Karyakina, Elena E; Vokhmyanina, Darya V; Sizova, Natalya V; Sabitov, Aytugan N; Borisova, Anastasiya V; Sazontova, Tatyana G; Arkhipenko, Yury V; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A; Zolotov, Yury A; Karyakin, Arkady A
We propose a novel approach for assessment of total antioxidant activity by monitoring kinetics of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging after its injection into liquid sample under study. H(2)O(2) is known to be the strongest oxidant, really presented in human body in contrast to the majority of the model oxidative systems used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. In addition, kinetic approach, being more informative than the commonly used determination of the final product, obviously provides better discrimination of potential antioxidants. Prussian Blue based sensor due to its high sensitivity and operational stability allowed to monitor kinetics of hydrogen peroxide consumption in turbid and colored samples. The pseudo-first order kinetic constants of hydrogen peroxide scavenging in the presence of different food additives correlated with total antioxidant activity of these samples evaluated via standard procedure based on lipid peroxidation. However, in contrast to the standard method, the proposed kinetic approach is expressed and does not require fresh biological tissues.
Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Boland Nazar, Ali Reza
Background Scrophularia striata (Scrophulariaceae family) is an herbaceous plant that is traditionally used for treatment of microbial infections. Objectives Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of different extracts (methanolic, ethanolic, aqueous and ethyl acetate) from S. striata aerial parts was evaluated. Materials and Methods The antimicrobial activity of different extracts from S. striata was evaluated against a large number of bacteria and fungi by micro broth dilution. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured and their antioxidant activities evaluated by DPPH assay and beta carotene linoleic acid test. Results Antimicrobial screening exhibited the positive relation between the total phenolic content and its antimicrobial activity but their antioxidant activity had a negative relation. Conclusions Further studies are recommended against clinical isolate of sensitive bacteria and deep investigation on flavonoid and phenolic compounds of S. striata and detecting the antioxidant portion in aqueous extract. PMID:24624181
Dhavamani, Sugasini; Poorna Chandra Rao, Yalagala; Lokesh, Belur R
This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of vegetable oils using photochemiluminescence based assay. The following oils were selected for the study - palm oil (PO); olive oil (OLO); sunflower oil (SNO); rice bran oil (RBO); sesame oil (SESO) and linseed oil (LSO). The antioxidant activity of oils was reduced significantly when unsaponifiable matter was removed from the oils. The rats fed unsaponifiable matter removed vegetable oils showed significantly reduced antioxidant activity but no change in overall fatty acid composition in serum lipids. Therefore the minor constituents in unsaponifiable matter influences antioxidant activity exhibited by vegetable oils.
The phytochemical profiles of 24 Vitis vinifera grape cultivars, including total phenolics, total flavonoids, total antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity, were determined. Total phenolic contents in the cultivars ranged from 95.3 to 686.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW, and to...
Yoo, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jae Bok; Lee, Hyong Joo; Hwang, In Kyeong
Epidemiological studies suggest that a high consumption of fruits can reduce the risk of some cancers and cardiovascular disease, and this may be attributable to the antioxidant activity of vitamins and phenolic compounds. The present study investigated the variations in vitamin C, total phenolic, hesperidin, and naringin contents, and total antioxidant activity of yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka)-which is a popular citrus fruit in Korea and Japan-between cultivars and during maturity. The amounts of phenolics and vitamin C and the antioxidant activity in all tested yuzu cultivars were higher in peel than in flesh. Ripening increased the total antioxidant activity and vitamin C content in both peel and flesh of yuzu. However, the amounts of all total phenolics, hesperidin, and naringin in peel increased with ripening, whereas they decreased slightly in flesh. There was a highly linear relationship between the vitamin C content and the total antioxidant activity in both peel (r(2) = 1.000) and flesh (r(2) =0.998), suggesting that vitamin C plays a key role in the antioxidant activity of yuzu. In addition, the contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant activity of yuzu was determined using a 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay and is expressed here in terms of the vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). The means of vitamin C, naringin, and hesperidin in yuzu were 90.4, 63.8, and 65.7 mg/100 g fresh yuzu, respectively. The relative VCEAC values of these compounds were in the following order: vitamin C (1.00) > naringin (0.195) > hesperidin (0.162). Therefore, the estimated contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh yuzus is as follows (in mg of VCEAC): vitamin C (90.36 mg) > naringin (12.44 mg) > hesperidin (10.64 mg). Our results indicate that mature yuzu contains higher amounts of vitamin C and phenolics than other citrus fruits and could therefore be
Moldovan, Bianca; Hosu, Anamaria; David, Luminita; Cimpoiu, Claudia
Fruits represent one of the main dietary sources of bioactive compounds. Due to their remarkable health benefits, many functional foods of fruit origin, including fruit teas, are present on the market and there is an increased interest regarding the investigation of their nutritional parameters and quality. The aims of our study were: 1) to determine the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanins content (TAC), antioxidant activity (AA), the scavenging capacity (IC50), the pro-oxidant activity (Pro-ox) and Pro-Antidex of 12 commercially available red fruit teas, 2) to classify the analysed teas and 3) to evaluate the similarities between samples. The TPC was between 12.5 and 29.3 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g tea, the TAC varied between 2.6 and 5.6 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu)/g tea and AA was in the range of 10.9-19.1 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g tea. The Pro-ox activity varied between 3.9 and 10.0 mg/mL tea extract and Pro-Antidex was between 3.3 and 7.3.
Amensour, Mahassine; Sendra, Esther; Abrini, Jamal; Bouhdid, Samira; Pérez-Alvarez, José Angel; Fernández-López, Juana
The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of myrtle (Myrtus communis) leaves and berries were measured to find new potential sources of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content was assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by three methods: diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, the reducing antioxidant power assay and beta-carotene linoleic acid assay. The total phenol content of myrtle extracts ranged between 9.0 and 35.6 mg GAE per g extract. For each solvent, leaf extracts contained significantly higher amount of total phenolic compounds than berry extracts. All of the extracts presented antioxidant capacity assessed by the three methods, but at different levels depending on the concentration, the extraction solvent and the part of the plant used. Generally, leaf extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than berry extracts, while the overall antioxidant strength was in the order methanol > water > ethanol in leaf extracts and methanol > ethanol > water in berry extracts. The phenolic content exhibited a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity: DPPH assay showed the highest correlation (r = 0.949), followed by the reducing power assay (r = 0.914) and the lowest for the beta-carotene linoleic acid assay (r = 0.722).
de Oliveira, Adriana Maria Fernandes; Pinheiro, Lilian Sousa; Pereira, Charlane Kelly Souto; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Gomes, Roosevelt Albuquerque; Chaves, Otemberg Souza; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Assis, Temilce Simões
The antioxidant activity of four species of the Malvaceae family (Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil.) Fryxell, Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl, Sida rhombifolia (L.) E. H. L and Herissantia crispa L. (Brizicky)) were studied using the total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. The antioxidant activity of the crude extract, phases and two isolated flavonoids, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (lespedin) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) glucopyranoside (tiliroside) was determined. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of the crude extract of Sidastrum micranthum and Wissadula periplocifolia; however, this was not observed between Sida rhombifolia and Herissantia crispa. The ethyl acetate (EaF) phase showed the best antioxidant effect in the total phenolics, DPPH and TEAC assays, followed by the chloroform (CfF) phase, in most species tested. Lespedin, isolated from the EaF phase of W. periplocifolia and H. crispa may not be responsible for the antioxidant activity due to its low antioxidant activity (IC50: DPPH: 1,019.92 ± 68.99 mg/mL; TEAC: 52.70 ± 0.47 mg/mL); whereas tiliroside, isolated from W. periplocifolia, H. crispa and S. micrantum presented a low IC50 value (1.63 ± 0.86 mg/mL) compared to ascorbic acid in the TEAC assay. PMID:26787614
Sadeghi, Zahra; Valizadeh, Jafar; Azyzian Shermeh, Omid; Akaberi, Maryam
Objective: Boerhaavia elegans L. (Nyctaginaceae) is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of kidney disorders, urinary tract disorders and blood purification in Baluch tribe. The aim of present study is to evaluate the antioxidant property of B. elegans species for the first time. Materials and Methods: Different parts (leaf, stem and fruit) of the plant were extracted by using various solvents (water, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate) and evaluated for their antioxidant activity using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Results: Antioxidant results were expressed as IC50. The antioxidant power in DPPH and FRAP assay were evaluated as shown in decreasing order: Methanolic extract > Aqueous extract > Ethyl acetate extract > Chloroform extract, for all parts of the plant. In both methods of antioxidant assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, methanolic extract of leaf exhibited the highest activity and the most phenolic content IC50= 6.85 ppm and 16.41 mg GA/g d w respectively. Total phenolic content had a positive relationship with antioxidant capacity in extracts and there was a high correlation (r=1.00, p<0.01) between antioxidant activities as determined by both antioxidant assays for various parts. Conclusion: The results of the experiments showed that B. elegans extract had significant antioxidant effects. This high antioxidant activity may be linked to phenolic contents of the plant but complementary investigations are suggested in order to determine active elements. PMID:25767751
Mohamed, Norhidayu; Abdullah, Aminah
The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Kappaphycus alvarezii obtained from Langkawi, Kedah and Semporna, Sabah were evaluated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts were determined according to the Folin Ciocalteau method and results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by three methods namely Free Radical Scavenging Activity (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC). Both of the TPC and FRAP assays showed that seaweed from Semporna, Sabah significantly (p<0.05) had higher antioxidant activities compared to Langkawi, Kedah one (Semporna's seaweed: 73.25 mg GAE/100g and 16.94 µmol TE/100g, Langkawi's seaweed: 54.35 mg GAE/100g and 10.01 µmol TE/100 g). However, the seaweed from Langkawi (60.93 µmol TE/100g) show higher TEAC value compared to seaweed from Semporna (36.36 µmol TE/100g) but for DPPH assay there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the samples. Pearson coefficient correlation test, showed that there was a positive correlation (p<0.01) between TPC and antioxidant activity (FRAP assay) (r=0.980) and thus it can be concluded that the phenolic compounds was a contributor of the antioxidant activity in Kappaphycus alvarezii.
Sun, Lijun; Zhang, Jianbao; Lu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Liyu; Zhang, Yali
Persimmon leaves are commonly consumed as beverages, but are also used as a popular folk medicine in China. The purpose of this work is to assess the antioxidant activity of an extract of total flavonoids from persimmon leaves (TFPL). The effect of TFPL on total antioxidant activity, reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH()) radical scavenging, superoxide anion (()O(2)(-)) radical scavenging, hydroxyl (OH()) radical scavenging and metal chelating activities was examined. We found that TFPL possesses considerable amounts of flavonoids (192μg catechin equivalent/g of extract). The effect of this extract in total antioxidant activity, scavenging activity of superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical, reducing power and iron chelating activity was significantly better than that of rutin. However, the effect of TFPL in free radical scavenging of DPPH() was significantly not as good as than rutin. In addition, TFPL significantly decreased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while increasing the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in MC3T3-E1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, TFPL possess potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. These antioxidant activities could contribute, at least in part, to the traditionally claimed therapeutic benefits of persimmon leaves.
de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria
The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power.
Xie, Yinghua; Zheng, Yunxia; Dai, Xiling; Wang, Quanxi; Cao, Jianguo; Xiao, Jianbo
The seasonal dynamics of the total flavonoid contents in various parts of Dryopteris erythrosora, a traditional Chinese medicinal fern, and their antioxidant activity were investigated. The total flavonoids content in various parts of D. erythrosora showed an obvious seasonal dynamic change. The total flavonoid contents in stems (from 4.3% to 12.5%) were much higher than that in leaves with an average content of 2.01%. In spring, the total flavonoid contents in stems were relatively low, but increased rapidly from summer to winter. However, the seasonal dynamics of total flavonoid contents in leaves showed different model. The total flavonoid contents in the stems showed a negative correlation with that in the leaves from January to July. The correlation coefficient of about -0.7 was obtained. The antioxidant activity of the extracts also altered in proportion to the change of total flavonoid contents. In general, the extracts from stems always showed highest antioxidant potentials and it was suggested that the stems can be used as crude medicine.
Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Manthey, John A; Luzio, Gary; Talcott, Stephen T; Goodner, Kevin; Baldwin, Elizabeth A
Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey sapote, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya, and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), total dietary fiber (TDF), and pectin. ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging activity) assays were used to determine antioxidant activity. The TSP, ORAC, and DPPH ranged from 205.4 to 2316.7 g gallic acid equiv/g puree, <0.1 to 16.7 micromol Trolox equiv/g puree, and 2.1 to 620.2 microg gallic acid equiv/g puree, respectively. The TAA, TDF, and pectin ranged from 7.5 to 188.8 mg/100 g, 0.9 to 7.2 g/100 g, and 0.20 to 1.04 g/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant activities, TSP, TAA, TDF, and pectin were influenced by cultivar (papaya, guava, and dragon fruit) and ripening stage (papaya and/or mango). Antioxidant activity showed high correlations with levels of TSP compounds (r = 0.96) but low correlations with levels of ascorbic acid (r = 0.35 and 0.23 for ORAC and DPPH data, respectively). The antioxidant activities evaluated by both ORAC and DPPH showed similar trends where red guava and carambola exhibited the highest and sapodilla and green papaya exhibited the lowest levels. Guava and mamey sapote exhibited the highest TDF and pectin levels. Many of the tropical fruits were shown to contain an abundance of hydrolyzable tannins, ellagic acid conjugates, and flavone glycosides. Preliminary descriptions are given of the phenols in red/white pitaya (dragonfruit), lychee, and mamey sapote, these fruit being thus far uncharacterized in the literature.
Ramaiya, Shiamala Devi; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah
This study focused on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaves and stems of Passiflora quadrangularis, P. maliformis, and P. edulis extracted using three solvents: petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The maximum extraction yields of antioxidant components from the leaves and stems were isolated using methanol extracts of P. edulis (24.28%) and P. quadrangularis (9.76%), respectively. Among the leaf extracts, the methanol extract of P. maliformis had the significantly highest TPC and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas among the stem extracts, the methanol extract of P. quadrangularis showed the highest phenolic amount and possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antibacterial properties of the Passiflora species were tested using the disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria. The largest inhibition zone was observed for the methanol extract of P. maliformis against B. subtilis. Generally, extracts from the Passiflora species exhibit distinct inhibition against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the generated biplot, three clusters of bacteria were designated according to their performance towards the tested extracts. The present study revealed that methanol extracts of the Passiflora contain constituents with significant phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses.
Ramaiya, Shiamala Devi; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah
This study focused on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaves and stems of Passiflora quadrangularis, P. maliformis, and P. edulis extracted using three solvents: petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The maximum extraction yields of antioxidant components from the leaves and stems were isolated using methanol extracts of P. edulis (24.28%) and P. quadrangularis (9.76%), respectively. Among the leaf extracts, the methanol extract of P. maliformis had the significantly highest TPC and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas among the stem extracts, the methanol extract of P. quadrangularis showed the highest phenolic amount and possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antibacterial properties of the Passiflora species were tested using the disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria. The largest inhibition zone was observed for the methanol extract of P. maliformis against B. subtilis. Generally, extracts from the Passiflora species exhibit distinct inhibition against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the generated biplot, three clusters of bacteria were designated according to their performance towards the tested extracts. The present study revealed that methanol extracts of the Passiflora contain constituents with significant phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses. PMID:25028673
Avinash, S S; Anitha, M; Vinodchandran; Rao, Gayathri M; Sudha, K; Shetty, Beena V
The present study was designed to assess the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and percent hemolysis (that indirectly indicates the degree of membrane damage secondary to lipid peroxidation) in colorectal carcinoma. Glutathione (GSH), total thiols and albumin were measured to determine the antioxidant status. Considering the dynamic interaction between various antioxidants in the body, we measured the total antioxidant activity (AOA). Globulin was measured to assess the inflammatory response secondary to oxidative stress. Investigations were conducted in 45 cases of recently diagnosed primary colorectal adenocarcinoma. As control, 45 age and sex matched healthy persons were chosen. GSH was estimated in whole blood, percent hemolysis in RBC suspension and other parameters in plasma. We observed a very high significant increase (P<0.001) in AOPP, percent hemolysis and a highly significant increase (P<0.01) in globulin in colorectal carcinoma. We observed a very high significant decrease (P<0.001) in whole blood GSH, total thiols, albumin, AOA and a significant decrease (P<0.05) in plasma GSH in colorectal carcinoma. A very high significant negative correlation between percent hemolysis and AOA and an apparent negative correlation between total thiols and AOPP was seen in colorectal carcinoma. This demonstrated oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant status and secondary inflammatory response in colorectal carcinoma.
Yeh, Chi-Tai; Yen, Gow-Chin
Epidemiology studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Induction of cellular phase II detoxifying enzymes is associated with cancer preventive potential. Phenolsulfotransferases (PSTs) are traditionally known as phase II drug-metabolizing or detoxifying enzymes that facilitate the removal of drugs and other xenobiotic compounds. Phenolic acids are known to increase the activities of PSTs. In the present study, human HepG2 cells were used as model to investigate the influence of twenty vegetables on human PST activity and to evaluate the relationships to their antioxidant activity and total phenolics content. The result showed that PST-P activity was significantly (p < 0.01) induced by asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower, celery and eggplant, whereas PST-M activity was induced by asparagus, broccoli, carrot, eggplant and potato at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. The vegetable extracts that induced both forms of PSTs activities were found to have higher antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The major polyphenols in broccoli, the most potential inducer in both forms of PSTs activities, was antioxidant phenolic acids. HPLC retention times and standard spiked indicated the presence of gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, gentisic acid and ferulic acid in broccoli. The overall effect of vegetables tested on the activity of PST-P was well correlated to their ORAC value and total phenolics content (r= 0.82, p < 0.05 and r = 0.78, p < 0.05). These results imply that vegetables have a capability of inducing PST activity, and the PST induction may be possibly ascribed to antioxidant phenolic acids in vegetable extracts.
Srivastava, Upma; Ojha, Swati; Tripathi, N N; Singh, Pooja
In vitro antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was investigated by disc diffusion method against two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum showed highest antibacterial activity. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram negative. Antioxidant activities were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical cation decolourization assay while Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. In DPPH assay, highest antioxidant activity was observed in 0. basilicum oil followed by Azeratum conyzoides, A. marmelos and C. citratus, with percent inhibition and IC50 value ranging from 66.11-71.93% and 14.10-17.92 µl ml(-1) respectively. In ABTS assay, similar results were obtained but with higher percent inhibition which ranged from 67.48-76.23% and lower IC50 value (12.12-17.21 µ ml(-1)). Moreover, radical scavenging activity of essential oils was lower than that observed for the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. The total phenolic content of the essential oils as GAE in mg 100 µl(-1) of EO was found to be highest in O. basilicum (0.406) oil followed byA. conyzoides (0.322), A. marmelos (0.238) and C. citratus (0.231). The results provide evidence that the oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum can be further commended for treatment of infections caused by these bacterial pathogens and are potential source of natural antioxidants having appreciable amount of total phenolic content.
Formagio, Anelise Samara Nazari; Volobuff, Carla Roberta Ferreira; Santiago, Matheus; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Zefa Valdevina
The antioxidant activity of Psychotria carthagenensis, P. leiocarpa, P. capillacea and P. deflexa (Rubiaceae) extracts were investigated, and the concentrations of total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and flavonols were determined. The chemical compositions of the extracts were investigated using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/PAD) method. We used 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), β-Carotene bleaching and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cations to determine antioxidant activity. The ability to scavenge radical was measured in these experiments by the discoloration of the solution. Concentrations of constituents were measured spectrophotometrically. P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, in the DPPH test, β-carotene bleaching and ABTS system. The highest phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin and flavonol concentration was found in P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea extracts. HPLC-PDA analysis of P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea revealed hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid). This is the first report on the antioxidant properties and constituent analysis of these Psychotria extracts. PMID:26785238
Goodarzi, Saeid; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Yassa, Narguess; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tofighi, Zahra
Objective(s): Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. Results: The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. Conclusion: The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae. PMID:27081460
Barnes, Nicholas M.; Wawer, Iwona; Paradowska, Katarzyna
Geissospermum species are medically important plants due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant ability and antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of infusions, tinctures, and ethanolic extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum barks in relation to the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. Seven samples of barks were collected in various regions of Peruvian Amazonia. We found that the amount of total phenolics in the studied products varied from 212.40 ± 0.69 to 1253.92 ± 11.20 mg GAE/kg. In our study there is a correlation (R2 = 0.7947) between the results of antioxidants assays: FRAP and ORAC for tinctures, infusions, and ethanolic extracts of G. reticulatum barks. We have also observed antiproliferative activities of the ethanolic extracts on normal T-cells. These extracts have caused death on malignant cell lines (THP-1 and HL-60) and this data correlates well with their antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC method. Interestingly, the highest concentration of the ethanolic extract was not toxic in the zebrafish embryo developmental assay. Our results indicate that G. reticulatum is rich in antioxidants and have cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties. The data suggests potential immunosuppressive role of the extracts. This is the first study presenting the results of chemical and biological analysis of multiple preparations from G. reticulatum. PMID:27446507
Background Alpinia pahangensis, a wild ginger distributed in the lowlands of Pahang, Malaysia, is used by the locals to treat flatulence. In this study, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the crude aqueous methanol and fractionated extracts of Alpinia pahangensis against five different cancer and one normal cell lines were investigated. The total phenolic content of each extract and its fractions were also quantified. This is the first report on the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Alpinia pahangensis extract. Methods In the current study, the crude methanol and fractionated extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis were investigated for their antioxidant activity using four different assays namely, the DPPH scavenging activity, superoxide anion scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and reducing power assays whilst their phenolic contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu’s method. In vitro neutral red cytotoxicity assay was employed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity against five different cancer cell lines, colon cancer (HCT 116 and HT-29), cervical cancer (Ca Ski), breast cancer (MCF7) and lung cancer (A549) cell lines, and one normal cell line (MRC-5). The extract that showed high cytotoxic activity was further investigated for its chemical constituents by GC-MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) analysis. Results The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging (0.35 ± 0.094 mg/ml) and SOD activities (51.77 ± 4.9%) whilst the methanol extract showed the highest reducing power and also the strongest antioxidant activity in the β-carotene bleaching assays in comparison to other fractions. The highest phenolic content was found in the ethyl acetate fraction, followed by the crude methanol extract, hexane and water fractions. The results showed a positive correlation between total phenolic content with DPPH radical scavenging capacities and SOD activities. The hexane fraction showed potent cytotoxic
Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, Letícia; Pereira, José Alberto
The total phenols content and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were studied in walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks aqueous extracts of five different cultivars (Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne). Total phenols content was determined by colorimetric assay and their amount ranged from 32.61 mg/g of GAE (cv. Mellanaise) to 74.08 mg/g of GAE t (cv. Franquette). The antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts was assessed through reducing power assay, scavenging effects on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. A concentration-dependent antioxidative capacity was verified in reducing power and DPPH assays, with EC50 values lower than 1 mg/mL for all the tested extracts. The antimicrobial capacity was screened against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and fungi. All the extracts inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria, being Staphylococcus aureus the most susceptible one with MIC of 0.1 mg/mL for all the extracts. The results obtained indicate that walnut green husks may become important in the obtainment of a noticeable source of compounds with health protective potential and antimicrobial activity.
Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW) and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional) and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional). Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC). Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22762349
Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Aslam, Maryam; Ijaz, Sidra
The present work explores antimutagenic and antioxidant potential as well as total phenolics of aqueous and acidified methanol extractable components from clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) seed. The magnitude of antimutagenic activity of clove seed extracts (CSE) against two mutant bacterial strains: S. typhimurium TA98 and S. typhimurium TA100 (Ames bacterial test) ranged from 34.11-79.74%. Antioxidant activity in terms of measurement of DPPH radical scavenging capacity and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation was noted to be 71.16-94.58% and 54.96-86.89%, respectively. CSE also exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics with contribution between 22.80 and 115.33 GAE mg/100g. A strong correlation between total phenolics and tested biological activities were recorded. The results of this study advocate that clove seed can be explored as a viable source of bioactives for the development of chemotherapeutic drugs against cancer in addition to acting as nutraceutical and functional food ingredient.
Kurzawa, Marzanna; Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Szłyk, Edward
Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content and selected phytochemicals (alkaloids and andrographolides) were determined in Andrographis paniculata and in dietary supplements containing this plant. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH procedures and ranged from 503.36 to 6164.09μmol TE/100g d.m. depending on methods, part of plant and kind of dietary supplement. The total phenolics (175.13-1723.79mg GAE/100g) and andrographolides content (19.44-85.13mg/g) in the studied samples were correlated with antioxidant activities determined by CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH (r>0.95, p<0.05 level). Purine alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and indole alkaloids: harmine, harmane, harmol, yohimbine, brucine and strychnine were detected in the studied samples by different chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS). The total alkaloids content in APs-roots and APs-leaves varies from 50.71±0.36mg/g d.m. to 78.71±0.48mg/g d.m., respectively, whereas for dietary supplements (Pn and DK) TAC was found between 19.52±0.15mg/g and 22.18±0.15mg/g d.m.. The highest concentration of andrographolides was found in A. paniculata leaves, whereas the lowest in dietary supplement Pn. Moreover principal component analysis, cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA follow by Duncan's tests were also performed.
Conde-Hernández, Lilia A; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Á
Extracts from fresh and dried samples of Mexican pepperleaf (Piper auritum Kunth) and "papalo" (Porophyllum ruderale) were obtained using a stirring or an ultrasound extraction system with five types of solvents (water, 50:50% v/v ethanol:water, 70:30% v/v ethanol:water, 85:15% v/v ethanol:1.5N HCl, and ethanol). Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated with the phenol Folin Ciocalteu reagent and the ABTS method, respectively. Total phenolic compounds (PC), trolox (T), and ascorbic acid (AA), in the two herbs, were in the range of 6.79-68.03mg of galic acid (GA)/g dry solids (d.s.), 4.88-64.99mg of T/gd.s., and 5.31-49.84mgAA/gd.s., respectively. Extracts from fresh "papalo", using ultrasound as the extraction system, had the highest amount of total phenolic compounds. The fresh pepperleaf extract, obtained using ultrasound as the extraction method contained the highest amount of antioxidant activity.
Gursoy, Nevcihan; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Cengiz, Mustafa; Solak, M Halil
Seven Morchella species were analyzed for their antioxidant activities in different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, chelating effect and scavenging effect (%) on the stable ABTS*(+), in addition to their heavy metals, total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid system, the most active mushrooms were M. esculenta var. umbrina and M.angusticeps. In the case of DPPH, methanol extract of M. conica showed high antioxidant activity. The reducing power of the methanol extracts of mushrooms increased with concentration. Chelating capacity of the extracts was also increased with the concentration. On the other hand, in 40 microg ml(-1) concentration, methanol extract of M. conica, exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (78.66+/-2.07%) when reacted with the ABTS*(+) radical. Amounts of seven elements (Cu, Mn, Co, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Mg) and five heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Al) were also determined in all species. M. conica was found to have the highest phenolic content among the samples. Flavonoid content of M. rotunda was also found superior (0.59+/-0.01 microg QEs/mg extract).
Jugran, Arun K; Bahukhandi, Amit; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer S; Nandi, Shyamal K
The changes in total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity were assessed in 25 populations of Valeriana jatamansi sampled from 1200 to 2775 m asl and four habitat types of Uttarakhand, West Himalaya. Significant (p < 0.05) variations in total phenolics, flavonoids, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity in aerial and root portions and across the populations were observed. Antioxidant activity measured by three in vitro antioxidant assays, i.e., 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picryylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, showed significant (p < 0.05) differences across the populations. However, no clear pattern was found in phytochemicals across the altitudinal range. Among habitat types, (pine, oak, mixed forest, and grassy land), variation in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity were observed. Equal class ranking, neighbor-joining cluster analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) identified Talwari, Jaberkhet, Manjkhali, and Khirshu populations as promising sources with higher phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. The results recommended that the identified populations with higher value of phytochemicals and antioxidants can be utilized for mass multiplication and breeding program to meet the domestic as well as commercial demand.
Wang, Xu; Xie, Kelin; Zhuang, Haining; Ye, Ran; Fang, Zhongxiang; Feng, Tao
The volatile compounds in gingko wine, a novel functional wine, were extracted by head-space solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with odor activity value (OAV) and relative odor contribution (ROC) analyses. In addition, the total polyphenolic content of gingko wine was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Fifty-eight compounds were tentatively identified, including 13 esters, 10 alcohols, 11 acids, 12 carbonyl compounds, 2 lactones, 2 phenols, and 8 hydrocarbons. Ethyl hexanoate, ethyl pentanoate, nonanal, ethyl butyrate and ethyl heptanoate were the major contributors to the gingko wine aroma based on the results of OAV and ROC. The total phenols content of the gingko wine was 456 mg/L gallic acid equivalents, and its antioxidant capacity was higher than those of typical Chinese liquors analyzed in this paper.
Bhagyawant, S S; Gupta, N; Shrivastava, N
The present work describes radiation—induced effects on seed composition vis—à—vis total seed proteins, antioxidant levels and protein profiling employing two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D—GE) in kabuli and desi chickpea varities. Seeds were exposed to the radiation doses of 1,2,3,4 and 5 kGy. The total protein concentrations decreased and antioxidant levels were increased with increasing dose compared to control seed samples. Radiation induced effects were dose dependent to these seed parameters while it showed tolerance to 1 kGy dose. Increase in the dose was complimented with increase in antioxidant levels, like 5 kGy enhanced % scavenging activities in all the seed extracts. Precisely, the investigations reflected that the dose range from 2 to 5 kGy was effective for total seed storage proteins, as depicted quantitatively and qualitative 2D—GE means enhance antioxidant activities in vitro.
Niero, G; Penasa, M; Currò, S; Masi, A; Trentin, A R; Cassandro, M; De Marchi, M
In the present study a spectrophotometric method for the determination of total antioxidant activity (TAA) based on ABTS assay was developed and validated on raw milk (RM), whole UHT milk (WUM), partially skimmed UHT milk (SUM), whole pasteurised milk (WM) and partially skimmed pasteurised milk (SM). The most suitable solvent for antioxidant extraction was 80% acetone. Regardless of the type of milk, the coefficient of determination from the linearity test was greater than 0.95. The limit of detection ranged from 0.74 to 6.07μmoll(-1) Trolox equivalents. Repeatability, calculated as relative standard deviation of twenty measurements within a day, and reproducibility, calculated as relative standard deviation of sixty measurements across three days, ranged from 1.24 to 4.04% and from 2.18 to 3.52%, respectively. Preservative added to RM had negligible effects on the TAA of milk. The greatest TAA was measured for SM followed by SUM, RM, WM and WUM.
Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; Bajpai, Vivek K; Shukla, Savita
The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana as a natural antioxidant. The DPPH activity of the extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200 microg/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 36.93-68.76% as compared to ascorbic acid 64.26-82.58%. The IC(50) values of ethanolic extract and ascorbic acid in DPPH radical scavenging assay were obtained to be 93.46 and 26.75 microg/ml, respectively. The ethanolic extract was also found to scavenge the superoxide generated by EDTA/NBT system. Measurement of total phenolic content of the ethanolic extract of S. rebaudiana was achieved using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent containing 61.50 mg/g of phenolic content, which was found significantly higher when compared to reference standard gallic acid. The ethanolic extract also inhibited the hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, superoxide anions with IC(50) values of 93.46, 132.05 and 81.08 microg/ml, respectively. However, the IC(50) values for the standard ascorbic acid were noted to be 26.75, 66.01 and 71.41 microg/ml respectively. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that S. rebaudiana has a significant potential to use as a natural antioxidant agent.
Mihalev, Kiril; Bečić, Ivana; Polović, Ivana; Georgieva, Mariya; Djaković, Senka; Kurtanjek, Želimir
Summary This study evaluates the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and environmentally friendly technique for validation and prediction of the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) indices (as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, inhibition time (IT) of the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction, and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC)) of berry fruit extracts. The analysed berry samples originated from Croatia (blackberries, wild blueberries, raspberries, red currants and strawberries) and Bulgaria (wild blueberries, raspberries and strawberries). Principal component analysis and partial least squares (PLS) regression were used from the set of chemometric tools in distinguishing and validating the measured berry fruit extract. ANOVA and PCA showed no significant impact of the origin and freshness of the samples. PLS models were developed to validate the relationship of NIR spectra with TPC and AOA of berry fruits. Representativeness of the models was expressed with the R2 and the ratio of performance to deviation. Calculated R2 values were above 0.84 and the ratio of performance to deviation was between 1.8 and 3.1, indicating adequacy of the PLS models. PMID:27904414
Sumczynski, Daniela; Bubelova, Zuzana; Sneyd, Jan; Erb-Weber, Susanne; Mlcek, Jiri
The five different types of muesli composed of non-traditional wheat flakes were prepared and analysed. Dickkopf wheat, red wheat, kamut and spelt were compared with commercial wheat flakes. Wheat flakes and muesli were assessed for basic analyses (dry matter, ash, protein, starch and fat content), total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH assays), crude fibre content and in vitro digestibility. Furthermore, sensory evaluation of muesli involving scale and ranking preference tests was provided. Flakes and muesli made from Dickkopf wheat and red wheat showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content and, consequently, the highest antioxidant activity. Moreover, these cereals were high in crude fibre and thus were less digestible. On the other hand, the lowest total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity were determined in commercial flakes and muesli produced from these flakes. The flakes made from non-traditional wheat were sensorially comparable to commercial products.
Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the leaves as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were higher than those of the rhizomes and stems. On the other hand, the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves. At low concentration the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in both varieties were significantly higher than or comparable to those of the young rhizomes. Halia Bara had higher antioxidant activities as well as total contents of phenolic and flavonoid in comparison with Halia Bentong. This study validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and young rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and the positive relationship between total phenolics content and antioxidant activities in Zingiber officinale.
Gogia, N; Gongadze, M; Bukia, Z; Esaiashvili, M; Chkhikvishvili, I
Many studies have shown that biologically active components in plant-based foods, particularly phytochemicals, have important potential to modulate many processes in the development of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, pulmonary disorders, Alzheimer's disease, and other degenerative diseases. The aim of the our study was to provide an updated understanding and analysis of various apple sorts growing in Georgia by the compounds with a particular focus on their potential role(s) in disease risk and general human health. The Various sorts (Kekhura, Banany, Golden, Starty, Chempion, Aidaridy, Brotsky, Achabety, Sinapy, Jonagold and Antonovka,) of apples were investigated. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were studied in peel and flesh extracts and were measured by slightly modified method of Folin-Denis using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and - 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method in those varieties of apples. Summarizing our data, we can conclude that, in accordance with the benefit to human health, the most prominent varieties of apples - Kekhura. It is rich with phenolic compounds, and also characterized by high scavenging activity. Also has good features Antonovka and Achabety. It should be noted that apple peel more helpful than the flesh, and therefore during consumption peeling of apples is unacceptable in terms of its usefulness.
Objective To compare in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Methods The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the ability of the ginger extracts to scavenge ABTS°+ free radical. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by using the agar incorporation method. Results Ginger extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity and dose-depend effect. In general, oleoresin showed higher antioxidant activity [IC50=(1.820±0.034) mg/mL] when compared to the essential oil [IC50=(110.14±8.44) mg/mL]. In terms of antimicrobial activity, ginger compounds were more effective against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and less effective against Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus niger was least, whereas, Penicillium spp. was higher sensitive to the ginger extracts; minimal inhibitory concentrations of the oleoresin and essential oil were 2 mg/mL and 869.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the studied extracts showed an important antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusions The study confirms the wide application of ginger oleoresin and essential oil in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal diseases.
Zhen, Jing; Villani, Thomas S; Guo, Yue; Qi, Yadong; Chin, Kit; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli
A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous separation, and determination of natural compounds including phenolic acids and flavonoids in the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa. By analyzing the UV and MS data, and comparison with authenticated standards, 10 polyphenols including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides were identified together with 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. Major constituents in the leaves of 25 different populations from worldwide accessions were quantified and compared with each other. The total phenolic content of each accession was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, ranging from 18.98 ± 2.7 to 29.9 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, varying from 17.5 to 152.5 ± 18.8 μmol Trolox/g. After the treatment of H. sabdariffa leaf extract, the reduction of LPS-induced NO production dose-dependently in RAW 264.7 cell indicates the extract's potential anti-inflammatory activity.
Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun
Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'.
Sreelatha, S; Padma, P R
Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to human against infections and degenerative diseases. Current research is now directed towards natural antioxidants originated from plants due to safe therapeutics. Moringa oleifera is used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide range of various ailments. To understand the mechanism of pharmacological actions, antioxidant properties of the Moringa oleifera leaf extracts were tested in two stages of maturity using standard in vitro models. The successive aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, superoxide, nitric oxide radical and inhibition of lipid per oxidation. The free radical scavenging effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract was comparable with that of the reference antioxidants. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extracts of Moringa oleifera both mature and tender leaves have potent antioxidant activity against free radicals, prevent oxidative damage to major biomolecules and afford significant protection against oxidative damage.
Baek, Song-Eun; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Rho, Dae-Young; Kim, Do-Hoon; Huh, Sun
Objective This study aimed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity (TAA) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the effect of antidepressants on TAA using a novel potentiometric method. Methods Twenty-eight patients with MDD and thirty-one healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The control group comprised 31 healthy individuals matched for gender, drinking and smoking status. We assessed symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We measured TAA using potentiometry. All measurements were made at baseline and four and eight weeks later. Results There was a significant negative correlation between BDI scores and TAA. TAA was significantly lower in the MDD group than in controls. When the MDD group was subdivided into those who showed clinical response to antidepressant therapy (response group) and those who did not (non-response group), only the non-response group showed lower TAA, while the response group showed no significant difference to controls at baseline. After eight weeks of antidepressant treatment, TAA in both the response and non-response groups was similar, and there was no significant difference among the three groups. Conclusion These results suggest that the response to antidepressant treatment in MDD patients might be predicted by measuring TAA. PMID:27081384
Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M; Gonçalves, Berta; Bennett, Richard N; Silva, Ana Paula
In this work the total vitamin C contents (ascorbic acid+dehydroascorbic acid) and antioxidant activity of raw and cooked chestnuts was evaluated. The vitamin C contents of raw chestnuts varied significantly between the different cultivars (cv) studied and it varied from 400mg/kg dry weight (cv Lada) to 693mg/kg dry weight (cv Martaínha). The different cultivars behave differently during the cooking process concerning the loss of vitamin C. A significant decrease in the vitamin C content of the chestnuts was observed, 25-54% for the boiling process and 2-77% for the roasting process. Boiled and roasted chestnuts can be good sources of vitamin C since it may represent 22.4%, 16.2%, 26.8% and 19.4%, respectively, of the recommended dietary intake for an adult man and woman. The cooking process significantly changed the antioxidant activity of the chestnuts. A difference was observed between the cultivars during the cooking processes, concerning the antioxidant activity. For the raw chestnuts the variation in vitamin C content of the chestnuts explains 99% of the antioxidant activity variation but for the roasted and boiled chestnuts this percentage significantly decreases to 51% and 88%, respectively. Although a high antioxidant activity is still present in the cooked chestnuts, the cause for this antioxidant activity is less dependent on the vitamin C content of the chestnuts, probably due to the conversion of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. The increase in gallic acid during the cooking process, presumably transferred from the peels to the fruit, also contributes to the high antioxidant activity observed for the cooked chestnuts.
Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of garlic (Allium sativum) and elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy.
Lu, Xiaonan; Ross, Carolyn F; Powers, Joseph R; Aston, D Eric; Rasco, Barbara A
The total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of garlics from California, Oregon, Washington, and New York were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (400-4000 cm(-1)). The total phenolic content was quantified [Folin-Ciocalteu assay (FC)] and three antioxidant activity assays, 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were employed for reference measurements. Four independent partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were constructed with spectra from 25 extracts and their corresponding FC, DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP with values for 20 additional extracts predicted (R > 0.95). The standard errors of calibration and standard error of cross-validation were <1.45 (TEAC), 0.36 (FRAP), and 0.33 μmol Trolox/g FW (DPPH) and 0.55 mg gallic acid/g FW (FC). Cluster and dendrogram analyses could segregate garlic grown at different locations. Hydroxyl and phenolic functional groups most closely correlated with garlic antioxidant activity.
Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah
Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.
Stahl, L; Miller, K B; Apgar, J; Sweigart, D S; Stuart, D A; McHale, N; Ou, B; Kondo, M; Hurst, W J
Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in the chocolate frosting, hot cocoa drink, and chocolate cookies. Losses were greatest in the chocolate cake with recoveries ranging from 5% for epicatechin to 54% for antioxidant activity. The causes of losses in baked chocolate cakes were investigated by exchanging baking soda with baking powder or combinations of the 2 leavening agents. Use of baking soda as a leavening agent was associated with increased pH and darkening color of cakes. Losses of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins were associated with an increased extractable pH of the baked cakes. Chocolate cakes made with baking powder for leavening resulted in an average extractable pH of 6.2 with essentially complete retention of antioxidant activity and flavanol content, but with reduced cake heights and lighter cake color. Commercially available chocolate cake mixes had final pHs above 8.3 and contained no detectable monomeric flavanols after baking. These results suggest that baking soda causes an increase in pH and subsequent destruction of flavanol compounds and antioxidant activity. Use of an appropriate leavening agent to moderate the final cake pH to approximately 7.25 or less results in both good leavening and preservation of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins.
Prakash, Dhan; Suri, Samiksha; Upadhyay, Garima; Singh, Brahma N
Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources, extracts of some plants were studied for their total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA) by different methods at multiple concentrations followed by specific phenolic composition. The amount of TPC varied from 2.8 mg/g (Withania somnifera, roots) to 107.8 mg/g (Cassia fistula, fruits) and the AOA from 24.2% (Curcuma zeoderia, leaves) to 96.9% (Trewia nudiflora, leaves). Bark of Azadirachta indica, fruits of C. fistula, and leaves and fruits of T. nudiflora were found to have high TPC (89.8- 107.8 mg/g) and high AOA (84.8-96.9%). Promising plant parts were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP), where the bark of A. indica, Casuarina equisetifolia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum, flowers of Indigofera tinctoria, fruits of Lawsonia inermis, and fruits and leaves of T. nudiflora showed a very low inhibitory concentration value ranging from 0.14 to 0.26 mg/ml, efficiency concentration value from 6.1 to 11.6 mg/mg DPPH and reducing power value from 0.6 to 2.8 ascorbic acid equivalents (ASE/ml), and reasonably high values (8.5 -16.2) of anti-radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA. They also showed better inhibition of hydroxyl radical induced deoxyribose degradation than that of reference standard. Fruits of C. fistula with high phenols (107.8 mg/g) showed poor reducing power (5.9 ASE/ml) and ARP (4.7); in contrast, the bark of C. equisetifolia and fruits of L. inermis were with comparatively lower phenols (72.1 and 75.8 mg/g) but exhibited good ARP (16.2 and 14.4) and reducing power (0.7 and 0.6 ASE/ ml, respectively). Some of the plants were also found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton's reaction. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through
Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani
Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500
Gupta, Sajal; Choi, Audrey; Yu, Hope Y.; Czerniak, Suzanne M.; Holick, Emily A.; Paolella, Louis J.; Agarwal, Ashok; Combelles, Catherine M.H.
Follicular fluid is an important environment for oocyte development, yet current knowledge regarding its in vivo oxidant and antioxidant levels remains limited. Examining follicular fluid oxidants and antioxidants will improve understanding of their changes in vivo and contribute to optimization of in vitro maturation conditions. The aim of our study was to consider select markers, namely catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in follicular fluid samples (n=503) originating from bovine antral follicles. We measured the dynamic changes in two relevant antioxidant measures and one reactive oxygen species (ROS) through stages of bovine follicular development and the estrous cycle. CAT activity and H2O2 levels decreased significantly as follicle size increased, while TAC increased significantly as follicle size increased. Lower TAC and higher H2O2 in small follicles suggest increased ROS in the initial stages of folliculogenesis. Because CAT levels are highest in follicular fluid of small follicles in the setting of an overall low TAC, CAT may represent a dominant antioxidant defense in the initial stages of folliculogenesis. Future studies must focus on other reactive oxygen species and their various scavenger types during antral folliculogenesis. PMID:21635816
Mohammadi, A.; Sani, T. Ahmadzadeh; Ameri, A. A.; Imani, M.; Golmakani, E.; Kamali, H.
Background: The genus Artemisia belonging to the Compositae (Asteraceae) family and many traditional uses from the Artemisia species were reported. Artemisia absinthium is one of the species in this genus and commonly used in the food industry in the preparation of aperitifs, bitters, and spirits. Objective: Evaluation of the effect of different harvesting stages on the composition of essential oil and antioxidant capacity of A. absinthium. Materials and Methods: Essential oils from the aerial parts of A. absinthium, collected in three stages (preflowering, flowering, and after-flowering) from plants grown in the North Khorasan province of Iran were obtained by steam distillation and the chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were determined by 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: Analysis of the isolated oils revealed the presence of 44 compounds, mainly alpha-pinene, sabinene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, p-cymene and chamazulene. Alpha-phellandrene, and chamazulene were major compounds in preflowering stage, but beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene were major in flowering and past-flowering stages. Flowering stage had highest yield and after flowering stage had lowest yield. The essential oil of preflowering stage had the highest amount of antioxidant compound (chamazulene). Preflowering stage with highest amount of phenolic compounds had the strongest antioxidant activity with the lowest amount of EC50. Conclusion: This study showed that the harvesting stage had significant effects on chemical composition and antioxidant properties of essential oils, and chamazulene is main compound for antioxidant activity in A. absinthium. PMID:26692746
Castro-López, C; Sánchez-Alejo, E J; Saucedo-Pompa, S; Rojas, R; Aranda-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Avila, G C G
Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C) during the product shelf-life (20 days) was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH• assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL(-1)), total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL(-1)), and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL(-1)); while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL(-1)). The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.
Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials.
Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials. PMID:26609308
Jalal, Tara Kamal; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam; Momand, Lailuma; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Abdull Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Nor Omar, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds.
Politi, Flávio A. S.; de Mello, João C. P.; Migliato, Ketylin F.; Nepomuceno, Andréa L. A.; Moreira, Raquel R. D.; Pietro, Rosemeire C. L. R.
Endopleura uchi is a typical Amazonian tree and its bark is popularly employed in the preparation of teas against myomas, arthritis, influenza, diarrhea and cancer. In this study, the antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of five different extracts of the bark, selected by their total tannin content, were assessed. The potential antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and the values found were very similar among the extracts and to the standards antioxidants used in the tests. Cytotoxicity analysis in mammalian cells indicated that all the tested extracts exhibited IC50 values higher than the highest concentration used, showing that they do not present a risk when consumed under these conditions. Extract tested against five bacterial strains and one yeast strain did not show satisfactory growth inhibitory activity, and even the extracts that showed some antimicrobial activity were not effective at any dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The results may serve as a reference for subsequent works, since such reference values described in the literature for the bark of E. uchi. PMID:21731469
Olszewska, Monika A
The antioxidant potential of 70% methanolic extracts from the inflorescences, leaves and fruits of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz was evaluated using three in vitro test systems: the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) and the ABTS [2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] free radical scavenging assays, and the AAPH [2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride]-induced [corrected] linoleic acid (LA) peroxidation test. The results were compared with the activity of the extracts obtained from the model antioxidant Sorbus species (Sorbus aucuparia L.), and also with the activity of phenolic standards such as quercetin, Trolox [(+/-)-6-hydroxy-2,2,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid], BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and TBHQ (tert-butylhydroquinone). The radical scavenging capacities of the S. torminalis extracts towards the DPPH radical were in the range of 62.0-244.1 micromolar Trolox equivalents/g d.w. of plant material. They were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with the results of the ABTS test (r = 0.8535), and with the chain-breaking activities determined in the LA-peroxidation test (r = 0.9831). In comparison with the synthetic standards, the free radical scavenging capacity of the Sorbus extracts was remarkably higher than their chain-breaking activity. Both kinds of antioxidant effects of the extracts were significantly (R2 > 0.8097, p < 0.05) influenced by the total phenolic content (TPC) as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The plant tissues derived from S. torminalis exhibited lower antioxidant potentials than those of S. aucuparia by a factor of 1.5-3.2, partially due to the lower TPC levels (multiplicity factors of 1.2-1.9). After the original antioxidant capacities of the extracts were recalculated according to the TPC levels, the resulting antioxidant capacities of the phenolic fractions in the S. torminalis extracts were lower than those from S. aucuparia by a factor of 1
Bao, Yan-Fang; Li, Ji-Yu; Zheng, Li-Fang; Li, Hong-Yu
Tibetan medicinal plants have been used for more than 2 000 years. In order to find their differences in antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids between "hot-nature" and "cold-nature" herbs, we investigated the antioxidant activities of 40 Tibetan herbs from Qinghai plateau, with 20 herbs in cold-nature and 20 herbs in hot-nature. Antioxidant capacities were evaluated by the following methods: scavenging ABTS•(+) (2, 2'azinobis-(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), scavenging O2•(-), and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The effects on inhibition of mitochondrion lipid peroxidation were determined by measuring the formation of TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates). Total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH colorimetric methods. Interestingly, the cold-nature herbs displayed higher antioxidant activities than the hot-nature ones, corresponding to nearly three-fold higher total phenolic contents in the cold-nature herbs. Moreover, the antioxidant activities correlated linearly with the levels of total phenolics for both cold-nature and hot-nature herbs, but only with the levels of total flavonoids for the hot-nature herbs. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds, but not the flavonoids, play the major role in antioxidant capacities of the cold-nature herbs. These findings could shed new lights on the study the theory of Tibetan medicine.
Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C
The effects of soaking, boiling and steaming processes on the total phenolic components and antioxidant activity in commonly consumed cool season food legumes (CSFL's), including green pea, yellow pea, chickpea and lentil were investigated. As compared to original unprocessed legumes, all processing steps caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) in all tested CSFL's. All soaking and atmospheric boiling treatments caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). However, pressure boiling and pressure steaming caused significant (p<0.05) increases in ORAC values. Steaming treatments resulted in a greater retention of TPC, DPPH, and ORAC values in all tested CSFL's as compared to boiling treatments. To obtain cooked legumes with similar palatability and firmness, pressure boiling shortened processing time as compared to atmospheric boiling, resulted in insignificant differences in TPC, DPPH for green and yellow pea. However, TPC and DPPH in cooked lentils differed significantly between atmospheric and pressure boiling. As compared to atmospheric processes, pressure processes significantly increased ORAC values in both boiled and steamed CSFL's. Greater TPC, DPPH and ORAC values were detected in boiling water than that in soaking and steaming water. Boiling also caused more solid loss than steaming. Steam processing exhibited several advantages in retaining the integrity of the legume appearance and texture of the cooked product, shortening process time, and greater retention of antioxidant components and activities.
Wan, Pengfei; Sheng, Zunlai; Han, Qiang; Zhao, Yulin; Cheng, Guangdong; Li, Yanhua
Enrichment and purification of total flavonoids from Flos Populi extracts were studied using five macroporous resins. The static tests indicated that NKA-9 resin was appropriate and its adsorption data were well fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. To optimize the separation process, dynamic adsorption and desorption tests were carried out. The optimal adsorption parameters were initial concentrations in sample solution of 7.64mg/mL, pH of 5.0, sample loading amount of 2.3BV, flow rate of 2BV/h, temperature of 25°C. The optimal desorption parameters were deionized water and 20% ethanol each 5BV, then 60% ethanol of 10 BV, flow rate of 2BV/h. After one run treatment with NKA-9 resin, the content of total flavonoids in the product increased from 11.38% to 53.41%, and the recovery yield was 82.24%. The results showed that NKA-9 resin revealed a good ability to enrichment total flavonoids from Flos Populi, and the method can be referenced for the enrichment of total flavonoids from other materials. The antioxidant activities of the purified flavonoids were further evaluated in vitro. It showed that the DPPH radical scavenging increased from 59.46% to 82.63% at different concentrations (0.06-0.14mg/mL). At different concentrations (0.6-1.4mg/mL), the hydroxyl radical scavenging increased from 35.39% to 74.12%. Moreover, the reducing ability and total oxidant capacity appeared to be dose-dependent of flavonoids. It indicated that the purified flavonoids can be used as a source of potential antioxidant.
Mat Taha, Rosna; Banisalam, Behrooz
In the present study the extracts of in vivo and in vitro grown plants as well as callus tissue of red clover were tested for their antioxidant activities, using different extraction solvent and different antioxidant assays. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents as well as extraction yield of the extracts were also investigated to determine their correlation with the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Among all the tested extracts the highest amounts of total phenolic and total flavonoids content were found in methanol extract of in vivo grown plants. The antioxidant activity of tested samples followed the order in vivo plant extract > callus extract > in vitro extract. The highest reducing power, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and chelating power were found in methanol extracts of in vivo grown red clover, while the chloroform fraction of in vivo grown plants showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging compared to the other tested extracts. A significant correlation was found between the antioxidant activity of extracts and their total phenolic and total flavonoid content. According to the findings, the extract of in vitro culture of red clover especially the callus tissue possesses a comparable antioxidant activity to the in vivo cultured plants' extract. PMID:26064936
Perales-Sánchez, Janitzio X K; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; Gómez-Favela, Mario A; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith O; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto
The aim of this study was to optimize the germination conditions of amaranth seeds that would maximize the antioxidant activity (AoxA), total phenolic (TPC), and flavonoid (TFC) contents. To optimize the germination bioprocess, response surface methodology was applied over three response variables (AoxA, TPC, TFC). A central composite rotable experimental design with two factors [germination temperature (GT), 20-45 ºC; germination time (Gt), 14-120 h] in five levels was used; 13 treatments were generated. The amaranth seeds were soaked in distilled water (25 °C/6 h) before germination. The sprouts from each treatment were dried (50 °C/8 h), cooled, and ground to obtain germinated amaranth flours (GAF). The best combination of germination bioprocess variables for producing optimized GAF with the highest AoxA [21.56 mmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g sample, dw], TPC [247.63 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g sample, dw], and TFC [81.39 mg catechin equivalent (CAE)/100 g sample, dw] was GT = 30 ºC/Gt = 78 h. The germination bioprocess increased AoxA, TPC, and TFC in 300-470, 829, and 213%, respectively. The germination is an effective strategy to increase the TPC and TFC of amaranth seeds for enhancing functionality with improved antioxidant activity.
Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa
Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.
Heiras-Palazuelos, Mar J; Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna I; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; López-Valenzuela, José A; Mora-Rochín, Saraid; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Garzón-Tiznado, José A; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc
Chickpeas are rich sources of highly nutritious protein and dietary fibre; the health benefits of consuming legumes such as antioxidant activity (AoxA) could be effective for the expansion of their food uses. The technological properties and antioxidant potential of five pigmented chickpea cultivars were evaluated. Protein content of the grains varied from 24.9 to 27.4 g/100 g sample (dw). The cooking time (CT) of the whole grains ranged from 90.5 to 218.5 min; the lowest CT corresponded to Black ICC3761 cultivar. The total phenolic content (TPC) and AoxA [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value] varied from 1.23 to 1.51 mg GAE/g sample (dw) and from 5011 to 5756 μmol TE/100 g sample (dw), respectively; Red ICC13124 showed the highest ORAC value. The differences in technological properties and AoxA among cultivars could be used in chickpea breeding programmes. Chickpea cultivars could contribute significantly to the management and/or prevention of degenerative diseases associated with free radical damage.
Lam, Yu Shan; Okello, Edward J
The objective of this study was to quantify a number of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus. Ostreatus, and characterize the effects of processing, such as blanching, on these outcomes. Dry matter content was 8%. Lovastatin was not detected in this study. β-glucan content of 23.9% and total polyphenol content of 487.12 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dry matter were obtained in raw P. ostreatus. Antioxidant activities as evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays in raw P. ostreatus were 14.46, 16.51, and 11.21 µmol/g, respectively. Blanching did not significantly affect β-glucan content but caused significant decrease in dry matter content, polyphenol content, and antioxidant activities. Mushroom rolls produced from blanched mushrooms and blanching water contained significantly higher amounts of β-glucan, total polyphenol content, and FRAP antioxidant activity compared to blanched mushrooms. In conclusion, P. ostreatus is a good source for β-glucan, dietary polyphenols, and antioxidants. Although the blanching process could affect these properties, re-addition of the blanching water during the production process of mushroom rolls could potentially recover these properties and is therefore recommended.
Comparison of different CCD detectors and chemometrics for predicting total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit using visible and near infrared hyperspectral imaging technique.
Huang, Lingxia; Zhou, Yibin; Meng, Liuwei; Wu, Di; He, Yong
This study investigated the potential of using hyperspectral imaging technique in tandem with chemometrics for rapid and invasive predicting total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit. Two calibration methods of partial least square regression and least-squares support vector machines and three wavelength selection algorithms of successive projections algorithm, uninformation variable elimination, and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling were applied. The best prediction models for the analysis of total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity had Rval(2) of 0.959 and 0.995 respectively. The performances of two CCD detectors named silicon (Si) and indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) were compared. The results show that hyperspectral imaging has a great potential for the assessment of total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit.
Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough
The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions.
Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar
Tomatoes are one of the most consumed crops in the whole world because of their versatile importance in dietary food as well as many industrial applications. They are also a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids. In the present study, we described a method to produce these compounds from hairy roots of tomato (THRs). Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 was used to induce hairy roots in the tomato explants. The Ri T-DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the rolC gene. Biomass accumulation of hairy root lines was 1.7-3.7-fold higher compared to in vitro grown roots. Moreover, THRs efficiently produced several phenolic compounds, such as rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, colorogenic acid, and caffeic acid. Gallic acid [34.02 μg/g of dry weight (DW)] and rutin (20.26 μg/g of DW) were the major phenolic acid and flavonoid produced by THRs, respectively. The activities of reactive oxygen species enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) were quantified. The activity of catalase in THRs was 0.97 ± 0.03 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1), which was 1.22-fold (0.79 ± 0.09 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) and 1.59-fold (0.61 ± 0.06 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) higher than field grown and in vitro grown roots, respectively. At 100 μL/g concentration, the phenolic compound extract caused 53.34 and 40.00% mortality against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura, respectively, after 6 days. Surviving larvae of H. armigera and S. litura on the phenolic compound extract after 6 days showed 85.43 and 86.90% growth retardation, respectively.
Bramati, Lorenzo; Aquilano, Francesca; Pietta, Piergiorgio
Unfermented rooibos originates from the leaves and the stems of the indigenous South African plant, Aspalathus linearis, and it has been reported to have a higher content of flavonoids compared to that of fermented rooibos. The HPLC/UV method developed in our laboratory for the analysis of the fermented rooibos was applied to the quantitative characterization of the major flavonoids present in the unfermented rooibos. Main compounds determined were aspalathin (49.92 +/- 0.80 mg/g), isoorientin (3.57 +/- 0.18 mg/g), orientin (2.336 +/- 0. 049 mg/g), and rutin (1.69 +/- 0.14 mg/g), followed in order by isovitexin, vitexin, isoquercitrin and hyperoside, quercetin, luteolin and chrysoeryol. The identity of detected flavonoids was confirmed by comparing their retention times and UV spectra with those of corresponding standards. The total antioxidant activity (TAA) of the tea infusions was measured by the ABTS*+ radical cation decolorization assay. The TAA of unfermented rooibos (0.8 Trolox meq/g) resulted 2-fold higher than that of the fermented rooibos. When compared with different water infusions of Camellia sinensis (green and black tea), this TAA value was about 50% lower.
The objective of this article was to review the effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Measurement of TAC is appropriate for evaluation of the total antioxidant defenses of blood, cells, and different kinds of tissues and organs. TAC is reduced by alcoholism, smoking, and exposure to radiation, herbicides, carbon monoxide, carbon tetrachloride, lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and other toxic elements. The test is also an important tool in evaluating environmental and occupational exposure. PMID:23554550
Markandan, Shalini; Abdullah, Aminah; Musa, Khalid Hamid; Subramaniam, Vimala; Stockham, Katherine
The Bougainvillea glabra bract was extracted using three ratios of methanolic solvents at 50%, 70% and 100%. In this study, the methanolic extracts of B. glabra bract were evaluated for antioxidant properties and quantification of phenolics and flavanoids. Methanol at 100% was the highest extraction efficiency among three other methanolic with yield value of 38%. The content of phenolics and flavonoids of B. glabra bracts in methanol 100% were 63.92±0.90 GAE mg/100g and 249.53±26.20 QE mg/100g respectively. The antioxidant activity was measured using three different bioassays namely, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP. The results were expressed as mg Trolox equivalent per 100 g where Trolox is a vitamin E analog. Among these methanol extracts, highest antioxidant capacity was observed in the pure methanol concentration. Positive correlation was observed in B. glabra bract between DPPH assay and TPC, r2=1.00. The methanol extract at 100% was rich in polyphenolics, which indicating that the B. glabra bract has the potential to be recommended as a good dietary source of natural antioxidants.
da Silva Medeiros, Niara; Koslowsky Marder, Roberta; Farias Wohlenberg, Mariane; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline
Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings. PMID:26649198
da Silva Medeiros, Niara; Koslowsky Marder, Roberta; Farias Wohlenberg, Mariane; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline
Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.
Tohidi, Behnaz; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Arzani, Ahmad
In this study, the essential oil (EO) composition, flavonoid and phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of fourteen Thymus accessions belonging to ten species were evaluated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of 38 compounds with the major constituents including thymol (12.4-79.74%), carvacrol (4.37-42.14%), geraniol (0.3-22.44%), and p-cymene (0.8-12.86%). Cluster analysis identified three groups of high thymol, geraniol/linalool, and high carvacrol. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in T. daenensis-1 (70.6mg tannic acid equivalents (TAE) g(-1) DW) and T. vulgaris (8.55mg quercetin equivalents (QE) g(-1) DW), respectively. The antioxidant activities of the samples were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay. The results demonstrated that T. daenensis-3 (IC50=273.36), T. vulgaris (IC50=289.3), and T. fedtschenkoi-3 (IC50=339.22) possessed higher antioxidant activities than the others. Finally, the Thymus species with high bioactive compounds may be recommended for further food applications.
Preethi, B P; Reshma, Dodawad; Anand, Pyati
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the physicochemical properties of saliva such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium level, total protein and total antioxidant levels in caries free and caries active children. The present study included one hundred and twenty healthy children who were divided into two groups; group I and group II comprising of age groups 7-10 and 11-14 years, respectively. Both the groups were then sub-divided equally according to gender. They were further divided into caries free and caries active with 15 children in each group. Unstimulated saliva was collected by suction method and flow rates were determined. The samples were then analyzed for pH, buffering capacity, total protein, calcium and total antioxidant capacity. The data was statistically analyzed using student t test (unpaired). The results revealed that when all these parameters were compared among the caries free and caries active children, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity were slightly reduced in caries active children, but total protein and total antioxidant capacity of saliva increased significantly in caries active children and the total calcium decreased significantly in caries active children. Within the limitation of this study, we conclude that, the physicochemical properties of saliva play a major role in the development of caries.
Estupiñan, D.C.; Schwartz, S.J.; Garzón, G.A.
The stability of anthocyanin (ACN) freeze-dried powders from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) as affected by storage, addition of maltodextrin as a carrier agent, and illumination was evaluated in isotonic model beverages. The ethanolic ACN extract was freeze dried with and without maltodextrin DE 20. Isotonic model beverages were colored with freeze-dried ACN powder (FDA), freeze-dried ACN powder with maltodextrin (MFDA), and red nr 40. Beverages were stored in the dark and under the effect of illumination. Half life of the ACNs, changes in color, total phenolics content (TPC), and antioxidant activity were analyzed for 71 d. Addition of maltodextrin and absence of light stabilized the color of beverages and improved ACN and TPC stability during storage. The antioxidant activity of the beverages was higher when they were colored with MFDA and highly correlated with ACN content. There was no correlation between antioxidant activity and TPC. It is concluded that addition of maltodextrin DE 20 as a carrier agent during freeze-drying improves the color and stability of nutraceutical antioxidants present in Andes berry extract. This suggests a protective enclosing of ACNs within a maltodextrin matrix with a resulting powder that could serve as a supplement or additive to naturally color and to enhance the antioxidant capacity of isotonic beverages. PMID:21535712
Saleh, Livia; Plieth, Christoph
Background A plethora of concurrent cellular activities is mobilised in the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. This response can be quantified by physiological experiments or metabolic profiling. The intention of this work is to reduce the number of metabolic processes studied to a minimum of relevant parameters with a maximum yield of information. Therefore, we inspected 'summary parameters' characteristic for whole classes of antioxidative metabolites and key enzymes. Results Three bioluminescence assays are presented. A horseradish peroxidase-based total antioxidative capacity (TAC) assay is used to probe low molecular weight antioxidants. Peroxidases are quantified by their luminol converting activity (LUPO). Finally, we quantify high molecular weight superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOSA) using coelenterazine. Experiments with Lepidium sativum L. show how salt, drought, cold, and heat influence the antioxidative system represented here by TAC, LUPO, SOSA, catalase, and glutathione reductase (GR). LUPO and SOSA run anti-parallel under all investigated stress conditions suggesting shifts in antioxidative functions rather than formation of antioxidative power. TAC runs in parallel with GR. This indicates that a majority of low molecular weight antioxidants in plants is represented by glutathione. Conclusion The set of assays presented here is capable of characterising antioxidative activities in plants. It is inexpensive, quick and reproducible and delivers quantitative data. 'Summary parameters' like TAC, LUPO, and SOSA are quantitative traits which may be promising for implementation in high-throughput screening for robustness of novel mutants, transgenics, or breeds. PMID:19171044
Li, Feng; Mao, Yi-Dan; Wang, Yi-Fan; Raza, Aun; Qiu, Li-Peng; Xu, Xiu-Quan
Stems are the important residues of Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb., which are abundant in phenolic compounds. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) is confirmed as a novel extraction technology with main advantages of enhancing extraction yield and physiological activities of the extracts from various plants. In this study, UAEE was applied to obtain the highest yield of phenolic content, strongest antioxidant, and antitumor activities and to optimize the extraction conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). The extracts from the stems of T. quadrispinosa were characterized by determination of their antioxidant activities through 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazxyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAC) methods and of their antitumor activity by MTT method. The selected key independent variables were cellulase concentration (X₁: 1.5%-2.5%), extraction time (X₂: 20-30 min) and extraction temperature (X₃: 40-60 °C). The optimal extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) value of the extracts were determined as 1.74% cellulase concentration, 25.5 min ultrasonic extraction time and 49.0 °C ultrasonic temperature. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 53.6 ± 2.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) was obtained, which agreed well with the predicted value (52.596 mg GAE/g·DW. Furthermore, the extracts obtained from UAEE presented highest antioxidant activities through ABTS, DPPH, TAC and FRAC methods were of 1.54 ± 0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g·DW; 1.45 ± 0.07 mmol·TE/g·DW; 45.2 ± 2.2 mg·GAE/g·DW; 50.4 ± 2.6 μmol FeSO₄ equivalent/g·DW and lowest IC50 values of 160.4 ± 11.6 μg/mL, 126.1 ± 10.8 μg/mL, and 178.3 ± 13.1 μg/mL against Hela, HepG-2 and U251 tumor cells, respectively. The results indicated that the UAEE was an efficient alternative to improve extraction yield
Santos-Zea, Liliana; Gutierrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O
The phenolic, flavonoid, and antioxidant contents of methanol extracts of nine samples of Mexican cactus ( Opuntia spp.) cladodes processed into flours were studied. Opuntia undulata contained the highest amount of phenols [905.08 ± 64.51 μg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g]. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the cladode flour extracts indicated that Opuntia robusta var. Gavia [738.8 ± 89.9 μmol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g] contained the highest antioxidant capacity. ORAC values significantly correlated to total phenols but not to flavonoid contents and were comparable to cranberries and blackberries. Glycosidic forms of isorhamnetin and kaempferol were identified via high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS), with isorhamnetin being the most abundant flavonol in all samples, except for Opuntia lindheimeri . The effectiveness of acid hydrolysis varied among species because of the different flavonol profiles. For some varieties, the triglycosidic forms were partially acid-hydrolyzed, giving an increase in the content of diglycosides. Optimization of hydrolysis for each species is required to estimate the total amount of each flavonol.
Zhu, Qin Yan; Hackman, Robert M; Ensunsa, Jodi L; Holt, Roberta R; Keen, Carl L
While the antioxidative properties of green and black tea have been extensively studied, less attention has been given to these properties in oolong tea. The reducing powers, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities, the amount of total phenolic compounds, the inhibitory effect on FeCl(2)/H(2)O(2) (Fenton reaction system)-induced DNA damage, and the inhibitory effect on erythrocyte hemolysis of an oolong tea water extract (OTE) were evaluated in the present study. The OTE was found to have strong antioxidative activities in all of the model systems tested. When the OTE was separated into different fractions according to molecular weight, it was found that the fractions with higher amounts of phenolic compounds (lower molecular weight) have stronger antioxidative activities. The present results support the concept that oolong tea contains several low molecular weight antioxidants that may have health promotion activities.
Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd
Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1) and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1). The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1). The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1) of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents.
Tadesse, Alemu; Hymete, Ariaya; Bekhit, Adnan A.; Mohammed, Salahuddin Farooq
Objective: In this study four tea samples Gumero black, Wushwush black and Wushwush green from Agri- Ceft Plc and East Africa black tea leaves from East African Agribusiness Plc were investigated for total polyphenols, caffeine, catechin and L-theanine content. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extracts were investigated for their antioxidant and antileishmanial property and effect on amphotericin B, miltefocine and sodium stibogluconate, the commonly used antileishmanial drugs. Antileishmanial studies were conducted on L. aethiopica. Results: Wushwush green tea had the highest content of polyphenol (19.98 ± 1.15 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g dry leaf weight), catechin (37.06 mg/g) and L-theanine (48.54 mg/g but the lowest caffeine content). It exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant effect of Wushwush green tea may be attributed to the highest polyphenol content. East African black tea had the lowest L-theanine (20.72 mg/g) and antioxidant activity but the highest caffeine (16.60 mg/g) content. Conclusion: Wushwush green tea showed slight inhibitory effect on L. aethiopica while the lack tea extracts (Gumero, East Africa and Wushwush) exhibited no antileishmanial activity. Wushwush green tea did not show any synergistic or antagonistic effect on the antileishmanial drugs used in this study while Gumero, East Africa and Wushwush black tea extracts exhibited dose dependant inhibitory activity to the commonly used antileishmanial drugs included in this study. PMID:26109792
Ruszkiewicz, Joanna; Albrecht, Jan
Glutathione and thioredoxin are complementary antioxidants in the protection of mammalian tissues against oxidative-nitrosative stress (ONS), and ONS is a principal cause of symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) associated with acute liver failure (ALF). We compared the activities of the thioredoxin system components: thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the expression of the thioredoxin-interacting protein, and of the key glutathione metabolizing enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the cerebral cortex of rats with ALF induced by thioacetamide (TAA). ALF increased the Trx and TrxR activity without affecting Trip protein expression, but decreased GPx activity in the brains of TAA-treated rats. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the brain was increased by ALF suggesting that upregulation of the thioredoxin may act towards compensating impaired protection by the glutathione system. Intraperitoneal administration of L-histidine (His), an amino acid that was earlier reported to prevent acute liver failure-induced mitochondrial impairment and brain edema, abrogated most of the acute liver failure-induced changes of both antioxidant systems, and significantly increased TAC of both the control and ALF-affected brain. These observations provide further support for the concept of that His has a potential to serve as a therapeutic antioxidant in HE. Most of the enzyme activity changes evoked by His or ALF were not well correlated with alterations in their expression at the mRNA level, suggesting complex translational or posttranslational mechanisms of their modulation, which deserve further investigations.
Hosu, Anamaria; Cristea, Vasile-Mircea; Cimpoiu, Claudia
Wine is one of the most consumed beverages over the world containing large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. These compounds are responsible for quality of red wines, influencing the antioxidant activity, astringency, bitterness and colour, their composition in wine being influenced by the varieties, the vintage and the wineries. The aim of the present work is to build software instruments intended to work as data-mining tools for predicting valuable properties of wine and for revealing different wine classes. The developed ANNs are able to reveal the relationships between the concentration of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins content, associated to the antioxidant activity, and the wine distinctive classes determined by the wine variety, harvesting year or winery. The presented ANNs proved to be reliable software tools for assessment or validation of the wine essential characteristics and authenticity and may be further used to establish a database of analytical characteristics of wines.
Song, Feng-Lin; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Yuan; Xiao, Qin; Kuang, Lei; Li, Hua-Bin
Antioxidant capacities of 56 selected Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and their total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The strong correlation between TEAC value and FRAP value suggested that the antioxidants in these plants possess free radical scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power, and the high positive correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content implied that phenolic compounds are a major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these plants. The results showed that Dioscorea bulbifera, Eriobotrya japonica, Tussilago farfara and Ephedra sinica could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:20640157
D'Acunzo, Francesca; Giannino, Donato; Longo, Vincenzo; Ciardi, Marco; Testone, Giulio; Mele, Giovanni; Nicolodi, Chiara; Gonnella, Maria; Renna, Massimiliano; Arnesi, Giuseppe; Schiappa, Alessandro; Ursini, Ornella
Chicories produce a wide range of vegetables with important nutritional value. We determined the variation of sterol, total polyphenol, nitrate contents and antioxidant capacity (SC, TPC, NC, AC) in endive leaves and stem-chicory novel vegetables, cultivated in two Italian regions. Within a given area, the SC was similar in smooth- and curly leafed endives (106.3-176.0 mg/kg FW); sitosterol and stigmasterol were major fractions (45-56 versus 38-43%). The stem SC was independent of landrace (101.5-118.6 mg/kg FW); sitosterol prevailed on stigmasterol and fucosterol (73-76 versus 12-14% versus 8-9%); the latter reached 15.7 mg/kg FW, conferring value as potential antidiabetes food. The planting site affected the AC and TPC of endives (893.1-1571.4 μmTE/100 g FW, 30.8-76.1 GAE100/g FW) and chicory stems (729.8-1152.5 μmTE/100 g FW; 56.2-124.4 GAE100/g FW), while the NC was recurrently below dangerous thresholds. PCA showed that environment was the major cause of variation, though it modestly affected these parameters.
Juan, Ming-Yen; Chou, Cheng-Chun
In the present study, a solid state fermentation of black soybeans with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715 was performed. The effect of fermentation on the changes of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability exerted by various solvent (water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone) extracts of black soybeans was examined. It was found that fermentation enhanced the total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant activity of the black soybean extract. Among the various extracts examined, the acetone extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The acetone extract and the methanol extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-chelating ability, respectively. Analysis of extraction yields showed that the active principle associated with the DPPH radical-scavenging effect was most efficiently extracted from black soybeans using water, regardless of fermentation. Water and methanol effectively extract the Fe(2+)-chelating principles from non-fermented and fermented black soybeans, respectively.
Comparative study of the effects of solid-state fermentation with three filamentous fungi on the total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of subfractions from oats (Avena sativa L.).
Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Di; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian
The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation with filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae var. effuses, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger) on total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of four subfractions of oat, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water, and compare them to their corresponding subfractions of unfermented oat. The TPC and total flavonoids increased dramatically, especially in EA subfractions (p < 0.05). The levels of antioxidant activity of subfractions were also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activities were also found in the EA subfractions. The polyphenols in EA were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 280 nm. Most polyphenols were increased remarkably, especially ferulic and caffeic acids. There was a clear correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, fungi fermentation is a potential bioprocess for increasing the TPC, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of oat-based food.
Tian, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Hao; Liu, Yu; Pan, Siyi
Sulforaphane, a type of isothiocyanate hydrolysed from glucosinolate, is a powerful anticancer compound naturally found in food especially in broccoli sprouts. Despite the function of sulforaphane has been extensively studied in recent years, little attention has been given to methods that can maximize the production of this compound in broccoli sprouts. The present study optimised the enzymolysis conditions for sulforaphane production in broccoli sprouts using response surface methodology. The maximum sulforaphane production (246.95 μg/g DW) was achieved using a solid-liquid ratio of 1:30, hydrolysis time of 1.5 h, ascorbic acid content of 3.95 mg/g DW sample, and temperature of 65 °C. The highest sulforaphane content in broccoli sprouts were 233.80 μg/g DW in 5-day-old sprouts and 1555.95 μg/g DW at day 4 of storage. The highest antioxidant activities were 37.22 U/min/g DW in 3-day-old sprouts and 35.08 U/min/g DW on 4th day of storage.
Hernández-Ortega, Herminia Alejandra; Alarcón, Alejandro; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Zavaleta-Mancera, Hilda Araceli; López-Delgado, Humberto Antonio; Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios
This research evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth, nutritional status, total antioxidant activity (AOX), total soluble phenolics content (TPC), and total nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of leaves and roots of Melilotus albus Medik planted in diesel-contaminated sand (7500 mg kg(-1)). Seedlings of Melilotus either Non inoculated (Non-AMF) or pre-inoculated plants (AMF) with the AMF-inoculum Glomus Zac-19 were transplanted to non-contaminated or contaminated sand. After 60 days, diesel significantly reduced plant growth. AMF- plants had no significant greater (64% and 89%, respectively) shoot and leaf dry weight than Non-AMF plants, but AMF plants had lower specific leaf area. AMF-plants had significantly greater content of microelements than non-AMF plants. Regardless diesel contamination, the total AOX and TPC were significantly higher in leaves when compared to roots; in contrast, NRA was higher in roots than leaves. Diesel increased total AOX of leaves, but AMF-plants had significantly lower AOX than non-AMF plants. In contrast, roots of AMF-plants had significantly higher AOX but lower NRA than non-AMF plants. AMF-colonization in roots detected via the fungal alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly reduced by the presence of diesel. AMF-inoculation alleviated diesel toxicity on M. albus by enhancing plant biomass, nutrient content, and AOX activity. In addition, AMF-plants significantly contributed in higher degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons when compared to non-AMF-plants.
Bi, Wu; He, Chunnian; Ma, Yunyun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Linghua Harris; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen
To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62–18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55–24.99 mg/g). However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g). Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL). Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs. PMID:27006902
Sogi, Dalbir Singh; Siddiq, Muhammad; Greiby, Ibrahim; Dolan, Kirk D
Mango processing produces significant amount of waste (peels and kernels) that can be utilized for the production of value-added ingredients for various food applications. Mango peel and kernel were dried using different techniques, such as freeze drying, hot air, vacuum and infrared. Freeze dried mango waste had higher antioxidant properties than those from other techniques. The ORAC values of peel and kernel varied from 418-776 and 1547-1819 μmol TE/g db. The solubility of freeze dried peel and kernel powder was the highest. The water and oil absorption index of mango waste powders ranged between 1.83-6.05 and 1.66-3.10, respectively. Freeze dried powders had the lowest bulk density values among different techniques tried. The cabinet dried waste powders can be potentially used in food products to enhance their nutritional and antioxidant properties.
Marichali, Ahmed; Dallali, Sana; Ouerghemmi, Saloua; Sebei, Houcine; Casabianca, Hervé; Hosni, Karim
A comprehensive analysis of the responses of Nigella sativa L. to elevated zinc concentrations was assessed in pot experiments. Zn excess supply did not affect the germination but drastically reduced radicle elongation. A concentration-dependent reduction in all growth parameters, yield, and yield components was observed. With the increasing Zn concentrations, total lipid contents decreased and changes in fatty composition toward the production of saturated ones were underscored. Despite the reduction in the seeds essential oil yield, a redirection of the terpene metabolism toward the synthesis of oxygenated compounds has been evidenced. A significant increase in the total phenols and flavonoids contents concomitant with improved antioxidant activities has also been found. Collectively, these results highlight the possible use of N. sativa L. in phytoremediation applications, on the one hand, and that Zn excess could represent an excellent alternative to improve the nutritional attributes of this important species, on the other hand.
Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Dulf, Eva-Henrietta; Toşa, Monica Ioana
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus niger on phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in Sambucus nigra L. and Sambucus ebulus L. berry pomaces. The effect of fermentation time on the total fats and major lipid classes (neutral and polar) was also investigated. During the SSF, the extractable phenolics increased with 18.82% for S. ebulus L. and 11.11% for S. nigra L. The levels of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis indicated that the cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside is the major phenolic compound in both fermented Sambucus fruit residues. In the early stages of fungal growth, the extracted oils (with TAGs as major lipid fraction) increased with 12% for S. nigra L. and 10.50% for S. ebulus L. The GC-MS analysis showed that the SSF resulted in a slight increase of the linoleic and oleic acids level.
Shivashankara, K S; Isobe, Seiichiro; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Takenaka, Makiko; Shiina, Takeo
Greenhouse-grown tree ripe (TR) and mature green (MG) mangoes (cv. Irwin) were exposed to high electric field treatment before 20 and 30 days of storage at 5 degrees C. MG fruits were allowed to ripen at room temperature after low-temperature storage. Fruit physical quality attributes, ascorbic acid, carotene, quercetin, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity were estimated before and after the storage period. Antioxidant capacity of fruit juice was estimated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Fruit firmness decreased significantly during storage. Titratable acidity decreased 20 days after storage. Total soluble solids did not change during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits remained unchanged up to 20 days of storage period and decreased thereafter. Total phenol and carotenes increased during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits was significantly correlated only to ascorbic acids. Peel color and carotenes were higher in TR fruits, whereas titratable acidity and firmness were higher in MG fruits. There was no significant difference in other parameters between the stages of picking. Electric field pretreatment affected the respiration and antioxidant capacity of TR fruits and did not have any significant affect on other parameters. TR mangoes of cv. Irwin are more suitable for low-temperature storage and can be successfully stored for up to 20 days at 5 degrees C without any significant losses in functional properties and quality attributes.
Hernández-Monjaraz, Beatriz; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Betancourt-Rule, José Miguel; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Tai Chi on biological markers of oxidative stress in saliva and its relationship with periodontal disease (PD) in older adults. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with a sample of 71 sedentary volunteers with PD who were divided into a control group of 34 subjects and an experimental group of 37 subjects who performed Tai Chi 5 days a week for a period of 6 months. PD status was characterized using the Periodontal Disease Index (PDI). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS), and TBARS levels of both groups were measured by spectrophotometric methods. In addition, inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) were measured by flow cytometry. We found a statistically significant increase in SOD activity (P < 0.001) and TAS concentration (P < 0.05), whereas levels of IL-1β were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Likewise, a statistically significant decrease in the PDI (P < 0.05) was observed in subjects who performed Tai Chi during a period of 6 months. Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that are linked to the improvement of PD in older adults. PMID:24790703
Samad, Muhammad Azizan; Hashim, Siti Hajar; Simarani, Khanom; Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati
Phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °C for 8 weeks, extract storage at -20 °C for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of Saudi Arabian P. dactylifera cv Mabroom, Safawi and Ajwa, as well as Iranian P. dactylifera cv Mariami. The storage stability of total anthocyanin content (TAC) was also evaluated, before and after storing the extracts at -20 °C and 4 °C respectively, for 5 weeks. Mariami had the highest TAC (3.18 ± 1.40 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW) while Mabroom had the lowest TAC (0.54 ± 0.15 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW). The TAC of all extracts increased after storage. The chilling of date palm fruits for 8 weeks prior to solvent extraction elevated the TPC of all date fruit extracts, except for methanolic extracts of Mabroom and Mariami. All IC50 values of all cultivars decreased after the fruit chilling treatment. Methanol was a better solvent compared to acetone for the extraction of phenolic compounds in dates. The TPC of all cultivars extracts decreased after 5 weeks of extract storage. IC50 values of all cultivars extracts increased after extract storage except for the methanolic extracts of Safawi and Ajwa. Different cultivars exhibited different antibacterial properties. Only the methanolic extract of Ajwa exhibited antibacterial activity against all four bacteria tested: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli. These results could be useful to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries in the development of natural compound-based products.
Kowalczyk, A.; Ruszkiewicz, M.; Biskup, I.
The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated. PMID:26798183
Kowalczyk, A; Ruszkiewicz, M; Biskup, I
The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated.
Esterase activity (EA), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to pollutants: Analytical validation and effects evaluation by single and mixed heavy metal exposure.
Franco, Lorena; Romero, Diego; García-Navarro, José A; Teles, Mariana; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta
The aims of the present study were to optimize and validate methods for esterase activity (EA), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) determination in mussel' gills, and to establish the relationships between these biomarkers and Pb, Cd and Cu pollution, in single form and ternary mixture. Two different buffers for sample homogenization, the need of ultracentrifugation, and analytical validation were evaluated. Coefficients of variation, when buffer without additives and ultracentrifugation were used, were <15%, and recovery were 97%-109% in all cases. The EA response tends to decrease with treatments, TOS decreased significantly in Cd and ternary groups, while TAC tended to increase in treatments with Pb, Cd and ternary groups. In conclusion, the methods for EA, TOS and TAC measurements in gills of mussel were precise and accurate and could be interesting resources in biomonitoring programmes.
Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin
Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.
Choi, Suk-Hyun; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel
Fruit pulp and seeds from the jujube plant possess nutritional and medicinal properties. The bioactive components have been shown to vary both with cultivar and with growing conditions. Most studies report the components of varieties from China. We measured free amino acid, individual phenolic, and total phenolic content, and antioxidative activities in three jujube fruit pulp extracts from Boeun-deachu, Mechu, and Sanzoin cultivars and two seed extracts (Mechu and Sanzoin) from plants grown in Korea. In g/100 g dry weight, total free amino acid content measured by ion-exchange chromatography ranged from 5.2 to 9.8 in the pulp and from 4.0 to 5.3 in the seed. Total phenolic content measured by Folin-Ciocalteu ranged from 1.1 to 2.4 in the pulp and from 3.6 to 4.6 in the seed. Flavonoids were measured by HPLC and ranged from 0.7 to 1.8 in the pulp and from 3.2 to 4.0 in the seed. Flavonoids were identified by HPLC elution position and UV/vis and mass spectra. Fruits contained the following flavonoids: procyanidin B2, epicatechin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q-3-R), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3-G), kaempferol-glucosyl-rhamnoside (K-G-R), and two unidentified compounds. Seeds contained the following flavonoids: saponarin, spinosin, vitexin, swertish, 6'''-hydroxybenzoylspinosin (6'''-HBS), 6'''-feruloylspinosin (6'''-FS), and one unidentified substance. Dimensions and weights of the fresh fruit samples affected phenolic content. The distribution of the individual flavonoids among the different samples varied widely. Data determined by the FRAP antioxidative assay were well correlated with total phenolic content. In a departure from other studies, data from the DPPH free radical assay were not correlated with FRAP or with any of the measured compositional parameters. Because individual jujube flavonoids are reported to exhibit different health-promoting effects, knowledge of the composition and concentration of bioactive compounds of jujube products can benefit
Sánchez-Magaña, Luis Martin; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith Oliva; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Ayala-Rodríguez, Ana Edith; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc
The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of time during solid state bioconversion (SSB) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AoxA), and inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase of chickpea. Chickpea cotyledons were inoculated with a suspension of Rhizopus oligosporus and incubated at 35 °C for 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96 and 108 h. The best time to produce bioprocessed chickpea (added with seed coats) flour with the highest AoxA was 108 h. SSB substantially increased TPC and AoxA of chickpea extracts in 2.78 and 1.80-1.94 times, respectively. At 36 and 96 h of fermentation, the SSB process improved in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition (AI and GI indexes) activities of chickpea extracts in 83 and 370%, respectively. SSB is a good strategy to enhance health-linked functionality of chickpea, due to improved TPC, AoxA and content of strong natural inhibitors of enzymes associated with diabetes.
Mancini, Antonio; Festa, Roberto; Silvestrini, Andrea; Nicolotti, Nicola; Di Donna, Vincenzo; La Torre, Giuseppe; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Meucci, Elisabetta
Infertility is associated with oxidative stress, normally counterbalanced by different antioxidant systems. In order to explore the hormonal control of seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) we evaluated TAC and hormone patterns in a group of unselected infertile patients and control subjects. One hundred and ten infertile patients (divided into 3 groups: inflammation, varicocele, and other etiologies) and 31 fertile men were examined, evaluating blood serum gonadotropins, testosterone, estradiol, free tri-iodothyronine, free tetraiodothyronine (FT4), thyrotropin, prolactin (PRL), seminal parameters, and TAC. TAC was measured using the H(2)O(2)-metmyoglobin system, which generates the spectroscopically detectable radical cation of the chromogenous compound 2,2(I)-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate). The "lag time" of its appearance is proportional to the antioxidant activity. Lag phase was significantly higher in varicocele vs controls, whereas it was lower in patients with inflammation vs varicocele or other kinds of infertility. The correlation analysis between hormones and seminal parameters showed an inverse correlation between PRL and sperm motility, and a direct correlation of TAC with PRL and FT4, but not with gonadotropins or gonadal steroids. Our data suggest that systemic hormones may play a role in regulating seminal antioxidant capacity. This is interesting also because some hormones, such as thyroid and pituitary hormones, are not usually tested in the first-level evaluation of male patients with fertility problems.
Stajner, D; Popović, B M; Canadanović-Brunet, J; Stajner, M
The antioxidative properties of bulb, leaf and stalk of Allium ursinum were investigated. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase), quantities of malonyldialdehyde, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and reduced glutathione and also the contents of total flavonoids, chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids were determined. The extracts from all plant organs exhibited antioxidant activity, the highest having been observed in the leaves. Furthermore, ESR signal of PBN-OH radical adducts in the presence of leaves phosphate buffer (pH 7) extract was reduced for 87.61%.
Garzón, G Astrid; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Kopec, Rachel E; Barry, Andrew M; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J
The fruit of Arazá (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh) native to the Colombian Amazon is considered a potentially economically valuable fruit for the Andean economy due to its novel and unique taste. The fruit has an intense yellow color, but its chemical composition and properties have not been well studied. Here we report the identification and quantitation of carotenoids in the ripe fruit using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detector (PDA) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APcI) mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The qualitative carotenoid profile of the fruit according to maturity stage was also observed. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of the peel and pulp were assessed using the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods, in addition to chemical indexes and total phenolic content. Multiple carotenoids were identified in the peel and pulp including four xanthophylls (free and esterified as their mono and diesters) and two carotenes. One of the xanthophylls was tentatively identified as zeinoxanthin, while the others were identified as lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenes included α-carotene and β-carotene. The total carotenoid content was significantly higher in the peel (2484 ± 421 μg/100 g FW) than in the pulp (806 ± 348 μg/100 g FW) with lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeinoxanthin as the major carotenoid components. The unique carotenoid composition of this fruit can differentiate it from other carotenoid-rich fruits and perhaps be useful in authentication procedures. Overall, results from this study suggest that Colombian Arazá may be a good edible source of carotenoids important in retinal health as well as carotenoids with provitamin A activity. Therefore, Arazá fruit can be used as a nutraceutical ingredient and in production of functional foods in the Colombian diet.
Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Ghafoor, Kashif; Özcan, Mehmet Musa
The physical and chemical properties of the date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seeds from seven date samples (Soukari, Soulag, Barhi, Khulas, Rozaiz, Soughi and Monaif) were evaluated. Energy values of dried and ground seeds were found between 4340 kcal/kg (Barhi cv) and 4795 kcal/kg (Rozaiz cv). Also, while crude oil content of seeds were established between 4.68% (Khulas cv) and 7.96% (Monaif cv), crude protein contents were found at the levels between 3.71% (Soulag cv) and 5.47% (Barhi cv). The antioxidant activity of seeds obtained from different date fruits changed between 78.03 (mg/ml) (Monaif cv) and 79.94 (mg/ml) (Barhi cv). In addition, the total phenol contents of seeds were found between 1.98 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g (Barhi cv) and 4.65 mg GAE/100 g (Soughi cv). The most abundant fatty acids of the date seed oils were oleic, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids. Ca, Mg, K and P contents of date seeds were found at the high concentrations.
Loncaric, Ante; Dugalic, Krunoslav; Mihaljevic, Ines; Jakobek, Lidija; Pilizota, Vlasta
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of simple sugar addition including (glucose, G; fructose, F; sucrose, S; and trehalose, T) on the total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of apple purée processed by freezing and freeze-drying and stored for 6 months. The apple polyphenol profile was mostly preserved in the freeze-dried samples with sugar addition during 6 months of storage, whereas the polyphenol profile in frozen samples consists only of quercetin glycosides, of which rutin had the largest share. After 6 months, the highest level of polyphenols was detected in frozen 'Idared' and 'Fuji' apple purée with addition of T 5% (12.2 and 16.7 mg/100 g FW, respectively), whereas in freeze-dried apple purée the highest TPC was in 'Idared' and 'Fuji' with addition of T 1% (16.3 and 13.6 mg/100 g FW, respectively). Results indicate that sugar addition before processing could have potential for enhancing product quality.
Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel).
Bavec, Martina; Turinek, Matjaz; Grobelnik-Mlakar, Silva; Slatnar, Ana; Bavec, Franc
The contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity were quantified in the flesh of red beet from conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG), biodynamic (BD), and control farming systems using established methods. Significant differences were measured for malic acid, total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant activity, where malic acid content ranged from 2.39 g kg(-1) FW (control) to 1.63 g kg(-1) FW (CON, ORG, and INT). The highest TPC was measured in BD and control samples (0.677 and 0.672 mg GAE g(-1), respectively), and the lowest in CON samples (0.511 mg GAE g(-1)). Antioxidant activity was positively correlated with TPC (r2=0.6187) and ranged from 0.823 μM TE g(-1) FW to 1.270 μM TE g(-1) FW in CON and BD samples, respectively, whereas total sugar content ranged from 21.03 g kg(-1) FW (CON) to 31.58 g kg(-1) FW (BD). The importance of sugars, organic acids, phenols, and antioxidants for human health, as well as for plant resilience and health, gained from this explorative study, is discussed and put into perspective.
Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Yap, Wei Jin; Tan, Shen Yeng; Lim, Yau Yan; Lee, Sui Mae
Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous flowering plants with many species used in ethnobotany, particularly in South America. However, thus far reports of their bioactivity are few and far between. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five Commelinaceae methanolic leaf extracts. The antioxidant content was evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH free radical scavenging (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and ferrous ion chelating (FIC); of the five plants, the methanolic leaf extract of Tradescantia zebrina showed the highest antioxidant content and activity, and exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram-positive and two species of Gram-negative bacteria in a range of 5–10 mg/mL based on the broth microdilution method. PMID:26785239
Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.
Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808
Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R
The antioxidant activity of flavonoids from banana (Musa paradisiaca) was studied in rats fed normal as well as high fat diets. Concentrations of peroxidation products namely malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated diens were significantly decreased whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were enhanced significantly. Concentrations of glutathione were also elevated in the treated animals.
McDowell, Arlene; Thompson, Scott; Stark, Mirjam; Ou, Zong-Quan; Gould, Kevin S
There is considerable interest in antioxidant dietary components that can be protective against degenerative diseases in humans. Puha (Sonchus oleraceus L.) is a rich source of polyphenols, and exhibits strong antioxidant activity as measured by the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. However, the potential of puha to protect against degenerative diseases requires that low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) are absorbed by, and active in, human cells. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was used to investigate the antioxidant activity of puha leaf extracts. Preparation methods of freezing and freeze-drying reduced the total polyphenolic content compared with fresh puha, but did not affect the LMWA potential as determined by the DPPH assay. The IC(50) values were 0.012 ± 0.003 mg/mL and 0.010 ± 0.005 mg/mL for freeze-dried and fresh puha leaves, respectively. Using the CAA assay, it was shown that LMWAs from foliar extracts of puha were effectively absorbed into HepG2 cells, and exerted antioxidant activity at levels comparable to those of extracts from blueberry fruits, the much-touted antioxidant superfood. Methylene blue staining of HepG2 cells indicated that puha extracts were not cytotoxic at concentrations below 100 mg DW/mL. The data indicate the potential of puha as a nutraceutical supplement for human health.
Sun, Jie; Chu, Yi-Fang; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai
Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.
Raghu Chandrashekhar, H; Venkatesh, P; Ponnusankar, S; Vijayan, P
Methanolic extracts of leaf, root, flower and aerial parts of Hypericum hookerianum were assessed for in vitro antioxidant activity using eight different models. Total antioxidant capacity, phenol and flavanol content of the extracts were determined to correlate between their antioxidant activity and constituents present therein. Results of in vitro antioxidant study suggest that extracts from leaf and flower have strong antioxidant potential. Leaf extract (100 & 200 mg kg(-1) b.w. p.o.) that showed maximum activity was selected for in vivo antioxidant studies using a CCl(4)-intoxicated rat model. The effects of extracts on lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum and liver homogenate were analysed. CCl(4) treatment caused a significant increase in the level of CAT and SOD and a significant decrease in the level of LPO in a dose-dependent manner when compared to CCl(4) treated control. The results indicate the strong antioxidant nature of H. hookerianum leaf extract.
Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Young Jun; Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Chang Yong
The contribution of each phytochemical to the total antioxidant capacity of apples was determined. Major phenolic phytochemicals of six apple cultivars were identified and quantified, and their contributions to total antioxidant activity of apples were determined using a 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay and expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). Average concentrations of major phenolics and vitamin C in six apple cultivars were as follows (mg/100 g of fresh weight of apples): quercetin glycosides, 13.20; procyanidin B(2), 9.35; chlorogenic acid, 9.02; epicatechin, 8.65; phloretin glycosides, 5.59; vitamin C, 12.80. A highly linear relationship (r (2) > 0.97) was attained between concentrations and total antioxidant capacity of phenolics and vitamin C. Relative VCEAC values of these compounds were in the order quercetin (3.06) > epicatechin (2.67) > procyanidin B(2) (2.36) > phloretin (1.63) > vitamin C (1.00) > chlorogenic acid (0.97). Therefore, the estimated contribution of major phenolics and vitamin C to the total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh apples is as follows: quercetin (40.39 VCEAC) > epicatechin (23.10) > procyanidin B(2) (22.07) > vitamin C (12.80) > phloretin (9.11) > chlorogenic acid (8.75). These results indicate that flavonoids such as quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B(2) rather than vitamin C contribute significantly to the total antioxidant activity of apples.
Soengas, P; Cartea, M E; Francisco, M; Sotelo, T; Velasco, P
Antioxidant activity of six Brassica crops-broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, nabicol and tronchuda cabbage-was measured at four plant stages with DPPH and FRAP assays. Samples taken three months after sowing showed the highest antioxidant activity. Kale crop possessed the highest antioxidant activity at this plant stage and also at the adult plant stage, while cauliflower showed the highest antioxidant activity in sprouts and in leaves taken two months after sowing. Brassica by-products could be used as sources of products with high content of antioxidants. Phenolic content and composition varied, depending on the crop under study and on the plant stage; sprout samples were much higher in hydroxycinnamic acids than the rest of samples. Differences in antioxidant activity of Brassica crops were related to differences in total phenolic content but also to differences in phenolic composition for most samples.
Chu, Yi-Fang; Sun, Jie; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai
Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables containing high levels of phytochemicals has been recommended to prevent chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in the human body. In this study, 10 common vegetables were selected on the basis of consumption per capita data in the United States. A more complete profile of phenolic distributions, including both free and bound phenolics in these vegetables, is reported here using new and modified methods. Broccoli possessed the highest total phenolic content, followed by spinach, yellow onion, red pepper, carrot, cabbage, potato, lettuce, celery, and cucumber. Red pepper had the highest total antioxidant activity, followed by broccoli, carrot, spinach, cabbage, yellow onion, celery, potato, lettuce, and cucumber. The phenolics antioxidant index (PAI) was proposed to evaluate the quality/quantity of phenolic contents in these vegetables and was calculated from the corrected total antioxidant activities by eliminating vitamin C contributions. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver cancer cells. Spinach showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by cabbage, red pepper, onion, and broccoli. On the basis of these results, the bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a simple reference for consumers to choose vegetables in accordance with their beneficial activities. The BI could be a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.
Flores, Floirendo P; Singh, Rakesh K; Kerr, William L; Pegg, Ronald B; Kong, Fanbin
The goal of this research was to investigate the change in phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of microencapsulated anthocyanins (ACNs) digested in vitro. Blueberry ACN microcapsules were prepared from two wall materials (whey protein isolate and gum arabic) and ACN powder, previously extracted with three solvent systems (acetonic, ethanolic, methanolic); this was then spray-dried. The physicochemical properties and release characteristics of the microcapsules were evaluated. Rehydrated gum arabic microcapsules retained more total ACNs but less ferric reducing power than did whey protein microcapsules. Ethanolic extracts retained most of the total ACNs while methanolic extracts possessed the highest antioxidant capacity. During in vitro digestion, gum arabic microcapsules had high release rates of phenolics with high antioxidant activity during the gastric phase. Whey protein microcapsules had comparably lower release rates but high antioxidant activity throughout digestion.
Mishra, Neeraj; Dubey, Akhilesh; Mishra, Rahul; Barik, Nabneeta
This study investigates the antioxidant activity of different dry fruits (almonds, walnut, cashew nut, raisins, chironji) through several chemical and biochemical assays: reducing power, lipid peroxidation damage in biomembranes, determination of antioxidant enzymes activity (SOD and CAT). To estimate the total phenolic content, the assay using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used. The EC(50) values were calculated for all the methods in order to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of each dry fruit. The results obtained were quite heterogenous, revealing significant differences among the dry fruits. The methanolic extract of walnut showed the higher value of antioxidant activity based on lipid peroxidation assay. The higher phenolic content was found in walnuts followed by almonds cashew nut, chironji and least phenolic content was found in raisins. Walnut revealed the best antioxidant properties, presenting lower EC(50) values in all assays except in antioxidant enzymatic activity.
Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Acar, Mustafa; Berkoz, Mehmet; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal
We investigated the antioxidant effects of curcumin in an experimental rat model of allergic rhinitis (AR). Female Wistar albino rats (n = 34) were divided randomly into four groups: healthy rats (control group, n = 8), AR with no treatment (AR + NoTr group, n = 10), AR with azelastine HCl treatment (AR + Aze group, n = 8), and AR with curcumin treatment (AR + Curc group, n = 8). On day 28, total blood IgE levels were measured. For measurement of antioxidant activity, the glutathione (GSH) level and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were measured in both inferior turbinate tissue and serum. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured only in inferior turbinate tissue, and paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) activities were measured only in serum. Statistically significant differences were found for all antioxidant measurements (GSH levels and CAT, SOD, GSH-Px activities in the serum and tissue, MDA levels in the tissue, and PON and ARE activities in the serum) between the four groups. In the curcumin group, serum SOD, ARE, and PON and tissue GSH values were higher than the control group. Moreover, tissue GSH levels and serum GSH-Px activities in the curcumin group were higher than in the AR + NoTr group. In the azelastine group, except MDA, antioxidant measurement values were lower than in the other groups. Curcumin may help to increase antioxidant enzymes and decrease oxidative stress in allergic rhinitis. We recommend curcumin to decrease oxidative stress in allergic rhinitis.
Bernaert, Nathalie; De Paepe, Domien; Bouten, Charlotte; De Clercq, Hervé; Stewart, Derek; Van Bockstaele, Erik; De Loose, Marc; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart
Extracts of the white shaft and green leaves of 30 leek cultivars were investigated for their antioxidant properties, total phenolic (TP) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) content. The measured antioxidant properties included free radical scavenging activities against peroxyl (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) and their Fe(3+) reducing capacity (FRAP). The results from this study suggest that the green leek leaves generally have significantly stronger antioxidant properties than the white shaft. Correlation analysis between the TP and the AA content and the antioxidant activity showed that phenolics and ascorbic acid contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity of leek. The three antioxidant activity assays were all correlated for the extracts of the white shaft of the 30 leek cultivars. Principal component analysis (PCA) elucidated the influence of part and type of cultivar on the antioxidant capacity, TP, and l-ascorbic acid content, whilst the breeding strategy and seed company had no influence.
Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen
Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents).
Saletnik, Bogdan; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Markowski, Janusz; Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela
The total antioxidant capacities (TAC) of feces of mammalian herbivores and carnivores were compared. TAC were estimated using three different methods: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS*) reduction, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) reduction, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). TAC of 18 herbivorous species were generally higher with respect to 16 carnivorous species [(14.21 +/- 6.72) vs. (9.45 +/- 7.32) mmol Trolox equivalents/kg feces; P < 0.05] in the FRAP assay. The ABTS* reduction assay indicated that the TAC originating from "fast" reacting antioxidants were higher in the herbivores than in carnivores [(17.92 +/- 7.18) vs. (12.22 +/- 8.5) mmol Trolox equivalents/kg feces; P < 0.05], while a reverse trend was observed for TAC originating from "slowly" reacting antioxidants [(20.68 +/- 4.85) vs. (24.68 +/- 6.87) mmol Trolox equivalents/kg feces].
Muruhan, Sridevi; Selvaraj, Senthil; Viswanathan, Pugalendi Kodukkur
Objective To evaluate the antioxidant activity of alcoholic leaf-extract of Solanum surattense (Solanaceae) (S. surattense). Methods Leaf extract were tested for in vitro free radical scavenging assays, such as hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide, inhibition of superoxide anion radical and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), total antioxidant activity and reducing ability. Further, total phenolic content of S. surattense was analyzed. Results S. surattense extract effectively scavenged free radicals at all different concentrations and showed its potent antioxidant activity. Further, these effects were in a dose dependent manner. Results were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. Conclusions S. surattense have strong antioxidant potential. Further the study validates the therapeutic benefits of the Indian system of medicine. PMID:23570013
Georgoulis, Michael; Fragopoulou, Elisabeth; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Margariti, Aikaterini; Boulamatsi, Olga; Detopoulou, Paraskeui; Tiniakos, Dina; Zafiropoulou, Rodessa; Papatheodoridis, George
It is well established that oxidative stress is implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis, whereas the dietary intake of antioxidants has been reported to be low in patients with the disease. We hypothesized that blood redox status measurements would be associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease presence and severity, and that diet's total antioxidant capacity could moderate the aforementioned association. The study sample consisted of 73 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, of which 58 were matched by age, sex, and body mass index with 58 controls. Diet's total antioxidant capacity was estimated through the ferric-reducing antioxidant power, the total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity scores, whereas blood redox status was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels, the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase, and serum resistance to oxidation. Diet's total antioxidant capacity scores and glutathione peroxidase activity were not significantly associated with the disease presence or severity. Both thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and serum resistance to oxidation were significantly associated with the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (odds ratios [ORs], 7.769 [P= .007] and 0.936 [P= .033], respectively), independently of abdominal fat level, degree of insulin resistance, blood lipid levels, markers of subclinical inflammation, and diet's total antioxidant capacity, but not with the disease histologic severity or stage. Our results support the association between blood redox status and the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease regardless of diet's total antioxidant capacity.
Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition.
Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali
In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables were power level (25-75%), temperature (45-55 °C) and sonication time (20-40 min). It was found that all process variables have significant (p < 0.05) effects on the response variable. A central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimum process conditions. Optimal conditions were identified as 65% power level, 52 °C temperature and 36 min sonication time for maximum crude yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter). The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY) of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.
Yin, Tian-Peng; Cai, Le; Chen, Yang; Li, Ying; Wang, Ya-Rong; Liu, Chuan-Shui; Ding, Zhong-Tao
The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the acetone extract and derived fractions from the walnut (Juglans regia) pellicle were estimated. The BuOH fraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with the highest phenolic content. A phytochemical investigation of this fraction led to the isolation of three tannins, 2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose (1), pedunculagin (2) and 2,3,4,6-tetragalloylglucose (3). Pedunculagin showed high content and powerful activity, which implied that this compound plays an important role in the antioxidant activity of the walnut pellicle.
Hussein, Saba Zuhair; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd; Makpol, Suzana; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd
Two types of monofloral Malaysian honey (Gelam and Nenas) were analyzed to determine their antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents, with and without gamma irradiation. Our results showed that both types of honey can scavenge free radicals and exhibit high antioxidant-reducing power; however, Gelam honey exhibited higher antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) than Nenas honey, which is in good correlation (r = 0.9899) with its phenolic contents. Interestingly, we also noted that both irradiated honeys have higher antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to nonirradiated honeys by Folin-Ciocalteu and UV-spectrophotometry methods, respectively. However, HPLC analysis for phenolic compounds showed insignificant increase between irradiated and nonirradiated honeys. The phenolic compounds such as: caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, p- coumaric acid, quercetin and hesperetin as indicated by HPLC method were found to be higher in Gelam honey versus Nenas honey. In conclusion, irradiation of honey causes enhanced antioxidant activities and flavonoid compounds.
Tan, Ee Shian; Abdullah, Aminah; Maskat, Mohammad Yusof
The effect of thermal and non-thermal drying methods on hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of bitter gourd fruit was investigated in this study. The bitter gourd fruits were dried by following methods: (i) oven drying 40°C, (ii) oven drying 50°C, (iii) oven drying 60°C, (iv) microwave drying (medium low power), (v) microwave drying (medium power) and (vi) freeze drying. Pure acetone and hexane were used to extract the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds from dried bitter gourd fruits. Freeze dried extracts reported to have highest values in DPPH scavenging activity (hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions), FRAP (lipophilic fraction) and TPC (hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction). Thermal drying slightly increased the values of DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for hydrophilic extracts. Results concluded bitter gourd fruit is a good source of natural antioxidants and its total antioxidant quality was most preserved by freeze drying. Additionally, the higher value reported in DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for lipophilic extracts than the hydrophilic extracts suggested that the lipophilic antioxidant compounds of bitter gourd fruit might possess stronger antioxidant power than its counterpart.
Wang, Sunan; Meckling, Kelly A; Marcone, Massimo F; Kakuda, Yukio; Tsao, Rong
Different foods possess different bioactive compounds with varied antioxidant capacities. When foods are consumed together, the total antioxidant capacity of food mixtures may be modified via synergistic, additive, or antagonistic interactions among these components, which may in turn alter their physiological impacts. The main objective of this study was to investigate these interactions and identify any synergistic combinations. Eleven foods from three categories, including fruits (raspberry, blackberry, and apple), vegetables (broccoli, tomato, mushroom, and purple cauliflower), and legumes (soybean, adzuki bean, red kidney bean, and black bean) were combined in pairs. Four assays (total phenolic content, ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging capacity, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities of individual foods and their combinations. The results indicated that within the same food category, 13, 68, and 21% of the combinations produced synergistic, additive, and antagonistic interactions, respectively, while the combinations produced 21, 54, and 25% synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects, respectively, across food categories. Combining specific foods across categories (e.g., fruit and legume) was more likely to result in synergistic antioxidant capacity than combinations within a food group. Combining raspberry and adzuki bean extracts demonstrated synergistic interactions in all four chemical-based assays. Compositional changes did not seem to have occurred in the mixture. Results in this study suggest the importance of strategically selecting foods or diets to maximum synergisms as well as to minimum antagonisms in antioxidant activity.
Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming
In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g · DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g · DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g · DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively.
Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming
In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g·DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g·DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g·DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively. PMID:25431795
Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Azimi, Somayyeh; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Amini, Somayyeh; Elmi, Zahra; Namazi, Zahra
Background and aims. Cigarette smoke can induce oral cancer by its free radicals and oxidative damage. Salivary anti-oxidants system is believed to have an important role in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study was compared total antioxidant capacity (TAoC) of saliva in smokers and nonsmokers. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional study, 30 male smokers with mean age of 45.23 years and 30 nonsmokers with mean age of 45.30 years participated. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected in the morning in two groups by spitting method. TAoC of saliva was measured with the special kit in two groups at the same time. Statistical analysis was performed by covariance test. Results. The mean salivary TAoC in nonsmokers (0.741±0.123 U/ml) was higher than that in smokers (0.529±0.167 U/ml). This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion. Smoking can alter salivary antioxidant capacity. PMID:26889367
Kaur, Gunpreet; Gupta, Vikas; Bansal, Parveen
Herbal medicine is the oldest form of healthcare known to humanity. Recently, much attention is being directed toward the use of antioxidants. There are some very commonly used Ayurvedic preparations that might have inbuilt antioxidant activity, and their therapeutic potential can be partially attributable to its antioxidant activity. Hence, it was proposed to find out antioxidant activity of such common formulations. Estimation of innate antioxidant activity of some commonly used traditional formulations. In this study, five formulations were evaluated for antioxidant activity in comparison to gallic acid (standard) using the in vitro reducing power method and superoxide radical scavenging activity by dimethyl sulfoxide method followed by calculation of scavenging activity and inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The result shows that Ayurvedic drug extracts possess good reducing power and antioxidant activity. Laxmivilas Ras shows higher reducing power ranging from 117 ± 0.021 to 0.176 ± 0.012 as compared to other extracts. The drug extracts were also found to be an efficient scavenger of superoxide radical. The IC50 values for Laxmivilas Ras, Agnitundi Vati, Ajmodadi Churna, Tribhuvankirti Rasa, gallic acid (standard) and Sitopladi Churna, were found to be 50.07, 98.41, 105.13, 116.39, 176.80, and 200.17, respectively. From this study, it can be concluded that the above Ayurvedic formulations possess antioxidant property. However, work could be initiated on the isolation and identification of these antioxidant components. PMID:28217554
Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) provides an assessment of antioxidant activity and synergistic interactions of redox molecules in foods and plasma. We investigated the validity and reproducibility of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)–based TAC estimates assessed by oxygen radical absorbance capaci...
Lee, Darye; Kim, Choon Young
The major trend in the antioxidant market is the growing consumer demand for natural antioxidants. Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is an easy way to obtain antioxidant components from a natural source. Our objective was to develop burdock root tea (BRT) with potent antioxidant activity and good color quality. In order to obtain maximum antioxidant activity and quality, the effect of roasting was determined. The antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of BRT increased as roasting increased. The color of BRT became darker with increased roasting, extraction time, and amount of burdock roots. Color of BRT was also positively correlated with total antioxidant capacity. Roasting significantly enhanced the total antioxidant activities and color quality of BRT. These results suggest that roasting BRT increases beneficial antioxidant components from burdock roots.
Meot-Duros, Laetitia; Le Floch, Gaëtan; Magné, Christian
For the first time, both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities are simultaneously reported in halophytic plants, particularly on polar fractions. Chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the halophytes Eryngium maritimum L., Crithmum maritimum L. and Cakile maritima Scop. were tested for their antimicrobial activities against 12 bacterial and yeast strains. In addition, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities were assessed, as well as total phenol contents. Only one bacterial strain (Listeria monocytogenes) was not inhibited by plants extracts, and apolar (chloroformic) fractions were generally more active than polar (methanolic) ones. Eryngium maritimum presented the weakest radical scavenging activity (ABTS IC(50)=0.28 mg ml(-1)), as well as the lowest total phenol content (16.4 mg GAE g(-1) DW). However, the three halophytic species had relatively strong total antioxidant activities (from 32.7 to 48.6 mg ascorbate equivalents g (-1) DW). Consequences on the potential use of these plants in food or cosmetic industry are discussed.
Özen, Tevfik; Türkekul, İbrahim
The antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of Sarcodon imbricatum wildly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated in this study. Antioxidant activities were evaluated in terms of total antioxidant activity, reducing power, metal chelating ability, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, superoxide, peroxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effects. Various antioxidant activities were compared to references antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and trolox. In total antioxidant (12674.45 μmol α-tocopherol/g of extract), superoxide scavenging (53.74%) and peroxide scavenging activity (45.73%), the methanol extract of Sarcodon imbricatum showed stronger activity patterns than that of references antioxidants. Reducing power, metal chelating activity and free radical (DPPH•) scavenging activity was increased with the increasing concentration. The contents of total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene of Sarcodon imbricatum were determined and found to be noteworthy. PMID:20668572
Prozorovskaia, N N; Rusina, I F; Lupinovich, V L; Beketova, N A; Sorokin, I V; Ipatova, O M; Levachev, M M
Effective concentration of antioxidants and its reactivity toward peroxil radicals (constant k7) have been measured by the chemiluminescence technique for flaxseed oil. Effective concentration of antioxidants is shown to depend on the technology of producing flaxseed oil; period of seed storage before use; and storing duration of flaxseed oil also. Minor component content of flaxseed oil, which may be the members of antioxidant pool, has been quantitatively estimated.
Shomali, S; Avval, F Zahedi; Boostani, R; Jarahi, L; Youssefi, M
Many aspects of the pathogenesis of Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) still need further elucidations. Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress occurs during infection with the other retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). Similar results have been observed in some other chronic viral infections including hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV). In order to reveal possible oxidative stress in HTLV-1-infected patients, we evaluated serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as an indicator of oxidative stress in these patients. Forty-four HTLV-1-seropositive individuals were included in this study, consisting of 12 symptomatic and 32 asymptomatic (carrier) cases. Controls consisted of 36 apparently healthy, HTLV-1-, HIV- and hepatitis-seronegative individuals. All symptomatic patients had HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Serum TAC levels in patients and healthy individuals were measured using a quantitative TAC assay. The antioxidant capacity in HTLV-1-seropositive cases was significantly reduced compared to control group (P = 0.001). In addition, TAC was lower in patients with more than 5 years history of HAM/TSP compared to those with ≤5 years duration of the myelopathy (P = 0.03). Our results show a depletion of TAC during HTLV-1 infection, which intensifies along with the disease progress. This finding indicates a role of the oxidative stress in pathogenesis of HTLV-1. These results may prompt further research to evaluate any possible therapeutic effect of antioxidant dietary supplements for HTLV-1 infected individuals.
During frying, an antioxidant is lost by reaction with radicals for its antioxidant activity, but it is also lost by decomposition and evaporation before it is able to exert antioxidant activity. Some low molecular weight antioxidants are often so volatile that they show much reduced antioxidant act...
Sureda, A; Batle, J M; Ferrer, M D; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A
The aim was to study the effects of scuba diving immersion on plasma antioxidant defenses, nitric oxide production, endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. 9 male divers performed an immersion at 50 m depth for a total time of 35 min. Blood samples were obtained before diving at rest, immediately after diving, and 3 h after the diving session. Leukocyte counts, plasma 8oxoHG, malondialdehyde and nitrite levels significantly increased after recovery. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, catalase and superoxide significantly increased immediately after diving and these activities remained high after recovery. Plasma myeloperoxidase activity and protein levels and extracellular superoxide dismutase protein levels increased after 3 h. Endothelin-1 concentration significantly decreased after diving and after recovery. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentration significantly increased after diving when compared to pre-diving values, returning to initial values after recovery. Scuba diving at great depth activated the plasma antioxidant system against the oxidative stress induced by elevated pO₂ oxygen associated with hyperbaria. The decrease in endothelin-1 levels and the increase in nitric oxide synthesis could be factors that contribute to post-diving vasodilation. Diving increases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels which can contribute to the stimulation of tissue resistance to diving-derived oxidative damage.
Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa
Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. PMID:25035854
Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly
Cyphomandra betacea is one of the underutilized fruits which can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. This study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in different parts (i.e., flesh and peel) of the fruits. Antioxidants were analyzed using DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays as well as FRAP assay. Anticholinesterase activity was determined using enzymatic assay using acetyl cholinesterase enzyme. For 80% methanol extract, the peel of the fruit displayed higher antioxidant activity in both FRAP and ABTS free radical scavenging assays while the flesh displayed higher antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were higher in the peel with the values of 4.89 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 3.36 ± 0.01 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Total anthocyanin and carotenoid content were higher in the flesh of the fruit with the values of 4.15 ± 0.04 mg/100 g and 25.13 ± 0.35 mg/100 g. The anticholinesterase was also higher in the peel of C. betacea. The same trends of phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase were also observed in the distilled water extracts. These findings suggested that C. betacea has a potential as natural antioxidant-rich nutraceutical products. PMID:24298210
Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa
An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals
Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata
The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions.
Plazonić, Ana; Mornar, Ana; Maleš, Željan; Kujundžić, Nikola
Since C. platycarpos contains a wide variety of antioxidants, in the present study total flavonoid and phenolic acid content as well as antioxidative activity of various C. platycarpos extracts were investigated. The results obtained show a significant polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of the investigated plant. Moreover, a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids was found, indicating the responsibility of these compounds for the antioxidant effectiveness of C. platycarpos extracts and making C. platycarpos a good potential source of natural antioxidants.
Anesini, Claudia; Ferraro, Graciela E; Filip, Rosana
Tea, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theaceae) is cultivated in Argentina in the northeastern region (provinces of Misiones and Corrientes), between 26 degrees and 28 degrees south latitude, the southernmost area of the world where tea is cultivated. The objective of this work was to determine the total polyphenol content and the in vitro antioxidant capacity of green and black tea cultivated and industrialized in Argentina. Twelve samples of eight brands were analyzed. The total polyphenol content was determined according to the International Organization for Standardization method (ISO) 14502-1 for the determination of substances characteristic of green and black tea. The antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric thiocyanate method (FTC) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging assay. Green tea showed a higher polyphenol content than black tea. The total polyphenol concentration in green tea was found to vary from 21.02 +/- 1.54 to 14.32 +/- 0.45% of gallic acid equivalents (GAE), whereas in black tea, the polyphenol content ranged from 17.62 +/- 0.42 to 8.42 +/- 0.55% of GAE (P < 0.05). A similar profile was observed for the antioxidant capacity determined by both methods. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total polyphenol content (r (2) = 0.9935 for the ferric thiocyanate method and r (2) = 0.9141 for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay). This is the first systematic screening for the quantification of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in tea commercialized in Argentine markets. The results obtained herein allow one to conclude that Argentine tea is of very good quality when compared to teas from other sources.
Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N. Venugopal; Rao, V. Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C. P.
Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7–15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7–10 years and 11–15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2’-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. Results: The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7–10 years and for the age 11–15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. Conclusions: In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age. PMID:25821379
Pertuzatti, Paula Becker; Barcia, Milene Teixeira; Rodrigues, Daniele; da Cruz, Pollyanna Nogueira; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Smith, Robert; Godoy, Helena Teixeira
Hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of ten cultivars of Highbush and Rabbiteye Brazilian blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and Vacciniumashei Reade, respectively) that are used for commercial production were analysed for antioxidant activity by the FRAP, ORAC, ABTS and β-carotene-linoleate methods. Results were correlated to the amounts of carotenoids, total phenolics and anthocyanins. Brazilian blueberries had relatively high concentration of total phenolics (1,622-3,457 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g DW) and total anthocyanins (140-318 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g DW), as well as being a good source of carotenoids. There was a higher positive correlation between the amounts of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic compared to lipophilic extracts. There were also significant differences in the level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities between different cultivars, production location and year of cultivation.
Shobana, S; Naidu, K A
Spices and vegetables possess antioxidant activity that can be applied for preservation of lipids and reduce lipid peroxidation in biological systems. The potential antioxidant activities of selected spices extracts (water and alcohol 1:1) were investigated on enzymatic lipid peroxidation. Water and alcoholic extract (1:1) of commonly used spices (garlic, ginger, onion, mint, cloves, cinnamon and pepper) dose-dependently inhibited oxidation of fatty acid, linoleic acid in presence of soybean lipoxygenase. Among the spices tested, cloves exhibited highest while onion showed least antioxidant activity. The relative antioxidant activities decreased in the order of cloves, cinnamon, pepper, ginger, garlic, mint and onion. Spice mix namely ginger, onion and garlic; onion and ginger; ginger and garlic showed cumulative inhibition of lipid peroxidation thus exhibiting their synergistic antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of spice extracts were retained even after boiling for 30 min at 100 degrees C, indicating that the spice constituents were resistant to thermal denaturation. The antioxidant activity of these dietary spices suggest that in addition to imparting flavor to the food, they possess potential health benefits by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation.
Al-Majedy, Yasameen K.; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar
The synthesis of derivatives of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MUs), which are structurally interesting antioxidants, was performed in this study. The modification of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) by different reaction steps was performed to yield the target compounds, the 4-MUs. The 4-MUs were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transform infrared; FT-IR and Nuclear magnetic resonance; NMR) and micro-elemental analysis (CHNS). The in vitro antioxidant activity of the 4-MUs was evaluated in terms of their free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity assay, chelating activity and their (FRAP) ferric-reducing antioxidant power, which were compared with a standard antioxidant. Our results reveal that the 4-MUs exhibit excellent radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant mechanisms of the 4-MUs were also studied. Density Function Theory (DFT)-based quantum chemical studies were performed with the basis set at 3-21G. Molecular models of the synthesized compounds were studied to understand the antioxidant activity. The electron levels, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital), for these synthesized antioxidants were also studied. PMID:27243231
Modarresi Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza Sulaiman, Shaida
A total of 9 plant extracts were tested, using two different kinds of extracting methods to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities from Pilea microphylla (Urticaceae family) and including toxicity test. Antioxidant activity were tested by using DPPH free radical scavenging, also total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were determined. Toxicity assay carried out by using brine shrimps. Methanol extract of method I (ME I) showed the highest antioxidant activity at 69.51 ± 1.03. Chloroform extract of method I (CE I) showed the highest total phenolic contents at 72.10 ± 0.71 and chloroform extract of method II (CE II) showed the highest total flavonoid contents at 60.14 ± 0.33. The antimicrobial activity of Pilea microphylla extract was tested in vitro by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The Pilea microphylla extract showed antibacterial activity against some Gram negative and positive bacteria. The extracts did not exhibit antifungal and antiyeast activity. The hexane extract of method I (HE I) was not toxic against brine shrimp (LC50 value was 3880 μg/ml). Therefore, the extracts could be suitable as antimicrobial and antioxidative agents in food industry. PMID:20652052
Semsang, N; Kawaree, R; Cutler, R W; Chundet, R; Yu, L D; Anuntalabhochai, S
Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML105) is highly valued due to its subtle aroma, robust seed characteristics and high nutritional quality. Low-energy ion-beam bombardment was chosen to improve the quality of jasmine rice by mutation induction. One mutated variety, named BKOS, was found to exhibit a deep purple colour due to an increased accumulation of anthocyanin. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of cooked and uncooked rice extracts were compared with KDML105, BKOS and other rice mutants created by a low-energy ion beam. The BKOS extracts showed the highest total phenol content (0.140 and 0.096 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g(-1) dry extract from uncooked and cooked rice, respectively). The BKOS extracts also had improved antioxidant activities, determined using three standard methods: 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ABTS radical cation (ABTS•(+)) decolourisation and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays. BKOS extracts showed 2-2.5-fold increased levels for each method. Interestingly, there was no significant difference between the antioxidant activities of the cooked and uncooked BKOS rice extracts. The increased quantity of antioxidants in this anthocyanin-based natural product could allow antioxidants to be consumed by a wider population than what is currently possible.
MacLean, Patricia D; Drake, Emily C; Ross, L; Barclay, C
The antioxidant capacities, antioxidant activities, k(inh), and stoichiometric factors, n, of water-soluble derivatives of bilirubin (BR), BR-human serum albumin (BR-HSA), and BR-ditaurate disodium conjugate (BRC) were determined in aqueous/lipid dispersions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles/methyl linoleate and in bilayers of dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) during initiation by water-soluble azo-bis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (ABAP). The inhibition rate constants for BRC and BR-HSA were similar in micelles (k(inh) approximately 1.3 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)), where n approximately 2, whereas the k(inh) for BR-HSA dropped by (1/2) in bilayers. The dimethyl ester of bilirubin (BRDE) gave a k(inh) only one-tenth that of the vitamin E analog, pentamethylhydroxychroman (PMHC) in SDS micelles/methyl linoleate when initiated by lipid-soluble azo-bis-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile (DMVN). Biliverdin hydrochloride (BVHCl) was NOT an effective peroxyl radical-trapping agent in the micellar phase during initiation by ABAP or DMVN containing methyl linoleate but it inhibited oxygen uptake in the aqueous phase. Both BRC and BR-HSA extended the total radical antioxidant parameter (TRAP) of human blood plasma and their contribution to TRAP was in the range of 5-10% of the natural TRAP of blood plasma, depending on the BR content determined in the blood plasma.
Ban, Lan; Narasimhamoorthy, Brindha; Zhao, Liuqing; Greaves, John A; Schroeder, William D
Rosemary extract is widely used in food industry and carnosic acid is reported to be the major component that is responsible for its antioxidant activities. However, it is unclear how the numerous plant metabolites interact and contribute to the overall antioxidant activity. In this study, with poultry fat as the model food system, rosemary extract from six clonal lines were evaluated that each represented a different genetic variant. As expected, rosemary extract with higher carnosic acid content had higher antioxidant activity. However, rosemary extract which had carnosic acid removed retained a significant amount of activity. Furthermore, when the individual contributions of carnosic acid and the portion without carnosic acid were evaluated separately, neither was shown to be responsible for the overall level of its stabilization effect from rosemary extract as a whole entity. The interactions among different plant metabolites have a major impact on the overall antioxidant capabilities of rosemary extract.
Jiménez-Zamora, Ana; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A
Many plants, like tea, are widely used for preparing herbal infusions. These plants have an interesting antioxidant capacity that may change after harvesting depending on the technological processing and the storage conditions. We determined the antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods), total phenolic content and color analysis (reflectance) of 36 plants traditionally consumed in Spain as infusion. Green tea was the most antioxidant herb, although oregano and lemon balm showed also a very high antioxidant capacity, as well as phenolic content. The antioxidant study after 3-month storage at different temperatures showed that up to a 50% of the total antioxidant capacity could be lost. Color analysis correlated with antioxidant capacity evolution, being a quick tool to control the storage conditions. Finally, our data confirm that the intake of one serving of plant infusion could release the equivalent of up to 1,500 μmol trolox, being a good source of antioxidants for the human diet.
Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Stanojković, Tatjana
The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity of the acetone extracts of the lichens Umbilicaria crustulosa, U. cylindrica, and U. polyphylla. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 5 separate methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds, and determination of total flavonoid content. Of the lichens tested, U. polyphylla had largest free radical scavenging activity (72.79% inhibition at a concentration of 1 mg/mL), which was similar as standard antioxidants in the same concentration. Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts was determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. The strong relationships between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant effect of tested extracts were observed. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method. The most active was extract of U. polyphylla with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 1.56 to 12.5 mg/mL. Anticancer activity was tested against FemX (human melanoma) and LS174 (human colon carcinoma) cell lines using MTT method. All extracts were found to be strong anticancer activity toward both cell lines with IC₅₀ values ranging from 28.45 to 97.82 μg/mL. The present study shows that tested lichen extracts demonstrated a strong antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer effects. That suggests that lichens may be used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer agents.
Yadav, Baljeet S; Yadav, Roshanlal; Yadav, Ritika B; Garg, Munish
Study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative activity of methanolic (ME), ethanolic (EE) and butanolic extracts (BE) of selected gourd vegetables. The antioxidant activity was investigated using different assays namely ferric thiocyanate test (FTC), thiobarbituric acid test (TBA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH free radicals scavenging test. A densitometric HPTLC analysis was performed for the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Different extracts of the selected gourd vegetables revealed different antioxidant activity. Different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria, Momordica charantia and Luffa cylindrica revealed significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total phenols, flavonids, tannins and carotenoids content and also the antioxidant activity in comparison to remaining vegetable extracts. Correlation studies indicated that FRAP test best described the antioxidant activity of phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids (r = 0.854, 0.692 and 0.915 respectively). HPTLC profiles revealed the presence of maximum number of phenolic acids and flavonoids in L. siceraria and M. charantia.
Liaudanskas, Mindaugas; Viškelis, Pranas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Kviklys, Darius; Uselis, Norbertas; Janulis, Valdimaras
The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides.
Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas
The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319
Kumar, Tekeshwar; Jain, Vishal
The aim of this study was to determine the impending antioxidant properties of different extracts of crude methanolic extract (CME) of leaves of Lannea coromandelica (L. coromandelica) and its two ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AqF) subfractions by employing various established in vitro systems and estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The results showed that extract and fractions possessed strong antioxidant activity in vitro and among them, EAF had the strongest antioxidant activity. EAF was confirmed for its highest phenolic content, total flavonoid contents, and total antioxidant capacity. The EAF was found to show remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 63.9 ± 0.64 µg/mL), superoxide radical (EC50 8.2 ± 0.12 mg/mL), and Fe2+ chelating activity (EC50 6.2 ± 0.09 mg/mL). Based on our in vitro results, EAF was investigated for in vivo antioxidant assay. Intragastric administration of the EAF can significantly increase levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels, and decrease malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver and kidney of CCl4-intoxicated rats. These new evidences show that L. coromandelica bared antioxidant activity. PMID:26457224
Lee, Min Young; Kim, Hyun A
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE This study aims to measure the in vitro antioxidant capacity of Korean diet (KD) with American diet (AD) as a control group and to examine the ex vivo DNA damage reduction effect on human lymphocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The KD applied in this study is the standard one-week meals for Koreans (2,000 kcal/day) suggested by 2010 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. The AD, which is the control group, is a one-week menu (2,000 kcal/day) that consists of foods that Americans would commonly take in according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The antioxidant capacity of each menu was measured by means of the total phenolic assay and 3 in vitro antioxidant activity assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACROO·)), while the extent of ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage was measured by means of the comet assay. RESULTS When measured by means of TEAC assay, the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the KD of the day was higher than that of the AD (P < 0.05) while there was no significant difference in total phenolic contents and DPPH and ORAC assays. The ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage protective effect of the KD was significantly higher than that of the AD (P < 0.01). As for the one-week menu combining the menus for 7 days, the total phenolic assay (P < 0.05) and in vitro antioxidant capacity (P < 0.001, DPPH; P < 0.01, TEAC) of the KD menu were significantly higher than those of the AD menu. Likewise, the ex vivo DNA damage reduction rate of the Korean seven-day menu was significantly higher than that of the American menu (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that the high antioxidant capacity and DNA damage protective effect of KD, which consists generally of various plant foods, are higher than those of typical AD. PMID:28194263
Yin, Tian-Peng; Cai, Le; Xing, Yun; Yu, Jing; Li, Xue-Jiao; Mei, Rui-Feng; Ding, Zhong-Tao
A new C20-diterpenoid alkaloid handelidine (1) and twenty-seven known alkaloids (2-28) were isolated from the roots of Aconitum handelianum. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. The study indicated that denudatine-type C20-diterpenoid alkaloids with vicinal-triol system and benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids exhibited significant antioxidant activities measured by three antioxidant test systems. The aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloids could serve as potential secondary antioxidants for their strong binding effects to metal ions.
Antioxidant activity (ABTS assay), total phenolics, and total anthocyanins were determined in the petioles of fifteen rhubarb (Rheum spp.) varieties. Antioxidant activity ranged from 491 ± 60 (Victoria 574/27) to 1820 'mol Trolox/g DW (Valentine). The phenolic content varied from 673 ± 41 (Loher Blu...
Nemś, Agnieszka; Pęksa, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kita, Agnieszka; Drożdż, Wioletta; Hamouz, Karel
Coloured-fleshed potatoes of four varieties were used as raw material for coloured flour and fried snack production. The effects of thermal processes traditionally used in dried potato processing and in snack pellet manufacturing on anthocyanin profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant properties of obtained half- and ready products were studied. There was a significant influence of potato variety on the experimental flour and snack properties. Flours with the highest antioxidant activities were obtained from Salad Blue and Herbie 26 potatoes; however, the flour prepared from the Blue Congo exhibited a much higher total polyphenol and anthocyanin content. Snacks produced with coloured flour had 2-3 times higher antioxidant activities, 40% higher contents of polyphenols, attractive colour and better expansion compared to control samples. The lowest losses of anthocyanins during snack processing were in snacks with flour from the purple-fleshed Blue Congo and red-fleshed Herbie 26.
Lee, Si Eun; Ju, Eun Mi; Kim, Jeong Hee
Euryale ferox has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine to treat a variety of illness. However, very little is known about the cellular actions by which this plant mediates its therapeutic effects. Various aspects of antioxidant activity were evaluated in total extracts and fractions derived from Euryale ferox. Total extracts (IC50 5.6 microg/ml) showed relatively high level radical scavenging activity toward 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also enhanced viability of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells under exposure to oxidative agents. Upon further fractionation, the highest levels of DPPH radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities were found in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions. The ethyl acetate fractions, the butanol fractions, and total extracts of Euryale ferox also dose-dependently enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in V79-4 cells. Of these three antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase activity was most strongly induced. Taken together, our findings show that Euryale ferox contains a significant antioxidant activity and that specific components in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions may play an important role in mediating these antioxidant properties.
Akanitapichat, Pannarat; Phraibung, Kallayanee; Nuchklang, Kwunchai; Prompitakkul, Suparichart
Eggplant is consumed throughout the world and varies in fruit color, shape, and size. In this study, five varieties of eggplant (purple colored moderate size, white-green colored moderate size, long green, green striped moderate size and pale-green colored small size, respectively, called SM1-SM5) were evaluated for total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotection against cytotoxicity of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) in human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2. Total phenolic content found in methanol extracts of SM1-SM5 ranged from 739.36 ± 1.59 to 1116.13 ± 7.30 gallic acid equivalents mg/100g extract and total flavonoid content from 1991.29 ± 6.32 to 3954.20 ± 6.06 catechin equivalents mg/100 g extract. SM1 and SM2 which contained high total phenolic and flavonoid had better antioxidant activities than the other varieties. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with 50 and 100 μg/mL of SM1-SM5 significantly increased the viability (p<0.05) of t-BuOOH-exposed HepG2 cells by 14.49 ± 1.14% to 44.95 ± 2.72%. The antioxidant activities of the eggplant were correlated with the total amounts of phenolic and flavonoid (r = 0.5310-0.7961). Significant correlation was found between hepatoprotective activities and total phenolic/flavonoid content (r = 0.6371-0.8842) and antioxidant activities (r = 0.5846-0.9588), indicating the contribution of the phenolic antioxidant present in eggplant to its hepatoprotective effect on t-BuOOH-induced toxicity.
Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chen-Kang; Tso, Tim K; Huang, Ju-Jen; Chang, Wei-Wei; Tsai, Ying-Chieh
Fruits and vegetables have been known to contain a variety of antioxidant components. It has been suggested that antioxidants may protect biomolecules from oxidative damage and therefore be associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and certain cancer. The antioxidant abilities of various parts of eight common fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan were investigated, including tomato, guava, squash, tangerine, wax gourd, pineapple, chayote, and eggplant. Squash, wax gourd, tomato, and guava seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in thiobarbituric acid assay. Wax guard and squash seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in iodometric assay. At the level of 1 g fresh sample, low-density lipoprotein peroxidation was inhibited by at least 90% by tomato meat, guava meat, squash seed, wax gourd meat, core, and seed, and eggplant skin. The total phenolic content was significantly correlated with antioxidant activities measured by thiobarbituric acid (r=0.715, P<0.01) and iodometric (r=0.749, P<0.01) assays. The results of this study could be used for development of merchandise with potential health benefits from agricultural products.
Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan
The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.
Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan
The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested. PMID:21845104
Moncheva, S.; Trakhtenberg, S.; Katrich, E.; Zemser, M.; Goshev, I.; Toledo, F.; Arancibia-Avila, P.; Doncheva, V.; Gorinstein, S.
The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the total antioxidant radical scavenging capacity (TARSC) in tissue extracts for understanding biochemical adaptations involving the antioxidant defense system of a bivalve mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, sampled in polluted (Pol) and non-polluted (Npol) sites from Black Sea coasts. Antioxidant-rich polyphenol fractions were extracted from whole dry mussel tissue with methanol and water in different proportions. The extracts were screened for polyphenol content and their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ), β-carotene-linoleate (β-carotene) and nitric oxide (NO rad ). The total polyphenol extract of the whole mussel tissue from polluted site (TPMEPol) showed the highest antioxidant capacity among all of the extracts with the tested methods and was comparable with the antioxidant capacity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antioxidant capacities of this extract determined by DPPH rad , β-carotene and NO rad methods and polyphenol content showed the highest correlation coefficients ( R2) such as 0.9985, 0.9915 and 0.9895, respectively. The free polyphenol extracts (FPMEPol and FPMENPol) had lower antioxidant capacity than the two others of total polyphenols (TPMEPol and TPMENPol) with three scavenging methods. Responses were linear in all tested methods and the antioxidant capacity values of soluble antioxidants showed the following relative order: Trolox>BHA>TPMEPol>TPMENPol>FPMEPol>FPMENPol. Nutritional antioxidants, such as polyphenols, were probably the main antioxidant contribution to mussel antioxidants. The mussel extracts from the polluted site exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than from the non-polluted one. The results presented in this report indicate that the antioxidant capacity of the whole tissue of the mussel extract could possibly be a useful biomarker for aquatic environments.
Guedes, A. Catarina; Gião, Maria S.; Seabra, Rui; Ferreira, A. C. Silva; Tamagnini, Paula; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Malcata, F. Xavier
A growing market for novel antioxidants obtained from non-expensive sources justifies educated screening of microalgae for their potential antioxidant features. Characterization of the antioxidant profile of 18 species of cyanobacteria (prokaryotic microalgae) and 23 species of (eukaryotic) microalgae is accordingly reported in this paper. The total antioxidant capacity, accounted for by both water- and lipid-soluble antioxidants, was evaluated by the (radical cation) ABTS method. For complementary characterization of cell extracts, a deoxyribose assay was carried out, as well as a bacteriophage P22/Salmonella-mediated approach. The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus strain M2-1 exhibited the highest (p > 0.05) total antioxidant capacity (149 ± 47 AAU) of intracellular extracts. Its scavenger activity correlated well with its protective effects against DNA oxidative damage induced by copper(II)-ascorbic acid; and against decay in bacteriophage infection capacity induced by H2O2. Finally, performance of an Ames test revealed no mutagenic effects of the said extract. PMID:23595054
Schlesier, K; Harwat, M; Böhm, V; Bitsch, R
In this study, six common tests for measuring antioxidant activity were evaluated by comparing four antioxidants and applying them to beverages (tea and juices): Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC I-III assay), Total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter assay (TRAP assay), 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH assay), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine assay (DMPD assay), Photochemiluminescence assay (PCL assay) and Ferric reducing ability of plasma assay (FRAP assay). The antioxidants included gallic acid representing the group of polyphenols, uric acid as the main antioxidant in human plasma, ascorbic acid as a vitamin widely spread in fruits and Trolox as water soluble vitamin E analogue. The six methods presented can be divided into two groups depending on the oxidising reagent. Five methods use organic radical producers (TEAC I-III, TRAP, DPPH, DMPD, PCL) and one method works with metal ions for oxidation (FRAP). Another difference between these tests is the reaction procedure. Three assays use the delay in oxidation and determine the lag phase as parameter for the antioxidant activity (TEAC I, TRAP, PCL). They determine the delay of radical generation as well as the ability to scavenge the radical. In contrast, the assays TEAC II and III, DPPH, DMPD and FRAP analyse the ability to reduce the radical cation (TEAC II and III, DPPH, DMPD) or the ferric ion (FRAP). The three tests acting by radical reduction use preformed radicals and determine the decrease in absorbance while the FRAP assay measures the formed ferrous ions by increased absorbance. Gallic acid was the strongest antioxidant in all tests with exception of the DMPD assay. In contrast, uric acid and ascorbic acid showed low activity in some assays. Most of the assays determine the antioxidant activity in the micromolar range needing minutes to hours. Only one assay (PCL) is able to analyse the antioxidant activity in the nanomolar range. Black currant juice showed highest
Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A.
This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 μg/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC50 value of rutin was found to be 161.7 μg/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC50 values of 38.1 and 5.84 μg/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH- radical generated from Fe2+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 μg equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this. PMID:23284220
Hanachi, Parichehr; Naghavi, Farzaneh Sadat
Introduction Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells and macromolecules from the damage of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aims of this study were to compare the total antioxidant and carotenoid production in R. Slooffiae and R. Mucilaginosa. Methods To isolate the carotenoid pigment, cells were suspended in acetone and broken using a homogenizer, followed by centrifugation, and supernatant was separated. For analytical method, pigments were measured spectrophotometrically at 450 nm. The B-carotene bleaching and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH) assay were used to determine antioxidant properties of R. Slooffiae and R. Mucilaginosa by measuring the decrease in absorbance at 470 and 517 nm. Results The results showed that the content of total carotenoid in R. Slooffiae was higher than R. Mucilaginosa and it presented higher ability to show antioxidant activity. The mean total antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid was the highest (97.11 ± 6.11%), followed by BHT (64.71 ± 5.41%), R. sloofias extract (57.91 ± 7.34%) and R. Mucilaginosa (39.32 ± 5.85%). The EC50 of ascorbic acid was the strongest (0.252 ± 0.000 mg/ml), followed by BHT (0.612 ± 0.009 mg/ml) and R. Slooffiae (0.658 ± 0.033 mg/ml). There was significant difference observed between the EC50 of R. Slooffiae and BHT. Conclusion It was found that both strains have ability to produce carotenoid and show antioxidant ability; however, R. Slooffiae had more potential in producing carotenoid and showing antioxidant ability than R. Mucilaginosa. Further study is required, in order to utilize this strain in the food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics industries. PMID:27957311
Kofuji, Kyoko; Aoki, Ayumi; Tsubaki, Kazufumi; Konishi, Masanori; Isobe, Takashi; Murata, Yoshifumi
β-Glucans extracted from barley, which mainly contains β-(1,3-1,4)-D-glucan, are used extensively as supplements and food additives due to their wide biologic activities, including a reduction in blood lipid level. In this study, the antioxidant activity of β-glucan was examined to assess potential new benefits associated with β-glucan, because oxidative stress is considered one of the primary causal factors for various diseases and aging. β-Glucan extracted from barley was found to possess significant antioxidant activity. The amount of antioxidant activity was influenced by different physiologic properties (e.g., structure and molecular size) of β-glucan, which varied depending on the source and extraction method used. The antioxidant activity of β-glucan was significantly higher than that of various polymers that are used as food additives. These results indicate that β-glucan has promise as a polymeric excipient for supplement and food additive with antioxidant and other benefits, which may contribute to enhancing health and beauty. PMID:22500243
Soleimani, Gholamreza; Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin; Teimouri, Alireza; Nakhaee, Alireza; Sheikhhosseini, Alireza
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infections in children. This studyaimed to investigate the oxidative and antioxidate status of plasma in patients with UTI and to compare them with those of the controls. Methods: This case–control study of 50–75 children in the given order was performed in 2013 at the Pediatric Clinic of infections in Zahedan Hospital of Ali Ibn Abi Talib. The antioxidative status of plasma were evaluated by measuring the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) The oxidative status of samples was assessed by measuring the total peroxide and the oxidative stress index (OSI) levels. The means of the parameters were compared and the relationship among them was determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 (IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test were applied in various situations of our questions; 95% confidence interval was considered for the level of significance. Results: The results showed that total oxidant serum status in UTI patients was higher compared to controls when total antioxidant serum was lower. The balance of oxidant-antioxidant serum was in favor of oxidant serum and this term was confirmed by OSI. Conclusion: Our results showed that the plasma levels of TAC in patients with UTI were decreased compared to controls, and oxidant-antioxidant balance and OSI caused increased OS in patients. PMID:27226686
Zhang, Xin; Li, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xing; Wu, Zhaoxi; Li, Dapeng
Many traditionally used herbs demonstrate significantly better pharmacological effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the mechanism underlying this synergism is still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic antioxidant activity of Astragalus membranaceus (AME) and Paeonia Lactiflora (PL), and identify the potential antioxidant components by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical spiking test followed by a high performance liquid chromatography separation combined with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (DPPH-HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Eight AME-PL combined extracts (E1–E8) were prepared based on bioactivity-guided fractionation. Among them, E1 exhibited the strongest synergistic effect in scavenging DPPH radicals and reducing ferric ions (P<0.05). Moreover, E1 presented strong cytoprotection against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in MRC-5 cells by suppressing the decrease of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities. A strong correlation between the increment of total phenolic/flavonoid and synergistic antioxidant activity, especially between the increment of total flavonoid and the increase in ferric reducing power was observed. Finally, seven antioxidant substances were identified in E1 as oxypaeoniflora, catechin, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, fomononetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 9,10-dimethoxy-pterocarpan-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin and 2′-dihydroxy-3′,4′-dimethyl-isoflavan-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:24816851
Kilic, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Bayrak, Yüksel
Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.
Kilic, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Bayrak, Yüksel
Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTS+ scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.
Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush
The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency.
Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G
A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities.
Puzhevskaia, T O; Grammatikova, N E; Bibikova, M V; Katlinskiĭ, A V
Complex compounds produced by fungal cultures of Lecanicilium and Beauveria with both high hypolipidemic and antioxydant activities were screened. Two fractions of the hypolipipidemic compounds with antioxidant activity of 95 and 75% in a dose of 25 mcg/ml were isolated.
Xiao, Huiwen; Cai, Xueru; Fan, Yijun; Luo, Aoxue
Objective: In order to investigate the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides (BPL-1 and BPL-2), one of the most important functional constituents in Brasenia schreberi was isolated from the external mucilage of B. schreberi (BPL-1) and the plant in vivo (BPL-2). This paper examines the relationship between the content of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid in BPL and the antioxidant activity of BPL. Materials and Methods: The free radicals, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) and 1,1-diphnyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH-), were used to determine the antioxidant activity of BPL. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of BPL-1 and BPL-2 revealed typical characteristics of polysaccharides. Results: The two sample types had different contents. This was proved by their different adsorption peak intensities. The IC50 values of BPL-1 (31.189 mg/ml) and BPL-2 (1.863 mg/ml) showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. Based on the quantification of ABTS radical scavenging, the IC50 value of BPL-1 (5.460 mg/ml) was higher than that of BPL-2 (0.239 mg/ml). Therefore, in terms of the reducing power, the IC50 value of BPL-1 was too high to determine, and the IC50 value of BPL-2 was found to be 50.557 mg/ml. Hence, the antioxidant activity and total reducing power were high, and they were greater in BPL-2 than in BPL-1. In addition, BPL-2 was found to have more sulfuric radicals and uronic acid than BPL-1. Conclusion: The contents of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid are significantly correlated to the antioxidant activity and reducing power of BPL; the more sulfuric radicals and uronic acid, the more antioxidant activity and reducing power BPL has. SUMMARY The water-soluble crude polysaccharides obtained from the external mucilage and the Brasenia schreberi plant in vivo were confirmed to have high contents of sulfuric radicals and uronic acidBoth BPL-1 and BPL-2 exhibited antioxidative activity and reducing power, and their antioxidative
Measurement of p-nitrophenyl acetate esterase activity (EA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in gills and digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to binary mixtures of Pb, Cd and Cu.
Franco-Martinez, Lorena; Romero, Diego; García-Navarro, José A; Tecles, Fernando; Teles, Mariana; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta
The aims of the present work were (1) to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers and AChE in two tissues of wild mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of high biochemical activity and accumulation capacity (gills and digestive gland) and (2) to study the behaviour of these biomarkers in presence of heavy metals. For this, EA, TOS, TAC and AChE were measured in tissues of mussels exposed to binary combination of Pb, Cd and Cu. Mussels (n = 36) were exposed to one of the binary mixtures of Pb (1000 μg L(-1)), Cd (100 μg L(-1)) and Cu (100 μg L(-1)) for 7 days, under controlled conditions. Gills and digestive gland were extracted and frozen at -80 °C until analysis. The automatic methods employed for the measurement of EA, TAC, TOS and AChE in M. galloprovincialis revealed higher levels of these biomarkers in digestive gland than gills. Study results suggest that gills would be the tissue of election for study oxidative stress markers, whereas digestive tissue should be selected for AChE measurements in case of evaluation of combined metal toxicity in mussels.
Sun, Yujing; Rukeya, Japaer; Tao, Wenyang; Sun, Peilong; Ye, Xingqian
An infusion of the wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) is a traditional Asian herbal tea. This is the most commonly consumed form of dried wolfberry worldwide, yet little scientific information on wolfberry infusions is available. We investigated the effects of making infusions with hot water on the color, the content of bioactive compounds (polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids) and the antioxidant ability of wolfberry infusions. The contents of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of a wolfberry infusion increased with increased infusion temperature and time. Total polysaccharides content (TPOC), total polyphenols (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and total carotenoids contents (TCC) were important for determining the antioxidant capacity of wolfberry infusions with the contribution to antioxidant activity in the order TPC > TFC > TCC > TPOC. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated preparation conditions of 100 °C for 1~3 h, 90 °C for 2~3 h and 80 °C for 2.5~3 h were equivalent as regards the value of TPC, TPOC, TFC, TCC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS. The results of this study suggest the length of time of making a wolfberry infusion in actual real life practice is too short and different dietary habits associated with the intake of wolfberry infusion might provide the same bioactive nutrients. PMID:28102295
Sun, Yujing; Rukeya, Japaer; Tao, Wenyang; Sun, Peilong; Ye, Xingqian
An infusion of the wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) is a traditional Asian herbal tea. This is the most commonly consumed form of dried wolfberry worldwide, yet little scientific information on wolfberry infusions is available. We investigated the effects of making infusions with hot water on the color, the content of bioactive compounds (polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids) and the antioxidant ability of wolfberry infusions. The contents of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of a wolfberry infusion increased with increased infusion temperature and time. Total polysaccharides content (TPOC), total polyphenols (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and total carotenoids contents (TCC) were important for determining the antioxidant capacity of wolfberry infusions with the contribution to antioxidant activity in the order TPC > TFC > TCC > TPOC. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated preparation conditions of 100 °C for 1~3 h, 90 °C for 2~3 h and 80 °C for 2.5~3 h were equivalent as regards the value of TPC, TPOC, TFC, TCC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS. The results of this study suggest the length of time of making a wolfberry infusion in actual real life practice is too short and different dietary habits associated with the intake of wolfberry infusion might provide the same bioactive nutrients.
Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Kocak, Mehmet Sefa; Uren, Mehmet Cemil
This study presents information on the antioxidant activity and heavy metal concentrations of Polyporus sulphureus, Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon perlatum and Gomphus clavatus mushrooms collected from the province of Mugla in the South-Aegean Region of Turkey. Antioxidant activities of mushroom samples were evaluated by four complementary tests. All tests showed L. perlatum and G. clavatus to possess extremely high antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activity of the samples was strongly correlated with total phenolic-flavonoid content. In terms of heavy metal content, L. perlatum exceeded the legal limits for daily intake of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Co contents (0.461, 738.00, 14.52, 1.27, 1.65, 0.417 mg/day, respectively) by a 60-kg consumer. Co contents of M. procera (0.026 mg/day) and P. sulphureus (0.030 mg/day) and Cd contents of G. clavatus (0.071 mg/day) were also above the legal limits. According to these results, L. perlatum should not be consumed, despite the potentially beneficial antioxidant activity. Additionally, M. procera and G. clavatus should not be consumed daily due to their high levels of Cd and Co.
Kaurinovic, Biljana; Popovic, Mira; Vlaisavljevic, Sanja; Raseta, Milena
Extracts of Melittis melissophyllum leaves in ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water were evaporated to dryness and dissolved in 50% ethanol to make 10% (w/v) solutions. The potential protective action of the extracts was assessed by the corresponding in vitro and in vivo tests. In the in vitro experiments extracts were tested as potential scavengers of free radicals (DPPH, O₂·⁻, NO, and OH radicals), as well as inhibitors of liposomal peroxidation (LPx). The results obtained show that all extracts (exept n-BuOH extract) are good scavengers of radicals and reduce LPx intensity in liposomes, which points to their protective (antioxidant) activity. In vivo experiments were concerned with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx) in liver homogenate and blood-hemolysate of experimental animals after their treatment with extracts of M. melissophyllum leaves, or in combination with CCl₄. On the basis of the results obtained it can be concluded that the examined extracts have protective (antioxidative) effect and this antioxidative behaviour is more pronounced in liver than in blood-hemolysate. The reason is probably the fact that liver contains other enzymatic systems, which can also participate in the antioxidative mechanism. Of all the extracts the H₂O one showed the highest protective activity.
Zietz, Michaela; Weckmüller, Annika; Schmidt, Susanne; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Kroh, Lothar W
The influence of genotype and climatic factors, e.g. mean temperature and mean global radiation level, on the antioxidant activity of kale was investigated. Therefore, eight kale cultivars, hybrid and traditional, old cultivars, were grown in a field experiment and harvested at four different times. In addition to the investigation of the total phenolic content, the overall antioxidant activity was determined by TEAC assay and electron spin resonance spectrometry. A special aim was to characterize the contribution of single flavonoids to the overall antioxidant activity using an HPLC-online TEAC approach. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were influenced by the genotype and the eco-physiological factors. The HPLC-online TEAC results showed that not all flavonol glycosides contribute to the overall antioxidant activity in the same manner. Taking the results of the structural analysis obtained by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) into account, distinct structure-antioxidant relationships have been observed.
Rubio, Camila Peres; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa; Martinez-Subiela, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Ceron, José Joaquin
The aim of this review is to study the main spectrophotometric methods used to evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in serum samples of dogs. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is an analyte frequently used to assess the antioxidant status of biological samples and can evaluate the antioxidant response against the free radicals produced in a given disease. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) are different assays described to determine TAC of a sample. This review explains the basis of each assay and their application in the determination of TAC in dogs, and also provides selected information about reports in humans for comparative purposes. It is concluded that, ideally, various different assays integrated in a panel should be used for TAC evaluation, since depending on the assay performed TAC results can be markedly different.
Murillo, Enrique; Britton, Gabrielle B.; Durant, Armando A.
Objectives: The present research was undertaken to determine the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content of cultivated and wild edible fruits consumed in Panama. Materials and Methods: 39 cultivated and wild edible fruits antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content was assessed by using the DPPH and the Folin-Ciocalteu assays, respectively. Results and Discussion: The antioxidant composition of the fruits varied between 1083.33 and 16.22 mg TEAC/100 g fresh weight. On the other hand, the total phenolic content of the 39 fruits tested ranged from 604.80 to 35.10 mg GAE/100 g FW. Ziziphus mauritania presented the highest antioxidant activity and the largest phenolic content, whereas most fruits had a moderate TEAC value. Conclusion: Fruits polyphenol content was strongly correlated with antioxidant properties, which pointed out the important role of these compounds in the prevention of many types of cancer, neurological ailments, and cardiovascular diseases through diverse antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:23248565
Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai
Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts.
Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés
In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.
Background The main aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of forty four traditional Chinese medicinal herbal extracts and to examine these activities in relation to their antioxidant content. Methods The antioxidant activities were investigated using DPPH radical scavenging method and yeast model. The anti-inflammatory properties of the herbal extracts were evaluated by measuring their ability to inhibit the production of nitric oxide and TNF-α in RAW 264.7 macrophages activated by LPS and IFN- γ, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were determined by Alomar Blue assay by measuring cell viability. In order to understand the variation of antioxidant activities of herbal extracts with their antioxidant contents, the total phenolics, total flavonoids and trace metal (Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se and Mo) quantities were estimated and a correlation analysis was carried out. Results Results of this study show that significant levels of phenolics, flavonoids and trace metal contents were found in Ligustrum lucidum, Paeonia suffuticosa, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Sanguisorba officinalis, Spatholobus suberectus, Tussilago farfara and Uncaria rhyncophylla, which correlated well with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Some of the plants displayed high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities but contained low levels of phenolics and flavonoids. Interestingly, these plants contained significant levels of trace metals (such as Zn, Mg and Se) which are likely to be responsible for their activities. Conclusions The results indicate that the phenolics, flavonoids and trace metals play an important role in the antioxidant activities of medicinal plants. Many of the plants studied here have been identified as potential sources of new antioxidant compounds. PMID:23038995
Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mi-Ra; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam
Recently, the natural spices and herbs such as rosemary, oregano, and caraway have been used for the processing of meat products. This study investigates the antioxidant activity of 13 spices commonly used in meat processing plants. The hot water extracts were then used for evaluation of total phenolic content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities. Our results show that the hot water extract of oregano gave the highest extraction yield (41.33%) whereas mace (7.64%) gave the lowest. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of the spice extracts can be ranked against ascorbic acid in the order ascorbic acid > clove > thyme > rosemary > savory > oregano. The values for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities were in the order of marjoram > rosemary > oregano > cumin > savory > basil > thyme > fennel > coriander > ascorbic acid. When compared to ascorbic acid (48.72%), the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of turmeric and mace were found to be higher (p < 0.001). Clove had the highest total phenolic content (108.28 μg catechin equivalent (CE)/g). The total flavonoid content of the spices varied from 324.08 μg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g for thyme to 3.38 μg QE/g for coriander. Our results indicate that hot water extract of several spices had a high antioxidant activity which is partly due to the phenolic and flavonoid compounds. This provides basic data, having implications for further development of processed food products.
Varol, Ercan; Icli, Atilla; Aksoy, Fatih; Bas, Hasan Aydin; Sutcu, Recep; Ersoy, Ismail Hakki; Varol, Simge; Ozaydin, Mehmet
The objective of the present study was to determine the plasma total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with endemic fluorosis. A total of 79 (35 males and 44 females; mean age 44.0 ± 11.9 years) patients with endemic fluorosis and 55 (23 males and 32 females; mean age 48.3 ± 8.5 years) age-, sex- and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in this study. The urine fluoride levels and plasma TOS and TAC levels were measured. The urine fluoride levels of fluorosis patients were significantly higher than control subjects as expected (1.91 ± 0.15 vs. 0.49 ± 0.13 mg/L, respectively; p < 0.001). TOS was significantly higher in fluorosis group than in control group (17.55 ± 3.82 vs. 15.06 ± 4.31 μmol H(2)O(2) Eq/L, respectively; p = 0.001). TAC was significantly lower in fluorosis group than in control group (1.60 ± 0.36 vs. 1.82 ± 0.51 mmol Trolox Eq/L, respectively; p = 0.004). Oxidative stress index (OSI) was significantly higher in fluorosis group than in control group (11.5 ± 3.8 vs. 8.8 ± 3.7, respectively; p < 0.001). Correlation analysis in all the groups indicated that TAC was negatively correlated with urine fluoride (r = -0.25, p = 0.003), TOS was positively correlated with urine fluoride (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) and OSI was positively correlated with urine fluoride (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). The results of our study demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the endemic fluorosis.
Uma, Sundaram; Gurumoorthi, Parameswaran
Mucuna pruriens, an underutilized native legume of South India has been reported to have high levels of L-Dopa, and used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Cellular damage arising from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is said to cause neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants could assuage this oxidative damage of tissue directly and/or indirectly by enhancing natural defenses and also scavenging the free radicals. In this context, the antioxidative potential of different germplasm of Mucuna species was analyzed. Assays were performed to evaluate the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the extracts. Methanolic extracts of Mucuna (black germplasm) yielded high levels dietary antioxidants viz., flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids and phlobotannins qualitatively. Tannins, total phenols, flavanoids, and steroids accounted for 13.60±1.8 tannic acid equivalents, 58.47±3.19 gallic acid equivalents, 23.7±3.12 quercetin equivalents, and 20.3±1.0 mg per 100 mg β-sitosterol equivalents, respectively. Percentage of scavenging activity against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals were 39.12%; 57.1%; 41.26%, and 25.68%, respectively. Reducing capacity (17.74%) was seen to concurrently increase with extract concentration. Catalase, glutathione reductase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were found to be 30.15; 26.6 and 42.5 μmol/mg of protein, respectively. The methanolic extract yielded the most potent levels of dietary antioxidants and exhibited high free-radical-scavenging activity.
Keyimu, Xiren Guli; Abdullah, Aminah
The objectives of this study were to determine the most effective method to remove odour from Sargassum muticum seaweeds and studied their antioxidant properties. Ten grams of wet seaweeds (10 grams dried seaweeds soaked in 100 ml water for 2 hours) were soaked in 100 mL of 1%, 3% and 5% of gum Arabic, rice flour, lemon juice, respectively, and 1% of vinegar. There effect of each treatment on antioxidant level were determined by using the total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging ability expressed as a DPPH value, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and compared to control seaweeds sample (soaked in water only). For sensory attribute, seven trained panellists were asked to evaluate the fishy odour of 11 treated seaweed samples. The fishy odour characteristics and antioxidant activity of treated seaweeds were compared against the control sample (soaked seaweeds), and subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed that 3% and 5% lemon juice and 5% rice flour were able to eliminate the fishy odour of seaweed. However, the antioxidant activity was significantly higher (P<0.05) only for seaweed treated with 5% lemon juice compared to other treatments. Therefore, 5% of lemon juice-treated seaweeds contained the least fishy odour and retained the highest antioxidant activity.
Jan, Shumaila; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Rashid, Umbreen; Bokhari, Jasia
Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous) of fruits of Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) Dc., a locally used fruit in Pakistan. Methods Dried powder of the fruit of M. buxifolia was extracted with methanol and the resultant was fractionated with solvents having escalating polarity; n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the residual soluble aqueous fraction. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were estimated for the methanol and various fractions. These fractions were also subjected to various in vitro assays to estimate the scavenging activity for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), superoxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide and reductive ability for ferric ions and phosphomolybdate assay. Results The n-butanol, aqueous and methanol fractions possessed high amount of phenolics and flavonoids compared with other fractions, and subsequently showed a pronounced scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide radicals and had a potent reductive ability on ferric ion and phosphomolybdate assay. There was a found significant correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and EC50 of DPPH, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide radical and phosphomolybdate assays, whereas a nonsignificant correlation was found with the hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical assay. Conclusion M. buxifolia fruit can be used as natural antioxidant source to prevent damage associated with free radicals. PMID:24298440
Sithisarn, Pongtip; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Gritsanapan, Wandee
Leaves, fruits, flowers and stem bark extracts from the Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton, Meliaceae) were assessed for antioxidant activity in vitro using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay, total antioxidant activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in Chago K1 cancer cell culture by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method. The results showed that leaf aqueous extract, flower and stem bark ethanol extracts exhibited higher free radical scavenging effect on the DPPH assay with 50% scavenging activity at 26.5, 27.9 and 30.6 microg/ml, respectively. The total antioxidant activity of these extracts was found to be 0.959, 0.988 and 1.064 mM of standard trolox, respectively. At 100 microg/ml, the flower ethanol and leaf aqueous extracts significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (46.0 and 50.6%, respectively) by the TBARS method. The results suggest that extracts from leaf, flower and stem bark of the Siamese neem tree have strong antioxidant potential. This report supports the ethnomedical use of young leaves and flowers of this plant as a vegetable bitter tonic to promote good health.
Koutroubakis, Ioannis E; Malliaraki, Niki; Dimoulios, Philippos D; Karmiris, Konstantinos; Castanas, Elias; Kouroumalis, Elias A
Oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants may play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related intestinal damage. A new automated assay for the determination of blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC), based on the crocin bleaching method, has been used for the measurement of TAC and corrected TAC (cTAC) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in comparison to healthy controls (HC). Ninety-four patients with UC, 97 patients with CD, and 72 HC were included in this study. Serum TAC was measured in all patients and controls on an Olympus AU-600 chemistry analyzer using a TAC kit. cTAC was calculated from TAC after subtraction of the interactions due to endogenous uric acid, bilirubin and albumin. Mean serum TAC as well as cTAC levels were significantly lower in both UC and CD patients compared with HC (P < 0.0001). Patients with active UC had no different TAC and cTAC compared to those with inactive disease. Patients with active CD had significantly lower mean TAC compared to those with inactive disease but cTAC was not different between the two phases of disease activity. Patients with proctitis had significantly higher TAC and cTAC compared to patients with left-sided colitis and total colitis. In CD patients no association between disease localization and these markers was found. TAC and cTAC are significantly reduced in IBD patients compared with controls irrespective of disease activity. The decreased antioxidant defenses may be a primary phenomenon severely compromising the mucosa and therefore increase susceptibility to oxidative tissue damage.
Spada, Patrícia D S; de Souza, Gabrielle Gianna Nunes; Bortolini, Giovana Vera; Henriques, João A P; Salvador, Mirian
Many studies have focused on the effect of fresh fruits on the risk of developing cancer and other diseases involved with reactive species and free radicals. The intake of frozen fruits has spread widely in the last years, but, until now, their biological activity is not completely known. In this study, 23 samples of frozen fruits were analyzed for their nutritional composition, total polyphenols, total carotenoids, and vitamin C content. Antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic effects were also evaluated. Antioxidant assays included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(.)) scavenging activity and determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD)- and catalase (CAT)-like activities. Mutagenic and antimutagenic evaluations were performed in eukaryotic cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Most samples (74%) showed antioxidant activity similar to vitamin C in the DPPH(.) assay, and this activity was positively correlated (r = 0.366; P
Vucić, Dragana M; Petković, Miroslav R; Rodić-Grabovac, Branka B; Stefanović, Olgica D; Vasić, Sava M; Comić, Ljiljana R
Antibacterial and antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from the leaves and flowers of Erica herbacea L. were studied. In vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by macrodilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) have been determined. Testing was performed on 30 clinical isolates, including different strains of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus vulgaris. The values for MIC were in the range from 2.5 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL. The most sensitive bacterial strains were Proteus vulgaris strains. The aqueous extract from E. herbacea was found the most active. The total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and ranged between 14.98 and 119.88 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids in extracts was determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminium chloride and obtained results varied from 16.19 to 26.90 mg RU/g. Antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically using DPPH reagent. The highest capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals was found in the aqueous extract from E. herbacea. The results of the total phenolic content determination of the examined extracts indicate that E. herbacea extracts are a rich source of phenolic compounds and also possess a significant antioxidant activity and moderate antibacterial activity.
Wang, Lifeng; Chen, Jingyi; Xie, Huihui; Ju, Xingrong; Liu, Rui Hai
Consumption of whole grains has been associated with reduced risk of developing major chronic diseases. These health benefits have been attributed in part to their unique phytochemicals. Little is known about the complete profiles of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of different adlay varieties. The objectives of this study were to determine the phytochemicals profiles of the three adlay varieties, including both free and bound of total phenolics and total flavonoids, and to determine the total antioxidant activity of adlay. The free, bound, and total phenolic contents of adlay samples ranged from 31.23 to 45.19 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of sample, from 28.07 to 30.86 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of sample, and from 59.30 to 76.04 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of sample, respectively. On average, the bound phenolics contributed 45.3% of total phenolic content of the adlay varieties analyzed. The free, bound, and total flavonoid contents of adlay samples ranged from 6.21 to 18.24 mg of catechin equiv/100 g, from 18.68 to 35.27 mg of catechin equiv/100 g, and from 24.88 to 52.86 mg of catechin equiv/100 g, respectively. The average values of bound flavonoids contributed 71.1% of total flavonoids of the adlay varieties analyzed. The percentage contribution of flavonoid content to phenolic content of free, bound, and total ranged from 11.6 to 35.2%, from 50.5 to 66.8%, and from 24.6 to 50.5%. The free, bound, and total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of adlay samples ranged from 231.9 to 316.6 mg of Trolox equiv/100 g, from 209.0 to 351.4 mg of Trolox equiv/100 g, and from 440.9 to 668.0 mg of Trolox equiv/100 g, respectively. The average ORAC values of bound phytochemicals contributed 48.1% of total antioxidant activity of the adlay varieties analyzed. The content of total polyphenol and the antioxidant capacity are obviously different among different species. Liaoning 5 adlay and Longyi 1 adlay are significantly better than Guizhou
Perez-Meseguer, Jonathan; Delgado-Montemayor, Cecilia; Ortíz-Torres, Tania; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Cordero-Perez, Paula; de Torres, Noemí Waksman
Hamelia patens is widely used in the traditional medicine of Mexico and Central America for the treatment of illnesses associated with inflammatory processes. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity were assayed on the methanolic crude (ME), hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (AE), and butanol (BE) extracts of H. patens. The total phenolic content (TPC) as mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dry extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu's method (ME=141.58±11.99, HE=33.96±1.13, AE=375.18±13.09, BE=132.08±3.62), and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method (EC(50) ME=77.87±5.67, HE=236.64±26.32, AE=45.87±2.24, BE=50.97±0.85μg/mL). Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated through AST activity on HepG2 cells subjected to damage with CCl(4) (ME=62.5±3.41, HE=72.25±2.87, AE=63.50±4.20, BE=43.74±4.03). BE showed the greater hepatoprotective activity and a good antioxidant capacity, while HE did not show hepatoprotective or antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on Vero cells cultures; none showed significant toxicity.
Park, Seon-Joo; Kim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Jung Hoan; Jeong, Sehyun; Kim, Min Hee; Yang, Su-Jin; Lee, Jongsung; Lee, Hae-Jeung
This study investigated the antioxidant activity of functional beverage concentrates containing herbal medicine extracts (FBCH) using various antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power assay. The total polyphenolic content of FBCH (81.45 mg/100 g) was higher than Ssanghwa tea (SHT, 37.56 mg/100 g). The antioxidant activities of FBCH showed 52.92% DPPH and 55.18% ABTS radical scavenging activities at 100 mg/mL, respectively. FBCH showed significantly higher antioxidant activities compared to the SHT (DPPH, 23.43%; ABTS, 22.21%; reducing power optical density; 0.23, P<0.05). In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner following FBCH treatment. These results suggest that the addition of herbal medicine extract contributes to the improved functionality of beverage concentrates.
de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Marais, Johann; Manley, Marena
The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and phenolic composition of 139 Pinotage wines (2002 and 2003 vintages) were determined using the 2,2'-azino-di(3-ethylbenzo-thialozine-sulfonic acid) scavenging assay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The contribution of individually quantified phenolic compounds to the wine TAC was calculated using their concentrations and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values. The TEAC values of quercetin-3-galactoside, isorhamnetin, and peonidin-3-glucoside are reported for the first time. Between 11 and 24% of the measured TAC of Pinotage wines was explained by the sum of the calculated contributions of their quantified phenolic compounds comprising monomeric phenolic compounds and procyanidin B1. Ultrafiltration was carried out to attempt separation of monomeric and polymeric phenolic compounds. Analysis of ultrafiltration permeates and retentates enabled estimation of the TAC contribution of large molecular weight (MW) unknown compounds (46%) (>50 kDa), including oligomeric and polymeric phenolic compounds and small MW unknown compounds (34%) (<50 kDa). Three mixtures, containing 12 phenolic compounds in typical concentrations expected in Pinotage wines, exhibited 16-23% synergistic antioxidant activity. This suggests that synergy between phenolic compounds does play a role in the wine TAC but that it does not explain the large discrepancy between measured and calculated TAC values.
Mahdi-Pour, Badakhshan; Jothy, Subramanion L; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan
Objective To investigate the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of Lantana camara (L. camara) various parts and the determination of their total phenolics content. Methods The extract was screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity(DPPH), xanthine oxidase inhibition activity and Griess-Ilosvay method. Results The results showed that all the plant parts possessed antioxidant properties including radical scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition and nitrites scavenging activities. The antioxidative activities were correlated with the total phenol. The leaves extract of L. camara was more effective than that of other parts. Conclusions This study suggests that L. camara extracts exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions. PMID:23593576
Patel, DK; Kumar, R; Prasad, SK; Hemalatha, S
Objective To examine the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of different solvent fractions of Pedalium murex (P. murex) Linn fruits (Family: Pedaliaceae) as well as the correlation between the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. Methods In the present study, the antioxidant activities of P. murex were evaluated using six in-vitro assays, namely total antioxidant assay, DPPH assay, reducing power, nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and deoxyribose scavenging assays, and total phenol contents were also investigated. Results The ethyl acetate (EA) fraction was found to have high levels of phenolic content (298.72±2.09 mg GAE/g). The EA fraction exhibit higher total antioxidant capacity, higher percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity (135.11±2.95µg/mL), nitric oxide (200.57±4.51µg/mL), hydrogen peroxide (217.91±6.12 µg/mL), deoxyribose (250.01±4.68µg/mL) and higher reducing power. Correlation coefficient (r2=0.914) was found to be significant between total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity. Conclusions In general, the results indicate that the EA fractions are rich in phenolic antioxidants with potent free radical scavenging activity implying their importance to human health. PMID:23569800
Umamaheswari, M; Asokkumar, K; Rathidevi, R; Sivashanmugam, A T; Subhadradevi, V; Ravi, T K
The study was aimed at evaluating the antiulcer and antioxidant activities of 70% ethanolic axtract of leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum L. (JGLE). The leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum L. (Family: Oleaceae) is used in folk medicine for treating ulcerative stomatitis, skin diseases, ulcers, wounds, corns - a hard or soft hyperkeratosis of the sole of the human foot secondary to friction and pressure (Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 28th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia. p. 443), etc., Antiulcerogenic activity of JGLE (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w., orally) was evaluated employing aspirin + pylorus ligation (APL) and alcohol (AL) induced acute gastric ulcer models and ulcer-healing activity using acetic acid-induced (AC) chronic ulcer model in rats. Both the antisecretory and cytoprotection hypothesis were evaluated. The antioxidant activity of JGLE has been assayed by using in vitro methods like 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylhydrate (DPPH) assay, reductive ability, superoxide anion scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and total phenolic content, in order to explain the role of antioxidant principles in the antiulcerogenic activity of the extract. There was a significant (P<0.01) dose-dependent decrease in the ulcerative lesion index produced by all the three models in rats as compared to the standard drug famotidine (20 mg/kg, b.w. orally). The reduction in gastric fluid volume, total acidity and an increase in the pH of the gastric fluid in APL rats proved the antisecretory activity of JGLE. Additionally, JGLE completely healed the ulcer within 20 days of treatment in AC model as evidenced by histopathological studies. Like antiulcer activity, the free radical scavenging activities of JGLE depends on concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extract. These results suggest that leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum possess potential antiulcer activity, which may be attributed to its antioxidant mechanism of action.
Sun, Jie; Liu, Shao-fang; Zhang, Chu-shu; Yu, Li-na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Qing-li
Fruits of Broussonetia papyrifera from South China were analyzed for their total chemical composition, and antioxidant activities in ethanol and aqueous extracts. In the fruit of this plant, the crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates was 7.08%, 3.72% and 64.73% of dry weight, respectively. The crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates were 15.71%, 20.51% and 36.09% of dry weight, respectively. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of the fruit were analyzed. Unsaturated fatty acid concentration was 70.6% of the total fatty acids. The percentage of the essential amino acids (EAAs) was 40.60% of the total amino acids. Furthermore, B. papyrifera fruit are rich in many mineral elements and vitamins. Total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, whereas antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring the ability of the two extracts to scavenge DPPH radicals, inhibit peroxidation, and chelate ferric ions. Their reducing power was also assessed. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of B. papyrifera was a more potent reducing agent and radical-scavenger than the ethanol extract. GC–MS analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of some acid-containing compounds. The changes in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in B. papyrifera from four different regions grown under normal conditions were assessed. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was positively associated with their total phenolic content. These results suggest that the fruit of B. papyrifera could be used in dietary supplement preparations, or as a food additive, for nutritional gain, or to prevent oxidation in food products. PMID:22389678
Vladimir-Knežević, Sanda; Blažeković, Biljana; Štefan, Maja Bival; Alegro, Antun; Koszegi, Tamás; Petrik, József
Antioxidant activities of three selected Micromeria species growing in Croatia (M. croatica, M. juliana and M. thymifolia) were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays, in comparison with plant polyphenolic constituents and reference antioxidants. All studied ethanolic extracts exhibited considerable activity to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals, reducing power, iron chelating ability and total antioxidant capacity in the order: M. croatica > M. juliana > M. thymifolia. Total polyphenol (9.69-13.66%), phenolic acid (5.26-6.84%), flavonoid (0.01-0.09%) and tannin (3.07-6.48%) contents in dried plant samples were determined spectrophotometrically. A strong positive correlation between antioxidant activities and contents of phenolic acids and tannins was found, indicating their responsibility for effectiveness of tested plants. Our findings established Micromeria species as a rich source of antioxidant polyphenols, especially the endemic M. croatica.
Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of
Borisenkov, M F
In the inhabitants of the North during increase of geomagnetic activity and during magnetic calm the decrease of amplitude of circadian rhythm of total antioxidant capacity of saliva is observed. The most favorable conditions to display the circadian rhythm are observed at Kp from 0,5 up to 2. The long residing in the North is connected to influence of irregularly varying geomagnetic activity causing disturbance of function of circadian and antioxidant systems that, probably, is one of the reasons of acceleration of process of aging at northerner and of higher risk of occurrence in them the age associated diseases.
Pathak, Chandramani; Jaiswal, Yogesh K; Vinayak, Manjula
Constant generation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism of an organism is generally balanced by similar rate of consumption by antioxidants. Imbalance between ROS production and antioxidant defense results in increased level of ROS causing oxidative stress which leads to promotion of malignancy. Queuine is a hyper modified base analogue of guanine, found at first anti-codon position of Q- family of tRNAs. These tRNAs are completely modified with respect to queuosine in terminally differentiated somatic cells, however hypomodification of Q-tRNAs is close association with cell proliferation. Q-tRNA modification is essential for normal development, differentiation and cellular functions. Queuine is a nutrient factor to eukaryotes. It is found to promote cellular antioxidant defense system and inhibit tumorigenesis. The activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, SOD, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase are found to be low in Dalton's lymphoma ascites transplanted (DLAT) mouse liver compared to normal. However, exogenous administration of queuine to DLAT mouse improves the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest that queuine promotes antioxidant defense system by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and in turn inhibits oxidative stress and tumorigenesis.
To evaluate the ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients, seven commercial cultivars (two general and five cherry) of tomatoes were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Fruits were harvested at breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages of each cultivar, and antioxidant contents, color attributes, and antioxidant activities were measured. During ripening process, lycopene content increased from the breaker to red stage, while lutein displayed the reverse accumulation pattern, with higher values during the breaker stage. In contrast, β-carotene showed the highest levels of synthesis in pink and light red stages. Furthermore, flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and luteolin) also showed similar ripening-dependent changes, with higher quantities in pink and light red stages. Ascorbic acid showed continuously increasing patterns throughout ripening until the red stage, while the accumulation of total phenolics was cultivar-dependent. These results indicate that each antioxidant compound has a unique pattern of accumulation and degradation during the ripening process. “Unicon” exhibited highest total carotenoid (110.27 mg/100 g), total phenol (297.88 mg GAE/100 g) and total flavonoid content (273.33 mg/100 g), and consequently highest antioxidant activity (2552.4 μmol TE/100 g) compared to other cultivars. Throughout the ripening processes, total phenolics showed the highest correlation with antioxidant activity, followed by β-carotene and total flavonoids. In conclusion, ripening in tomatoes is accompanied by incremental increases in various antioxidant compounds to some extent, as well as by concomitant increases in antioxidant activity. PMID:27668121
Bokhari, Jasia; Khan, Muhammad R.; Shabbir, Maria; Rashid, Umbreen; Jan, Shumaila; Zai, Jawaid A.
Methanol extract and its n-hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fraction of Galium aparine L. (Rubiacea) were evaluated in vitro for their antioxidant capacity (DPPH, superoxide radical, phosphomolybdate assay); reducing power (ABTS, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ ions) and to estimate total flavonoid and phenolic contents. All the free radical generating assay models depicted differential positive scavenging activity but considerable magnitude for all the fractions. The results showed that aqueous fraction strongly scavenge the DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between IC50 values of DPPH and superoxide radical with total phenolic content and phosphomolybdate assay with total flavonoid contents, respectively. These results suggested that aqueous fraction can be a good source of antioxidant therapeutic in oxidative stress damages.
Harasym, Joanna; Oledzki, Remigiusz
For a long time, the increased consumption of fruits and vegetables was considered critical in protecting humans against a number of diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and heart and brain vascular diseases. Presently, it is thought that the protective properties of these foods result from the presence of low-molecular antioxidants that protect the cells and their structures against oxidative damage. The alleged effect of reducing the risk for many diseases is not only due to the effect of individual antioxidants, such as α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, or β-carotene, but also may be the result of antioxidant compounds not yet known or synergy of several different antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables. Studies on macromolecules (DNA, nucleotides, proteins) free-radical-related damage showed that diets enriched with extra servings of fruits and vegetables rich in β-carotene, tocopherols, and ascorbic acid had only limited effect on the inhibition of oxidation processes. A number of studies have shown, however, that consuming less common fruits and vegetables contribute much more to the reduction of free-radical processes, most likely because they contain a large amount of non-vitamin antioxidants, such as polyphenols and anthocyanins.
Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P
The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of olive leaf extracts were determined. Plant material was extracted with methanol and fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity, giving certain extracts. The qualitative changes in the composition of the extracts were determined after the storage of leaves for 22 h at 37°C, before the extraction. Total polyphenol contents in extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. They were also analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated using the diphenyl picrylhydrazyl method and the β-carotene linoleate model assay. Moreover, the effects of different crude olive leaf extracts on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at 40°C and sunflower oil-in-water emulsions (10% o/w) at 37°C, at a final concentration of crude extract 200 mg kg(-1) oil, were tested and compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene.
Feng, Rui-Zhang; Wang, Qin; Tong, Wen-Zhi; Xiong, Juan; Wei, Qin; Zhou, Wan-Hai; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Yin, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ya-Qin; Lai, Yong-Hong; Huang, Hong-Yan; Luo, Qiao-Li; Wang, Lu; Jia, Ren-Yong; Song, Xu; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Li, Li-Xia
Morus nigra has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, but the study on it is limited, the flavonoids are one of the main biological active substances. In this study, the Morus nigra flavonoids were extracted by ultrasonic and antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo were measured. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals clearance rate and superoxide radical anion clearance rate in vitro increased with the concentration of the total flavonoids in the range of 0-1.05 mg/mL and the maximum clearance rate was 80.33% and 87.69%, respectively. After mice were treated with flavonoids, the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and liver decreased; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and liver, catalase (CAT) in liver and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in blood and liver increased; Langhans cells increased in spleen. These results revealed that the Morus nigra flavonoids possessed strong antioxidant activity. PMID:26885210
Cabrera, Carmen; Giménez, Rafael; López, M Carmen
Levels of essential elements with antioxidant activity, as well as catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine levels, in a total of 45 samples of different teas commercialized in Spain have been evaluated. Chromium, manganese, selenium, and zinc were determined in the samples mineralized with HNO(3) and V(2)O(5), using ETAAS as the analytical technique. The reliability of the procedure was checked by analysis of a certified reference material. Large variations in the trace element composition of teas were observed. The levels ranged from 50.6 to 371.4 ng/g for Cr, from 76.1 to 987.6 microg/g for Mn, from 48.5 to 114.6 ng/g for Se, and from 56.3 to 78.6 ng/g for Zn. The four major catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC)], gallic acid (GA), and caffeine were simultaneously determined by a simple and fast HPLC method using a photodiode array detector. In all analyzed samples, EGCG ranged from 1.4 to 103.5 mg/g, EGC from 3.9 to 45.3 mg/g, ECG from 0.2 to 45.6 mg/g, and EC ranged from 0.6 to 21.2 mg/g. These results indicated that green tea has a higher content of catechins than both oolong and fermented teas (red and black teas); the fermentation process during tea manufacturing reduces the levels of catechins significantly. Gallic acid content ranged from 0.039 to 6.7 mg/g; the fermentation process also elevated remarkably gallic acid levels in black teas (mean level of 3.9 +/- 1.5 mg/g). The amount of caffeine in the analyzed samples ranged from 7.5 to 86.6 mg/g, and the lower values were detected in green and oolong teas. This study will be useful for the appraisal of trace elements and antioxidant components in various teas, and it will also be of interest for people who like drinking this beverage.
Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang
Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250
Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M
Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.
Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah
A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.
Wu, Gangcheng; Johnson, Stuart K; Bornman, Janet F; Bennett, Sarita J; Fang, Zhongxiang
Sorghum grain containing elevated polyphenolic antioxidant content may provide foods with benefits to human health. A study was undertaken to determine the potential role of irrigation on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant levels in sorghum grain. Bound, free and total polyphenols were investigated in six diverse sorghum genotypes grown under either full irrigation or a deficit irrigation regime. Results showed genotype, irrigation and their interaction had a significant effect on polyphenols and antioxidant activity (P⩽0.05). The deficit irrigation treatment significantly increased polyphenol content and antioxidant activity compared to the full irrigation treatment. Of the six genotypes Shawaya black short 1 and IS1311C (brown) showed the highest polyphenols levels and antioxidant activity. Therefore, both irrigation treatments and genotype need to be considered by sorghum breeders and farmers during sorghum production to produce grain with the required levels of polyphenolics and antioxidant activity for targeted end-use.
Fu, Lihong; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Jinju; Yang, Yanrui; Hao, Limin
Morchella esculenta, an edible medicinal mushroom native to China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. This study firstly investigated the antioxidant activity of Morchella esculenta extracellular polysaccharides (MEEP). An in vitro antioxidant assay showed that MEEP exhibited strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and moderate 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reductive power. For antioxidant testing in vivo, MEEP were orally administered over a period of 60 days in a d-galactose induced aged mice model. Administration of the polysaccharides inhibited significantly the formation of malondialdehyde livers and serums, and raised the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the total antioxidant capacity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we also observed that MEEPs markedly enhanced the body's immune system by measuring macrophage phagocytosis and splenocyte proliferation in d-galactose induced mice. These findings suggest that EPs from Morchella esculenta are a promising source of natural antioxidants and immunoenhancing drugs.
You, Juan; Luo, Yongkang; Wu, Jianping
Ovotransferrin (OTF), representing 12-13% of the total egg white, is a member of transferrin family with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Catechin is a polyphenolic antioxidant found in green tea. The objective of the study was to conjugate ovotransferrin with catechin to improve the antioxidant activity of OTF. Conjugates were prepared either by the free radical method using hydrogen peroxide-ascorbic acid as the initiator or by the alkaline method at pH of 9.0. The oxygen-radical-scavenging effect was increased from 3.95 mol trolox equivalent (TE)/mol of ovotransferrin to 22.80 and 17.14 mol TE/mol sample, respectively, in radical and alkaline prepared conjugates, which indicated that conjugation with catechin is an effective way to improve antioxidant activity of the protein. Conjugation between ovotransferrin and catechin was analyzed by fluorescence analyses, ultra performance liquid chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled online to a tandem mass spectrometer. Catechin was covalently bound to lysine (residues 327) and glutamic acid (residues 186) in ovotransferrin. The ovotransferrin-catechin conjugate may have a potential application as a functional food and nutraceutical ingredient.
Salimikia, Iraj; Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Salek, Mehrnoosh
Background Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. Objectives This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S. chloroleuca. Materials and Methods Dried aerial parts of the plant were crushed, then sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions of S. chloroleuca were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and Sephedex LH-20. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of the extracts were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results The separation and purification processes were carried out using different chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data, in comparison with that reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were salvigenin (1), luteolin (2), cirsiliol (3), β-sitosterol (4), and daucosterol (5). Ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest level of total antioxidants and total polyphenols compared to the other analyzed extracts (n-hexane and methanol). In the FRAP assay, ethyl acetate extract had the highest (230.4±10.5) FRAP value, followed by methanol (211.4 ± 8.3) and n-hexane (143.4 ± 12.04). Total phenol contents were calculated to be 13.8 ± 0.3, 58.25 ± 0.05, and 43.48 ± 0.38 mg of gallic acid/100 g in the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions The above-mentioned compounds were isolated for the first time from S. chloroleuca. The antioxidant activity of this plant could be in part related to isolated flavonoids and sterols. The results of this study
Riethmüller, Eszter; Tóth, Gergo; Alberti, Agnes; Sonati, Mirella; Kéry, Agnes
Corylus colurna L. (Turkish hazel), a common hazel species in Europe, could be considered as a source of pharmacologically important natural compounds, since other members of the Corylus genus have been reported to contain several constituents with beneficial biological activity. Nevertheless, its phytochemical exploration is still incomplete. In this study the potent antioxidant phenolic compounds in different parts of the plant were investigated. The phenolics in the leaves, bark, catkins and involucre of C. colurna possess notable scavenger activity on both DPPH and ABTS free radicals. The total polyphenol content shows significant correlation with the antioxidant activity of the samples. Twenty-three phenolic compounds - hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid derivatives and diarylheptanoids - were characterized in the C. colurna extracts by LC-DAD, LC-ESI-TOF and LC-ESI-QQQ-MS.
Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Sheded, M.G.; Mohamed, E.A.
Metabolomic profiling of different parts (leaves, flowers and pods) of Acacia species (Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia laeta) was evaluated. The multivariate data analyses such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to differentiate the distribution of plant metabolites among different species or different organs of the same species. A.nilotica was characterized with a high content of saponins and A.seyal was characterized with high contents of proteins, phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins. A.laeta had a higher content of carbohydrates than A. nilotica and A. seyal. On the basis of these results, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the methanolic extracts of studied parts were evaluated. A.nilotica and A.seyal extracts showed less inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) compared to A.laeta extracts which means that these two species have the strongest radical scavenging activity whereas A. laeta extracts have the lowest radical scavenging activity. A positive correlation between saponins and flavonoids with total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed. Based on these results, the potentiality of these plants as antioxidants was discussed. PMID:25313274
Li, Gen-bao; Liu, Yong-ding; Wang, Gao-hong; Song, Li-rong
It was found that reactive oxygen species in Anabaena cells increased under simulated microgravity provided by clinostat. Activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase were higher than those in the controlled samples during the 7 days' experiment. However, the contents of glutathione [correction of gluathione], an intracellular antioxidant, decreased in comparison with the controlled samples. The results suggested that microgravity provided by clinostat might break the oxidative/antioxidative balance. It indicated a protective mechanism in algal cells, that the total antioxidant system activity increased, which might play an important role for algal cells to adapt the environmental stress of microgravity.
Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties.
Leouifoudi, Inass; Harnafi, Hicham; Zyad, Abdelmajid
Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE) and the olive cake extracts (OCE). Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90 ± 0.728 g/L versus 0.95 ± 0.017 mg/g). The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS). With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH) and emulsion (BCBT) systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50 = 12.1 ± 5.6 μg/mL; EC50 = 157.7 ± 34.9 μg/mL, resp.). However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:26693221
Abidi, Walid; Jiménez, Sergio; Moreno, María Ángeles; Gogorcena, Yolanda
Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC) were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population "Venus" × "Big Top" nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and ripening index (RI) were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability.
Abidi, Walid; Jiménez, Sergio; Moreno, María Ángeles; Gogorcena, Yolanda
Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC) were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population “Venus” × “Big Top” nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and ripening index (RI) were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability. PMID:22072927
Maadane, Amal; Merghoub, Nawal; Ainane, Tarik; El Arroussi, Hicham; Benhima, Redouane; Amzazi, Saaid; Bakri, Youssef; Wahby, Imane
In order to promote Moroccan natural resources, this study aims to evaluate the potential of microalgae isolated from Moroccan coastlines, as new source of natural antioxidants. Different extracts (ethanolic, ethanol/water and aqueous) obtained from 9 microalgae strains were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical-scavenging assay. The highest antioxidant potentials were obtained in Dunalliela sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis gaditana extracts. The obtained results indicate that ethanol extract of all microalgae strains exhibit higher antioxidant activity, when compared to water and ethanol/water extracts. Therefore, total phenolic and carotenoid content measurement were performed in active ethanol extracts. The PUFA profiles of ethanol extracts were also determined by GC/MS analysis. The studied microalgae strains displayed high PUFA content ranging from 12.9 to 76.9 %, total carotenoids content varied from 1.9 and 10.8mg/g of extract and total polyphenol content varied from 8.1 to 32.0mg Gallic acid Equivalent/g of extract weight. The correlation between the antioxidant capacities and the phenolic content and the carotenoids content were found to be insignificant, indicating that these compounds might not be major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these microalgae. The microalgae extracts exerting the high antioxidant activity are potential new source of natural antioxidants.
Puoci, Francesco; Iemma, Francesca; Spizzirri, Umile G; Restuccia, Donatella; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Sirianni, Rosa; Manganaro, Lillo; Curcio, Manuela; Parisi, Ortensia I; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio
In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g) and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g), while HPLC analyses provided specific information about the composition of antioxidants in the syrup. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity, scavenging properties against DPPH and peroxyl radicals, and the anticholinesterase activity, clearly showed the efficacy of the syrup in preventing damage induced by free radicals and, thus, the applicability of this food derivative as a nutraceutical supplement.
Gülçin, Ilhami; Mshvildadze, Vakhtang; Gepdiremen, Akçahan; Elias, Riad
The antioxidant activities of alpha-hederin and hederasaponin-C from Hedera helix, and hederacolchisides-E and -F from Hedera colchica were investigated, in this study. The antioxidant properties of the saponins were evaluated using different antioxidant tests: 1,1-di-phenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH.) free radical scavenging, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. Alpha-hederin, hederasaponin-C, as well as hederacolchisides-E and -F exhibited a strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 75 pg/mL, these saponins showed 94, 86, 88 and 75% inhibition on lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion,respectively. These various antioxidant activities were compared with model antioxidants such as a-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).
Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Aqil, Farrukh
The ajowain (Carum copticum (L.)) is a popular spice and traditionally used in Indian system of medicine. Considering the importance of natural products in modern phytomedicine, the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of C. copticum fruits extract and its fractions were evaluated. The methanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum (2087.7 micromol) and DPPH assay (90.2%) followed by other fractions comparable to ascorbic acid and BHT. Based on antioxidant activity, methanol fraction was evaluated for antimutagenic potential against direct acting mutagens sodium azide (NaN(3)) and methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) and indirect acting mutagens 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), using Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102) tester strains. The methanolic fraction showed no sign of mutagenicity at tested concentrations (25-100 microg/plate). Antimutagenic activity was recorded with inhibition of mutagenicity ranging from 10.8% to 83.1% in a concentration dependent manner. The phytochemical analysis by IR, HPLC, GC-MS, and total phenolic assay revealed a high content of phenolic terpenoids. Further, characterization of active principle is needed to understand the mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy in vivo.
Background Oxidative stress and analgesia are connected with different pathological conditions. The drug candidates from synthetic sources are associated with various side effects; therefore, researchers are giving priority to find novel, effective and safe phytomedicines. Teucrium species possesses antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. The essential oils of Teucrium stocksianum have shown strong antinociceptive potential. Our current study is designed to embark total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant and antinociceptive potential of the methanolic extract of Teucrium stocksianum (METS). Method Phytochemical composition was determined by using standard methods. Free radical scavenging potential and TPC of METS were assessed by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent (FCR) respectively. Antinociceptive potential was determined by acetic acid induced abdominal writhing, formalin induced paw licking and tail immersion tests. Different test dose 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight of METS were administered intra peritonealy (i.p) to various groups of mice for the evaluation of analgesic potential. Results Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, anthraquinone, steroid, phlobatannin, terpenoid, glycoside and reducing sugars. METS was found safe at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight. A concentration dependent free radical scavenging effect was observed with methanolic aerial parts extract of Teucrium stocksianum (MAPETS) and methanolic roots extracts of Teucrium stocksianum (MRETS). MAPETS and MRETS have shown highest antioxidant activity 91.72% and 86.19% respectively at 100 μg/ml. MAPETS was found more rich (115.32 mg of GAE/g of dry material) in TPC as compared to MAPETS (105.41 mg of GAE/g). METS demonstrated a dose dependent antinociceptive potential in different pain models, like in acetic acid, formalin and tail immersion showing 83.103%, 80.872% and 67
Haddad, John J; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; Nakhal, Yasmine K; Hanbali, Lama B
Retrospectively, we have measured the antioxidant activity and a variety of antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts. Further in this study, in order to understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of black sour cherries (P. cerasus), a related species, antioxidant compounds, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant activity were simultaneously measured under varying extraction conditions (mild heating and brief microwave exposure) for: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity for WJE was substantially increased with mild and prolonged exposure to either heating or microwave, such that the % inhibition against 2,2-diphenyl-1-bspicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed a positive correlation (heating, 5-20 min.; microwave, 1-2 min.), insignificant with MEJ and dPOM, whereas with mPOM there was sharp downregulation. L-Ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure (WEJ and mPOM), except a mild increase with MEJ and dPOM. Similarly, total phenols assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts, except a mild decrease with exposure for mPOM. In a manner similar to L-ascorbic acid, total flavonoid content was increased under varying conditions for WEJ and MEJ, and slightly decreased for dPOM and mPOM. On the other hand, anthocyanins showed differential variations with exposure (up- and downregulation). Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp increase in the antioxidant activity for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM. These results
The Evolution of Total Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities during Ripening of Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Tempranillo) Grown in Semiarid Region: Effects of Cluster Thinning and Water Deficit
Garrido, Inmaculada; Uriarte, David; Hernández, Marcos; Llerena, José Luis; Valdés, María Esperanza; Espinosa, Francisco
A study was made of how water status (rainfed vs. irrigated) and crop load (no cluster thinning vs. cluster thinning) can together affect the grapes of Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo vines growing in a semiarid zone of Extremadura (Spain). The grapes were monitored at different stages of ripening, measuring the peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant activities and the phenolic content (flavonoids and phenylpropanoids), together with other parameters. The irrigation regime was adjusted to provide 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc). The findings confirmed previous results that both thinning and water deficit advance ripening, while irrigation and high crop load (no thinning) lengthen the growth cycle. The SOD activity remained practically constant throughout ripening in the thinned treatments and was always lower than in the unthinned treatments, an aspect which could have been the cause of the observed greater level of lipid peroxidation in the water deficit, thinned treatment. The nonspecific peroxidase activity was very low, especially in the thinned treatments. The effect of thinning was enhanced when combined with water deficit, inducing increases in phenylpropanoids and, above all, flavonoids at the harvest stage of ripening, while leaving the polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO) unaffected. PMID:27869671
The Evolution of Total Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities during Ripening of Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Tempranillo) Grown in Semiarid Region: Effects of Cluster Thinning and Water Deficit.
Garrido, Inmaculada; Uriarte, David; Hernández, Marcos; Llerena, José Luis; Valdés, María Esperanza; Espinosa, Francisco
A study was made of how water status (rainfed vs. irrigated) and crop load (no cluster thinning vs. cluster thinning) can together affect the grapes of Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo vines growing in a semiarid zone of Extremadura (Spain). The grapes were monitored at different stages of ripening, measuring the peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant activities and the phenolic content (flavonoids and phenylpropanoids), together with other parameters. The irrigation regime was adjusted to provide 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc). The findings confirmed previous results that both thinning and water deficit advance ripening, while irrigation and high crop load (no thinning) lengthen the growth cycle. The SOD activity remained practically constant throughout ripening in the thinned treatments and was always lower than in the unthinned treatments, an aspect which could have been the cause of the observed greater level of lipid peroxidation in the water deficit, thinned treatment. The nonspecific peroxidase activity was very low, especially in the thinned treatments. The effect of thinning was enhanced when combined with water deficit, inducing increases in phenylpropanoids and, above all, flavonoids at the harvest stage of ripening, while leaving the polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO) unaffected.
Mishra, A; Kumar, S; Bhargava, A; Sharma, B; Pandey, A K
Oxidative stress is initiated by free radicals, which seek stability through electron pairing with biological macromolecules in healthy human cells and cause protein and DNA damage along with lipid peroxidation. Many phytochemicals have been found to play as potential antioxidants and antimicrobials. In the present study antioxidant and antistaphylococcal activities of Bauhinia variegata, Tinospora cardifolia and Piper longum have been determined. Total phenolic contents in plant extracts were estimated and different amounts of phenolic contents were found in B. variegata, T. cardifolia and P. longum extracts. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants such as, BHA, BHT, quercetin, ascorbic acid and propyl gallate. The % scavenging activity gradually increased with increasing concentrations of the test extracts in DPPH radical scavenging assay. Dose dependent antioxidant activity pattern was also observed in phosphomolybdate assay. Antioxidant activity was directly correlated with the amount of total phenolic contents in the extracts. As compared to B. variegata, the extracts from other two plants exhibited higher antioxidant activity. In disc diffusion assays several solvent extracts derived from test plants inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Maximum inhibitory efficacy was observed in T. cardifolia extracts. However, the lowest minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) (0.43 mg/ml) was recorded for ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of P. longum. This study demonstrates notable antioxidant and anti-staphylococcal roles assigned to some plant extracts tested.
Hossain, M. Sarowar; Alam, M. Badrul; Asadujjaman, M.; Zahan, Ronok; Islam, M. Monirul; Mazumder, M. Ehsanul H.; Haque, Md. Ekramul
Musa sapientum (M.sapientum) commonly known as ‘banana’ is widely used in Bangladeshi folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including diarrhea. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate antidiarrheal, antioxidant and antibacterial potential of the methanolic extract of M.sapientum seed (MMSS). The extract was studied for antidiarrheal property using castor oil and magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal model and charcoal induced gastrointestinal motility test in mice. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, as well as nitric oxide (NO) and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MMSS. In addition, disc diffusion methods were used for antibacterial assay using various diarrheal induced bacterial strains. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, the extract reduced the frequency and severity of diarrhea in test animals throughout the study period. At the same doses, the extracts significantly (p<0.001) delayed the intestinal transit of charcoal meal in test animals as compared to the control. In DPPH and NO scavenging method, MMSS showed good antioxidant potentiality in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 value of 12.32±0.33 µg/ml and 18.96±1.01 µg/ml, respectively with a significant (p<0.001) good reducing power. The extract also displayed strong anti-bacterial effect against when tested against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Altogether, these results suggest that the MMSS could be used as a potential antidiarrheal agent along with its antioxidant and antibacterial potentiality. PMID:23407989
Barclay, L R; Vinqvist, M R; Mukai, K; Goto, H; Hashimoto, Y; Tokunaga, A; Uno, H
[reaction: see structure] The antioxidant activity of curcumin (1, 7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) was determined by inhibition of controlled initiation of styrene oxidation. Synthetic nonphenolic curcuminoids exhibited no antioxidant activity; therefore, curcumin is a classical phenolic chain-breaking antioxidant, donating H atoms from the phenolic groups not the CH(2) group as has been suggested (Jovanovic et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 9677). The antioxidant activities of o-methoxyphenols are decreased in hydrogen bond accepting media.
Patro, Ganesh; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Mohanty, Bijay Kumar; Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan
Objective: Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (in vitro) and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP) in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) from rat brain homogenate. Results: The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P < 0.01) as compared to standard (ascorbic acid). The oxidative stress markers as SOD, CAT, and GSH were increased significantly (P < 0.01) at 200 and 400 mg/kg of EAMP treated animals and decreased significantly the TBARS level at 400 mg/kg of EAMP as compared to control group. Conclusion: These results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of M. pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract. SUMMARY Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. Again, in
Background The aim of this study, is to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity, the total phenols content, the flavonoids content and the antiproliferative activity of methanolic extracts of the plants: Krameria erecta, Struthanthus palmeri, Phoradendron californicum, Senna covesii and Stegnosperma halimifolium, used by different ethnic groups from northwestern Mexico in the treatment and cure of various diseases. Methods The in vitro antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP), the total phenols content was measured by Folin–Ciocalteau assay, the flavonoids content by the AlCl3 colorimetric method and the antiproliferative activity (line cells HeLa, RAW 264.7, M12Ak.C3.F6 and L929) using MTT method. Results The K. erecta extract showed the higher radical scavenging activity (67.88%), antioxidant activity by FRAP (1.41 mg Trolox Eq), the highest total phenols content (598.51 mg Galic Acid Eq/g extract), the highest flavonoids content (3.80 mg Quercetin Eq/g extract) and the greatest antiproliferative activity in a dose dependent manner against most Cell line evaluated. A positive correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the flavonoids content. Conclusions This study is the first report on the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the five species evaluated. The results demostrate that there is a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and the flavonoids content, indicating that these type of polyphenols could be the major contributors to the observed antioxidant activity in the evaluated plant extracts. Of the extracts evaluated, that of Krameria erecta showed the greatest antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, a discovery that makes this species a promising candidate for future research. PMID:23305162
Singh, Mhaveer; Khan, Mohammad A.; Khan, Masood S.; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, Sayeed
Background: Nardostachys jatamansi Linn. commonly known as jatamansi is a well notorious drug in Indian systems of medicines having various health-related benefits and employed in various herbal formulations due to the presence of high levels of valuable phenolic constituents. The present study was aimed to quality assessment of Jatamansi rhizome by studying macro- and micro-scopic characters along with physicochemical tests, chemo-profiling using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in vitro antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines and contaminant estimation was carried out by analyzing the samples for the determination of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins. Chemo-profiling was done with TLC by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The GC-MS chemo-profiling was also carried out by using hexane soluble fraction of the hydroalcoholic extract. The drug is well known for a protective role in the human body as an antioxidant, so total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy was also determined by using established methods. Results: The results of quality control and anatomical studies were very much useful for its identification, whereas significant antioxidant efficacy was also observed. The drug was found free of contaminants when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins, whereas heavy metals were found under the pharmacopeial limit. Conclusion: The findings of the present research can be utilized for the identification and quality control of the jatamansi rhizome. PMID:26681882
Etoz, Osman A; Ataoglu, Hanife; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine Nur; Bayazit, Yildirim Ahmet
We aimed to find out the association of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) with generalized pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of patients with myofacial pain dysfunction (MPD). PPT scores of patients with MPD (n = 37) and healthy individuals (n = 43) were measured on the hypothenar region of the hand using a mechanical algometer. Serum samples were collected and TAC and TOS were measured by novel methods. The TAC of patients was significantly lower than that of the control subjects. The difference between the TOS measurements of patients and control subjects was not significant. The PPT scores of the patients were significantly lower than that of control subjects. There may be an association between serum antioxidant capacity and MPD. Low serum TAC might also be related with pain perception.
Dhar, P; Tayade, A B; Bajpai, P K; Sharma, V K; Das, S K; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B; Singh, S B
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness.
Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice
The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.
Takao, L K; Imatomi, M; Gualtieri, S C J
There is considerable interest in identifying new antioxidants from plant materials. Several studies have emphasized the antioxidant activity of species belonging to the Myrtaceae family. However, there are few reports on these species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). In this study, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 12 native Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado were evaluated (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia dysenterica, Eugenia klotzschiana, Hexachlamys edulis, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, and Psidium laruotteanum). Antioxidant potential was assessed using the antioxidant activity index (AAI) by the DPPH method and total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. There was a high correlation between TPC and AAI values. Psidium laruotteanum showed the highest TPC (576.56 mg GAE/g extract) and was the most potent antioxidant (AAI = 7.97, IC50 = 3.86 µg·mL-1), with activity close to that of pure quercetin (IC50 = 2.99 µg·mL-1). The extracts of nine species showed IC50 of 6.24-8.75 µg·mL-1. Most species showed TPC and AAI values similar to or higher than those for Camellia sinensis, a commonly consumed tea with strong antioxidant properties. The results reveal that the analyzed Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado possess high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Thus, they are a potential source of new natural antioxidants.
Teixeira, Érica Weinstein; Message, Dejair; Negri, Giuseppina; Stringheta, Paulo César
Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of propolis samples from three localities of Minas Gerais state (southeast Brazil) were determined. Total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteau method, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, using BHT as reference, and chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Propolis from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido municipalities were found to have high phenolic contents and pronounced antioxidant activity. From these extracts, 40 substances were identified, among them were simple phenylpropanoids, prenylated phenylpropanoids, sesqui- and diterpenoids. Quantitatively, the main constituent of both samples was allyl-3-prenylcinnamic acid. A sample from Virginópolis municipality had no detectable phenolic substances and contained mainly triterpenoids, the main constituents being α- and β-amyrins. Methanolic extracts from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido exhibited pronounced scavenging activity towards DPPH, indistinguishable from BHT activity. However, extracts from Virginópolis sample exhibited no antioxidant activity. Total phenolic substances, GC/MS analyses and antioxidant activity of samples from Itapecerica collected monthly over a period of 1 year revealed considerable variation. No correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic contents or contents of artepillin C and other phenolic substances, as assayed by CG/MS analysis. PMID:18955317
Teixeira, Erica Weinstein; Message, Dejair; Negri, Giuseppina; Salatino, Antonio; Stringheta, Paulo César
Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of propolis samples from three localities of Minas Gerais state (southeast Brazil) were determined. Total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, using BHT as reference, and chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Propolis from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido municipalities were found to have high phenolic contents and pronounced antioxidant activity. From these extracts, 40 substances were identified, among them were simple phenylpropanoids, prenylated phenylpropanoids, sesqui- and diterpenoids. Quantitatively, the main constituent of both samples was allyl-3-prenylcinnamic acid. A sample from Virginópolis municipality had no detectable phenolic substances and contained mainly triterpenoids, the main constituents being α- and β-amyrins. Methanolic extracts from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido exhibited pronounced scavenging activity towards DPPH, indistinguishable from BHT activity. However, extracts from Virginópolis sample exhibited no antioxidant activity. Total phenolic substances, GC/MS analyses and antioxidant activity of samples from Itapecerica collected monthly over a period of 1 year revealed considerable variation. No correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic contents or contents of artepillin C and other phenolic substances, as assayed by CG/MS analysis.
Woźniak, Dorota; Dryś, Andrzej; Matkowski, Adam
We evaluated the antioxidant properties of four main flavones from Scutellaria baicalensis: baicalein, wogonin and their glucuronides - baicalin and wogonoside. We used three in vitro assays: free radical scavenging with 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical, transition metal ions reducing power by phosphomolybdenum assay and inhibition of the hydroxyl radical-induced peroxidation of linoleic acid assay. All flavones have antioxidant capacity, which differs depending on the structure and mechanisms of activity. In all tests, only baicalein - the aglycone with three adjacent hydroxyl groups - exhibited consistent antioxidant effect. Wogonin protected linoleic acid against oxidation. Baicalin displayed less potent antioxidant properties whereas wogonoside did not have significant antioxidant activity.
Guo, Ruixue; Guo, Xinbo; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai
Phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of berry extracts were evaluated and compared in four subspecies of Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.). Among the subspecies, Hippophaë rhamnoides L. subsp. sinensis exhibited highest total phenolics content (38.7±1.3mgGA equiv./g DW) and corresponding total antioxidant activity. Whereas maximum cellular antioxidant and antiproliferative activities were determined in Hippophaë rhamnoides L. subsp. yunnanensis. Total antioxidant activity was significantly associated to total phenolics, isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside. The cellular antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of phytochemicals were fairly correlated to phenolic acids and flavonoid aglycones. Lower median effective dose (EC50) of individual compounds against human liver cancer HepG2 cells proliferation studies confirmed the better correlation between antiproliferative activity of Sea buckthorn extracts and flavonoid aglycones, including isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol.
Freitas, Betânia e Silva de Almendra; de Castro, Laís Lima; Aguiar, Jordana Rayane Sousa; de Araújo, Camila Guedes Borges; Visacri, Marília Berlofa; Tuan, Bruna Taliani; Pincinato, Eder de Carvalho; Moriel, Patricia
The non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common cancer and accounts for more than half of the diagnoses of cancer, and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent cutaneous neoplasm, corresponding to 70-80% of cutaneous tumors. Oxidative stress is an important trigger for skin carcinogenesis. Thus, it is important to evaluate oxidative stress, in order to discern effective therapeutic strategies able to stop it or attenuate it, thereby prevent the installation of non-melanoma skin cancer. Cross-sectional study with controls, involving 84 individuals of both sexes aged between 38-84 years, divided into two groups: control group of healthy people(n = 24) and the case group included individuals who presented non-melanoma skin and they have undergoing surgery (n = 60). The blood samples of the individuals were obtained for evaluation of biomarkers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane, nitrite, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity). The usual dietary intake and nutritional status of the subjects were evaluated. The significance level for this study was 5%. Patients in the case group had higher serum concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress, F2-isoprostane concentrations were significantly higher compared to controls. The results showed high rates of overweight and obesity in the case and control groups. The dietary concentrations of antioxidant minerals zinc, copper and selenium in the case group were significantly lower compared to controls. The correlation between markers of oxidative stress and dietary concentrations of antioxidant nutrients showed the influence of food intake of vitamins A and E in reducing oxidative stress, since these nutrients behave as important antioxidants, acting as sweepers of RL, by removing of the body the negative effects on the redox balance of the skin. We emphasize the importance of adopting healthy eating habits that optimize the consumption of antioxidant nutrients as a strategy to
Li, Y; Sun, H Y; Yu, X Y; Liu, D; Wan, H X
The cell-based antioxidant activity assay as more biological relevant assay was considered to be more accurate to predict antioxidant activity in vivo than chemical activity assays. In the present study, the five main Phyllanthus emblica L. cultivars in China were subjected for cellular antioxidant activity based on HepG2 cells as well as antiproliferative activity. Total phenolics, total flavonoids and oxygen radical absorbance capacity were also measured. The results showed that Qingyougan, Binggan and Boligan (832±100, 774±52 and 704±28 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) had higher cellular antioxidant activity than Tianyougan and Yougan (553±50 and 457±24 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) in phosphate buffered saline wash protocol whereas, Boligan (3735±217 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) had the highest cellular antioxidant activity and Tianyougan (2025±171 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) had the lowest cellular antioxidant activity in no phosphate buffered saline wash protocol. The highest and lowest antiproliferative activities were observed in Binggan and Tianyougan (median effective dose: 6.95±0.11 and 14.03±0.10 mg/ml), respectively. The significant correlation was only observed between total flavonoids and cellular antioxidant activity from no phosphate buffered saline wash protocol (R(2) =0.908, P<0.05), and total flavonoids and antiproliferative activity (R(2) =0.887, P<0.05), suggesting the major contribution of flavonoids to the bioactivities of emblica. Overall, the data obtained revealed that different Phyllanthus emblica L. cultivars had strong cellular antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, thus should be recommended to increase consumption for health.
Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming
The antioxidant activities of 70% acetone extract (70% AE) from the hypocotyls of the mangrove plant Kandelia candel and its fractions of petroleum ether (PF), ethyl acetate (EF), water (WF), and the LF (WF fraction further purified through a Sephadex LH-20 column), were investigated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that all the extract and fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity. There was a significant linear correlation between the total phenolics concentration and the ferric reducing power or free radical scavenging activity of the extract and fractions. Among the extract and fractions, the LF fraction exhibits the best antioxidant performance. The MALDT-TOF MS and HPLC analyses revealed that the phenolic compounds associated with the antioxidant activity of the LF fraction contains a large number of procyanidins and a small amount of prodelphinidins, and the epicatechin is the main extension unit. PMID:21152321
Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul
The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.
Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Sharifi, Simin; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Fathiazad, Fatemeh
Purpose: Naturally occurring substances as novel drugs in cancer therapy, at all times, represent a challenge to science since medicinal plants are proving to be brilliant sources of new chemopreventive agents. Methods: In the present study, methanol extract from aerial parts of Marrubium crassidens was assessed for its antiproliferative activity in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through MTT bioassay using cell viability and cytotoxicity indices. The antioxidant property of M. crassidens extract together with its phenolic and flavonoids content were evaluated, as well. Results: According to data obtained in the study, M. crassidens exhibited antiproliferative activity with a gradual rise in cytotoxicty effect setting out on 240µg/mL concentration of the extract. Moreover, the RC50 value for antioxidant activity of the extract was determined as 40µg/mL and values for the total phenolic and flavonoids were calculated as 512.64mg gallic acid equivalent and 212.73mg quercetin equivalent per 100g of dry plant material. Conclusion: Generally, the observed antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of M. crassidens could be certified to the high amounts of phenolic and flavonoid content detected in the extract. PMID:25364663
Chung, Soo Im; Kang, Mi Young; Lee, Sang Chul
Fresh ginseng roots were aged in an oven at 80°C for 14 d. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of this aged ginseng, in comparison with those of the white and red ginsengs, were evaluated. In in vitro antioxidant assays, the ethanolic extracts from aged ginseng showed significantly higher free radical scavenging activity and reducing power than those of the white and red ginsengs. In in vivo antioxidant assays, mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with white, red, or aged ginseng powders. High fat feeding resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a substantial decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals. However, diet supplementation of ginseng powders, particularly aged ginseng, markedly reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activities. The results illustrate that the aged ginseng has greater in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity than the white and red ginsengs. The aged ginseng also showed considerably higher total saponin, phenolic, and flavonoid contents, indicating that its antioxidant capacity may have been partly due to its high levels of antioxidant compounds. This new ginseng product may be useful as a functional food with strong antioxidant potential. PMID:27069902
Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; de la Rosa, Laura A; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Shahidi, Fereidoon
In this research, total phenols, flavonoids, capsaicinoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity (ORAC, hydroxyl radical, DPPH, and TEAC assays) of fresh and processed (pickled and chipotle canned) Jalapeño and Serrano peppers were determined. All fresh and processed peppers contained capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin, even though the latter could be quantified only in fresh peppers. Processed peppers contained lower amounts of phytochemicals and had lower antioxidant activity, compared to fresh peppers. Good correlations between total phenols and ascorbic acid with antioxidant activity were observed. Elimination of chlorophylls by silicic acid chromatography reduced the DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts, compared to crude extracts, confirming the antioxidant activity of chlorophylls present in Jalapeño and Serrano peppers.
Lee, Eun-Jung; Jang, Hae-Dong
Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) was extracted by refluxing with water and 75% ethanol as a solvent. Antioxidant activity and protective effect on DNA strand scission were investigated by using different antioxidant assay systems and DNA strand nicking assay, respectively. 75% Ethanol extract has higher content of total soluble phenolics and flavonoid than water extract. Antioxidant activities such as hydrogen donating capacity and scavenging activity of hydrogen peroxide were higher in 75% ethanol extract than in water extract except the rate constant with hydroxyl radical. Peroxyl radical induced DNA strand scission was prevented by both 75% ethanol and water extract and hydroxyl radical induced DNA strand scission was not. This result indicates that total soluble phenolics, specially flavonoid, of Rooibos tea are responsible for several kinds of antioxidant activities and preventive activity on peroxyl radical induced DNA strand scission.
Gulaboski, Rubin; Mirčeski, Valentin; Mitrev, Saša
In this work we report on a new, rapid and simple voltammetric method to determine the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the edible oils. The method explores the ABTS radical (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay as a redox probe and it relays on measuring catalytic voltammetric currents. The electrocatalysis comprises redox regeneration of the electrochemically created ABTS(+) radical either by Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethychroman-2-carboxylic acid) or by antioxidants present in studied oils. The detection limit of the method is determined to be 0.5 mg/L of Trolox equivalent, being a slightly lower than the corresponding UV-VIS spectrophotometric method. Applying the proposed voltammetric method the total antioxidant capacity of three types of commercially available cold-pressed edible oils are determined, and the results are found to be in a very good agreement with those obtained by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The reported voltammetric method is cheap, rapid and simple, and it can be used as a sustainable alternative to the UV-VIS methods for the determination of total antioxidant capacitance of oils and other liquid lipophilic nutrients. Potent antioxidant capacity of studied oils was also confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of superoxide anion produced by macrophages.
Olivier, David; Douillard, Samuel; Lhommeau, Isabelle; Bigot, Edith; Patrice, Thierry
Type 2 photoreactions are singlet oxygen (1O2) mediated. This singlet oxygen will de activate by reacting with a number of targets and produce ROS and peroxides that will in turn give Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). In order to verify whether sera had the same capability to do so we provoked a photoreaction using Rose Bengal (RB) added to sera of 53 healthy donors and at the end of light delivery 2' -7' dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) had been added. In order to avoid any optical artefact we analysed the influence of haemolysis on the fluorescent 2' -7' dichlorofluorescin (DCF) induced by oxidising species. Reactivity to singlet oxygen was slightly different between men and women, varied slightly with age and platelet number. It was remarkably stable over a large period of time and thus represents a characteristic of each serum. Studies are in progress to verify whether ROS dependent diseases would impair this reactivity to singlet oxygen.
Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J
Previously, we have meticulously examined the efficacy of the measurable antimicrobial activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts on a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in addition to the fungus, Candida albicans, a priori. In order to further understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of sweet cherries, antioxidant compounds of immunological significance, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity were simultaneously measured under varying and versatile extraction conditions (mild heating [5, 10 and 20 min.], and brief microwave exposure [1, 2 and 5 min.]) for a variety of extracts: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity under the versatile extraction conditions adopted in this study was conspicuously reduced, such that the % inhibition against 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed an inverse, negative correlational trendline. Moreover, ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure, except tangibly with dPOM and mPOM. The total phenols content assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts. In a manner similar to ascorbic acid, total flavonoids were mildly reduced under varying conditions, an effect mimicked to a certain extent with anthocyanins. Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp decrease in the antioxidant activity for dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for dPOM and mPOM. These results confirm the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. avium extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect
Sindhu, T.; Rajamanikandan, S.; Srinivasan, P.
The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Kyllinga nemoralis. Six different in vitro antioxidant assays including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide radical, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and reducing power were carried out to ensure the scavenging effect of the plant on free radicals. In addition, total antioxidant capacity assay, total phenolic contents, tannins, flavonoids and flavonol contents of the plant were also analysed by the standard protocols. Kyllinga nemoralis exhibited high antioxidant activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay (IC50= 90 μg/ml), superoxide radical scavenging assay (IC50= 180 μg/ml) and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay (IC50= 200 μg/ml), compared with standards. These observations provide comprehensible supporting evidence for the antioxidant potential of the plant extract. Reducing power (IC50= 213.16 μg/ml) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50= 223 μg/ml) of the plant extract was remarkable. The methanol extract of K. nemoralis exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive human pathogenic bacteria. Standard in vitro antioxidant assays assessed the electron donating ability of the plant extract in scavenging free radicals. The inhibitory effect of the plant extract against bacterial pathogens may be due to the presence of phytochemicals. Thus, the results suggest that Kyllinga nemoralis is a potential source of antioxidants and could serve as the base for drug development. PMID:24843192
Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna
The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, β carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian.
Background Extracts from Potentilla species have been applied in traditional medicine and exhibit antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-ulcerogenic properties, but little has been known about the diversity of phytochemistry and pharmacology on this genus. This study investigated and compared the phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts from three Potentilla species (Potentilla fruticosa, Potentilla glabra and Potentilla parvifolia) in order to discover new resources for lead structures and pharmaceutical products. Methods Chemical composition and content of six phenolic compounds were evaluated and determined by RP-HPLC; Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau colourimetric method and sodium borohydride/chloranil-based method (SBC); Antioxidant activities were determined using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays; Antimicrobial properties were investigated by agar dilution and mycelial growth rate method. Results The results showed hyperoside was the predominant phenolic compound in three Potentilla species by RP-HPLC assay, with the content of 8.86 (P. fruticosa), 2.56 (P. glabra) and 2.68 mg/g (P. parvifolia), respectively. The highest content of total identified phenolic compounds (hyperoside, (+)-catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin and ellagic acid) was observed in P. parvifolia (14.17 mg/g), follow by P. fruticosa (10.01 mg/g) and P. glabra (7.01 mg/g). P. fruticosa possessed the highest content of total phenolic (84.93 ± 0.50 mmol gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and total flavonoid (84.14 ± 0.03 mmol quercetin equivalent/100 g), which were in good correlation with its significant DPPHIC50 (16.87 μg/mL), ABTS (2763.48 μmol Trolox equivalent/g) and FRAP (1398.70 μmol Trolox equivalent/g) capacities. Furthermore, the effective methodology to distinguish the different species of Potentilla was also established by chromatographic fingerprint analysis for
Al-Rubaei, Z M Malik; Mohammad, Taghreed U; Ali, Layla Karim
Plants have been one of the important sources of medicine even since the-dawn of human civilization. Curcumin has been found to possess tremendous therapeutic potency as antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. The present study was designed to examine possible potential therapeutic and protective effect of curcumin from oxidative stress and on total antioxidant capacity in liver damage. The study was conducted using H2O2 as inducing agent of oxidative stress in vivo. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, where n = 20 for each group. Group 1 (G1) rats served as control group. Group 2 (G2) rats subjected to experimentally induced oxidative stress by the ad libitum supply of drinking water containing 0.5% H2O2(v/v) was prepared daily over entire 60 days. Group 3 (G3) rats received H2O2 for sixty days followed by giving 200 mg kg(-1) of curcumin for 30 days. Group 4 (G4) was simultaneously given curcumin (200 mg kg(-1)) for 15 days then followed by receiving H2O2 with curcumin for sixty days. Group 5 (G5) rats was received H2O2 for sixty days followed by giving 200 mg kg(-1) of N-acetyl 1-cystine as standard drug for 30 days. Levels of marker enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), uric acid, Total Protein (TP) and tumor necrosis factor (α-TNF) were assessed in serum for all studied groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguinosine, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) were assayed in liver homogenates for all studied groups. The results revealed significant increase (p < 0.05) in levels of ALT, AST, ALP, uric acid and α-TNF while there are significant decrease (p < 0.05) in levels of TP in G2 comparing to G1. Also there are significant differences (p < 0.05) between G3 and G4 comparing to G2 and between G3, G4 and G5 which curcumin elicited a significant hepatoprotective activity by lowering the levels of serum marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation. The results also revealed a
Susanto, Eko; Suhaeli Fahmi, A.; Winarni Agustini, Tri; Rosyadi, Septian; Dita Wardani, Ayunda
Fucoxanthin (Fx) is major carotenoids in brown algae. It showed many health beneficial effects for oxidative stress. Fucoxanthin is lower stability which may cause problem in the application for functional food. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various heat processing on Fx, antioxidant activity (IC50), total phenolic content, and colour stability of Sargassum ilicifolium. The various heat processing methods showed were not significantly affected to fucoxanthin and antioxidant activities however all treatments lower affected to brown seaweeds colour. Moreover, this study showed a useful proved in the design of brown seaweeds processing which minimize Fx, antioxidant activity and colour changes.
Lai, How Yee; Lim, Yau Yan; Tan, Shiau Pin
Leaf extracts of five medicinal ferns, Acrostichum aureum L. (Pteridaceae), Asplenium nidus L. (Aspleniaceae), Blechnum orientale L. (Blechnaceae), Cibotium barometz (L.) J. Sm. (Cyatheaceae) and Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.) underwood var. linearis (Gleicheniaceae), were investigated for their total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidative, tyrosinase inhibiting and antibacterial activities. The antioxidative activity was measured by assays for radical scavenging against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric ion reducing power (FRP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and ferrous ion chelating (FIC). The results revealed B. orientale to possess the highest amount of total polyphenols and strongest potential as a natural antioxidative, tyrosinase inhibiting and antibacterial agent as demonstrated by its strong activities in all related bioassays. The other ferns with antioxidative potential were C. barometz and D. linearis. Except for A. aureum, all ferns showed antibacterial activity which may justify their usage in traditional medicines.
Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori
We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.
Golestanzadeh, Mohsen; Naeimi, Hossein; Zahraie, Zohreh
Phenolic antioxidants play important role in prevention of oxidation in different industrials. The research objective in the current study was synthesis and evaluate of antioxidant activity of star-shape phenolic antioxidants. The synthetic compounds were prepared in the presence of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide. The antioxidant activity of synthesized compounds was investigated by spectrophotometrically method according to the DPPH assay. Overall, these compounds are potentially important antioxidant and also to limit activity of reactive oxygen species.
Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Comić, Ljiljana; Dačić, Dragana; Curčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana
The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.
Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana
The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369
Suica-Bunghez, I. R.; Teodorescu, S.; Dulama, I. D.; Voinea, O. C.; imionescu, S.; Ion, R. M.
Snake fruit (Salacca zalacca) is a palm tree species, which is found in Malaysia and Indonesia. This study was conducted to investigate and compare the composition, total phenolic, flavonoid, tanins and monoterpenoids contents in the core and shell fruits. Concentration values of extracts were obtained from standard curves obtained. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method. For all methods it was used the UV-VIS Specord M40, using different wavelength. The infrared spectral analysis was carried out to caracterized the type of functional group existent in snake fruit parts (shell and core).
Emami, S. A.; Asili, J.; Mohagheghi, Z.
Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples) possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of α-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant) and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant). Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than α-tocopherol. PMID:17965761
Dezmirean, Graţia I; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Bobiş, Otilia; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Bonta, Victoriţa; Erler, Silvio
Honey as rich source of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants serves as health-promoting nutrient in the human body. Here, we present the first time a comparative study of nutritional profiles (e.g., acidities, sugar, organic acid profile, total polyphenolic, flavonoid content) for different unifloral, multifloral honeys and their fermented products, in correlation with their antioxidant activity. Additionally, an optimized method for HPLC separation of organic acids from honey was established. The total phenolic content of honey samples varied widely among the honey types compared to fermented products. High amounts of total flavonoids were quantified in heather honey, followed by raspberry, multifloral, black locust, and linden honey. A positive correlation between the content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity was observed in honey samples. After fermentation, the flavonoid content of dark honey fermented products decreased significantly. Black locust and linden honeys are more suitable for fermentation because the decrease in antioxidant substances is less pronounced.
Glenn, William H.
Describes several activities involving a total eclipse of the moon. Included are observations with binoculars, naked eye, and telescope; timing activities and observations of color changes during penumbral and umbral phases; and photography activities. (CS)
Chiue, H; Kusano, T; Iwami, K
Barley hordein was comparable to maize zein in antioxidation under a powder model system. Various deamidated "hordein" preparations were obtained and examined for their molecular-size distribution (by Sephacryl S-100 gel filtration), hydrophobicity (by fluorescence measurement using fluorescent probes) and antioxidative activity (by the ferric thiocyanate method). Deamidation caused fragmentation of the hordein molecule and simultaneously lowered its fatty acid-binding capacity rather than its surface hydrophobicity. Then, the antioxidative activity diminished with increasing deamidation. When the fatty acid-binding capacity was plotted against the antioxidative activity, a high correlation (r2 = 0.92) was observed between these two events.
Rishmawi, Suzi; Ariqat, Sharehan H.; Khalid, Mahmoud F.; Warad, Ismail; Salah, Zaidoun
Tragopogon porrifolius, commonly referred to as white salsify, is an edible herb used in folk medicine to treat cancer. Samples of Tragopogon porrifolius plant grown wild in Palestine were extracted with different solvents: water, 80% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity (AA). Four different antioxidant assays were used to evaluate AA of the extracts: two measures the reducing power of the extracts (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC)), while two other assays measure the scavenging ability of the extracts (2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid (ABTS)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Anticancer activity of the plant extracts were also tested on HOS and KHOS osteosarcoma cell lines. The results revealed that the polarity of the extraction solvent affects the TPC, TFC, and AA. It was found that both TPC and AA are highest for plant extracted with 80% ethanol, followed by water, and finally with 100% ethanol. TFC however was the highest in the following order: 80% ethanol > 100% ethanol > water. The plant extracts showed anticancer activities against KHOS cancer cell lines; they reduced total cell count and induced cell death in a drastic manner. PMID:27999608
Rezaei-Moghadam, Adel; Mohajeri, Daryoush; Rafiei, Behnam; Dizaji, Rana; Azhdari, Asghar; Yeganehzad, Mahdi; Shahidi, Maryamossadat; Mazani, Mohammad
Introduction Pathogenic role of free radicals are well known in various metabolic diseases. They originate from internal and external sources of body. Essential roles of antioxidant defense system for cellular redox regulation and free radical scavenging activity were described in this study. Many in vitro investigations have shown that turmeric (TE) and carrot seed extract (CSE) exhibits to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potentials of ethanolic TE and CSE based on in vivo experiment in the rats. Methods Animals were assigned to six groups: the 1st and 2nd groups were control groups and 2nd group received 0.2 ml dimethyl sulphoxide as vehicle treated group; other four experimental groups received different doses of TE (100, 200 mg/kg b.w.) and CSE (200, 400 mg/kg b.w.) by gavages, respectively for a period of one month. The indicators of oxidative stress, lipids peroxidation, markers of hepatocyte injury and biliary function markers were measured. Results The levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly stimulated in the hepatic tissue of treatment groups. The malondialdehyde contents of liver tissue were significantly reduced in the groups fed with TE and CSE. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, in treated groups were found to be significantly decreased, whereas albumin and total protein increased as compared to the control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion this study showed that the regular intake of TE and CSE through the diet can improve antioxidant status and inhibit peroxidation activity in the liver tissue so that using these extracts may protect tissue oxidative stress. PMID:23678453
Single or combined effects of mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic supplements on the total oxidants, total antioxidants, enzymatic antioxidants, liver enzymes, and serum trace minerals in cyclic heat-stressed broilers.
Sohail, M U; Rahman, Z U; Ijaz, A; Yousaf, M S; Ashraf, K; Yaqub, T; Zaneb, H; Anwar, H; Rehman, H
This study was intended to explore the oxidative status of broilers under cyclic heat stress (HS) as modulated by supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and a probiotic mixture (PM). Two hundred fifty 1-d-old chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups. From d 22, birds were either kept in a thermoneutral zone (TN; 26.7°C for 24 h/d) or subjected to HS (35 ± 1.1°C and 75 ± 5% RH for 8 h/d from 1000 to 1800 h) to the conclusion of the study on d 42. Birds were fed either a corn-based diet (TN and HS groups) or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS group), 0.1% PM (HS-PM group), or their combination as a symbiotic (SYN; HS-SYN group). On d 42, birds were killed by cervical dislocation to collect serum for the determination of total oxidants, total antioxidants, paraoxonase, arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and trace minerals. Heat stress increased (P < 0.05) total oxidants and total antioxidants and decreased (P < 0.05) paraoxonase and arylesterase, with no change in ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. Dietary supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) total oxidants and total antioxidants, with no effect on the activities of other enzymes. Heat stress did not influence serum copper, zinc, and manganese concentrations of birds when compared with those in the TN group. However, MOS increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of all the trace minerals, whereas SYN increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of only zinc and copper. It was concluded that MOS or PM supplementation, alone or as a SYN, may reduce some of the detrimental effects of HS, whereas MOS alone or as a SYN may improve the absorption of trace minerals.
Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won
The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout. PMID:25237348
Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won
The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout.
Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C
The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the phenolic components and antioxidant activities of whole yellow (with yellow seed coat and yellow cotyledon) and black (with black seed coat and green cotyledon) soybeans were investigated. As compared to the raw soybeans, all processing methods caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), condensed tannin content (CTC), monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) in black soybeans. Pressure steaming caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in TPC, CTC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC in yellow soybeans. The steaming resulted in a greater retention of TPC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC values in both yellow and black soybeans as compared to the boiling treatments. To further investigate the effect of processing on phenolic compounds and elucidate the contribution of these compounds to changes of antioxidant activities, phenolic acids, isoflavones, and anthocyanins were quantitatively determined by HPLC. The pressure steaming treatments caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in gallic acid and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acid, whereas all treatments caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in two predominant phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid), and total phenolic acids for both yellow and black soybeans. All thermal processing caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in aglucones and beta-glucosides of isoflavones, but caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in malonylglucosides of isoflavones for both yellow and black soybeans. All thermal processing caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases of cyanidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside in black soybeans. Significant correlations existed between selected phenolic compositions, isoflavone and anthocyanin contents, and antioxidant properties of cooked soybeans.
Leitao, Céline; Marchioni, Eric; Bergaentzlé, Martine; Zhao, Minjie; Didierjean, Luc; Taidi, Behnam; Ennahar, Saïd
A new analytical method (liquid chromatography-antioxidant, LC-AOx) was used that is intended to separate beer polyphenols and to determine the potential antioxidant activity of these constituents after they were allowed to react online with a buffered solution of the radical cation 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(•+)). Using the LC-AOx method, it was possible to demonstrate that the extent of the antioxidant activity was very much dependent on the phenolic compound considered. The method was also applied to the analysis of beer extracts and allowed the evaluation of their antioxidant activity at different steps of beer processing: brewing, boiling, and fermentation. This study showed that the total antioxidant activity remained unchanged throughout beer processing, as opposed to the polyphenolic content, which showed a 3-fold increase. Hopping and fermentation steps were the main causes of this increase. However, the increase measured after fermentation was attributed to a better extraction of polyphenols due to the presence of ethanol, rather than to a real increase in their content. Moreover, this method allowed the detection of three unknown antioxidant compounds, which accounted for 64 ± 4% of the total antioxidant activity of beer and were individually more efficient than caffeic acid and epicatechin.
Ruan, Zhi Ping; Zhang, Liang Liang; Lin, Yi Ming
The antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf extracts was investigated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The methanolic extract and its four water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane fractions were prepared and subjected to antioxidant evaluation. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction had stronger antioxidant activity than the other ones. HPLC data indicated that S. cumini leaf extracts contained phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid and catechin, responsible for their antioxidant activity. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, free radical-scavenging ability and the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extracts supported this observation.
Amarowicz, Ryszard; Estrella, Isabell; Hernández, Teresa; Dueñas, Montserrat; Troszyńska, Agnieszka; Agnieszka, Kosińska; Pegg, Ronald B.
Phenolic compounds were extracted from red lentil seeds using 80% (v/v) aqueous acetone. The crude extract was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction 1, consisting of sugars and low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction 2, consisting of tannins, was obtained using acetone-water (1:1; v/v) as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical activities as revealed from studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed the highest values when tannins (fraction 2) were tested. For instance, the TAA of the tannin fraction was 5.85 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, whereas the crude extract and fraction 1 showed 0.68 and 0.33 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction 2 was the highest (290 mg/g); the tannin content, determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 129. There were 24 compounds identified in the crude extract using an HPLC-ESI-MS method: quercetin diglycoside, catechin, digallate procyanidin, and p-hydroxybenzoic were the dominant phenolics in the extract. PMID:20054484
Widowati, Ita; Zainuri, Muhammad; Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Hermien; Susilowati, Ragil; Hardivillier, Yann; Leignel, Vincent; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Mouget, Jean-Luc
Natural alternatives antioxidant source has become a trending topic in the past decades to replace synthetic antioxidant. Microalgae have been mentioned to show interesting bioactive properties and one of them is its antioxidant activity. This study aims to evaluate the potential of three microalgae Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbanaas new source of natural antioxidant. Proximate analysis and total phenolic content of D. salina, T. chuii and I. galbanas were determined. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of these three species prepared in different concentration (50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm) was performed through DPPH assay. I. galbana clone Tahiti demonstrated a highest antioxidant potential with 61.64 of inhibition at 50 ppm followed by D. salina with 58.45 % of inhibition and T. chuii with 52.58 % of inhibition. I. galbana clone Tahiti was the best antioxidant with total phenol content of 17.798 mg GAE g-1 extract at 50 ppm; followed by T. chuii 16.868 mg GAE g-1 extract and the lowest was D. salina with 4.672 mg GAE g-1 extract. Results suggest that these microalgae posses antioxidant potential which could be considered for future applications in medicine, dietary supplements, cosmetics or food industries.
Sim, K. S.; Nurestri, A. M. Sri; Norhanom, A. W.
The leaves of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), commonly known as “Jarum Tujuh Bilah” in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of P. grandifolia crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) have been investigated, employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power assay and β-carotene method. The total phenolic content of the P. grandifolia extracts was also assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau’s method. The ethyl acetate extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging ability and antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay while the hexane extract possessed significantly strongest reducing power. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of P. grandifolia. As such, this is the first report on the antioxidant activities of P. grandifolia. PMID:20931088
Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio
Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system.
Karimi, Z; Bahadoran, Z; Abedini, S; Houshyar-Rad, A; Rashidkhani, B
There is growing evidence that dietary antioxidants may have favourable effects in reducing cancer risk. In a case-control study we investigated the association of dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and risk of breast cancer. Sociodemographic data, medical history and anthropometric measurements were collected from 275 women (100 breast cancer cases & 175 controls). Participants' usual dietary intake was measured using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and their dietary TAC was estimated. An inverse, but non-significant, association was observed between dietary TAC and breast cancer risk. Multiple logistic regression models based on TAC of individual food groups showed that consumption of fruits and vegetables with higher TAC (μmolTE/100 g) was associated with a significantly decreased risk of breast cancer. Our study supports a protective effect of dietary antioxidants in relation to breast cancer risk. Food selection based on TAC of foods may be an effective strategy to modify the risk of cancer.
Uchida, Kentaro; Tomita, Haruo; Takemori, Toshikazu; Takamura, Hitoshi
Cooking can change the polyphenol contents of eggplant. This study elucidated the effects of grilling on total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity, and the inner structures of eggplant. After identical hollowing, cylindrical eggplant samples were prepared and were then grilled until their center temperatures (CT) respectively reached 50, 65, 75, 85, and 95 °C. Chemical assays and observations of the inner structures clarified that TPC and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity decreased as CT increased when CT was below 65 °C. Results also showed that TPC and DPPH radical scavenging activity increased as CT increased when CT was between 65 °C and 95 °C. For CT 65 °C, the samples retained polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity up to 40% of the raw state activity. The 3 grilled eggplant models, chlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid-sugar and chlorogenic acid-amino acid model, yielded results showing that phenol functional groups on chlorogenic acid were thermally stable and that phenol functional groups on chlorogenic acid reacted neither with sugar nor with amino acids. Results show that PPO activity is a primary reason for the decrease of the 2 indices. Optical microscopic and scanning electron microscopic observations revealed collapsed cells and inter-tissue cracks around the surface area for CT 85 and 95 °C. Scanning electron microscopic observations clarified that intercellular bonds for CT 85 and 95 °C became thinner than those for CT 75 °C around the middle area. The phenomena explained above are reasons for the increase of TPC and DPPH radical scavenging activity.
Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž
The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants.
Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; Mehta, Pradeep; Bajpai, Vivek K
In the present study, we carried out a systematic research on relative antioxidant activity of aqueous leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana. The DPPH activity of aqueous leaf extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 40.00-72.37% as compared to ascorbic acid 64.26-82.58%. The IC(50) values of aqueous extract and ascorbic acid in DPPH radical scavenging assay were obtained to be 83.45 and 26.75 μg/ml, respectively. Measurement of total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract of S. rebaudiana was achieved using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent containing 56.73 mg/g of phenolic content, which was found significantly potent when compared to reference standard gallic acid. The aqueous extract also inhibited the hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide and superoxide anions with IC(50) values of 100.86, 98.73 and 100.86 μg/ml, respectively. The greater amount of phenolic compounds leads to more potent radical scavenging effects as shown by the aqueous leaf extract of S. rebaudiana.
Chen, Yongsheng; Zhang, Ruiting; Liu, Chong; Zheng, Xueling; Liu, Benguo
The effect of steam flash explosion (SFE), a green processing technology, on the phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and antiproliferation to HepG2 of wheat bran was investigated. Moderate SFE treatment significantly enhanced the total soluble phenolic content of wheat bran. After SFE pretreatment, the free and conjugated ferulic acid content in the wheat bran were significantly increased. Antioxidant activities of SFE treated wheat bran were higher than those untreated wheat bran. The cellular antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of SFE treated wheat bran were also significantly ameliorated. It was suggested that SFE pretreatment could be applied to release the bound phenolic compounds and enhance the antioxidant activities and antiproliferative activities of wheat bran.
Kamkaen, N; Wilkinson, J M
Extracts of Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) flowers are used in Thailand as a component of cosmetics and the chemical composition of the flowers suggest that they may have antioxidant activity. In this study the potential antioxidant activity of C. ternatea extracts and an extract containing eye gel formulation was investigated. Aqueous extracts were shown to have stronger antioxidant activity (as measured by DPPH scavenging activity) than ethanol extracts (IC(50) values were 1 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively). Aqueous extracts incorporated in to an eye gel formulation were also shown to retain this activity, however, it was significantly less than a commercial antiwrinkle cream included for comparison. The total phenolic content was 1.9 mg/g extract as gallic acid equivalents. The data from this study support the use of C. ternatea extracts as antioxidant inclusions in cosmetic products.
Pinteus, Susete; Silva, Joana; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Fino, Nádia; Rodrigues, Ana Inês; Mendes, Susana; Pedrosa, Rui
Screening of antioxidant potential of dichloromethane and methanolic extracts of twenty-seven seaweeds from the Peniche coast was performed by: total phenolic contents (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Seaweeds revealing the highest antioxidant activity were screened for cytoprotective potential in MCF-7 cells, including the mitochondrial membrane potential analysis and the caspase-9 activity. High correlation was found between TPC of seaweed extracts and their scavenging capacity on DPPH and peroxyl radicals. The highest antioxidant activity was displayed by the methanolic fraction of brown seaweeds belonging to Fucales, however Ulva compressa presented the highest cytoprotective effect by blunting the apoptosis process. These results suggest that high antioxidant activity may not be directly related with high cytoprotective potential. Thus, seaweeds reveal to be a promising source of compounds with potential against oxidative stress.
Taheri, Sima; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee; Karimi, Ehsan; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi
The present study was conducted in order to assess the effect of various doses of acute gamma irradiation (0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy) on the improvement of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties of Curcuma alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) analysis uncovered that various types of phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and fatty acids gradually altered in response to radiation doses. On the other hand, antioxidant activities determined by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reduction, antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay showed a higher irradiation level significantly increased the antioxidant properties. This study revealed an efficient effect of varying levels of gamma radiation, based on the pharmaceutical demand to enhance the accumulation and distribution of bioactive compounds such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, fatty acids, as well as their antioxidant activities in the leaves of C. alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. PMID:25056545
Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Hassan, Hassan M
Lactoferrin (Lf), the main iron-binding protein of milk, has biological activities. We have evaluated the potential of camel milk lactoferrin for its ability to inhibit the proliferation of the colon cancer cell line, HCT-116, in vitro, DNA damage and its antioxidant activities for the first time. The antioxidant capacity of Lf was evaluated by different assays, including ferric-reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP), free radical-scavenging activity (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) radical-scavenging assay, total antioxidant activity and DNA damage, compared with vitamin C and rutin.
Kamali, Mansureh; Khosroyar, Susan; Kamali, Hossein; Ahmadzadeh Sani, Tooba; Mohammadi, Ameneh
Objective: Dracocephalum kotschyi (Lamiaceae family) has been used in traditional medicine for stomach and liver disorders, headache and congestion. In the present study, we have investigated phytochemical properties and antioxidant activities of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of D.kotschyi. Material and Methods: Antioxidant activities of extracts were evaluated using the integration of HPLC-DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. In addition, the luteolincontent was determined using HPLC method. Results: The highest antioxidant activity was observed for the methanol extract (among the three tested extracts) showing 50% DPPH scavenging activity at 4.85µg/ml as compared to butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (3.00 µg/ml, 0.97 µg/ml). Also, luteolin was detected in methanol extract; it was identified by comparing its retention time and DAD spectra with standard and it was one of antioxidant components of this plant. In addition, the antioxidant activity of methanol extract was higher than BHT, in FRAP assay. Total phenolic content was in the range of 11.62-22.29 mg Gallic acid /gram of dry extract and flavonoid content was in the range of 3.97-5.042 mg Quercetin/ gram of extract for dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. The quantity of luteolin in D.kotschyiwas found to be 1061.005 µg/g of dried plant. Conclusion: The results of this investigation indicated that luteolin plays major role in the antioxidant activity of the plant. PMID:27516983
Hasnat, Abul; Pervin, Mehnaz; Lim, Beong Ou
In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR) were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.
Kubola, Jittawan; Siriamornpun, Sirithon
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) has long been regarded as a food and medicinal plant. We investigated the antioxidant activity of the water extract of leaf, stem and fruit fractions by several in vitro systems of assay, namely DPPH radical-scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay, ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and total antioxidant capacity. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Identification of phenolic compounds was achieved using HPLC with the UV-diode array detection. The extracts of different fractions were found to have different levels of antioxidant activity in the systems tested. The leaf extract showed the highest value of antioxidant activity, based on DPPH radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, while the green fruit extract showed the highest value of antioxidant activity, based on hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay and total antioxidant capacity. The predominant phenolic compounds were gallic acid, followed by caffeic acid and catechin. The present study demonstrated that the water extract fractions of bitter gourd have different responses with different antioxidant methods. Total phenol content was shown to provide the highest association with FRAP assay in this present study (R(2)=0.948).
Vece, Marilena Monica; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Pala, Valeria; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Masala, Giovanna; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Krogh, Vittorio
Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Diet has been hypothesized as involved in colorectal cancer etiology, but few studies on the influence of total dietary antioxidant intake on colorectal cancer risk have been performed. Methods We investigated the association between colorectal cancer risk and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet, and also of intake of selected antioxidants, in 45,194 persons enrolled in 5 centers (Florence, Naples, Ragusa, Turin and Varese) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Italy study. TAC was estimated by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Hazard ratios (HRs) for developing colorectal cancer, and colon and rectal cancers separately, adjusted for confounders, were estimated for tertiles of TAC by Cox modeling, stratifying by center. Results Four hundred thirty-six colorectal cancers were diagnosed over a mean follow-up of 11.28 years. No significant association between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer incidence was found. However for the highest category of TAC compared to the lowest, risk of developing colon cancer was lower (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44–0.89, P trend: 0.008). By contrast, increasing TAC intake was associated with significantly increasing risks of rectal cancer (2nd tertile HR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.19–3.66; 3rd tertile 2.48 95%CI: 1.32–4.66; P trend 0.007). Intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, and ß-carotene were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the contrasting effects of high total antioxidant intake on risk of colon and rectal cancers. PMID:26565695
Xu, Jin Ze; Yeung, Sai Ying Venus; Chang, Qi; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu
Canned and bottled tea drinks contain not only green tea epicatechins (GTE), namely (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC), but also four GTE epimers, namely (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), (-)-catechin gallate (CG), (-)-gallocatechin (GC) and (-)-catechin (C). In the present study we examined the antioxidant activity and bioavailability of these epimers compared with their corresponding precursors. The epimerisation reaction was induced by autoclaving GTE extract derived from longjing green tea at 120 degrees C for 20 min. Isolation and purification of each GTE and epimer were accomplished by various column chromatographic and semi-preparative HPLC techniques. The antioxidant activity of each epimer with its corresponding GTE precursor was conducted in the three in vitro systems, namely human LDL oxidation, ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP), and anti-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assays. The results of all three assays demonstrated that CG had similar antioxidant activity with its precursor ECG, while GC was less potent as an antioxidant than its precursor EGC. Regarding EGCG and GCG, the antioxidant potency was similar for both LDL oxidation and DPPH free radical assays, but GCG was statistically less effective than EGCG in the FRAP assay. For EC and C, the latter had less anti-free radical activity in the DPPH assay, but in LDL oxidation and FRAP assays the antioxidant activity was similar. Oral and intravenous dosing of GTE-epimer mixture led to increase in total plasma antioxidant capacity in rats. In general, both epicatechins and epimers had low bioavailability (0.08-0.31) and most of the observed differences between epicatechins and their corresponding epimers were small, even if they were statistically significant in some cases. It was concluded that the epimerisation reaction occurring in manufacturing canned and bottled tea drinks would not
Tian, Jing; Zhao, Sen; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Xiuying; Wang, Yi
The biological activity of teasaponins and their molecular structure are closely related, and the activity of saponins may be increased with the change of their molecular structure. In this report, teasaponins were hydrolyzed by Aspergillus niger for increasing the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of teasaponins before and after hydrolyzed was tested by DPPH, and the result showed four new teasaponins were produced after hydrolysis, and their antioxidant activity was increased significantly than the original teasaponins before hydrolysis, the radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was partly up to 95 %.
Zhang, Taowen; Andrukhov, Oleh; Haririan, Hady; Müller-Kern, Michael; Liu, Shutai; Liu, Zhonghao; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui
The detection of salivary biomarkers has a potential application in early diagnosis and monitoring of periodontal inflammation. However, searching sensitive salivary biomarkers for periodontitis is still ongoing. Oxidative stress is supposed to play an important role in periodontitis progression and tissue destruction. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) in saliva of periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls and their relationship with periodontopathic bacteria and periodontal disease severity. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 45 patients with generalized severe periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals and the TAC/TOS were measured. In addition, salivary levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva were measured. Salivary TAC was lower in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a significant negative correlation of salivary TAC with clinical attachment loss was observed in periodontitis patients. No significant difference in the salivary TOS was observed between periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Bacterial load was enhanced in periodontitis patients and exhibited correlation with periodontal disease severity but not with salivary TAC/TOS. Our data suggest that changes in antioxidant capacity in periodontitis patients are not associated with increased bacterial load and are probably due to a dysregulated immune response. PMID:26779448
Zhang, Taowen; Andrukhov, Oleh; Haririan, Hady; Müller-Kern, Michael; Liu, Shutai; Liu, Zhonghao; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui
The detection of salivary biomarkers has a potential application in early diagnosis and monitoring of periodontal inflammation. However, searching sensitive salivary biomarkers for periodontitis is still ongoing. Oxidative stress is supposed to play an important role in periodontitis progression and tissue destruction. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) in saliva of periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls and their relationship with periodontopathic bacteria and periodontal disease severity. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 45 patients with generalized severe periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals and the TAC/TOS were measured. In addition, salivary levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva were measured. Salivary TAC was lower in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a significant negative correlation of salivary TAC with clinical attachment loss was observed in periodontitis patients. No significant difference in the salivary TOS was observed between periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Bacterial load was enhanced in periodontitis patients and exhibited correlation with periodontal disease severity but not with salivary TAC/TOS. Our data suggest that changes in antioxidant capacity in periodontitis patients are not associated with increased bacterial load and are probably due to a dysregulated immune response.
Suantawee, Tanyawan; Wesarachanon, Krittaporn; Anantsuphasak, Kanokphat; Daenphetploy, Tanuch; Thien-Ngern, Sroshin; Thilavech, Thavaree; Pasukamonset, Porntip; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (clove) is one of the most widely cultivated spices in many tropical countries. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical content, the antioxidant properties and the antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of clove against fructose-mediated protein glycation and oxidation. The result showed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in clove extract was 239.58 ± 0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 65.67 ± 0.01 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. In addition, clove exhibited antioxidant properties including DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.29 ± 0.01 mg/ml), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (4.69 ± 0.03 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (20.55 ± 0.11 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents/mg dried extract), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (31.12 ± 0.21 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (0.15 ± 0.04 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), and superoxide radical scavenging activity (18.82 ± 0.50 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract). The aqueous extract of clove (0.25-1.00 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and non-fluorescent AGEs (N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)) in glycated BSA during 4 weeks of incubation. The extract also markedly prevented oxidation-induced protein damage by decreasing protein carbonyl formation and protecting against the loss of protein thiol group. These results clearly demonstrated that a polyphenol enriched clove extract, owing to its antioxidant, was capable to inhibit the formation of AGEs and protein glycation. The findings might lead to the possibility of using the clove extract for targeting diabetic complications.
Waisundara, Viduranga Y; Watawana, Mindani I
Sri Lanka has variety of herbs whose effectiveness has been proven across many generations. These herbs are classified into two groups - 'heating' and 'cooling', based on the physiological reactions upon consumption. Application-wise, the 'cooling' herbs are administered to patients contracted with diabetes, imbalances in the lipid profile, or even cancer. However, this classification has been misunderstood due to inconsistent interpretations and lack of scientific reasoning. This study systematically determines the rationale behind this classification, by specifically evaluating the antioxidant activity of 18 herbs - nine herbs from each category. The oxygen radical absorbance capacities, DPPH radical scavenging activities, and the total phenolic contents are analyzed here. The 'heating' herbs have a comparatively lower antioxidant potential than the 'cooling' herbs. The total phenolic contents correlate with the antioxidant values. It can be hypothesized that the high antioxidant potential of the 'cooling' herbs may have been responsible for the containment of the diseases mentioned previously.
Zaroug, Marwa; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Yagi, Sakina
The effect of fermentation and heating on the antioxidant activity of the fermented and fermented baked (kisra) dough prepared from two Sorghum cultivars (Tabat and Wad Ahmed) was evaluated. Kisra prepared from Tabat cultivar showed higher DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) than that of the Wad Ahmed cultivar. Baking improves the DPPH and FRAP of the kisra prepared from two cultivars. Baking caused a variable effect on the total phenol, tannins and flavonoids content across different periods of fermentation where an increase was mainly observed for samples subjected to longer periods of fermentation. A positive high correlation between the total phenol and antioxidant activity, using the DPPH and FRAP assays, was obtained for kisra prepared from both cultivars. The same observation was obtained for tannin content. In conclusion, fermentation and heating improve the antioxidant capacity of the sorghum grains from Tabat and Wad Ahmed cultivars.
Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee
The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress. PMID:28074103
Bender, Cecilia; Graziano, Sara; Zimmermann, Benno F
The aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and proliferative properties in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stems. Leaves extracts exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than stems extract, through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Stevioside and rebaudioside A, the main sweetening metabolites in stevia leaves, exhibited a low ORAC value in comparison with plant extracts, while did not elicit any CAA. Stevia rebaudiana did not exhibit toxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cells. No proliferative nor catalase modulations were observed in cells treated with such extracts. Our findings support the promising role of stevia that, apart from its sweetness, can act as a source of antioxidants, even at the intracellular level. This activity makes S. rebaudiana crude extract an interesting resource of natural sweetness with antioxidant properties which may find numerous applications in foods and nutritional supplements industries.
Lu, Yin; Du, Xiangtao; Lai, Lidan; Jin, Hao
The antioxidant potential of Actinidia macrosperma C. F. Liang (Actinidiaceae) was investigated in vitro for total phenolic content, along with total antioxidant activity (TAA), 1,1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation (LP). The results indicated that different polarity extracts of A. macrosperma exhibit different biological activities, which depends mainly on the presence of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity was in the following decreasing order: MeOH extract > EtOAc extract > aqueous extract > CHCl3 extract > Hexane extract. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of this plant by MTT dye assay using SMMC-7721 has been determined also. The hexane, EtOAc, and CHCl3 extracts showed cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Methanol and aqueous extracts, however, showed weak activities in this test. And a very significant cytotoxic activity, not significantly different from the positive control of quercetin, was observed in CHCl3 extract. PMID:22110544
Yang, Yuwei; Dai, Chunmei; Lu, Anyang; Li, Jie; Liao, Yao; Xiang, Miao; Huang, Qingmei; Wang, Dong
Oxidative stress is involved in a variety of diseases. Prospective studies investigating the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers and the status and development of colorectal cancer (CRC) are scarce; previous studies have failed to establish a relationship between the serum total oxidant/antioxidant status and CRC. Therefore, we compared the total serum oxidant/antioxidant levels of CRC patients and healthy subjects, and analyzed their clinical significance in the CRC. Fasting blood samples from 132 CRC patients and 64 healthy subjects were collected. Oxidative stress parameters, including total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS), were measured, and the oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. The TOS and OSI levels increased significantly (P<0.001) and the TAS level significantly decreased (P<0.001) in the CRC group compared to those in the healthy control group. Oxidative stress parameters differed significantly depending on the patient’s smoking and drinking status (P<0.05). The preoperative and postoperative levels of TOS, TAS, and OSI did not differ significantly between primary sites (colon/rectum) and clinical stages (P>0.05).However, the levels of TOS, TAS, and OSI were significantly different between patients with no metastasis and those with metastases to two organs (P<0.05) Finally, the parameters are affected by smoking and drinking, and subsequent research should be conducted excluding the relevant influencing factors. PMID:28103261
Jing, Siqun; Zhang, Xiaoming
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF) grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics. PMID:25628774
Ma, Zhao; Cui, Fangyuan; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Jianjun; Zheng, Lan; Jia, Le
The main objective of this work was to purify the exopolysaccharides (EPS) of Flammulina velutipes SF-06 and investigate the relationship between the different purified fractions and bioactive activity. Two fractions (EPS-1 and EPS-2) were separated and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 cellulose column chromatography. Monosaccharides composition analysis by gas chromatography indicated that EPS, EPS-1 and EPS-2 were heteropolysaccharides in which rhamnose was a major component. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis detected furanose-ring in EPS-1 and EPS-2. All fractions possessed considerable antioxidant activity, while EPS-2 has stronger antioxidant activity than EPS and EPS-1 in vitro. The EPS also exhibited potent anti-aging activation in mice, such as increased catalase and total antioxidant capacity, and decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Both the antioxidant in vitro and anti-aging in vivo potentials of EPS could be further utilized in the food industry.
Głód, Bronisław K; Wantusiak, Paweł M; Piszcz, Paweł; Lewczuk, Elwira; Zarzycki, Paweł K
DPPH is commonly applied for estimation of antioxidant capacity of single and complex biological samples, and changes colour from purple to yellow during reduction to DPPH-H. Importantly, for some samples, for example coloured foods, such reaction cannot be used because of interference from pigments. Therefore, the number of reported quantitative protocols involving off- or on-line sample reaction with DPPH are based on chromatographic separation of target components. In typical planar chromatographic assay, developed plates are sprayed with DPPH solution for antioxidant screening. Such approach enables simple visualisation of separated spots exhibiting antioxidant activities, but unfortunately, such procedure may also give the misleading signal for coloured spots. In the present communication we examined a new approach for measuring antioxidant capacity using quantitative analysis of DPPH and DPPH-H molecules after reaction with the sample, and then separated from the interfering compounds by micro-thin-layer chromatography. Particularly, the antioxidant capacities of coloured food samples (such as herbs and meads) were determined and the results compared with those obtained using the classical photometric assay. The main advantages of the new micro-TLC assay are (i) low cost, (ii) multiple measurements, (iii) short analysis time, (iv) simplification of sample preparation and (v) effective separation of DPPH signal from interfering compounds.
Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.
In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361
Bhandari, Shiva Ram; Kwak, Jung-Ho
This research was conducted to evaluate glucosinolate profiles, vitamin C, total phenol, total flavonoid, and free sugar (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) content, fatty acid composition, and antioxidant activity in floret and leaf of six cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. The level of chemical constituents as well as antioxidants significantly varied among crop types, cultivars, and their different parts, in that phytochemicals such as glucosinolate were statistically higher in florets compared with leaves in both broccoli and cauliflower cultivars. In contrast, total flavonoid and free sugar were found at higher levels in the leaf parts. The Asia purple cultivar exhibited statistically higher vitamin C (649.7 mg·100 g-1), total phenol (1345.2 mg·GAE 100 g-1), and total flavonoid (632.7 mg·CE 100 g-1) contents and consequently had the highest antioxidant activity (1.12 mg·mL-1) in its florets, while Baeridom and Bridal had the highest total glucosinolate (9.66 µmol·g-1) and free sugar (318.6 mg·g-1) contents, respectively compared with other cultivars. Likewise, the major fatty acids were palmitic (23.52%-38.42%), linoleic (13.09%-18.97%), and linolenic (26.32%-51.80%) acids, which comprised the highest compositional ratio (more than 50%) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in most cultivars. Among the antioxidants, total phenol exhibited the most significant positive correlation (r = 0.698 **) with antioxidant activity, followed by vitamin C (r = 0.522 **) and total flavonoid (r = 0.494 **), indicating their significant contributions to total antioxidant activity.
Kamiyama, Masumi; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Jang, Hae Won; Shibamoto, Takayuki
Antioxidant activities of brewed coffees prepared from six commercial brands ranged from 63.13 ± 1.01 to 96.80 ± 1.68% at the highest levels tested. Generally, the degree of antioxidant activity of the brewed coffee was inversely proportional to the total chlorogenic acid concentration. A sample obtained from the major chlorogenic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), heated at 250 °C exhibited potent antioxidant activity (79.12 ± 2.49%) at the level of 10 μg/mL, whereas unheated 5-CQA showed only moderate antioxidant activity (44.41 ± 0.27%) at the level of 100 μg/mL. Heat produced relatively high levels of pyrocatechol (2,809.3 μg/g) and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (46.4 μg/g) from 5-CQA, and their antioxidant activity levels were 76.57 ± 3.00 and 98.63 ± 0.01%, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that roasting degrades chlorogenic acids to form potent antioxidants and thus plays an important role in the preparation of high-antioxidant low-acid coffee.
Wang, Junqiao; Hu, Shuzhen; Nie, Shaoping; Yu, Qiang; Xie, Mingyong
It is widely acknowledged that the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) induced oxidative stress will cause significant damage to cell structure and biomolecular function, directly or indirectly leading to a number of diseases. The overproduction of ROS/RNS will be balanced by nonenzymatic antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. Polysaccharide or glycoconjugates derived from natural products are of considerable interest from the viewpoint of potent in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities recently. Particularly, with regard to the in vitro antioxidant systems, polysaccharides are considered as effective free radical scavenger, reducing agent, and ferrous chelator in most of the reports. However, the underlying mechanisms of these antioxidant actions have not been illustrated systematically and sometimes controversial results appeared among various literatures. To address this issue, we summarized the latest discoveries and advancements in the study of antioxidative polysaccharides and gave a detailed description of the possible mechanisms. PMID:26682009
Wang, Junqiao; Hu, Shuzhen; Nie, Shaoping; Yu, Qiang; Xie, Mingyong
It is widely acknowledged that the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) induced oxidative stress will cause significant damage to cell structure and biomolecular function, directly or indirectly leading to a number of diseases. The overproduction of ROS/RNS will be balanced by nonenzymatic antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. Polysaccharide or glycoconjugates derived from natural products are of considerable interest from the viewpoint of potent in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities recently. Particularly, with regard to the in vitro antioxidant systems, polysaccharides are considered as effective free radical scavenger, reducing agent, and ferrous chelator in most of the reports. However, the underlying mechanisms of these antioxidant actions have not been illustrated systematically and sometimes controversial results appeared among various literatures. To address this issue, we summarized the latest discoveries and advancements in the study of antioxidative polysaccharides and gave a detailed description of the possible mechanisms.
Kalelioglu, Tevfik; Genc, Abdullah; Karamustafalioglu, Nesrin; Tasdemir, Akif; Can Gungor, Ferda; Cansiz, Alparslan; Incir, Said; Cem Ilnem, M; Emul, Murat
We investigated serum total oxidative and anti-oxidative status in manic patients. Group1 was formed as ECT+antipsychotic, group2 was antipsychotic and healthy volunteers as group3. The anti-oxidative status was significantly lower in group1 than group3. No significant change was found between pre and post-treatment oxidative and anti-oxidative status, whereas significantly increased oxidative stress index has been found in group2. Total anti-oxidative status in manic states seems to be inadequate which remains to be maintained after the treatment.
Fernandez-Pastor, Ignacio; Fernandez-Hernandez, Antonia; Rivas, Francisco; Martinez, Antonio; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Parra, Andres
Three procedures have been investigated for the isolation of tyrosol (1) and hydroxytyrosol (2) from a phenolic extract obtained from the solid residue of olive milling. These three methods, which facilitated the recovery of these phenols, were chemical or enzymatic acetylation, benzylation, and carbomethoxylation, and subsequent carbonylation or acetonation reactions. Several new lipophilic alkyl-carbonate derivatives of hydroxytyrosol have been synthesized, coupling the primary hydroxy group of this phenol, through a carbonate linker, using alcohols with different chain lengths. The antioxidant properties of these lipophilic derivatives have been evaluated by different methods and compared with free hydroxytyrosol (2) and also with the well-known antioxidants BHT and α-tocopherol. Three methods were used for the determination of this antioxidant activity: FRAP and ABTS assays, to test the antioxidant power in hydrophilic media, and the Rancimat test, to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in a lipophilic matrix. These new alkyl-carbonate derivatives of hydroxytyrosol enhanced the antioxidant activity of this natural phenol, with their antioxidant properties also being higher than those of the commercial antioxidants BHT and α-tocopherol. There was no clear influence of the side-chain length on the antioxidant properties of the alkyl-carbonate derivatives of 2, although the best results were achieved mainly by the compounds with a longer chain on the primary hydroxy group of this natural phenolic substance.
Background The aim of this study was to identify, quantify, and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant capacities, and antibacterial activities of Aloe vera lyophilized leaf gel (LGE) and 95% ethanol leaf gel extracts (ELGE) using GC-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Results Analytically, 95% ethanol is less effective than ethyl acetate/diethyl ether or hexane (in the case of fatty acids) extractions in separating phytochemicals for characterization purposes. However, although fewer compounds are extracted in the ELGE, they are approximately 345 times more concentrated as compared to the LGE, hence justifying ELGE use in biological efficacy studies in vivo. Individual phytochemicals identified included various phenolic acids/polyphenols, phytosterols, fatty acids, indoles, alkanes, pyrimidines, alkaloids, organic acids, aldehydes, dicarboxylic acids, ketones, and alcohols. Due to the presence of the antioxidant polyphenols, indoles, and alkaloids, the A. vera leaf gel shows antioxidant capacity as confirmed by ORAC and FRAP analyses. Both analytical methods used show the non-flavonoid polyphenols to contribute to the majority of the total polyphenol content. Three different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol, and acetone were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of A. vera to screen the antibacterial activity selected human clinical pathogens by agar diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in acetone extracts (12 ± 0.45, 20 ± 0.35, 20 ± 0.57, and 15 ± 0.38 nm) other than aqueous and ethanol extracts. Conclusion Due to its phytochemical composition, A. vera leaf gel may show promise in alleviating symptoms associated with/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. PMID:23870710
Ziobro, Anna; Bartosz, Grzegorz
The Total Antioxidant Capacity of several human fluids was compared and the following sequence of TAC values was found: urine > saliva > blood plasma > milk approximately amniotic fluid > sweat. Lower TAC values were found for the saliva of smokers than for that of non-smokers. Drinking of a cup of instant coffee increased the hydrogen peroxide content of urine but did not decrease the TAC of urine.
Wang, Xuemei; Zuo, Zhicai; Zhao, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhuo; Peng, Guangneng; Cao, Suizhong; Hu, Yanchun; Yu, Shumin; Zhong, Zhijun; Deng, Junliang; Ren, Zhihua
We evaluated the effects of selenium (Se) on antioxidant enzymes of piglet splenic lymphocytes exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON). We measured cell viability, the activities of several antioxidant enzymes, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We found that DON exposure increased the concentrations of LDH, MDA, and H2O2 in all experimental groups in a dose-dependent manner, while the concentrations of other antioxidant enzymes were decreased. In Se-pretreated DON-exposed cells, damage to antioxidant enzymes was reduced, especially in the lower-dose DON groups over longer exposure times. These results may indicate that in piglet splenic lymphocytes, Se can alleviate DON-induced damage to antioxidant enzymes by improving glutathione peroxidase activity. Se may function as a potential antioxidative agent to alleviate DON-induced oxidative stress.
Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Espinoza-Torres, Libia Citlali; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Medina-Godoy, Sergio
The phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities from the peel and seeds of different tomato types (grape, cherry, bola and saladette type), and simulated tomato industrial byproducts, were studied. Methanolic extracts were used to quantify total phenolic content, groups of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and the profile of phenolic compounds (by HPLC-DAD). Antimutagenic activity was determined by Salmonella typhimurium assay. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato byproducts were comparable or superior to those previously reported for whole fruit and tomato pomace. Phenolic compounds with important biological activities, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acids, quercetin-3-β-O-glycoside, and quercetin, were quantified. Differences in all phenolic determinations due to tomato type and part of the fruit analyzed were observed, peel from grape type showing the best results. Positive antimutagenic results were observed in all samples. All evaluated materials could be used as a source of potential nutraceutical compounds.
Wang, Dong; Feng, Jia-Fu; Zeng, Ping; Yang, Yun-Hong; Luo, Jun; Yang, Yu-Wei
Oxidative stress is considered to be involved in the pathophysiology of all cancers. In order to evaluate the total oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with thyroid cancer and to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress parameters and serum thyroid profiles among thyroid cancer patients and various controls, we determined oxidative status including total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) and calculation of oxidative stress index (OSI) in sera in 82 thyroid cancer patients, 56 benign thyroid disease patients, and 50 healthy controls. It was found that serum TAS levels were significantly lower in patients with thyroid cancer than in controls (P<0.001), while serum TOS levels and OSI values were significantly higher (both P<0.001) in the cancer patients. No significant correlations were observed between various oxidative stress markers and thyroid profiles in either the thyroid cancer patients or the controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that OSI was the best indicator for distinguishing cancer patients from benign thyroid diseased or healthy controls, followed by TOS and TAS. Risk estimate statistics also indicated that TOS and/or OSI were good risk factors to discriminate patients with thyroid cancer from two controls. These findings suggested that oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in patients with thyroid cancer. OSI may be a more useful oxidative stress biomarker than TAS and TOS for monitoring the clinical status of thyroid cancer patients. PMID:22002574
Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Steel, Caroline Joy; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto
Nutrients composition, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and estimated glycemic index (EGI) were evaluated in sorghum bran (SB) and decorticated sorghum flour (DSF), obtained by a rice-polisher, as well as whole sorghum flour (WSF). Correlation between EGI and the studied parameters were determined. SB presented the highest protein, lipid, ash, β-glucan, total and insoluble dietary fiber contents; and the lowest non-resistant and total starch contents. The highest carbohydrate and resistant starch contents were in DSF and WSF, respectively. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were concentrated in SB. The EGI values were: DSF 84.5 ± 0.41; WSF 77.2 ± 0.33; and SB 60.3 ± 0.78. Phenolic compounds, specific flavonoids and antioxidant activities, as well as total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber and β-glucans of sorghum flour samples were all negatively correlated to EGI. RS content was not correlated to EGI.
Pelvan Pelitli, Ebru; Janiak, Michał Adam; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Alasalvar, Cesarettin
Natural (raw) hazelnut was extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone to obtain crude phenolic extract that was then fractionated for elution of low-molecular weight (LMW) and high-molecular weight (HMW) fractions. LMW fraction was further purified (LWM-FP) to remove sugars and organic acids. The crude extract and its fractions were determined by measuring their protein precipitating capacity (PPC) using two different proteins [bovine serum albumin (BSA) and gelatin], molecular weights, total phenolics, condensed tannins, and various antioxidant activities. Significant differences (p<0.05) existed in the contents of total phenolics, condensed tannins, antioxidant activities, and PPC among the crude extract and fractions, albeit to different extends. BSA and gelatin was effectively precipitated by HMW fraction. HMW fraction had the highest total phenolics, condensed tannins, and antioxidant activities, followed by crude extract, LWM-FP, and LMW, respectively. The present study suggests that HMW fraction could be utilised as a source of polyphenols for the food industry.
Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural
Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.
Jelodarian, Sara; Haghir Ebrahimabadi, Abdolrasoul; Khalighi, Ahmad; Batooli, Hossain
Objective: Antioxidants are considered as the main factors in the inhibition of unwanted oxidation reactions. Materials and Methods: In this research the antioxidant potential of the fresh fruits of 4 cultivars (A to D) of Malus domestica (M. domestica) cultivated in the Kashan, Qamsar area was evaluated. The antioxidant activity of the samples were evaluated using two complementary antioxidant assays: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests and the results were compared with the synthetic standard antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Results: Total phenolic contents of the samples are also estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol test. In both DPPH β-carotene/linoleic acid tests in the concentration of 2 mg/ml, only samples from cultivar A showed moderate antioxidant activity with 63.92±0.42 and 6.02±0.03 inhibition percentages, respectively and other samples were weakly active. Conclusion: The Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol test was also showed very little phenolic compounds for the fruits. In conclusion, weak antioxidant activity was estimated for the studied apple cultivars. PMID:25050243
Karoune, Samira; Falleh, Hanen; Kechebar, Mohamed Seif Allah; Halis, Youcef; Mkadmini, Khaoula; Belhamra, Mohamed; Rahmoune, Chaabane; Ksouri, Riadh
This study compared phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in different organs of Acacia albida (leaves and bark) and focuses on identification of phenolic compounds of leaves by HPLC-DAD. The analysed organs exhibited differences in total polyphenol contents (100 and 59.5 mg GAE g(-1) DW). Phenolic contents of leaves were two times higher than those in bark. Ethanolic extracts exhibited good antioxidant activities with IC50 = 26 μg mL(-1) for DPPH and EC50 = 50 μg mL(-1) for FRAP. Identification by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of nine phenolic compounds known for their high antioxidant activity. The results suggested that this species can be used as source of natural antioxidants.
Shao, Yafang; Tang, Fufu; Xu, Feifei; Wang, Yuefei; Bao, Jinsong
Three rice genotypes with different color were gamma irradiated at a dose of 2, 4, 6, 8and 10 kGy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the phenolics content and the antioxidant activity, as well as physicochemical properties of whole grain rice. The bound phenolics content in all the genotypes were significantly increased with the increase of dose of irradiation. Gamma irradiation at high dose significantly increased the free, bound and total antioxidant activities of three rice genotypes except for the free antioxidant activities of red rice. Though the color parameters were slightly changed, these changes could not be visibly identified. Rapid visco-analyzer (RVA) viscosities and gel hardness decreased continuously with the increase of the irradiation doses. It is suggested that gamma irradiation enhanced the antioxidant potential and eating quality of whole grainrice.
Nagarani, Gunasekaran; Abirami, Arumugam; Nikitha, Prasad; Siddhuraju, Perumal
Objective To investigate the effect of different processing methods on antioxidant properties of acetone extract of aerial parts from Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea. Methods The total phenolic and ﬂavonoid contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride method, respectively. FRAP, metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities, carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity were used for the determination of antioxidant capacity. Results The total phenolics in Boerhaavia diffusa (82.79-162.80 mg GAE/g extract) were found to be higher when compared to that of Portulaca oleracea (22.94-10.02 mg GAE/g extract). Hydrothermal processing enhanced the level of inhibition on synthetic radicals such as DPPH (3 439-309 549 mmol TE/g extract) and ABTS (17 808-53 818 mmol TE/g extract) as well as biologically relevant radicals such as superoxide anion (70%-90%) and nitric oxide (49%-57%). In addition, boiling of the vegetables were found to be maximum capacity of FRAP (6 404.95 mmol Fe (II)/g extract) and metal chelating activity (1.53 mg EDTA/g extract) than the respective raw samples. Conclusions The present investigation suggests that the processing enhance the functionality and improves the availability of bioactive substances of these vegetables. In addition, they also exhibited more potent antioxidant activity. Therefore these natural weeds from the crop land ecosystem could be suggested as cost effective indigenous green vegetables for human diet and potential feed resources for animals. Further extensive studies on role and importance of those weeds in sustaining the agro biodiversity are also needed. PMID:25183131
Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai
A cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for quantifying the antioxidant activity of phytochemicals, food extracts, and dietary supplements has been developed. Dichlorofluorescin is a probe that is trapped within cells and is easily oxidized to fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF). The method measures the ability of compounds to prevent the formation of DCF by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP)-generated peroxyl radicals in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The decrease in cellular fluorescence when compared to the control cells indicates the antioxidant capacity of the compounds. The antioxidant activities of selected phytochemicals and fruit extracts were evaluated using the CAA assay, and the results were expressed in micromoles of quercetin equivalents per 100 micromol of phytochemical or micromoles of quercetin equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit. Quercetin had the highest CAA value, followed by kaempferol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), myricetin, and luteolin among the pure compounds tested. Among the selected fruits tested, blueberry had the highest CAA value, followed by cranberry > apple = red grape > green grape. The CAA assay is a more biologically relevant method than the popular chemistry antioxidant activity assays because it accounts for some aspects of uptake, metabolism, and location of antioxidant compounds within cells.
Guiné, Raquel P F; Barroca, Maria João; Gonçalves, Fernando J; Alves, Mariana; Oliveira, Solange; Mendes, Mateus
Bananas (cv. Musa nana and Musa cavendishii) fresh and dried by hot air at 50 and 70°C and lyophilisation were analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. All samples were subject to six extractions (three with methanol followed by three with acetone/water solution). The experimental data served to train a neural network adequate to describe the experimental observations for both output variables studied: total phenols and antioxidant activity. The results show that both bananas are similar and air drying decreased total phenols and antioxidant activity for both temperatures, whereas lyophilisation decreased the phenolic content in a lesser extent. Neural network experiments showed that antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds can be predicted accurately from the input variables: banana variety, dryness state and type and order of extract. Drying state and extract order were found to have larger impact in the values of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds.
Niveditha, Vedavyas R; Sridhar, Kandikere R
The raw and processed (cooked and cooked + solid-state fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus) split beans of two landraces of coastal sand dune wild legumes (Canavalia cathartica and Canavalia maritima) of the southwest coast of India were examined for bioactive compounds (total phenolics, tannins and vitamin C) and antioxidant potential (total antioxidant activity, ferrous-ion chelating capacity, DPPH free radical-scavenging activity and reducing activity). One-way ANOVA revealed significant elevation of bioactive compounds as well as antioxidant activities in fermented beans compared to raw and cooked beans in both legumes (p < 0.001). The EC50 values in fermented beans of both legumes were significantly lowest compared to raw and cooked beans (p < 0.001). In principal component analysis, total phenolics along with antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, ferrous-ion chelating and free radical-scavenging activities) of fermented beans of C. cathartica, while total antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of fermented beans of C. maritima were clustered. The present study demonstrated that split beans of coastal sand dune Canavalia fermented by R. oligosporus endowed with high bioactive principles as well as antioxidant potential and thus serve as future nutraceutical source.
Gomez del Arco, P; Martínez-Martínez, S; Calvo, V; Armesilla, A L; Redondo, J M
Activity of the transcription factor AP-1 is controlled by different MAPK cascades that regulate the different AP-1 components at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level. Recently, AP-1 has been shown to behave as a redox-sensitive transcription factor that can be induced under both pro-oxidative and antioxidative conditions. In this overview we summarize the signaling pathways that converge on the activation of AP-1 and the components of these pathways that have been shown to be targets of antioxidants. The activation of AP-1 by antioxidants may account for the expression of a number of genes that mediate important functions under physiological conditions.
Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Ramdath, D Dan; Liu, Qiang; Hernandez, Marta; Tsao, Rong
The phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in lipophilic and hydrophilic (extractable and bound) fractions of lentils before and after domestic cooking were investigated. The hydrophilic fractions in lentils contributed much more to the antioxidant activity than the lipophilic fraction. The phenolic content of lentils was mainly composed of extractable compounds. Significant changes (P < 0.05) in carotenoid, tocopherol, total phenolic, and condensed tannin contents of both extractable and bound phenolics fractions, as well as in antioxidant activities, were found in lentils before and after cooking. More specifically, cooking was found to favor the release of carotenoids and tocopherols and flavonols (kaempferol glycosides), but led to losses of flavanols (monomeric and condensed tannin). Whereas reduced flavanols and other phenolic compounds may have negatively affected the antioxidant activity, other components, especially the lipophilic antioxidants, were increased. The present study suggests that incorporation of cooked lentils into the diet will not cause significant loss to the phytochemical antioxidants and thus will retain the potential health benefits.
Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand
In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14±2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.
Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand
In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.
Background The leaves of Leea indica (Vitaceae), commonly known as ‘Huo Tong Shu’ in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. The current study reports the outcome of antioxidant and cytotoxic investigation of L. indica leaves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L. indica leaf crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) for evaluation of total phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cell lines. Methods In the present study, L. indica leaf crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) were firstly prepared prior to phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity assessment. Folin-Ciocalteau’s method was used for the measurement of total phenolic content of the extracts. The antioxidant activity was measured by employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals, reducing power assay and SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity assay. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts were evaluated against three colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (HT-29, HCT-15 and HCT-116) by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Results The total phenolic content and antioxidant capabilities differed significantly among the L. indica leaf extracts. A strong correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant properties was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are the major contributor to the antioxidant properties of these extracts. Among the crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts, fractionated water extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content and strongest antioxidant effect in all the antioxidant testing systems employed in this study. All the four extracts exert no damage to the selected colon cancer cells. Conclusions The
Yang, Meng; Chung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Chin Eun; Kim, Dae-Ok; Song, Won O; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K
Given the importance of dietary antioxidants in reducing the risks of chronic diseases, the present study aimed to estimate the intake of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from diet and dietary supplements of US adults. We utilised the US Department of Agriculture flavonoid and proanthocyanidin databases, dietary supplement data and food consumption data of 4391 US adults aged 19+ years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2. In order to convert the intake data of individual antioxidant compounds to TAC values, the vitamin C equivalent (VCE) of forty-three antioxidant nutrients measured previously was also applied. Daily TAC averaged 503.3 mg VCE/d (approximately 75 % from diet and 25 % from supplements). The energy-adjusted daily TAC level from diet and supplements was higher in women (except for carotenoids), older adults, Caucasian (except for carotenoids), non-alcohol consumers (for vitamin E and proanthocyanidins), subjects with higher income (except for carotenoids) and higher exercise levels than their counterparts (P < 0.05). TAC was positively associated with daily consumption of fruits and fruit juices, vegetables and vegetable products, beverages, wines and teas (P < 0.001). Teas, dietary supplements, and fruits and fruit juices were the major sources of dietary TAC of the US population (28, 25 and 17 %, respectively), while the contribution of vegetables and vegetable products to TAC was minimal ( < 2 %). The present study indicates that antioxidant intake from various diet and supplements contributes to TAC status. TAC levels are different in sociodemographic subgroups of the US population. The relationship between TAC intake and risks of chronic disease warrants further investigation.
Yu, Lina; Sun, Jie; Liu, Shaofang; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Chushu; Yang, Qingli
The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical basis for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate in order to improve its antioxidant activities. Therefore, response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis for the purpose of preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. Results indicated that the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of peanut hydrolysate could reach 90.06% under the following optimum conditions: ultrasonic power of 150.0 w, reaction temperature of 62.0 °C, incubation time of 25.0 min, and initial pH value of 8.5. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of peanut hydrolysate from ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis improved comparing with that of peanut hydrolysate from protease hydrolysis alone. The peanut antioxidant hydrolysate was found to display eight improved kinds of antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the optimal ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis technology conditions described in this paper, appear to be beneficial for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate.
Yu, Lina; Sun, Jie; Liu, Shaofang; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Chushu; Yang, Qingli
The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical basis for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate in order to improve its antioxidant activities. Therefore, response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis for the purpose of preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. Results indicated that the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of peanut hydrolysate could reach 90.06% under the following optimum conditions: ultrasonic power of 150.0 w, reaction temperature of 62.0 °C, incubation time of 25.0 min, and initial pH value of 8.5. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of peanut hydrolysate from ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis improved comparing with that of peanut hydrolysate from protease hydrolysis alone. The peanut antioxidant hydrolysate was found to display eight improved kinds of antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the optimal ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis technology conditions described in this paper, appear to be beneficial for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. PMID:22942751
Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Zheng, Bisheng
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds are popular nutritional food but with limited knowledge about their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of various varieties. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of six varieties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds were studied. Fenheizhi3 (black) cultivar exhibited the maximum contents of total phenolics and lignans and values of total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and antiproliferative activity (EC50) against HepG2 cells. Bound ORAC values showed strong associations with bound phenolics contents (r = 0.976, p < 0.01); in bound phenolic extracts, EC50 values showed strong negative associations with phenolic contents (r = −0.869, p < 0.05) and ORAC values (r = −0.918, p < 0.01). Moreover, the contents of free phenolics were higher than that of the bound phenolics, and the three black sesame seeds generally depicted higher total phenolics compared to the three white varieties. The antioxidant (ORAC values) and antiproliferation activities of six sesame seeds were both associated with contents of bound phenolics (r > 0.8, p < 0.05). Interestingly, nonlignan components in bound phenolics contributed to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. This study suggested that Fenheizhi3 variety is superior to the other five varieties as antioxidant supplements. PMID:27597975
Mihailovic, Vladimir; Matic, Sanja; Mišic, Danijela; Solujic, Slavica; Stanic, Snežana; Katanic, Jelena; Mladenovic, Milan; Stankovic, Nevena
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions obtained from Gentiana asclepiadea L. roots methanolic extract. The main secondary metabolites sweroside, swertiamarin and gentiopicrine were quantified in G. asclepiadea root extracts using HPLC-DAD analysis. Amount of total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins was also determined. The antigenotoxic potential of extracts from roots of G. asclepiadea was assessed using the standard in vivo procedure for the detection of sex linked recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster males treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The results showed that the most abundant secoiridoid in G. asclepiadea roots was gentiopicrine and its content in the n-butanol fraction (442.89 mg/g) was the highest. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity, as well as total phenolics (146.64 GAE/g), flavonoids (44.62 RUE/g), flavonols (22.71 RUE/g) and gallotannins (0.99 mg GAE/g) content. All the fractions showed antioxidant activity using in vitro model systems and the results have been correlated with total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins content. In addition to antioxidant activity, G. asclepiadea root extract fractions possess an antigenotoxic effect against DNA damage induced by alkylation with EMS. The antioxidant activity exhibited by G. asclepiadea depended on the phenolic compounds content of the tested extracts, while there was no significant difference in the antigenotoxic potential between fractions. PMID:26622219
Zhou, Lin; Lin, Xiaohui; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Zheng, Bisheng
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds are popular nutritional food but with limited knowledge about their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of various varieties. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of six varieties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds were studied. Fenheizhi3 (black) cultivar exhibited the maximum contents of total phenolics and lignans and values of total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and antiproliferative activity (EC50) against HepG2 cells. Bound ORAC values showed strong associations with bound phenolics contents (r = 0.976, p < 0.01); in bound phenolic extracts, EC50 values showed strong negative associations with phenolic contents (r = -0.869, p < 0.05) and ORAC values (r = -0.918, p < 0.01). Moreover, the contents of free phenolics were higher than that of the bound phenolics, and the three black sesame seeds generally depicted higher total phenolics compared to the three white varieties. The antioxidant (ORAC values) and antiproliferation activities of six sesame seeds were both associated with contents of bound phenolics (r > 0.8, p < 0.05). Interestingly, nonlignan components in bound phenolics contributed to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. This study suggested that Fenheizhi3 variety is superior to the other five varieties as antioxidant supplements.
Li, Yanli; Browne, Richard W.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Deng, Furong; Tian, Lili; Mu, Lina
Objective. Human evidence is limited regarding the interaction between oxidative stress biomarkers and chemokines, especially in a population of adults without overt clinical disease. The current study aims to examine the possible relationships of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation markers with several chemokines in adults. Methods. We assessed cross-sectional associations of total antioxidant status (TAS) and two lipid peroxidation markers malondialdehyde (MDA) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with a suite of serum chemokines, including CXCL-1 (GRO-α), CXCL-8 (IL-8), CXCL-10 (IP-10), CCL-2 (MCP-1), CCL-5 (RANTES), CCL-8 (MCP-2), CCL-11 (Eotaxin-1), and CCL-17 (TARC), among 104 Chinese adults without serious preexisting clinical conditions in Beijing before 2008 Olympics. Results. TAS showed significantly positive correlations with MCP-1 (r = 0.15751, P = 0.0014), MCP-2 (r = 0.3721, P = 0.0001), Eotaxin-1 (r = 0.39598, P < 0.0001), and TARC (r = 0.27149, P = 0.0053). The positive correlations remained unchanged after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol drinking status. No associations were found between any of the chemokines measured in this study and MDA or TBARS. Similar patterns were observed when the analyses were limited to nonsmokers. Conclusion. Total antioxidant status is positively associated with several chemokines in this adult population. PMID:25254081
Background Artemisia parviflora leaf extracts were evaluated for potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed against ten standard reference bacterial strains. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the ferric thiocyanate and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were compared. Phytochemical analyses were performed to identify the major bioactive constitution of the plant extract. Results Hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of A. parviflora leaves exhibited good activity against the microorganisms tested. The n-hexane extract of A. parviflora showed high inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, other extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The major derivatives present in the extracts are of terpenes, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and volatile oil. Conclusions The results obtained with n-hexane extract were particularly significant as it strongly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. flexneri. The major constituent of the n-hexane extract was identified as terpenes. Strong antioxidant activity could be observed with all the individual extracts. The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs. PMID:23171441
Nandhakumar, Elumalai; Indumathi, Parameswaran
The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity of the fruit of Annona squamosa by means of in vitro studies involving two different solvent extracts: methanol and aqueous. The antioxidant properties of the extract were determined by scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (OH(•)), reducing power and total antioxidant. The results showed that, compared to aqueous extract, a methanolic fruit extract of A squamosa has a higher percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity (97.99%), LPO (94.15%), NO scavenging activity (70.96%), O2(-) scavenging activity and OH(•) scavenging activity (78.68% and 85.25%, respectively), total antioxidant activity (206 μg α-tocopherol/g) and reducing power (56.0 μg of ascorbic acid/g). The results obtained in the in vitro models clearly suggest that methanol extract has higher antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract due to a higher presence of phenolic and flavonodal constituents in the methanol extract.
Tchamgoue, Armelle D.; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Tarkang, Protus A.; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Agbor, Gabriel A.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. PMID:26246844
Hwang, Seok Joon; Yoon, Won Byong; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Cha, Seung Ju; Kim, Jong Dai
The objective of this study was to investigate the radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant properties of the extracts from black chokeberry and blueberry cultivated in Korea. The 70% ethanol extracts were prepared from black chokeberry and blueberry, and evaluated for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total proanthocyanidin content, and antioxidative activities, using various in vitro assays, such as DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid)) radical-scavenging activity, FRAP(ferric-reducing antioxidant power) and reducing power. The major phenolic compounds, including cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, neochlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, were analysed by HPLC with a photodiode array detector. Results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of black chokeberry extract were higher than those of blueberry extract. In addition, black chokeberry extract exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity and reducing power than did blueberry extract. Cyanidin-3-galactoside was identified as a major phenolic compound, with considerable content in black chokeberry, that correlated with its higher antioxidant and radical-scavenging effects. These results suggest that black chokeberry extracts could be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and functional food ingredients.
Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Abouali, Morteza; Salehi, Peyman; Sonboli, Ali; Kanani, Mohammad; Menichini, Francesco; Tundis, Rosa
Supported by a growing increase of scientific research attesting the health properties of salvia species, we have decided to investigate nine Salvia namely Salvia sclarea, Salvia atropatana, Salvia sahendica, Salvia hydrangea, Salvia xanthocheila, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia chloroleuca and Salvia ceratophylla species for their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. In order to correlate the bioactivity with their phytochemical content, the total phenol and total flavonoid contents were also determined. S. ceratophylla exhibited the strongest activity against C32 cells with an IC50 value of 20.8 μg mL(- 1), while S. glutinosa exhibited an IC50 value of 29.5 μg mL(- 1) against ACHN cell line. Interestingly, S. glutinosa displayed also the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity with an IC50 of 3.2 μg mL(- 1). These species are characterised by the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents. The obtained results suggest that Salvia species are healthy plant foods.
Flos Lonicerae is a medically useful traditional Chinese medicine herb. However, little is known about the antioxidant properties of Flos Lonicerae extracts. Here the antioxidant capacity of water, methanolic and ethanolic extracts prepared from Flos Lonicerae to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ is examined. Chlorogenic acid, a major component of Flos Lonicerae, is identified and further purified from 70% ethanolic extract with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its antioxidant capacity is characterized. The total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid contents in Flos Lonicerae are determined. The present results demonstrate that the Flos Lonicerae extracts exhibit antioxidant activity and chlorogenic acid is a major contributor to this activity. PMID:17726749
Zhang, Lin; Ravipati, Anjaneya S; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang Chul; Reddy, Narsimha; Smith, Paul T; Bartlett, John; Shanmugam, Kirubakaran; Münch, Gerald; Wu, Ming Jie
The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of water and ethanol extracts of 14 Chinese medicinal plants were investigated and also their total phenolics and flavonoid contents measured. The antioxidant activity was evaluated in a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae , whereas the radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activities of the plant extracts were determined by measuring the inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α in LPS and IFN-γ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Their cytotoxic activities against macrophages were determined by Alamar Blue assay. Four plants, namely, Scutellaria baicalensis , Taxillus chinensis , Rheum officinale , and Sophora japonica , showed significant antioxidant activity in both yeast model and also free radical scavenging methods. The ethanol extract of S. japonica showed highest levels of phenolics and flavonoids (91.33 GAE mg/g and 151.86 QE mg/g, respectively). A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenolics and flavonoid contents indicates that these compounds are likely to be the main antioxidants contributing to the observed activities. Five plant extracts (S. baicalensis, T. chinensis, S. japonica, Mahonia fortunei , and Sophora flavescens ) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro inhibition of the production of NO and TNF-α with low IC(50) values. These findings suggest that some of the medicinal herbs studied in this paper are good sources of antioxidants.
Wan, Hongxia; Liu, Dong; Yu, Xiangying; Sun, Haiyan; Li, Yan
A Caco-2 cell-based antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for quantitative evaluation of antioxidants was developed by optimizing seeding density and culture time of Caco-2 cells, incubation time and concentration of fluorescent probe (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, DCFH-DA), incubation way and incubation time of antioxidants (pure phytochemicals) and DCFH-DA with cells, and detection time of fluorescence. Results showed that the CAA assay was of good reproducibility and could be used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of antioxidants at the following conditions: seeding density of 5 × 10(4)/well, cell culture time of 24h, co-incubation of 60 μM DCFH-DA and pure phytochemicals with Caco-2 cells for 20 min and fluorescence recorded for 90 min. Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between CAA values and rat plasma ORAC values following the intake of antioxidants for selected pure phytochemicals (R(2) = 0.815, p < 0.01), demonstrating the good biological relevance of CAA assay.
Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun
Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.
Costa, Leandro Silva; Fidelis, Gabriel Pereira; Telles, Cinthia Beatrice Silva; Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Camara, Rafael Barros Gomes; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Pereira Costa, Mariana Santana Santos; Almeida-Lima, Jailma; Melo-Silveira, Raniere Fagundes; Oliveira, Ruth Medeiros; Albuquerque, Ivan Rui Lopes; Andrade, Giulianna Paiva Viana; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira
Fucan is a term used to denominate a type of polysaccharide which contains substantial percentages of l-fucose and sulfate ester groups. We obtained five heterofucans from Sargassum filipendula by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. These heterofucans are composed mainly of fucose, glucose, glucuronic acid, galactose and sulfate. These fucans did not show anticoagulant activity in PT and aPTT tests. Their antioxidant activity was evaluated using the follow tests; total antioxidant capacity, scavenging hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, reducing power and ferrous ion [Fe(II)] chelating. All heterofucans displayed considerable activity, especially SF-1.0v which showed the most significant antioxidant potential with 90.7 ascorbic acid equivalents in a total antioxidant capacity test and similar activity when compared with vitamin C in a reducing power assay. The fucan antiproliferative activity was performed with HeLa, PC3 and HepG2 cells using MTT test. In all tested conditions the heterofucans exhibited a dose-dependent effect. The strongest inhibition was observed in HeLa cells, where SF-1.0 and SF-1.5 exhibited considerable activity with an IC50 value of 15.69 and 13.83 μM, respectively. These results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of S. filipendula polysaccharides as antiproliferative and antioxidant. Further purification steps and additional studies on structural features as well as in vivo experiments are needed to test the viability of their use as therapeutic agents. PMID:21747741
Satoh, Eiki; Tohyama, Naoki; Nishimura, Masakazu
Although the antioxidant properties of green, oolong, and black teas have been well studied, antioxidant activity has not been examined in roasted tea. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the antioxidant activity of roasted tea in comparison with those of green, oolong, and black teas. Using water extracts of the various teas, we examined the total phenolic content as well as the antioxidant activities, including the reducing power, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and the inhibition of hemolysis caused by 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced lipid oxidation in erythrocyte membranes. The roasted tea contained lower levels of total phenolics than green, oolong, or black tea (green tea > oolong tea > black tea > roasted tea). The relative reducing power and DPPH scavenging activity decreased in the following order: green tea > roasted tea > oolong tea > black tea. Also, green tea was more effective against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis than other teas (green tea>roasted tea = oolong tea = black tea). These results suggest that roasted tea is beneficial to health, in humans, because of its high antioxidant activity.
Bhalodia, Nayan R; Nariya, Pankaj B; Acharya, R N; Shukla, V J
The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.
Dicko, Mamoudou H; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J
The screening of 50 sorghum varieties showed that, on average, germination did not affect the content in total phenolic compounds but decreased the content of proanthocyanidins, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, and flavan-4-ols. Independent of germination, there are intervarietal differences in antioxidant activities among sorghum varieties. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were more positively correlated in ungerminated varieties than in germinated ones. Sorghum grains with pigmented testa layer, chestnut color glumes, and red plants had higher contents, larger diversity of phenolic compounds, and higher antioxidant activities than other sorghums. Some red sorghum varieties had higher antioxidant activities (30-80 mumol of Trolox equiv/g) than several sources of natural antioxidants from plant foods. Among varieties used for "to", "dolo", couscous, and porridge preparation, the "dolo"(local beer) varieties had the highest average content and diversity in phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activities. The biochemical markers determined are useful indicators for the selection of sorghum varieties for food and agronomic properties.
Liu, Jun; Jia, Liang; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-Hai
The antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) were evaluated by various methods in vitro and in vivo. In antioxidant assays in vitro, ethanolic extract of A. bisporus was found to have strong reducing power, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and moderate hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with ethanolic extract of A. bisporus via gavage for 30 consecutive days. As a result, administration of ethanolic extract significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in serums, livers and hearts of mice. In addition, the total phenolic content in the extract determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method was 6.18mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight. The main phenolic compounds in ethanolic extract analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were determined as gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and myricetin. These results suggested that ethanolic extract of A. bisporus had potent antioxidant activity and could be explored as a novel natural antioxidant.
Rashed, Khaled Nabih; Butnariu, Monica
Purpose: The present study was carried out to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities from Eriobotrya japonica stems as well investigation of its chemical composition. Methods: Methanol 80% extract of Eriobotrya japonica stems was tested for antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal strains and for antioxidant activity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays and also total content of polyphenols with phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. Results: The results showed that the extract has a significant antimicrobial activity, it inhibited significantly the growth of Candida albicans suggesting that it can be used in the treatment of fungal infections, and it showed no effect on the other bacterial and fungal strains, the extract has a good antioxidant activity, it has shown high values of oxygen radical absorbance capacity and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, while it showed a low value of polyphenol content. Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, terpenes, tannins and flavonoids, further phytochemical analysis resulted in the isolation and identification of three triterpenic acids, oleanolic, ursolic and corosolic acids and four flavonoids, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol 3-O-β-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnoside. Conclusion: These results may help to discover new chemical classes of natural antimicrobial antioxidant substances. PMID:24409413
Wang, Zhanyong; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Su, Tingting; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fei
Preliminary characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo investigation of the polysaccharide fraction named as RCSP II, which was extracted from Rana chensinensis skin, were performed. Results indicated that RCSP II comprised glucose, galactose, and mannose in a molar ratio of 87.82:2.77:1.54 with a molecular weight of 12.8 kDa. Antioxidant activity assay in vitro showed that RCSP II exhibited 75.2% scavenging activity against 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals at the concentration of 2500 mg/L and 85.1% against chelated ferrous ion at 4000 mg/L. Antioxidant activity assay in vivo further showed that RCSP II increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased the levels of malondialodehyde, and enhanced total antioxidant capabilities in livers and sera of d-galactose induced mice. These results suggested that RCSP II could have potential antioxidant applications as medicine or functional food.
Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.
The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants ( P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.
Aguilera, Yolanda; Díaz, María Felicia; Jiménez, Tania; Benítez, Vanesa; Herrera, Teresa; Cuadrado, Carmen; Martín-Pedrosa, Mercedes; Martín-Cabrejas, María A
The present study describes the effects of germination on nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity in the nonconventional legumes Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean), Lablab purpureus (dolichos), and Stizolobium niveum (mucuna). Protease inhibitors and lectins were detected in raw legumes and were significantly decreased during the germination. Regarding total and individual inositol phosphates (IP5-IP3), important reductions of IP6 and high increases in the rest of inositol phosphates were also detected during this process. In addition, total phenols, catechins, and proanthocyanidins increased, accompanied by an overall rise of antioxidant activity (79.6 μmol of Trolox/g of DW in the case of mucuna). Germination has been shown to be a very effective process to reduce nonnutritional factors and increase bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of these nonconventional legumes. For this reason, they could be used as ingredients to obtain high-value legume flours for food formulation.
Faller, Ana Luisa Kremer; Fialho, Eliane; Liu, Rui Hai
Consumption of plant food rich meals, such as feijoada, a traditional meal in Brazil, is associated with the reduction of chronic disease. The objectives of this study were to determine phytochemical content and antioxidant activity by chemical and cellular antioxidant assays (CAA) of feijoada with or without in vitro digestion. Feijoada showed no difference in phenolics and flavonoids after digestion. Bound and residue contributions to total phenolics were 20.9% and 32.2%, respectively, suggesting that phenolics reach the colon after intake. Flavonoids in residue and bound fractions represented 50% of total flavonoids. Antioxidant activity of feijoada without digestion was higher than that with digestion; however, it showed lower antiproliferative activity and CAA. Feijoada with in vitro digestion also yielded phenolics with higher CAA. Analyses of whole meals should be used to evaluate phytochemicals present in food mixtures consumed, especially with digestion models coupled with CAA resulting in information similar to those in physiological conditions.
Quaranta, Michela; Nugroho Prasetyo, Endry; Koren, Klaus; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Murkovic, Michael; Klimant, Ingo; Guebitz, Georg M
It is estimated that up to 50% of the adult population take antioxidant products on a daily basis to promote their health status. Strangely, despite the well-recognized importance of antioxidants, currently there is no international standard index for labeling owing to the lack of standardized methods for antioxidant measurement in complex products. Here, an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based method to detect and measure the total antioxidant capacity of antioxidant samples is presented. In this approach, complex samples containing antioxidants are separated by the HPLC system, which is further coupled to an antioxidant measuring system consisting of an optical oxygen sensor, laccase, and tetramethoxy azobismethylene quinone (TMAMQ). The antioxidants, separated via HPLC, reduce TMAMQ to syringaldazine, which is then reoxidized by laccase while simultaneously consuming O(2). The amount of consumed oxygen is directly proportional to the concentration of antioxidants and is measured by the optical oxygen sensor. The sensor is fabricated by coating a glass capillary with an oxygen-sensitive thin layer made of platinum(II) meso-tetra(4-fluorophenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin and polystyrene, which makes real-time analysis possible (t(90) = 1.1 s in solution). Four selected antioxidants (3 mM), namely, catechin, ferulic acid, naringenin (used as a control), and Trolox, representing flavonol, hydrocinnamic acid, flavanone, and vitamin E, respectively, were injected into the online antioxidant monitoring system, separated, and then mixed with the TMAMQ/laccase solution, which resulted in oxygen consumption. This study shows that, with the use of such a system, the antioxidant activity of individual antioxidant molecules in a sample and their contribution to the total antioxidant activity of the sample can be correctly assigned.
Fernando, I P Shanura; Kim, Misook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Jeon, You-Jin
Polyphenolic compounds isolated from marine algae exhibit a broad spectrum of beneficial biological properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities, along with several other bioactivities centered on their antioxidant properties. Consequently, polyphenolic compounds are increasingly being investigated for their potential use in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. The antioxidant activities of these compounds have been explored widely through experimental studies. Nonetheless, a theoretical understanding of the structural and electronic properties could broaden research perspectives, leading to the identification and synthesis of efficient structural analogs with prophylactic uses. This review briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antioxidant polyphenolic compounds in marine algae with an attempt to describe the structure-activity relationship.
Background This study aims to determine the relationship between the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the thirteen herbs and two fungi extracts, and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods Antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: an antioxidant activity assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a DPPH ((2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay to assess free radical scavenging, an assay assessing ferrous ions or iron (II) chelating ability, and a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride methods, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activities were determined by measuring the inhibition of nitric oxide and TNF-α production in lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-activated J774A.1 macrophages. Their cytotoxicities against macrophages were determined by MTT assay. Results A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the plant extracts was found. The plant extracts with high phenolic and flavonoid content also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity with good cell viability. Conclusion The selected herbs could be a rich source of antioxidants and free radical scavenging compounds. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were correlated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts from the herbs. PMID:23176585
Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Di; You, Yuxian; Zeng, Siqi; Li, Yiwen; Tang, Qianqian; Han, Guoquan; Liu, Aiping; Feng, Chaohui; Li, Cheng; Su, Yujie; Su, Zhao; Chen, Daiwen
Thirteen samples representing five species were collected from different provinces of Southwest China, and their chemical composition, antihyperglycemic activity, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. These mushrooms had high crude protein (21.72-30.59g/100g dw) and total carbohydrate (49.18-62.58g/100g dw) contents, but low crude fat contents (1.96-7.87g/100g dw). They also accumulated notable quantities of potassium, zinc, sodium, magnesium and copper from the soil. The potassium content, in particular, was 18.75-39.21 times that found in the soil at the collection site. The natural habitat of these mushrooms, especially the mineral content of the soil, seems to have more influence on the mineral content of these mushrooms than their species. Most of the samples possessed antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities. Suillellus luridus showed the highest antioxidant activity and antihyperglycemic activities, suggesting that S. luridus shows potential for development as a dietary nutritional supplement.
Majer, Petra; Stoyanova, Silviya; Hideg, Eva
Two traditional methods of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assessment, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were applied to water extracts from tobacco leaves at various stages of senescence. Physiological status of the leaves was characterized by the effective photochemical quantum yield of photosynthesis (Y(II)). TAC values were compared to amounts of total phenolics, carotenoid contents and also to reactive oxygen scavenging capacities of the leaf extracts. To this end a new, simple fluorimetric assay was introduced for testing hydroxyl radical neutralizing capacity in leaf extracts. We found that while both TAC values increased with declining photosynthesis and decreasing pigment content, they were not characteristic to specific superoxide or hydroxyl radical scavenging and had limited connection to leaf antioxidant content. Good linear correlations were only found between the following pairs of parameters: Y(II) - total carotenoid, TEAC - total carotenoid, FRAP - total phenolics. Our data show that TEAC and FRAP are not interchangeable in leaf studies and do not represent antioxidant action on ROS.
Condezo-Hoyos, Luis; Abderrahim, Fatima; Arriba, Silvia M; Carmen González, M
A novel, micro, rapid and direct procedure to measure the total antioxidant capacity of solid foods using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (mR-QUENCHER-DPPH) was developed and validated. The mR-QUENCHER-DPPH assay was performed in semi-aqueous medium (methanol-Tris buffer) using very small sample amounts (below 3.6 µg), as estimated by a Bradford reagent-based chemical predictor, and it was completed in 10 min at room temperature. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of solid foods was expressed as scavenging capacity index (SCI, mmol DPPH scavenged per kg sample), a theoretical and stoichiometric parameter deduced in this study. SCI values measured by mR-QUENCHER-DPPH assay for cereals cous-cous (7.20±0.35), amaranth (7.99±0.35) and buckwheat (194.2±6.72); Goji fruit (91.27±3.98); lotus root (2402±168); and spices turmeric (3767±355), ginger (2493±283), and cinnamon (10461±2133) were further validated using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Bland-Altman analysis showed that there were not statistically significant differences in TAC values as measured by both assays. In the same way, TAC values measured by mR-QUENCHER-DPPH were correlated with free (r=0.8088, P=0.0151), bound (r=0.9668, P<0.0001) and total (r=0.9067, P=0.0019) reducing capacity of extracts from solid foods as assessed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The mR-QUENCHER-DPPH assay allows to measure TAC values using micro-gram amounts in solid food samples with a wide content range of antioxidants (low, high and very high), and omitting the time-consuming dilution cellulose-step commonly employed in the traditional QUENCHER procedures.
Chew, Ai Lan; Jessica, Jeyanthi James Antony; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan
Objective To evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different parts (root, flower, leaf and stem) of Leucas aspera (L. aspera) (Labiatae). Methods Different parts of L. aspera were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol. The methanol extracts were subjected to antioxidant, antimicrobial and brine shrimp lethality assay. Results All the extracts showed moderate to potent antioxidant activity, among which the root extract demonstrated the strongest antioxidant activity with the IC50 value of 6.552 µg/mL. Methanol extract of root possessed antioxidant activity near the range of vitamin E and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of root, flower, leaf and stem showed notable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. The root extract showed the highest mean zone of inhibition ranging from 9.0–11.0 mm against tested microorganisms, at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, it was evident that the methanol root extract did not show significant toxicity. The LC50 value for 12 h and 24 h observation was 2.890 mg/mL and 1.417 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions The present finding suggests that the methanol root extract of L. aspera could be developed as pharmaceutical products. PMID:23569893
Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M; Eskici, Mustafa; Tepe, Bektas; Can, Sendil; Mete, Ebru
This study is designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydrodistillated essential oil and various extracts obtained from Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. longicaulis. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil were resulted in determination 22 different compounds, representing 99.61% of total oil. gamma-terpinene, thymol and p-cymene were determined as the major compounds of the oil (27.80, 27.65 and 19.38%, respectively). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by four different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power and chelating effect. Essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity in beta-carotene/linoleic acid system among the experiments examined. In the case of other test systems, in general, methanol and water extracts exhibited the strongest activity profiles. Especially, reducing power of water extract was found superior than those of synthetic antioxidants. As well as the antioxidant activities of the extracts, they were evaluated in terms of their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Hexane and water extracts were found to be rich-in phenolics. However, flavonoids were determined in the highest level in methanol extract.
Orhan, Nilufer; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ergun, Fatma
In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves, ripe fruits, and unripe fruits of Juniperus communis ssp. nana, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus sabina, Juniperus foetidissima, and Juniperus excelsa were investigated in the present study. Cholinesterase inhibition of the extracts was screened using ELISA microplate reader. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. The extracts had low or no inhibition towards AChE, whereas the leaf aqueous extract of J. foetidissima showed the highest BChE inhibition (93.94 ± 0.01%). The leaf extracts usually exerted higher antioxidant activity. We herein describe the first study on anticholinesterase and antioxidant activity by the methods of ferrous ion-chelating, superoxide radical scavenging, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays of the mentioned Juniperus species.
Vale, Ana Paula; Cidade, Honorina; Pinto, Madalena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P
The antioxidant activity of sprouts from four Brassica oleracea varieties was evaluated using "in vitro" methods (total phenolic and flavonoid content; radical scavenging assays: DPPH, hydroxyl and peroxyl; and Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability Assay). Light cycles and sprouting influenced the potential antioxidant activity of sprouts and significant differences were observed between varieties. Generally, antioxidant activity decreased with sprouting and increased in the presence of light, whose discriminant effect was highly significant (P<0.001). Red cabbage sprouts produced under light cycles showed the highest antioxidant activity (57.11 μg mL(-1) Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability, 221.46 μg mL(-1) Hydroxyl radical scavenging, 279.02 μg mL(-1) Peroxyl radical scavenging). Among the traditional Portuguese brassica varieties, Penca cabbage sprouts produced under light presented higher antioxidant capacity, and also higher phenolic and flavonoid content (54.04 mg GAEg(-1) d.w. extract and 21.33 QEg(-1) d.w. extract, respectively) than Galega kale. The phenolic content of Brassica sprouts had a significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity.
Qu, Chenling; Yu, Songcheng; Jin, Huali; Wang, Jinshui; Luo, Li
Pretreatment is vital to keep the bioactivities of polysaccharides. In this paper, the effects of hot water, ultrasonic and microwave extraction, as well as the effects of protein and pigment removal steps, on the antioxidant activity of water soluble polysaccharides in jujube (WSPJ) were studied. Hydroxyl free radical (rad OH) scavenging activity was adopted to determine the antioxidant activity of WSPJ. The results showed that rad OH scavenging activity of WSPJ extracted by ultrasonic wave was higher than that extracted by hot water and by microwave. Furthermore, power parameter in both ultrasonic and microwave extraction affected the rad OH scavenging activity dramatically. On the other hand, Sevag reagent was better than trichloroacetic acid (TCA), TCA with 1-butanol (TCA-B) and hydrochloric acid for protein removal, and H2O2 was better than active carbon for pigment removal to keep the antioxidant activity of WSPJ.
De Martino, Laura; Mencherini, Teresa; Mancini, Emilia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; De Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; De Feo, Vincenzo
The knowledge of flavonoids involved in plant-plant interactions and their mechanisms of action are poor and, moreover, the structural characteristics required for these biological activities are scarcely known. The objective of this work was to study the possible in vitro phytotoxic effects of 27 flavonoids on the germination and early radical growth of Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L., with the aim to evaluate the possible structure/activity relationship. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the same compounds was also evaluated. Generally, in response to various tested flavonoids, germination was only slightly affected, whereas significant differences were observed in the activity of the various tested flavonoids against radical elongation. DPPH test confirms the antioxidant activity of luteolin, quercetin, catechol, morin, and catechin. The biological activity recorded is discussed in relation to the structure of compounds and their capability to interact with cell structures and physiology. No correlation was found between phytotoxic and antioxidant activities. PMID:22754304
Qu, Chenling; Yu, Songcheng; Jin, Huali; Wang, Jinshui; Luo, Li
Pretreatment is vital to keep the bioactivities of polysaccharides. In this paper, the effects of hot water, ultrasonic and microwave extraction, as well as the effects of protein and pigment removal steps, on the antioxidant activity of water soluble polysaccharides in jujube (WSPJ) were studied. Hydroxyl free radical (OH) scavenging activity was adopted to determine the antioxidant activity of WSPJ. The results showed that OH scavenging activity of WSPJ extracted by ultrasonic wave was higher than that extracted by hot water and by microwave. Furthermore, power parameter in both ultrasonic and microwave extraction affected the OH scavenging activity dramatically. On the other hand, Sevag reagent was better than trichloroacetic acid (TCA), TCA with 1-butanol (TCA-B) and hydrochloric acid for protein removal, and H2O2 was better than active carbon for pigment removal to keep the antioxidant activity of WSPJ.
Torres, Fernando Cidade; Brucker, Natália; Andrade, Saulo Fernandes; Kawano, Daniel Fabio; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Poser, Gilsane Lino von; Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia
Coumarins are considered to be privileged structures due to their broad range of biological properties, including anticoagulant, anti-neurodegenerative, antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial activities. These interesting properties of coumarins can be ascribed to the chemical attributes of the 2H-chromen-2-one core; its aromatic ring can establish a series of hydrophobic, π-π, CH-π and cation-π interactions, and the two oxygen atoms in the lactone ring may hydrogen-bond to a series of amino acid residues in different classes of enzymes and receptors. Additionally, the double bond in the lactone helps to make the entire system planar, allows charge delocalization between the carbonyl group of the lactone and the aromatic ring and confers the characteristic fluorescence of this class of compounds, which can be explained by their preventing the trans-cis transformation of the double bond under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. It is the possibility of radical delocalization in the 2H-chromen-2-one nucleus that makes most of the coumarins good antioxidants by acting as free radical scavengers, although some coumarins (mainly hydroxycoumarins) may also prevent the formation of free radicals by chelating metal ions. In this review, we provide a systematic analysis of the most important aspects surrounding the development of coumarins as antioxidants. Our analysis includes the synthesis of some complex antioxidant coumarins, strategies for structural modification to improve their antioxidant activities, qualitative/ quantitative structure-antioxidant relationships studies and the main in vitro assays used to evaluate their antioxidant properties.
Kim, Bohkyung; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X; Park, Youngki; Martin, Derek A; Xie, Liyang; Taheri, Rod; Lee, Jiyoung; Bolling, Bradley W
We hypothesized that a polyphenol-rich chokeberry extract (CBE) would modulate hepatic lipid metabolism and improve antioxidant function in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed diets containing 15% fat with 0.2% cholesterol alone or supplemented with 0.005% or 0.05% CBE for 4 weeks. CBE polyphenol content was determined by the total phenols, 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 0.05% CBE diet provided mice with mean daily doses of 1.2 mg gallic acid equivalents of total phenols, 0.19 mg anthocyanins, 0.17 mg phenolic acids, 0.06 mg proanthocyanidins (as catechin-equivalents), and 0.02 mg flavonols. The 0.05% CBE group had 12% less plasma total cholesterol concentrations than the control. Despite the hypocholesterolemic effect of CBE, hepatic mRNA levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor, hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase in CBE-fed mice were not significantly different from controls. Dietary CBE did not alter hepatic lipid content or the hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation such as fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and acyl-CoA oxidase. Plasma paraoxonase and catalase activities were significantly increased in mice fed 0.05% CBE. Both CBE diets increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity but the 0.05% CBE group had 24% less proximal intestine GPx activity relative to controls. Thus, dietary CBE lowered total cholesterol and improved plasma and hepatic antioxidant function at nutritionally-relevant doses in apoE(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the CBE cholesterol-lowering mechanism in apoE(-/-) mice was independent of hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism.
Kumari, D; Reddy, M S; Upadhyay, R C
A total of 18 wild edible mushrooms of Cantharellus species were collected from northwestern Himalayan region of India. The basic composition (moisture, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, crude fat, ash, nitrogen and protein) and amino acid contents (by high-performance liquid chromatography) of these wild edible mushrooms were determined. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild mushrooms were rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity from water and methanolic extracts of these mushrooms were also determined. These wild mushrooms also had significant amount of phenol content and antioxidant capacity. Studies also provide the precise antioxidant status of 18 indigenous species of mushrooms, which can serve as a useful database for the selection of mushrooms for the function of preparation of mushroom-based nutraceutics.
Kheirandish, Farnaz; Delfan, Bahram; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Moradi, Nasim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Rashidipour, Marzieh
Currently, there is no effective vaccine available, and chemotherapy is the main approach for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). During recent decades, studies have demonstrated that a number of plant-derived compounds may act as new therapeutic tools against leishmaniasis. This study was evaluated the antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier (oak) extract. The total amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was measured in oak extract. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was also performed to determine the amount of quercetin and gallic acid in this plant. This extract (0-80g/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) using MTT assay and in a macro-phage model, respectively. Then oak extract was tested on CL in infected male BALB/c mice with L. major in order to evaluate the antileishmanial activity topically. Moreover, cytotoxicity effects of oak in murine macrophage cells were tested by MTT assay. Antioxidative activity of oak was also determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1,1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test. The amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the oak extract was 57.50 and 1.86%, respectively. The amount of quercetin and gallic acid in the oak extract was 0.0064 and 0.22%, respectively. The findings revealed that oak significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote of (IC50 12.65μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC50 10.31μg/mL) as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 4 weeks of treatment, 91.6, 66.66, and 50% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 20, 10, and 5mg/kg of oak extract, respectively. After treatment of the infected mice with the concentration of 10 and 20mg/kg of oak, the mean diameter of lesions, parasite load and mean number of parasites was significantly (P<0.05) reduced. Selectivity index of greater than 10 for oak revealed that oak extract had
Mandal, P.; Misra, T. K.; Singh, I. D.
Two neglected species of Araceae, Alocasia macrorhiza (Linn.) G. Don and Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott are important as food and ethno medicine in Asia and Africa. Their bioefficacy is documented in the Ayurveda. The solvent extracts of different edible parts of these two species like rhizomes, leaves, roots and stolons were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The successive extracts in hexane, benzene, toluene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and water fraction exhibited IC50 values in the following order, roots>rhizome>leaves for Alocasia macrorhiza and leaves>stolon for Alocasia fornicate, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl antioxidant inhibition assay. Maximum antioxidant activity was observed in diethyl ether extracts for both species. The IC50 values were comparable with those of quercetine and ascorbic acid as standards. These results suggest that the two aroid species have antioxidant activity in their edible parts and should be extracted using diethyl ether solvent. PMID:20582198
Bharathi, A.; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy
Many naturally occurring and synthetic compounds containing dihydrocyanopyridine and cyanopyran moiety show pharmacological properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the larvicidal and antioxidant potential of dihydrophenanthroline-3-carbonitrile derivatives 4a–f. A novel series of 2-amino-10-chloro-4,12-diphenyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydrobenzo[j][1,7]phenanthroline-3-carbonitrile derivatives were synthesized by reacting different substituted acridine chalcones through Michel addition. The compounds were synthesized in excellent yields and the structures were corroborated on the basis of FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and ESI Mass analysis data. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was studied by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay method. From the antioxidant assay, the compound 4c was reported with profound antioxidant potential. PMID:24868553
Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Chung, Hau Yin; Jin, Zhengyu
Antioxidant capacities of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) oil were evaluated by two different in vitro assays: the DPPH* free radical scavenging assay and the Fe2+-metal chelating assay. Results showed that the vetiver oil (VO) possessed a strong free radical scavenging activity when compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol. However, its metal chelating capacity was relatively weak. VO (10 microL/mL) dissolved in methanol exhibited approximately 93% free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH* assay and approximately 34% Fe2+ chelating activity in the metal chelating assay. By contrast, 10 mM BHT and 0.1 mM alpha-tocopherol exhibited 93 and 89% free radical scavenging activities in the DPPH* assay, respectively, and 1 mM EDTA exhibited approximately 97% activity in the metal chelating assay. Among the complex constituents in the crude VO, beta-vetivenene, beta-vetivone, and alpha-vetivone, which had shown strong antioxidant activities, were isolated and identified using various chromatographic techniques including silica gel open column chromatography, silica HPLC, and GC-MS. These results show that VO and some of its inherent components can be potential alternative natural antioxidants.
Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun
We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (P<0.05). Aronia juice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt.
Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun
We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (P<0.05). Aronia juice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt. PMID:28078255
Xu, Ying; Fan, Mingtao; Ran, Junjian; Zhang, Tingjing; Sun, Huiye; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Haiyan
Polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple seeds. However, few data are available on the phenolic profile or antioxidant activity in apple seeds in previous researches. In this study, low-molecular-weight phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in seeds, peels, and flesh of seven apple cultivars grown in northwest China were measured and analyzed using HPLC and FRAP, DPPH, ABTS assays, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed phloridzin as the dominant phenolic compound in the seeds with its contents being 240.45–864.42 mg/100 gDW. Total phenolic content (TPC) measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay in apple seed extracts of seven cultivars ranged from 5.74 (Golden Delicious) to 17.44 (Honeycrisp) mgGAE/gDW. Apple seeds showed higher antioxidant activity than peels or flesh; antioxidant activity in seeds varied from 57.59 to 397.70 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW for FRAP, from 37.56 to 64.31 μM TE/g FW for DPPH, and from 220.52 to 708.02 μM TE/g FW for ABTS. TPC in apple seeds was significantly correlated with all three assays. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that Honeycrisp was characterized with high contents of total polyphenols and phloridzin. Our findings suggest that phenolic extracts from apple seeds have good commercial potential as a promising antioxidant for use in food or cosmetics. PMID:27081364
Albaayit, Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas; Abdullah, Rasedee
Clausena excavata (Lour.), locally known as “Kemantu hitam,” is a common plant in Malaysian folklore medicine. This study evaluated the antioxidant properties of the solvent extracts of C. excavata leaves and determined the acute toxicity of methanolic extract C. excavata (MECE) leaves in Sprague-Dawley rats. Harvested leaves were dried and subjected to solvent extraction using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol in succession. The antioxidant activity of each extract was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl dihydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC) were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and ethanolic aluminium chloride method, respectively. The chloroform extract was found to be highest in flavonoid content, while the methanolic extract showed the highest TPC and antioxidant activity. There was no mortality in rats treated with MECE leaves even at a high dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. However, the MECE leaves produced mild to moderate pathological changes in the liver and kidneys, shown by mild degenerative changes and leucocyte infiltration. The extract did not affect the haematological parameters or relative weights of the liver or kidneys. Overall, the MECE leaves have potent antioxidant activity and are presumed safe to be used orally as health-promoting product at low to moderate doses. PMID:25610488
Rodríguez-Meizoso, I; Marin, F R; Herrero, M; Señorans, F J; Reglero, G; Cifuentes, A; Ibáñez, E
In the present work, oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.) are explored as natural source of nutraceuticals with antioxidant activity. To do this, subcritical water extraction (SWE), a new environmentally friendly technique, is employed as extraction procedure and HPLC coupled to DAD is used for the chemical characterization of the extracts. Moreover, the radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and the determination of the total phenolic content (measured with the Folin test) are applied to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The extraction of antioxidants from oregano leaves by SWE is studied considering different temperatures (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 degrees C) to investigate the selectivity of the process. The highest antioxidant activity is observed for the extract obtained at the highest temperature, 200 degrees C (EC(50) equal to 10 microg/ml). Moreover, the extraction yield was also the highest (54% dry weight) at these extraction conditions. The total phenolic content showed no differences among the different extracts, concluding that the amount of phenolic compounds extracted was similar but the type and structure of the phenolics was different, providing in this way different antioxidant activity. Some compounds could be tentatively identified, proposing some probable chemical structures for some of them, such as flavanones, dihydroflavonols, favonols and flavones.
Zou, Yanping; Chang, Sam K C; Gu, Yan; Qian, Steven Y
Phenolic compounds were extracted from Morton lentils using acidified aqueous acetone. The crude Morton extract (CME) was applied onto a macroresin column and desorbed by aqueous methanol to obtain a semipurified Morton extract (SPME). The SPME was further fractionated over a Sephadex LH-20 column into five main fractions (I-V). The phytochemical contents such as total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and condensed tannin content (CTC) of the CME, SPME, and its fractions were examined by colorimetric methods. Antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions were screened by DPPH scavenging activity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reduced antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) methods. In addition, the compositions of active fractions were determined by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS methods. Results showed that the fraction enriched in condensed tannins (fraction V) exhibited significantly higher values of TPC, CTC, and antioxidant activity as compared to the crude extract, SPME, and low molecular weight fractions (I-IV). Eighteen compounds existed in those fractions, and 17 were tentatively identified by UV and MS spectra. HPLC-MS analysis revealed fraction II contained mainly kaempferol glycoside, fractions III and IV mainly contained flavonoid glycosides, and fraction V was composed of condensed tannins. The results suggested that the extract of Morton lentils is a promising source of antioxidant phenolics and may be used as a dietary supplement for health promotion.
Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...
Xing, Yun; Cai, Le; Yin, Tian-peng; Chen, Yang; Yu, Jing; Wang, Ya-rong; Ding, Zhong-tao
The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of fermented Salvia miltiorrhiza with fungus Geomyces luteus were investigated. The results revealed that G. luteus fermentation could significantly improve the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of S. miltiorrhiza. The main antioxidant constituents were characterized by spectroscopic analysis as salvianolic acids. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantification also showed the enhanced content of salvianolic acid B after fermentation. The present study suggests that G. luteus fermentations are effective in the S. miltiorrhiza salvianolic acids’ enrichment process. PMID:27143267
Wang, Feng; Miao, Miao; Xia, Hui; Yang, Li-Gang; Wang, Shao-Kang; Sun, Gui-Ju
ABSTRACT The antioxidant function of edible flowers have attracted increasing interest. However, information is lacking on the impact of edible flowers on oxidative injury including hypoxia-re-oxygenation and hyperlipidemia. The antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from 12 Chinese edible flowers were assessed in four different antioxidant models, including total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), scavenging hydroxyl radical capacity (SHRC) and scavenging superoxide anion radical capacity (SSARC). Subsequently, the potential antioxidant effects on rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (rCMEC) treated with hypoxia-re-oxygenation and hyperlipidemia rats induced by high-fat diet were also evaluated. The highest TAC, ORAC, SHRC and SSARC were Lonicera japonica Thunb., Rosa rugosa Thunb., Chrysanthemum indicum L. and Rosa rugosa Thunb., respectively. Most aqueous extracts of edible flowers exhibited good antioxidant effects on injury of rCMEC induced by hypoxia-re-oxygenation. In addition, the aqueous extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Carthamus tinctorius L., Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. could suppress the build-up of oxidative stress by increasing serum superoxide dismutase, glutathion peroxidase, and reducing malonaldehyde concentration in hyperlipidemia rats. These findings provided scientific support for screening edible flowers as natural antioxidants and preventative treatments for oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:28326000
Mulero, J; Martínez, G; Oliva, J; Cermeño, S; Cayuela, J M; Zafrilla, P; Martínez-Cachá, A; Barba, A
The effect of treating grapes with six fungicides, applied under critical agricultural practices (CAP) on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wines of Monastrell variety was studied. Vinifications were performed through addition of active dry yeast (ADY). Measurement of phenolic compounds was made with HPLC-DAD. Determination of antioxidant activity was through reaction of the wine sample with the DPPH radical. The wine prepared from grapes treated with quinoxyfen shows a greater increase of phenolic compounds than the control wine. In contrast, the wine obtained from grapes treated with trifloxystrobin showed lower total concentration of phenolic compounds, including stilbenes, whilst treatments with kresoxim-methyl, fluquinconazole, and famoxadone slightly reduced their content. Hence, the use of these last four fungicides could cause a decrease in possible health benefits to consumers. Antioxidant activity hardly varied in the assays with quinoxyfen, fluquinconazole and famoxadone, and decreased in the other wines.
Zhao, Jun; Xu, Fang; Huang, Hua; Gu, Zhengyi; Wang, Linlin; Tan, Wei; He, Jinhua; Chen, Yan; Li, Chenyang
Nigella glandulifera seeds are used as a spice or remedy for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to investigate analgesic (writhing test), anti-inflammatory (ear-induced edema, vascular permeability test), antioxidant, and antitumor activities of total saponins from this plant (TSN). TSN (6, 12, and 24 mg/kg) were exhibited analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). In D-galactose-induced ageing model, TSN significantly increased the plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities (P < 0.05) and decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level compared to control group (P < 0.05). DPPH radical scavenging effect of TSN was also found. Moreover, TSN (20 mg/mL) showed 86.75% and 88.26% inhibition of the growth on Bel-7402 and Hela cells, respectively. Five compounds were further isolated and identified from TSN as Nigella A, B, C, D, and nigeglanoside, of which the content of Nigella A was 60.36 ± 1.25 g/100 g TSN by HPLC-ELSD method. Altogether, these results suggest that TSN could be considered as a potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant agent. PMID:23533525
Madkour, Fedekar F; Abdel-Daim, M M
Paracetamol has a reasonable safety profile when taken in therapeutic doses. However, it could induce hepatotoxicity and even more severe fatal acute hepatic damage when taken in an overdose. The green alga, Dunaliella salina was investigated for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Male albino Wistar rats overdosed with paracetamol showed liver damage and oxidative stress as indicated by significantly (P<0.05) increased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide. At the same time, there were decreased activities of serum superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity compared with the control group. Treatment with D. salina methanol extract at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight or silymarin could significantly (P<0.05) decrease the liver damage marker enzymes, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide levels and increase the activities of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in serum when compared with paracetamol intoxicated group. Liver histopathology also showed that D. salina reduced the centrilobular necrosis, congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration evoked by paracetamol overdose. These results suggest that D. salina exhibits a potent hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats, which may be due to both the increase of antioxidant enzymes activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
The influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, water holding capacities, and viscoelastic properties was studied. Barley flour was jet-cooked without or with pH adjustment at 7, 9, or 11. Generally, the free phenolic content and antioxi...
Chen, Zhijie; Yu, Lilei; Wang, Xinkun; Gu, Zhenxin; Beta, Trust
Canaryseed is an important cereal crop in western Canada. The changes of the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities, phenolic acid profiles (free and bound) of canaryseed during germination were investigated in the present study. The growth properties also were investigated. Fresh weight, shoot length and root length increased, whereas dry mass of canaryseed decreased during germination. A 22.3% loss of dry matter was observed at 120h of germination. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of free and bound extracts showed a general trend of germinated seeds>raw seeds>soaked seeds. Free, bound and total phenolic content significantly increased 1042%, 120% and 741% at the end of germination as compared to raw seeds (p<0.05). DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of canaryseed. There were high correlations between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. TPC and ORAC values showed the highest correlation (r=0.9984). Six phenolic acids in free phenolic extracts and seven phenolic acids in bound phenolic extracts were detected, respectively. Bound ferulic acid, the dominant phenolic acid in canaryseed, significantly increased during germination (p<0.05). Study showed that germination provided a new approach to further develop canaryseed as a functional food for human consumption.
Madkour, Fedekar F.; Abdel-Daim, M. M.
Paracetamol has a reasonable safety profile when taken in therapeutic doses. However, it could induce hepatotoxicity and even more severe fatal acute hepatic damage when taken in an overdose. The green alga, Dunaliella salina was investigated for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Male albino Wistar rats overdosed with paracetamol showed liver damage and oxidative stress as indicated by significantly (P<0.05) increased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide. At the same time, there were decreased activities of serum superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity compared with the control group. Treatment with D. salina methanol extract at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight or silymarin could significantly (P<0.05) decrease the liver damage marker enzymes, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide levels and increase the activities of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in serum when compared with paracetamol intoxicated group. Liver histopathology also showed that D. salina reduced the centrilobular necrosis, congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration evoked by paracetamol overdose. These results suggest that D. salina exhibits a potent hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats, which may be due to both the increase of antioxidant enzymes activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:24591738
Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu
The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P < 0.05). The first and the second segments from the tip significantly increased with the increase of catalase (CAT). It was interesting to investigate in vitro how human serum albumin (HSA) interacts with polyphenols extracted from investigated vegetables. Therefore the functional properties of asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity.
Excessive free radical generation overbalancing the rate of their removal leads to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Antioxidants are compounds that hinder the oxidative processes and thereby delay or suppress oxidative stress. There is a growing interest in natural antioxidants found in plants. Herbs and spices are most important targets to search for natural antioxidants from the point of view of safety. A wide variety of phenolic compounds present in spices that are extensively used as food adjuncts possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and cancer preventive activities. This paper reviews a host of spice compounds as exogenous antioxidants that are experimentally evidenced to control cellular oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo, and their beneficial role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative-stress-mediated diseases, from atherosclerosis to diabetes to cataract to cancer. The antioxidative effects of turmeric/curcumin, clove/eugenol, red pepper/capsaicin, black pepper/piperine, ginger/gingerol, garlic, onion, and fenugreek, which have been extensively studied and evidenced as potential antioxidants, are specifically reviewed in this treatise.
Uddin, Riaz; Saha, Moni Rani; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Akter, Raushanara; Alam, Ashraful
Purpose: Gardenia jasminoides is a traditional medicinal plant rich in anti-inflammatory flavonoids and phenolic compounds and used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain. In this present study, antioxidant potential of Gardenia jasminoides leaves extract was evaluated by using various antioxidant assays. Methods: Various antioxidant assays such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity expressed as equivalent to ascorbic acid were employed. Moreover, phenolic compounds were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection. Results: The methanol extract showed significant free radical scavenging activities in DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assays compared to the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid. Total antioxidant activity was increased in a dose dependent manner. The extract also showed strong reducing power. The total phenolic content was determined as 190.97 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent. HPLC coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the extracts. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, rutin hydrate and quercetin have been identified in the plant extracts. Among the phenolic compounds, catechin and rutin hydrate are present predominantly in the extract. The accuracy and precision of the presented method were corroborated by low intra- and inter-day variations in quantitative results in leaves extract. Conclusion: These results suggest that phenolic compounds and flavonoids might contribute to high antioxidant activities of Gardenia jasminoides leaves. PMID:24754012
Gong, Ying; Liu, Xuan; He, Wen-Hao; Xu, Hong-Gao; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yan-Xiang
The influence of various solvents on the yield of polyphenols from defatted marigold residue, the antioxidant activity of the extracts and the composition of antioxidant compounds in the extracts were investigated. The content of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extracts was significantly varied with different solvents (P<0.05) and the extract by ethyl alcohol (EtOH)/water (7:3, v/v) has the highest content of total phenolics and flavonoids, 62.33 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g and 97.00 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by radical (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)) scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results of the correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant activity was well correlated with the content of total phenolics and flavonoids (R²>0.900). Antioxidant components in the extracts were identified by combined on-line HPLC-ABTS·+ post-column assay and HPLC-DAD-MS method. Gallic acid, gallicin, quercetagetin, 6-hydroxykaempferol-O-hexoside, patuletin-O-hexoside and quercetin were the dominant antioxidant compounds in the extracts, and quercetagetin was identified as the strongest antioxidant capacity.
Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You
The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content. PMID:24858497
Forsido, Sirawdink Fikreyesus; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Astatkie, Tess
The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics content (TPC) and nutritional content of five types of enset (Enset ventricosum) flour in comparison with four staples (teff [Eragrostis tef], wheat, corn and tapioca) were evaluated. Teff, corn and "amicho" (corm of enset) had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The FRAP and TPC of teff (1.8 mmol Trolox equivalence/100 g dry matter (DM) and 123.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g DM, respectively) were over 4-fold larger than the lowest obtained from "bulla" (dehydrated juice of pseudostem of enset). Corn had the lowest IC(50) value of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (10.27 mg DM mL(-1)). Teff had the highest crude fat content (3.71%) and some mineral profile (P, Mg, Mn and Cu). Enset products had higher fiber, Ca, K, Mg and Mn content as compared to wheat and corn. Ethiopian staple teff has a potential for developing value-added food products with nutritional and health benefits.
Oczkowski, Michał; Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Stachoń, Małgorzata; Kołota, Aleksandra; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa; Malik, Agnieszka; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rusaczonek, Anna; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna
Very little is known about the effects of red wine consumption on male reproductive functions. Here we report the effect of regular drinking of different types of red wine on hormonal reproductive parameters and total antioxidant status in young adult male rats. Dry red wine (D-RW) exerted higher antioxidant activity and was characterized by higher concentration of phenolic compounds compared to semi-dry (SD-RW), sweet (S-RW) and semi-sweet (SS-RW) wines. No differences in total antioxidant status of rat plasma after six weeks of drinking of the wines were detected. Increased plasma follicle-stimulating hormone levels in S-RW versus control and D-RW (5.26 vs. 3.06 and 3.21 ng mL(-1)) groups were found. The plasma testosterone concentration was lower in D-RW compared to control, SD-RW, S-RW and SS-RW groups (0.25 vs. 1.12, 1.09, 1.54 and 1.25 ng mL(-1)). Higher plasma 17β-estradiol level in S-RW versus SD-RW and SS-RW (10.94 vs. 7.18 and 6.72 pg mL(-1)) group was stated. The prolactin level was higher in plasma of S-RW versus D-RW and SS-RW (17.35 vs. 9.74 and 8.59 ng mL(-1)) rats. The effects of red wine drinking on the hormonal regulation of the male reproductive system depend on the type and the dose of red wine. Chemical compounds naturally occurring in red wines (i.e. phenolics) may modulate the effects of ethyl alcohol, but also directly affect the male reproduction.
Lei, Qiucheng; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Wu, Chao; Tian, Feng; Gao, Xuejin; Wan, Xiao; Zheng, Huijun
We investigated the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on mucosal atrophy and intestinal antioxidant capacity in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Male mice (6–8 weeks old) were divided into three groups (n = 8 for each group): a control group fed a standard laboratory chow diet, and experimental TPN (received standard TPN solution) and TPN + GLP-2 groups (received TPN supplemented with 60 µg/day of GLP-2 for 5 days). Mice in the TPN group had lower body weight and reduced intestinal length, villus height, and crypt depth compared to the control group (all p < 0.05). GLP-2 supplementation increased all parameters compared to TPN only (all p < 0.05). Intestinal total superoxide dismutase activity and reduced-glutathione level in the TPN + GLP-2 group were also higher relative to the TPN group (all p < 0.05). GLP-2 administration significantly upregulated proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression and increased glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) abundance. Compared with the control and TPN + GLP-2 groups, intestinal cleaved caspase-3 was increased in the TPN group (all p < 0.05). This study shows GLP-2 reduces TPN-associated intestinal atrophy and improves tissue antioxidant capacity. This effect may be dependent on enhanced epithelial cell proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and upregulated GRP78 expression. PMID:26761030
Background Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) is a plant used by Aymara and Quechua ethnic groups from Northern Chile as folk medicine in the treatment and cure of various diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity, total phenols content, total flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and identify the principal chemical constituents. Methods The crude hydroethanolic extract (HEE) and its partitioned fraction: hexane (HF), dichloromethane (DF), ethyl acetate (EAF), n-butanol (BF) and soluble residual aqueous fraction (RWF) were evaluated for their antioxidant activity using different assays namely, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching assay. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were measured by Folin-Ciocalteau and by the AlCl3 colorimetric method, respectively. Reducing power was determined by phosphomolybdate and hexacyanoferrate (III) methods. Biotoxicity assays were performed on shrimps of Artemia salina. The EAF was fractionated using chromatographic methods. Results Considerable amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents were recorded in the hydroethanolic extract (HEE) and its derived fractions. Although HEE and all its derived fractions exhibited good antioxidant activities, the most distinguished radical scavenging potential was observed for ethyl acetate fraction (EAF). EAF showed the higher radical scavenging activity by DPPH (95%) and by ABTS (98%), antioxidant activity by FRAP (158.18 ± 5.79 mg equivalent Trolox/g fraction), β-carotene bleaching assay (86.8%), the highest total phenols content (101.26 ± 1.07 mg GAE/g fraction), the highest total flavonoids content (66.26 ± 3.31 μg quercetin/g fraction). The EAF extract showed an reducing power of 78% and 65% using the phosphomolybdate and hexacyanoferrate (III) assays, respectively. Four flavonoids, two p-hydroxyacetophenone derivatives and one iridoid were isolated from Lampaya
Grabek-Lejko, Dorota; Tomczyk-Ulanowska, Kinga
Seventeen natural sweeteners available on the Polish market were screened for total phenolic content, by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and for antioxidant activity, using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the 2,2'-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay (ABTS(·+)). In addition, we analyzed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus strains: both those susceptible and those resistant to methicillin (MRSA). The results of the study showed that total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity differ widely among different samples of sweeteners. Phenolic content, expressed as a gallic acid equivalent, ranged from 0 mg kg(-1) in white, refined sugar, xylitol and wheat malt syrup to 11.4 g kg(-1) in sugarcane molasses. Antioxidant activity was lowest in refined white sugar, xylitol, brown beet sugar, liquid fructose, and rape honey; it was average in spelt syrup and corn syrup, and highest in sugar cane, beet molasses, date and barley syrups. Despite the great variety of sweeteners, a strong correlation was noted between the concentration of phenolics and antioxidant properties, as determined by the ABTS(·+) method (r = 0.97) and the FRAP assay (r = 0.77). The strongest antibacterial activity was observed in sugarcane molasses, which was lethal to S. aureus strains at 2 and 4% concentrations in medium for susceptible and MRSA strains respectively. Other sweeteners kill bacteria in 6-15% solutions, whereas some did not show any antibacterial activities against S. aureus strains, even at 20% concentrations. Due to their high antioxidant and antibacterial activities, some of the tested sweeteners have potential therapeutic value as supporting agents in antibiotic therapy.
Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K.; Pandey, Abhay K.
The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11–222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10–40 μg/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90–99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts. PMID:24093108
Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K; Pandey, Abhay K
The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11-222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10-40 μg/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90-99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.
Eerike, Madhavi; Raghuraman, Lakshmipathy Prabhu; Rajamanickam, Maignana Kumar
Aim The present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and nephroprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Aconitum heterophyllum root (EEAHR) in glycerol induced acute renal failure (ARF) in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods In vitro antioxidant activity of EEAHR was assessed using the 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay), nitric oxide radical scavenging (NO assay), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 assay) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) scavenging activity assays. In vivo study, rats were divided into four groups of six each for assessing the nephroprotective activity. Group-1 received normal saline, group-2 received 50% glycerol (10 ml/kg) alone, group-3 received glycerol and 250 mg/kg of EEAHR and group-4 received glycerol and 500 mg/kg of EEAHR. The renal injury and recovery was measured by serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total proteins, albumin, urine output and histopathological changes. Results In vitro antioxidant activity of root extract was found to be equal to Vitamin C and in an in vivo study root extract treated animals showed significant attenuation of biochemical parameters and histopathological changes of the kidney compared to glycerol treated group and it was found to be more significant with the extract at 500 mg/kg than 250mg/kg. Conclusion The present study revealed that Aconitum heterophyllum root has shown antioxidant and nephroprotective activities. PMID:27134892
Jiang, Yirong; Mao, Shuqin; Huang, Weisu; Lu, Baiyi; Cai, Zengxuan; Zhou, Fei; Li, Maiquan; Lou, Tiantian; Zhao, Yajing
Variations of phenylethanoid glycoside profiles and antioxidant activities in Osmanthus fragrans flowers through the digestive tract were evaluated by a simulated digestion model and UPLC/PDA/MS. Major phenylethanoid glycosides and phenolic acids, namely, salidroside, acteoside, isoacteoside, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, were identified in four cultivars of O. fragrans flowers, and the concentration of acteoside was the highest, being up to 71.79 mg/g dry weight. After simulated digestion, total phenylethanoid glycoside contents and antioxidant activities were significantly decreased. Acteoside was identified as decomposing into caffeic acid, whereas salidroside was found to be stable during simulated digestion. According to Pearson's correlation analysis, acteoside contents showed good correlations with antioxidant activities during simulated digestion (R(2) = 0.994, P < 0.01). In conclusion, acteoside was the major contributor to the antioxidant activity of O. fragrans flowers, and salidroside was considered as the major antioxidant compound of O. fragrans flowers in vivo.
Faudale, Mariangela; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Poli, Ferruccio; Codina, Carles
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is a typical aromatic plant of the Mediterranean area, long used as a medicinal and spice herb. Fennel is also well-known for its essential oil, which has been extensively studied for many years owing to its commercial importance. In this work, the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as the quantitative determination of individual flavonoids and phenolic acids of wild, edible, and medicinal fennel from different Mediterranean countries, have been determined. The antioxidant activity was measured as the free radical (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion scavenging activities. Wild fennel was found to exhibit a radical scavenging activity, as well as a total phenolic and total flavonoid content, higher than those of both medicinal and edible fennels.
CİNGİ YİRÜN, Merve; ÜNAL, Kübranur; ALTUNSOY ŞEN, Neslihan; YİRÜN, Onur; AYDEMİR, Çiğdem; GÖKA, Erol
Introduction Bipolar disorder is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders characterized by disruptive episodes of mania/hypomania and depression. Considering the complex role of biological and environmental factors in the etiology of affective disorders, recent studies have focused on oxidative stress, which may damage nerve cell components and take part in pathophysiology. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the data about oxidative stress in bipolar disorder by detecting the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels of manic episode (ME) and euthymic (EU) patients and by comparing these results with those of healthy controls (HCs). Methods The study population consisted of 28 EU outpatients meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for bipolar disorder I and 23 inpatients who were currently hospitalized in a psychiatry ward with the diagnosis of the bipolar disorder ME according to the DSM-5 criteria. Forty-three healthy subjects were included in the study as the control group (HC). Serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels of all the participants were determined. Results Statistical analysis of serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels did not show any significant differences between the ME patients, EU patients, and HCs. Comparison between the bipolar disorder patients (ME+EU) and HC also did not reveal any statistically significant difference between these two groups in terms of serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels. Conclusion To date, studies on oxidative stress in bipolar disorder have led to controversial results. In the present study, no statistically significant difference was detected between the oxidative parameters of bipolar disorder patients and HCs. In order to comprehensively evaluate oxidative stress in bipolar disorder, further studies are needed. PMID:28373794
Liu, Jing-yu; Feng, Cui-ping; Li, Xing; Chang, Ming-chang; Meng, Jun-long; Xu, Li-jing
To evaluate the immune activation and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (CMP) in vivo, 24 male and 24 female Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups. The mice in the four experimental groups were administered 0 (normal control), 50, 100, or 200mg/kg/d body weight CMP via gavage. After 30 days, the viscera index, leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, immunoglobulin (IgG) levels, and biochemical parameters were measured. The effect of CMP on the expression of tumor necrosis (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β in the spleens of experimental mice was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the administration of CMP improved the immune function in mice, significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, the spleen lymphocyte activity, the total quantity of white blood cells, and IgG function in mice serum. CMP exhibited significant antioxidative activity in mice, and decreased malondialdehyde levels in vivo. CMP upregulated the expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β mRNA in high-dose groups compared to that observed for the control mice. We can thus conclude that CMP effectively improved the immune function through protection against oxidative stress. CMP thus shows potential for development as drugs and health supplements.
Feng, Yingshu; Sun, Congyong; Yuan, Yangyang; Zhu, Yuan; Wan, Jinyi; Firempong, Caleb Kesse; Omari-Siaw, Emmanuel; Xu, Yang; Pu, Zunqin; Yu, Jiangnan; Xu, Ximing
In the present study, a formulation system consisting of cholesterol and phosphatidyl choline was used to prepare an effective chlorogenic acid-loaded liposome (CAL) with an improved oral bioavailability and an increased antioxidant activity. The developed liposomal formulation produced regular, spherical and multilamellar-shaped distribution nanoparticles. The pharmacokinetic analysis of CAL compared with chlorogenic acid (CA), showed a higher value of Cmax(6.42 ± 1.49 min versus 3.97 ± 0.39 min) and a delayed Tmax(15 min versus 10 min), with 1.29-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability. The tissue distribution in mice also demonstrated that CAL predominantly accumulated in the liver which indicated hepatic targeting potential of the drug. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (Total Superoxide Dismutase (T-SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), in addition to decreased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity study further revealed that CAL exhibited significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects. Collectively, these findings present a liposomal formulation with significantly improved oral bioavailability and an increased in vivo antioxidant activity of CA.
Loizzo, M R; Tundis, R; Chandrika, U G; Abeysekera, A M; Menichini, F; Frega, N G
Total water extract, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions from the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus were evaluated for phenolic content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities against some foodborne pathogens such as E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of extract and fractions determined by the agar dilution method were ranged from 221.9 microg/mL for ethyl acetate fraction to 488.1 microg/mL for total extract. In the agar diffusion method the diameters of inhibition were 12.2 for the total extract, 10.7 and 11.5 for ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions, respectively. A. heterophyllus showed significant antioxidant activity tested in different in vitro systems (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and Fe(2+) chelating activity assay). In particular, in DPPH assay A. heterophyllus total extract exhibited a strong antiradical activity with an IC(50) value of 73.5 microg/mL while aqueous fraction exerted the highest activity in FRAP assay (IC(50) value of 72.0 microg/mL). The total phenols content by Folin-Ciocalteau method was determined with the purpose of testing its relationship with the antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
In vitro and animal studies show that polyphenols from olives have potent antioxidant activities; 50 % of the phenolic compounds contained in olives and virgin olive oil are hydroxytyrosol and derivatives thereof. Hydroxytyrosol is the major olive polyphenol consumed and well absorbed in humans. It is considered to have the highest antioxidant potency compared to the other olive polyphenols. Review of the human intervention studies showed that olive polyphenols decreased the levels of oxidized-LDL in plasma and positively affected several biomarkers of oxidative damage. The antioxidant effects of olive polyphenols on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation are observed after a dietary intake of about 10 mg per day. The overall evidence from in vitro assays, and animal and human studies support the antioxidant effect of olive polyphenols. However, further larger human studies are needed to clarify the effect of olive polyphenols on markers of oxidative stress, particularly DNA damage and plasma isoprostane levels.
Mladenović, Milan; Mihailović, Mirjana; Bogojević, Desanka; Matić, Sanja; Nićiforović, Neda; Mihailović, Vladimir; Vuković, Nenad; Sukdolak, Slobodan; Solujić, Slavica
The series of fifteen synthesized 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives was subjected to antioxidant activity evaluation in vitro, through total antioxidant capacity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxide scavenging and chelating activity. The highest activity was detected during the radicals scavenging, with 2b, 6b, 2c, and 4c noticed as the most active. The antioxidant activity was further quantified by the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) studies. For this purpose, the structures were optimized using Paramethric Method 6 (PM6) semi-empirical and Density Functional Theory (DFT) B3LYP methods. Bond dissociation enthalpies of coumarin 4-OH, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) gained hybridization of the oxygen, acidity of the hydrogen atom and various molecular descriptors obtained, were correlated with biological activity, after which we designed 20 new antioxidant structures, using the most favorable structural motifs, with much improved predicted activity in vitro. PMID:21686153
Orabueze, Celestina Ifeoma; Adesegun, Sunday Adeleke; Coker, Herbert Alexander
Background: Petersianthus macrocarpus (Lecythidaceae) is widely used in the folk medicine in Nigeria to relieve pain and fever associated with malaria. This study evaluated the analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was determined in mice using hotplate and acetic acid-induced writhing models. Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and aspirin (100 mg/ml, p.o.) were used as reference analgesic agents. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; reducing power, iron chelating properties and determination of total phenolic content. Results: The extract at 200 and 500 mg/kg, produced an insignificant (P > 0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate but a significant (P < 0.05) increase at 1000 mg/kg. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose dependent manner. Fractionation increased the analgesic activities significantly (P < 0.05) in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (200 mg/kg). The extract demonstrated strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 0.05 mg/ml, good reducing power and weak iron chelating activities. The total phenol content was 142.32 mg/gin term of gallic acid. The antioxidant effects were more pronounced in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the extract has strong analgesic and antioxidant activities which reside mainly in the polar fractions thus confirming the traditional use of the plant to alleviate pains. SUMMARY Analgesic and antioxidant activities of extract and solvent fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus investigated indicated that extract has analgesic and antioxidant properties that reside mainly in the polar fractions. Abbreviations Used: DMSO: Dimethyl sulphoxide, ANOVA: analysis of variance, EDTA: ethylene diamne tetraacetic acid, SDM: standard deviation of mean
Promden, Worrawat; Monthakantirat, Orawan; Umehara, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai
The antioxidant activities of 24 isoflavonoids that were previously isolated as pure compounds from Dalbergia parviflora were evaluated using three different in vitro antioxidant-based assay systems: xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO), ORAC, and DPPH. The isolates consisted of three subgroups, namely isoflavones, isoflavanones, and isoflavans, each of which appeared to have diversified substituents, and were thus ideal for the study of their structure-activity relationships (SARs). The SAR analysis was performed using the results obtained from both the inter-subgroup isoflavonoids with the same substitution pattern and the intra-subgroup compounds with different substitution patterns. The inter-subgroup comparison showed that the isoflavones exhibited the highest antioxidant activities based on all three assays. The intra-subgroup analysis showed that the additional presence of an OH group in Ring B at either R3' or R5' from the basic common structure of the R7-OH of Ring A and the R4'-OH (or -OMe) of Ring B greatly increased the antioxidant activities of all of the isoflavonoid subgroups and that other positions of OH and OMe substitutions exerted different effects on the activities depending on the subgroup and assay type. Therefore, based on the structural diversity of the isoflavonoids in D. parviflora, the present study provides the first clarification of the detailed antioxidant SARs of isoflavonoids.
Ma, De-Lu; Chen, Mai; Su, Chen X; West, Brett J
Deacetylasperulosidic acid (DAA) is a major phytochemical constituent of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. Noni juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vivo and in human trials. To evaluate the role of DAA in this antioxidant activity, Wistar rats were fed 0 (control group), 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg body weight per day for 7 days. Afterwards, serum malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured and compared among groups. A dose-dependent reduction in malondialdehyde was evident as well as a dose-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase activity. DAA ingestion did not influence serum glutathione peroxidase activity. These results suggest that DAA contributes to the antioxidant activity of noni juice by increasing superoxide dismutase activity. The fact that malondialdehyde concentrations declined with increased DAA dose, despite the lack of glutathione peroxidase-inducing activity, suggests that DAA may also increase catalase activity. It has been previously reported that noni juice increases catalase activity in vivo but additional research is required to confirm the effect of DAA on catalase. Even so, the current findings do explain a possible mechanism of action for the antioxidant properties of noni juice that have been observed in human clinical trials.
Amel, Omri Hichri; Malek, Besbes Hlila; Hichem, Ben Jannet; Ali, Lamari; Mahjoub, Aouni; Boulbaba, Selmi
Objective To investigate the antioxidant potential and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of Rapistrum rugosum extracts. Methods The crude, ethyl acetate, butanol and water extracts prepared from flowers, roots, stems and leaves of Rapistrum rugosum were tested at 1 mg/mL to determine their total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content and total condensed tannin content. Their antioxidant activity was assessed at different concentrations (0.0312, 0.0625, 0.1250, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/mL) by using DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and β-carotene bleAChIng inhibition activity. Anti-acetylcholinesterase activity was also determined. Results The extract of leaves and stems had the highest total phenolic content [(110.45±0.03) mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight]. The ethyl acetate extract of flowers had the highest total flavonoid content [(24.62±0.13) mg quercetin equivalent/g dry weight]. The butanolic fraction of flowers had the highest total condensed tannin content [(317.85±0.01) mg catechin equivalent/g dry weight]. The crude extracts of flowers exhibited an interesting antioxidant activity for DPPH assay (93.00±0.01)% at 1 mg/mL. The greatest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50=1.60 mg/mL) was exhibited by the crude extracts from the flowers. Conclusions The results demonstrated that Rapistrum rugosum contains active constituents which possess antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities.
Czeczot, Hanna; Scibior, Dorota; Skrzycki, Michał; Podsiad, Małgorzata
The aim of our studies was the estimation of activities of antioxidant enzymes in patients with liver cirrhosis. We investigated activities of superoxide dismutases (CuZnSOD, MnSOD), catalase (CAT), selenium dependent GSH peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), selenium independent GSH peroxidase (non-Se-GSH-Px), GSH-S-transferase (GST), GSH reductase (GSHR) and the level ofreduced gutathione (GSH) in cirrhotic and healthy liver tissues. The activities of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT and GSH-dependent enzymes (except GSHR) were found to be lower in cirrhotic tissue compared to healthy liver. Those changes were associated with decrease of GSH level in cirrhotic tissue compared with control liver tissue. Our results show that antioxidant barrier in liver cirrhosis is impaired. It is associated with decrease of glutathione level and changes of activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSHPx, GST, GSHR) in liver cirrhosis compared with healthy liver.
Lind, Karianne F.; Hansen, Espen; Østerud, Bjarne; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Bayer, Annette; Engqvist, Magnus; Leszczak, Kinga; Jørgensen, Trond Ø.; Andersen, Jeanette H.
In this paper, we present novel bioactivity for barettin isolated from the marine sponge Geodia barretti. We found that barettin showed strong antioxidant activity in biochemical assays as well as in a lipid peroxidation cell assay. A de-brominated synthetic analogue of barettin did not show the same activity in the antioxidant cell assay, indicating that bromine is important for cellular activity. Barettin was also able to inhibit the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. This combination of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities could indicate that barettin has an atheroprotective effect and may therefore be an interesting product to prevent development of atherosclerosis. PMID:23880935
Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee
Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor.
Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee
Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reacti