framework. The framework provides an intuitive user interface with minimal clutter. For performance, the framework switches automatically to modern multicore hardware, if available. It runs on three major platforms (Windows, Mac and Linux). Extensive tests and coverage make the framework reliable and maintainable. Conclusions. In coalescent theory, many studies of computational efficiency consider only

  13. Coalescent: an open-science framework for importance sampling in coalescent theory.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Susanta; Spouge, John L

    2015-01-01

    Background. In coalescent theory, computer programs often use importance sampling to calculate likelihoods and other statistical quantities. An importance sampling scheme can exploit human intuition to improve statistical efficiency of computations, but unfortunately, in the absence of general computer frameworks on importance sampling, researchers often struggle to translate new sampling schemes computationally or benchmark against different schemes, in a manner that is reliable and maintainable. Moreover, most studies use computer programs lacking a convenient user interface or the flexibility to meet the current demands of open science. In particular, current computer frameworks can only evaluate the efficiency of a single importance sampling scheme or compare the efficiencies of different schemes in an ad hoc manner. Results. We have designed a general framework (http://coalescent.sourceforge.net; language: Java; License: GPLv3) for importance sampling that computes likelihoods under the standard neutral coalescent model of a single, well-mixed population of constant size over time following infinite sites model of mutation. The framework models the necessary core concepts, comes integrated with several data sets of varying size, implements the standard competing proposals, and integrates tightly with our previous framework for calculating exact probabilities. For a given dataset, it computes the likelihood and provides the maximum likelihood estimate of the mutation parameter. Well-known benchmarks in the coalescent literature validate the accuracy of the framework. The framework provides an intuitive user interface with minimal clutter. For performance, the framework switches automatically to modern multicore hardware, if available. It runs on three major platforms (Windows, Mac and Linux). Extensive tests and coverage make the framework reliable and maintainable. Conclusions. In coalescent theory, many studies of computational efficiency consider only

  14. An Extensible, User- Modifiable Framework for Planning Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshing, Joseph C.; Abramyan, Lucy; Mickelson, Megan C.; Wallick, Michael N.; Kurien, James A.; Crockett, Thomasa M.; Powell, Mark W.; Pyrzak, Guy; Aghevli, Arash

    2013-01-01

    This software provides a development framework that allows planning activities for the Mars Science Laboratory rover to be altered at any time, based on changes of the Activity Dictionary. The Activity Dictionary contains the definition of all activities that can be carried out by a particular asset (robotic or human). These definitions (and combinations of these definitions) are used by mission planners to give a daily plan of what a mission should do. During the development and course of the mission, the Activity Dictionary and actions that are going to be carried out will often be changed. Previously, such changes would require a change to the software and redeployment. Now, the Activity Dictionary authors are able to customize activity definitions, parameters, and resource usage without requiring redeployment. This software provides developers and end users the ability to modify the behavior of automatically generated activities using a script. This allows changes to the software behavior without incurring the burden of redeployment. This software is currently being used for the Mars Science Laboratory, and is in the process of being integrated into the LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) mission, as well as the International Space Station.

  15. Theory of partial agonist activity of steroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Ong, Karen M.; Kagan, Benjamin; Simons, S. Stoney

    2015-01-01

    The different amounts of residual partial agonist activity (PAA) of antisteroids under assorted conditions have long been useful in clinical applications but remain largely unexplained. Not only does a given antagonist often afford unequal induction for multiple genes in the same cell but also the activity of the same antisteroid with the same gene changes with variations in concentration of numerous cofactors. Using glucocorticoid receptors as a model system, we have recently succeeded in constructing from first principles a theory that accurately describes how cofactors can modulate the ability of agonist steroids to regulate both gene induction and gene repression. We now extend this framework to the actions of antisteroids in gene induction. The theory shows why changes in PAA cannot be explained simply by differences in ligand affinity for receptor and requires action at a second step or site in the overall sequence of reactions. The theory also provides a method for locating the position of this second site, relative to a concentration limited step (CLS), which is a previously identified step in glucocorticoid-regulated transactivation that always occurs at the same position in the overall sequence of events of gene induction. Finally, the theory predicts that classes of antagonist ligands may be grouped on the basis of their maximal PAA with excess added cofactor and that the members of each class differ by how they act at the same step in the overall gene induction process. Thus, this theory now makes it possible to predict how different cofactors modulate antisteroid PAA, which should be invaluable in developing more selective antagonists. PMID:25984562

  16. Applying behavioral theories to invasive animal management: Towards an integrated framework.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Please, Patricia M; Driver, Aaron B

    2015-09-15

    Invasive species wreak an estimated $1.4 trillion in damages globally, each year. To have any hope of reducing this damage, best-practice control strategies must incorporate behavior change interventions. Traditional interventions, based on the knowledge-transfer model, assume that if land managers are properly educated about risks and strategies, they will develop supportive attitudes and implement appropriate control strategies. However, the social sciences have produced a large number of behavioral models and frameworks that demonstrate that knowledge transfer, by itself, fails to change behavior. The challenge then lies in knowing which behavioral model to choose, and when, from a potentially overwhelming 'universe'. In this paper, we review nine behavior theories relevant to invasive species management. We then introduce the Behavior Change Wheel as a tool for integrating these theories into a single practical framework. This framework links drivers of and barriers to behavior change with intervention strategies and policies, in what we consider, from an applied perspective, to be an important advance.

  17. The cross-activation theory at 10.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Edward M; Brang, David; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2011-09-01

    In 2001, Ramachandran and Hubbard introduced the cross-activation model of grapheme-colour synaesthesia. On the occasion of its 10-year anniversary, we review the evidence from experiments that have been conducted to test the model to assess how it has fared. We examine data from behavioural, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), anatomical studies (diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry), and electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies of grapheme-colour synaesthesia. Although much of this evidence has supported the basic cross-activation hypothesis, our growing knowledge of the neural basis of synaesthesia, grapheme, and colour processing has necessitated two specific updates and modifications to the basic model: (1) our original model assumed that binding and parietal cortex functions were normal in synaesthesia; we now recognize that parietal cortex plays a key role in synaesthetic binding, as part of a two-stage model. (2) Based on MEG data we have recently collected demonstrating that synaesthetic responses begin within 140 ms of stimulus presentation, and an updated understanding of the neural mechanisms of reading as hierarchical feature extraction, we present a revised and updated version of the cross-activation model, the cascaded cross-tuning model. We then summarize data demonstrating that the cross-activation model may be extended to account for other forms of synaesthesia and discuss open questions about how learning, development, and cortical plasticity interact with genetic factors to lead to the full range of synaesthetic experiences. Finally, we outline a number of future directions needed to further test the cross-activation theory and to compare it with alternative theories. PMID:21923784

  18. Activity Theory as a Framework for Analysing Knowledge Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aalst, Jan; Hill, Cher M.

    2006-01-01

    Content analyses of computer databases parsed into notes or ideas do not shed adequate light on the role of collaboration and the Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning environment in knowledge building; analysis of what is happening in the classroom and how students interpret that is also needed. This study used ethnographic methods to explore…

  19. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  20. The discipline of hospital development: a conceptual framework incorporating marketing, managerial, consumer behavior, and adult learning theories.

    PubMed

    Shirley, S; Stampfl, R

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this explanatory and prescriptive article is to identify interdisciplinary theories used by hospital development to direct its practice. The article explores, explains, and applies theories and principles from behavioral, social, and managerial disciplines. Learning, motivational, organizational, marketing, and attitudinal theories are incorporated and transformed into the fundamental components of a conceptual framework that provides an overview of the practice of hospital development. How this discipline incorporates these theories to design, explain, and prescribe the focus of its own practice is demonstrated. This interdisciplinary approach results in a framework for practice that is adaptable to changing social, cultural, economic, political, and technological environments.

  1. Installing hydrolytic activity into a completely de novo protein framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Antony J.; Thomson, Andrew R.; Dawson, William M.; Brady, R. Leo; Woolfson, Derek N.

    2016-09-01

    The design of enzyme-like catalysts tests our understanding of sequence-to-structure/function relationships in proteins. Here we install hydrolytic activity predictably into a completely de novo and thermostable α-helical barrel, which comprises seven helices arranged around an accessible channel. We show that the lumen of the barrel accepts 21 mutations to functional polar residues. The resulting variant, which has cysteine-histidine-glutamic acid triads on each helix, hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl acetate with catalytic efficiencies that match the most-efficient redesigned hydrolases based on natural protein scaffolds. This is the first report of a functional catalytic triad engineered into a de novo protein framework. The flexibility of our system also allows the facile incorporation of unnatural side chains to improve activity and probe the catalytic mechanism. Such a predictable and robust construction of truly de novo biocatalysts holds promise for applications in chemical and biochemical synthesis.

  2. Installing hydrolytic activity into a completely de novo protein framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Antony J.; Thomson, Andrew R.; Dawson, William M.; Brady, R. Leo; Woolfson, Derek N.

    2016-09-01

    The design of enzyme-like catalysts tests our understanding of sequence-to-structure/function relationships in proteins. Here we install hydrolytic activity predictably into a completely de novo and thermostable α-helical barrel, which comprises seven helices arranged around an accessible channel. We show that the lumen of the barrel accepts 21 mutations to functional polar residues. The resulting variant, which has cysteine–histidine–glutamic acid triads on each helix, hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl acetate with catalytic efficiencies that match the most-efficient redesigned hydrolases based on natural protein scaffolds. This is the first report of a functional catalytic triad engineered into a de novo protein framework. The flexibility of our system also allows the facile incorporation of unnatural side chains to improve activity and probe the catalytic mechanism. Such a predictable and robust construction of truly de novo biocatalysts holds promise for applications in chemical and biochemical synthesis.

  3. Installing hydrolytic activity into a completely de novo protein framework.

    PubMed

    Burton, Antony J; Thomson, Andrew R; Dawson, William M; Brady, R Leo; Woolfson, Derek N

    2016-09-01

    The design of enzyme-like catalysts tests our understanding of sequence-to-structure/function relationships in proteins. Here we install hydrolytic activity predictably into a completely de novo and thermostable α-helical barrel, which comprises seven helices arranged around an accessible channel. We show that the lumen of the barrel accepts 21 mutations to functional polar residues. The resulting variant, which has cysteine-histidine-glutamic acid triads on each helix, hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl acetate with catalytic efficiencies that match the most-efficient redesigned hydrolases based on natural protein scaffolds. This is the first report of a functional catalytic triad engineered into a de novo protein framework. The flexibility of our system also allows the facile incorporation of unnatural side chains to improve activity and probe the catalytic mechanism. Such a predictable and robust construction of truly de novo biocatalysts holds promise for applications in chemical and biochemical synthesis. PMID:27554410

  4. [Relational Frame Theory--A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Behavioral Science].

    PubMed

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-07-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective--regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms.

  5. Pain judgements of patients' relatives: examining the use of social contract theory as theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Kappesser, Judith; de C Williams, Amanda C

    2008-08-01

    Observer underestimation of others' pain was studied using a concept from evolutionary psychology: a cheater detection mechanism from social contract theory, applied to relatives and friends of chronic pain patients. 127 participants estimated characters' pain intensity and fairness of behaviour after reading four vignettes describing characters suffering from pain. Four cues were systematically varied: the character continuing or stopping liked tasks; continuing or stopping disliked tasks; availability of medical evidence; and pain intensity as rated by characters. Results revealed that pain intensity and the two behavioural variables had an effect on pain estimates: high pain self-reports and stopping all tasks led to high pain estimates; pain was estimated to be lowest when characters stopped disliked but continued with liked tasks. This combination was also rated least fair. Results support the use of social contract theory as a theoretical framework to explore pain judgements.

  6. Embedded-cluster calculations in a numeric atomic orbital density-functional theory framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Daniel; Logsdail, Andrew J.; Oberhofer, Harald; Farrow, Matthew R.; Catlow, C. Richard A.; Sherwood, Paul; Sokol, Alexey A.; Blum, Volker; Reuter, Karsten

    2014-07-01

    We integrate the all-electron electronic structure code FHI-aims into the general ChemShell package for solid-state embedding quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. A major undertaking in this integration is the implementation of pseudopotential functionality into FHI-aims to describe cations at the QM/MM boundary through effective core potentials and therewith prevent spurious overpolarization of the electronic density. Based on numeric atomic orbital basis sets, FHI-aims offers particularly efficient access to exact exchange and second order perturbation theory, rendering the established QM/MM setup an ideal tool for hybrid and double-hybrid level density functional theory calculations of solid systems. We illustrate this capability by calculating the reduction potential of Fe in the Fe-substituted ZSM-5 zeolitic framework and the reaction energy profile for (photo-)catalytic water oxidation at TiO2(110).

  7. Embedded-cluster calculations in a numeric atomic orbital density-functional theory framework.

    PubMed

    Berger, Daniel; Logsdail, Andrew J; Oberhofer, Harald; Farrow, Matthew R; Catlow, C Richard A; Sherwood, Paul; Sokol, Alexey A; Blum, Volker; Reuter, Karsten

    2014-07-14

    We integrate the all-electron electronic structure code FHI-aims into the general ChemShell package for solid-state embedding quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. A major undertaking in this integration is the implementation of pseudopotential functionality into FHI-aims to describe cations at the QM/MM boundary through effective core potentials and therewith prevent spurious overpolarization of the electronic density. Based on numeric atomic orbital basis sets, FHI-aims offers particularly efficient access to exact exchange and second order perturbation theory, rendering the established QM/MM setup an ideal tool for hybrid and double-hybrid level density functional theory calculations of solid systems. We illustrate this capability by calculating the reduction potential of Fe in the Fe-substituted ZSM-5 zeolitic framework and the reaction energy profile for (photo-)catalytic water oxidation at TiO2(110).

  8. Embedded-cluster calculations in a numeric atomic orbital density-functional theory framework

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Daniel Oberhofer, Harald; Reuter, Karsten; Logsdail, Andrew J. Farrow, Matthew R.; Catlow, C. Richard A.; Sokol, Alexey A.; Sherwood, Paul; Blum, Volker

    2014-07-14

    We integrate the all-electron electronic structure code FHI-aims into the general ChemShell package for solid-state embedding quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. A major undertaking in this integration is the implementation of pseudopotential functionality into FHI-aims to describe cations at the QM/MM boundary through effective core potentials and therewith prevent spurious overpolarization of the electronic density. Based on numeric atomic orbital basis sets, FHI-aims offers particularly efficient access to exact exchange and second order perturbation theory, rendering the established QM/MM setup an ideal tool for hybrid and double-hybrid level density functional theory calculations of solid systems. We illustrate this capability by calculating the reduction potential of Fe in the Fe-substituted ZSM-5 zeolitic framework and the reaction energy profile for (photo-)catalytic water oxidation at TiO{sub 2}(110)

  9. A longitudinal examination of adolescent career planning and exploration using a social cognitive career theory framework.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Mary E; Creed, Peter A

    2011-02-01

    This study used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), as a framework to investigate predictors of career choice actions, operationalised as career planning and career exploration. The model was tested cross-sectionally and longitudinally with 631 high school students enrolled in Grades 10-12. Students completed measures of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goals, supports and personality. Results of the hierarchical regression analyses indicated strong support for self-efficacy and goals predicting career planning and exploration across all grades at T1, and predicting change in career planning and exploration from T1 to T2. Whilst support for pathways among other predictor variables (personality, contextual influences and biographic variables) to choice actions was found, these pathways varied across grades at T1, and also from T1 to T2. Implications for social cognitive career theory, career counselling practice and future research are discussed.

  10. Understanding Wikibook-Based Tensions in Higher Education: An Activity Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasavvidis, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated that the integration of wikis in higher education is very challenging. The present article focuses on the tensions emerging from the integration of a wikibook as a required assignment in an undergraduate course. Drawing on data from a case study, the article uses Activity Theory as a theoretical framework in order to…

  11. Exploring Students' Perceptions about Learning in School: An Activity Theory Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnov-Neeman, Yelena; Barak, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we used Activity Theory as the conceptual framework for exploring students' perceptions about how learning in school is affected by the following five elements: Object, Tools, Rules, Community and Division of Labor. Data were collected by administrating a semi-structured questionnaire among 70 junior high school students and…

  12. Methodologies in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: The Example of School-Based Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postholm, May Britt

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Relatively little research has been conducted on methodology within Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). CHAT is mainly used as a framework for developmental processes. The purpose of this article is to discuss both focuses for research and research questions within CHAT and to outline methodologies that can be used…

  13. Active-Site-Accessible, Porphyrinic Metal;#8722;Organic Framework Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Farha, Omar K.; Shultz, Abraham M.; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2012-02-06

    On account of their structural similarity to cofactors found in many metallo-enzymes, metalloporphyrins are obvious potential building blocks for catalytically active, metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. While numerous porphyrin-based MOFs have already been described, versions featuring highly accessible active sites and permanent microporosity are remarkably scarce. Indeed, of the more than 70 previously reported porphyrinic MOFs, only one has been shown to be both permanently microporous and contain internally accessible active sites for chemical catalysis. Attempts to generalize the design approach used in this single successful case have failed. Reported here, however, is the synthesis of an extended family of MOFs that directly incorporate a variety of metalloporphyrins (specifically Al{sup 3+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 3+}, and Fe{sup 3+} complexes). These robust porphyrinic materials (RPMs) feature large channels and readily accessible active sites. As an illustrative example, one of the manganese-containing RPMs is shown to be catalytically competent for the oxidation of alkenes and alkanes.

  14. Mathematical framework for activity-based cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Gabriel A; Dudani, Jaideep S; Carrodeguas, Emmanuel; Mazumdar, Eric V; Zekavat, Seyedeh M; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-10-13

    Advances in nanomedicine are providing sophisticated functions to precisely control the behavior of nanoscale drugs and diagnostics. Strategies that coopt protease activity as molecular triggers are increasingly important in nanoparticle design, yet the pharmacokinetics of these systems are challenging to understand without a quantitative framework to reveal nonintuitive associations. We describe a multicompartment mathematical model to predict strategies for ultrasensitive detection of cancer using synthetic biomarkers, a class of activity-based probes that amplify cancer-derived signals into urine as a noninvasive diagnostic. Using a model formulation made of a PEG core conjugated with protease-cleavable peptides, we explore a vast design space and identify guidelines for increasing sensitivity that depend on critical parameters such as enzyme kinetics, dosage, and probe stability. According to this model, synthetic biomarkers that circulate in stealth but then activate at sites of disease have the theoretical capacity to discriminate tumors as small as 5 mm in diameter-a threshold sensitivity that is otherwise challenging for medical imaging and blood biomarkers to achieve. This model may be adapted to describe the behavior of additional activity-based approaches to allow cross-platform comparisons, and to predict allometric scaling across species.

  15. Mathematical framework for activity-based cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Gabriel A; Dudani, Jaideep S; Carrodeguas, Emmanuel; Mazumdar, Eric V; Zekavat, Seyedeh M; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-10-13

    Advances in nanomedicine are providing sophisticated functions to precisely control the behavior of nanoscale drugs and diagnostics. Strategies that coopt protease activity as molecular triggers are increasingly important in nanoparticle design, yet the pharmacokinetics of these systems are challenging to understand without a quantitative framework to reveal nonintuitive associations. We describe a multicompartment mathematical model to predict strategies for ultrasensitive detection of cancer using synthetic biomarkers, a class of activity-based probes that amplify cancer-derived signals into urine as a noninvasive diagnostic. Using a model formulation made of a PEG core conjugated with protease-cleavable peptides, we explore a vast design space and identify guidelines for increasing sensitivity that depend on critical parameters such as enzyme kinetics, dosage, and probe stability. According to this model, synthetic biomarkers that circulate in stealth but then activate at sites of disease have the theoretical capacity to discriminate tumors as small as 5 mm in diameter-a threshold sensitivity that is otherwise challenging for medical imaging and blood biomarkers to achieve. This model may be adapted to describe the behavior of additional activity-based approaches to allow cross-platform comparisons, and to predict allometric scaling across species. PMID:26417077

  16. Behavioral aspects of clinical trials. An integrated framework from behavior theory.

    PubMed

    Morrow, G R; Hickok, J T; Burish, T G

    1994-11-01

    A less-than-optimal proportion of patients with cancer are entered into National Cancer Institute-sponsored clinical trials. This article reviews the literature on accrual in oncology clinical trials to characterize the extent of the problem, identify reasons for low accrual, and suggest ways to promote accrual. Four well known theories of health behavior (the Health Belief Model, Subjective Expected Utility Theory, Protection Motivation Theory, and the Theory of Reasoned Action) point to central concepts involved in understanding patient health-related behavior: (1) the probability that an unwelcomed health event will happen to a patient, (2) the severity of that event if it does occur, (3) the effectiveness of a particular behavior (such as taking part in a clinical trial) to modify the severity, and (4) the cost of adopting that behavior. These concepts form a framework for integrating the available information about accrual to clinical oncology trials. Patient and physician factors previously related to clinical trials suggest specific recommendations for increasing accrual to clinical oncology trials. PMID:7954285

  17. Rethinking Distance Learning Activities: A Comparison of Transactional Distance Theory and Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Gyorke, Allan S.

    2008-01-01

    Despite its invaluable guidance to distance education development, transactional distance (TD) theory is not seamlessly synchronised with current field practice and lacks a social component. After it has provided over 30 years of guidance, there is now a need to re-appraise TD's propositions about distance learning activities. The social-cultural…

  18. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.

  19. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling. PMID:26480847

  20. Self-Determination Theory in Schools of Education: Can an Empirically Supported Framework also Be Critical and Liberating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Richard M.; Niemiec, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    In many graduate schools of education there is strong resistance to formal theories, especially those that are supported through quantitative empirical methods. In this article we describe how self-determination theory (SDT), a formal and empirically focused framework, shares sensibilities with critical theorists concerning the importance of…

  1. Theory and modeling of active brazing.

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, Frank B.; Miller, James Edward; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Givler, Richard C.

    2013-09-01

    Active brazes have been used for many years to produce bonds between metal and ceramic objects. By including a relatively small of a reactive additive to the braze one seeks to improve the wetting and spreading behavior of the braze. The additive modifies the substrate, either by a chemical surface reaction or possibly by alloying. By its nature, the joining process with active brazes is a complex nonequilibrium non-steady state process that couples chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion to the rheology and wetting behavior of the braze. Most of the these subprocesses are taking place in the interfacial region, most are difficult to access by experiment. To improve the control over the brazing process, one requires a better understanding of the melting of the active braze, rate of the chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion rates, nonequilibrium composition-dependent surface tension as well as the viscosity. This report identifies ways in which modeling and theory can assist in improving our understanding.

  2. Building a framework for theory-based ethnographies for studying intergenerational family food practices.

    PubMed

    Visser, Sanne Siete; Hutter, Inge; Haisma, Hinke

    2016-02-01

    The growing rates of (childhood) obesity worldwide are a source concern for health professionals, policy-makers, and researchers. The increasing prevalence of associated diseases-such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and psychological problems-shows the impact of obesity on people's health, already from a young age. In turn, these problems have obvious consequences for the health care system, including higher costs. However, the treatment of obesity has proven to be difficult, which makes prevention an important goal. In this study, we focus on food practices, one of the determinants of obesity. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that interventions designed to encourage healthy eating of children and their families are not having the desired impact, especially among groups with a lower socioeconomic background (SEB). To understand why interventions fail to have an impact, we need to study the embedded social and cultural constructions of families. We argue that we need more than just decision-making theories to understand this cultural embeddedness, and to determine what cultural and social factors influence the decision-making process. By allowing families to explain their cultural background, their capabilities, and their opportunities, we will gain new insights into how families choose what they eat from a complex set of food choices. We have thus chosen to build a framework based on Sen's capability approach and the theory of cultural schemas. This framework, together with a holistic ethnographic research approach, can help us better understand what drives the food choices made in families. The framework is built to serve as a starting point for ethnographic research on food choice in families, and could contribute to the development of interventions that are embedded in the cultural realities of the targeted groups. PMID:26593100

  3. The human side of science education: Using McGregor's theory Y as a framework for improving student motivation*.

    PubMed

    Markwell, John

    2004-09-01

    Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more active learning than Theory X-style teachers who do not view students as active learners. Many teachers are not aware of their Theory X/Theory Y orientation and how this bias may be impacting their interaction with students. This article explores the benefits of moving from a Theory X to a more Theory Y style of teaching.

  4. Frameworks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mary Ann, Ed.; Baer, Teddi, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Intended for writing teachers, the activities in this issue blend right/left brain lessons--kinesthetic, spatial, and playful--to provide students with prewriting experience. The activities include the following: (1) creativity olympics, such as finding criteria by which large groups of students may subdivide themselves into successively smaller…

  5. Parent-offspring conflict theory: an evolutionary framework for understanding conflict within human families.

    PubMed

    Schlomer, Gabriel L; Del Giudice, Marco; Ellis, Bruce J

    2011-07-01

    Decades of research demonstrate that conflict shapes and permeates a broad range of family processes. In the current article, we argue that greater insight, integration of knowledge, and empirical achievement in the study of family conflict can be realized by utilizing a powerful theory from evolutionary biology that is barely known within psychology: parent-offspring conflict theory (POCT). In the current article, we articulate POCT for psychological scientists, extend its scope by connecting it to the broader framework of life history theory, and draw out its implications for understanding conflict within human families. We specifically apply POCT to 2 instances of early mother-offspring interaction (prenatal conflict and weaning conflict); discuss the effects of genetic relatedness on behavioral conflict between parents, children, and their siblings; review the emerging literature on parent-offspring conflict over the choice of mates and spouses; and examine parent-offspring conflict from the perspective of imprinted genes. This review demonstrates the utility of POCT, not only for explaining what is known about conflict within families but also for generating novel hypotheses, suggesting new lines of research, and moving us toward the "big picture" by integrating across biological and psychological domains of knowledge.

  6. Brain activity and cognition: a connection from thermodynamics and information theory.

    PubMed

    Collell, Guillem; Fauquet, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The connection between brain and mind is an important scientific and philosophical question that we are still far from completely understanding. A crucial point to our work is noticing that thermodynamics provides a convenient framework to model brain activity, whereas cognition can be modeled in information-theoretical terms. In fact, several models have been proposed so far from both approaches. A second critical remark is the existence of deep theoretical connections between thermodynamics and information theory. In fact, some well-known authors claim that the laws of thermodynamics are nothing but principles in information theory. Unlike in physics or chemistry, a formalization of the relationship between information and energy is currently lacking in neuroscience. In this paper we propose a framework to connect physical brain and cognitive models by means of the theoretical connections between information theory and thermodynamics. Ultimately, this article aims at providing further insight on the formal relationship between cognition and neural activity. PMID:26136709

  7. Brain activity and cognition: a connection from thermodynamics and information theory

    PubMed Central

    Collell, Guillem; Fauquet, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The connection between brain and mind is an important scientific and philosophical question that we are still far from completely understanding. A crucial point to our work is noticing that thermodynamics provides a convenient framework to model brain activity, whereas cognition can be modeled in information-theoretical terms. In fact, several models have been proposed so far from both approaches. A second critical remark is the existence of deep theoretical connections between thermodynamics and information theory. In fact, some well-known authors claim that the laws of thermodynamics are nothing but principles in information theory. Unlike in physics or chemistry, a formalization of the relationship between information and energy is currently lacking in neuroscience. In this paper we propose a framework to connect physical brain and cognitive models by means of the theoretical connections between information theory and thermodynamics. Ultimately, this article aims at providing further insight on the formal relationship between cognition and neural activity. PMID:26136709

  8. Brain activity and cognition: a connection from thermodynamics and information theory.

    PubMed

    Collell, Guillem; Fauquet, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The connection between brain and mind is an important scientific and philosophical question that we are still far from completely understanding. A crucial point to our work is noticing that thermodynamics provides a convenient framework to model brain activity, whereas cognition can be modeled in information-theoretical terms. In fact, several models have been proposed so far from both approaches. A second critical remark is the existence of deep theoretical connections between thermodynamics and information theory. In fact, some well-known authors claim that the laws of thermodynamics are nothing but principles in information theory. Unlike in physics or chemistry, a formalization of the relationship between information and energy is currently lacking in neuroscience. In this paper we propose a framework to connect physical brain and cognitive models by means of the theoretical connections between information theory and thermodynamics. Ultimately, this article aims at providing further insight on the formal relationship between cognition and neural activity.

  9. Unpacking teacher-researcher collaboration with three theoretical frameworks: a case of expansive learning activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gade, Sharada

    2015-09-01

    Long association with a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden, is basis for reporting a case of teacher-researcher collaboration. Three theoretical frameworks used to study its development over time are relational knowing, relational agency and cogenerative dialogue. While relational knowing uses narrative perspectives to explore the experiential and relational nature of collaboration; relational agency, draws on activity theory perspectives and identifies the change in the purpose of collaboration, from initially conducting classroom interventions to co-authoring research. Finally, cogenerative dialogue, deploys hermeneutic-phenomenological perspectives and investigates the dialogue that transpired between Lotta and the author, as they co-authored their research report. Such analysis sheds invaluable light on a case of expansive learning activity.

  10. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    F. Perry; B. Youngs

    2000-11-06

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model (AMR) report is twofold. (1) The first is to present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and extended in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) The second purpose of the AMR is to present probability calculations based on PVHA outputs. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers located within the repository footprint (conditional on the dike intersecting the repository). The probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint was calculated in the AMR ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (CRWMS M&O 2000g) based on the repository footprint known as the Enhanced Design Alternative [EDA II, Design B (CRWMS M&O 1999a; Wilkins and Heath 1999)]. Then, the ''Site Recommendation Design Baseline'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a) initiated a change in the repository design, which is described in the ''Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Consequently, the probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint has also been calculated for the current repository footprint, which is called the 70,000 Metric Tons of Uranium (MTU) No-Backfill Layout (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The calculations for both footprints are presented in this AMR. In addition, the

  11. The activation strain model and molecular orbital theory

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, Lando P; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The activation strain model is a powerful tool for understanding reactivity, or inertness, of molecular species. This is done by relating the relative energy of a molecular complex along the reaction energy profile to the structural rigidity of the reactants and the strength of their mutual interactions: ΔE(ζ) = ΔEstrain(ζ) + ΔEint(ζ). We provide a detailed discussion of the model, and elaborate on its strong connection with molecular orbital theory. Using these approaches, a causal relationship is revealed between the properties of the reactants and their reactivity, e.g., reaction barriers and plausible reaction mechanisms. This methodology may reveal intriguing parallels between completely different types of chemical transformations. Thus, the activation strain model constitutes a unifying framework that furthers the development of cross-disciplinary concepts throughout various fields of chemistry. We illustrate the activation strain model in action with selected examples from literature. These examples demonstrate how the methodology is applied to different research questions, how results are interpreted, and how insights into one chemical phenomenon can lead to an improved understanding of another, seemingly completely different chemical process. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2015, 5:324–343. doi: 10.1002/wcms.1221 PMID:26753009

  12. The theory of event coding (TEC) as embodied-cognition framework.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The concept of embodied cognition attracts enormous interest but neither is the concept particularly well-defined nor is the related research guided by systematic theorizing. To improve this situation the theory of event coding (TEC) is suggested as a suitable theoretical framework for theorizing about cognitive embodiment-which, however, presupposes giving up the anti-cognitivistic attitude inherent in many embodiment approaches. The article discusses the embodiment-related potential of TEC, and the way and degree to which it addresses Wilson's (2002) six meanings of the embodiment concept. In particular, it is discussed how TEC considers human cognition to be situated, distributed, and body-based, how it deals with time pressure, how it delegates work to the environment, and in which sense it subserves action.

  13. Revisiting Symbolic Interactionism as a Theoretical Framework Beyond the Grounded Theory Tradition.

    PubMed

    Handberg, Charlotte; Thorne, Sally; Midtgaard, Julie; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    The tight bond between grounded theory (GT) and symbolic interactionism (SI) is well known within the qualitative health research field. We aimed to disentangle this connection through critical reflection on the conditions under which it might add value as an underpinning to studies outside the GT tradition. Drawing on an examination of the central tenets of SI, we illustrate with a field study using interpretive description as methodology how SI can be applied as a theoretical lens through which layers of socially constructed meaning can help surface the subjective world of patients. We demonstrate how SI can function as a powerful framework for human health behavior research through its capacity to orient questions, inform design options, and refine analytic directions. We conclude that using SI as a lens can serve as a translation mechanism in our quest to interpret the subjective world underlying patients' health and illness behavior.

  14. The theory of event coding (TEC) as embodied-cognition framework

    PubMed Central

    Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The concept of embodied cognition attracts enormous interest but neither is the concept particularly well-defined nor is the related research guided by systematic theorizing. To improve this situation the theory of event coding (TEC) is suggested as a suitable theoretical framework for theorizing about cognitive embodiment—which, however, presupposes giving up the anti-cognitivistic attitude inherent in many embodiment approaches. The article discusses the embodiment-related potential of TEC, and the way and degree to which it addresses Wilson’s (2002) six meanings of the embodiment concept. In particular, it is discussed how TEC considers human cognition to be situated, distributed, and body-based, how it deals with time pressure, how it delegates work to the environment, and in which sense it subserves action. PMID:26388819

  15. Stationary waves on nonlinear quantum graphs: General framework and canonical perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Gnutzmann, Sven; Waltner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a general framework for solving the stationary nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) on a network of one-dimensional wires modeled by a metric graph with suitable matching conditions at the vertices. A formal solution is given that expresses the wave function and its derivative at one end of an edge (wire) nonlinearly in terms of the values at the other end. For the cubic NLSE this nonlinear transfer operation can be expressed explicitly in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Its application reduces the problem of solving the corresponding set of coupled ordinary nonlinear differential equations to a finite set of nonlinear algebraic equations. For sufficiently small amplitudes we use canonical perturbation theory, which makes it possible to extract the leading nonlinear corrections over large distances.

  16. Time-dependent density-functional theory method in the electron nuclear dynamics framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith Perera, S.; McLaurin, Patrick M.; Grimes, Thomas V.; Morales, Jorge A.

    2010-08-01

    A time-dependent density-functional theory (DFT) dynamics method in the electron nuclear dynamics (END) framework is presented. This time-dependent variational method treats simultaneously the nuclei and electrons of a system without utilizing predetermined potential energy surfaces. Like the simplest-level END, this method adopts a classical-mechanics description for the nuclei and a Thouless single-determinantal representation for the electrons. However, the electronic description is now expressed in a Kohn-Sham DFT form that provides electron correlation effects absent in the simplest-level END. Current implementation of this method employs the adiabatic approximation in the exchange-correlation action and potential. Simulations of molecular vibrations and proton-molecule reactions attest to the accuracy of the present method.

  17. The path dependency theory: analytical framework to study institutional integration. The case of France

    PubMed Central

    Trouvé, Hélène; Couturier, Yves; Etheridge, Francis; Saint-Jean, Olivier; Somme, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Background The literature on integration indicates the need for an enhanced theorization of institutional integration. This article proposes path dependence as an analytical framework to study the systems in which integration takes place. Purpose PRISMA proposes a model for integrating health and social care services for older adults. This model was initially tested in Quebec. The PRISMA France study gave us an opportunity to analyze institutional integration in France. Methods A qualitative approach was used. Analyses were based on semi-structured interviews with actors of all levels of decision-making, observations of advisory board meetings, and administrative documents. Results Our analyses revealed the complexity and fragmentation of institutional integration. The path dependency theory, which analyzes the change capacity of institutions by taking into account their historic structures, allows analysis of this situation. The path dependency to the Bismarckian system and the incomplete reforms of gerontological policies generate the coexistence and juxtaposition of institutional systems. In such a context, no institution has sufficient ability to determine gerontology policy and build institutional integration by itself. Conclusion Using path dependence as an analytical framework helps to understand the reasons why institutional integration is critical to organizational and clinical integration, and the complex construction of institutional integration in France. PMID:20689740

  18. Social simulation theory: a framework to explain nurses' understanding of patients' experiences of ill-health.

    PubMed

    Nordby, Halvor

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental aim in caring practice is to understand patients' experiences of ill-health. These experiences have a qualitative content and cannot, unlike thoughts and beliefs with conceptual content, directly be expressed in words. Nurses therefore face a variety of interpretive challenges when they aim to understand patients' subjective perspectives on disease and illness. The article argues that theories on social simulation can shed light on how nurses manage to meet these challenges. The core assumption of social simulationism is that we do not understand other people by forming mental representations of how they think, but by putting ourselves in their situation in a more imaginative way. According to simulationism, any attempt to understand a patient's behavior is made on the basis of simulating what it is like to be that patient in the given context. The article argues that this approach to social interpretation can clarify how nurses manage to achieve aims of patient understanding, even when they have limited time to communicate and incomplete knowledge of patients' perspectives. Furthermore, simulation theory provides a normative framework for interpretation, in the sense that its theoretical assumptions constitute ideals for how nurses should seek to understand patients' experiences of illness.

  19. Normalisation process theory: a framework for developing, evaluating and implementing complex interventions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The past decade has seen considerable interest in the development and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health. Such interventions can only have a significant impact on health and health care if they are shown to be effective when tested, are capable of being widely implemented and can be normalised into routine practice. To date, there is still a problematic gap between research and implementation. The Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) addresses the factors needed for successful implementation and integration of interventions into routine work (normalisation). Discussion In this paper, we suggest that the NPT can act as a sensitising tool, enabling researchers to think through issues of implementation while designing a complex intervention and its evaluation. The need to ensure trial procedures that are feasible and compatible with clinical practice is not limited to trials of complex interventions, and NPT may improve trial design by highlighting potential problems with recruitment or data collection, as well as ensuring the intervention has good implementation potential. Summary The NPT is a new theory which offers trialists a consistent framework that can be used to describe, assess and enhance implementation potential. We encourage trialists to consider using it in their next trial. PMID:20961442

  20. Fukui and dual-descriptor matrices within the framework of spin-polarized density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Alcoba, Diego R; Lain, Luis; Torre, Alicia; Oña, Ofelia B; Chamorro, Eduardo

    2013-06-28

    This work deals with the Fukui and dual reactivity descriptors within the framework of the spin-polarized density functional theory. The first and second derivatives of the electron density and the spin density with respect to the total number of electrons N = Nα + Nβ and with respect to the spin number NS = Nα-Nβ have been formulated by means of reduced density matrices in the representation of the spin-orbitals of a given basis set, providing the matrix extension of those descriptors. The analysis of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Fukui and dual-descriptor matrices yields information on the role played by the molecular orbitals in charge-transfer and spin-polarization processes. This matrix formulation enables determining similarity indices which allows one to evaluate quantitatively the quality of the simple frontier molecular orbital model in conceptual density functional theory. Selected closed- and open-shell systems in different spin symmetries have been studied with this matrix formalism at several levels of electronic correlation. The results confirm the suitability of this approach.

  1. Protection motivation theory: is this a worthwhile theory for physical activity promotion?

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Trinh, Linda

    2010-04-01

    This article reviews the published studies in the physical activity domain, which include novel hypothesis from our laboratory, that have tested Rogers' Protection Motivation Theory. Across the various population groups, the theory's coping appraisal is generally supported; however, there is limited support for the theory's threat components. Implications of these findings are discussed from both theoretical and practical perspectives.

  2. Activity Theory and Situated Learning Theory: Contrasting Views of Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnseth, Hans Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer a critical discussion of the practice turn in contemporary educational research. In order to make the discussion specific, I use two influential theories, namely activity theory and situated learning theory. They both turn to the notion of practice in order to overcome the limitations of mentalist and…

  3. Korean immigrant women's physical activity experience: a situation-specific theory.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Nguyen, Giang; Stringer, Lynn; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    To develop successful physical activity promotion programs for midlife immigrant women, especially for Korean immigrant midlife women, concrete theoretical bases are needed. However, virtually no theoretical frameworks and/or theories exist that can explain the influences of immigration transition on the physical activity experience of midlife immigrant women in general or Korean immigrant midlife women in specific. The purpose of this article is to present a situation-specific theory on physical activity experience of Korean immigrant midlife women (SPAKIM) with its development process. An integrative approach was used to develop the theory based on the midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity (MAPA) theory, the transitions theory, a review of the relevant literature, and two studies on midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. The proposed theory includes nature of transitions, nonmodifiable and modifiable transition conditions, contexts of daily life, patterns of response, and nursing therapeutics as major concepts, and each major concept includes several related subconcepts. Because several concepts of the theory were developed mainly based on the literature review, the major concepts and related subconcepts need to be further developed and evaluated in future studies.

  4. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    F. Perry; R. Youngs

    2004-10-14

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is threefold: (1) Present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996 [DIRS 100116]). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and applied in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed, as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) Present revised probability calculations based on PVHA outputs for a repository footprint proposed in 2003 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 162289]), rather than the footprint used at the time of the PVHA. This analysis report also calculates the probability of an eruptive center(s) forming within the repository footprint using information developed in the PVHA. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes located within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers (conditional on a dike intersecting the repository) located within the repository footprint. (3) Document sensitivity studies that analyze how the presence of potentially buried basaltic volcanoes may affect the computed frequency of intersection of the repository footprint by a basaltic dike. These sensitivity studies are prompted by aeromagnetic data collected in 1999, indicating the possible presence of previously unrecognized buried volcanoes in the YMR (Blakely et al. 2000 [DIRS 151881]; O'Leary et al. 2002 [DIRS 158468]). The results of the sensitivity studies are for informational purposes only and are not to be used for purposes of assessing repository performance.

  5. The importance of behavior theory in control system modeling of physical activity sensor data.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Among health behaviors, physical activity has the most extensive record of research using passive sensors. Control systems and other system dynamic approaches have long been considered applicable for understanding human behavior, but only recently has the technology provided the precise and intensive longitudinal data required for these analytic approaches. Although sensors provide intensive data on the patterns and variations of physical activity over time, the influences of these variations are often unmeasured. Health behavior theories provide an explanatory framework of the putative mediators of physical activity changes. Incorporating the intensive longitudinal measurement of these theoretical constructs is critical to improving the fit of control system model of physical activity and for advancing behavioral theory. Theory-based control models also provide guidance on the nature of the controllers which serve as the basis for just-in-time adaptive interventions based on these control system models.

  6. The importance of behavior theory in control system modeling of physical activity sensor data.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Among health behaviors, physical activity has the most extensive record of research using passive sensors. Control systems and other system dynamic approaches have long been considered applicable for understanding human behavior, but only recently has the technology provided the precise and intensive longitudinal data required for these analytic approaches. Although sensors provide intensive data on the patterns and variations of physical activity over time, the influences of these variations are often unmeasured. Health behavior theories provide an explanatory framework of the putative mediators of physical activity changes. Incorporating the intensive longitudinal measurement of these theoretical constructs is critical to improving the fit of control system model of physical activity and for advancing behavioral theory. Theory-based control models also provide guidance on the nature of the controllers which serve as the basis for just-in-time adaptive interventions based on these control system models. PMID:25571577

  7. A Systematic Review Exploring the Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation as a Framework for Chronic Health Condition Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tougas, Michelle E.; Hayden, Jill A.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Huguet, Anna; Rozario, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Background Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development. Methods We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory. Results Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms ‘Feedback’ and ‘Consistency’ were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms ‘Self-incentives’ and ‘External rewards’ were addressed by six and four interventions

  8. The Work Compatibility Improvement Framework: theory and application of improvement action and intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2009-05-01

    Challenges facing management of manufacturing firms can be transformed into asset gains by giving careful consideration to the worker-work environment interface. The benefits of a 'healthy' interface may lead to sizable reductions in rising health care costs and retention of highly qualified workers. This paper presents a novel approach for the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The work tasks of this research consisted of: (a) fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention; (b) design concepts and process of improvement action/intervention generation; (c) assessment model of estimated gains in company's assets; (d) application demonstration in the manufacturing sector. The process of improvement action/intervention generation is described, preceded by a description of the fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention and system architecture. This is followed by a documentation of estimated asset gains as a result of the improvement plan. The results showed that expert workers were, on average, 78% in agreement with the algorithm-identified improvement actions. Their knowledge was used to update the recommended actions as well as to detail the multiple strategies required to address the improvement actions. As a result, an integrated improvement plan was developed resulting in estimated asset gains of $1.6 million, which was validated by the general manager. The research reported herein documented the theory and application of the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The economic assessment of the suggested improvement is also reported and this has proved to be an important driver to secure the firm collaboration of manufacturing enterprise management. An integrated improvement solution plan backed by a detailed economic assessment of suggested improvements is essential to demonstrate the full potential of workplace micro- and macro-ergonomic interventions. PMID

  9. Community Service-Learning and Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), to provide new insights into community service-learning (CSL) in higher education. While CSL literature acknowledges the influences of John Dewey and Paolo Freire, discussion of the potential contribution of cultural-historical activity theory, rooted in the work of…

  10. Teaching Sociological Theory through Active Learning: The Irrigation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Mellisa

    2005-01-01

    For students, theory is often one of the most daunting aspects of sociology--it seems abstract, removed from the concrete events of their everyday lives, and therefore intimidating. In an attempt to break down student resistance to theory, instructors are increasingly turning to active learning approaches. Active learning exercises, then, appear…

  11. A Guided Inquiry Activity for Teaching Ligand Field Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian J.; Graham, Kate J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe a guided inquiry activity for teaching ligand field theory. Previous research suggests the guided inquiry approach is highly effective for student learning. This activity familiarizes students with the key concepts of molecular orbital theory applied to coordination complexes. Students will learn to identify factors that…

  12. Learning on the Job: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Approach to Initial Teacher Education across Four Secondary School Subject Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Alaster Scott

    2011-01-01

    This article considers how one may integrate ethnographic data generation with research questions and an analytic framework that are strongly theoretically informed by Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). Generating data through participant observation of school-based, student teacher education activity and interviewing all those involved…

  13. Factors Influencing the Selection of Speech Pathology as a Career: A Qualitative Analysis Utilising the Systems Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Factors identified by 16 participants during in-depth interviews as influencing selection of speech pathology as a career were described using the Systems Theory Framework (STF, Patton & McMahon, 2006). Participants were highly likely to identify factors from the individual and social systems, but not the environmental-societal system, of the STF…

  14. Problems with McAdams and Pals's (2006) Proposal of a Framework for an Integrative Theory of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the original article "A New Big Five: Fundamental Principles for an Integrative Science of Personality," by Dan P. McAdams and Jennifer L. Pals (see record 2006-03947-002). Here, the current author begins with a critique of McAdams and Pals's (April 2006) five principles for a framework for an integrative theory of personality. The…

  15. The Link Between ADHD and the Risk of Sexual Victimization Among College Women: Expanding the Lifestyles/Routine Activities Framework.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jamie A

    2015-11-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample of college women, the current study examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a potential risk factor in the prediction of sexual victimization among college women and as an extension of the lifestyles/routine activities framework. The findings indicate that college women with ADHD experienced sexual victimization at significantly higher rates than college women without ADHD. Furthermore, ADHD emerged as a significant predictor of sexual victimization across models. The lifestyles/routine activities theory also received general support, particularly for the concepts of exposure, proximity, and guardianship. This research suggests that other risk factors outside the lifestyles/routine activities framework are important in the prediction of sexual victimization in college women.

  16. The Link Between ADHD and the Risk of Sexual Victimization Among College Women: Expanding the Lifestyles/Routine Activities Framework.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jamie A

    2015-11-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample of college women, the current study examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a potential risk factor in the prediction of sexual victimization among college women and as an extension of the lifestyles/routine activities framework. The findings indicate that college women with ADHD experienced sexual victimization at significantly higher rates than college women without ADHD. Furthermore, ADHD emerged as a significant predictor of sexual victimization across models. The lifestyles/routine activities theory also received general support, particularly for the concepts of exposure, proximity, and guardianship. This research suggests that other risk factors outside the lifestyles/routine activities framework are important in the prediction of sexual victimization in college women. PMID:26155795

  17. Studying Activities That Take Place in Speech Interactions: A Theoretical and Methodological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Dizier de Almeida, Valérie; Colletta, Jean-Marc; Auriac-Slusarczyk, Emmanuelle; Specogna, Antonietta; Simon, Jean-Pascal; Fiema, Gabriela; Luxembourger, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a theoretical and methodological framework based on a pluralistic, concerted approach to the study of activities that take place in and through speech interactions. The framework has a general scope, applying to any collective activity taking form through language interactions. It contributes to a fuller understanding of the…

  18. Protopopov's ideas on habit formation and their relation to the Pavlovian theory of higher nervous activity.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1929 Viktor P. Protopopov began to replicate E. L. Thorndike's animal experiments on habit acquisition. To determine the conditions necessary for habit formation, Protopopov used the natural experiment method, in which dogs encountered environments that prevented them from reaching a stimulus-bait. Not all dogs acquired the behavior necessary for obtaining the bait. Explaining the results within the framework of the Pavlovian theory of higher nervous activity, Protopopov concluded that habits were acquired when an active animal provoked by a bait-stimulus encountered an environmental barrier. The dogs tried a series of phylogenetic behaviors until the stimulus-bait was reached. The latter movements were retained, forming an ontogenetic habit. The dogs also learned not to produce the unsuccessful movements. In accord with the Pavlovian theory, individual differences in habit formation were related to temperament types. A critique of the Thorndikian Law of Effect is provided in terms of the Pavlovian theory of higher nervous activity. PMID:10696273

  19. Critical Curriculum Theory and Slow Ecopedagogical Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Phillip G.

    2015-01-01

    Enacting a critical environmental education curriculum theory with 8- to 9-year-old children in 1978 is now "restoried" in a "history of the present/future" like "case study" for prosecuting five interrelated problems confronting progress in environmental education and its research. They are: the intense heat of the…

  20. Adsorptive desulfurization with metal-organic frameworks: A density functional theory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiping; Ling, Lixia; Wang, Baojun; Fan, Huiling; Shangguan, Ju; Mi, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The contribution of each fragment of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to the adsorption of sulfur compounds were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The involved sulfur compounds are dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3), ethyl mercaptan (CH3CH2SH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). MOFs with different organic ligands (NH2-BDC, BDC and NDC), metal centers structures (M, M-M and M3O) and metal ions (Zn, Cu and Fe) were used to study their effects on sulfur species adsorption. The results revealed that, MOFs with coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUS) have the strongest binding strength with sulfur compounds, MOFs with NH2-BDC substituent group ligand comes second, followed by that with saturated metal center, and the organic ligands without substituent group has the weakest adsorption strength. Moreover, it was also found that, among different metal ions (Fe, Zn and Cu), MOFs with unsaturated Fe has the strongest adsorption strength for sulfur compounds. These results are consistent with our previous experimental observations, and therefore provide insights on the better design of MOFs for desulfurization application.

  1. Effective social justice advocacy: a theory-of-change framework for assessing progress.

    PubMed

    Klugman, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    This article offers a theory-of-change framework for social justice advocacy. It describes broad outcome categories against which activists, donors and evaluators can assess progress (or lack thereof) in an ongoing manner: changes in organisational capacity, base of support, alliances, data and analysis from a social justice perspective, problem definition and potential policy options, visibility, public norms, and population level impacts. Using these for evaluation enables activists and donors to learn from and rethink their strategies as the political context and/or actors change over time. The paper presents a case study comparing factors that facilitated reproductive rights policy wins during the transition from apartheid to democracy in South Africa and factors that undermined their implementation in the post-apartheid period. It argues that after legal and policy victories had been won, failure to maintain strong organizations and continually rethink strategies contributed to the loss of government focus on and resources for implementation of new policies. By implication, evaluating effectiveness only by an actual policy change does not allow for ongoing learning to ensure appropriate strategies. It also fails to recognise that a policy win can be overturned and needs vigilant monitoring and advocacy for implementation. This means that funding and organising advocacy should seldom be undertaken as a short-term proposition. It also suggests that the building and maintenance of organisational and leadership capacity is as important as any other of the outcome categories in enabling success.

  2. A Theory of Information Quality and a Framework for its Implementation in the Requirements Engineering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenn, Michael W.

    This dissertation introduces a theory of information quality to explain macroscopic behavior observed in the systems engineering process. The theory extends principles of Shannon's mathematical theory of communication [1948] and statistical mechanics to information development processes concerned with the flow, transformation, and meaning of information. The meaning of requirements information in the systems engineering context is estimated or measured in terms of the cumulative requirements quality Q which corresponds to the distribution of the requirements among the available quality levels. The requirements entropy framework (REF) implements the theory to address the requirements engineering problem. The REF defines the relationship between requirements changes, requirements volatility, requirements quality, requirements entropy and uncertainty, and engineering effort. The REF is evaluated via simulation experiments to assess its practical utility as a new method for measuring, monitoring and predicting requirements trends and engineering effort at any given time in the process. The REF treats the requirements engineering process as an open system in which the requirements are discrete information entities that transition from initial states of high entropy, disorder and uncertainty toward the desired state of minimum entropy as engineering effort is input and requirements increase in quality. The distribution of the total number of requirements R among the N discrete quality levels is determined by the number of defined quality attributes accumulated by R at any given time. Quantum statistics are used to estimate the number of possibilities P for arranging R among the available quality levels. The requirements entropy H R is estimated using R, N and P by extending principles of information theory and statistical mechanics to the requirements engineering process. The information I increases as HR and uncertainty decrease, and the change in information AI needed

  3. Extending the Framework of Generativity Theory Through Research: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Robert L.; Girling, Laura M.; de Medeiros, Kate; Brazda, Michael; Hannum, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Based on ethnographic interviews, we discuss three ideas we believe will expand knowledge of older informants’ thoughts about and representations of generativity. We adapt the notion of “dividuality” as developed in cultural anthropology to reframe ideas on generativity. The term dividuality refers to a condition of interpersonal or intergenerational connectedness, as distinct from individuality. We also extend previous definitions of generativity by identifying both objects of generative action and temporal and relational frameworks for generative action. Design: We define 4 foci of generativity (people, groups, things, and activities) and 4 spheres of generativity (historical, familial, individual, and relational) based in American culture and with which older informants could easily identify. The approach outlined here also discusses a form of generativity oriented to the past in which relationships with persons in senior generations form a kind of generative action since they are involved in caring for the origins of the self and hence of future generative acts. These 3 elements of a new framework will allow researchers to pose critical questions about generativity among older adults. Such questions include (a) How is the self, as culturally constituted, involved in generative action? and (b) What are the types of generativity within the context of American culture and how are they spoken about? Each of the above points is directly addressed in the data we present below. Methods: We defined these domains through extended ethnographic interviews with 200 older women. Results and implications: The article addresses some new ways of thinking about generativity as a construct, which may be useful in understanding the cultural personhood of older Americans. PMID:24704718

  4. Object relations theory and activity theory: a proposed link by way of the procedural sequence model.

    PubMed

    Ryle, A

    1991-12-01

    An account of object relations theory (ORT), represented in terms of the procedural sequence model (PSM), is compared to the ideas of Vygotsky and activity theory (AT). The two models are seen to be compatible and complementary and their combination offers a satisfactory account of human psychology, appropriate for the understanding and integration of psychotherapy. PMID:1786224

  5. A mixture fraction framework for the theory and modeling of droplets and sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Bilger, Robert W.

    2011-02-15

    A mixture fraction is carefully defined for evaporation and combustion of droplets and sprays. The definition is valid at points in either the liquid or gas phases and care is taken to distinguish between definitions based on conserved scalars appropriate for heat transfer and those for mass transfer. Results are presented for Spalding B numbers and values of the mixture fraction at the droplet surface for the fast chemistry case and for the case where the droplet cannot sustain an envelope flame. The classical theory for an isolated droplet with spherical symmetry yields simple formulae when expressed in mixture fraction terms. New results are then readily obtained for several quantities of interest in spray modeling. The formulation provides a seamless unification of droplet evaporation processes with gas-phase mixing and reaction. Mixing in a turbulent spray jet is identified as a model problem that clarifies the role of large scale structures in the overall mixing process. Important constraints on the parameter space for sprays are shown to be greatly clarified when expressed in the mixture fraction framework. It is shown how the classical approach for segregated flow with Eulerian/Lagrangian modeling of dispersion and transfer processes in turbulent sprays can be upgraded to include fluctuations in the temperature and composition surrounding the droplets on top of those coming from the turbulent velocity fluctuations. Such preliminary calculations that assume a simple chemically reacting system can readily be upgraded using flamelet functions derived from counterflow experiments or computations: these can then form the starting point for full chemistry calculations using such approaches as conditional moment closure. (author)

  6. Unresolved issues in theories of autoimmune disease using myocarditis as a framework.

    PubMed

    Root-Bernstein, Robert; Fairweather, DeLisa

    2015-06-21

    Many theories of autoimmune disease have been proposed since the discovery that the immune system can attack the body. These theories include the hidden or cryptic antigen theory, modified antigen theory, T cell bypass, T cell-B cell mismatch, epitope spread or drift, the bystander effect, molecular mimicry, anti-idiotype theory, antigenic complementarity, and dual-affinity T cell receptors. We critically review these theories and relevant mathematical models as they apply to autoimmune myocarditis. All theories share the common assumption that autoimmune diseases are triggered by environmental factors such as infections or chemical exposure. Most, but not all, theories and mathematical models are unifactorial assuming single-agent causation of disease. Experimental and clinical evidence and mathematical models exist to support some aspects of most theories, but evidence/models that support one theory almost invariably supports other theories as well. More importantly, every theory (and every model) lacks the ability to account for some key autoimmune disease phenomena such as the fundamental roles of innate immunity, sex differences in disease susceptibility, the necessity for adjuvants in experimental animal models, and the often paradoxical effect of exposure timing and dose on disease induction. We argue that a more comprehensive and integrated theory of autoimmunity associated with new mathematical models is needed and suggest specific experimental and clinical tests for each major theory that might help to clarify how they relate to clinical disease and reveal how theories are related.

  7. Unresolved issues in theories of autoimmune disease using myocarditis as a framework

    PubMed Central

    Root-Bernstein, Robert; Fairweather, DeLisa

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of autoimmune disease have been proposed since the discovery that the immune system can attack the body. These theories include the hidden or cryptic antigen theory, modified antigen theory, T cell bypass, T cell-B cell mismatch, epitope spread or drift, the bystander effect, molecular mimicry, anti-idiotype theory, antigenic complementarity, and dual-affinity T cell receptors. We critically review these theories and relevant mathematical models as they apply to autoimmune myocarditis. All theories share the common assumption that autoimmune diseases are triggered by environmental factors such as infections or chemical exposure. Most, but not all, theories and mathematical models are unifactorial assuming single-agent causation of disease. Experimental and clinical evidence and mathematical models exist to support some aspects of most theories, but evidence/models that support one theory almost invariably supports other theories as well. More importantly, every theory (and every model) lacks the ability to account for some key autoimmune disease phenomena such as the fundamental roles of innate immunity, sex differences in disease susceptibility, the necessity for adjuvants in experimental animal models, and the often paradoxical effect of exposure timing and dose on disease induction. We argue that a more comprehensive and integrated theory of autoimmunity associated with new mathematical models is needed and suggest specific experimental and clinical tests for each major theory that might help to clarify how they relate to clinical disease and reveal how theories are related. PMID:25484004

  8. A RE-AIM evaluation of theory-based physical activity interventions.

    PubMed

    Antikainen, Iina; Ellis, Rebecca

    2011-04-01

    Although physical activity interventions have been shown to effectively modify behavior, little research has examined the potential of these interventions for adoption in real-world settings. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the external validity of 57 theory-based physical activity interventions using the RE-AIM framework. The physical activity interventions included were more likely to report on issues of internal, rather than external validity and on individual, rather than organizational components of the RE-AIM framework, making the translation of many interventions into practice difficult. Furthermore, most studies included motivated, healthy participants, thus reducing the generalizability of the interventions to real-world settings that provide services to more diverse populations. To determine if a given intervention is feasible and effective in translational research, more information should be reported about the factors that affect external validity.

  9. Reference Framework for Active Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naithani, Pranav

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this paper traces the history of active learning and further utilizes the available literature to define the meaning and importance of active learning in higher education. The study highlights common practical problems faced by students and instructors in implementing active learning in higher education and further identifies…

  10. A Disability Studies Framework for Policy Activism in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses disability studies and the social model of disability as theoretical foundations for policy activism in postsecondary education. The social model is discussed and a model for policy activism is described. A case study of how disability studies and policy activism can be applied is provided utilizing the "3C Project to Provide…

  11. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation.

  12. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. PMID:26450973

  13. Evaluating the Consistency of Angoff-Based Cut Scores Using Subsets of Items within a Generalizability Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannan, Priya; Sgammato, Adrienne; Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Katz, Irvin R.

    2015-01-01

    The Angoff method requires experts to view every item on the test and make a probability judgment. This can be time consuming when there are large numbers of items on the test. In this study, a G-theory framework was used to determine if a subset of items can be used to make generalizable cut-score recommendations. Angoff ratings (i.e.,…

  14. A Tool for Changing the World: Possibilities of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory to Reinvigorate Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lee, Yew-Jin; Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory, an outcrop of socio-psychological approaches toward human development, has enjoyed tremendous growth over the past two decades but has yet to be appropriated into science education to any large extent. In part, the difficulties Western scholars have had in adopting this framework arise from its ontology, which…

  15. Making sense in a complex landscape: how the Cynefin Framework from Complex Adaptive Systems Theory can inform health promotion practice.

    PubMed

    Van Beurden, Eric K; Kia, Annie M; Zask, Avigdor; Dietrich, Uta; Rose, Lauren

    2013-03-01

    Health promotion addresses issues from the simple (with well-known cause/effect links) to the highly complex (webs and loops of cause/effect with unpredictable, emergent properties). Yet there is no conceptual framework within its theory base to help identify approaches appropriate to the level of complexity. The default approach favours reductionism--the assumption that reducing a system to its parts will inform whole system behaviour. Such an approach can yield useful knowledge, yet is inadequate where issues have multiple interacting causes, such as social determinants of health. To address complex issues, there is a need for a conceptual framework that helps choose action that is appropriate to context. This paper presents the Cynefin Framework, informed by complexity science--the study of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). It introduces key CAS concepts and reviews the emergence and implications of 'complex' approaches within health promotion. It explains the framework and its use with examples from contemporary practice, and sets it within the context of related bodies of health promotion theory. The Cynefin Framework, especially when used as a sense-making tool, can help practitioners understand the complexity of issues, identify appropriate strategies and avoid the pitfalls of applying reductionist approaches to complex situations. The urgency to address critical issues such as climate change and the social determinants of health calls for us to engage with complexity science. The Cynefin Framework helps practitioners make the shift, and enables those already engaged in complex approaches to communicate the value and meaning of their work in a system that privileges reductionist approaches. PMID:22128193

  16. Making sense in a complex landscape: how the Cynefin Framework from Complex Adaptive Systems Theory can inform health promotion practice.

    PubMed

    Van Beurden, Eric K; Kia, Annie M; Zask, Avigdor; Dietrich, Uta; Rose, Lauren

    2013-03-01

    Health promotion addresses issues from the simple (with well-known cause/effect links) to the highly complex (webs and loops of cause/effect with unpredictable, emergent properties). Yet there is no conceptual framework within its theory base to help identify approaches appropriate to the level of complexity. The default approach favours reductionism--the assumption that reducing a system to its parts will inform whole system behaviour. Such an approach can yield useful knowledge, yet is inadequate where issues have multiple interacting causes, such as social determinants of health. To address complex issues, there is a need for a conceptual framework that helps choose action that is appropriate to context. This paper presents the Cynefin Framework, informed by complexity science--the study of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). It introduces key CAS concepts and reviews the emergence and implications of 'complex' approaches within health promotion. It explains the framework and its use with examples from contemporary practice, and sets it within the context of related bodies of health promotion theory. The Cynefin Framework, especially when used as a sense-making tool, can help practitioners understand the complexity of issues, identify appropriate strategies and avoid the pitfalls of applying reductionist approaches to complex situations. The urgency to address critical issues such as climate change and the social determinants of health calls for us to engage with complexity science. The Cynefin Framework helps practitioners make the shift, and enables those already engaged in complex approaches to communicate the value and meaning of their work in a system that privileges reductionist approaches.

  17. A new framework for cortico-striatal plasticity: behavioural theory meets in vitro data at the reinforcement-action interface.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Kevin N; Humphries, Mark D; Redgrave, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Operant learning requires that reinforcement signals interact with action representations at a suitable neural interface. Much evidence suggests that this occurs when phasic dopamine, acting as a reinforcement prediction error, gates plasticity at cortico-striatal synapses, and thereby changes the future likelihood of selecting the action(s) coded by striatal neurons. But this hypothesis faces serious challenges. First, cortico-striatal plasticity is inexplicably complex, depending on spike timing, dopamine level, and dopamine receptor type. Second, there is a credit assignment problem-action selection signals occur long before the consequent dopamine reinforcement signal. Third, the two types of striatal output neuron have apparently opposite effects on action selection. Whether these factors rule out the interface hypothesis and how they interact to produce reinforcement learning is unknown. We present a computational framework that addresses these challenges. We first predict the expected activity changes over an operant task for both types of action-coding striatal neuron, and show they co-operate to promote action selection in learning and compete to promote action suppression in extinction. Separately, we derive a complete model of dopamine and spike-timing dependent cortico-striatal plasticity from in vitro data. We then show this model produces the predicted activity changes necessary for learning and extinction in an operant task, a remarkable convergence of a bottom-up data-driven plasticity model with the top-down behavioural requirements of learning theory. Moreover, we show the complex dependencies of cortico-striatal plasticity are not only sufficient but necessary for learning and extinction. Validating the model, we show it can account for behavioural data describing extinction, renewal, and reacquisition, and replicate in vitro experimental data on cortico-striatal plasticity. By bridging the levels between the single synapse and behaviour, our

  18. A new framework for cortico-striatal plasticity: behavioural theory meets in vitro data at the reinforcement-action interface.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Kevin N; Humphries, Mark D; Redgrave, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Operant learning requires that reinforcement signals interact with action representations at a suitable neural interface. Much evidence suggests that this occurs when phasic dopamine, acting as a reinforcement prediction error, gates plasticity at cortico-striatal synapses, and thereby changes the future likelihood of selecting the action(s) coded by striatal neurons. But this hypothesis faces serious challenges. First, cortico-striatal plasticity is inexplicably complex, depending on spike timing, dopamine level, and dopamine receptor type. Second, there is a credit assignment problem-action selection signals occur long before the consequent dopamine reinforcement signal. Third, the two types of striatal output neuron have apparently opposite effects on action selection. Whether these factors rule out the interface hypothesis and how they interact to produce reinforcement learning is unknown. We present a computational framework that addresses these challenges. We first predict the expected activity changes over an operant task for both types of action-coding striatal neuron, and show they co-operate to promote action selection in learning and compete to promote action suppression in extinction. Separately, we derive a complete model of dopamine and spike-timing dependent cortico-striatal plasticity from in vitro data. We then show this model produces the predicted activity changes necessary for learning and extinction in an operant task, a remarkable convergence of a bottom-up data-driven plasticity model with the top-down behavioural requirements of learning theory. Moreover, we show the complex dependencies of cortico-striatal plasticity are not only sufficient but necessary for learning and extinction. Validating the model, we show it can account for behavioural data describing extinction, renewal, and reacquisition, and replicate in vitro experimental data on cortico-striatal plasticity. By bridging the levels between the single synapse and behaviour, our

  19. A Theory of Information Quality and a Framework for Its Implementation in the Requirements Engineering Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenn, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation introduces a theory of information quality to explain macroscopic behavior observed in the systems engineering process. The theory extends principles of Shannon's mathematical theory of communication [1948] and statistical mechanics to information development processes concerned with the flow, transformation, and meaning of…

  20. Rapidly assessing the activation conditions and porosity of metal-organic frameworks using thermogravimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, TM; Bloch, ED; Long, JR

    2015-01-01

    A methodology utilizing a thermogravimetric analyzer to monitor propane uptake following incremental increases of the temperature is demonstrated as a means of rapidly identifying porous materials and determining the optimum activation conditions of metal-organic frameworks.

  1. Caring Economics: A New Framework for Conceptualizing and Measuring Economic Activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Indradeep

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the reader to a new framework for conceptualizing and measuring economic activity called caring economics. Going beyond the conventional understanding of economic activity as that which unfolds in markets, caring economics highlights the work of care and caregiving that occurs within households and is often unpaid. This article also unveils a new set of measures based on the framework of caring economics that are urgently needed by policymakers and business leaders to foster personal, business, and national economic success.

  2. The Legacy Ecosystem Management Framework: From Theory to Application in the Detention Pond Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Coty, J; Stevenson, M; Vogt, K A

    2002-02-01

    The Detention Pond is a constructed and lined storm water treatment basin at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that serves multiple stakeholder objectives and programmatic goals. This paper examines the process and outcome involved in the development of a new management plan for the Detention Pond. The plan was created using a new ecosystem management tool, the Legacy Framework. This stakeholder-driven conceptual framework provides an interdisciplinary methodology for determining ecosystem health, appropriate management strategies, and sensitive indicators. The conceptual framework, the Detention Ponds project, and the use of the framework in the context of the project, are described and evaluated, and evaluative criteria for this and other ecosystem management frameworks are offered. The project benefited in several ways from use of the Legacy Framework, although refinements to the framework are suggested. The stakeholder process created a context and environment in which team members became receptive to using an ecosystem management approach to evaluate and support management alternatives previously not considered. This allowed for the unanimous agreement to pursue support from upper management and organizational funding to implement a progressive management strategy. The greatly improved stakeholder relations resulted in upper management support for the project.

  3. A Critical New Pathway Towards Change in Abusive Relationships: The Theory of Transition Framework.

    PubMed

    Shy, Yael; Mills, Linda G

    2010-12-01

    This article explores the use of "Transition Framework" as a conceptual framework for individual and social change. William Bridges introduced Transition Framework in the 1970s as a three-pronged model explaining how people respond to change in their lives. This article argues that such an approach has the potential to help clients recognize and grieve the loss of their old identities, become comfortable with new ways of communicating, understand their cycles of relapse and make positive changes. The relevance of this model to transformative change in domestic violence treatment is explored.

  4. [Behavioral Activation for Depression: Theory and Practice].

    PubMed

    Nakao, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) has recently attracted marked attention. While cognitive therapy focuses on the cognitive distortion of patients with depression and asks them to change their behaviors as the process of altering the cognitive distortion, BA pays attention to behavior to avoid an unpleasant situation or social situation as a key symptom that leads to persistence of the depression. Avoidance behaviors are often seen during every process of depression, from onset to recurrence. Avoidance behaviors, a decrease in pleasant phenomena, or increase in unpleasant phenomena, result in reinforcing a depressive mood. If patients can set appropriate behavioral targets and achieve them, the beneficial behaviors will be further promoted with positive feed-back. The behavioral change, as-a consequence, will result in improvement of the mood, cognition, and depression itself. In this manuscript, the author presents two clinical cases, in which BA assisted the patients in recovering from their depression. The first case was a male in his thirties who repeatedly took sick leave from his work because of maladjustment, which resulted in persistent depression. The second case was a female in her thirties who suffered from OCD and then became maladjusted to her place of work, depressive, and emotionally unstable. In both cases, avoidant behaviors caused their conditions to persist. Appropriate activities formed by BA improved their moods, and their self-efficacies were gradually regained. It was suggested that BA is markedly effective, especially in patients whose avoidant behaviors mainly cause the persistence of their depressive symptoms.

  5. Self-Efficacy Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior: Teaching Physically Active Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theory of planned behavior, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers'…

  6. An integrative framework of the skin receptors activation: mechanoreceptors activity patterns versus "labeled lines".

    PubMed

    Zeveke, Alexander V; Efes, Ekaterina D; Polevaya, Sofia A

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents a review of electrophysiological data which indicate the integrative mechanisms of information coded in the human and animal peripheral skin receptors. The activity of the skin sensory receptors was examined by applying various natural stimuli. It was revealed that numerous identical receptors respond to various stimuli (mechanical, temperature, and pain ones), but the spike patterns of these receptors were found to be specific for each stimulus. The description of characteristic structures of spike patterns in the cutaneous nerve fibers in response to five major modalities, namely: "touch", "pain", "vibration/breath", "cold", and "heat", is being presented. The recordings of the cutaneous physical state revealed a correlation between the patterns of spatiotemporal skin deformation and the receptors activity. A rheological state of the skin can be changed either in response to external temperature variation or by the sympathetic pilomotor activation. These results indicate that the skin sensory receptors activity may be considered as an integrative process. It depends not only on the receptors themselves, but also on the changes in the surrounding tissue and on the adaptive influence of the central nervous system. A new framework for the sensory channel system related to the skin is proposed on the basis of experimental results.

  7. Narratives and Activity Theory as Reflective Tools in Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kaz

    2012-01-01

    Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This case study shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural-historical activity theoretically…

  8. Studying Doctoral Education: Using Activity Theory to Shape Methodological Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Catherine; Jazvac-Martek, Marian; McAlpine, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The study reported here, one part of a larger study on doctoral education, describes a pilot study that used Activity Theory to shape a methodological tool for better understanding the tensions inherent in the doctoral experience. As doctoral students may function within a range of activity systems, we designed data collection protocols based on…

  9. Transformation or Transformism: Engestrom's Version of Activity Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, James

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines Engestrom's version of activity theory. It seeks to locate this within the socio-economic and theoretical context in which notions of co-configuration and knotworking are set. Although this theoretical approach offers radical possibilities it is limited by its neglect of the wider social context in which activity systems are…

  10. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  11. A multi-ontology view of ergonomics: applying the Cynefin Framework to improve theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Elford, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics literature has often identified concerns about the difficulty of gaining support for ergonomics interventions. There appears to be a shift from the view that ergonomics issues can be made to be simple, towards a wider appreciation of the complexity of ergonomics problems in the real world. A framework from knowledge management--the Cynefin Framework--is recommended as providing a way of re-perceiving situations where ergonomics problems may be present or have already been identified. The framework uses multiple ontologies and indicates appropriate courses of investigation and action for each of four domains--the simple, the complex, the complicated and the chaotic. This paper presents evidence of the need for a multi-ontology approach and shows how the Cynefin Framework can be applied to ergonomics.

  12. Constructivist Learning Theory and Human Capital Theory: Shifting Political and Educational Frameworks for Teachers ICT Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupal, Linda V.

    2004-01-01

    This case study discusses the influence of politics on educational technology policies and practices by tracing the effects of a change of governing political parties with differing ideologies and advisory constituencies. It begins by describing a democratic socialist government initiative based on social capital theory and emphasising connections…

  13. Self-efficacy theory and the theory of planned behavior: teaching physically active physical education classes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey J; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theory of planned behavior, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers' intentions were determined by subjective norm, attitude, and perceived behavioral control. Grounded in self-efficacy theory, it was hypothesized that program goal importance and hierarchical and barrier self-efficacy would also predict intention. Using a series of hierarchical regression analyses, the theory of planned behavior was supported by accounting for 59% of the variance in intention due to attitude, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm. Self-efficacy theory based variables received minimal support.

  14. School-based physical activity promotion: a conceptual framework for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Carson, Russell L; Castelli, Darla M; Beighle, Aaron; Erwin, Heather

    2014-04-01

    Despite public health concerns and the many recognized benefits of physical activity (PA), levels of participation among youth remain below national recommendations. To this end, a variety of strategies for promoting physical activity for youth have been advocated, including multi-faceted, school-based approaches. One that continues to be identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The aim of this article is to introduce a conceptual framework for school-based PA promotion that serves to stimulate, guide, and organize related research and practice. The CSPAP conceptual framework is a proposed framework, informed by existing science, recommendations, and a social ecological perspective with individual PA behavior as the epicenter. Discussed in turn are the four proposed interactive levels of influence (i.e., components, facilitators, leaders, and culture) and several integral elements proposed to operate at each level. The article concludes with a presentation of the utility of the framework for research and practice.

  15. Deriving Requirements for Pervasive Well-Being Technology From Work Stress and Intervention Theory: Framework and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Koldijk, Saskia; Kraaij, Wessel

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress in office environments is a big concern, often leading to burn-out. New technologies are emerging, such as easily available sensors, contextual reasoning, and electronic coaching (e-coaching) apps. In the Smart Reasoning for Well-being at Home and at Work (SWELL) project, we explore the potential of using such new pervasive technologies to provide support for the self-management of well-being, with a focus on individuals' stress-coping. Ideally, these new pervasive systems should be grounded in existing work stress and intervention theory. However, there is a large diversity of theories and they hardly provide explicit directions for technology design. Objective The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive and concise framework that can be used to design pervasive technologies that support knowledge workers to decrease stress. Methods Based on a literature study we identify concepts relevant to well-being at work and select different work stress models to find causes of work stress that can be addressed. From a technical perspective, we then describe how sensors can be used to infer stress and the context in which it appears, and use intervention theory to further specify interventions that can be provided by means of pervasive technology. Results The resulting general framework relates several relevant theories: we relate “engagement and burn-out” to “stress”, and describe how relevant aspects can be quantified by means of sensors. We also outline underlying causes of work stress and how these can be addressed with interventions, in particular utilizing new technologies integrating behavioral change theory. Based upon this framework we were able to derive requirements for our case study, the pervasive SWELL system, and we implemented two prototypes. Small-scale user studies proved the value of the derived technology-supported interventions. Conclusions The presented framework can be used to systematically develop theory

  16. A game theory based framework for assessing incentives for local area collaboration with an application to Scottish salmon farming.

    PubMed

    Murray, Alexander G

    2014-08-01

    Movements of water that transport pathogens mean that in net-pen aquaculture diseases are often most effectively managed collaboratively among neighbours. Such area management is widely and explicitly applied for pathogen management in marine salmon farms. Effective area management requires the active support of farm managers and a simple game-theory based framework was developed to identify the conditions required under which collaboration is perceived to be in their own best interest. The model applied is based on area management as practiced for Scottish salmon farms, but its simplicity allows it to be generalised to other area-managed net-pen aquaculture systems. In this model managers choose between purchasing tested pathogen-free fish or cheaper, untested fish that might carry pathogens. Perceived pay-off depends on degree of confidence that neighbours will not buy untested fish, risking input of pathogens that spread between farms. For a given level of risk, confidence in neighbours is most important in control of moderate-impact moderate-probability diseases. Common low-impact diseases require high confidence since there is a high probability a neighbour will import, while testing for rare high-impact diseases may be cost-effective regardless of neighbours actions. In some cases testing may be beneficial at an area level, even if all individual farms are better off not testing. Higher confidence is required for areas with many farms and so focusing management on smaller, epidemiologically imperfect, areas may be more effective. The confidence required for collaboration can be enhanced by the development of formal agreements and the involvement of outside disinterested parties such as trade bodies or government.

  17. Intrinsic flexibility of porous materials; theory, modelling and the flexibility window of the EMT zeolite framework

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Rachel E.; Wells, Stephen A.; Leung, Ka Ming; Edwards, Peter P.; Sartbaeva, Asel

    2015-01-01

    Framework materials have structures containing strongly bonded polyhedral groups of atoms connected through their vertices. Typically the energy cost for variations of the inter-polyhedral geometry is much less than the cost of distortions of the polyhedra themselves – as in the case of silicates, where the geometry of the SiO4 tetrahedral group is much more strongly constrained than the Si—O—Si bridging angle. As a result, framework materials frequently display intrinsic flexibility, and their dynamic and static properties are strongly influenced by low-energy collective motions of the polyhedra. Insight into these motions can be obtained in reciprocal space through the ‘rigid unit mode’ (RUM) model, and in real-space through template-based geometric simulations. We briefly review the framework flexibility phenomena in energy-relevant materials, including ionic conductors, perovskites and zeolites. In particular we examine the ‘flexibility window’ phenomenon in zeolites and present novel results on the flexibility window of the EMT framework, which shed light on the role of structure-directing agents. Our key finding is that the crown ether, despite its steric bulk, does not limit the geometric flexibility of the framework. PMID:26634720

  18. Intrinsic flexibility of porous materials; theory, modelling and the flexibility window of the EMT zeolite framework.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Rachel E; Wells, Stephen A; Leung, Ka Ming; Edwards, Peter P; Sartbaeva, Asel

    2015-12-01

    Framework materials have structures containing strongly bonded polyhedral groups of atoms connected through their vertices. Typically the energy cost for variations of the inter-polyhedral geometry is much less than the cost of distortions of the polyhedra themselves - as in the case of silicates, where the geometry of the SiO4 tetrahedral group is much more strongly constrained than the Si-O-Si bridging angle. As a result, framework materials frequently display intrinsic flexibility, and their dynamic and static properties are strongly influenced by low-energy collective motions of the polyhedra. Insight into these motions can be obtained in reciprocal space through the `rigid unit mode' (RUM) model, and in real-space through template-based geometric simulations. We briefly review the framework flexibility phenomena in energy-relevant materials, including ionic conductors, perovskites and zeolites. In particular we examine the `flexibility window' phenomenon in zeolites and present novel results on the flexibility window of the EMT framework, which shed light on the role of structure-directing agents. Our key finding is that the crown ether, despite its steric bulk, does not limit the geometric flexibility of the framework.

  19. Middle-Range Theories: Frameworks for Examining a Nonsurgical Cosmetic Problem.

    PubMed

    Warren, Hermine

    2016-01-01

    The advent of evidence-based research has called for nursing to focus and create additional pathways that enable exploration of specific practice problems. This change of direction has presented an increased opportunity for analysis and scientific research that are pertinent to nursing. Although grand theory has historically been used to define and guide nursing research, currently many theorists have applied middle-range theories for these purposes. This level of theory provides substantive structures and foundations that may facilitate the ability to observe, test, and interpret phenomena so that a higher level of evidence-based research may be translated into practice. This article addresses and describes a selected clinical practice problem, reviews and assesses 2 middle-range theories, and finally, provides evaluation of the theories that will reaffirm how they support the practice problem.

  20. Brief report: the theory of planned behaviour applied to physical activity in young people who smoke.

    PubMed

    Everson, Emma S; Daley, Amanda J; Ussher, Michael

    2007-04-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical activity and all TPB components. Physical activity behaviour was significantly explained by both intention and perceived behavioural control (PBC), with both intention and PBC making significant contributions to the model. Intention was significantly explained by attitude, subjective norm (SN) and PBC, with attitude, SN and PBC all making significant contributions to the model. The TPB may be a useful framework for guiding physical activity interventions among young smokers.

  1. A Critical New Pathway Towards Change in Abusive Relationships: The Theory of Transition Framework

    PubMed Central

    Shy, Yael

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of “Transition Framework” as a conceptual framework for individual and social change. William Bridges introduced Transition Framework in the 1970s as a three-pronged model explaining how people respond to change in their lives. This article argues that such an approach has the potential to help clients recognize and grieve the loss of their old identities, become comfortable with new ways of communicating, understand their cycles of relapse and make positive changes. The relevance of this model to transformative change in domestic violence treatment is explored. PMID:21170395

  2. The Citizenship Development Framework: A Six Stage Socio/Cultural Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynneson, Thomas L.; Gross, Richard E.

    In order to understand the mechanisms of citizenship in the United States, people are required to study the interactions of ideology, education, and cultural pluralism as they are manifested in educational programs and in the processes of child development. The Citizenship Development Framework (CDF), a product of the Citizenship Development Study…

  3. Knowing Inquiry as Practice and Theory: Developing a Pedagogical Framework with Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Chew-Leng; Lee, Yew-Jin; Tan, Aik-Ling; Lim, Shirley S. L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize the inquiry practices of four elementary school teachers by means of a pedagogical framework. Our study revealed core components of inquiry found in theoretically-driven models as well as practices that were regarded as integral to the success of day-to-day science teaching in Singapore. This approach towards…

  4. Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…

  5. White Dialectics: A New Framework for Theory, Research, and Practice with White Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Nathan R.; Abrams, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents White dialectics, or the tensions that White students experience as dominant group members in the United States, as a new framework to understand and intervene with White students and counselor trainees. Developed from and supported by our qualitative analysis, the authors present the six dialectics of (a) Whiteness and self,…

  6. Education and Outreach activities in the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, E.; Rodrigo, C.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we will describe the main education and outreach activities that are being conducted in the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatory. In particular, we will outline the scientific and technical activities that are being done in collaboration with astronomical amateurs as well as the citizen science project to improve the orbits of near Earth asteroids using archive images.

  7. Evaluation of a school-based intervention programme to promote physical activity: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2005-12-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior provides a useful framework to study attitudes toward participation in physical activity. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention in manipulating the variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and exercise habits with 366 high school students (M = 14.2 yr., SD = .7; 201 boys and 165 girls). The students were divided into intervention and control groups. A questionnaire to measure components of the theory, and the Baecke Questionnaire of Habitual Activity measuring exercise habits, were administered. The intervention lasted 12 wk. and included posters and lectures promoting participation in physical activity. Analyses showed the intervention was effective in improving attitudes towards physical activity, perceived behavioral control, intention, and self-reported actual behavior, but it was ineffective for improving attitude strength, subjective norms, and role identity. The results provide useful information for physical education teachers interested in promoting students' positive attitudes towards physical activity. PMID:16491680

  8. A Conceptual Framework for a Psychometric Theory for Standard Setting with Examples of Its Use for Evaluating the Functioning of Two Standard Setting Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reckase, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    A conceptual framework is proposed for a psychometric theory of standard setting. The framework suggests that participants in a standard setting process (panelists) develop an internal, intended standard as a result of training and the participant's background. The goal of a standard setting process is to convert panelists' intended standards to…

  9. Principles of Catholic Social Teaching, Critical Pedagogy, and the Theory of Intersectionality: An Integrated Framework to Examine the Roles of Social Status in the Formation of Catholic Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Caroline Marie; Ryan, Patrick A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of an analytic framework that integrates principles of Catholic social teaching, critical pedagogy, and the theory of intersectionality to explain attitudes toward marginalized youth held by Catholic students preparing to become teachers. The framework emerges from five years of action research data collected…

  10. Divine action in the framework of scientific knowledge: From quantum theory to divine action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lameter, Christoph

    During the Enlightenment, many theologians gave up the claim that God could act in the universe because the world was envisioned to be completely describable and governed by scientific laws. Surprisingly the development of quantum theory has resulted in the discovery of limits to causality, the universe is no longer conceived to be a closed system and therefore an account of divine action compatible with scientific theories might be possible now. First, the concept of divine intervention as envisioned in the nineteenth century is investigated and then a survey of the development of quantum theory is provided. The disputed character of the interpretation of quantum theory and of the measurement problem noted. It is suggested that the controversy continues because the straightforward acceptance of quantum theory---as already suggested by von Neumann in 1932---would imply a connection between mind and matter and question the notion of an objective, observer independent universe. It is shown using the literature on quantum theory that other solutions to the measurement problem are questionable on scientific grounds alone. Henry Stapp's recent rearticulation of von Neumann's arguments integrating them with Heisenberg's thinking is then selected as a potential basis for a theory of divine action. Existing theories of divine action are investigated starting with William James's idea of an indeterministic universe and ending with the contemporary approaches by Robert Russell and Nancey Murphy. Contemporary proposals are based on the notion of quantum events. A search is made for a scientific basis for quantum events but it is found that none of the interpretations of quantum theory would be compatible with the proposed idea of quantum events. Finally, a new theory of divine action is proposed understanding divine action as a holistic act, analogous to personal agency, through quantum determination. The universe is creating potentialities that are then collapsed by

  11. Protection motivation theory and physical activity in the general population: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Bui, Linh; Mullan, Barbara; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate theoretical framework may be useful for guiding the development of physical activity interventions. This review investigates the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory (PMT), a model based on the cognitive mediation processes of behavioral change, in the prediction and promotion of physical activity participation. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, and a manual search was conducted on relevant reference lists. Studies were included if they tested or applied the PMT, measured physical activity, and sampled from healthy populations. A total of 20 studies were reviewed, grouped into four design categories: prediction, stage discrimination, experimental manipulation, and intervention. The results indicated that the PMT's coping appraisal construct of self-efficacy generally appears to be the most effective in predicting and promoting physical activity participation. In conclusion, the PMT shows some promise, however, there are still substantial gaps in the evidence.

  12. Engestrom's Version of Activity Theory: A Conservative Praxis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, James

    2007-01-01

    This article examines Engestrom's version of activity theory, one rooted in Marxism. It is argued that whilst this approach holds progressive possibilities, its radicalism is undermined by a restricted conceptualisation of transformation and the marginalisation of a politicised notion of social antagonism. As a consequence, this approach to…

  13. Distributed Leadership through the Lens of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Jeanne Ho Pau; Victor Chen, Der-Thanq; Ng, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Using Activity Theory as an interpretive lens to examine the distribution of leadership, this paper shares a case study on how leadership for an ICT project was distributed in a Singapore school. Method: The case study involved observations of 49 meetings and 34 interviews of leaders and the teachers who were involved in the ICT project.…

  14. Anthropological Approach and Activity Theory: Culture, Communities and Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropological approach (AA) concurrently to Activity Theory (AT) in view of overarching questions about classroom use of technology for teaching and learning mathematics. I will do it first from a philosophical point of view, presenting the main notions of AA that have been used to…

  15. Active and Collaborative Learning in an Undergraduate Sociological Theory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Daphne E.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the use of active and collaborative learning strategies in an undergraduate sociological theory course. A semester-long ethnographic project is the foundation for the course; both individual and group participation contribute to the learning process. Assessment findings indicate that students are able, through…

  16. Instructional Transaction Theory: Knowledge Relationships among Processes, Entities, and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…

  17. Anatomy of life and well-being: A framework for the contributions of phenomenology and complexity theory

    PubMed Central

    Mugerauer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an anatomy of the phenomena of life and of correlate qualitative modes of empirical research, theory, and professional practice concerned with health and well-being. I explicate the qualitative dynamic operative at every level of order, from the biological realm of cells and organisms, through distinctively human lifeworld experiences and practices, to communities of organisms in ecosystems and bio-cultural regions. This paper clarifies the unity of the dimensions of life and aligns these with demonstrated and emerging contributions of hermeneutical phenomenology and current complexity–autopoietic theory (including disciplinary and professional interpretations of empirical findings). The intent is begin to delineate a common framework upon which we could build—facilitating better understanding of the distinctive contributions of each specialization as well as the integration of diverse qualitative approaches with each other (and with quantitative complements). PMID:20616889

  18. A new framework for comprehensive, robust, and efficient global sensitivity analysis: 1. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Saman; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulation models are continually growing in complexity with increasingly more factors to be identified. Sensitivity Analysis (SA) provides an essential means for understanding the role and importance of these factors in producing model responses. However, conventional approaches to SA suffer from (1) an ambiguous characterization of sensitivity, and (2) poor computational efficiency, particularly as the problem dimension grows. Here, we present a new and general sensitivity analysis framework (called VARS), based on an analogy to "variogram analysis," that provides an intuitive and comprehensive characterization of sensitivity across the full spectrum of scales in the factor space. We prove, theoretically, that Morris (derivative-based) and Sobol (variance-based) methods and their extensions are special cases of VARS, and that their SA indices can be computed as by-products of the VARS framework. Synthetic functions that resemble actual model response surfaces are used to illustrate the concepts, and show VARS to be as much as two orders of magnitude more computationally efficient than the state-of-the-art Sobol approach. In a companion paper, we propose a practical implementation strategy, and demonstrate the effectiveness, efficiency, and reliability (robustness) of the VARS framework on real-data case studies.

  19. Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity. 5: Post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D. L.; Caves, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory of gravity is evaluated and is shown to be identical to that of general relativity, except for the PPN parameter alpha sub 2, which is related to the difference in propagation speeds for gravitational and electromagnetic waves. Both the value of alpha sub 2 and the value of the Newtonian gravitational constant depend on the present cosmological structure of the Universe. If the cosmological structure has a specific but presumably special form, the Newtonian gravitational constant assumes its current value, alpha sub 2 is zero, the post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory is identical to that of general relativity--and standard solar system experiments cannot distinguish between the two theories.

  20. Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity. V - Post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D. L.; Ni, W.-T.; Caves, C. M.; Will, C. M.

    1976-01-01

    The post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory of gravity is evaluated and is shown to be identical to that of general relativity, except for the post-Newtonian parameter alpha sub 2 (which is related to the difference in propagation speeds for gravitational and electromagnetic waves). Both the value of alpha sub 2 and the value of the Newtonian gravitational constant depend on the present cosmological structure of the Universe. If the cosmological structure has a specific (but presumably special) form, the Newtonian gravitational constant assumes its current value, alpha sub 2 is zero, the post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory is identical to that of general relativity - and standard solar system experiments cannot distinguish between the two theories.

  1. Quantum field theory with a preferred direction: The very special relativity framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheng-Yang

    2016-02-01

    The theory of very special relativity (VSR) proposed by Cohen and Glashow contains an intrinsic preferred direction. Starting from the irreducible unitary representation of the inhomogeneous VSR group I S I M (2 ), we present a rigorous construction of quantum field theory with a preferred direction. We find that although the particles and their quantum fields between the VSR and Lorentz sectors are physically different, they share many similarities. The massive spin-half and spin-one vector fields are local and satisfy the Dirac and Proca equations, respectively. This result can be generalized to higher-spin field theories. By studying the Yukawa and standard gauge interactions, we obtain a qualitative understanding on the effects of the preferred direction. Its effect is manifest for polarized processes but are otherwise absent.

  2. Replacement of the Project Manager Reflected Through Activity Theory and Work-System Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartiainen, Tero; Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Jussila, Jari; Pirhonen, Maritta; Liikamaa, Kirsi

    Replacement of the project manager (RPM) is a known phenomenon in information systems (IS) projects, but scant attention is given to it in the project management or IS literature. Given its critical effects on the project business, the organization, the project team, and the project manager, it should be studied in more depth. We identified factors which make RPM occurrences inherently different and we show that work-system theory and activity theory give comprehensive lenses to advance research on RPM. For the future research on RPM we identified three objectives: experiences on RPM, process model for RPM, and organizational culture's influence on RPM occurrences.

  3. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure. PMID:26841076

  4. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  5. Organizational Learning, Change and Power: Toward a Practice-Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Randal

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate the practices of the interim and current CEOs employed in managing a supportive environment conducive for learning as well as sustaining organizational change; and second, to describe the theory of practice guiding their efforts. Design/methodology/approach: An action science approach,…

  6. Using the Theory of Successful Intelligence as a Framework for Developing Assessments in AP Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemler, Steven E.; Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Jarvin, Linda; Sharpes, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    A new test of Advanced Placement Physics, explicitly designed to balance both content and cognitive-processing skills, was developed using Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence. The test was administered to 281 AP Physics students from 10 schools during the 2006-2007 school year. Six empirically distinguishable profiles of strengths and…

  7. Parent-Offspring Conflict Theory: An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding Conflict within Human Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Del Giudice, Marco; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research demonstrate that conflict shapes and permeates a broad range of family processes. In the current article, we argue that greater insight, integration of knowledge, and empirical achievement in the study of family conflict can be realized by utilizing a powerful theory from evolutionary biology that is barely known within…

  8. "Living" Theory: A Pedagogical Framework for Process Support in Networked Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Philipa

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the broad outcome of an action research project in which practical theory was developed in the field of networked learning through case-study analysis of learners' experiences and critical evaluation of educational practice. It begins by briefly discussing the pedagogical approach adopted for the case-study course and the…

  9. A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative…

  10. Place-Building Theory: A Framework for Assessing and Advancing Community Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Michael J.; Thomas, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Place-building theory, originally developed to assess corporate social responsibility, explains to what degree an organization values and invests in its geographical and social location. Different lines of inquiry--descriptive, evaluative, and prescriptive--elucidate how the organization values place, which in turn suggests its type, its…

  11. Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, Dana L.; Hammer, Tonya R.; Strentzsch, Julie; Cannon, Kristi; Parsons, Jacqueline; Salazar, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Relational-cultural theory (RCT) theorists advocate expanding the multicultural/social justice counseling competencies beyond the domains of self-awareness, cultural knowledge, and culturally responsive helping skills. This article provides an overview of RCT and discusses how creating and participating in growth-fostering relationships are…

  12. Tailoring Healthy Workplace Interventions to Local Healthcare Settings: A Complexity Theory-Informed Workplace of Well-Being Framework.

    PubMed

    Brand, Sarah L; Fleming, Lora E; Wyatt, Katrina M

    2015-01-01

    Many healthy workplace interventions have been developed for healthcare settings to address the consistently low scores of healthcare professionals on assessments of mental and physical well-being. Complex healthcare settings present challenges for the scale-up and spread of successful interventions from one setting to another. Despite general agreement regarding the importance of the local setting in affecting intervention success across different settings, there is no consensus on what it is about a local setting that needs to be taken into account to design healthy workplace interventions appropriate for different local settings. Complexity theory principles were used to understand a workplace as a complex adaptive system and to create a framework of eight domains (system characteristics) that affect the emergence of system-level behaviour. This Workplace of Well-being (WoW) framework is responsive and adaptive to local settings and allows a shared understanding of the enablers and barriers to behaviour change by capturing local information for each of the eight domains. We use the results of applying the WoW framework to one workplace, a UK National Health Service ward, to describe the utility of this approach in informing design of setting-appropriate healthy workplace interventions that create workplaces conducive to healthy behaviour change. PMID:26380358

  13. Tailoring Healthy Workplace Interventions to Local Healthcare Settings: A Complexity Theory-Informed Workplace of Well-Being Framework

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Sarah L.; Fleming, Lora E.; Wyatt, Katrina M.

    2015-01-01

    Many healthy workplace interventions have been developed for healthcare settings to address the consistently low scores of healthcare professionals on assessments of mental and physical well-being. Complex healthcare settings present challenges for the scale-up and spread of successful interventions from one setting to another. Despite general agreement regarding the importance of the local setting in affecting intervention success across different settings, there is no consensus on what it is about a local setting that needs to be taken into account to design healthy workplace interventions appropriate for different local settings. Complexity theory principles were used to understand a workplace as a complex adaptive system and to create a framework of eight domains (system characteristics) that affect the emergence of system-level behaviour. This Workplace of Well-being (WoW) framework is responsive and adaptive to local settings and allows a shared understanding of the enablers and barriers to behaviour change by capturing local information for each of the eight domains. We use the results of applying the WoW framework to one workplace, a UK National Health Service ward, to describe the utility of this approach in informing design of setting-appropriate healthy workplace interventions that create workplaces conducive to healthy behaviour change. PMID:26380358

  14. Tailoring Healthy Workplace Interventions to Local Healthcare Settings: A Complexity Theory-Informed Workplace of Well-Being Framework.

    PubMed

    Brand, Sarah L; Fleming, Lora E; Wyatt, Katrina M

    2015-01-01

    Many healthy workplace interventions have been developed for healthcare settings to address the consistently low scores of healthcare professionals on assessments of mental and physical well-being. Complex healthcare settings present challenges for the scale-up and spread of successful interventions from one setting to another. Despite general agreement regarding the importance of the local setting in affecting intervention success across different settings, there is no consensus on what it is about a local setting that needs to be taken into account to design healthy workplace interventions appropriate for different local settings. Complexity theory principles were used to understand a workplace as a complex adaptive system and to create a framework of eight domains (system characteristics) that affect the emergence of system-level behaviour. This Workplace of Well-being (WoW) framework is responsive and adaptive to local settings and allows a shared understanding of the enablers and barriers to behaviour change by capturing local information for each of the eight domains. We use the results of applying the WoW framework to one workplace, a UK National Health Service ward, to describe the utility of this approach in informing design of setting-appropriate healthy workplace interventions that create workplaces conducive to healthy behaviour change.

  15. Under which conditions, additional monitoring data are worth gathering for improving decision making? Application of the VOI theory in the Bayesian Event Tree eruption forecasting framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loschetter, Annick; Rohmer, Jérémy

    2016-04-01

    . For the parameters that concern expert setting, the weight attributed to monitoring measurement ω, the mean of thresholds, the economic context and the setting of the decision threshold are very influential. The interest of applying the VOI theory (more precisely the value of imperfect information) in the BET framework was demonstrated as support for helping experts in the setting of the monitoring system or for helping managers to decide the installation of additional monitoring systems. Acknowledgments: This work was carried out in the framework of the project MEDSUV. This project is funded under the call FP7 ENV.2012.6.4-2: Long-term monitoring experiment in geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: the Supersite concept. Grant agreement n°308665.

  16. Using Principal-Agent Theory as a Framework for Analysis in Evaluating the Multiple Stakeholders Involved in the Accreditation and Quality Assurance of International Medical Branch Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgos, Jill E.

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the theoretical framework of principal-agent theory in order to better understand the complex organisational relationships emerging between entities invested in the establishment and monitoring of cross-border international branch campus medical schools. Using the key constructs of principal-agent theory, information asymmetry…

  17. Benchmarking density functional theory predictions of framework structures and properties in a chemically diverse test set of metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarian, Dalar; Ganesh, P.; Sholl, David S.

    2015-09-30

    We compiled a test set of chemically and topologically diverse Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs) with high accuracy experimentally derived crystallographic structure data. The test set was used to benchmark the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) functionals (M06L, PBE, PW91, PBE-D2, PBE-D3, and vdW-DF2) for predicting lattice parameters, unit cell volume, bonded parameters and pore descriptors. On average PBE-D2, PBE-D3, and vdW-DF2 predict more accurate structures, but all functionals predicted pore diameters within 0.5 Å of the experimental diameter for every MOF in the test set. The test set was also used to assess the variance in performance of DFT functionals for elastic properties and atomic partial charges. The DFT predicted elastic properties such as minimum shear modulus and Young's modulus can differ by an average of 3 and 9 GPa for rigid MOFs such as those in the test set. Moreover, we calculated the partial charges by vdW-DF2 deviate the most from other functionals while there is no significant difference between the partial charges calculated by M06L, PBE, PW91, PBE-D2 and PBE-D3 for the MOFs in the test set. We find that while there are differences in the magnitude of the properties predicted by the various functionals, these discrepancies are small compared to the accuracy necessary for most practical applications.

  18. A computational framework for polyconvex large strain elasticity for geometrically exact beam theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortigosa, Rogelio; Gil, Antonio J.; Bonet, Javier; Hesch, Christian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a new computational framework is presented for the analysis of nonlinear beam finite elements subjected to large strains. Specifically, the methodology recently introduced in Bonet et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 283:1061-1094, 2015) in the context of three dimensional polyconvex elasticity is extended to the geometrically exact beam model of Simo (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 49:55-70, 1985), the starting point of so many other finite element beam type formulations. This new variational framework can be viewed as a continuum degenerate formulation which, moreover, is enhanced by three key novelties. First, in order to facilitate the implementation of the sophisticated polyconvex constitutive laws particularly associated with beams undergoing large strains, a novel tensor cross product algebra by Bonet et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 283:1061-1094, 2015) is adopted, leading to an elegant and physically meaningful representation of an otherwise complex computational framework. Second, the paper shows how the novel algebra facilitates the re-expression of any invariant of the deformation gradient, its cofactor and its determinant in terms of the classical beam strain measures. The latter being very useful whenever a classical beam implementation is preferred. This is particularised for the case of a Mooney-Rivlin model although the technique can be straightforwardly generalised to other more complex isotropic and anisotropic polyconvex models. Third, the connection between the two most accepted restrictions for the definition of constitutive models in three dimensional elasticity and beams is shown, bridging the gap between the continuum and its degenerate beam description. This is carried out via a novel insightful representation of the tangent operator.

  19. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample.

    PubMed

    Vo, Phuong T; Bogg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks - the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model - termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model- is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement.

  20. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Phuong T.; Bogg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks – the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model – termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model– is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement. PMID:26300811

  1. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample.

    PubMed

    Vo, Phuong T; Bogg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks - the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model - termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model- is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement. PMID:26300811

  2. A Framework for Adaptive E-Learning Based on Distributed Re-Usable Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusilovsky, Peter; Nijhavan, Hemanta

    This paper suggests that a way to the new generation of powerful E-learning systems starts on the crossroads of two emerging fields: courseware re-use and adaptive educational systems. The paper presents the KnowledgeTree, a framework for adaptive E-learning based on distributed re-usable learning activities currently under development. The goal…

  3. ActiveTutor: Towards More Adaptive Features in an E-Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Jean-Pierre; Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to sketch the emerging notion of auto-adaptive software when applied to e-learning software. Design/methodology/approach: The study and the implementation of the auto-adaptive architecture are based on the operational framework "ActiveTutor" that is used for teaching the topic of computer science programming in first-grade…

  4. Using the RE-AIM framework to evaluate physical activity public health programs in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) public health programming has been widely used in Mexico; however, few studies have documented individual and organizational factors that might be used to evaluate their public health impact. The RE-AIM framework is an evaluation tool that examines individual and organizationa...

  5. A Framework For Using GPS Data In Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Marta M.; Schipperijn, Jasper; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are increasingly applied in activity studies, yet significant theoretical and methodological challenges remain. This paper presents a framework for integrating GPS data with other technologies to create dynamic representations of behaviors in context. Utilizing more accurate and sensitive measures to link behavior and environmental exposures allows for new research questions and methods to be developed. PMID:25390297

  6. Pedagogical Distance: Explaining Misalignment in Student-Driven Online Learning Activities Using Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberry, Nicola; Franken, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an Activity Theory analysis of two online student-driven interactive learning activities to interrogate assumptions that such groups can effectively learn in the absence of the teacher. Such an analysis conceptualises learning tasks as constructed objects that drive pedagogical activity. The analysis shows a disconnect between…

  7. Games and Diabetes: A Review Investigating Theoretical Frameworks, Evaluation Methodologies, and Opportunities for Design Grounded in Learning Theories.

    PubMed

    Lazem, Shaimaa; Webster, Mary; Holmes, Wayne; Wolf, Motje

    2015-09-02

    Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords "children," "computer games," "diabetes," "games," "type 1," and "type 2" in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes. We briefly explored the use and impact of well-established learning theories in such games. The most frequently mentioned theoretical frameworks were social cognitive theory and social constructivism. Due to the limitations of the reported evaluation methodologies, little evidence was found to support the strong promise of games for diabetes. Furthermore, we could not establish a relation between design features and the game outcomes. We argue that an in-depth discussion about the extent to which learning theories could and should be manifested in the design decisions is required.

  8. Games and Diabetes: A Review Investigating Theoretical Frameworks, Evaluation Methodologies, and Opportunities for Design Grounded in Learning Theories.

    PubMed

    Lazem, Shaimaa; Webster, Mary; Holmes, Wayne; Wolf, Motje

    2016-03-01

    Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords "children," "computer games," "diabetes," "games," "type 1," and "type 2" in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes. We briefly explored the use and impact of well-established learning theories in such games. The most frequently mentioned theoretical frameworks were social cognitive theory and social constructivism. Due to the limitations of the reported evaluation methodologies, little evidence was found to support the strong promise of games for diabetes. Furthermore, we could not establish a relation between design features and the game outcomes. We argue that an in-depth discussion about the extent to which learning theories could and should be manifested in the design decisions is required. PMID:26337753

  9. Active quantum walks: a framework for quantum walks with adiabatic quantum evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan; Song, Fangmin; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-05-01

    We study a new methodology for quantum walk based algorithms. Different from the passive quantum walk, in which a walker is guided by a quantum walk procedure, the new framework that we developed allows the walker to move by an adiabatic procedure of quantum evolution, as an active way. The use of this active quantum walk is helpful to develop new quantum walk based searching and optimization algorithms.

  10. A Variational Framework for Spectral Approximations of Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-Cindy; Blesgen, Thomas; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Ortiz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We reformulate the Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) as a nested variational problem in the one-particle density operator, the electrostatic potential and a field dual to the electron density. The corresponding functional is linear in the density operator and thus amenable to spectral representation. Based on this reformulation, we introduce a new approximation scheme, termed spectral binning, which does not require smoothing of the occupancy function and thus applies at arbitrarily low temperatures. We prove convergence of the approximate solutions with respect to spectral binning and with respect to an additional spatial discretization of the domain.

  11. A new kind of fuzzy n-ary hypergroups in the framework of soft set theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjie; Yin, Yunqiang

    2014-01-01

    Maji et al. introduced the concept of fuzzy soft sets as a generalization of the standard soft sets and presented an application of fuzzy soft sets in a decision making problem. The aim of this paper is to apply the concept of fuzzy soft sets to n-ary hypergroup theory. The concepts of (∈(γ), ∈(γ) ∨ q(δ))-fuzzy soft (invertible) n-ary subhypergroups over a commutative n-ary hypergroup are introduced and some related properties and characterizations are obtained. The homomorphism properties of (∈(γ), ∈(γ) ∨ q(δ))-fuzzy soft (invertible) n-ary subhypergroups are also derived.

  12. Metal-organic frameworks for the storage and delivery of biologically active hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, Phoebe K; Wheatley, Paul S; Aldous, David; Mohideen, M Infas; Tang, Chiu; Hriljac, Joseph A; Megson, Ian L; Chapman, Karena W; De Weireld, Guy; Vaesen, Sebastian; Morris, Russell E

    2012-04-02

    Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely toxic gas that is also of great interest for biological applications when delivered in the correct amount and at the desired rate. Here we show that the highly porous metal-organic frameworks with the CPO-27 structure can bind the hydrogen sulfide relatively strongly, allowing the storage of the gas for at least several months. Delivered gas is biologically active in preliminary vasodilation studies of porcine arteries, and the structure of the hydrogen sulfide molecules inside the framework has been elucidated using a combination of powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function analysis.

  13. Learning emergent behaviours for a hierarchical Bayesian framework for active robotic perception.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João Filipe; Tsiourti, Christiana; Dias, Jorge

    2012-08-01

    In this research work, we contribute with a behaviour learning process for a hierarchical Bayesian framework for multimodal active perception, devised to be emergent, scalable and adaptive. This framework is composed by models built upon a common spatial configuration for encoding perception and action that is naturally fitting for the integration of readings from multiple sensors, using a Bayesian approach devised in previous work. The proposed learning process is shown to reproduce goal-dependent human-like active perception behaviours by learning model parameters (referred to as "attentional sets") for different free-viewing and active search tasks. Learning was performed by presenting several 3D audiovisual virtual scenarios using a head-mounted display, while logging the spatial distribution of fixations of the subject (in 2D, on left and right images, and in 3D space), data which are consequently used as the training set for the framework. As a consequence, the hierarchical Bayesian framework adequately implements high-level behaviour resulting from low-level interaction of simpler building blocks by using the attentional sets learned for each task, and is able to change these attentional sets "on the fly," allowing the implementation of goal-dependent behaviours (i.e., top-down influences).

  14. Benchmarking density functional theory predictions of framework structures and properties in a chemically diverse test set of metal-organic frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Nazarian, Dalar; Ganesh, P.; Sholl, David S.

    2015-09-30

    We compiled a test set of chemically and topologically diverse Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs) with high accuracy experimentally derived crystallographic structure data. The test set was used to benchmark the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) functionals (M06L, PBE, PW91, PBE-D2, PBE-D3, and vdW-DF2) for predicting lattice parameters, unit cell volume, bonded parameters and pore descriptors. On average PBE-D2, PBE-D3, and vdW-DF2 predict more accurate structures, but all functionals predicted pore diameters within 0.5 Å of the experimental diameter for every MOF in the test set. The test set was also used to assess the variance in performance of DFT functionalsmore » for elastic properties and atomic partial charges. The DFT predicted elastic properties such as minimum shear modulus and Young's modulus can differ by an average of 3 and 9 GPa for rigid MOFs such as those in the test set. Moreover, we calculated the partial charges by vdW-DF2 deviate the most from other functionals while there is no significant difference between the partial charges calculated by M06L, PBE, PW91, PBE-D2 and PBE-D3 for the MOFs in the test set. We find that while there are differences in the magnitude of the properties predicted by the various functionals, these discrepancies are small compared to the accuracy necessary for most practical applications.« less

  15. Participants’ perspectives on making and maintaining behavioural changes in a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention: a qualitative study using the theory domain framework

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Linda; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In a qualitative substudy, we sought to elicit participants’ perspectives of their behavioural change and maintenance of new behaviours towards intervention optimisation. Setting The intervention was delivered in leisure and community settings in a local authority, which according to the UK government statistics ranks as 1 of the 10 most socioeconomically deprived areas in England. Participants We recruited 218 adults aged 40–65 years at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score≥11) to the intervention. Follow-up at 12 months was completed by 134 (62%). We recruited 15 participants, purposively sampled for physical activity increase, to the qualitative substudy. Intervention Lifestyle intervention can prevent type 2 diabetes, but translation to service provision remains challenging. The ‘New life, New you’ intervention aimed to promote physical activity, healthy eating and weight loss, and included supervised group physical activity sessions. Behavioural change and weight loss at 12-month follow-up were encouraging. Design We conducted 15 individual semistructured interviews. The Framework approach, with a comparison of emerging themes, was used in analysis of the transcribed data and complemented by the Theory Domains Framework. Results Themes emerging from the data were grouped as perceptions that promoted initiating, enacting and maintaining behavioural change. The data were then categorised in accordance with the Theory Domains Framework: intentions and goals; reinforcement; knowledge; social role and identity; social influences; skills and beliefs about capabilities; behavioural regulation, memory, emotion, attention and decision processes and environmental context and resources. Participant perceptions of intervention features that facilitated behavioural change processes were then similarly analysed. Conclusions Social influences, reference to social role and identity (eg, peer support), and intentions and goals

  16. Phenomenology of CaKFe4As4 explained in the framework of four bands Eliashberg theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummarino, G. A.

    2016-10-01

    Recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of CaKFe4As4 report the presence of four superconductive gaps on different sheets of Fermi surface. The interesting aspect of this superconductor is that it is stoichiometric and with a high critical temperature. I show that the phenomenology of this superconductor can be explained in the framework of four-band s ± -wave Eliashberg theory choosing antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations as pairing glue. In particular, various experimental data reported in literature: the energy gaps, the critical temperature, the temperature dependence of the upper critical field, the penetration depth and the thermopower can be reproduced by this model in a strong-coupling regime with a small number of free parameters.

  17. Study of {tau}{sup -}{yields}VP{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} in the framework of resonance chiral theory

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Zhihui

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we study two kinds of {tau} decays: (a) {tau}{sup -}{yields}({rho}{sup 0}{pi}{sup -},{omega}{pi}{sup -},{phi}{pi}{sup -},K*{sup 0}K{sup -}){nu}{sub {tau}}, which belong to {delta}S=0 processes and (b) {delta}S=1 processes, such as {tau}{sup -}{yields}({rho}{sup 0}K{sup -},{omega}K{sup -},{phi}K{sup -},K*{sup 0}{pi}{sup -}){nu}{sub {tau}}, in the framework of resonance chiral theory (R{chi}T). We fit the {tau}{sup -}{yields}{omega}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} spectral function and the invariant mass distribution of {omega}K in the process of {tau}{sup -}{yields}{omega}K{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} to get the values of unknown resonance couplings. Then we make a prediction for branching ratios of all channels.

  18. Life course theory as a framework to examine becoming a mother of a medically fragile preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Black, Beth Perry; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Miles, Margaret S

    2009-02-01

    Life course theory, a sociological framework, was used to analyze the phenomenon of becoming a mother, with longitudinal narrative data from 34 women who gave birth prematurely after a high-risk pregnancy, and whose infant became medically fragile. Women faced challenges of mistimed birth and mothering a technologically dependent infant. Before social ties were established, legal and biological ties required mothers to make critical decisions about their infants. Liminality characterized mothers' early involvement with their infants. The mothers worked to know, love, and establish deeper attachments to this baby. The infant's homecoming was a key turning point; it decreased liminality of early mothering, increased mothers' control of infants' care, and gave them time and place to know their infants more intimately. PMID:18726937

  19. Life Course Theory as a Framework to Examine Becoming a Mother of a Medically Fragile Preterm Infant

    PubMed Central

    Black, Beth Perry; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Miles, Margaret S.

    2009-01-01

    Life course theory, a sociological framework, was used to analyze the phenomenon of becoming a mother, with longitudinal narrative data from 34 women who gave birth prematurely after a high-risk pregnancy, and whose infant became medically fragile. Women faced challenges of mistimed birth and mothering a technologically-dependent infant. Before social ties were established, legal and biological ties required mothers to make critical decisions about their infants. Liminality characterized mothers’ early involvement with their infants. The mothers worked to know, love, and establish deeper attachments to this baby. The infant’s homecoming was a key turning point; it decreased liminality of early mothering, increased mothers’ control of infants’ care, and gave them time and place to know their infants more intimately. PMID:18726937

  20. An information theory based framework for the measurement of population health.

    PubMed

    Nesson, Erik T; Robinson, Joshua J

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a new framework for the measurement of population health and the ranking of the health of different geographies. Since population health is a latent variable, studies which measure and rank the health of different geographies must aggregate observable health attributes into one summary measure. We show that the methods used in nearly all the literature to date implicitly assume that all attributes are infinitely substitutable. Our method, based on the measurement of multidimensional welfare and inequality, minimizes the entropic distance between the summary measure of population health and the distribution of the underlying attributes. This summary function coincides with the constant elasticity of substitution and Cobb-Douglas production functions and naturally allows different assumptions regarding attribute substitutability or complementarity. To compare methodologies, we examine a well-known ranking of the population health of U.S. states, America's Health Rankings. We find that states' rankings are somewhat sensitive to changes in the weight given to each attribute, but very sensitive to changes in aggregation methodology. Our results have broad implications for well-known health rankings such as the 2000 World Health Report, as well as other measurements of population and individual health levels and the measurement and decomposition of health inequality.

  1. Knowing Inquiry as Practice and Theory: Developing a Pedagogical Framework with Elementary School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Chew-Leng; Lee, Yew-Jin; Tan, Aik-Ling; Lim, Shirley S. L.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we characterize the inquiry practices of four elementary school teachers by means of a pedagogical framework. Our study revealed core components of inquiry found in theoretically-driven models as well as practices that were regarded as integral to the success of day-to-day science teaching in Singapore. This approach towards describing actual science inquiry practices—a surprisingly neglected area—uncovered nuances in teacher instructions that can impact inquiry-based lessons as well as contribute to a practice-oriented perspective of science teaching. In particular, we found that these teachers attached importance to (a) preparing students for investigations, both cognitively and procedurally; (b) iterating pedagogical components where helping students understand and construct concepts did not follow a planned linear path but involved continuous monitoring of learning; and (c) synthesizing concepts in a consolidation phase. Our findings underscore the dialectical relationship between practice-oriented knowledge and theoretical conceptions of teaching/learning thereby helping educators better appreciate how teachers adapt inquiry science for different contexts.

  2. General framework for transfer path analysis: History, theory and classification of techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis; Rixen, Daniel J.

    2016-02-01

    Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) designates the family of test-based methodologies to study the transmission of mechanical vibrations. Since the first adaptation of electric network analogies in the field of mechanical engineering a century ago, a multitude of TPA methods have emerged and found their way into industrial development processes. Nowadays the TPA paradigm is largely commercialised into out-of-the-box testing products, making it difficult to articulate the differences and underlying concepts that are paramount to understanding the vibration transmission problem. The aim of this paper is to derive and review a wide repertoire of TPA techniques from their conceptual basics, liberating them from their typical field of application. A selection of historical references is provided to align methodological developments with particular milestones in science. Eleven variants of TPA are derived from a unified framework and classified into three categories, namely classical, component-based and transmissibility-based TPA. Current challenges and practical aspects are discussed and reference is made to related fields of research.

  3. Improving condition severity classification with an efficient active learning based framework.

    PubMed

    Nissim, Nir; Boland, Mary Regina; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Shahar, Yuval; Moskovitch, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Classification of condition severity can be useful for discriminating among sets of conditions or phenotypes, for example when prioritizing patient care or for other healthcare purposes. Electronic Health Records (EHRs) represent a rich source of labeled information that can be harnessed for severity classification. The labeling of EHRs is expensive and in many cases requires employing professionals with high level of expertise. In this study, we demonstrate the use of Active Learning (AL) techniques to decrease expert labeling efforts. We employ three AL methods and demonstrate their ability to reduce labeling efforts while effectively discriminating condition severity. We incorporate three AL methods into a new framework based on the original CAESAR (Classification Approach for Extracting Severity Automatically from Electronic Health Records) framework to create the Active Learning Enhancement framework (CAESAR-ALE). We applied CAESAR-ALE to a dataset containing 516 conditions of varying severity levels that were manually labeled by seven experts. Our dataset, called the "CAESAR dataset," was created from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC). All three AL methods decreased labelers' efforts compared to the learning methods applied by the original CAESER framework in which the classifier was trained on the entire set of conditions; depending on the AL strategy used in the current study, the reduction ranged from 48% to 64% that can result in significant savings, both in time and money. As for the PPV (precision) measure, CAESAR-ALE achieved more than 13% absolute improvement in the predictive capabilities of the framework when classifying conditions as severe. These results demonstrate the potential of AL methods to decrease the labeling efforts of medical experts, while increasing accuracy given the same (or even a smaller) number of acquired conditions. We also demonstrated that the methods included in

  4. Improving condition severity classification with an efficient active learning based framework.

    PubMed

    Nissim, Nir; Boland, Mary Regina; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Shahar, Yuval; Moskovitch, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Classification of condition severity can be useful for discriminating among sets of conditions or phenotypes, for example when prioritizing patient care or for other healthcare purposes. Electronic Health Records (EHRs) represent a rich source of labeled information that can be harnessed for severity classification. The labeling of EHRs is expensive and in many cases requires employing professionals with high level of expertise. In this study, we demonstrate the use of Active Learning (AL) techniques to decrease expert labeling efforts. We employ three AL methods and demonstrate their ability to reduce labeling efforts while effectively discriminating condition severity. We incorporate three AL methods into a new framework based on the original CAESAR (Classification Approach for Extracting Severity Automatically from Electronic Health Records) framework to create the Active Learning Enhancement framework (CAESAR-ALE). We applied CAESAR-ALE to a dataset containing 516 conditions of varying severity levels that were manually labeled by seven experts. Our dataset, called the "CAESAR dataset," was created from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC). All three AL methods decreased labelers' efforts compared to the learning methods applied by the original CAESER framework in which the classifier was trained on the entire set of conditions; depending on the AL strategy used in the current study, the reduction ranged from 48% to 64% that can result in significant savings, both in time and money. As for the PPV (precision) measure, CAESAR-ALE achieved more than 13% absolute improvement in the predictive capabilities of the framework when classifying conditions as severe. These results demonstrate the potential of AL methods to decrease the labeling efforts of medical experts, while increasing accuracy given the same (or even a smaller) number of acquired conditions. We also demonstrated that the methods included in

  5. Predictors of Prosthodontic Treatment-Related Behavior Using the Theory of Planned Behavior Framework.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Antonio Helio; Castro e Silva, Donizete; Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to assess subjects' intentions and behavior to predict willingness to undergo prosthodontic care. A questionnaire was administered to 225 adults with history of teeth loss who currently were not under prosthodontic treatment. The questionnaire comprised TPB components (attitude toward behaviour [ATB], subjective norm [SN], and perceived behavioral control [PBC]) containing items with potential influence on the intentions and behavior of individuals toward prosthodontic care. Clinical and socioeconomic data were also assessed. A path regression model was constructed explaining two dependent variables simultaneously: one explained the influence of PBC on intention (R2=0.04) and another explained the influence of dental arch, position of lost teeth, socioeconomic status, and PBC on behavior (R2=0.31). It was concluded that PBC was a relevant TPB component that encompasses perception of costs, opportunity cost, perceived need, and access to dental care. Clinical and socioeconomic factors were also major determinants of behavior toward prosthodontic treatment.

  6. Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory as a framework for research on personality-psychopathology associations.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Beck, Ilse; Claes, Laurence; Vandereycken, Walter

    2009-07-01

    Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) presupposes individual differences in the sensitivity of basic brain systems that respond to punishing and reinforcing stimuli. These differences are thought to underlie the personality dimensions of anxiety and impulsivity, and to have relevance for psychopathology. The present article aims at reviewing RST-based research on personality-psychopathology associations. First, RST and its revisions are described and the link between RST systems and personality dimensions is discussed. Second, studies investigating associations between RST systems and specific types of psychopathology are summarized. Although the available research yields a rather consistent picture with respect to constellations of BIS/BAS sensitivity that are associated with specific types of psychopathology, it also provides a clear indication that much work remains to be done. The discussion section highlights several topics that deserve future research attention.

  7. Theory of Fourier phase within the framework of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttam, Shikhar; Liu, Yang

    2016-03-01

    Fourier phase in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) has been shown to estimate the sub- resolution change in the optical depth location of a strong interface in refractive index profile of a sample using spectral-domain phase microscopy (SDPM), a derivative of FD-OCT. From first principles we show that in general Fourier phase not only estimates this sub-resolution change but also the mean spatial frequency of the coherence-gated refractive index, and both SDPM and depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (dr-SLQPM) are special cases of this general theory. We also show that for spectral source with infinite bandwidth Fourier phase is zero. We provide analytical expressions and numerical simulations to support our results.

  8. On the Design of Smart Homes: A Framework for Activity Recognition in Home Environment.

    PubMed

    Cicirelli, Franco; Fortino, Giancarlo; Giordano, Andrea; Guerrieri, Antonio; Spezzano, Giandomenico; Vinci, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    A smart home is a home environment enriched with sensing, actuation, communication and computation capabilities which permits to adapt it to inhabitants preferences and requirements. Establishing a proper strategy of actuation on the home environment can require complex computational tasks on the sensed data. This is the case of activity recognition, which consists in retrieving high-level knowledge about what occurs in the home environment and about the behaviour of the inhabitants. The inherent complexity of this application domain asks for tools able to properly support the design and implementation phases. This paper proposes a framework for the design and implementation of smart home applications focused on activity recognition in home environments. The framework mainly relies on the Cloud-assisted Agent-based Smart home Environment (CASE) architecture offering basic abstraction entities which easily allow to design and implement Smart Home applications. CASE is a three layered architecture which exploits the distributed multi-agent paradigm and the cloud technology for offering analytics services. Details about how to implement activity recognition onto the CASE architecture are supplied focusing on the low-level technological issues as well as the algorithms and the methodologies useful for the activity recognition. The effectiveness of the framework is shown through a case study consisting of a daily activity recognition of a person in a home environment. PMID:27468841

  9. On the Design of Smart Homes: A Framework for Activity Recognition in Home Environment.

    PubMed

    Cicirelli, Franco; Fortino, Giancarlo; Giordano, Andrea; Guerrieri, Antonio; Spezzano, Giandomenico; Vinci, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    A smart home is a home environment enriched with sensing, actuation, communication and computation capabilities which permits to adapt it to inhabitants preferences and requirements. Establishing a proper strategy of actuation on the home environment can require complex computational tasks on the sensed data. This is the case of activity recognition, which consists in retrieving high-level knowledge about what occurs in the home environment and about the behaviour of the inhabitants. The inherent complexity of this application domain asks for tools able to properly support the design and implementation phases. This paper proposes a framework for the design and implementation of smart home applications focused on activity recognition in home environments. The framework mainly relies on the Cloud-assisted Agent-based Smart home Environment (CASE) architecture offering basic abstraction entities which easily allow to design and implement Smart Home applications. CASE is a three layered architecture which exploits the distributed multi-agent paradigm and the cloud technology for offering analytics services. Details about how to implement activity recognition onto the CASE architecture are supplied focusing on the low-level technological issues as well as the algorithms and the methodologies useful for the activity recognition. The effectiveness of the framework is shown through a case study consisting of a daily activity recognition of a person in a home environment.

  10. Coupled metal partitioning dynamics and toxicodynamics at biointerfaces: a theory beyond the biotic ligand model framework.

    PubMed

    Duval, Jérôme F L

    2016-04-14

    A mechanistic understanding of the processes governing metal toxicity to microorganisms (bacteria, algae) calls for an adequate formulation of metal partitioning at biointerfaces during cell exposure. This includes the account of metal transport dynamics from bulk solution to biomembrane and the kinetics of metal internalisation, both potentially controlling the intracellular and surface metal fractions that originate cell growth inhibition. A theoretical rationale is developed here for such coupled toxicodynamics and interfacial metal partitioning dynamics under non-complexing medium conditions with integration of the defining cell electrostatic properties. The formalism explicitly considers intertwined metal adsorption at the biointerface, intracellular metal excretion, cell growth and metal depletion from bulk solution. The theory is derived under relevant steady-state metal transport conditions on the basis of coupled Nernst-Planck equation and continuous logistic equation modified to include metal-induced cell growth inhibition and cell size changes. Computational examples are discussed to identify limitations of the classical Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) in evaluating metal toxicity over time. In particular, BLM is shown to severely underestimate metal toxicity depending on cell exposure time, metal internalisation kinetics, cell surface electrostatics and initial cell density. Analytical expressions are provided for the interfacial metal concentration profiles in the limit where cell-growth is completely inhibited. A rigorous relationship between time-dependent cell density and metal concentrations at the biosurface and in bulk solution is further provided, which unifies previous equations formulated by Best and Duval under constant cell density and cell size conditions. The theory is sufficiently flexible to adapt to toxicity scenarios with involved cell survival-death processes.

  11. Theory of activated-rate processes under shear with application to shear-induced aggregation of colloids.

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Alessio; Wu, Hua; Gentili, Daniele; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2009-11-01

    Using an approximation scheme within the convective diffusion (two-body Smoluchowski) equation framework, we unveil the shear-driven aggregation mechanism at the origin of structure formation in sheared colloidal systems. The theory, verified against numerics and experiments, explains the induction time followed by explosive (irreversible) rise of viscosity observed in charge-stabilized colloidal and protein systems under steady shear. The Arrhenius-type equation with shear derived here, extending Kramers' theory in the presence of shear, clearly demonstrates the important role of shear drive in activated-rate processes as they are encountered in soft condensed matter.

  12. Applying Probability Theory for the Quality Assessment of a Wildfire Spread Prediction Framework Based on Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Cencerrado, Andrés; Cortés, Ana; Margalef, Tomàs

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a framework for assessing how the existing constraints at the time of attending an ongoing forest fire affect simulation results, both in terms of quality (accuracy) obtained and the time needed to make a decision. In the wildfire spread simulation and prediction area, it is essential to properly exploit the computational power offered by new computing advances. For this purpose, we rely on a two-stage prediction process to enhance the quality of traditional predictions, taking advantage of parallel computing. This strategy is based on an adjustment stage which is carried out by a well-known evolutionary technique: Genetic Algorithms. The core of this framework is evaluated according to the probability theory principles. Thus, a strong statistical study is presented and oriented towards the characterization of such an adjustment technique in order to help the operation managers deal with the two aspects previously mentioned: time and quality. The experimental work in this paper is based on a region in Spain which is one of the most prone to forest fires: El Cap de Creus. PMID:24453898

  13. Applying probability theory for the quality assessment of a wildfire spread prediction framework based on genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Cencerrado, Andrés; Cortés, Ana; Margalef, Tomàs

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a framework for assessing how the existing constraints at the time of attending an ongoing forest fire affect simulation results, both in terms of quality (accuracy) obtained and the time needed to make a decision. In the wildfire spread simulation and prediction area, it is essential to properly exploit the computational power offered by new computing advances. For this purpose, we rely on a two-stage prediction process to enhance the quality of traditional predictions, taking advantage of parallel computing. This strategy is based on an adjustment stage which is carried out by a well-known evolutionary technique: Genetic Algorithms. The core of this framework is evaluated according to the probability theory principles. Thus, a strong statistical study is presented and oriented towards the characterization of such an adjustment technique in order to help the operation managers deal with the two aspects previously mentioned: time and quality. The experimental work in this paper is based on a region in Spain which is one of the most prone to forest fires: El Cap de Creus. PMID:24453898

  14. Building inhabitant feedback: Creating a reflective practice for environmental design using activity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Dara Suzanne

    The way buildings are designed now, there is little feedback from use involved in the design process. Attempts to correct this problem have been made in the form of Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) for 50-years but have largely failed. POEs are the accepted method for environmental designers to collect feedback about buildings in use. They are infrequently conducted, after the building is built, in a one-time only evaluation, and not funded as part of the build process. Other products receive feedback about the design in use from online critiques. Online critiques could provide a platform for feedback from actors engaged with buildings in use for environmental designers to utilize in developing reflective design rationale to avoid adverse consequences in future designs or correct consequences in past and current designs. Since buildings constitute such a large part of the human environment, it's important to research the effects of buildings on their inhabitants. In order for environmental designers to act on feedback from situated use, designers need to have access to that feedback and all actors interacting with the building design need to have an easy, inexpensive, and accessible method to submit feedback. These needs can be addressed by utilizing modern networked and mobile computing to collect and access building feedback. The analysis presented in this dissertation is informed by a thorough evaluation of the theory of reflective practice, activity theory, environmental design, and cognitive science research. From this analysis, I developed the following contributions. First, I expanded Schon's reflective practice by combining his theory with a modified version of activity theory, using activity theory to enrich reflective practice and create Reflective Activity Systems Theory (RAST), which provides a new framework to develop design rationale based on feedback from use and a focus on the activity. Second, I suggest the design of an activity information system

  15. Developing an integrated biomedical and behavioural theory of functioning and disability: adding models of behaviour to the ICF framework.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Marie; Dixon, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) offers an agreed language on which a scientific model of functional outcomes can be built. The ICF defines functional outcomes as activity and activity limitations (AL) and defines both in behavioural terms. The ICF, therefore, appears to invite explanations of AL as behaviours. Studies of AL find that psychological variables, especially perceptions of control, add to biomedical variables in predicting AL. Therefore, two improved models are proposed, which integrate the ICF with two psychological theories, the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and social cognitive theory (SCT). These models have a sound evidence base as good predictors of behaviour, include perceived control constructs and are compatible with existing evidence about AL. When directly tested in studies of community and clinic-based populations, both integrated models (ICF/TPB and ICF/SCT) outperform each of the three basic models (ICF, TPB and SCT). However, when predicting activity rather than AL, the biomedical model of the ICF does not improve prediction of activity by TPB and SCT on their own. It is concluded that these models offer a better explanation of functional outcomes than the ICF alone and could form the basis for the development of improved models.

  16. Nuclear response theory for spin-isospin excitations in a relativistic quasiparticle-phonon coupling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Caroline; Litvinova, Elena

    2016-07-01

    A new theoretical approach to spin-isospin excitations in open-shell nuclei is presented. The developed method is based on the relativistic meson-exchange nuclear Lagrangian of Quantum Hadrodynamics and extends the response theory for superfluid nuclear systems beyond relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in the proton-neutron channel (pn-RQRPA). The coupling between quasiparticle degrees of freedom and collective vibrations (phonons) introduces a time-dependent effective interaction, in addition to the exchange of pion and ρ -meson taken into account without retardation. The time-dependent contributions are treated in the resonant time-blocking approximation, in analogy to the previously developed relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation (RQTBA) in the neutral (non-isospin-flip) channel. The new method is called proton-neutron RQTBA (pn-RQTBA) and is applied to the Gamow-Teller resonance in a chain of neutron-rich nickel isotopes 68-78Ni . A strong fragmentation of the resonance along with quenching of the strength, as compared to pn-RQRPA, is obtained. Based on the calculated strength distribution, beta-decay half-lives of the considered isotopes are computed and compared to pn-RQRPA half-lives and to experimental data. It is shown that a considerable improvement of the half-life description is obtained in pn-RQTBA because of the spreading effects, which bring the lifetimes to a very good quantitative agreement with data.

  17. Characteristics of traffic flow at a non-signalized intersection in the framework of game theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hongqiang; Jia, Bin; Tian, Junfang; Yun, Lifen

    2014-12-01

    At a non-signalized intersection, some vehicles violate the traffic rules to pass the intersection as soon as possible. These behaviors may cause many traffic conflicts even traffic accidents. In this paper, a simulation model is proposed to research the effects of these behaviors at a non-signalized intersection. Vehicle’s movement is simulated by the cellular automaton (CA) model. The game theory is introduced for simulating the intersection dynamics. Two types of driver participate the game process: cooperator (C) and defector (D). The cooperator obey the traffic rules, but the defector does not. A transition process may occur when the cooperator is waiting before the intersection. The critical value of waiting time follows the Weibull distribution. One transition regime is found in the phase diagram. The simulation results illustrate the applicability of the proposed model and reveal a number of interesting insights into the intersection management, including that the existence of defectors is benefit for the capacity of intersection, but also reduce the safety of intersection.

  18. A Holistic Framework for Nursing Time: Implications for Theory, Practice, and Research

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Topic Nursing time has relevance for those who produce it, those who receive it and those who must pay for it. Though the term nursing time may be commonly used, a common understanding of the concept within the fields of nursing and healthcare administration is lacking. Purpose The purposes of this paper are to explore the concept of nursing time and to identify implications for theory development, clinical and administrative practice, and research. Discussion Both physical and psychological forms of time are viewed as fundamental to our experience of time as social beings. Nursing time has significant intrinsic and instrumental value in nursing and healthcare. A holistic approach incorporating the physical, psychological, and sociological aspects and dimensions of nursing time is advocated. Conclusions Multiple strategies to enhance the patient experience of nursing time are warranted and should address how much time nurses spend with patients as well as how they spend that time. Patterns of overlapping and competing time structures for nurses should be identified and evaluated for their effect on physical time available for patient care and the psychological experiences of time by nurses and patients. PMID:20690994

  19. Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research: A Framework for Future Research, Translation, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious “transmission gap” between parental AAI classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology, (b) neurobiology, (c) health and immune function, (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism, (e) school readiness, and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848

  20. A production-theory-based framework for analysing recycling systems in the e-waste sector

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Mario . E-mail: mario.schmidt@hs-pforzheim.de

    2005-07-15

    Modern approaches in the production theory of business and management economics propose that objects (e.g. materials) be divided into good, bad or neutral. In transformation processes such as occur in production or recycling this makes it possible to distinguish stringently between the economic revenue of a process and the economic and ecological expenditures for it. This approach can be transferred to entire systems of processes in order to determine the system revenue and the system expenditure. Material flow nets or graphs are used for this purpose. In complex material flow systems it becomes possible to calculate not only the costs, but also the direct and indirect environmental impacts of an individual process or a system revenue (for example a product or the elimination of waste) consistently. The approach permits a stringent analysis as well as different analysis perspectives of a material flow system. It is particularly suitable for closed-loop economic systems in which material backflows occur. With the aid of an example developed jointly with Hewlett Packard Europe, the paper outlines how this approach can be employed in the field of e-waste management.

  1. Predictors of Prosthodontic Treatment-Related Behavior Using the Theory of Planned Behavior Framework.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Antonio Helio; Castro e Silva, Donizete; Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to assess subjects' intentions and behavior to predict willingness to undergo prosthodontic care. A questionnaire was administered to 225 adults with history of teeth loss who currently were not under prosthodontic treatment. The questionnaire comprised TPB components (attitude toward behaviour [ATB], subjective norm [SN], and perceived behavioral control [PBC]) containing items with potential influence on the intentions and behavior of individuals toward prosthodontic care. Clinical and socioeconomic data were also assessed. A path regression model was constructed explaining two dependent variables simultaneously: one explained the influence of PBC on intention (R2=0.04) and another explained the influence of dental arch, position of lost teeth, socioeconomic status, and PBC on behavior (R2=0.31). It was concluded that PBC was a relevant TPB component that encompasses perception of costs, opportunity cost, perceived need, and access to dental care. Clinical and socioeconomic factors were also major determinants of behavior toward prosthodontic treatment. PMID:26929951

  2. Analyzing Activities in the Course of Science Education, According to Activity Theory: The Case of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoraki, Xarikleia; Plakitsi, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we analyze activities on the topic of sound, which are performed in the science education laboratory lessons in the third-year students of the Department of Early Childhood Education at the University of Ioannina. The analysis of the activities is based on one of the most modern learning theories of CHAT (Cultural Historical…

  3. Learning from instructional explanations: effects of prompts based on the active-constructive-interactive framework.

    PubMed

    Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active < constructive learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1) complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2) explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3) unspecific engaging prompts or (4) revision prompts. In support of the active < constructive learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive < interactive

  4. Learning from Instructional Explanations: Effects of Prompts Based on the Active-Constructive-Interactive Framework

    PubMed Central

    Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active < constructive learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1) complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2) explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3) unspecific engaging prompts or (4) revision prompts. In support of the active < constructive learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive < interactive

  5. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  6. We are what we do: Examining learner-generated content in the anatomy laboratory through the lens of activity theory.

    PubMed

    Doubleday, Alison F; Wille, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of learner-generated video and photograph content within anatomy dissection laboratories. This study outlines an activity involving learner-generated video diaries and learner-generated photograph assignments produced during anatomy laboratory sessions. The learner-generated photographs and videos provided instructors with a means of formative assessment and allowed instructors to identify evidence of collaborative behavior in the laboratory. Student questionnaires (n = 21) and interviews (n = 5), as well as in-class observations, were conducted to examine student perspectives on the laboratory activities. The quantitative and qualitative data were examined using the framework of activity theory to identify contradictions between student expectations of, and engagement with, the activity and the actual experiences of the students. Results indicate that learner-generated photograph and video content can act as a rich source of data on student learning processes and can be used for formative assessment, for observing collaborative behavior, and as a starting point for class discussions. This study stresses the idea that technology choice for activities must align with instructional goals. This research also highlights the utility of activity theory as a framework for assessing classroom and laboratory activities, demonstrating that this approach can guide the development of laboratory activities.

  7. A tensor-product-kernel framework for multiscale neural activity decoding and control.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Brockmeier, Austin J; Choi, John S; Francis, Joseph T; Sanchez, Justin C; Príncipe, José C

    2014-01-01

    Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have attracted intense attention as a promising technology for directly interfacing computers or prostheses with the brain's motor and sensory areas, thereby bypassing the body. The availability of multiscale neural recordings including spike trains and local field potentials (LFPs) brings potential opportunities to enhance computational modeling by enriching the characterization of the neural system state. However, heterogeneity on data type (spike timing versus continuous amplitude signals) and spatiotemporal scale complicates the model integration of multiscale neural activity. In this paper, we propose a tensor-product-kernel-based framework to integrate the multiscale activity and exploit the complementary information available in multiscale neural activity. This provides a common mathematical framework for incorporating signals from different domains. The approach is applied to the problem of neural decoding and control. For neural decoding, the framework is able to identify the nonlinear functional relationship between the multiscale neural responses and the stimuli using general purpose kernel adaptive filtering. In a sensory stimulation experiment, the tensor-product-kernel decoder outperforms decoders that use only a single neural data type. In addition, an adaptive inverse controller for delivering electrical microstimulation patterns that utilizes the tensor-product kernel achieves promising results in emulating the responses to natural stimulation. PMID:24829569

  8. Robust Muscle Activity Onset Detection Using an Unsupervised Electromyogram Learning Framework

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Ying, Dongwen; Rymer, William Z.; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Accurate muscle activity onset detection is an essential prerequisite for many applications of surface electromyogram (EMG). This study presents an unsupervised EMG learning framework based on a sequential Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to detect muscle activity onsets. The distribution of the logarithmic power of EMG signal was characterized by a two-component GMM in each frequency band, in which the two components respectively correspond to the posterior distribution of EMG burst and non-burst logarithmic powers. The parameter set of the GMM was sequentially estimated based on maximum likelihood, subject to constraints derived from the relationship between EMG burst and non-burst distributions. An optimal threshold for EMG burst/non-burst classification was determined using the GMM at each frequency band, and the final decision was obtained by a voting procedure. The proposed novel framework was applied to simulated and experimental surface EMG signals for muscle activity onset detection. Compared with conventional approaches, it demonstrated robust performance for low and changing signal to noise ratios in a dynamic environment. The framework is applicable for real-time implementation, and does not require the assumption of non EMG burst in the initial stage. Such features facilitate its practical application. PMID:26038820

  9. Predictive Framework and Experimental Tests of the Kinetic Isotope Effect at Redox-Active Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavner, A.; John, S.; Black, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Electrochemical reactions provide a compelling framework to study kinetic isotope effects because redox-related processes are important for a wide variety of geological and environmental processes. In the laboratory, electrochemical reaction rates can be electronically controlled and measured in the laboratory using a potentiostat. This enables variation of redox reactions rates independent of changes in chemistry and, and the resulting isotope compositions of reactants and products can be separated and analyzed. In the past years, a series of experimental studies have demonstrated a large, light, and tunable kinetic isotope effect during electrodeposition of metal Fe, Zn, Li, Cu, and Mo from a variety of solutions (e.g. Black et al., 2009, 2010, 2011). A theoretical framework based on Marcus kinetic theory predicts a voltage-dependent kinetic isotope effect (Kavner et al., 2005, 2008), however while this framework was able to predict the tunable nature of the effect, it was not able to simultaneously predict absolute reaction rates and relative isotope rates. Here we present a more complete development of a statistical mechanical framework for simple interfacial redox reactions, which includes isotopic behavior. The framework is able to predict a kinetic isotope effect as a function of temperature and reaction rate, starting with three input parameters: a single reorganization energy which describes the overall kinetics of the electron transfer reaction, and the equilibrium reduced partition function ratios for heavy and light isotopes in the product and reactant phases. We show the framework, elucidate some of the predictions, and show direct comparisons against isotope fractionation data obtained during laboratory and natural environment redox processes. A. Kavner, A. Shahar, F. Bonet, J. Simon and E. Young (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69(12), 2971-2979. A. Kavner, S. G. John, S. Sass, and E. A. Boyle (2008), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol 72, pp. 1731

  10. Insights from Skill Acquisition Theory for Grammar Activity Sequencing and Design in Foreign Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for the elaboration of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) grammar materials for adults based on the application to SLA of Skill Acquisition Theory (SAT). This theory is argued to compensate for the major drawbacks of FLT settings in comparison with second language contexts (lack of classroom learning time and limited…

  11. Decision-making framework for the application of in-situ activated carbon amendment to sediment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yongju; Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Gala, William R; Hoelen, Thomas P; Werner, David; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-04-01

    This study provides a decision-support framework and a design methodology for preliminary evaluation of field application of in-situ activated carbon (AC) amendment to sediment to control the (bio)availability of hydrophobic organic contaminants. The decision-making framework comprises four sequential steps: screening assessment, input parameter determination, model prediction, and evaluation for process optimization. The framework allows the application of state-of-the-art experimental and modeling techniques to assess the effectiveness of the treatment under different field conditions and is designed for application as a part of a feasibility study. Through a stepwise process it is possible to assess the effectiveness of in-situ AC amendment with a proper consideration of different site conditions and application scenarios possible in the field. The methodology incorporates the effect of various parameters on performance including: site-specific kinetic coefficients, varied AC dose and particle size, sediment and AC sorption parameters, and pore-water velocity. The modeling framework allows comparison of design alternatives for treatment optimization and estimation of long-term effectiveness over a period of 10-20 years under slow mass transfer in the field. PMID:26736169

  12. The theory of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The adiabatic temperature change with field which is limited to about 2 K/Tesla for ferromagnets near their Curie temperatures by the change of magnetization with temperature and the lattice heat capacity is discussed. Practical magnetic refrigerators operate on a regenerative cycle such as the Brayton cycle. This cycle can be executed through the use of an active magnetic regenerator, i.e., a regenerator composed of magnetic material that is cycled in an out of a magnetic field with appropriate fluid flows. The theory of these devices is predicted by solving the partial differential equations that describe fluid and the magnetic solid. The active magnetic regenerator is described along with the method of calculation. Temperature profiles for a normal regenerator and a magnetic regenerative refrigerator are shown.

  13. Predicting physical activity and outcome expectations in cancer survivors: an application of Self-Determination Theory.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Philip M; Blanchard, Chris M; Nehl, Eric; Baker, Frank

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of autonomous and controlled motives drawn from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. Plenum Press: New York, 1985; Handbook of Self-determination Research. University of Rochester Press: New York, 2002) towards predicting physical activity behaviours and outcome expectations in adult cancer survivors. Participants were cancer-survivors (N=220) and a non-cancer comparison cohort (N=220) who completed an adapted version of the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire modified for physical activity behaviour (TSRQ-PA), an assessment of the number of minutes engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) weekly, and the anticipated outcomes expected from regular physical activity (OE). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that autonomous motives was the dominant predictor of OEs across both cancer and non-cancer cohorts (R(2adj)=0.29-0.43), while MVPA was predicted by autonomous (beta's ranged from 0.21 to 0.34) and controlled (beta's ranged from -0.04 to -0.23) motives after controlling for demographic considerations. Cancer status (cancer versus no cancer) did not moderate the motivation-physical activity relationship. Collectively, these findings suggest that the distinction between autonomous and controlled motives is useful and compliments a growing body of evidence supporting SDT as a framework for understanding motivational processes in physical activity contexts with cancer survivors. PMID:16304621

  14. Predicting physical activity and outcome expectations in cancer survivors: an application of Self-Determination Theory.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Philip M; Blanchard, Chris M; Nehl, Eric; Baker, Frank

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of autonomous and controlled motives drawn from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. Plenum Press: New York, 1985; Handbook of Self-determination Research. University of Rochester Press: New York, 2002) towards predicting physical activity behaviours and outcome expectations in adult cancer survivors. Participants were cancer-survivors (N=220) and a non-cancer comparison cohort (N=220) who completed an adapted version of the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire modified for physical activity behaviour (TSRQ-PA), an assessment of the number of minutes engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) weekly, and the anticipated outcomes expected from regular physical activity (OE). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that autonomous motives was the dominant predictor of OEs across both cancer and non-cancer cohorts (R(2adj)=0.29-0.43), while MVPA was predicted by autonomous (beta's ranged from 0.21 to 0.34) and controlled (beta's ranged from -0.04 to -0.23) motives after controlling for demographic considerations. Cancer status (cancer versus no cancer) did not moderate the motivation-physical activity relationship. Collectively, these findings suggest that the distinction between autonomous and controlled motives is useful and compliments a growing body of evidence supporting SDT as a framework for understanding motivational processes in physical activity contexts with cancer survivors.

  15. Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Michelle S; Duda, Joan L; Guerin, Eva; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2012-03-02

    A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity) trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion.

  16. Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity) trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion. PMID:22385751

  17. Minimal continuum theories of structure formation in dense active fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jörn; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Bär, Markus; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2013-04-01

    Self-sustained dynamical phases of living matter can exhibit remarkable similarities over a wide range of scales, from mesoscopic vortex structures in microbial suspensions and motility assays of biopolymers to turbulent large-scale instabilities in flocks of birds or schools of fish. Here, we argue that, in many cases, the phenomenology of such active states can be efficiently described in terms of fourth- and higher-order partial differential equations. Structural transitions in these models can be interpreted as Landau-type kinematic transitions in Fourier (wavenumber) space, suggesting that microscopically different biological systems can share universal long-wavelength features. This general idea is illustrated through numerical simulations for two classes of continuum models for incompressible active fluids: a Swift-Hohenberg-type scalar field theory, and a minimal vector model that extends the classical Toner-Tu theory and appears to be a promising candidate for the quantitative description of dense bacterial suspensions. We discuss how microscopic symmetry-breaking mechanisms can enter macroscopic continuum descriptions of collective microbial motion near surfaces, and conclude by outlining future applications.

  18. A framework for daily activity monitoring and fall detection based on surface electromyography and accelerometer signals.

    PubMed

    Juan Cheng; Xiang Chen; Minfen Shen

    2013-01-01

    As an essential branch of context awareness, activity awareness, especially daily activity monitoring and fall detection, is important to healthcare for the elderly and patients with chronic diseases. In this paper, a framework for activity awareness using surface electromyography and accelerometer (ACC) signals is proposed. First, histogram negative entropy was employed to determine the start- and end-points of static and dynamic active segments. Then, the angle of each ACC axis was calculated to indicate body postures, which assisted with sorting dynamic activities into two categories: dynamic gait activities and dynamic transition ones, by judging whether the pre- and post-postures are both standing. Next, the dynamic gait activities were identified by the double-stream hidden Markov models. Besides, the dynamic transition activities were distinguished into normal transition activities and falls by resultant ACC amplitude. Finally, a continuous daily activity monitoring and fall detection scheme was performed with the recognition accuracy over 98%, demonstrating the excellent fall detection performance and the great feasibility of the proposed method in daily activities awareness.

  19. Application of the Activity Framework for Assessing Aquatic Ecotoxicology Data for Organic Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Paul; Dawick, James; Lampi, Mark; Lemaire, Philippe; Presow, Shaun; van Egmond, Roger; Arnot, Jon A; Mackay, Donald; Mayer, Philipp; Galay Burgos, Malyka

    2015-10-20

    Toxicological research in the 1930s gave the first indications of the link between narcotic toxicity and the chemical activity of organic chemicals. More recently, chemical activity has been proposed as a novel exposure parameter that describes the fraction of saturation and that quantifies the potential for partitioning and diffusive uptake. In the present study, more than 2000 acute and chronic algal, aquatic invertebrates and fish toxicity data, as well as water solubility and melting point values, were collected from a series of sources. The data were critically reviewed and grouped by mode of action (MoA). We considered 660 toxicity data to be of acceptable quality. The 328 data which applied to the 72 substances identified as MoA 1 were then evaluated within the activity-toxicity framework: EC50 and LC50 values for all three taxa correlated generally well with (subcooled) liquid solubilities. Acute toxicity was typically exerted within the chemical activity range of 0.01-0.1, whereas chronic toxicity was exerted in the range of 0.001-0.01. These results confirm that chemical activity has the potential to contribute to the determination, interpretation and prediction of toxicity to aquatic organisms. It also has the potential to enhance regulation of organic chemicals by linking results from laboratory tests, monitoring and modeling programs. The framework can provide an additional line of evidence for assessing aquatic toxicity, for improving the design of toxicity tests, reducing animal usage and addressing chemical mixtures.

  20. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles doped in the zeolite framework and antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zargar, Mohsen; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2011-01-01

    Using the chemical reduction method, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were effectively synthesized into the zeolite framework in the absence of any heat treatment. Zeolite, silver nitrate, and sodium borohydride were used as an inorganic solid support, a silver precursor, and a chemical reduction agent, respectively. Silver ions were introduced into the porous zeolite lattice by an ion-exchange path. After the reduction process, Ag NPs formed in the zeolite framework, with a mean diameter of about 2.12–3.11 nm. The most favorable experimental condition for the synthesis of Ag/zeolite nanocomposites (NCs) is described in terms of the initial concentration of AgNO3. The Ag/zeolite NCs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared. The results show that Ag NPs form a spherical shape with uniform homogeneity in the particle size. The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs in zeolites was investigated against Gram-negative bacteria (ie, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysentriae) and Gram-positive bacteria (ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) by disk diffusion method using Mueller–Hinton agar at different sizes of Ag NPs. All of the synthesized Ag/zeolite NCs were found to have antibacterial activity. These results show that Ag NPs in the zeolite framework can be useful in different biological research and biomedical applications. PMID:21383858

  1. Space suit bioenergetics: framework and analysis of unsuited and suited activity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Christopher E; Newman, Dava J

    2007-11-01

    Metabolic costs limit the duration and intensity of extravehicular activity (EVA), an essential component of future human missions to the Moon and Mars. Energetics Framework: We present a framework for comparison of energetics data across and between studies. This framework, applied to locomotion, differentiates between muscle efficiency and energy recovery, two concepts often confused in the literature. The human run-walk transition in Earth gravity occurs at the point for which energy recovery is approximately the same for walking and running, suggesting a possible role for recovery in gait transitions. Muscular Energetics: Muscle physiology limits the overall efficiency by which chemical energy is converted through metabolism to useful work. Unsuited Locomotion: Walking and running use different methods of energy storage and release. These differences contribute to the relative changes in the metabolic cost of walking and running as gravity is varied, with the metabolic cost of locomoting at a given velocity changing in proportion to gravity for running and less than in proportion for walking. Space Suits: Major factors affecting the energetic cost of suited movement include suit pressurization, gravity, velocity, surface slope, and space suit configuration. Apollo lunar surface EVA traverse metabolic rates, while unexpectedly low, were higher than other activity categories. The Lunar Roving Vehicle facilitated even lower metabolic rates, thus longer duration EVAs. Muscles and tendons act like springs during running; similarly, longitudinal pressure forces in gas pressure space suits allow spring-like storage and release of energy when suits are self-supporting.

  2. Development of a conceptual framework for understanding financial barriers to care among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic disease: a protocol for a qualitative (grounded theory) study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David J.T.; Manns, Braden J.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Sanmartin, Claudia; King-Shier, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases may face financial barriers to accessing health care, even in Canada, where universal health care insurance is in place. No current theory or framework is adequate for understanding the impact of financial barriers to care on these patients or how they experience financial barriers. The overall objective of this study is to develop a framework for understanding the role of financial barriers to care in the lives of patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases and the impact of such barriers on their health. Methods: We will perform an inductive qualitative grounded theory study to develop a framework to understand the effect of financial barriers to care on patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases. We will use semistructured interviews (face-to-face and telephone) with a purposive sample of adult patients from Alberta with at least 1 of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or stroke. We will analyze interview transcripts in triplicate using grounded theory coding techniques, including open, focused and axial coding, following the principle of constant comparison. Interviews and analysis will be done iteratively to theoretical saturation. Member checking will be used to enhance rigour. Interpretation: A comprehensive framework for understanding financial barriers to accessing health care is instrumental for both researchers and clinicians who care for patients with chronic diseases. Such a framework would enable a better understanding of patient behaviour and nonadherence to recommended medical therapies and lifestyle modifications. PMID:27398378

  3. Platinum nanoparticles encapsulated metal-organic frameworks for the electrochemical detection of telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Ling, Pinghua; Lei, Jianping; Jia, Li; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-01-21

    A simple and rapid electrochemical sensor is constructed for the detection of telomerase activity based on the electrocatalysis of platinum nanoparticle (Pt NP) encapsulated metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are synthesized by one-pot encapsulation of Pt NPs into prototypal MOFs, UiO-66-NH2. Integrating with the efficient electrocatalysis of Pt@MOFs towards NaBH4 oxidation, this biosensor shows the wide dynamic correlation of telomerase activity from 5 × 10(2) to 10(7) HeLa cells mL(-1) and the telomerase activity in a single HeLa cell was calculated to be 2.0 × 10(-11) IU, providing a powerful platform for detecting telomerase activity.

  4. Negotiating the Contested Terrain of Equity-Focused Change Efforts in Schools: Critical Race Theory as a Leadership Framework for Creating More Equitable Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Terry M.; Zirkel, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    Educational leaders attempting to enact equity-focused change in their schools are frequently met with fierce opposition by politically powerful parents whose children are well served by the status quo. The purpose of this conceptual article is to: (a) explore the utility of "Critical Race Theory" as a framework for helping K-12 school…

  5. Educating toward Direct Democracy and Ecological Sustainability: Theory of Social Ecology as a Framework for Critical, Democratic, and Community-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holohan, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation project was to explore and extrapolate the work of the left-libertarian social theorist, Murray Bookchin (1921-2006), paying particular attention to his theory of social ecology and to examine its implications for and use as a comprehensive philosophical/theoretical framework for alternative secondary education that…

  6. Synchronizing Substrate Activation Rates in Multicomponent Reactions with Metal-Organic Framework Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Díaz, Lina María; Iglesias, Marta; Snejko, Natalia; Gutiérrez-Puebla, Enrique; Monge, M Ángeles

    2016-05-01

    A study on the influence of the cation coordination number, number of Lewis acid centers, concurrent existence of Lewis base sites, and structure topology on the catalytic activity of six new indium MOFs, has been carried out for multicomponent reactions (MCRs). The new indium polymeric frameworks, namely [In8 (OH)6 (popha)6 (H2 O)4 ]⋅3 H2 O (InPF-16), [In(popha)(2,2'-bipy)]⋅3 H2 O (InPF-17), [In3 (OH)3 (popha)2 (4,4'-bipy)]⋅4 H2 O (InPF-18), [In2 (popha)2 (4,4'-bipy)2 ]⋅3 H2 O (InPF-19), [In(OH)(Hpopha)]⋅0.5 (1,7-phen) (InPF-20), and [In(popha)(1,10-phen)]⋅4 H2 O (InPF-21) (InPF=indium polymeric framework, H3 popha=5-(4-carboxy-2-nitrophenoxy)isophthalic acid, phen=phenanthroline, bipy=bipyridine), have been hydrothermally obtained by using both conventional heating (CH) and microwave (MW) procedures. These indium frameworks show efficient Lewis acid behavior for the solvent-free cyanosilylation of carbonyl compounds, the one pot Passerini 3-component (P-3CR) and the Ugi 4-component (U-4CR) reactions. In addition, InPF-17 was found to be a highly reactive, recyclable, and environmentally benign catalyst, which allows the efficient synthesis of α-aminoacyl amides. The relationship between the Lewis base/acid active site and the catalytic performance is explained by the 2D seven-coordinated indium framework of the catalyst InPF-17. This study is an attempt to highlight the main structural and synthetic factors that have to be taken into account when planning a new, effective MOF-based heterogeneous catalyst for multicomponent reactions.

  7. Using cultural-historical activity theory to study clinical reasoning in context.

    PubMed

    Toth-Cohen, Susan

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe sources of conflict and congruence in critical areas of practice with caregivers of persons with dementia, using cultural-historical activity theory as an analytic framework. Findings are drawn from an ethnographic study that described the context of occupational therapists' (OTs') clinical reasoning in a funded, home-based environmental skill-building program designed to help caregivers manage the daily care of a family member with dementia. Data were gathered through observation of intervention sessions, debriefing sessions, semi-structured interviews with therapists, and review of intervention documentation. Primary sources of conflict and congruence within the identified practice context included conflicts between therapists and caregivers concerning which environmental strategies were best for addressing problems in caregiving and expectations regarding OT and caregiver roles. Areas of congruence included the fit between intervention protocols used to guide treatment and the approaches therapists developed to help caregivers modify care receivers' living environments. The study revealed the complexity of OT practice and demonstrated that practice contexts can be systematically analyzed using cultural-historical activity theory to determine key factors influencing clinical reasoning. The approach also presents an alternative perspective on clinical reasoning that more directly integrates clients/caregivers and therapists as co-constructors of OT intervention.

  8. Luminescent properties of metal-organic framework MOF-5: relativistic time-dependent density functional theory investigations.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min; Lan, Xin; Han, Zhenping; Hao, Ce; Qiu, Jieshan

    2012-11-19

    The electronically excited state and luminescence property of metal-organic framework MOF-5 were investigated using relativistic density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). The geometry, IR spectra, and UV-vis spectra of MOF-5 in the ground state were calculated using relativistic DFT, leading to good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results. The frontier molecular orbitals and electronic configuration indicated that the luminescence mechanism in MOF-5 follows ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT), namely, π* → π, rather than emission with the ZnO quantum dot (QD) proposed by Bordiga et al. The geometry and IR spectra of MOF-5 in the electronically excited state have been calculated using the relativistic TDDFT and compared with those for the ground state. The comparison reveals that the Zn4O13 QD is rigid, whereas the ligands BDC(2-) are nonrigid. In addition, the calculated emission band of MOF-5 is in good agreement with the experimental result and is similar to that of the ligand H2BDC. The combined results confirmed that the luminescence mechanism for MOF-5 should be LLCT with little mixing of the ligand-to-metal charge transfer. The reason for the MOF-5 luminescence is explained by the excellent coplanarity between the six-membered ring consisting of zinc, oxygen, carbon, and the benzene ring. PMID:23136957

  9. From Activity to Learning: Using Cultural Historical Activity Theory to Model School Library Programmes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Eric M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: changes in educational policy and practice demand that we examine school library programmes from a new perspective. As a model that takes a developmental view of minds in context, Cultural Historical Activity Theory is particularly well suited to the study of school libraries and the learning that occurs therein. This paper focuses…

  10. An Empirical Development of Critical Value Factors (CVF) of Online Learning Activities: An Application of Activity Theory and Cognitive Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Yair

    2008-01-01

    According to activity theory, activities are at the center of human behavior. Extensive attention has been given in literature to the success and effectiveness of online learning programs. Value theory suggests that human perceived value is a critical construct in investigating what is important to individuals. However, very limited attention has…

  11. Defining as a Mathematical Activity: A Framework for Characterizing Progress from Informal to More Formal Ways of Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandieh, Michelle; Rasmussen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further the notion of defining as a mathematical activity by elaborating a framework that structures the role of defining in student progress from informal to more formal ways of reasoning. The framework is the result of a retrospective account of a significant learning experience that occurred in an undergraduate…

  12. Role of colored noise in active dynamical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachan, Devin; Levine, Alex

    2015-03-01

    The noise driving many dynamical systems is temporally correlated, or colored. Biological motor proteins, for example, generate processive stresses in biopolymer networks, and it would be incorrect to model this forcing as uncorrelated white noise. To gain insight into the role of the noise spectrum, we study a phi⌃4 theory in the presence of active colored noise with renormalization group techniques. Using a frequency shell integration scheme, we perform an epsilon expansion around d =8 for power law noise of the form 1/f⌃2 and find frequency and wavevector dependent corrections to the transport coefficients. The power law noise assumption is, of course, an approximation: all physical processes possess a small frequency cutoff. We study the effect of this cutoff and find a change in scaling behavior as the system transitions from a power law divergent regime to one dominated by white noise.

  13. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: Using social theory to explore everyday commuting

    PubMed Central

    Guell, C.; Panter, J.; Jones, N.R.; Ogilvie, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work (‘active commuting’) as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. PMID:22486840

  14. The Work Activity and Participation Outcomes Framework: a new look at work disability outcomes through the lens of the ICF.

    PubMed

    AlHeresh, Rawan A; Keysor, Julie J

    2015-06-01

    Work disability is common among people with chronic conditions. The terminology in the field is variable and often used interchangeably and there is a lack of comprehensive frameworks to describe work as an outcome. Varied operationalization of work disability makes it difficult to establish precise estimates of the impact of chronic musculoskeletal conditions on work. A new conceptual framework was developed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and was named 'Work Activity and Participation Outcome (Work APO) Framework' which clarified definitions in the field. Applying the framework to people at risk of work disability and evaluating their outcomes could advance the literature.

  15. A framework for activity detection in wide-area motion imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Ruggiero, Christy E; Morrison, Jack D

    2009-01-01

    Wide-area persistent imaging systems are becoming increasingly cost effective and now large areas of the earth can be imaged at relatively high frame rates (1-2 fps). The efficient exploitation of the large geo-spatial-temporal datasets produced by these systems poses significant technical challenges for image and video analysis and data mining. In recent years there has been significant progress made on stabilization, moving object detection and tracking and automated systems now generate hundreds to thousands of vehicle tracks from raw data, with little human intervention. However, the tracking performance at this scale, is unreliable and average track length is much smaller than the average vehicle route. This is a limiting factor for applications which depend heavily on track identity, i.e. tracking vehicles from their points of origin to their final destination. In this paper we propose and investigate a framework for wide-area motion imagery (W AMI) exploitation that minimizes the dependence on track identity. In its current form this framework takes noisy, incomplete moving object detection tracks as input, and produces a small set of activities (e.g. multi-vehicle meetings) as output. The framework can be used to focus and direct human users and additional computation, and suggests a path towards high-level content extraction by learning from the human-in-the-loop.

  16. Tailored motivational message generation: A model and practical framework for real-time physical activity coaching.

    PubMed

    Op den Akker, Harm; Cabrita, Miriam; Op den Akker, Rieks; Jones, Valerie M; Hermens, Hermie J

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and practical framework for automatic generation of real-time tailored messages in behavior change applications. Basic aspects of motivational messages are time, intention, content and presentation. Tailoring of messages to the individual user may involve all aspects of communication. A linear modular system is presented for generating such messages. It is explained how properties of user and context are taken into account in each of the modules of the system and how they affect the linguistic presentation of the generated messages. The model of motivational messages presented is based on an analysis of existing literature as well as the analysis of a corpus of motivational messages used in previous studies. The model extends existing 'ontology-based' approaches to message generation for real-time coaching systems found in the literature. Practical examples are given on how simple tailoring rules can be implemented throughout the various stages of the framework. Such examples can guide further research by clarifying what it means to use e.g. user targeting to tailor a message. As primary example we look at the issue of promoting daily physical activity. Future work is pointed out in applying the present model and framework, defining efficient ways of evaluating individual tailoring components, and improving effectiveness through the creation of accurate and complete user- and context models. PMID:25843359

  17. A Description of the Social-Ecological Framework Used in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, John P.; Lytle, Leslie; Sallis, James F.; Young, Deborah Rohm; Steckler, Allan; Simons-Morton, Denise; Stone, Elaine; Jobe, Jared B.; Stevens, June; Lohman, Tim; Webber, Larry; Pate, Russell; Saksvig, Brit I.; Ribisl, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Social-ecological (SE) models are becoming more widely used in health behavior research. Applying SE models to the design of interventions is challenging because models must be tailor-made for each behavior and population, other theories need to be integrated into multi-level frameworks, and empirical research to guide model development is…

  18. Active and Durable Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Catalyst Derived from Pd-Doped Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jitang; Xia, Guoliang; Jiang, Peng; Yang, Yang; Li, Ren; Shi, Ruohong; Su, Jianwei; Chen, Qianwang

    2016-06-01

    The water electrolysis is of critical importance for sustainable hydrogen production. In this work, a highly efficient and stable PdCo alloy catalyst (PdCo@CN) was synthesized by direct annealing of Pd-doped metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) under N2 atmosphere. In 0.5 M H2SO4 solution, PdCo@CN displays remarkable electrocatalytic performance with overpotential of 80 mV, a Tafel slope of 31 mV dec(-1), and excellent stability of 10 000 cycles. Our studies reveal that noble metal doped MOFs are ideal precursors for preparing highly active alloy electrocatalysts with low content of noble metal.

  19. An Overview of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) Use in Classroom Research 2000 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaumer, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Western educational researchers have eagerly accepted activity theory (AT) also known as cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to collect and analyze data in rich description of complex situations. As this theory is applicable to a wide variety of disciplines, this review is limited to education and specifically to qualitative studies of…

  20. Emotion at Work: A Contribution to Third-Generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Second-generation cultural-historical activity theory, which drew its inspiration from Leont'ev's work, constituted an advance over Vygotsky's first-generation theory by explicitly articulating the dialectical relation between individual and collective. As part of an effort to develop third-generation-historical activity theory, I propose in this…

  1. Active-Passive-Intuitive Learning Theory: A Unified Theory of Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigette, Tyson

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses many theories of learning and human development which are very similar with regards as to how they suggest learning occurs. The differences in most of the theories exist in how they treat the development of the learner compared to methods of teaching. Most of the major learning theories taught to educators today are based on…

  2. A Case Study Analysis of a Constructionist Knowledge Building Community with Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Chee S.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Wilson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how activity theory can help research a constructionist community. We present a constructionist activity model called CONstructionism Through ACtivity Theory (CONTACT) model and explain how it can be used to analyse the constructionist activity in knowledge building communities. We then illustrate the model through its…

  3. Microfluidic rheology of active particle suspensions: Kinetic theory.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Matilla, Roberto; Ezhilan, Barath; Saintillan, David

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the effective rheology of a dilute suspension of self-propelled slender particles confined between two infinite parallel plates and subject to a pressure-driven flow. We use a continuum kinetic model to describe the configuration of the particles in the system, in which the disturbance flows induced by the swimmers are taken into account, and use it to calculate estimates of the suspension viscosity for a range of channel widths and flow strengths typical of microfluidic experiments. Our results are in agreement with previous bulk models, and in particular, demonstrate that the effect of activity is strongest at low flow rates, where pushers tend to decrease the suspension viscosity whereas pullers enhance it. In stronger flows, dissipative stresses overcome the effects of activity leading to increased viscosities followed by shear-thinning. The effects of confinement and number density are also analyzed, and our results confirm the apparent transition to superfluidity reported in recent experiments on pusher suspensions at intermediate densities. We also derive an approximate analytical expression for the effective viscosity in the limit of weak flows and wide channels, and demonstrate good agreement between theory and numerical calculations.

  4. Dynamical theory of active cellular response to external stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Rumi; Safran, Samuel A.

    2008-09-01

    We present a comprehensive, theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes both the forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix as well as forces due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate the time-dependent response of both the magnitude and the direction of the elastic dipole that characterizes the active forces exerted by the cell, for various situations. For static or quasistatic external stress, cells orient parallel to the stress while for high frequency dynamic external stress, cells orient nearly perpendicular. Both numerical and analytical calculations of these effects are presented. In addition we predict the relaxation time for the cellular response for both slowly and rapidly varying external stresses; several characteristic scaling regimes for the relaxation time as a function of applied frequency are predicted. We also treat the case of cells for which the regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions is controlled by strain (instead of stress) and show that the predicted dependence of the cellular orientation on the Poisson ratio of the matrix can differentiate strain vs stress regulation of cellular response.

  5. Dynamical theory of active cellular response to external stress.

    PubMed

    De, Rumi; Safran, Samuel A

    2008-09-01

    We present a comprehensive, theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes both the forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix as well as forces due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate the time-dependent response of both the magnitude and the direction of the elastic dipole that characterizes the active forces exerted by the cell, for various situations. For static or quasistatic external stress, cells orient parallel to the stress while for high frequency dynamic external stress, cells orient nearly perpendicular. Both numerical and analytical calculations of these effects are presented. In addition we predict the relaxation time for the cellular response for both slowly and rapidly varying external stresses; several characteristic scaling regimes for the relaxation time as a function of applied frequency are predicted. We also treat the case of cells for which the regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions is controlled by strain (instead of stress) and show that the predicted dependence of the cellular orientation on the Poisson ratio of the matrix can differentiate strain vs stress regulation of cellular response.

  6. On extensional waves in a poroelastic cylinder within the framework of viscosity-extended Biot theory: the case of traction-free open-pore cylindrical surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solorza, Selene; Sahay, Pratap N.

    2009-12-01

    For a fluid saturated porous cylinder, in which the saturating fluid is allowed to move freely across the traction-free cylindrical boundary surface, the dispersion relation for extensional deformation, established over four decades ago by Gardner within the framework of Biot's theory, yield a trivial and two non-trivial roots. One of the non-trivial roots corresponds to the coupled Biot fast-compressional and shear waves and it is the poroelastic analogue of the extensional wave of the elasticity theory. The nature of the second non-trivial root is not fully understood yet. Also there is the suggestion that the scope of applicability of Gardner's first non-trivial root might be limited. Apart from these matters, since the Biot theory is also incapable of accounting for the viscous bulk- and shear-relaxations that occur within the saturating Newtonian fluid because its fluid stress tensor is devoid of the viscous stress tensor part, therefore, we re-examined this poroelastic extensional problem with viscosity-extended Biot constitutive relations. The erstwhile trivial third root of the Biot-Gardner framework is not non-vanishing in this viscosity-extended Biot framework. In the frequency regime below the Biot relaxation frequency, the other two non-trivial roots in this framework are the same as those obtained by Gardner within the classical Biot framework. We find there is nothing dubious about the formula of Gardner's first root. The scenario in which it is not expected to hold true, in fact the Biot theory itself breaks down. We find the Gardner's second root to be essentially the Biot slow-compressional wave, the out-of-phase/differential compressional motion of the two phases. The new non-vanishing third root is akin to the slow-shear process, the out-of-phase/differential shear motion of the two phases, and a process analogue to the Biot slow-compressional wave.

  7. An active contour framework based on the Hermite transform for shape segmentation of cardiac MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba-J, Leiner; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris

    2016-04-01

    Early detection of cardiac affections is fundamental to address a correct treatment that allows preserving the patient's life. Since heart disease is one of the main causes of death in most countries, analysis of cardiac images is of great value for cardiac assessment. Cardiac MR has become essential for heart evaluation. In this work we present a segmentation framework for shape analysis in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images. The method consists of an active contour model which is guided by the spectral coefficients obtained from the Hermite transform (HT) of the data. The HT is used as model to code image features of the analyzed images. Region and boundary based energies are coded using the zero and first order coefficients. An additional shape constraint based on an elliptical function is used for controlling the active contour deformations. The proposed framework is applied to the segmentation of the endocardial and epicardial boundaries of the left ventricle using MR images with short axis view. The segmentation is sequential for both regions: the endocardium is segmented followed by the epicardium. The algorithm is evaluated with several MR images at different phases of the cardiac cycle demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method. Several metrics are used for performance evaluation.

  8. Metal organic framework-mediated synthesis of highly active and stable Fischer-Tropsch catalysts.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vera P; Wezendonk, Tim A; Jaén, Juan José Delgado; Dugulan, A Iulian; Nasalevich, Maxim A; Islam, Husn-Ubayda; Chojecki, Adam; Sartipi, Sina; Sun, Xiaohui; Hakeem, Abrar A; Koeken, Ard C J; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; Davidian, Thomas; Meima, Garry R; Sankar, Gopinathan; Kapteijn, Freek; Makkee, Michiel; Gascon, Jorge

    2015-03-05

    Depletion of crude oil resources and environmental concerns have driven a worldwide research on alternative processes for the production of commodity chemicals. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a process for flexible production of key chemicals from synthesis gas originating from non-petroleum-based sources. Although the use of iron-based catalysts would be preferred over the widely used cobalt, manufacturing methods that prevent their fast deactivation because of sintering, carbon deposition and phase changes have proven challenging. Here we present a strategy to produce highly dispersed iron carbides embedded in a matrix of porous carbon. Very high iron loadings (>40 wt %) are achieved while maintaining an optimal dispersion of the active iron carbide phase when a metal organic framework is used as catalyst precursor. The unique iron spatial confinement and the absence of large iron particles in the obtained solids minimize catalyst deactivation, resulting in high active and stable operation.

  9. Metal organic framework-mediated synthesis of highly active and stable Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Vera P.; Wezendonk, Tim A.; Jaén, Juan José Delgado; Dugulan, A. Iulian; Nasalevich, Maxim A.; Islam, Husn-Ubayda; Chojecki, Adam; Sartipi, Sina; Sun, Xiaohui; Hakeem, Abrar A.; Koeken, Ard C. J.; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; Davidian, Thomas; Meima, Garry R.; Sankar, Gopinathan; Kapteijn, Freek; Makkee, Michiel; Gascon, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    Depletion of crude oil resources and environmental concerns have driven a worldwide research on alternative processes for the production of commodity chemicals. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a process for flexible production of key chemicals from synthesis gas originating from non-petroleum-based sources. Although the use of iron-based catalysts would be preferred over the widely used cobalt, manufacturing methods that prevent their fast deactivation because of sintering, carbon deposition and phase changes have proven challenging. Here we present a strategy to produce highly dispersed iron carbides embedded in a matrix of porous carbon. Very high iron loadings (>40 wt %) are achieved while maintaining an optimal dispersion of the active iron carbide phase when a metal organic framework is used as catalyst precursor. The unique iron spatial confinement and the absence of large iron particles in the obtained solids minimize catalyst deactivation, resulting in high active and stable operation.

  10. Using activity-based costing and theory of constraints to guide continuous improvement in managed care.

    PubMed

    Roybal, H; Baxendale, S J; Gupta, M

    1999-01-01

    Activity-based costing and the theory of constraints have been applied successfully in many manufacturing organizations. Recently, those concepts have been applied in service organizations. This article describes the application of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints in a managed care mental health and substance abuse organization. One of the unique aspects of this particular application was the integration of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints to guide process improvement efforts. This article describes the activity-based costing model and the application of the theory of constraint's focusing steps with an emphasis on unused capacities of activities in the organization.

  11. Using activity-based costing and theory of constraints to guide continuous improvement in managed care.

    PubMed

    Roybal, H; Baxendale, S J; Gupta, M

    1999-01-01

    Activity-based costing and the theory of constraints have been applied successfully in many manufacturing organizations. Recently, those concepts have been applied in service organizations. This article describes the application of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints in a managed care mental health and substance abuse organization. One of the unique aspects of this particular application was the integration of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints to guide process improvement efforts. This article describes the activity-based costing model and the application of the theory of constraint's focusing steps with an emphasis on unused capacities of activities in the organization. PMID:10350791

  12. CO2-activated, hierarchical trimodal porous graphene frameworks for ultrahigh and ultrafast capacitive behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sol; Kang, Sung-Oong; Park, Sungjin; Park, Ho Seok

    2014-04-01

    Herein, we demonstrate CO2-activated macroscopic graphene architectures with trimodal pore systems that consist of 3D inter-networked macroporosity arising from self-assembly, mesoporosity arising from the intervoids of nanosheets, and microporosity via CO2 activation. The existence of micropores residing in hierarchical structures of trimodal porous graphene frameworks (tGFs) contributes to greatly improve the surface area and pore volume, which are ~3.8 times greater than typical values of existing 3D macroporous graphene monoliths. As confirmed by the specific capacity, the kinetic parameters, and the regeneration capability for chemical adsorption as well as the specific capacitance, the rate capability, and the cycle stability for electrochemical energy storage, the tGFs have an ideal texture for high performance capacitive materials. Furthermore, the tGFs obtain the structurally and energetically homogeneous surface active sites, which dominantly operate through the π-π interactions for adsorption. Consequently, the ultrahigh capacitance and ultrafast capacitive performance of the tGFs for both chemical and electrochemical adsorptions are attributed to hierarchical trimodal porosity and surface chemistry. These results offer a chemical approach combining self-assembly with conventional activation for the construction of 3D hierarchical structures with multimodal porosity.Herein, we demonstrate CO2-activated macroscopic graphene architectures with trimodal pore systems that consist of 3D inter-networked macroporosity arising from self-assembly, mesoporosity arising from the intervoids of nanosheets, and microporosity via CO2 activation. The existence of micropores residing in hierarchical structures of trimodal porous graphene frameworks (tGFs) contributes to greatly improve the surface area and pore volume, which are ~3.8 times greater than typical values of existing 3D macroporous graphene monoliths. As confirmed by the specific capacity, the kinetic

  13. Highly active non-PGM catalysts prepared from metal organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Chong, Lina; Kaiser, Zachary B.; Xu, Tao; Liu, Di -Jia

    2015-06-11

    Finding inexpensive alternatives to platinum group metals (PGMs) is essential for reducing the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Numerous materials have been investigated as potential replacements of Pt, of which the transition metal and nitrogen-doped carbon composites (TM/Nx/C) prepared from iron doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are among the most active ones in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction based on recent studies. In this report, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of ZIF-based TM/Nx/C composites can be substantially improved through optimization of synthesis and post-treatment processing conditions. Ultimately, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic activity must be demonstrated in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) of fuel cells. The process of preparing MEAs using ZIF-based non-PGM electrocatalysts involves many additional factors which may influence the overall catalytic activity at the fuel cell level. Evaluation of parameters such as catalyst loading and perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to catalyst ratio were optimized. Our overall efforts to optimize both the catalyst and MEA construction process have yielded impressive ORR activity when tested in a fuel cell system.

  14. Highly active non-PGM catalysts prepared from metal organic frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Chong, Lina; Kaiser, Zachary B.; Xu, Tao; Liu, Di -Jia

    2015-06-11

    Finding inexpensive alternatives to platinum group metals (PGMs) is essential for reducing the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Numerous materials have been investigated as potential replacements of Pt, of which the transition metal and nitrogen-doped carbon composites (TM/Nx/C) prepared from iron doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are among the most active ones in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction based on recent studies. In this report, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of ZIF-based TM/Nx/C composites can be substantially improved through optimization of synthesis and post-treatment processing conditions. Ultimately, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic activity must be demonstratedmore » in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) of fuel cells. The process of preparing MEAs using ZIF-based non-PGM electrocatalysts involves many additional factors which may influence the overall catalytic activity at the fuel cell level. Evaluation of parameters such as catalyst loading and perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to catalyst ratio were optimized. Our overall efforts to optimize both the catalyst and MEA construction process have yielded impressive ORR activity when tested in a fuel cell system.« less

  15. Active transporters as enzymes: an energetic framework applied to major facilitator superfamily and ABC importer systems.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Brian H

    2015-04-15

    Active membrane transporters are dynamic molecular machines that catalyse transport across a membrane by coupling solute movement to a source of energy such as ATP or a secondary ion gradient. A central question for many active transporters concerns the mechanism by which transport is coupled to a source of energy. The transport process and associated energetic coupling involve conformational changes in the transporter. For efficient transport, the conformational changes must be tightly regulated and they must link energy use to movement of the substrate across the membrane. The present review discusses active transport using the well-established energetic framework for enzyme-mediated catalysis. In particular, membrane transport systems can be viewed as ensembles consisting of low-energy and high-energy conformations. The transport process involves binding interactions that selectively stabilize the higher energy conformations, and in this way promote conformational changes in the system that are coupled to decreases in free energy and substrate translocation. The major facilitator superfamily of secondary active transporters is used to illustrate these ideas, which are then be expanded to primary active transport mediated by ABC (ATP-binding cassette) import systems, with a focus on the well-studied maltose transporter.

  16. Introductory biology courses: a framework to support active learning in large enrollment introductory science courses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ann C; Stewart, Richard; Shields, Patricia; Hayes-Klosteridis, Jennifer; Robinson, Paulette; Yuan, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Active learning and research-oriented activities have been increasingly used in smaller, specialized science courses. Application of this type of scientific teaching to large enrollment introductory courses has been, however, a major challenge. The general microbiology lecture/laboratory course described has been designed to incorporate published active-learning methods. Three major case studies are used as platforms for active learning. Themes from case studies are integrated into lectures and laboratory experiments, and in class and online discussions and assignments. Students are stimulated to apply facts to problem-solving and to learn research skills such as data analysis, writing, and working in teams. This course is feasible only because of its organizational framework that makes use of teaching teams (made up of faculty, graduate assistants, and undergraduate assistants) and Web-based technology. Technology is a mode of communication, but also a system of course management. The relevance of this model to other biology courses led to assessment and evaluation, including an analysis of student responses to the new course, class performance, a university course evaluation, and retention of course learning. The results are indicative of an increase in student engagement in research-oriented activities and an appreciation of real-world context by students.

  17. Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity. IV - A compendium of metric theories of gravity and their post-Newtonian limits.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1972-01-01

    Metric theories of gravity are compiled and classified according to the types of gravitational fields they contain, and the modes of interaction among those fields. The gravitation theories considered are classified as (1) general relativity, (2) scalar-tensor theories, (3) conformally flat theories, and (4) stratified theories with conformally flat space slices. The post-Newtonian limit of each theory is constructed and its Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) values are obtained by comparing it with Will's version of the formalism. Results obtained here, when combined with experimental data and with recent work by Nordtvedt and Will and by Ni, show that, of all theories thus far examined by our group, the only currently viable ones are general relativity, the Bergmann-Wagoner scalar-tensor theory and its special cases (Nordtvedt; Brans-Dicke-Jordan), and a recent, new vector-tensor theory by Nordtvedt, Hellings, and Will.

  18. Using Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) to Frame `SuperclubsPLUS', an Online Social Network for Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Jennifer

    This paper uses a Cultural Historical Activity Theory framework to describe a social-networking online community project, “SuperclubsPLUS”, for children aged 6-12. The use of the CHAT frame enables a detailed description of connections within the project as participants work together to achieve individual and common goals. Application of this structure to the SuperclubsPLUS environment supports the concept that the community is continually changing, shaped by the interactions of the participants. It is anticipated that this snapshot of the project will provide a tangible base in order to further develop and map ongoing patterns of interaction for research.

  19. The effect of theory-based interventions on physical activity participation among overweight/obese individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bélanger-Gravel, A; Godin, G; Vézina-Im, L-A; Amireault, S; Poirier, P

    2011-06-01

    Little attention has been paid to the evaluation of the long-term impact of theory-based interventions on physical activity participation among overweight/obese individuals after the interventions have ended. The primary aim of this systematic review was to investigate the long-term effectiveness of theory-based interventions increasing physical activity and identify the most effective techniques for behaviour change among overweight/obese individuals. The secondary aim was to investigate the effect of these interventions on theoretical variables. Eighteen studies were reviewed. Among these studies, three reported significant short-term and two long-term effects of interventions on physical activity participation. Most of the studies observed a significant short- or long-term effect of time on this behaviour. Theoretical frameworks most often applied included the Behavioural Model and the Social Learning/Cognitive Theory. However, few of the studies reported any impact on theoretical variables. The most prevalent techniques consisted of providing opportunities for social comparison and instruction as well as self-monitoring. Leading techniques differentiating the experimental group from the control group included prompting practice and intentions formation and barriers identification. Although the combination of these three techniques appears successful, the long-term impact of theory-based interventions remains ambiguous.

  20. Small Molecule Activation by Constrained Phosphorus Compounds: Insights from Theory.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amrita; Vanka, Kumar

    2016-01-19

    An exciting new development in main group chemistry has been the use of a constrained, "flat", phosphorus-based complex to mediate in reactions such as the dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (AB), and the activation of the N-H bond in primary amines. Its importance is based on the fact that it shows that main group compounds, when properly designed, can be as effective as transition metal complexes for doing significant chemical transformations. What the current computational study, employing density functional theory (DFT), reveals is that a common, general mechanism exists that accounts for the behavior of the flat phosphorus compound in the different reactions that have been experimentally reported to date. This mechanism, which involves the mediation by a base as a proton transfer agent, is simpler and energetically more favorable than the previous mechanisms that have been proposed for the same reactions in the literature. It is likely that the knowledge gained from the current work about the chemical behavior of this phosphorus compound can be utilized to design new constrained phosphorus-based compounds. PMID:26700074

  1. Scattering theory of spin-orbit active adatoms on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachoud, Alexandre; Ferreira, Aires; Ã-zyilmaz, B.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2014-07-01

    The scattering of two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions from local spin-orbit interactions with an origin in dilute concentrations of physisorbed atomic species on graphene is theoretically investigated. The hybridization between graphene and the adatoms' orbitals lifts spin and valley degeneracies of the pristine host material, giving rise to rich spin-orbit coupling mechanisms with features determined by the exact adsorption position on the honeycomb lattice—bridge, hollow, or top position—and the adatoms' outer-shell orbital type. Effective graphene-only Hamiltonians are derived from symmetry considerations, while a microscopic tight-binding approach connects effective low-energy couplings and graphene-adatom hybridization parameters. Within the T-matrix formalism, a theory for (spin-dependent) scattering events involving graphene's charge carriers, and the spin-orbit active adatoms is developed. Spin currents associated with intravalley and intervalley scattering are found to tend to oppose each other. We establish that under certain conditions, hollow-position adatoms give rise to the spin Hall effect, through skew scattering, while top-position adatoms induce transverse charge currents via trigonal potential scattering. We also identify the critical Fermi energy range where the spin Hall effect is dramatically enhanced, and the associated transverse spin currents can be reversed.

  2. The Systemic-Structural Theory of Activity: Applications to the Study of Human Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedny, Gregory Z.; Harris, Steven Robert

    2005-01-01

    This article offers an introduction to the central concepts and principles of the Systemic-Structural Theory of Activity (SSTA), an activity-theoretical approach specifically tailored to the analysis and design of human work. In activity theory, cognition is understood both as a process and as a structured system of actions. Building on the…

  3. Understanding Synchronous Computer-Mediated Classroom Discussion through Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yangjoo

    2015-01-01

    This study is about graduate students' discourse practices in classroom text-based synchronous computer mediated discussions (SCMD). Cultural historical activity theory (in short, Activity Theory) is the primary theoretical lens through which the data are analyzed. Engeström's (1987) Activity System model among the various theoretical positions or…

  4. A Re-Examination of Information Seeking Behaviour in the Context of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, T. D.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Activity theory, developed in the USSR as a Marxist alternative to Western psychology, has been applied widely in educational studies and increasingly in human-computer interaction research. Argument: The key elements of activity theory, Motivation, Goal, Activity, Tools, Object, Outcome, Rules, Community and Division of labour are…

  5. Young Children's Motivational Frameworks and Math Achievement: Relation to Teacher-Reported Instructional Practices, but Not Teacher Theory of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Daeun; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Tsukayama, Eli; Levine, Susan C.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2016-01-01

    Although students' motivational frameworks (entity vs. incremental) have been linked to academic achievement, little is known about how early this link emerges and how motivational frameworks develop in the first place. In a year-long study (student N = 424, Teacher N = 58), we found that, as early as 1st and 2nd grade, children who endorsed an…

  6. Silver carboxylate metal-organic frameworks with highly antibacterial activity and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinyi; Ye, Junwei; Zhang, Dekui; Xie, Ruixia; Bogale, Raji Feyisa; Sun, Yuan; Zhao, Limei; Zhao, Qi; Ning, Guiling

    2014-09-01

    Two novel Ag-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Ag2(O-IPA)(H2O)·(H3O)] (1) and [Ag5(PYDC)2(OH)] (2) were synthesized under the hydrothermal conditions using aromatic-carboxylic acids containing hydroxyl and pyridyl groups as ligands (HO-H2IPA=5-hydroxyisophthalic acid and H2PYDC=pyridine-3, 5-dicarboxylic acid). Single crystal X-ray diffraction indicated that two compounds exhibit three-dimensional frameworks constructed from different rod-shaped molecular building blocks. Both compounds favor slow release of Ag(+) ions leading to excellent and long-term antimicrobial activities towards Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Their antibacterial potency was evaluated by using a minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) benchmark and an inhibition zone testing. High-resolution transmission electron microscope images indicate that the Ag-based MOFs could rupture the bacterial membrane resulting in cell death. Hematological study showed that these MOFs exhibit good biocompatibility in mice. In addition, good thermal stability and optical stability under UV-visible and visible light are beneficial for their antibacterial application.

  7. The Human Side of Science Education: Using McGregor's Theory Y as a Framework for Improving Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markwell, John

    2004-01-01

    Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more…

  8. The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

    In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the

  9. Tunable catalytic activity of solid solution metal-organic frameworks in one-pot multicomponent reactions.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Díaz, Lina María; Gándara, Felipe; Iglesias, Marta; Snejko, Natalia; Gutiérrez-Puebla, Enrique; Monge, M Ángeles

    2015-05-20

    The aim of this research is to establish how metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) composed of more than one metal in equivalent crystallographic sites (solid solution MOFs) exhibit catalytic activity, which is tunable by virtue of the metal ions ratio. New MOFs with general formula [InxGa1-x(O2C2H4)0.5(hfipbb)] were prepared by the combination of Ga and In. They are isostructural with their monometal counterparts, synthesized with Al, Ga, and In. Differences in their behavior as heterogeneous catalysts in the three-component, one pot Strecker reaction illustrate the potential of solid solution MOFs to provide the ability to address the various stages involved in the reaction mechanism.

  10. Solving the inverse problem for aggregation in activated sludge flocculation using a population balance framework.

    PubMed

    Nopens, I; Nere, N; Vanrolleghem, P A; Ramkrishna, D

    2007-01-01

    Many systems contain populations of individuals. Often, they are regarded as a lumped phase, which might, for some applications, lead to inadequate model predictive power. An alternative framework, Population Balance Models, has been used here to describe such a system, activated sludge flocculation in which particle size is the property one wants to model. An important problem to solve in population balance modelling is to determine the model structure that adequately describes experimentally obtained data on for instance, the time evolution of the floc size distribution. In this contribution, an alternative method based on solving the inverse problem is used to recover the model structure from the data. In this respect, the presence of similarity in the data simplifies the problem significantly. Similarity was found and the inverse problem could be solved. A forward simulation then confirmed the quality of the model structure to describe the experimental data.

  11. Active and Durable Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Catalyst Derived from Pd-Doped Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jitang; Xia, Guoliang; Jiang, Peng; Yang, Yang; Li, Ren; Shi, Ruohong; Su, Jianwei; Chen, Qianwang

    2016-06-01

    The water electrolysis is of critical importance for sustainable hydrogen production. In this work, a highly efficient and stable PdCo alloy catalyst (PdCo@CN) was synthesized by direct annealing of Pd-doped metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) under N2 atmosphere. In 0.5 M H2SO4 solution, PdCo@CN displays remarkable electrocatalytic performance with overpotential of 80 mV, a Tafel slope of 31 mV dec(-1), and excellent stability of 10 000 cycles. Our studies reveal that noble metal doped MOFs are ideal precursors for preparing highly active alloy electrocatalysts with low content of noble metal. PMID:27112733

  12. Participation in Peer Response as Activity: An Examination of Peer Response Stances from an Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Wei; Mitchell, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a case study that examined English as a Second Language students' peer response stances from an activity theory perspective. More specifically, the study was guided by the constructs of activity and motive/object in Leont'ev's theory. Multiple sources of data were collected from two native Spanish-speaking students enrolled in…

  13. The Bourgeoisie Dream Factory: Teaching Marx's Theory of Alienation through an Experiential Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Elroi J.; Carroll, Alana M.

    2015-01-01

    Effectively teaching sociological theories to undergraduate students is challenging. Students often enroll in theory courses due to major requirements, not personal interest. Consequently, many students approach the study of theory with anxiety. This study examined the effectiveness of an experiential learning activity designed to teach Karl…

  14. Sociological Understandings of Conduct for a Noncanonical Activity Theory: Exploring Intersections and Complementarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Peter H.; Stetsenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Following a discussion of activity theory as an approach to human development originally rooted in transformational change, we review the historical context and diverse conceptualizations of social conduct from the field of sociology. The discussion of social conduct is broken into theories of social action, theories of enactment, and contemporary…

  15. Designing for Culturally Contextualized Learning Activity Planning: Matching Learning Theories and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti; Anacleto, Junia Coutinho; de Almeida Neris, Vania Paula

    Helping teachers in their activities has been an issue more and more explored in Computer Science. However, in order to support teachers effectively, it is necessary to understand their needs and to design tools that they can easily manage. One of those needs is undoubtedly to put in practice pedagogical principles. This paper presents the design of PACO-T, a tool for helping teachers in planning learning activities (LAs) supported by common sense knowledge, based on PACO, a seven-step textual framework for planning pedagogically suitable LAs. The design was based on the results of a case study carried out to investigate how teachers can plan LAs following PACO steps, using common sense knowledge from a common sense knowledge base collaboratively built through the web. Moreover, the interface design was ruled by a Web Design Pattern Language, attempting to improve the usability of the tool. PACO-T aims to help teachers to put in practice the recommendation for contextualizing LAs to the target group, found in several learning theories.

  16. Understanding physical activity in individuals with prediabetes: an application of social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lorian M; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vallance, Jeff K; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-documented evidence implicating physical activity (PA) in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, the overwhelming majority of individuals with prediabetes are not physically active enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of the social cognitive theory (SCT) in understanding PA behaviour in individuals with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes (N = 232) completed a mailed questionnaire assessing demographics, self-reported PA (MET.min/wk) and SCT constructs for PA MET.min/wk. For PA MET.min/wk, scheduling and task efficacy both had significant effects on PA (β = .30 and .22, respectively). Goal formation also had a direct effect on PA for scheduling, coping and task efficacy (β = .20, .34 and .30, respectively). Task, coping and scheduling efficacy explained a significant portion of the variance in PA behaviour. Overall, SCT appears to have merit as a model for understanding PA in individuals with prediabetes. Further evaluative inquiry is needed to establish support for the use of the SCT as a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating PA behaviour change interventions in this population. PMID:26300537

  17. Eliciting Metacognitive Experiences and Reflection in a Year 11 Chemistry Classroom: An Activity Theory Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    2013-06-01

    Concerns regarding students' learning and reasoning in chemistry classrooms are well documented. Students' reasoning in chemistry should be characterized by conscious consideration of chemical phenomenon from laboratory work at macroscopic, molecular/sub-micro and symbolic levels. Further, students should develop metacognition in relation to such ways of reasoning about chemistry phenomena. Classroom change eliciting metacognitive experiences and metacognitive reflection is necessary to shift entrenched views of teaching and learning in students. In this study, Activity Theory is used as the framework for interpreting changes to the rules/customs and tools of the activity systems of two different classes of students taught by the same teacher, Frances, who was teaching chemical equilibrium to those classes in consecutive years. An interpretive methodology involving multiple data sources was employed. Frances explicitly changed her pedagogy in the second year to direct students attention to increasingly consider chemical phenomena at the molecular/sub-micro level. Additionally, she asked students not to use the textbook until toward the end of the equilibrium unit and sought to engage them in using their prior knowledge of chemistry to understand their observations from experiments. Frances' changed pedagogy elicited metacognitive experiences and reflection in students and challenged them to reconsider their metacognitive beliefs about learning chemistry and how it might be achieved. While teacher change is essential for science education reform, students are not passive players in change efforts and they need to be convinced of the viability of teacher pedagogical change in the context of their goals, intentions, and beliefs.

  18. Understanding physical activity in individuals with prediabetes: an application of social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lorian M; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vallance, Jeff K; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-documented evidence implicating physical activity (PA) in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, the overwhelming majority of individuals with prediabetes are not physically active enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of the social cognitive theory (SCT) in understanding PA behaviour in individuals with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes (N = 232) completed a mailed questionnaire assessing demographics, self-reported PA (MET.min/wk) and SCT constructs for PA MET.min/wk. For PA MET.min/wk, scheduling and task efficacy both had significant effects on PA (β = .30 and .22, respectively). Goal formation also had a direct effect on PA for scheduling, coping and task efficacy (β = .20, .34 and .30, respectively). Task, coping and scheduling efficacy explained a significant portion of the variance in PA behaviour. Overall, SCT appears to have merit as a model for understanding PA in individuals with prediabetes. Further evaluative inquiry is needed to establish support for the use of the SCT as a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating PA behaviour change interventions in this population.

  19. Microscopic theory of the glassy dynamics of passive and active network materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenshen; Wolynes, Peter G

    2013-03-28

    Signatures of glassy dynamics have been identified experimentally for a rich variety of materials in which molecular networks provide rigidity. Here we present a theoretical framework to study the glassy behavior of both passive and active network materials. We construct a general microscopic network model that incorporates nonlinear elasticity of individual filaments and steric constraints due to crowding. Based on constructive analogies between structural glass forming liquids and random field Ising magnets implemented using a heterogeneous self-consistent phonon method, our scheme provides a microscopic approach to determine the mismatch surface tension and the configurational entropy, which compete in determining the barrier for structural rearrangements within the random first order transition theory of escape from a local energy minimum. The influence of crosslinking on the fragility of inorganic network glass formers is recapitulated by the model. For active network materials, the mapping, which correlates the glassy characteristics to the network architecture and properties of nonequilibrium motor processes, is shown to capture several key experimental observations on the cytoskeleton of living cells: Highly connected tense networks behave as strong glass formers; intense motor action promotes reconfiguration. The fact that our model assuming a negative motor susceptibility predicts the latter suggests that on average the motorized processes in living cells do resist the imposed mechanical load. Our calculations also identify a spinodal point where simultaneously the mismatch penalty vanishes and the mechanical stability of amorphous packing disappears.

  20. The TATL Framework for CALL Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Chiaráin, Neasa; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2015-01-01

    The Theory Actions Technology Learner context (TATL) framework provides an initial analysis tool to guide Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) development. It entails joint consideration of four key factors that need to be considered prior and during development activities: (1) the underlying pedagogical theory; (2) the learning tasks…

  1. Evaluating the capacity of theories of justice to serve as a justice framework for international clinical research.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Zion, Deborah; Loff, Bebe

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether or not theories of justice from political philosophy, first, support the position that health research should contribute to justice in global health, and second, provide guidance about what is owed by international clinical research (ICR) actors to parties in low- and middle-income countries. Four theories-John Rawls's theory of justice, the rights-based cosmopolitan theories of Thomas Pogge and Henry Shue, and Jennifer Ruger's health capability paradigm-are evaluated. The article shows that three of the four theories require the conduct of health research for justice in global health. The theories help identify the ends of justice to which ICR is to contribute, but they cannot tell us how to organize ICR to promote these ends. Aside from Ruger's health capability paradigm, the theories also lack an allocative principle for assigning specific duties to specific actors. This creates difficulties for establishing obligations for certain types of ICR actors.

  2. Electrochemistry and electrochemiluminescence from a redox-active metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Yin, Xue-Bo; He, Xi-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2015-06-15

    The marriage of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) can combine their merits together. Designing ECL-active MOF with a high electron transfer capacity and high stability is critical for ECL emission. Here we reported the ECL from a redox-active MOF prepared from {Ru[4,4'-(HO2C)2-bpy]2bpy}(2+) and Zn(2+); a property of MOFs has not been reported previously. The MOF structure is independent of its charge and is therefore stable electrochemically. The redox-activity and well-ordered porous structure of the MOF were confirmed by its electrochemical properties and ECL emission. The high ECL emission indicated the ease of electron transfer between the MOF and co-reactants. Furthermore, the MOF exhibited permselectivity, charge selectivity, and catalytic selectivity along with a stable and concentration-dependent ECL emission toward co-reactants. ECL mechanism was proposed based on the results. The detection and recovery of cocaine in the serum sample was used to validate the feasibility of MOF- based ECL system. The information obtained in this study provides a better understanding of the redox properties of MOFs and their potential electrochemical applications.

  3. Facile xenon capture and release at room temperature using a metal-organic framework: a comparison with activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Grate, Jay W.; Motkuri, Radha K.

    2012-01-11

    Two well known Metal organic frameworks (MOF-5, NiDOBDC) were synthesized and studied for facile xenon capture and separation. Our results indicate the NiDOBDC adsorbs significantly more xenon than MOF-5, releases it more readily than activated carbon, and is more selective for Xe over Kr than activated carbon.

  4. Studying the Workplace: Considering the Usefulness of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The field of industrial relations, to which labour studies and labour education are closely linked both historically and institutionally, is an interdisciplinary field and, as such, has never securely claimed a single theoretical foundation. This article draws attention to a theoretical framework that may be useful as a way of promoting discussion…

  5. Effects of an intervention based on self-determination theory on self-reported leisure-time physical activity participation.

    PubMed

    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Hagger, Martin S

    2009-01-01

    Based on self-determination theory, the present study developed and evaluated the utility a school-based intervention to change pupils' physical activity intentions and self-reported leisure-time physical activity behaviour. The study evaluated utility of the intervention to promote physical activity participation over a 5-week interval of time. A cluster randomised design targeting 215 pupils from 10 schools with schools as the unit of randomisation was adopted (Male = 106, Female = 109, Age = 14.84, SD = 0.48). Results indicated that pupils who were taught by autonomy-supportive teachers reported stronger intentions to exercise during leisure time and participated more frequently in leisure-time physical activities than pupils in the control condition. Autonomous motivation and intentions mediated the effects of the intervention on self-reported physical activity behaviour. It is concluded that self-determination theory provides a useful framework for the development of school-based interventions that ultimately affect leisure-time physical activity participation.

  6. Activity Theory: A Framework for Understanding Multi-Agency Working and Engaging Service Users in Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhouse, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the quality of professional relationships between educational psychologists (EPs) and other professionals who work around children, young people and their families as part of a multi-agency team (MAT). The perceived barriers to, and facilitators of, effective multi-agency working are explored in relation to their potential…

  7. Divisions of Labour: Activity Theory, Multi-Professional Working and Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon, but also critiques, activity theory by combining analysis of how an activity theory derived research intervention attempted to address both everyday work practices and organisational power relationships among children's services professionals. It offers two case studies of developmental work research (DWR) interventions in…

  8. Self-Conception and Life Satisfaction: Integrating Aged Subculture and Activity Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Kent A.

    1982-01-01

    Integrates the traditional activity theory explanation of adjustment to aging with the aged subculture theory advanced by Rose. A path model to data from two subsamples of older adults. Self-conception is shown to be an important intervening variable between social activity and life satisfaction. (Author)

  9. Self-Reported Pediatric Measures of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior and Strength Impact for PROMIS®: Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Carole A.; Bevans, Katherine B.; Teneralli, Rachel E.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Bowles, Heather R; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Children's physical activity (PA) levels are commonly assessed in pediatric clinical research, but rigorous self-report assessment tools for children are scarce, and computer adaptive test implementations are rare. Our objective was to improve pediatric self-report measures of activity using semi-structured interviews with experts and children for conceptualization of a child-informed framework. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted to conceptualize physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and strengthening activities. We performed systematic literature reviews to identify item-level concepts used to assess these 3 domains. Results We developed conceptual frameworks for each domain using words and phrases identified by children as relevant. Conclusions Semi-structured interview methods provide valuable information of children's perspectives and the ways children recall previous activities. Conceptualized domains of physical activity are based on the literature and expert views that also reflect children's experiences and understanding providing a basis for pediatric self-report instruments. PMID:25251789

  10. A general framework for numerical simulation of improvised explosive device (IED)-detection scenarios using density functional theory (DFT) and terahertz (THz) spectra.

    PubMed

    Shabaev, Andrew; Lambrakos, Samuel G; Bernstein, Noam; Jacobs, Verne L; Finkenstadt, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    We have developed a general framework for numerical simulation of various types of scenarios that can occur for the detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) through the use of excitation using incident electromagnetic waves. A central component model of this framework is an S-matrix representation of a multilayered composite material system. Each layer of the system is characterized by an average thickness and an effective electric permittivity function. The outputs of this component are the reflectivity and the transmissivity as functions of frequency and angle of the incident electromagnetic wave. The input of the component is a parameterized analytic-function representation of the electric permittivity as a function of frequency, which is provided by another component model of the framework. The permittivity function is constructed by fitting response spectra calculated using density functional theory (DFT) and parameter adjustment according to any additional information that may be available, e.g., experimentally measured spectra or theory-based assumptions concerning spectral features. A prototype simulation is described that considers response characteristics for THz excitation of the high explosive β-HMX. This prototype simulation includes a description of a procedure for calculating response spectra using DFT as input to the Smatrix model. For this purpose, the DFT software NRLMOL was adopted.

  11. Development and evaluation of an active instructional framework for undergraduate biology education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysne, Steven John

    The practice of science education in American colleges and universities is changing and the role of faculty is changing as well. There is momentum in higher education to transform our instruction and do a better job at supporting more students' success in science and engineering programs. New teaching approaches are transforming undergraduate science instruction and new research demonstrates that these new approaches are more engaging for students, result in greater achievement, and create more positive attitudes toward science careers. Additionally, teaching scholars have described a paradigm shift toward placing the burden of content coverage on students which allows more time for in-class activities such as discussion and problem solving. Teaching faculty have been asked to redesign their courses and rebrand themselves as facilitators of student learning, rather than purveyors of information, to improve student engagement, achievement, and attitudes. This dissertation is a critical evaluation of both the assumption that active learning improves student achievement and knowledge retention and my own assumptions regarding science education research and my students' resiliency. This dissertation is a collection of research articles, published or in preparation, presenting the chronological development (Chapters 2 and 3) and evaluation (Chapters 4 and 5) of an active instructional model for undergraduate biology instruction. Chapters 1 and 6.provide a broad introduction and summary, respectively. Chapter 2 is an exploration of student engagement through interviews with a variety of students. From these interviews I identified several themes that students felt were important, and science instructors need to address, including the place where learning happens and strategies for better engaging students. Chapter 3 presents a review of the science education literature broadly and more focused review on the how students learn and how faculty teach. Consistent with what

  12. INCORPORATING ROUTINE ACTIVITIES, ACTIVITY SPACES, AND SITUATIONAL DEFINITIONS INTO THE SOCIAL SCHEMATIC THEORY OF CRIME*

    PubMed Central

    BARR, ASHLEY B.; LEI, MAN-KIT; STEWART, ERIC

    2014-01-01

    Simons and Burt’s (2011) social schematic theory (SST) of crime posits that adverse social factors are associated with offending because they promote a set of social schemas (i.e., a criminogenic knowledge structure) that elevates the probability of situational definitions favorable to crime. This study extends the SST model by incorporating the role of contexts for action. Furthermore, the study advances tests of the SST by incorporating a measure of criminogenic situational definitions to assess whether such definitions mediate the effects of schemas and contexts on crime. Structural equation models using 10 years of panel data from 582 African American youth provided strong support for the expanded theory. The results suggest that childhood and adolescent social adversity fosters a criminogenic knowledge structure as well as selection into criminogenic activity spaces and risky activities, all of which increase the likelihood of offending largely through situational definitions. Additionally, evidence shows that the criminogenic knowledge structure interacts with settings to amplify the likelihood of situational definitions favorable to crime. PMID:26392633

  13. [I. P. Pavlov's theory on higher nervous activity: the landmarks and trends in its development].

    PubMed

    Chilingarian, L I

    1999-01-01

    The theory of higher nervous activity created in Pavlovian time is compared with the present-day state of the theory developing due to appearance of new methods, techniques, facts, and concepts. Three principles of Pavlovian theory: determinism; analysis and synthesis; structural approach, as well s types of conditioned reflexes and techniques, types of higher nervous activity, and inhibition problems are discussed. The theory of higher nervous activity is schematically depicted as a tree, some branches of which are presented by facts and concepts obtained and introduced by I.P. Pavlov and his followers during his life, the others are formed by new facts and concepts advancing the theory. What is obsolete in the theory, what are the most prominent tendencies of its development and its new branches are discussed. PMID:10693269

  14. [I. P. Pavlov's theory on higher nervous activity: the landmarks and trends in its development].

    PubMed

    Chilingarian, L I

    1999-01-01

    The theory of higher nervous activity created in Pavlovian time is compared with the present-day state of the theory developing due to appearance of new methods, techniques, facts, and concepts. Three principles of Pavlovian theory: determinism; analysis and synthesis; structural approach, as well s types of conditioned reflexes and techniques, types of higher nervous activity, and inhibition problems are discussed. The theory of higher nervous activity is schematically depicted as a tree, some branches of which are presented by facts and concepts obtained and introduced by I.P. Pavlov and his followers during his life, the others are formed by new facts and concepts advancing the theory. What is obsolete in the theory, what are the most prominent tendencies of its development and its new branches are discussed.

  15. A real-time framework for classifying, indexing and querying image database volcano activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliotta, M. A.; Cannata, A.; Cassisi, C.; Montalto, P.; Prestifilippo, M.

    2013-12-01

    INGV-OE monitors explosive activity at Stromboli Volcano in order to analyze its eruptive dynamics. Since strombolian activity can be monitored using thermal camera frames, an efficient system able to require information from a huge amount of frames is needed. Aim of this work is the development of a novel system capable of fast data retrieval, based on similarity concepts. In the light of it, an indexing algorithm was developed. The concept is finding elements of a set that are close respect to a query element, according to a similarity criterion. To accomplish this task each video frame is processed using morphological image processing techniques to extract the image area of the explosion. Each closed curve, representing the explosion contour, is processed in order to extract useful features that constitute the metric space in which similarity between objects can be evaluated calculating the distances using an appropriate distance function. This approach suffers from an intrinsic problem related to the number of distances to be computed on a huge amount of data. To overcome this drawback, an indexing algorithm was applied. The idea behind this concept is a tree data structure that minimizes the number of distances to be computed among objects. Proposed method allows us to perform a fast query execution. The proposed system is able to find similar objects using distance among their features. Thus, we can group together explosions related to different kinds of activities using reference items. For instance, if we have a known image sequence, showing a given explosion, we can easily and quickly find all sequences containing explosions similar to it. The developed framework is able to both classifying each new explosion and dynamically insert the corresponding object into the tree structure. Therefore, by our approach, we can cluster the entire data space grouping objects having similar characteristics and classify them.

  16. Self-determination theory and physical activity among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Milne, Helen M; Wallman, Karen E; Guilfoyle, Andrew; Gordon, Sandy; Corneya, Kerry S

    2008-02-01

    The study aim was to examine constructs of autonomy support and competence as well as the motivation continuum from the self-determination theory (SDT) as a framework for understanding physical activity (PA) motivation and behavior in breast cancer survivors. Questionnaires assessing demographics, medical factors, PA, motivation continuum, perceived autonomy support, and competence were completed by 558 breast cancer survivors. Results showed that lymphedema (chi2 = 7.9, p < .01) (chi2 = 4.6, p < .05) were associated with meeting PA guidelines. Moreover, survivors meeting PA guidelines reported more identified regulations and intrinsic motivation (p < .01), autonomy support (p < .01), and competence (p < .01). Forced entry hierarchical regression analysis showed that SDT constructs explained 20.2% (p < .01) of the PA variance. Significant independent SDT predictors included identified regulation (Beta = .14, p < .05) and competence (Beta = .23, p < .01), with autonomy support approaching significance (Beta = .9, p = .057). SDT may be a useful model for understanding PA motivation and behavior in breast cancer survivors.

  17. Social cognitive theory and physical activity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Young, M D; Plotnikoff, R C; Collins, C E; Callister, R; Morgan, P J

    2014-12-01

    This review investigated three research questions (i) What is the utility of social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain physical activity (PA)?; (ii) Is the effectiveness of SCT moderated by sample or methodological characteristics? and (iii) What is the frequency of significant associations between the core SCT constructs and PA? Ten electronic databases were searched with no date or sample restrictions. Forty-four studies were retrieved containing 55 SCT models of PA. Methodological quality was assessed using a standardized tool. A random-effects meta-analysis revealed that SCT accounted for 31% of the variance in PA. However, methodological quality was mostly poor for these models. Methodological quality and sample age moderated the PA effect size, with increases in both associated with greater variance explained. Although self-efficacy and goals were consistently associated with PA, outcome expectations and socio-structural factors were not. This review determined that SCT is a useful framework to explain PA behaviour. Higher quality models explained more PA variance, but overall methodological quality was poor. As such, high-quality studies examining the utility of SCT to explain PA are warranted.

  18. Pregnant women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-02-01

    A better understanding of women's perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23-39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women's weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed.

  19. Mediation of Effects of a Theory-Based Behavioral Intervention on Self-Reported Physical Activity in South African Men

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Stephens, Alisa; O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1,181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Method Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007–2010. Results Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. Conclusion The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. PMID:25565482

  20. PdHx entrapped in covalent triazine framework modulates selectivity in glycerol oxidation [Modulation of palladium activity and stability by a covalent triazine framework

    SciTech Connect

    Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; Villa, Alberto; Wang, Di; Biroli, Alessio; Veith, Gabriel M; Thomas, Arne; Prati, Laura

    2015-06-25

    The confinement of a Pd nanoparticle within a nitrogen-containing covalent triazine framework (CTF) material was investigated to understand if the highly tunable CTF chemistry mediates the Pd catalytic properties through an ensemble effect with the CTF nitrogen atoms or a confinement effect within the CTF pores. The results surprisingly demonstrate that the CTF stabilizes the formation of 2.6 nm PdHx particles within the pores. These PdHx particles are very active for the liquid phase oxidation of glycerol due to the in situ formation of H2O2 which catalytically promotes the initial C-C cleavage. In addition the confined particles are stable over many catalytic cycles whereas nanoparticles trapped outside of the pores loose activity rapidly. These results indicate that there is the potential to tune the CTF chemistry to significantly modify the chemistry of the catalytic metals.

  1. PdHx entrapped in covalent triazine framework modulates selectivity in glycerol oxidation [Modulation of palladium activity and stability by a covalent triazine framework

    DOE PAGES

    Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; Villa, Alberto; Wang, Di; Biroli, Alessio; Veith, Gabriel M; Thomas, Arne; Prati, Laura

    2015-06-25

    The confinement of a Pd nanoparticle within a nitrogen-containing covalent triazine framework (CTF) material was investigated to understand if the highly tunable CTF chemistry mediates the Pd catalytic properties through an ensemble effect with the CTF nitrogen atoms or a confinement effect within the CTF pores. The results surprisingly demonstrate that the CTF stabilizes the formation of 2.6 nm PdHx particles within the pores. These PdHx particles are very active for the liquid phase oxidation of glycerol due to the in situ formation of H2O2 which catalytically promotes the initial C-C cleavage. In addition the confined particles are stable overmore » many catalytic cycles whereas nanoparticles trapped outside of the pores loose activity rapidly. These results indicate that there is the potential to tune the CTF chemistry to significantly modify the chemistry of the catalytic metals.« less

  2. Predictors of physical activity among rural and small town breast cancer survivors: an application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vallance, Jeff K; Lavallee, Celeste; Culos-Reed, Nicole S; Trudeau, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the utility of the two-component theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in understanding physical activity intentions and behaviour in rural and small town breast cancer survivors. The secondary objective was to elicit the most common behavioural, normative and control beliefs of rural and small town survivors regarding physical activity. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 524 rural and small town breast cancer survivors completed a mailed survey that assessed physical activity and TPB variables. Physical activity intention explained 12% of the variance in physical activity behaviour (p < 0.01) while the TPB constructs together explained 43% of the variance in physical activity intention (p < 0.01). Unique behavioural, normative and control beliefs were elicited from the sample. The two-component TPB framework appears to be a suitable model to initiate an understanding of physical activity determinants among rural and small town breast cancer survivors. These data can be used in the development and establishment of physical activity behaviour interventions and health promotion materials designed to facilitate physical activity behaviour among rural and small town breast cancer survivors.

  3. Predictors of physical activity among rural and small town breast cancer survivors: an application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vallance, Jeff K; Lavallee, Celeste; Culos-Reed, Nicole S; Trudeau, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the utility of the two-component theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in understanding physical activity intentions and behaviour in rural and small town breast cancer survivors. The secondary objective was to elicit the most common behavioural, normative and control beliefs of rural and small town survivors regarding physical activity. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 524 rural and small town breast cancer survivors completed a mailed survey that assessed physical activity and TPB variables. Physical activity intention explained 12% of the variance in physical activity behaviour (p < 0.01) while the TPB constructs together explained 43% of the variance in physical activity intention (p < 0.01). Unique behavioural, normative and control beliefs were elicited from the sample. The two-component TPB framework appears to be a suitable model to initiate an understanding of physical activity determinants among rural and small town breast cancer survivors. These data can be used in the development and establishment of physical activity behaviour interventions and health promotion materials designed to facilitate physical activity behaviour among rural and small town breast cancer survivors. PMID:22409699

  4. Active Learning with Monty Hall in a Game Theory Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokaw, Alan J.; Merz, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe a game that students can play on the first day of a game theory class. The game introduces the 4 essential elements of any game and is designed so that its sequel, also played on the first day of class, has students playing the well-known Monty Hall game, which raises the question: Should you switch doors? By implementing a…

  5. Electronic origins of photocatalytic activity in d0 metal organic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Nasalevich, Maxim A.; Hendon, Christopher H.; Santaclara, Jara G.; Svane, Katrine; van der Linden, Bart; Veber, Sergey L.; Fedin, Matvey V.; Houtepen, Arjan J.; van der Veen, Monique A.; Kapteijn, Freek; Walsh, Aron; Gascon, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) containing d0 metals such as NH2-MIL-125(Ti), NH2-UiO-66(Zr) and NH2-UiO-66(Hf) are among the most studied MOFs for photocatalytic applications. Despite structural similarities, we demonstrate that the electronic properties of these MOFs are markedly different. As revealed by quantum chemistry, EPR measurements and transient absorption spectroscopy, the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied orbitals of NH2-MIL-125(Ti) promote a long lived ligand-to-metal charge transfer upon photoexcitation, making this material suitable for photocatalytic applications. In contrast, in case of UiO materials, the d-orbitals of Zr and Hf, are too low in binding energy and thus cannot overlap with the π* orbital of the ligand, making both frontier orbitals localized at the organic linker. This electronic reconfiguration results in short exciton lifetimes and diminishes photocatalytic performance. These results highlight the importance of orbital contributions at the band edges and delineate future directions in the development of photo-active hybrid solids. PMID:27020767

  6. Towards an improved anti-HIV activity of NRTI via metal-organic frameworks nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Valentina; Chalati, Tamim; Horcajada, Patricia; Willaime, Hervé; Anand, Resmi; Semiramoth, Nicolas; Baati, Tarek; Hall, Shaun; Maurin, Guillaume; Chacun, Hélène; Bouchemal, Kawthar; Martineau, Charlotte; Taulelle, Francis; Couvreur, Patrick; Rogez-Kreuz, Christine; Clayette, Pascal; Monti, Sandra; Serre, Christian; Gref, Ruxandra

    2013-12-01

    Nanoscale mesoporous iron carboxylates metal-organic frameworks (nanoMOFs) have recently emerged as promising platforms for drug delivery, showing biodegradability, biocompatibility and important loading capability of challenging highly water-soluble drugs such as azidothymidine tryphosphate (AZT-TP). In this study, nanoMOFs made of iron trimesate (MIL-100) were able to act as efficient molecular sponges, quickly adsorbing up to 24 wt% AZT-TP with entrapment efficiencies close to 100%, without perturbation of the supramolecular crystalline organization. These data are in agreement with molecular modelling predictions, indicating maximal loadings of 33 wt% and preferential location of the drug in the large cages. Spectrophotometry, isothermal titration calorimetry, and solid state NMR investigations enable to gain insight on the mechanism of interaction of AZT and AZT-TP with the nanoMOFs, pointing out the crucial role of phosphates strongly coordinating with the unsaturated iron(III) sites. Finally, contrarily to the free AZT-TP, the loaded nanoparticles efficiently penetrate and release their cargo of active triphosphorylated AZT inside major HIV target cells, efficiently protecting against HIV infection.

  7. Towards a common framework for assessing the activity and associations of groups who sexually abuse children

    PubMed Central

    Cockbain, Ella; Brayley, Helen; Sullivan, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Extensive social psychological research emphasises the importance of groups in shaping individuals’ thoughts and actions. Within the child sexual abuse (CSA) literature criminal organisation has been largely overlooked, with some key exceptions. This research was a novel collaboration between academia and the UK's Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (CEOP). Starting from the premise that the group is, in itself, a form of social situation affecting abuse, it offers the first systematic situational analysis of CSA groups. In-depth behavioural data from a small sample of convicted CSA group-offenders (n = 3) were analysed qualitatively to identify factors and processes underpinning CSA groups’ activities and associations: group formation, evolution, identity and resources. The results emphasise CSA groups’ variability, fluidity and dynamism. The foundations of a general framework are proposed for researching and assessing CSA groups and designing effective interventions. It is hoped that this work will stimulate discussion and development in this long-neglected area of CSA, helping to build a coherent knowledge-base. PMID:26494978

  8. Electronic origins of photocatalytic activity in d0 metal organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasalevich, Maxim A.; Hendon, Christopher H.; Santaclara, Jara G.; Svane, Katrine; van der Linden, Bart; Veber, Sergey L.; Fedin, Matvey V.; Houtepen, Arjan J.; van der Veen, Monique A.; Kapteijn, Freek; Walsh, Aron; Gascon, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) containing d0 metals such as NH2-MIL-125(Ti), NH2-UiO-66(Zr) and NH2-UiO-66(Hf) are among the most studied MOFs for photocatalytic applications. Despite structural similarities, we demonstrate that the electronic properties of these MOFs are markedly different. As revealed by quantum chemistry, EPR measurements and transient absorption spectroscopy, the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied orbitals of NH2-MIL-125(Ti) promote a long lived ligand-to-metal charge transfer upon photoexcitation, making this material suitable for photocatalytic applications. In contrast, in case of UiO materials, the d-orbitals of Zr and Hf, are too low in binding energy and thus cannot overlap with the π* orbital of the ligand, making both frontier orbitals localized at the organic linker. This electronic reconfiguration results in short exciton lifetimes and diminishes photocatalytic performance. These results highlight the importance of orbital contributions at the band edges and delineate future directions in the development of photo-active hybrid solids.

  9. Catalytically Active Bimetallic Nanoparticles Supported on Porous Carbon Capsules Derived From Metal-Organic Framework Composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Bradley, Siobhan J; Chan, Andrew; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Nann, Thomas; Kruger, Paul E; Telfer, Shane G

    2016-09-14

    We report a new methodology for producing monometallic or bimetallic nanoparticles confined within hollow nitrogen-doped porous carbon capsules. The capsules are derived from metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals that are coated with a shell of a secondary material comprising either a metal-tannic acid coordination polymer or a resorcinol-formaldehyde polymer. Platinum nanoparticles are optionally sandwiched between the MOF core and the shell. Pyrolysis of the MOF-shell composites produces hollow capsules of porous nitrogen-doped carbon that bear either monometallic (Pt, Co, and Ni) or alloyed (PtCo and PtNi) metal nanoparticles. The Co and Ni components of the bimetallic nanoparticles are derived from the shell surrounding the MOF crystals. The hollow capsules prevent sintering and detachment of the nanoparticles, and their porous walls allow for efficient mass transport. Alloyed PtCo nanoparticles embedded in the capsule walls are highly active, selective, and recyclable catalysts for the hydrogenation of nitroarenes to anilines. PMID:27575666

  10. Existential Threat or Dissociative Response? Examining Defensive Avoidance of Point-of-Care Testing Devices Through a Terror Management Theory Framework.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Simon; Gallagher, Pamela; Matthews, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Using a terror management theory framework, this study investigated if providing mortality reminders or self-esteem threats would lead participants to exhibit avoidant responses toward a point-of-care testing device for cardiovascular disease risk and if the nature of the device served to diminish the existential threat of cardiovascular disease. One hundred and twelve participants aged 40-55 years completed an experimental questionnaire. Findings indicated that participants were not existentially threatened by established terror management methodologies, potentially because of cross-cultural variability toward such methodologies. Highly positive appraisals of the device also suggest that similar technologies may beneficially affect the uptake of screening behaviors.

  11. Existential Threat or Dissociative Response? Examining Defensive Avoidance of Point-of-Care Testing Devices Through a Terror Management Theory Framework.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Simon; Gallagher, Pamela; Matthews, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Using a terror management theory framework, this study investigated if providing mortality reminders or self-esteem threats would lead participants to exhibit avoidant responses toward a point-of-care testing device for cardiovascular disease risk and if the nature of the device served to diminish the existential threat of cardiovascular disease. One hundred and twelve participants aged 40-55 years completed an experimental questionnaire. Findings indicated that participants were not existentially threatened by established terror management methodologies, potentially because of cross-cultural variability toward such methodologies. Highly positive appraisals of the device also suggest that similar technologies may beneficially affect the uptake of screening behaviors. PMID:24972015

  12. Screening for high-spin metal organic frameworks (MOFs): density functional theory study on DUT-8(M1,M2) (with Mi = V,…,Cu).

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, Sebastian; Trepte, Kai; Seifert, Gotthard; Kortus, Jens

    2016-03-21

    We present a first principles study of low-spin (LS)/high-spin (HS) screening for 3d metal centers in the metal organic framework (MOF) DUT-8(Ni). Various density functional theory (DFT) codes have been used to evaluate numerical and DFT related errors. We compare highly accurate all-electron implementations with the widely used plane wave approach. We present electronically and magnetically stable DUT-8(Ni) HS secondary building units (SBUs). In this work we show how to tune the magnetic and electronic properties of the original SBU only by changing the metal centers. PMID:26922864

  13. Health Education and Physical Education (Healthy, Active Living). Grades 5 and 9. Assessment Annotations for the Curriculum Frameworks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This document provides supplemental assessment information to "Missouri's Framework for Curriculum Development in Health Education and Physical Education (Healthy, Active Living) K-12." The assessment annotations found in the third column of this document are intended to provide information for administrators, curriculum directors, and teachers…

  14. Exercising for two: examining pregnant women's second trimester exercise intention and behavior using the framework of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Downs, Danielle Symons; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2003-01-01

    Research examining the motivational determinants of exercising during pregnancy is mostly atheoretical, despite the need for theory-based designs. The study's main objective was to prospectively examine women's exercise intention and behavior from their second to third pregnancy trimester using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Participants were 89 pregnant women who completed self-reported measures of their exercise attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intention, and behavior. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated: 1) intention and not perceived behavioral control significantly predicted exercise behavior; and 2) attitude was the strongest determinant of exercise intention, followed by perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm. The study findings provide preliminary support for the TPB as an effective framework for examining exercising during pregnancy. Understanding women's thoughts, feelings, and beliefs about exercise can assist intervention specialists with developing and implementing effective programs promoting exercise during pregnancy.

  15. Inelastic Scattering of Identical Molecules within Framework of the Mixed Quantum/Classical Theory: Application to Rotational Excitations in H2 + H2.

    PubMed

    Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical foundation is laid out for description of permutation symmetry in the inelastic scattering processes that involve collisions of two identical molecules, within the framework of the mixed quantum/classical theory (MQCT). In this approach, the rotational (and vibrational) states of two molecules are treated quantum-mechanically, whereas their translational motion (responsible for scattering) is treated classically. This theory is applied to H2 + H2 system, and the state-to-state transition cross sections are compared versus those obtained from the full-quantum calculations and experimental results from the literature. Good agreement is found in all cases. It is also found that results of MQCT, where the Coriolis coupling is included classically, are somewhat closer to exact full-quantum results than results of the other approximate quantum methods, where those coupling terms are neglected. These new developments allow applications of MQCT to a broad variety of molecular systems and processes.

  16. Using behavioural activation in the treatment of depression: a control theory perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, P; Law, A; Bates, R; Hylton, K; Mansell, W

    2013-12-01

    Behavioural activation is an intervention that can be used to counteract the typical patterns of withdrawal, avoidance and inactivity that characterize depression. This paper examines the processes of change that may occur during behavioural activation from the perspective of control theory. Some of the key concepts that are associated with control theory are introduced and the process of change that may occur during behavioural activation is illustrated using two case studies. The case studies provide anecdotal evidence which supports the hypothesis that the effective implementation of behavioural activation may depend upon clients being able to retain or regain the sense of control that they value. The differences between a control-theory-based approach and more orthodox behavioural and cognitive approaches are highlighted and the implications of these differences are discussed. Flexible approaches that are informed by control theory, may offer a useful alternative to the more established behavioural and cognitive approaches towards behavioural activation.

  17. Using behavioural activation in the treatment of depression: a control theory perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, P; Law, A; Bates, R; Hylton, K; Mansell, W

    2013-12-01

    Behavioural activation is an intervention that can be used to counteract the typical patterns of withdrawal, avoidance and inactivity that characterize depression. This paper examines the processes of change that may occur during behavioural activation from the perspective of control theory. Some of the key concepts that are associated with control theory are introduced and the process of change that may occur during behavioural activation is illustrated using two case studies. The case studies provide anecdotal evidence which supports the hypothesis that the effective implementation of behavioural activation may depend upon clients being able to retain or regain the sense of control that they value. The differences between a control-theory-based approach and more orthodox behavioural and cognitive approaches are highlighted and the implications of these differences are discussed. Flexible approaches that are informed by control theory, may offer a useful alternative to the more established behavioural and cognitive approaches towards behavioural activation. PMID:23240823

  18. Induced starburst and nuclear activity: Faith, facts, and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosman, Isaac

    1990-01-01

    The problem of the origin of starburst and nuclear (nonstellar) activity in galaxies is reviewed. A physical understanding of the mechanism(s) that induce both types of activity requires one to address the following issues: (1) what is the source of fuel that powers starbursts and active galactic nuclei; and (2) how is it channeled towards the central regions of host galaxies? As a possible clue, the author examines the role of non-axisymmetric perturbations of galactic disks and analyzes their potential triggers. Global gravitational instabilities in the gas on scales approx. 100 pc appear to be crucial for fueling the active galactic nuclei.

  19. Tried and true: self-regulation theory as a guiding framework for teaching parents diabetes education using human patient simulation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Johnson, Kimberly; Cullen, Karen; Hamm, Terry; Bisordi, Jean; Blaney, Kathleen; Maguire, Laura; Melkus, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Parents become emotionally upset when learning that their child has type 1 diabetes, yet they are expected to quickly learn functional diabetes management. The purpose of this article is to describe the application of self-regulation theory to guide a family-focused education intervention using human patient simulation to enhance the initial education of parents in diabetes management. A brief description is provided of the intervention framed by self-regulation theory. On the basis of the literature, we describe the educational vignettes used based on self-regulation in the randomized controlled trial entitled "Parent Education Through Simulation-Diabetes." Examples of theory-in-practice will be illustrated by parental learning responses to this alternative educational innovation.

  20. Immobilizing highly catalytically active Pt nanoparticles inside the pores of metal-organic framework: a double solvents approach.

    PubMed

    Aijaz, Arshad; Karkamkar, Abhi; Choi, Young Joon; Tsumori, Nobuko; Rönnebro, Ewa; Autrey, Tom; Shioyama, Hiroshi; Xu, Qiang

    2012-08-29

    Ultrafine Pt nanoparticles were successfully immobilized inside the pores of a metal-organic framework, MIL-101, without aggregation of Pt nanoparticles on the external surfaces of framework by using a "double solvents" method. TEM and electron tomographic measurements clearly demonstrated the uniform three-dimensional distribution of the ultrafine Pt NPs throughout the interior cavities of MIL-101. The resulting Pt@MIL-101 composites represent the first highly active MOF-immobilized metal nanocatalysts for catalytic reactions in all three phases: liquid-phase ammonia borane hydrolysis, solid-phase ammonia borane thermal dehydrogenation, and gas-phase CO oxidation. PMID:22888976

  1. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  2. Discourse and Identity in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Harry

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a response to two of the papers in the collection. In doing so it takes up two issues: the conceptualization and analysis of discourse within Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and notions of identity and subject positioning within CHAT. Bernstein [(2000). "Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: Theory research…

  3. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: Vygotsky's Forgotten and Suppressed Legacy and Its Implication for Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory--with historical roots in dialectical materialism and the social psychology to which it has given rise--has experienced exponential growth in its acceptance by scholars interested in understanding knowing and learning writ large. In education, this theory has constituted something like a well kept secret that is…

  4. Job Search and Social Cognitive Theory: The Role of Career-Relevant Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zikic, Jelena; Saks, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Social cognitive theory was used to explain the relationships between career-relevant activities (environmental and self career exploration, career resources, and training), self-regulatory variables (job search self-efficacy and job search clarity), variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (job search attitude, subjective norm, job search…

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Theory-Based Physical Activity Guidebook for Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Jeffrey K.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Taylor, Lorian M.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Mackey, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This study's objective was to develop and evaluate the suitability and appropriateness of a theory-based physical activity (PA) guidebook for breast cancer survivors. Guidebook content was constructed based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) using salient exercise beliefs identified by breast cancer survivors in previous research. Expert…

  6. Shared Investment Projects and Forecasting Errors: Setting Framework Conditions for Coordination and Sequencing Data Quality Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments’ efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that—in some setups—a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm’s point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that—in particular for relatively good forecasters—most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model. PMID:25803736

  7. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model. PMID:25803736

  8. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model.

  9. Mechanism of electrochemical lithiation of a metal-organic framework without redox-active nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bohejin; Huang, Shuping; Fang, Yuan; Hu, Jinbo; Malonzo, Camille; Truhlar, Donald G.; Stein, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have many potential uses for separations, storage, and catalysis, but their use as intercalation hosts for batteries has been scarce. In this article, we examine the mechanism of Li insertion in a MOF to provide guidance to future design efforts in this area. As a model system, we choose UiO-66, a MOF with the formula (Zr6O4(OH)4)4(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate)6, as an electrode material for lithium-ion batteries; this MOF is of special interest because the zirconium is not redox active. We report both quantum mechanical characterization of the mechanism and experimental studies in which the material is synthesized as nanoparticles to reduce diffusion lengths for lithium ions and increase the contact area with a conductive carbon phase. The calculated changes in the IR spectra of UiO-66 and lithiated UiO-66 are consistent with the experimental FTIR results. We found experimentally that this MOF can maintain a specific discharge capacity of at least 118 mAh/g for 30 lithiation and delithiation cycles at a rate of C/5, exhibiting good cyclability. Density functional electronic structure calculations show that the charge transfer during lithiation is mainly from Li to node oxygens and carboxylate oxygens, that is, it involves anions rather than cations or aromatic rings, and they provide a mechanistic understanding of the potential for increased Li capacity because the theoretical capacity of UiO-66 with Li at the oxygens in the metal oxide nodes and the carboxylate linkers is more than 400 mAh/g. The lithiation process greatly decreases the bandgap of UiO-66, which is expected to increase its electronic conductivity. The electrode material was also characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, which were consistent in confirming that smaller particle sizes were obtained in lower-temperature syntheses.

  10. Mechanism of electrochemical lithiation of a metal-organic framework without redox-active nodes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bohejin; Huang, Shuping; Fang, Yuan; Hu, Jinbo; Malonzo, Camille; Truhlar, Donald G; Stein, Andreas

    2016-05-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have many potential uses for separations, storage, and catalysis, but their use as intercalation hosts for batteries has been scarce. In this article, we examine the mechanism of Li insertion in a MOF to provide guidance to future design efforts in this area. As a model system, we choose UiO-66, a MOF with the formula (Zr6O4(OH)4)4(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate)6, as an electrode material for lithium-ion batteries; this MOF is of special interest because the zirconium is not redox active. We report both quantum mechanical characterization of the mechanism and experimental studies in which the material is synthesized as nanoparticles to reduce diffusion lengths for lithium ions and increase the contact area with a conductive carbon phase. The calculated changes in the IR spectra of UiO-66 and lithiated UiO-66 are consistent with the experimental FTIR results. We found experimentally that this MOF can maintain a specific discharge capacity of at least 118 mAh/g for 30 lithiation and delithiation cycles at a rate of C/5, exhibiting good cyclability. Density functional electronic structure calculations show that the charge transfer during lithiation is mainly from Li to node oxygens and carboxylate oxygens, that is, it involves anions rather than cations or aromatic rings, and they provide a mechanistic understanding of the potential for increased Li capacity because the theoretical capacity of UiO-66 with Li at the oxygens in the metal oxide nodes and the carboxylate linkers is more than 400 mAh/g. The lithiation process greatly decreases the bandgap of UiO-66, which is expected to increase its electronic conductivity. The electrode material was also characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, which were consistent in confirming that smaller particle sizes were obtained in lower-temperature syntheses. PMID:27208960

  11. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower. PMID:26075793

  12. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower.

  13. What graph theory actually tells us about resting state interictal MEG epileptic activity.

    PubMed

    Niso, Guiomar; Carrasco, Sira; Gudín, María; Maestú, Fernando; Del-Pozo, Francisco; Pereda, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Graph theory provides a useful framework to study functional brain networks from neuroimaging data. In epilepsy research, recent findings suggest that it offers unique insight into the fingerprints of this pathology on brain dynamics. Most studies hitherto have focused on seizure activity during focal epilepsy, but less is known about functional epileptic brain networks during interictal activity in frontal focal and generalized epilepsy. Besides, it is not clear yet which measures are most suitable to characterize these networks. To address these issues, we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data using two orthogonal planar gradiometers from 45 subjects from three groups (15 healthy controls (7 males, 24 ± 6 years), 15 frontal focal (8 male, 32 ± 16 years) and 15 generalized epileptic (6 male, 27 ± 7 years) patients) during interictal resting state with closed eyes. Then, we estimated the total and relative spectral power of the largest principal component of the gradiometers, and the degree of phase synchronization between each sensor site in the frequency range [0.5-40 Hz]. We further calculated a comprehensive battery of 15 graph-theoretic measures and used the affinity propagation clustering algorithm to elucidate the minimum set of them that fully describe these functional brain networks. The results show that differences in spectral power between the control and the other two groups have a distinctive pattern: generalized epilepsy presents higher total power for all frequencies except the alpha band over a widespread set of sensors; frontal focal epilepsy shows higher relative power in the beta band bilaterally in the fronto-central sensors. Moreover, all network indices can be clustered into three groups, whose exemplars are the global network efficiency, the eccentricity and the synchronizability. Again, the patterns of differences were clear: the brain network of the generalized epilepsy patients presented greater efficiency and lower

  14. A Prospective Study of Participation in Optional School Physical Education Using a Self-Determination Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether contextual and personal motivational variables, taken from self-determination theory, could predict student cognitive and affective experiences in school physical education (PE), as well as participation in optional PE in the following school year. Structural equation modeling analysis with a sample of 302 British…

  15. Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Relational Competencies and Movement in Group Work with Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Kristi B.; Hammer, Tonya R.; Reicherzer, Stacee; Gilliam, Billie J.

    2012-01-01

    Relational-cultural theory (RCT) is an evolving feminist model of human development that places emphasis on growth-fostering relationships as building blocks for wellness. This article demonstrates the use of RCT in addressing relational aggression, including cyberbullying, in counseling a group of adolescent girls. The group counselor's…

  16. A Draft Conceptual Framework of Relevant Theories to Inform Future Rigorous Research on Student Service-Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Meredith A.

    2014-01-01

    While the quality and quantity of research on service-learning has increased considerably over the past 20 years, researchers as well as governmental and funding agencies have called for more rigor in service-learning research. One key variable in improving rigor is using relevant existing theories to improve the research. The purpose of this…

  17. Teachers' Views on Understanding Evolutionary Theory: A PCK-Study in the Framework of the ERTE-Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Esther M.

    2009-01-01

    The study of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) that is presented in this paper aims to obtain an impression of teachers' knowledge and beliefs concerning teaching evolutionary theory. The starting point of this project was the development of the Educational Reconstruction for Teacher Education model (ERTE). The PCK-study shows that teachers'…

  18. The Theory of Incompatibilities: A Conceptual Framework for Responding to the Educational Needs of Mexican American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas, Jose A.; Cardenas, Blandina

    According to the Cardenas-Cardenas Theory of Incompatibilities, Black, Mexican American, and economically disadvantaged children have not enjoyed the same success in school as that of the typical middle-class American because of a lack of compatibility between the characteristics of minority children and the characteristics of a typical…

  19. "Module 9": A New Course to Help Students Develop Interdisciplinary Projects Using the Framework of Experiential Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canboy, Basak; Montalvo, Adolfo; Buganza, M. Carmen; Emmerling, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers an example of how to introduce student-centred knowledge creation and competency development in a systematic way into a master's programme. The curriculum of a new course called Module 9 was framed according to experiential learning theory. While student teams work on self-selected projects, their learning processes are…

  20. Integrating Theory and Practice to Increase Scientific Workforce Diversity: A Framework for Career Development in Graduate Research Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Gutierrez, Belinda; Topp, Sharon; Carnes, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Few, if any, educational interventions intended to increase underrepresented minority (URM) graduate students in biological and behavioral sciences are informed by theory and research on career persistence. Training and Education to Advance Minority Scholars in Science (TEAM-Science) is a program funded by the National Institute of General Medical…

  1. The Inclusion of Children with ASD: Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a Theoretical Framework to Explore Peer Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Sara; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study used the Theory of Planned Behaviour to explore the attitudes, behavioural intentions and behaviour of 318 mainstream primary school children in an urban East London borough towards peers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Pupils were presented with a vignette about a hypothetical peer with ASD then completed self-report…

  2. Web-Based Virtual Patients in Nursing Education: Development and Validation of Theory-Anchored Design and Activity Models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research has shown that nursing students find it difficult to translate and apply their theoretical knowledge in a clinical context. Virtual patients (VPs) have been proposed as a learning activity that can support nursing students in their learning of scientific knowledge and help them integrate theory and practice. Although VPs are increasingly used in health care education, they still lack a systematic consistency that would allow their reuse outside of their original context. There is therefore a need to develop a model for the development and implementation of VPs in nursing education. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a virtual patient model optimized to the learning and assessment needs in nursing education. Methods The process of modeling started by reviewing theoretical frameworks reported in the literature and used by practitioners when designing learning and assessment activities. The Outcome-Present State Test (OPT) model was chosen as the theoretical framework. The model was then, in an iterative manner, developed and optimized to the affordances of virtual patients. Content validation was performed with faculty both in terms of the relevance of the chosen theories but also its applicability in nursing education. The virtual patient nursing model was then instantiated in two VPs. The students’ perceived usefulness of the VPs was investigated using a questionnaire. The result was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A virtual patient Nursing Design Model (vpNDM) composed of three layers was developed. Layer 1 contains the patient story and ways of interacting with the data, Layer 2 includes aspects of the iterative process of clinical reasoning, and finally Layer 3 includes measurable outcomes. A virtual patient Nursing Activity Model (vpNAM) was also developed as a guide when creating VP-centric learning activities. The students perceived the global linear VPs as a relevant learning activity for the

  3. Levels of Reconstruction as Complementarity in Mixed Methods Research: A Social Theory-Based Conceptual Framework for Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Linda J.; Rothe, J. Peter

    2010-01-01

    Like other areas of health research, there has been increasing use of qualitative methods to study public health problems such as injuries and injury prevention. Likewise, the integration of qualitative and quantitative research (mixed-methods) is beginning to assume a more prominent role in public health studies. Likewise, using mixed-methods has great potential for gaining a broad and comprehensive understanding of injuries and their prevention. However, qualitative and quantitative research methods are based on two inherently different paradigms, and their integration requires a conceptual framework that permits the unity of these two methods. We present a theory-driven framework for viewing qualitative and quantitative research, which enables us to integrate them in a conceptually sound and useful manner. This framework has its foundation within the philosophical concept of complementarity, as espoused in the physical and social sciences, and draws on Bergson’s metaphysical work on the ‘ways of knowing’. Through understanding how data are constructed and reconstructed, and the different levels of meaning that can be ascribed to qualitative and quantitative findings, we can use a mixed-methods approach to gain a conceptually sound, holistic knowledge about injury phenomena that will enhance our development of relevant and successful interventions. PMID:20948937

  4. Levels of reconstruction as complementarity in mixed methods research: a social theory-based conceptual framework for integrating qualitative and quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Linda J; Rothe, J Peter

    2010-09-01

    Like other areas of health research, there has been increasing use of qualitative methods to study public health problems such as injuries and injury prevention. Likewise, the integration of qualitative and quantitative research (mixed-methods) is beginning to assume a more prominent role in public health studies. Likewise, using mixed-methods has great potential for gaining a broad and comprehensive understanding of injuries and their prevention. However, qualitative and quantitative research methods are based on two inherently different paradigms, and their integration requires a conceptual framework that permits the unity of these two methods. We present a theory-driven framework for viewing qualitative and quantitative research, which enables us to integrate them in a conceptually sound and useful manner. This framework has its foundation within the philosophical concept of complementarity, as espoused in the physical and social sciences, and draws on Bergson's metaphysical work on the 'ways of knowing'. Through understanding how data are constructed and reconstructed, and the different levels of meaning that can be ascribed to qualitative and quantitative findings, we can use a mixed-methods approach to gain a conceptually sound, holistic knowledge about injury phenomena that will enhance our development of relevant and successful interventions.

  5. Emphasizing Saddle Points through Game Theory: A Classroom Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrington, Jenny; Jones, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the necessary game-theoretic background and explains how game-theoretic experiments of the Matching Pennies game can be used as a classroom activity to develop intuition about saddle points. (Author/ASK)

  6. Evaluation of physical activity web sites for use of behavior change theories.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Amol; Patrick, Kevin; Sallis, James F; Calfas, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) Web sites were assessed for their use of behavior change theories, including constructs of the health belief model, Transtheoretical Model, social cognitive theory, and the theory of reasoned action and planned behavior. An evaluation template for assessing PA Web sites was developed, and content validity and interrater reliability were demonstrated. Two independent raters evaluated 24 PA Web sites. Web sites varied widely in application of theory-based constructs, ranging from 5 to 48 on a 100-point scale. The most common intervention strategies were general information, social support, and realistic goal areas. Coverage of theory-based strategies was low, varying from 26% for social cognitive theory to 39% for health belief model. Overall, PA Web sites provided little assessment, feedback, or individually tailored assistance for users. They were unable to substantially tailor the on-line experience for users at different stages of change or different demographic characteristics.

  7. Project Spectrum: Early Learning Activities. Project Zero Frameworks for Early Childhood Education, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie-Qi, Ed.; Isberg, Emily, Ed.; Krechevsky, Mara, Ed.

    Project Spectrum is a collaborative research and development project that offers an alternative approach to assessment and curriculum development for preschool and early primary years. The project, based on Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory and David Henry Feldman's nonuniversal development theory, emphasizes observing children…

  8. To have or to be? A comparison of materialism-based theories and self-determination theory as explanatory frameworks of prejudice.

    PubMed

    Van Hiel, Alain; Cornelis, Ilse; Roets, Arne

    2010-06-01

    The present study aimed to delineate the psychological structure of materialism and intrinsic and extrinsic value pursuit. Moreover, we compared models based on self-determination theory (SDT), Fromm's marketing character, and Inglehart's theory of social change to account for racial prejudice. In a sample of undergraduate students (n=131) and adults (n=176) it was revealed that the extrinsic value pursuit Financial Success/Materialism could be distinguished from the extrinsic value scales Physical Appeal and Social Recognition, and Community Concern could be distinguished from the intrinsic value pursuit scales Self-acceptance and Affiliation. Moreover, Financial Success/Materialism and Community Concern were consistently and significantly related to prejudice, whereas the other SDT facet scales yielded weaker relationships with prejudice. Structural models based on SDT and Inglehart were not corroborated, but instead the present data supported a mediation model based on Fromm's work in which the effect of Community Concern was mediated by Financial Success/Materialism. Broader implications for SDT are critically assessed. PMID:20573135

  9. To have or to be? A comparison of materialism-based theories and self-determination theory as explanatory frameworks of prejudice.

    PubMed

    Van Hiel, Alain; Cornelis, Ilse; Roets, Arne

    2010-06-01

    The present study aimed to delineate the psychological structure of materialism and intrinsic and extrinsic value pursuit. Moreover, we compared models based on self-determination theory (SDT), Fromm's marketing character, and Inglehart's theory of social change to account for racial prejudice. In a sample of undergraduate students (n=131) and adults (n=176) it was revealed that the extrinsic value pursuit Financial Success/Materialism could be distinguished from the extrinsic value scales Physical Appeal and Social Recognition, and Community Concern could be distinguished from the intrinsic value pursuit scales Self-acceptance and Affiliation. Moreover, Financial Success/Materialism and Community Concern were consistently and significantly related to prejudice, whereas the other SDT facet scales yielded weaker relationships with prejudice. Structural models based on SDT and Inglehart were not corroborated, but instead the present data supported a mediation model based on Fromm's work in which the effect of Community Concern was mediated by Financial Success/Materialism. Broader implications for SDT are critically assessed.

  10. The Effectiveness of WhatsApp Mobile Learning Activities Guided by Activity Theory on Students' Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barhoumi, Chokri

    2015-01-01

    This research paper explores the effectiveness of using mobile technologies to support a blended learning course titled Scientific Research Methods in Information Science. Specifically, it discusses the effects of WhatsApp mobile learning activities guided by activity theory on students' knowledge Management (KM). During the 2014 academic year,…

  11. Investigating Children's Musical Interactions within the Activities Systems of Group Composing and Arranging: An Application of Engestrom's Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnard, Pamela; Younker, Betty Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article applies Engestrom's Activity Theory (AT) as an analytical lens to identify defining characteristics of the collaborative creative music making activities of composing and arranging. Attention is paid to the complex interrelationships among the various elements of interaction in children's collaborative creative music making as…

  12. Implicit theories of the body among college women: implications for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Claire; Kaufman, Annette R; Rima, Brandi

    2015-09-01

    This study explored the relationship between implicit theories of the body (ITB) and self-reported physical activity. ITB are beliefs about the malleability of the body. Individuals may hold entity ITB (that body appearance is fixed) or incremental ITB (that body appearance can be changed). Female undergraduate students (N = 313) completed an online survey assessing ITB, physical activity, and discrepancy between actual and ideal body weight. Participants endorsing incremental ITB reported more physical activity. A significant ITB by weight discrepancy interaction emerged. Developing interventions targeting implicit theories of the body may be one way to increase physical activity. PMID:24271689

  13. Exploring Formative Assessment Using Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asghar, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    Formative assessment is a pedagogic practice that has been the subject of much research and debate, as to how it can be used most effectively to deliver enhanced student learning in the higher education setting. Often described as a complex concept it embraces activities that range from facilitating students understanding of assessment standards,…

  14. Activity Theory and the Transformation of Pedagogic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamazumi, Katsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Today, work and other societal practices are experiencing accelerating paradigm shifts from mass-production-based systems toward new systems based on networking between organizations, collaboration, and partnerships. This shift requires new paradigms in the fields of education, learning, and development. As human activity quickly changes to…

  15. Do sedentary motives adversely affect physical activity? Adding cross-behavioural cognitions to the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether sedentary behavior cognitions explain physical activity (PA) intention and behavior when integrated within the theory of planned behavior framework (TPB). A random community sample of 206 adults and a sample of 174 undergraduate students completed measures of the TPB pertaining to PA and four popular leisure-time behaviors (TV viewing, computer use, sedentary hobbies, and sedentary socializing) and an adapted Godin Leisure-Time Exercize Questionnaire (community sample = cross-sectional, undergraduate sample = 2-week prospective). Results using ordinary least squares regression provided evidence that TV viewing intention explains additional variance in PA behavior, and affective attitude (community sample) and perceived behavioral control (undergraduate sample) towards TV viewing explains additional variance in PA intention even after controlling for PA-related TPB constructs. These results underscore the potential value of adding sedentary control interventions in concert with PA promotion.

  16. Evolution of the Universe within the framework of the modified Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory: The role of the cosmological scalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubaryan, Edvard; Avagyan, Roland; Harutunyan, Gohar; Kotanjyan, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Early and late stages of the cosmological expansion are considered on the base of the modified Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) theory, under the assumption φ(y)=αH ^{n} (H is the Hubble constant, n is a parameter equal to four in the inflationary stage and one or two at late stages of the Universe evolution). At late stages, dynamical pattern is obtained with uniformly accelerated expansion for different values of σ (σ is the coupling constant between the gravitational and scalar fields). It is remarkable that for the limiting allowed value of α=9/(2σ) and for large σ, this variant of the theory is equivalent to the de Sitter model in the framework of the Einstein theory in the presence of a scalar field φ(y)=αH ^{2}. Therefore, the quasi exponential growth of the scale factor in the limiting case becomes purely exponential. Note that in the previously considered models the behavior of α was a power law. We also consider the inflationary regime with φ(y)=αH ^{4}. It is shown that in this case a model with slow rolling can be constructed.

  17. Catalytic activity of nuclease P1: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Falcone, J.M.; Shibata, M.; Box, H.C.

    1994-10-01

    Nuclease P1 from Penicillium citrinum is a zinc dependent glyco-enzyme that recognizes single stranded DNA and RNA as substrates and hydrolyzes the phosphate ester bond. Nuclease Pl seems to recognize particular conformations of the phosphodiester backbone and shows significant variation in the rate of hydrolytic activity depending upon which nucleosides are coupled by the phosphodiester bond. The efficiency of nuclease Pl in hydrolyzing the phosphodiester bonds of a substrate can be altered by modifications to one of the substrate bases induced by ionizing radiation or oxidative stress. Measurements have been made of the effect of several radiation induced lesions on the catalytic rate of nuclease Pl. A model of the structure of the enzyme has been constructed in order to better understand the binding and activity of this enzyme on various ssDNA substrates.

  18. Metacommunity theory as a multispecies, multiscale framework for studying the influence of river network structure on riverine communities and ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, B.L.; Swan, C.M.; Auerbach, D.A.; Campbell, Grant E.H.; Hitt, N.P.; Maloney, K.O.; Patrick, C.

    2011-01-01

    Explaining the mechanisms underlying patterns of species diversity and composition in riverine networks is challenging. Historically, community ecologists have conceived of communities as largely isolated entities and have focused on local environmental factors and interspecific interactions as the major forces determining species composition. However, stream ecologists have long embraced a multiscale approach to studying riverine ecosystems and have studied both local factors and larger-scale regional factors, such as dispersal and disturbance. River networks exhibit a dendritic spatial structure that can constrain aquatic organisms when their dispersal is influenced by or confined to the river network. We contend that the principles of metacommunity theory would help stream ecologists to understand how the complex spatial structure of river networks mediates the relative influences of local and regional control on species composition. From a basic ecological perspective, the concept is attractive because new evidence suggests that the importance of regional processes (dispersal) depends on spatial structure of habitat and on connection to the regional species pool. The role of local factors relative to regional factors will vary with spatial position in a river network. From an applied perspective, the long-standing view in ecology that local community composition is an indicator of habitat quality may not be uniformly applicable across a river network, but the strength of such bioassessment approaches probably will depend on spatial position in the network. The principles of metacommunity theory are broadly applicable across taxa and systems but seem of particular consequence to stream ecology given the unique spatial structure of riverine systems. By explicitly embracing processes at multiple spatial scales, metacommunity theory provides a foundation on which to build a richer understanding of stream communities.

  19. Extensions of the Semantic/Syntactic Reasoning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Paul Christian

    2012-01-01

    Weber and Alcock's (2004, 2009) syntactic/semantic framework provides a useful means of delineating two basic categories of proof-oriented activity. They define their dichotomy using Goldin's (1998) theory of representation systems. In this paper, I intend to clarify the framework by providing criteria for classifying student reasoning into…

  20. Unpacking Teacher-Researcher Collaboration with Three Theoretical Frameworks: A Case of Expansive Learning Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gade, Sharada

    2015-01-01

    Long association with a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden, is basis for reporting a case of teacher-researcher collaboration. Three theoretical frameworks used to study its development over time are relational knowing, relational agency and cogenerative dialogue. While relational knowing uses narrative perspectives to explore the…

  1. A Conceptual Framework for the Indirect Method of Reporting Net Cash Flow from Operating Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the fundamental concept of the reconciliation behind the indirect method of the statement of cash flows. A conceptual framework is presented to demonstrate how accrual and cash-basis accounting methods relate to each other and to illustrate the concept of reconciling these two accounting methods. The conceptual framework…

  2. [The legal frameworks and organizational forms of the work of a forensic medical expert participating in group investigation activities].

    PubMed

    Kachina, N N

    2013-01-01

    The problems pertaining to the modern organization of group investigation activities and the role of a forensic medical expert involved in them are discussed. It is shown that the variety of such groups formed in accordance with departmental and interdepartmental guidelines and regulations can be reduced to two major types, viz. investigation teams (brigades) and alert operational investigations groups. Either type can and some must include a forensic medical expert although neither legal nor institutional frameworks has been formulated for his participation.

  3. Using self-determination theory to promote physical activity and weight control: a randomized controlled trial in women.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marlene N; Vieira, Paulo N; Coutinho, Sílvia R; Minderico, Cláudia S; Matos, Margarida G; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2010-04-01

    Behavior change interventions are effective to the extent that they affect appropriately-measured outcomes, especially in experimental controlled trials. The primary goal of this study was to analyze the impact of a 1-year weight management intervention based on self-determination theory (SDT) on theory-based psychosocial mediators, physical activity/exercise, and body weight and composition. Participants were 239 women (37.6 +/- 7.1 years; 31.5 +/- 4.1 kg/m(2)) who received either an intervention focused on promoting autonomous forms of exercise regulation and intrinsic motivation, or a general health education program (controls). At 12 months, the intervention group showed increased weight loss (-7.29%,) and higher levels of physical activity/exercise (+138 +/- 26 min/day of moderate plus vigorous exercise; +2,049 +/- 571 steps/day), compared to controls (P < 0.001). Main intervention targets such as more autonomous self-regulation (for treatment and for exercise) and a more autonomous perceived treatment climate revealed large effect sizes (between 0.80 and .96), favoring intervention (P < 0.001). Results suggest that interventions grounded in SDT can be successfully implemented in the context of weight management, enhancing the internalization of more autonomous forms of behavioral regulation, and facilitating exercise adherence, while producing clinically-significant weight reduction, when compared to a control condition. Findings are fully consistent with previous studies conducted within this theoretical framework in other areas of health behavior change.

  4. Ice recrystallization kinetics in the presence of synthetic antifreeze glycoprotein analogues using the framework of LSW theory.

    PubMed

    Budke, C; Heggemann, C; Koch, M; Sewald, N; Koop, T

    2009-03-01

    The Ostwald ripening of polycrystalline ice in aqueous sucrose solutions was investigated experimentally. The kinetics of this ice recrystallization process was studied at temperatures between -6 and -10 degrees C and varying ice volume fractions. Using the theory of Lifshitz, Slyozov, and Wagner (LSW), the diffusion-limited rate constant for ice recrystallization was determined. Also, the effects of synthetic analogues of natural antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGP) were studied. These analogues synAFGPmi (i = 3-5) contained monosaccharide side groups instead of disaccharide side groups that occur in natural AFGP. In order to account for the inhibition effect of the synAFGPmi, we have modified classical LSW theory, allowing for the derivation of inhibition rate constants. It was found that the investigated synAFGPmi inhibit ice recrystallization at concentrations down to approximately 3 microg mL(-1) or, equivalently, approximately 1 micromol L(-1) for the largest synAFGPmi investigated: synAFGPm5. Hence, our new method is capable of quantitatively assessing the efficiency of very similar AFGP with a sensitivity that is at least 2 orders of magnitude larger than that typical for quantitative thermal hysteresis measurements.

  5. Discovery, utilisation and analysis of credible threats for 2×2 incomplete information games in the Theory of Moves framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Jolie; Sen, Sandip

    2014-04-01

    Steven Brams's [(1994). Theory of moves. Cambridge University Press] Theory of Moves (TOM) is an alternative to traditional game theoretic treatment of real-life interactions, in which players choose strategies based on analysis of future moves and counter-moves that arise if game play commences at a specified start state and either player can choose to move first. In repeated play, players using TOM rationality arrive at nonmyopic equilibria. One advantage of TOM is its ability to model scenarios in which power asymmetries exist between players. In particular, threat power, i.e. the ability of one player to threaten and sustain immediate, globally disadvantageous outcomes to force a desirable result long term, can be utilised to induce Pareto optimal states in games such as Prisoner's Dilemma which result in Pareto-dominated outcomes using traditional methods. Unfortunately, prior work on TOM is limited by an assumption of complete information. This paper presents a mechanism that can be used by a player to utilise threat power when playing a strict, ordinal 2×2 game under incomplete information. We also analyse the benefits of threat power and support in this analysis with empirical evidence.

  6. THE ROLE OF CROSS-SHOCK POTENTIAL ON PICKUP ION SHOCK ACCELERATION IN THE FRAMEWORK OF FOCUSED TRANSPORT THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Pingbing; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2013-10-20

    The focused transport theory is appropriate to describe the injection and acceleration of low-energy particles at shocks as an extension of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). In this investigation, we aim to characterize the role of cross-shock potential (CSP) originated in the charge separation across the shock ramp on pickup ion (PUI) acceleration at various types of shocks with a focused transport model. The simulation results of energy spectrum and spatial density distribution for the cases with and without CSP added in the model are compared. With sufficient acceleration time, the focused transport acceleration finally falls into the DSA regime with the power-law spectral index equal to the solution of the DSA theory. The CSP can affect the shape of the spectrum segment at lower energies, but it does not change the spectral index of the final power-law spectrum at high energies. It is found that the CSP controls the injection efficiency which is the fraction of PUIs reaching the DSA regime. A stronger CSP jump results in a dramatically improved injection efficiency. Our simulation results also show that the injection efficiency of PUIs is mass-dependent, which is lower for species with a higher mass. In addition, the CSP is able to enhance the particle reflection upstream to produce a stronger intensity spike at the shock front. We conclude that the CSP is a non-negligible factor that affects the dynamics of PUIs at shocks.

  7. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory.

    PubMed

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns.

  8. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory

    PubMed Central

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O.; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns. PMID:25717313

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Organizational Readiness to Implement Nutrition and Physical Activity Programs in Early Childhood Education Settings

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Mudita; Schober, Daniel J.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney

    2014-01-01

    Across multiple sectors, organizational readiness predicts the success of program implementation. However, the factors influencing readiness of early childhood education (ECE) organizations for implementation of new nutrition and physical activity programs is poorly understood. This study presents a new conceptual framework to measure organizational readiness to implement nutrition and physical activity programs in ECE centers serving children aged 0 to 5 years. The framework was validated for consensus on relevance and generalizability by conducting focus groups; the participants were managers (16 directors and 2 assistant directors) of ECE centers. The framework theorizes that it is necessary to have “collective readiness,” which takes into account such factors as resources, organizational operations, work culture, and the collective attitudes, motivation, beliefs, and intentions of ECE staff. Results of the focus groups demonstrated consensus on the relevance of proposed constructs across ECE settings. Including readiness measures during program planning and evaluation could inform implementation of ECE programs targeting nutrition and physical activity behaviors. PMID:25357258

  10. Assessment of factors that predict physical activity among Oklahoma clergy: a theory of planned behavior approach.

    PubMed

    Gwin, Shannon; Taylor, E Laurette; Branscum, Paul; Hofford, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of physical activity among clergy members in Oklahoma, using the theory of planned behavior. A 51-item valid and reliable instrument, measuring theory of planned behavior constructs and physical activity, was developed and administered to 141 clergy members. Results indicated that the majority of those surveyed were white (93%), college educated (97%), and overweight or obese (84%). Stepwise multiple regression analysis found that intentions accounted for 13.8% of the variance of physical activity whereas attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control accounted for 54.8% of the variance of intention. Implications for intervention development are discussed.

  11. Dialogue--Missing in Action Competence: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Approach in a Botswana School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silo, Nthalivi

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth case study on children's participation in environmental management activities in a primary school in Botswana was undertaken, drawing on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) and the action competence model. This research revealed that due to a lack of dialogue between teachers and children, teachers tended to view children's…

  12. Contradictions between the Virtual and Physical High School Classroom: A Third-Generation Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Manzanares, Maria A. Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a third-generation Activity Theory perspective to gain insight into the contradictions between the activity systems of the physical and virtual high school classroom from the perspective of teachers who had transitioned from one system to the other. Data collection relied on semi-structured interviews conducted with e-teachers as…

  13. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  14. Activity Theory in Information Systems Research and Practice: Theoretical Underpinnings for an Information Systems Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mursu, Anja; Luukkonen, Irmeli; Toivanen, Marika; Korpela, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of information systems is to facilitate work activities: here we consider how Activity Theory can be applied in information systems development. Method. The requirements for an analytical model for emancipatory, work-oriented information systems research and practice are specified. Previous research work in Activity…

  15. Density Functional Theory Study of Hydrogen Adsorption in a Ti-Decorated Mg-Based Metal-Organic Framework-74.

    PubMed

    Suksaengrat, Pitphichaya; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Srepusharawoot, Pornjuk; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2016-03-16

    The Ti-binding energy and hydrogen adsorption energy of a Ti-decorated Mg-based metal-organic framework-74 (Mg-MOF-74) were evaluated by using first-principles calculations. Our results revealed that only three Ti adsorption sites were found to be stable. The adsorption site near the metal oxide unit is the most stable. To investigate the hydrogen-adsorption properties of Ti-functionalized Mg-MOF-74, the hydrogen-binding energy was determined. For the most stable Ti adsorption site, we found that the hydrogen adsorption energy ranged from 0.26 to 0.48 eV H2 (-1) . This is within the desirable range for practical hydrogen-storage applications. Moreover, the hydrogen capacity was determined by using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our results revealed that the hydrogen uptake by Ti-decorated Mg-MOF-74 at temperatures of 77, 150, and 298 K and ambient pressure were 1.81, 1.74, and 1.29 H2  wt %, respectively. PMID:26717417

  16. Cultural-historical activity theory: Vygotsky's forgotten and suppressed legacy and its implication for mathematics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-03-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory—with historical roots in dialectical materialism and the social psychology to which it has given rise—has experienced exponential growth in its acceptance by scholars interested in understanding knowing and learning writ large. In education, this theory has constituted something like a well kept secret that is only in the process of gaining larger levels of acceptance. Mathematics educators are only beginning to realise the tremendous advantages that the theory provides over other theories. In this review essay, I articulate the theory as it may relate to the issues that concern mathematics education and educators with a particular focus on the way in which it addresses logical contradictions in existing theories.

  17. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity and molecular docking of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized oxygen heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Dongamanti, Ashok; Aamate, Vikas Kumar; Devulapally, Mohan Gandhi; Gundu, Srinivas; Kotni, Meena Kumari; Manga, Vijjulatha; Balasubramanian, Sridhar; Ernala, Prasad

    2015-02-15

    A convenient approach for the synthesis of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized heterocyclic rings (eight-, nine-, ten- and eleven-membered rings) containing two oxygen atoms from flavonols through alkylation using different dibromoalkanes was described. The synthesized compounds were established based on the spectral data and X-ray crystal structure for 6c. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Docking studies were carried out for most active two compounds 6f and 6i. PMID:25592711

  18. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity and molecular docking of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized oxygen heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Dongamanti, Ashok; Aamate, Vikas Kumar; Devulapally, Mohan Gandhi; Gundu, Srinivas; Kotni, Meena Kumari; Manga, Vijjulatha; Balasubramanian, Sridhar; Ernala, Prasad

    2015-02-15

    A convenient approach for the synthesis of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized heterocyclic rings (eight-, nine-, ten- and eleven-membered rings) containing two oxygen atoms from flavonols through alkylation using different dibromoalkanes was described. The synthesized compounds were established based on the spectral data and X-ray crystal structure for 6c. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Docking studies were carried out for most active two compounds 6f and 6i.

  19. Theory, Investigation and Stability of Cathode Electrocatalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Dong; Liu, Mingfei; Lai, Samson; Blinn, Kevin; Liu, Meilin

    2012-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to systematically characterize the surface composition, morphology, and electro-catalytic properties of catalysts coated on LSCF, aiming to establish the scientific basis for rational design of high-performance cathodes by combining a porous backbone (such as LSCF) with a thin catalyst coating. The understanding gained will help us to optimize the composition and morphology of the catalyst layer and microstructure of the LSCF backbone for better performance. More specifically, the technical objectives include: (1) to characterize the surface composition, morphology, and electro-catalytic properties of catalysts coated on LSCF; (2) to characterize the microscopic details and stability of the LSCF-catalyst (e.g., LSM) interfaces; (3) to establish the scientific basis for rational design of high-performance cathodes by combining a porous backbone (such as LSCF) with a thin catalyst coating; and (4) to demonstrate that the performance and stability of porous LSCF cathodes can be enhanced by the application of a thin-film coating of LSM through a solution infiltration process in small homemade button cells and in commercially available cells of larger dimension. We have successfully developed dense, conformal LSM films with desired structure, composition, morphology, and thickness on the LSCF surfaces by two different infiltration processes: a non-aqueous and a water-based sol-gel process. It is demonstrated that the activity and stability of LSCF cathodes can be improved by the introduction of a thin-film LSM coating through an infiltration process. Surface and interface of the LSM-coated LSCF cathode were systematically characterized using advanced microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. TEM observation suggests that a layer of La and Sr oxide was formed on LSCF surfaces after annealing. With LSM infiltration, in contrast, we no longer observe such La/Sr oxide layer on the LSM-coated LSCF samples after annealing under similar

  20. Hydrolytically Stable Nanoporous Thorium Mixed Phosphite and Pyrophosphate Framework Generated from Redox-Active Ionothermal Reactions.

    PubMed

    Gui, Daxiang; Zheng, Tao; Chen, Lanhua; Wang, Yanlong; Li, Yuxiang; Sheng, Daopeng; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Wang, Shuao

    2016-04-18

    The first thorium framework compound with mixed-valent phosphorus-based (phosphite and pyrophosphate) ligands, [BMMim]2[Th3(PO3)4(H2P2O7)3] (ThP-1), was synthesized by ionothermal reactions concurrent with the partial oxidation of phosphoric acid. The overall structural topology of ThP-1 highly resembles that of MOF-5, containing only one type of three-dimensional channels with a window size of 11.32 Å × 11.32 Å. ThP-1 has a free void volume of 50.8%, making it one of the most porous purely inorganic actinide-based framework materials. More importantly, ThP-1 is highly stable in aqueous solutions over an extremely wide pH range from 1 to 14 and thus may find potential applications in selective ion exchange and catalysis. PMID:27015432